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Sample records for prepubertal goats electronic

  1. Effects of different supplemental soya bean oil levels on the performance of prepubertal Saanen goats: Oestrogen and progesterone release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomfim, G F; Merighe, G K F; de Oliveira, S A; Rodrigues, A D; Augusto, L; Teixeira, I A M A; de Resende, K T; Negrao, J A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of soya bean oil in the total diet on the growth rate, metabolic changes, and oestrogen and progesterone release in Saanen goats. After dietary adaptation, 21 prepubertal goats (weight of 29.12 ± 0.91 kg, 230 days old) were randomly distributed among three diets of D2: inclusion of 2% soya bean oil in the total diet; D3: basal diet - inclusion of 3% soya bean oil in the total diet; and D4: inclusion of 4% soya bean oil in the total diet. The basal diet (D3) was formulated to promote a daily gain of 0.140 kg. The goats were weighed, and their blood samples were collected weekly. Glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, oestrogen and progesterone in the plasma were measured. Prepubertal goats that were fed D4 exhibited a significantly lower dry matter intake, urea and cholesterol levels compared with the goats that were fed D2 and D3. Indeed, goats that were fed D4 displayed a significantly lower final weight than goats that were fed D2 and D3. In contrast, the inclusion of soya bean oil in the diet increased the progesterone and oestrogen concentrations, and goats that were fed D4 released a significantly higher concentration of progesterone than those that were fed D2 and D3. Furthermore, the percentage of goats with a progesterone level greater than 1 ng/ml (functional Corpus luteum) was significantly higher among the goats that were fed D3 and D4 than among those that were fed D2. In this study, although the inclusion of 4% soya bean oil in the diet decreased dry matter intake and growth rate, it increased progesterone concentration and the percentage of goats with a functional Corpus luteum, suggesting that the inclusion of soya bean oil accelerated puberty in prepubertal goats. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Effect of oocyte selection, estradiol and antioxidant treatment on in vitro maturation of oocytes collected from prepubertal Boer goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George W. Smith

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Development of improved procedures for in vitro maturation of oocytes collected from prepubertal goats has applications for in vitro embryo production and accompanying strategies for genetic improvement. The objective of described studies was to determine the effects of oocyte grade, in vitro maturation time, antioxidant supplementation and concentrations of estradiol in the maturation medium on in vitro maturation of oocytes harvested from 1-6 mm follicles present on the ovaries (obtained from an abattoir of 1-6 month-old prepubertal Boer goats. Rates of progression to metaphase II were greater for grade 1 oocytes (>3 compact layers of cumulus cells and evenly granulated cytoplasm than grade 2 oocytes (in vitro maturation in the presence of high concentrations of estradiol (10 and 100 mg/mL on progression to metaphase II was observed, and no effect was observed in response to 1 mg/mL estradiol treatment as compared with control. Results suggest that oocyte selection and beta-mercaptoethanol supplementation can positively influence progression to metaphase II of oocytes harvested from ovaries of prepubertal goats, whereas high concentrations of estradiol are inhibitory to in vitro maturation.

  3. Developmental competence and embryo quality of small oocytes from pre-pubertal goats cultured in IVM medium supplemented with low level of hormones, insulin-transferrin-selenium and ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, S; Morató, R; Romaguera, R; Roura, M; Catalá, M G; Paramio, M T; Mogas, T; Izquierdo, D

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effect of insulin-transferrin-selenium (ITS) and L-ascorbic acid (AA) supplementation and the hormonal level during in vitro maturation (IVM) of small oocytes from pre-pubertal goat on the blastocyst yield and quality. Concretely, we used four maturation media: conventional IVM medium (CM), growth medium (GM: CM+ITS+AA and low level of hormones), modified CM (mCM: CM with low level of hormones) and modified GM (mGM: CM+ITS+AA and normal level of hormones). Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were classified into two categories according to oocyte diameter: <125 μm and ≥ 125 μm. Large oocytes were matured 24 h in CM (Treatment A). Small oocytes were matured randomly in six experimental groups: Treatment B: 24 h in CM; Treatment C: 12 h in GM and 12 h in CM; Treatment D: 24 h in mGM; Treatment E: 12 h in mGM and 12 h in CM; Treatment F: 12 h in mCM and 12 h in CM; and Treatment G: 12 h in GM and 12 h in mGM. After IVM, oocytes were fertilized and cultured for 8 days. The blastocyst quality was assessed by the survival following vitrification/warming and the mean cell number. When different maturation media were combined, the blastocyst rate did not improve. The large oocytes produced the highest blastocysts yield. However, the culture of small oocytes in GM (53.3%) enhanced the post-warming survival of blastocysts compared to large oocytes matured in CM (35.7%). In conclusion, IVM of pre-pubertal goat small oocytes in GM would be useful to improve the quality of in vitro-produced blastocysts.

  4. Discrimination and characterization of different intensities of goaty flavor in goat milk by means of an electronic nose.

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    Yang, C J; Ding, W; Ma, L J; Jia, R

    2015-01-01

    An electronic nose based on metal oxide sensors was used to measure goaty flavor in goat milk samples. To study the relationships between electronic nose data, sensory data, and levels of free fatty acids (FFA), multivariate partial least square regression (PLS) was carried out. The electronic nose system evaluation correlated well with sensory evaluation. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) of the PLS models reached 90.0%. The electronic nose, combined with principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis, can discern among goat milk samples with different goaty flavor intensities. In addition, Fisher discriminant analysis and back-propagation neural network were carried out to evaluate goaty flavor intensity, and the prediction accuracies were 98.2 and 100.0%, respectively. The electronic nose is a potentially useful tool to evaluate goaty flavor intensity in goat milk samples. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The ependyma of goat. II. Ependymal lining of the lateral ventricles, mesencephalic canal, and fourth ventricle: scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajtová, V

    1990-01-01

    The ependymal surface of the lateral cerebral ventricle, mesencephalic canal, and IVth ventricle of 13 male and female goats were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy. The lateral cerebral ventricle was covered mostly with thin cilia that might have club-like terminations on nucleus caudatus, the wide "naked" places with bleb-like protrusions occurred in the transition to cornu temporale during anestrous cycle. The ependymal surface of mesencephalic canal of female goats during anestrus was covered with abundant spherical protrusions. No other changes that could be related to the sexual differences were found.

  6. Histology and scanning electron microscopy of the tubal tonsil of goats

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    Indu, V. R.; Lucy, K. M.; Chungath, J. J.; Ashok, N.; Maya, S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To observe the light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the caprine tubal tonsil. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on six crossbred male goats of 6 months of age. From the median sections of the head, tissue pieces from the nasopharynx around the auditory tube were collected and fixed for histology and SEM. Results: Tonsillar lymphoid tissue was located in the nasopharynx ventral to the auditory tube opening in the lateral wall of the pharynx. The height of the surface epithelium of the tubal tonsil measured 80.17±1.08 µm and was a pseudostratified ciliated columnar type with basal, supporting, and goblet cells. Above the dome of lymphoid nodules, the epithelium was modified into a follicle associated epithelium (FAE), also called lympho-epithelium or reticular epithelium and was characterized by the absence of goblet cells and cilia, reduced number of cell layers, and a large number of lymphoid cells due to interrupted basement membrane. The height of FAE was smaller than that of the surface epithelium and measured 34.33±0.92 µm. The surface of tubal tonsil showed folds and invaginations, which formed crypts. The lamina propria-submucosa underneath the epithelium was formed by the meshwork of reticular and, thin and loose collagen fibers with dome-like accumulation of lymphoid nodules. In the secondary lymphoid nodules, a corona, parafollicular area, and interfnodular area were observed. The average number of lymphoid nodules counted per field under low power magnification of microscope was 1.17±0.17, and the internodular distance was 34.00±4.37 µm. The mean diameter of lymphoid nodules was 566.67±11.45 µm and the lymphocyte count per nodule was 14741.67±174.36. The number of plasma cells counted per field under low power was 44.38±2.90 below the surface epithelium. The tubal tonsil was not encapsulated. In SEM, the surface epithelium of the tubal tonsils presented ciliated cells, microvillus (MV) cells, and goblet cells. The

  7. Assessment of the application of an automated electronic milk analyzer for the enumeration of total bacteria in raw goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsahoi, L; Gao, A; Fabri, M; Odumeru, J A

    2011-07-01

    Automated electronic milk analyzers for rapid enumeration of total bacteria counts (TBC) are widely used for raw milk testing by many analytical laboratories worldwide. In Ontario, Canada, Bactoscan flow cytometry (BsnFC; Foss Electric, Hillerød, Denmark) is the official anchor method for TBC in raw cow milk. Penalties are levied at the BsnFC equivalent level of 50,000 cfu/mL, the standard plate count (SPC) regulatory limit. This study was conducted to assess the BsnFC for TBC in raw goat milk, to determine the mathematical relationship between the SPC and BsnFC methods, and to identify probable reasons for the difference in the SPC:BsnFC equivalents for goat and cow milks. Test procedures were conducted according to International Dairy Federation Bulletin guidelines. Approximately 115 farm bulk tank milk samples per month were tested for inhibitor residues, SPC, BsnFC, psychrotrophic bacteria count, composition (fat, protein, lactose, lactose and other solids, and freezing point), and somatic cell count from March 2009 to February 2010. Data analysis of the results for the samples tested indicated that the BsnFC method would be a good alternative to the SPC method, providing accurate and more precise results with a faster turnaround time. Although a linear regression model showed good correlation and prediction, tests for linearity indicated that the relationship was linear only beyond log 4.1 SPC. The logistic growth curve best modeled the relationship between the SPC and BsnFC for the entire sample population. The BsnFC equivalent to the SPC 50,000 cfu/mL regulatory limit was estimated to be 321,000 individual bacteria count (ibc)/mL. This estimate differs considerably from the BsnFC equivalent for cow milk (121,000 ibc/mL). Because of the low frequency of bulk tank milk pickups at goat farms, 78.5% of the samples had their oldest milking in the tank to be 6.5 to 9.0 d old when tested, compared with the cow milk samples, which had their oldest milking at 4 d

  8. Sexual development of prepubertal children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, H. de; Rademakers, J.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of childhood sexuality are scarce and often focus on sexual abuse. In this review, an attempt is made to establish what is known, from empirical studies, about sexual behaviors (solitary and interpersonal) and feelings in pre-pubertal boys and girls. In addition, the research methods used wi

  9. Eimeria infections in goats in Southern Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Liliana Machado Ribeiro da; Vila-Viçosa, Maria João Martins; Nunes, Telmo; Taubert, Anja; Hermosilla, Carlos; Cortes, Helder Carola Espiguinha

    2014-01-01

    Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria species is a major form of intestinal infection affecting intensively and semi-intensively reared goats. The province of Alentejo is the main goat-producing area in Portugal. Therefore, all 15 Serpentina goat farms in Alentejo were analyzed regarding the occurrence and diversity of Eimeria species. Fecal samples obtained from 144 animals (52.1% dairy goats, 47.9% pre-pubertal goats) were examined using the modified McMaster technique to determine the number of oocysts per gram of feces. Eimeria spp. oocysts were present in 98.61% of the fecal samples and, overall, nine different Eimeria species were identified. The most prevalent species were E. ninakohlyakimovae (88%) and E. arloingi (85%), followed by E. alijevi (63%) and E. caprovina (63%). The average number of oocysts shed was significantly lower in dairy goats than in pre-adult animals. Astonishingly, no clinical signs of coccidiosis were observed in any of the animals examined, even though they were shedding high numbers of oocysts and were infected with highly pathogenic species. Thus, implementation of routine diagnostic investigation of the occurrence and diversity of caprine Eimeria species may be a useful tool for determination and better understanding of their potential economic impact on goat herds in southern Portugal.

  10. Testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faure, Alice; Bouty, Aurore; O'Brien, Mike

    2016-01-01

    in undervirilized patients with 46,XY disorders of sexual development. Testicular histology is also of considerable value in the prediction of both fertility potential and risk of cancer in individuals with undescended testes, particularly those with intraabdominal undescended testes. New possibilities......No consensus exists regarding the precise role of testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys, although it is considered useful for assessing the potential consequences of undescended testes on fertility. Current scientific knowledge indicates that surgeons should broaden indications for this procedure...... for the preservation of fertility after gonadotoxic chemotherapy - even for prepubertal boys - are emerging. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue samples for the preservation of fertility - although still an experimental method at present - is appealing in this context. In our opinion, testicular biopsy...

  11. Prepubertal testicular tumors: Our 10 years experience

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    R B Nerli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Testicular tumors in the pediatric population are distinct from those of the adults. In contrast to the prevalence data reported in tumor registries, several studies have shown that a majority of the prepubertal testis tumors are benign. We retrospectively analyzed a series of prepubertal testicular tumors. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of all testicular tumors at our institution was done from Jan 1999 to Dec 2008. Data relating to presentation, evaluation, and management were collected. Results: A total of 22 children with prepubertal testicular tumors were identified. The mean age at presentation was 4.6 years. Mature teratoma, epidermoid cysts, immature teratoma, and yolk sac tumor accounted for 49.94%, 13.62%, 9.08%, and 18.16%, respectively. All surgeries were successful with respect to cancer control and testicular preservation. Conclusions: Benign tumors formed the majority (72.64% of the tumors that were encountered, with yolk sac tumors (18.16% being a minority. Testicular preserving surgery appears to be a feasible option for benign tumors and is safe and efficacious in long-term follow-up.

  12. Goat production check list

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Madsen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production.......This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production....

  13. Goat production check list

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Madsen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production.......This check list, financed by DanChurchAid, highlights all issues should be carefully investigated before investing in distribution of goats and in interventions to assist poor rural communities to improve their livelihood through goat production....

  14. Horny Goat Weed

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    Horny goat weed is an herb. The leaves are used to make medicine. As many as 15 horny goat weed species are known as “yin yang huo” in Chinese medicine. Horny goat weed is used for weak back and knees, joint ...

  15. Suitability of electronic mini-boluses for the early identification of goat kids and effects on growth performance and development of the reticulorumen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, N; Martín, D; Castro-Alonso, A; Argüello, A; Capote, J; Caja, G

    2010-10-01

    A total of 60 twin-goat kids (30 male and 30 female) of the Canary Island Majorera dairy breed were used in 2 experiments to evaluate 2 types of electronic identification mini-boluses and their effects on rearing performances and reticulorumen development. Electronic identification mini-boluses were cylindrical and made of ceramic materials (B1, 9.0 g and 38.5 × 9.5 mm; B2, 16.3 g and 42.2 × 12.2 mm), contained a 32-mm half-duplex passive transponder, and were administered to kids at different BW. In Exp. 1, treatments were 1) control, without bolus (n = 15) and 2) identified with B1 at 4.8 kg of BW (n = 15). In Exp. 2, treatments were 1) control, without bolus (n = 15) and 2) identified with B2 at 5.6 kg of BW (n = 15). Kids were penned separately, according to mini-bolus treatments, fed a milk replacer daily, and slaughtered at 10 kg of BW. Milk replacer intake was recorded individually twice weekly and boluses read weekly until slaughter. The full and empty stomach complex was measured immediately after slaughter, and mini-bolus location was recorded. Samples of the reticulum and rumen wall were taken to measure the number and length of the papillae and crest. Despite the light BW of kids at time of mini-bolus treatment, no negative effects (P > 0.05) of B1 and B2 mini-boluses were observed on milk intake, growth rate, or G:F in either experiment. No kid mortality or mini-bolus losses were observed during either experiment. All mini-boluses were retained until slaughter, and all were found in the rumen upon dissection, except one B2, which was found in the reticulum. Mini-bolus treatment did not affect (P > 0.05) the weight of full and empty reticulorumen or the number of papillae and crest size of the reticulum epithelium. Moreover, the B1-treated kids showed a greater number of papillae in the rumen wall than the control kids (22.4 +/- 1.0 vs. 18.9 +/- 0.9 papillae/cm, respectively; P kids from early ages (wk 2 to 5 of age and 5 to 6 kg of BW) and did not

  16. Milk consumption and the prepubertal somatotropic axis

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    Nakamoto Erika K

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrients, hormones and growth factors in dairy foods may stimulate growth hormone (GH, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, and raise the ratio of IGF-I to its binding protein, IGFBP-3. We conducted pilot studies in Mongolia and Massachusetts to test the extent to which milk intake raised somatotropic hormone concentrations in prepubertal children. Methods In Ulaanbaatar, we compared plasma levels before and after introducing 710 ml daily whole milk for a month among 46 10–11 year old schoolchildren. In a randomized cross-over study in Boston, we compared plasma hormone levels of 28 6–8 year old girls after one week of drinking 710 ml lowfat (2% milk with their hormone levels after one week of consuming a macronutrient substitute for milk. Results After a month of drinking whole milk, Mongolian children had higher mean plasma levels of IGF-I (p th percentile of GH levels (p = 0.005. After a week of drinking lowfat milk, Boston girls had small and non-significant increases in IGF-1, IGF-1/IGFBP-3 and GH. Conclusion Milk drinking may cause increases in somatotropic hormone levels of prepubertal girls and boys. The finding that milk intake may raise GH levels is novel, and suggests that nutrients or bioactive factors in milk may stimulate endogenous GH production.

  17. Estradiol levels in prepubertal boys and girls--analytical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Katrine; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2004-01-01

    Increasing evidence points at an important function of low concentrations of estradiol (E2) in prepubertal boys and girls. E2 serum levels in prepubertal children are, however, often immeasurable in conventional E2 assays. This strongly hampers further investigation of the physiological relevance...... of analysis are examined and their applicability for evaluation of low E2 serum concentrations in children is estimated. Furthermore, available data on E2 levels in prepubertal boys and girls are evaluated and discussed, taking into consideration the limitations of the methods of analysis. In conclusion...

  18. Prepubertal gynecomastia linked to lavender and tea tree oils.

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    Henley, Derek V; Lipson, Natasha; Korach, Kenneth S; Bloch, Clifford A

    2007-02-01

    Most cases of male prepubertal gynecomastia are classified as idiopathic. We investigated possible causes of gynecomastia in three prepubertal boys who were otherwise healthy and had normal serum concentrations of endogenous steroids. In all three boys, gynecomastia coincided with the topical application of products that contained lavender and tea tree oils. Gynecomastia resolved in each patient shortly after the use of products containing these oils was discontinued. Furthermore, studies in human cell lines indicated that the two oils had estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities. We conclude that repeated topical exposure to lavender and tea tree oils probably caused prepubertal gynecomastia in these boys.

  19. Effects of zearalenone in prepubertal gilts

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    Letícia C. Teixeira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Prepubertal gilts were fed with a diet containing zearalenone (ZEA in a concentration of 0.75 mg/kg for 21 days. The effects of this mycotoxin on morphologic aspects of the reproductive tract as well as on complete blood count (CBC, serum biochemistry analysis (SBA and humoral immune response against sheep red blood cells (SRBC were evaluated. There was a significant increase (P<0.05 on the reproductive tract weight, vulvar area, height of the epithelial cells of endometrial glands and uterine mucosa. These results showed the ability of this nonsteroidal mycotoxin in mimicking actions of 17β estradiol at the concentration of 0.75mg/kg. No changes in weight gain, CBC, SBA parameters and humoral response against SRBC were observed.

  20. Microbiological findings in prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis.

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    Sikanić-Dugić, Nives; Pustisek, Nives; Hirsl-Hećej, Vlasta; Lukić-Grlić, Amarela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the most common causes, symptoms and clinical features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, and to evaluate treatment success depending on the causative agent involved. The study included 115 girls aged 2-8 (mean 4.8) years, presenting with vulvovaginitis to the Outpatient Clinic for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Zagreb Children's Hospital, between September 2006 and July 2007. Medical history data were obtained from parents. Vaginal samples were collected for microbiological culture by using cotton-tipped swabs moistened with saline. All samples were referred to microbiology laboratory, where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Selective and non-selective media were used. Of 115 study patients, 43 (37.4%) had received antibiotic therapy more than one month prior to their visit to the Clinic, mainly for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common presenting symptom was increased vaginal discharge usually noticed on the pants or diaper, found in 26 of 115 (22.6%) patients, followed by vulvar redness in 16 (13.9%), burning in seven (6.1%), itching in the vulvovaginal area in seven (6.1%), soreness in six (5.2%), odor in three (2.6%) patients, and two or more of these symptoms in another 50 (43.5%) patients. Fifty-nine of 115 children had normal clinical finding on gynecologic examination. Among the remaining 56 children, the most common finding was erythema observed in 19, vaginal discharge in ten, and a combination of discharge and erythema in 13 patients. Of 115 study patients, causative agents were isolated from vaginal culture in 38 (33%) cases. Of these, 21 grew group A beta hemolytic streptococcus, five patients Haemophilus influenzae, three Escherichia coli, two Enterococcus spp., and one each Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic therapy was administered in 31 of these 38 patients, except for those cases where intestinal bacteria and

  1. Thermal equilibrium of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Alex S C; Nascimento, Sheila T; Nascimento, Carolina C N; Gebremedhin, Kifle G

    2016-05-01

    The effects of air temperature and relative humidity on thermal equilibrium of goats in a tropical region was evaluated. Nine non-pregnant Anglo Nubian nanny goats were used in the study. An indirect calorimeter was designed and developed to measure oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, methane production and water vapour pressure of the air exhaled from goats. Physiological parameters: rectal temperature, skin temperature, hair-coat temperature, expired air temperature and respiratory rate and volume as well as environmental parameters: air temperature, relative humidity and mean radiant temperature were measured. The results show that respiratory and volume rates and latent heat loss did not change significantly for air temperature between 22 and 26°C. In this temperature range, metabolic heat was lost mainly by convection and long-wave radiation. For temperature greater than 30°C, the goats maintained thermal equilibrium mainly by evaporative heat loss. At the higher air temperature, the respiratory and ventilation rates as well as body temperatures were significantly elevated. It can be concluded that for Anglo Nubian goats, the upper limit of air temperature for comfort is around 26°C when the goats are protected from direct solar radiation.

  2. FEEDING GENISTEIN TO PREPUBERTAL GILTS STIMULATES THEIR MAMMARY DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The possible role of dietary genistein on mammary development of prepubertal gilts was investigated. Forty-five gilts were fed one of three diets from 90 d of age until slaughter (day 183 ± 1). Diets were: without soya (CTL0, n=15); soya-based commercial (CTLS, n=15); and soya-based commercial with ...

  3. Methylphenidate-induced erections in a prepubertal child.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, B D

    2013-02-01

    Methylphenidate is a medication used routinely in the management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. We report a case of a prepubertal child who developed unwanted erections after commencing a response-adjusted dosing regimen of sustained release methylphenidate. Despite priapism being a rare adverse reaction associated with methylphenidate, physicians and parents need to be aware as it can have significant long-term complications.

  4. Prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia: a report of two cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaren, I.A.; Schott, D.A.; Otten, B.J.; Kroese-Deutman, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gynecomastia is defined as the presence of excessive breast tissue in males, which can appear unilateral or bilateral. Bilateral gynecomastia is frequently found in the neonatal period, early in puberty, and with increasing age. Prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia in the absence of endoc

  5. Reproductive cycle of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatet, Alice; Pellicer-Rubio, Maria-Teresa; Leboeuf, Bernard

    2011-04-01

    Goats are spontaneously ovulating, polyoestrous animals. Oestrous cycles in goats are reviewed in this paper with a view to clarifying interactions between cyclical changes in tissues, hormones and behaviour. Reproduction in goats is described as seasonal; the onset and length of the breeding season is dependent on various factors such as latitude, climate, breed, physiological stage, presence of the male, breeding system and specifically photoperiod. In temperate regions, reproduction in goats is described as seasonal with breeding period in the fall and winter and important differences in seasonality between breeds and locations. In tropical regions, goats are considered continuous breeders; however, restricted food availability often causes prolonged anoestrous and anovulatory periods and reduced fertility and prolificacy. Different strategies of breeding management have been developed to meet the supply needs and expectations of consumers, since both meat and milk industries are subjected to growing demands for year-round production. Hormonal treatments, to synchronize oestrus and ovulation in combination with artificial insemination (AI) or natural mating, allow out-of-season breeding and the grouping of the kidding period. Photoperiodic treatments coupled with buck effect now allow hormone-free synchronization of ovulation but fertility results after AI are still behind those of hormonal treatments. The latter techniques are still under study and will help meeting the emerging social demand of reducing the use of hormones for the management of breeding systems.

  6. Follicular atresia in the prepubertal spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) ovary.

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    Hułas-Stasiak, Monika; Gawron, Antoni

    2011-10-01

    This study was designed to determine follicular atresia in the newborn and the prepubertal spiny mouse. We analyzed the processes of follicle loss using classical markers of apoptosis (TUNEL reaction, active caspase-3) and autophagy (Lamp1). Numerous small clear vacuoles and autophagosomes as well as strong Lamp1 staining were observed in dying oocytes of all follicle types, especially of the primordial and primary ones. Active caspase 3 and the TUNEL reaction were detected only in the granulosa cells of large secondary and antral follicles. The expression of apoptosis and autophagy markers was also changing during the prepubertal period. Western blot analysis indicated that at the moment of birth, females undergo an increased rate of follicular atresia mediated by autophagy, while apoptosis is the dominant form of ovarian atresia in consecutive postnatal days. On the basis of these observations, we concluded that apoptosis and autophagy are involved in follicular atresia and these processes are cell and developmental stage-specific.

  7. Testicular tumours in prepubertal children: About eight cases

    OpenAIRE

    Rachid Khemakhem; Yosra Ben Ahmed; Said Jlidi; Faouzi Nouira; Faten Fdhila; Awatef Charieg; Sofiene Ghorbel; Sihem Barsaoui; Béji Chaouachi

    2013-01-01

    Background: To analyze the spectrum of testicular tumors in prepubertal children and the therapeutic resultants in an unselected population. Materials and Methods: Our hospital database was analyzed for testicular tumors from January 1995 to December 2010 concerning clinical presentation, treatment and therapeutic results. Results: Eight patients were operated on because of testicular tumors. In six cases (75%) the tumor was benign: benign teratoma (four cases), epidermoid cyst (one case) and...

  8. Fertility Preservation for Prepubertal Girls: Update and Current Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Resetkova, Nina; Hayashi, Masanori; Lisa A. Kolp; Christianson, Mindy S.

    2013-01-01

    With increasing rates of diagnosis of childhood cancers and the evolution of more effective treatment options resulting in prolonged life spans, fertility preservation counseling is an integral component of the discussion at the time of diagnosis of childhood cancers. The primary fertility preservation option that exists for prepubertal girls is ovarian tissue cryopreservation. Although ovarian tissue cryopreservation is still considered to be experimental in nature, live births have resulted...

  9. Driving with a Goat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高素菊

    2006-01-01

    <正>A highway patrol officer was sitting in his car beside the road one day when he noticed a man driving with a goat in the back seat of his car.Turning on the lights,he pulled out,sped up, and pulled the man over.

  10. Asian Yellow Goat Cloned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ It was released on August 24,2005 by Prof. CHEN Dayuan (Da-Yuan Chen) from the CAS Institute of Zoology that the first success in cloning the Asian Yellow Goat by nuclear transfer had recently been achieved in east China's Shandong Province.

  11. Learning strategy is influenced by trait anxiety and early rearing conditions in prepubertal male, but not prepubertal female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, Elin M; Hawley, Wayne R; Bromley-Dulfano, Sarah S; Marino, Sarah E; Stathopoulos, Nicholas G; Dohanich, Gary P

    2012-09-01

    Rodents solve dual-solution tasks that require navigation to a goal by adopting either a hippocampus-dependent place strategy or a striatum-dependent stimulus-response strategy. A variety of factors, including biological sex and emotional status, influence the choice of learning strategy. In these experiments, we investigated the relationship between learning strategy and anxiety level in male and female rats prior to the onset of puberty, before the activational effects of gonadal hormones influence these processes. In the first experiment, prepubertal male rats categorized as high in trait anxiety at 26days of age exhibited a bias toward stimulus-response strategy at 28days of age, whereas age-matched females exhibited no preference in strategy regardless of anxiety level. In the second experiment, male and female rats were separated from their dams for either 15 or 180min per day during the first 2weeks of life and tested on a battery of anxiety and cognitive tasks between 25 and 29days of age. Prolonged maternal separations for 180min were associated with impaired spatial memory on a Y-maze task in both prepubertal males and females. Furthermore, prolonged maternal separations were linked to elevated anxiety and a bias for stimulus-response strategy in prepubertal males but not females. Alternatively, brief separations from dams for 15min were associated with intact spatial memory, lower levels of anxiety, and no preference for either learning strategy in both sexes. These results provide evidence of sex-specific effects of trait anxiety and early maternal separation on the choice of learning strategy used by prepubertal rodents.

  12. Knowledge in Goats in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winai PRALOMKARN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The goat population in Thailand is relatively small. However the past 10 years, has seen a marked increase due to an increased demand for goat meat and milk. In the past, the numbers of research publications concerning goats in Thailand were small, especially dairy goats compared with those in other economical livestock such as swine, cattle and poultry. However, the numbers have gradually increased owning to the promotion of goat production by the government. Major research areas have been focused on breeding and genetic improvement, feed and feeding, management, health, diseases and socio-economics. This paper presents background and facilities on goat research in Thailand such as knowledge in terms of breeds and genetic improvement (genetic resources, breed evaluation and breeding and molecular genetics, nutrition, management, diseases and parasites, goat’s milk and meat processing. Conclusions and recommendations are also provided.

  13. Children with a Prepubertal and Early Adolescent Bipolar Disorder Phenotype from Pediatric Versus Psychiatric Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Rebecca; Geller, Barbara; Frazier, Jeanne; Beringer, Linda; Zimerman, Betsy; Klages, Tricia; Bolhofner, Kristine

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine characteristics between subjects with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype from pediatric versus psychiatric venues. Method: Subjects (N = 93) with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype were obtained through consecutive new case ascertainment from designated pediatric and…

  14. Non-invasive measurement of adrenal response after standardized exercise tests in prepubertal children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijsman, Sigrid M.; Koers, Nicoline F.; Bocca, Gianni; van der Veen, Betty S.; Appelhof, Maaike; Kamps, Arvid W. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the feasibility of non-invasive evaluation of adrenal response in healthy prepubertal children by standardized exercise tests. Methods: On separate occasions, healthy prepubertal children performed a submaximal cycling test, a maximal cycling test, and a 20-m shuttle-run test

  15. Congenital Goitre in Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Cheema, A. Shakoor and A. H. Shahzad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One full-term, dead foetus was successfully removed from a 5-year old, crossbred black and white goat. The goat was stall-fed with green fodder and it delivered two dead foetuses in the previous pregnancy. The foetus had a large swelling in the cranio-ventral neck region. Upon cutting skin, the swelling revealed extremely enlarged thyroid gland having two asymmetrical lobes with the right lobe was 8.10 x 15.0 cm and the left 5.5 x 8.6 cm in size. The skin was devoid of hair, pale-white and thickened with myxedema. Histologically, the enlarged thyroid consisted of colloid goitre and the lungs were oedematous. This case of congenital goitre was unusual and differed from the reported cases in two aspects viz 1 the two lobes were enlarged but unequal and 2 histologically goitre was colloid instead of usual hyperplastic type.

  16. [Urogenital bleeding revealing urethral prolapse in a prepubertal girl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballouhey, Q; Abbo, O; Sanson, S; Cochet, T; Galinier, P; Pienkowski, C

    2013-06-01

    Urethral prolapse is a complete eversion of the distal urethral mucosa through the external meatus. It occurs primarily in prepubertal, primarly Black girls. Its pathophysiology has not been clearly identified. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl who came to the Emergency Department with a 1-day history of genital pain and "vaginal bleeding". Early recognition makes differential diagnosis with sexual abuse and staging allows prompt management under general anesthesic like prolapse reduction or surgical excision. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Prepubertal vaginal discharge: Vaginoscopy to rule out foreign body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Saniye; Karnak, İbrahim; Tanyel, Feridun Cahit; Çiftçi, Arbay Özden

    2016-01-01

    Medical records of all prepubertal patients who underwent vaginoscopy to rule out vaginal foreign body between 2004 and 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. All patients were evaluated by pediatricians prior to surgical consultation. Vaginoscopy is performed in the operating room under general anesthesia. During the study period, 20 girls with persistent vaginal discharge with a mean age of 6.8 years (1-13 years) underwent vaginoscopy to rule out vaginal foreign body. Six patients had bloody vaginal discharge and 4 had recurrent vaginal bleeding lasting for more than one month. Ten patients had purulent vaginal discharge lasting for 1-7 months. None of vaginal cultures revealed pathological bacteria or candida species. Preoperative imaging techniques revealed vaginal foreign body in one patient only. Vaginoscopy demonstrated vaginal foreign bodies in four patients. Foreign bodies were grass inflorescence, safety pin and undefined brownish particles (n=2), which may be pieces of toilet paper or feces. There was no complication related to vaginoscopy and removal of foreign body. Hymen integrity was preserved in all patients. Persistent or recurrent vaginal discharge in prepubertal girls should raise the suspect of vaginal foreign body. Continuous flow vaginoscopy is mandatory to detect and remove any vaginal foreign body. Early diagnosis would prevent complications secondary to long-standing foreign bodies.

  18. Chemosensory anxiety signals prime defensive behavior in prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübke, Katrin T; Busch, Anne; Hoenen, Matthias; Schaal, Benoist; Pause, Bettina M

    2017-05-01

    Chemosensory anxiety signals effectively prime motor responses related to withdrawal behavior, such as the startle reflex, in adult humans. As the reproductive status strongly affects the response to social chemosignals, the current study examined whether chemosensory anxiety signals would augment the startle response in prepubertal children as it does in adults. Using cotton pads, axillary sweat was collected from 28 men while waiting for an important oral examination (anxiety condition), and during ergometer training (sport control condition). Using a constant-flow olfactometer, sweat samples and pure cotton samples (cotton control) were presented to 10 prepubertal girls aged 9-13years (M=11.25, SD=1.25) for 3000ms during inhalation. White noise bursts of 102dB(A) served as startle probes, and startle responses were recorded via electromyography of the orbicularis oculi muscle. The girls showed larger startle amplitudes to probes presented in the context of chemosensory anxiety signals as compared to a context of sport control sweat (panxiety signals prime defensive motor behavior. This effect appears unrelated to the odorous quality of anxiety sweat, but seems to reflect a specific preparedness to respond to the underlying social alarm signal. Thus, chemosensory communication supporting individual harm protection is independent of the reproductive status in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Testicular tumours in prepubertal children: About eight cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Khemakhem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To analyze the spectrum of testicular tumors in prepubertal children and the therapeutic resultants in an unselected population. Materials and Methods: Our hospital database was analyzed for testicular tumors from January 1995 to December 2010 concerning clinical presentation, treatment and therapeutic results. Results: Eight patients were operated on because of testicular tumors. In six cases (75% the tumor was benign: benign teratoma (four cases, epidermoid cyst (one case and immature teratoma (one case. Two patients (25% had a malignant tumour: yolk-sac tumour (two cases. All this children underwent surgery. Radical inguinal orchidectomy was performed in six cases and conservative surgery was performed in two cases. One patient has received adjuvant chemotherapy. Follow-up was uneventfully three years after primary surgery. Conclusion: In prepubertal children, most testicular tumours are benign. If tumour markers were negative testis-preserving surgery can be proposed, complete excision of the tumour should be ascertained. In the case of testicular teratoma, the possibility of contralateral tumour should be considered in the follow-up.

  20. Developmental potential of prepubertal mouse oocytes is compromised due mainly to their impaired synthesis of glutathione.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Zhong Jiao

    Full Text Available Although oocytes from prepubertal animals are found less competent than oocytes from adults, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Using the mouse oocyte model, this paper has tested the hypothesis that the developmental potential of prepubertal oocytes is compromised due mainly to their impaired potential for glutathione synthesis. Oocytes from prepubertal and adult mice, primed with or without eCG, were matured in vitro and assessed for glutathione synthesis potential, oxidative stress, Ca(2+ reserves, fertilization and in vitro development potential. In unprimed mice, abilities for glutathione synthesis, activation, male pronuclear formation, blastocyst formation, cortical granule migration and polyspermic block were all compromised significantly in prepubertal compared to adult oocytes. Cysteamine and cystine supplementation to maturation medium significantly promoted oocyte glutathione synthesis and blastocyst development but difference due to maternal age remained. Whereas reactive oxygen species (ROS levels increased, Ca(2+ storage decreased significantly in prepubertal oocytes. Levels of both catalytic and modifier subunits of the γ-glutamylcysteine ligase were significantly lower in prepubertal than in adult oocytes. Maternal eCG priming improved all the parameters and eliminated the age difference. Together, the results have confirmed our hypothesis by showing that prepubertal oocytes have a decreased ability to synthesize glutathione leading to an impaired potential to reduce ROS and to form male pronuclei and blastocysts. The resulting oxidative stress decreases the intracellular Ca(2+ store resulting in impaired activation at fertilization, and damages the microfilament network, which affects cortical granule redistribution leading to polyspermy.

  1. [EPIDIDYMO-ORCHITIS IN PREPUBERTAL CHILDREN--PREVALENCE, ETIOLOGY, SUGGESTED DIAGNOSIS ALGORITHM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halachmi, Sarel

    2015-12-01

    Gonadal inflammation (GI) is a common disease that may affect prepubertal boys. Neonates may suffer from bacterial infection due to congenital or aging processes affecting the urinary tract. This inflammatory process is also prevalent in prepubertal boys. However, in this group, the etiology, the needed imaging modalities and proper management have not yet been clearly defined. This manuscript will systematically review the various etiologies causing GI in pre-pubertal boys, discuss the proper imaging needed, and image interpretation and will provide treatment and follow-up recommendations.

  2. Growth hormone treatment in 35 prepubertal children with achondroplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Niels Thomas; Eklöf, Ole; Ivarsson, Sten

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Achondroplasia is a skeletal dysplasia with extreme, disproportionate, short stature. AIM: In a 5-y growth hormone (GH) treatment study including 1 y without treatment, we investigated growth and body proportion response in 35 children with achondroplasia. METHODS: Patients were...... treatment of children with achondroplasia improves height during 4 y of therapy without adverse effect on trunk-leg disproportion. The short-term effect is comparable to that reported in Turner and Noonan syndrome and in idiopathic short stature....... randomized to either 0.1 IU/kg (n = 18) or 0.2 IU/kg (n = 17) per day. GH treatment was interrupted for 12 mo after 2 y of treatment in prepubertal patients to study catch-down growth. Mean height SDS (HSDS) at start was -5.6 and -5.2 for the low- and high-dose groups, respectively, and mean age 7.3 and 6...

  3. PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES TO COMPOUNDS THAT INCREASE PROLACTIN SECRETION IN THE MALE RAT: EFFECTS ON ADULT PROSTATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prepubertal exposure to compounds that increase prolactin secretion in the male rat: effects on the adult prostate.Stoker TE, Robinette CL, Britt BH, Laws SC, Cooper RL.Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effec...

  4. A pre-pubertal girl with giant juvenile fibroadenoma: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Through this case we want to emphasize that these giant benign neoplasms should be suspected in any pre-pubertal girl with breast lump and should always be treated with breast conserving surgery.

  5. Body composition and lipodystrophy in prepubertal HIV-infected children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Zanin Palchetti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify lipodystrophy in prepubertal HIV-infected children using anthropometric parameters and body composition assessment. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 40 prepubertal HIV-infected children of both genders seen at the Care Center of the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases - Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo city, Brazil, was carried out from August to December 2008. Age, clinical and immunological status, prophylaxis, transmission and highly active antiretroviral therapy were recorded. Body mass index z-score and height-for-age z-score were calculated to characterize the nutritional status. Circumferences were measured with flexible tape and skinfolds were assessed by an adipometry. Fat mass and lean mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Presence of clinical signs of lipodystrophy was assessed by a trained clinician. Data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0 software. RESULTS: The mean age and standard deviation were 9.8 (1.2 years, 50% were girls and 82.5% children from B and C categories. Clinical lipodystrophy and dislypidemia were present in 27.5% and 70%, respectively. The trunk to arm ratio and the limb to trunk ratio had positive association with lipodystrophy. Patients with lipodystrophy had short stature, higher triglycerides values and lower HDL-cholesterol. CONCLUSION: The ratios obtained by skinfolds and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements can be considered as indicators of preclinical lipodystrophy. The cutoff points have not been determined yet; however, continuous assessment may be useful to identify early body composition changes.

  6. The Pattern of Ovarian Development in the Prepubertal Antarctic Minke Whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis)

    OpenAIRE

    TETSUKA, MASAFUMI; ASADA, Masatsugu; MOGOE, Toshihiro; Fukui, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Hajime; OHSUMI, Seiji; 手塚, 雅文; 福井, 豊

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the morphological and morphometrical changes associated with prepubertal ovarian development in the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis). Ovaries were harvested from 94 immature minke whales caught in the Antarctic Ocean during the summer feeding season (December-March). Notable differences in ovarian size and morphology were found among animals. Up to 10 folds difference in ovarian weight was found among prepubertal whales of similar body size. During the pre...

  7. PRE-PUBERTAL CHILDREN AND EXERCISE IN HOT AND HUMID ENVIRONMENTS: A BRIEF REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade H. Sinclair

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of pre-pubertal children to regulate their body temperature under thermoneutral environments is similar to that of an adult albeit via differing routes. However, this ability is challenged when exposed to extreme environments. Thermoregulatory responses of pre-pubertal children differ from adults via adaptations that occur during growth and maturation and disadvantage children when exercising in hot and humid environments. When ambient temperatures exceed that of the skin, an influx of thermal energy from the environment increases thermal stress. When coupled with exercise, the increased thermal stress results in reduced physical performance and an increased risk of developing heat-related illness. Evidence suggesting the severity of heat-related illness is greater in pre-pubertal children than adults is inconclusive because age-related differences in thermoregulatory responses are attributed to either morphologic or functional changes. Additionally, the majority of research on pre-pubertal children exercising in the heat has been maturational or comparative studies with adults conducted in the near absence of convective cooling, complicating extrapolation to field-based environments. However, current consensus is that pre-pubertal children are disadvantaged when exercising in extreme temperatures and that care should be taken in preparing for and conducting sporting activities in hot and humid environments for pre-pubertal children

  8. Gambaran Darah Kambing Gembrong, Kambing Peranakan Etawah, dan Kambing Kacang di Bali (BLOOD ILLUSTRATION OF GEMBRONG GOAT, ETAWAH CROSSBRED GOAT AND KACANG GOAT IN BALI)

    OpenAIRE

    Wayan Sayang Yupardhi; I Gusti Lanang Oka; Ida Bagus Mantra; I Nyoman Suyasa; I Gede Suranjaya

    2015-01-01

    There were three kinds of goat developed in Bali since a long time ago i.e. Gembrong goat, EtawahCrossbred goat, and Kacang goat. Gembrong goat is nearly disappearingrecently due to decrease of itspopulation from year to year. The Gembrong goat has very interesting performance, funny, and this speciesis Balinese native goats. The objective of thisexperiment was to know the blood illustration among thethree speciesof the Balinese native goatwhere in the future it can be used as a guide to deve...

  9. GOATS Image Projection Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Benjamin M.; Green, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    When doing mission analysis and design of an imaging system in orbit around the Earth, answering the fundamental question of imaging performance requires an understanding of the image products that will be produced by the imaging system. GOATS software represents a series of MATLAB functions to provide for geometric image projections. Unique features of the software include function modularity, a standard MATLAB interface, easy-to-understand first-principles-based analysis, and the ability to perform geometric image projections of framing type imaging systems. The software modules are created for maximum analysis utility, and can all be used independently for many varied analysis tasks, or used in conjunction with other orbit analysis tools.

  10. Phenotypic characterization of Ethiopian indigenous goat populations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... A survey was conducted to study the morphological characteristics of indigenous goats in ... Both qualitative and quantitative traits were recorded on 158 goats randomly sampled from six ...

  11. 9 CFR 91.6 - Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... prescribed in Veterinary Services Memorandum 552.15. (2) Brucellosis. Dairy and breeding goats shall be... Test Procedures for the Diagnosis of Brucellosis.” 2 2 See footnote 2 to § 91.5. (3) No goat shall be... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Goats. 91.6 Section 91.6 Animals...

  12. Morphology and Aquaporin Immunohistochemistry of the Uterine Tube of Saanen Goats (Capra hircus): Comparison Throughout the Reproductive Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, S; Bosi, G; Frattini, S; Coizet, B; Groppetti, D; Pecile, A

    2016-06-01

    The expression of six different aquaporins (AQP1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 9), integral membrane water channels that facilitate bi-directional passive movement of water, was investigated by immunohistochemistry in the uterine tube of pre-pubertal and adult Saanen goats (Capra hircus), comparing the different phases of the oestrous cycle. Regional morphology and secretory processes were markedly different during the goat oestrous cycle. The tested AQP molecules showed different expression patterns in comparison with already studied species. AQP1-immunoreactivity was evidenced at the endothelium of blood vessels and in nerve fibres, regardless of the tubal tract and cycle period. AQP4-immunoreactivity was shown on the lateral plasmalemma in the basal third of the epithelial cells at infundibulum and ampulla level in the cycling goats, more evidently during follicular than during luteal phase. No AQP4-immunoreactivity was noticed at the level of the isthmus region, regardless of the cycle phase. AQP5-immunoreactivity, localized at the apical surface of epithelial cells, increased from pre-puberty to adulthood. Thereafter, AQP5-immunoreactivity was prominent during the follicular phase, when it strongly decorated the apical plasmalemma of all epithelial cells at ampullary level. During luteal phase, immunoreactivity was discontinuous, being weak to strong at the apex of the secretory cells protruding into the lumen. In the isthmus region, the strongest AQP5-immunoreactivity was seen during follicular phase, with a clear localization in the apical plasmalemma of all the epithelial cells and also on the lateral plasmalemma. AQP2, 3 and 9 were undetectable all along the goat uterine tube. Likely, a collaboration of different AQP molecules sustains the fluid production in the goat uterine tube. AQP1-mediated transudation from the blood capillaries, together with permeation of the epithelium by AQP4 in the basal rim of the epithelial cells and final intervening of apical AQP5, could

  13. Regulation of tonic gonadotropin release in prepubertal female hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.G.; Matt, K.S.; Prestowitz, W.F.; Stetson, M.H.

    1982-04-01

    Basal serum gonadotropin levels were monitored weekly in female hamsters from birth to 10 weeks of age. Hamsters raised on three different photoperiods presented uniform pre- and postpubertal patterns of serum LH and FSH, suggesting that gonadotropin release in the young hamster occurs independently of ambient photoperiod. In all groups, serum LH levels increased gradually in animals up to 4 weeks of age, after which levels plateaued at 50--100 ng/ml. Serum FSH was markedly elevated in 2- and 3-week-old hamsters (800--1200 ng/ml), but remained at 200--400 ng/ml in all other groups. We next examined the change in the responsiveness of the pituitary to exogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge. Female hamsters 2 days of age failed to respond to any dose (0.025--1000 ng) of GnRH, while 10-day old females responded in typical dose-dependent fashion. GnRH-stimulated LH release first occurred in 6-day-old hamsters and was maximal by day 9, whereas FSH release first occurred on day 8 and was maximal by day 9. The prepubertal pattern of gonadotropin release can, in part, be explained on the basis of the development of pituitary GnRH sensitivity, which occurs independently of photoperiod.

  14. Effects of combined electromyostimulation and gymnastics training in prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deley, Gaëlle; Cometti, Carole; Fatnassi, Anaïs; Paizis, Christos; Babault, Nicolas

    2011-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of a 6-week combined electromyostimulation (EMS) and gymnastic training program on muscle strength and vertical jump performance of prepubertal gymnasts. Sixteen young women gymnasts (age 12.4 ± 1.2 yrs) participated in this study, with 8 in the EMS group and the remaining 8 as controls. EMS was conducted on knee extensor muscles for 20 minutes 3 times a week during the first 3 weeks and once a week during the last 3 weeks. Gymnasts from both groups underwent similar gymnastics training 5-6 times a week. Isokinetic torque of the knee extensors was determined at different eccentric and concentric angular velocities ranging from -60 to +240° per second. Jumping ability was evaluated using squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ), reactivity test, and 3 gymnastic-specific jumps. After the first 3 weeks of EMS, maximal voluntary torque was increased (+40.0 ± 10.0%, +35.3 ± 11.8%, and +50.6 ± 7.7% for -60, +60, and +240°s⁻¹, respectively; p gymnasts, a 6-week EMS program, combined with the daily gymnastic training, induced significant increases both in knee extensor muscle strength and nonspecific and some specific jump performances.

  15. Dopamine action in prepubertal Nelore heifers growth hormone secretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Oliveira Santana Batista

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of dopamine in the growth hormone secretion (GH during Nellore heifer’s sexual maturation. The animals were randomly assigned into two experimental groups: Sulpiride group (dopamine D2 antagonist, 0.59 mg/kg, S.C. and control group (saline solution S.C. at 8, 12 and 16 months of age. Blood samples were collected every 15 min for 10h after drug injection. Growth hormone was quantified by RIA, sensitivity (0.25 ng/mL and intra and inter-assay variation coefficients were 15% and 17%, respectively. GH concentration was higher in sulpiride group than control group at 8 mo (10.1 ± 0.38 ng/mL vs 4.3 ± 0.34 ng/mL; P 0.05 in total GH secretion area, total peak area and maximum peak amplitude. These results suggested an inhibitory dopamine effect on GH secretion in pre-pubertal Nellore heifers that decreases according to age.

  16. [Gonococcal vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls: sexual abuse or accidental transmission?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daval-Cote, M; Liberas, S; Tristan, A; Vandenesch, F; Gillet, Y

    2013-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis is the most frequent gynecologic pathology among prepubertal females. An infectious cause is found in 30% of cases and is highly associated with the presence of vaginal discharge upon examination. Neisseria gonorrhoeae may be one of the causative agents. Since N. gonorrhoeae is a common sexually transmitted disease, sexual abuse should be considered in the pediatric setting. We report the case of a 5-year-old girl with N. gonorrhoeae vulvovaginitis. Her previous history, multiple interviews with the patient and her parents, and clinical examination showed no evidence or signs of sexual abuse. Both parents presented gonorrhea, urethritis for the father and vaginitis for the mother. The discrepancy between pediatric evaluation and the presence of a bacterium associated with sexually transmitted disease led us to consider other means of contamination. Previous studies have shown that other routes of transmission are possible but are often neglected. Hence, contamination can be transmitted by the hands or mostly through passive means (towels, rectal thermometer, etc.). Many epidemics have been noted in group settings with young girls with no evidence of sexual transmission. Therefore, we concluded that this patient's infection was likely an accidental transmission within her family. The acknowledgement of these transmission routes is very important in order to avoid misguided suspicion of sexual abuse and the possible traumatic family and psychosocial consequences.

  17. Nutritional fibrous osteodystrophy in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo M Bandarra

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Seven out of 25 goats from a southern Brazilian flock developed nutritional fibrous osteodystrophy. Affected animals were younger than 1 year of age and were confined in stalls and fed a concentrate ration containing 1:6 calcium:phosphorus ratio. The remaining flock (35 goats was managed at pasture and showed no disease. Clinical signs were characterized by mandibular and maxillary enlargements, varying degrees of mouth opening and protruding tongue, dyspnea, apart of abnormalities of prehension and mastication. Affected animals had increased seric levels of phosphorus and parathormone, as well as higher alkaline phosphatase activity. Postmortem examination on three succumbed goats revealed bilateral enlargement of the maxilla and mandibula, and loose teeth, apart of multiple incomplete rib fractures in one of them. Severe diffuse proliferation of loose connective tissue surrounded the osteoid trabeculae, many of which were partially or completely non-mineralized. Mineralized osteoid trabeculae showed osteoclasts in the Howship's lacunae.

  18. Pox outbreaks in sheep and goats at Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India: evidence of sheeppox virus infection in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanuprakash, V; Venkatesan, G; Balamurugan, V; Hosamani, M; Yogisharadhya, R; Chauhan, R S; Pande, A; Mondal, B; Singh, R K

    2010-10-01

    Sheeppox and goatpox outbreaks occur often in India incurring huge economic loss to the small ruminant industry. This paper describes two sheeppox outbreaks, of which one occurred in an organized sheep breeding farm at Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India, during 2007 and another in goats at the Central Institute of Research on Goats, Makhdoom (Uttar Pradesh), India during 2008. In the first outbreak, a local Muzaffarnagari sheep breed was affected (n=477) with morbidity and mortality rates, respectively, of 100% and 53.9% accompanied by significant productivity losses. In the 2008 outbreaks, a small number of goats were affected without any mortality. The tissue and swabs collected from both the outbreaks were processed and inoculated onto Vero cells, and the causative agent of the outbreaks, capripox virus (CaPV), was isolated. The identity of the virus was confirmed as CaPV based on electron microscopy, experimental pathogenesis in sheep, capripox-specific conventional and real-time PCRs. Sequence analysis of the P32 envelope protein gene revealed that the causative agent of both outbreaks was confirmed as sheeppox virus (SPPV) implying SPPV infection not only in sheep but also goats in India. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Coxiella burnetii in pregnant goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, H.I.J.

    2013-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of Q fever. The zoonotic impact of Q fever was recently underlined by the Dutch Q fever outbreak, which emerged from an endemic state. In this outbreak dairy goats and dairy sheep were deemed responsible for the human cases, alt

  20. Can balance training promote balance and strength in prepubertal children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granacher, Urs; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Maestrini, Lea; Zahner, Lukas; Gollhofer, Albert

    2011-06-01

    The prevalence of sustaining a fall is particularly high in children. Deficits in postural control and muscle strength are important intrinsic fall risk factors. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of balance training (BT) followed by detraining on postural control, plantar flexor strength, and jumping height in prepubertal children. Thirty grade 1 school children participated in this study and were assigned to either an intervention class (INT, n = 15, age 6.7 ± 0.5 years) or a control class (n = 15, age 6.6 ± 0.5 years). The INT participated in 4 weeks of BT (3 per week) integrated in their physical education lessons. Pre, post, and follow-up tests included the measurements of postural sway on a balance platform, maximal torque and rate of force development of the plantar flexors on an isokinetic device, and jumping height on a force platform. The significance level was set at p training resulted in tendencies in terms of small to medium interaction effects yet not statistically significant improvements in postural sway (f = 0.14; p > 0.05), force production of the plantar flexors (f = 0.18; p> 0.05), and jumping height (f = 0.25; p> 0.05). Immaturity of the postural control system and deficits in attentional focus during practice of balance exercises could be responsible for the nonsignificant findings in this study. Thus, other training regimen (e.g., resistance training) should be applied alone or in combination with BT, which may have the potential to promote balance and strength in children.

  1. Feeding frequency and appetite in lean and obese prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Rinku; Tsalikian, Eva; Chenard, Catherine A; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Sivitz, William I

    2011-03-01

    To determine the effect of feeding frequency on appetite in normal weight (NW) and obese (OB) prepubertal children, we carried out a prospective, randomized interventional study of 18 NW and 17 OB children ages 6-10. Children received three or five feedings in random order on separate days. Total calories, carbohydrate, protein, and fat composition on each day were equal. Two hours following the last feeding, children were offered ice cream ad lib. The major outcome variable was kilocalories ice cream consumed. A visual analog scale to assess fullness was also administered before consumption of ice cream. We observed that OB children consumed 73.0 ± 37.4 kcal more after five feedings than after three feedings whereas the NW children consumed 47.1 ± 27.8 kcal less. There was significant interaction between meal pattern and weight group indicating that this change in ice cream consumption differed significantly between groups (P = 0.014 by two-factor analysis). Ice cream intake/kg was less in OB compared to NW subjects (P = 0.012). Fullness ratings before ice cream did not differ by meal pattern or weight group. However, pre-ice cream fullness predicted ice cream intake in NW but not OB children. In summary, OB and NW children differed in appetite response to meal frequency. Our data suggest that: (i) satiety in OB children is related more to proximity of calories (larger supper) than to antecedent distribution of calories and; (ii) NW children may be more prone to restrict intake based on subjective fullness.

  2. Chordee without hypospadias: report of 79 Chinese prepubertal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yun-Man; Chen, Shao-Ji; Huang, Lu-Gang; Wang, Ming-He

    2007-01-01

    A series of Chinese prepubertal patients with congenital chordee without hypospadias is presented and the clinical data described. From July 1999 to September 2006, 79 boys with congenital chordee without hypospadias were treated in the Department of Pediatric Surgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, China. The ages ranged from 21 months to 14 years, with a mean of 76.8 months (6.4 years). The patients were categorized according to structural defect into 4 groups, with the aid of intraoperative artificial erection. Group I included those with skin tethering (28 cases, 35.4%); group II, fascial chordee (22, 27.8%); group III, corporal disproportion (10, 12.7%); and group IV, urethral tethering (19, 24.1%). Chordee-related structural defect was considered the only criterion for classification, and urethral dysgenesis influenced the choice of surgical procedure. The chordee in group I patients was corrected with penile degloving; group II, release of dense fibrous tissue in addition; group III, dorsal-midline-plication-based correction; and group IV, longitudinal-island-flap-urethroplasty-based repair. At a mean follow-up of 14.8 months (range, 2 to 63), all patients had penile straightening except 1 group III patient with residual curvature that was managed upon reoperation. Glans dehiscence occurred in 1 group II patient who underwent a tubularized incised plate urethroplasty. Urethrocutaneous fistula and urethral stricture were found in 2 group IV patients who underwent island flap urethroplasty. With the categorization based on structural defect, chordee without hypospadias may be managed well with minimized complications.

  3. Low serum leptin concentration in vegetarian prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, J; Laskowska-Klita, T; Klemarczyk, W

    2004-01-01

    Vegetarian diet may play a positive role in reducing risk of several chronic diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and some types of cancer. There are different vegetarian dietary patterns, some of which are nutritionally adequate for children, whereas other may lack some essential nutrients. Leptin, a hormone from adipose tissue plays a key role in the control of body fat stores and energy expenditure. Higher leptin levels were observed in obese subjects and lower in anorectic patients. Recent studies support that diet may be a factor which influences leptin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of leptin, lipids and apolipoproteins in prepubertal children with two different nutritional habits: vegetarian and omnivorous diet. We examined 22 vegetarians and 13 omnivores in age 2-10 years. Serum leptin concentration was determined by immunoenzyme assay (ELISA) and serum lipids were measured by enzymatic and immunoturbidimetric methods. Average daily dietary energy intake and the percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates were similar for both groups of children. We observed that in vegetarian diet there is a high rate of fiber nearly twice as high as in omnivorous diet. Vegetarians had lower total cholesterol and HDL- and LDL-cholesterol concentrations than children on traditional mixed diet. There is no significant differences in triglyceride concentration between studied groups. The apolipoproteins levels in vegetarian children were significantly below that of omnivores. The serum concentration of leptin was lower in vegetarians (3.0 +/- 1.1 ng/mL) than in nonvegetarians (5.1 +/- 2.0 ng/mL) (p vegetarian diet may be accompanied by lower serum leptin concentration. Further studies on large group of children are needed for understanding this problem better.

  4. Role for endogenous estrogen in prepubertal Sertoli cell maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Eddy; Villalon, Rosalina; Ribeiro, Salustiano; Berger, Trish

    2012-11-01

    Reducing prepubertal endogenous estrogens led to increased numbers of Sertoli cells and the associated increased testicular size and testicular sperm production capacity in boars. The increased number of Sertoli cells might be due to a longer time for proliferation; delayed differentiation of Sertoli cells during suppressed endogenous estrogens would be consistent with this hypothesized, prolonged proliferation interval. This study used immunohistochemical detection of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), a marker of immature Sertoli cells, and of CDKN1B, a cell cycle inhibitor associated with more mature Sertoli cells, to determine if suppressing endogenous estrogens detectably delayed "differentiation" of porcine Sertoli cells. Testes were from littermate pairs of boars previously treated with Letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, or vehicle, from the first week of age until tissue collection at 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 months of age. Four animals were examined at each age following Letrozole treatment and their corresponding littermates evaluated following treatment with vehicle. Amount of AMH protein in Sertoli cells decreased with age of boar and could not be detected at 6 months of age. The AMH labeling was greater in the Letrozole-treated boars compared with littermate vehicle controls at 4 months of age (P=0.03). The percentage of CDKN1B-labeled Sertoli cells apparently increased with age through 5 months of age. At 4 and 5 months of age, the mean percentage of CDKN1B-labeled Sertoli cells was less in the Letrozole-treated animals than in the vehicle control animals (P = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that continual inhibition of aromatase (and concomitatant reduced estrogen synthesis) causes a delay in Sertoli cell maturation in boars.

  5. Electro convulsive therapy in a pre-pubertal child with severe depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell P

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT in pre-pubertal children is a controversial and underreported treatment. Even though the effectiveness and side effects of ECT in adolescents are comparable with those in adults, there is a pervasive reluctance to use ECT in children and adolescents. We report the case of a pre-pubertal child in an episode of severe depression with catatonic features, where a protracted course of ECT proved life-saving in spite of prolonged duration of seizures and delayed response to treatment. The case illustrates the safety and efficacy of ECT in children. Relevant literature is also reviewed along with the case report.

  6. Mutation analysis of cathepsin C gene in a Chinese patient with pre-pubertal periodontitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yuan; BAI Xiao-wen; SONG Shu-juan; GE Li-hong; CAO Cai-fang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Pre-pubertal periodontitis (PPP) is a rare and rapidly progressive form of early onset periodontitis resulting in premature tooth loss of primary and permanent dentitions. Mutations in cathepsin C (CTSC) gene have been found in patients with pre-pubertal periodontitis and Papillon-Lefevre syndrome which also characterized with severe periodontitis and palmoplantar hyperkera-tosis.1-3 To date, more than 40 mutations of CTSC gene have been identified in ethnically diverse people worldwide.4 However, there is no such genetic analysis in China. In the present study, we report the mutation analysis of a Chinese patient with PPP.

  7. INDONESIAN EFFORTS TO CONSERVE GEMBRONG GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanatun Hasinah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gembrong goat are mainly found in eastern part of Bali Island, especially in the village of Tumbu, Karangasem. Throughout Indonesia these goats are found no more than 50 heads. This condition puts Gembrong goat in a critical status that indicates the need of emergency and quick action. The present study was carried out to assess the characteristic of this breed and to preserve it through some proposed action plan.  Information was obtained by personal observation and discussion with the leader of farmer group.  Body weight (BW and various body measurement were taken from 15 head of Gembrong goat. In general, the color of Gembrong goat body is white, or partly brown or solid brown. The average body weight is of 23.2 kg for females and 30.7 kg for males.  The averages Body length of males is 60 cm, height 58.2 cm, and 14.4 cm ear length in males, and in females body length is 56.2 cm, height 55.1 cm and ear length 14.2 cm. To preserve Gembrong goat population from extinction collaborative activities is needed, namely: (1 multiplication of existing Gembrong goat population, (2 Rescuing animal genetic material and (3 up-grading female Kacang goat with Gembrong male goat as to achieve 99% Gembrong goat genetic composition.

  8. Technological suitability of goat milk for processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romualda Danków

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The world population of dairy goats is estimated at 300 million of which approximately 56% is reared in Asia. Goats raised in Europe (about 12 million constitute 4% of the world herd of these animals. The world goat milk production is assessed to be at the level of about 12 million tons and constitutes over 2% of the global milk obtained from different animal species. In many European countries, goat milk as a dairy raw material comes second after cow milk. The goat population in Poland is estimated at 190 000 heads. With regard to the content of basic constituents, goat milk is similar to cow milk, although it differs from it as to the qualitative composition of fat and protein. Species protein structure of goat milk, different from that of cow milk, causes fewer allergic reactions which are observed to occur in the case of intolerance to cow milk proteins. Rennin curd from goat milk is softer and less compact. A wide range of different products is manufactured from goat milk including: liquid milk (pasteurised and UHT, rennin and cottage cheeses, fermented beverages such as yoghurt, kefir, butter milk, cream, condensed milk, powdered milk, rice goats, butter and even chocolates “Goat’s Milk”.

  9. Marketing of Sahelian Goats in North -Eastern Nigeria: Experience ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluated Sahelian goat marketing in Northeastern Nigeria, ... of the respondents as well as the channel and problem of Sahelian goat market. ... study, it was recommended that government should put in place modern goat market ...

  10. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fucic, A., E-mail: afucic@imi.hr [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska c 2, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Plavec, D [Children Hospital Srebrnjak (Croatia); Casteleyn, L. [KU Leuven (Belgium); Aerts, D. [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment - DG Environment (Belgium); Biot, P. [DG Environment, Multilateral and Strategic Affairs (Belgium); Katsonouri, A. [State General Laboratory, Ministry of Health (Cyprus); Cerna, M. [Laboratoire National de Sante (Luxembourg); National Institute of Public Health (Czech Republic); Knudsen, L.E. [University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Castano, A. [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Rudnai, P. [National Institute of Environmental Health (Hungary); Gutleb, A. [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann (Luxembourg); Ligocka, D. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (Poland); Lupsa, I-R. [Environmental Health Center (Romania); Berglund, M. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet (Sweden); Horvat, M. [Institute Josef Stefan (Slovenia); Halzlova, K. [Public Health Authority (Slovakia); State General Laboratory, Ministry of Health (Cyprus); Schoeters, G.; Koppen, G. [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risk and Health (Netherlands); Hadjipanayis, A. [Larnaca General Hospital, Ministry of Health, Republic of Cyprus (Cyprus); Krskova, A. [Laboratoire National de Sante (Luxembourg); National Institute of Public Health (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-08-15

    Susceptibility to environmental stressors has been described for fetal and early childhood development. However, the possible susceptibility of the prepubertal period, characterized by the orchestration of the organism towards sexual maturation and adulthood has been poorly investigated and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age–sex groups: boys (6–8 years, 9–10 years and 11 years old), and girls (6–7 years, 8–9 years, 10–11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1 µg/L for Cd, and 0.8 µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level. In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180 µg/L (range 0.10–0.69 µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50 µg/L (range 0.80–39.91 µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6–7 year old girls, 11 year old boys and 10–11 year old girls. As there was a balanced distribution in the number of subjects from countries included in the study, bias due to data clustering was not probable. The impact of low Cd levels on kidney function and gender differences in Cd levels needs further investigation. - Highlights: • In 216 children from 6 to 11 years old the median level of Cd was 0.18 µg/L. • The median level of cotinine was 1.50 µg/L.

  11. Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplementation affects folliculogenesis, progesterone and ghrelin levels in fattening pre-pubertal gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, Desislava; Nedeva, Radka; Marchev, Yordan; Jordanova, Gergana; Chervenkov, Mihail; Dineva, Julieta; Shimkus, Almantas; Shimkiene, Aldona; Teerds, Katja; Kistanova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplemented diet on follicular development and related endocrine parameters, such as estradiol and progesterone levels as well as ghrelin levels in pre-pubertal gilts. Twenty-one 60-day-old Danube

  12. The pattern of ovarian development in the prepubertal antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetsuka, Masafumi; Asada, Masatsugu; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Fukui, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Hajime; Ohsumi, Seiji

    2004-08-01

    This study describes the morphological and morphometrical changes associated with prepubertal ovarian development in the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis). Ovaries were harvested from 94 immature minke whales caught in the Antarctic Ocean during the summer feeding season (December-March). Notable differences in ovarian size and morphology were found among animals. Up to 10 folds difference in ovarian weight was found among prepubertal whales of similar body size. During the prepubertal period, ovaries grew slowly and approximately doubled their weight. The morphologies of right and left ovaries were almost identical while the growth of the ovary appears to occur preferentially on the right side. The most striking morphological feature was numerous small antral follicles less than 5 mm in diameter found in ovaries of younger immature whales. The occurrence of these ovaries was highest in whales less than 6 m long and gradually decreased as body length increased. In larger whales, the occurrence of ovaries with a smaller number of follicles up to 10 mm and thick tunica albuginea increased. Thus, the ovary of the Antarctic minke whale experiences bursts of small follicular development during the early prepubertal period before becoming a more developed ovary with fewer but larger follicles, and thick tunica albuginea.

  13. Myoepithelial cell differentiation markers in prepubertal bovine mammary gland: Effect of ovariectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have previously reported that ovariectomy alters prepubertal development of mammary myoepithelial cells (MC), but the mechanisms involved are not well understood. We therefore analyzed the expression of the myoepithelial differentiation markers a-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and the common acute ly...

  14. Insulin resistance in obese pre-pubertal children: Relation to body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Elsedfy

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Dysglycaemia and dyslipidaemia are common among pre-pubertal obese children. Insulin sensitivity indices based on OGTT are superior to fasting indices in identifying at risk children. OGTT should be included in assessing obese children with BMI > 2 SDS. DXA scanning has limited value for this purpose in clinical settings.

  15. The oral rehabilitation and 5 years follow up of a patient with prepubertal periodontitis- one case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelal Seyfioglu Polat

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethiologic, pathogenetic and host factors definition and classifications ofperiodontal diseases are done in many studies till nowadays. To regard these studiesprepubertal periodontitis is defined as early onset periodontitis.In our study it is aimed to present the treatment results of of apatient who isdiagnosed with prepubertal periodontitis, treated and followed up for five years.

  16. Adult Immunohistochemical Markers Fail to Detect Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia in Prepubertal Boys with Cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Kolja; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Cortes, Dina;

    2014-01-01

    Intratubular germ cell neoplasia is a precursor to testicular germ cell cancer. The condition is characterized by large germ cells with large nuclei with a hyperchromatic, coarse chromatin pattern, large prominent nucleoli and abundant pale cytoplasm. In prepubertal boys these cells are located c...

  17. Enhanced insulin sensitivity in prepubertal children with constitutional delay of growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dyanne A; Hofman, Paul L; Miles, Harriet L; Sato, Tim A; Billett, Nathalie E; Robinson, Elizabeth M; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2010-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that prepubertal children with presumed constitutional delay of growth and development (CDGD) have enhanced insulin sensitivity and, therefore, insulin sensitivity is associated with later onset of puberty. Twenty-one prepubertal children with presumed CDGD and 23 prepubertal control children, underwent a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test to evaluate insulin sensitivity and other markers of insulin, glucose, and growth regulation. Children in the CDGD group were shorter and leaner than control subjects. Children with presumed CDGD were 40% more insulin sensitive (17.0 x 10(-4) min(-1)/[mU/L] versus 12.1 x 10(-4) min(-1)/[mU/L]; P = .0006) and had reduced acute insulin response, thus maintaining euglycemia (216 mU/L versus 330 mU/L; P = .02) compared with control subjects. In addition, the CDGD group had lower serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 levels (3333 ng/mL versus 3775 ng/mL; P = .0004) and a trend toward lower serum insulin-like growth factor-II levels (794 ng/mL versus 911 ng/mL; P = .06). Prepubertal children with presumed CDGD have enhanced insulin sensitivity, supporting the hypothesis that insulin sensitivity is associated with timing of puberty. It may signify long-term biological advantages with lower risk of metabolic syndrome and malignancy. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of vitamin A on in vitro maturation of pre-pubertal mouse spermatogonial stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albanne Travers

    Full Text Available Testicular tissue cryopreservation is the only potential option for fertility preservation in pre-pubertal boys exposed to gonadotoxic treatment. Completion of spermatogenesis after in vitro maturation is one of the future uses of harvested testicular tissue. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin A on in vitro maturation of fresh and frozen-thawed mouse pre-pubertal spermatogonial stem cells in an organ culture system. Pre-pubertal CD1 mouse fresh testes were cultured for 7 (D7, 9 (D9 and 11 (D11 days using an organ culture system. Basal medium was supplemented with different concentrations of retinol (Re or retinoic acid (RA alone or in combination. Seminiferous tubule morphology (tubule diameter, intra-tubular cell type, intra-tubular cell death and proliferation (PCNA antibody and testosterone level were assessed at D7, D9 and D11. Pre-pubertal mouse testicular tissue were frozen after a soaking temperature performed at -7 °C, -8 °C or -9 °C and after thawing, were cultured for 9 days, using the culture medium preserving the best fresh tissue functionality. Retinoic acid at 10(-6M and retinol at 3.3.10(-7M, as well as retinol 10(-6M are favourable for seminiferous tubule growth, maintenance of intra-tubular cell proliferation and germ cell differentiation of fresh pre-pubertal mouse spermatogonia. Structural and functional integrity of frozen-thawed testicular tissue appeared to be well-preserved after soaking temperature at -8 °C, after 9 days of organotypic culture using 10(-6M retinol. RA and Re can control in vitro germ cell proliferation and differentiation. Re at a concentration of 10(-6M maintains intra-tubular cell proliferation and the ability of spermatogonia to initiate spermatogenesis in fresh and frozen pre-pubertal mouse testicular tissue using a soaking temperature at -8 °C. Our data suggested a possible human application for in vitro maturation of cryopreserved pre-pubertal testicular

  19. Inheritance of goat coat colors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adalsteinsson, S; Sponenberg, D P; Alexieva, S; Russel, A J

    1994-01-01

    Goat color inheritance was evaluated based on color description of 218 kids and their parents (10 sires, 178 dams) from mixed crosses between several goat populations in an experiment on cashmere fiber production. Altogether 10 color patterns were observed. They were postulated to be caused by 10 alleles at the Agouti locus, with the allele for white or tan color being the top dominant allele, and the nine others codominant. The bottom recessive allele, for nonagouti color, was the 11th allele at this locus. The postulated alleles are white or tan (A(wt)), black mask (A(blm)), bezoar (A(bz)), badgerface (A(b)), grey (A(g)), lightbelly (A(lb)), swiss markings (A(sm)), lateral stripes (A(ls)), mahogany (A(mh)), red cheek (A(rc)), and nonagouti (Aa). Two types of eumelanin pigment were observed, black and light brown, the latter being dominant. Recessive brown was not observed.

  20. Cow's milk and goat's milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC.

  1. Endothelial function in pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy: a new frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cristina Tavares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is known that obesity, diabetes, and Kawasaki's disease play important roles in systemic inflammation and in the development of both endothelial dysfunction and cardiomyopathy, there is a lack of data regarding the endothelial function of pre-pubertal children suffering from cardiomyopathy. In this study, we performed a systematic review of the literature on pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy to assess the endothelial function of pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy. We searched the published literature indexed in PubMed, Bireme and SciELO using the keywords 'endothelial', 'children', 'pediatric' and 'infant' and then compiled a systematic review. The end points were age, the pubertal stage, sex differences, the method used for the endothelial evaluation and the endothelial values themselves. No studies on children with cardiomyopathy were found. Only 11 papers were selected for our complete analysis, where these included reports on the flow-mediated percentage dilatation, the values of which were 9.80±1.80, 5.90±1.29, 4.50±0.70, and 7.10±1.27 for healthy, obese, diabetic and pre-pubertal children with Kawasaki's disease, respectively. There was no significant difference in the dilatation, independent of the endothelium, either among the groups or between the genders for both of the measurements in children; similar results have been found in adolescents and adults. The endothelial function in cardiomyopathic children remains unclear because of the lack of data; nevertheless, the known dysfunctions in children with obesity, type 1 diabetes and Kawasaki's disease may influence the severity of the cardiovascular symptoms, the prognosis, and the mortality rate. The results of this study encourage future research into the consequences of endothelial dysfunction in pre-pubertal children.

  2. A sightability model for mountain goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, C.G.; Jenkins, K.J.; Chang, W.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Unbiased estimates of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations are key to meeting diverse harvest management and conservation objectives. We developed logistic regression models of factors influencing sightability of mountain goat groups during helicopter surveys throughout the Cascades and Olympic Ranges in western Washington during summers, 20042007. We conducted 205 trials of the ability of aerial survey crews to detect groups of mountain goats whose presence was known based on simultaneous direct observation from the ground (n 84), Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry (n 115), or both (n 6). Aerial survey crews detected 77 and 79 of all groups known to be present based on ground observers and GPS collars, respectively. The best models indicated that sightability of mountain goat groups was a function of the number of mountain goats in a group, presence of terrain obstruction, and extent of overstory vegetation. Aerial counts of mountain goats within groups did not differ greatly from known group sizes, indicating that under-counting bias within detected groups of mountain goats was small. We applied HorvitzThompson-like sightability adjustments to 1,139 groups of mountain goats observed in the Cascade and Olympic ranges, Washington, USA, from 2004 to 2007. Estimated mean sightability of individual animals was 85 but ranged 0.750.91 in areas with low and high sightability, respectively. Simulations of mountain goat surveys indicated that precision of population estimates adjusted for sightability biases increased with population size and number of replicate surveys, providing general guidance for the design of future surveys. Because survey conditions, group sizes, and habitat occupied by goats vary among surveys, we recommend using sightability correction methods to decrease bias in population estimates from aerial surveys of mountain goats.

  3. Different roles of prepubertal and postpubertal germ cells and Sertoli cells in the regulation of serum inhibin B levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Müller, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1998-01-01

    To elucidate the role of germ cells in the regulation of inhibin B secretion, serum inhibin B levels in prepubertal boys and adult men whom had a concurrent testicular biopsy showing either normal or impaired testicular function were compared. In addition, by immunohistochemistry the cellular...... localization of the two subunits of inhibin B (alpha and betaB) were examined in adult testicular tissue with normal spermatogenesis, spermatogenic arrest, or Sertoli cell only tubules (SCO) as well as in normal testicular tissue from an infant and a prepubertal boy. Adult men with testicular biopsy showing...... SCO boys, inhibin B levels were undetectable as in the adult SCO men. Intense inhibin alpha-subunit immunostaining was evident in Sertoli cells in both prepubertal and adult testes. In the prepubertal testis, positive immunostaining for the betaB-subunit was observed in Sertoli cells. In the adult...

  4. Prepubertal vulval fibroma with a coincidental ectopic breast fibroadenoma: report of an unusual case with literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Chen, Yue; Wang, Kana; Xi, Mingrong; Yang, Kaixuan; Liu, Hui

    2011-11-01

    Prepubertal vulval fibroma and ectopic breast fibroadenoma of the vulva are two rare tumors, and they are very difficult to distinguish from other vulval masses, both clinically and pathologically. The complication of the two diseases is extremely rare. We report the case of an extremely large and progressively enlarging mass in the vulva of an 18-year-old Chinese girl. The mass was excised completely and pathologically diagnosed as a prepubertal vulval fibroma and ectopic breast fibroadenoma. The patient was followed up for 10 months and no evidence of recurrence was observed. Prepubertal vulval fibroma and vulval ectopic breast fibroadenoma should be considered in their preoperative differential diagnosis of a vulval mass, especially in prepubertal girls. Pathologically, immunohistochemical staining for vimentin and CD34 is valuable for diagnosis. Complete surgical excision is effective and long-term follow up is necessary.

  5. The vaginal microbiome is stable in prepubertal and sexually mature Ellegaard Göttingen Minipigs throughout an estrous cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Kudirkiene, Egle; Gutman, Nicole;

    2015-01-01

    in prepubertal and sexually mature Göttingen Minipigs during an estrous cycle. The dominating phyla in the vaginal microbiota consisted of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Tenericutes. The most abundant bacterial families were Enterobacteriaceae, unclassified families from...

  6. 36 CFR 13.1114 - May I collect goat hair?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I collect goat hair? 13... General Provisions § 13.1114 May I collect goat hair? The collection of naturally shed goat hair is... conditions for collecting goat hair is prohibited....

  7. The placenta shed from goats with classical scrapie is infectious to goat kids and lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, David A; Madsen-Bouterse, Sally A; Zhuang, Dongyue; Truscott, Thomas C; Dassanayake, Rohana P; O'Rourke, Katherine I

    2015-08-01

    The placenta of domestic sheep plays a key role in horizontal transmission of classical scrapie. Domestic goats are frequently raised with sheep and are susceptible to classical scrapie, yet potential routes of transmission from goats to sheep are not fully defined. Sparse accumulation of disease-associated prion protein in cotyledons casts doubt about the role of the goat's placenta. Thus, relevant to mixed-herd management and scrapie-eradication efforts worldwide, we determined if the goat's placenta contains prions orally infectious to goat kids and lambs. A pooled cotyledon homogenate, prepared from the shed placenta of a goat with naturally acquired classical scrapie disease, was used to orally inoculate scrapie-naïve prion genotype-matched goat kids and scrapie-susceptible lambs raised separately in a scrapie-free environment. Transmission was detected in all four goats and in two of four sheep, which importantly identifies the goat's placenta as a risk for horizontal transmission to sheep and other goats.

  8. Effects of Male Goat Pheromones on Feeding Behavior of Female Markhoz Goats during Breeding Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Mohamadi, H. Daghigh Kia*, A. Hossein Khani and S. Alijani

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of male goat on feeding behavior of female goats in breeding season. Sixty four Markhoz female goats, 3.5 years old, two or three parity, 43±2 kg live weight, body condition score 3, along with 10 male goats were used to study the effects of male pheromones on feeding behavior. The study was done in 6 weeks. Female goats were equally divided into three treatments (a1, a2 and a3 along with a control treatment (c with 8 animals in each group. Variable factor of treatments was the distance of the male goats box (source of pheromone secretion or male effect, which was supposed to be the a1 (0-5 meters, a2 (10-15 meters and a3 (25-30 meters. The results of study showed a decrease in feed intake of the female goats due to distance from male goats (P<0.01. It was concluded that the distance of female from male goats or the concentration of pheromones can significantly affect feed intake of the Markhoz female goats. Therefore, in order to increase livestock production and reproductive performance, the management of nutrition must be paid more attention.

  9. Genetic Relationship Between Gembrong Goat, Kacang Goat and Kacang X Etawah Crossbred (PE) Based on Their Mitochondrial DNA

    OpenAIRE

    I Gusti Lanang Oka; Wayan SayangYupardhi; Ida Bagus Mantra; Nyoman Suyasa; Anak Agung Sagung Dewi

    2012-01-01

    Gembrong goat is a specific type of goat which has long hair covers its whole body including its neckand face, originated from eastern part of Bali (Karangasem). A study of this type of goat and its relationshipwith other local goats (Kacang and Kacang x Etawah crossbred) was carried out at Sawe village, Jembrana,Bali.. A number of 12 gembrong goats, 3 kacang goats from Kubu village, Karangasem and 3 Kacang xEtawah crossbred goats from Denpasar were used in this study. Blood samples of all go...

  10. Giant fibroadenoma of the breast in a pre-pubertal girl: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunder Goyal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile fibroadenoma comprises about 4% of the total fibroadenomas. The incidence of giant juvenile fibroadenomas is merely 0.5% of all the fibroadenomas. Bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas are extremely rare. We are presenting a case of giant juvenile fibroadenomas in an 11-year-old pre-pubertal girl. The diagnosis was made on fine-needle aspiration cytology which was confirmed on histopathology. As these tumors are mostly benign, breast-conserving surgery is done so that patient can lead a normal life without psychological trauma.-----------------------------------Cite this article as: Goyal S, Garg G, Narang S. Giant fibroadenoma of the breast in a pre-pubertal girl: a case report. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(1:020113.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14319/ijcto.0201.13

  11. Associations of total, dairy, and meat protein with markers for bone turnover in healthy, prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budek, Alicja Zofia; Hoppe, Camilla; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2007-01-01

    We previously reported that high intake of milk, but not meat, equal in protein content, increased serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) in prepubertal boys. sIGF-I plays a key role in bone metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate associations of total......, dairy, and meat protein intake with markers for bone turnover and sIGF-I in prepubertal, healthy boys (n ¼ 81). We measured bone turnover (enzyme-linked immunoassay) in serum osteocalcin (sOC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (sBAP), and C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type-I (sCTX); dietary...

  12. Klinefelter syndrome is a common cause for mental retardation of unknown etiology among prepubertal males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, M M; Struthers, J L

    2002-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) has not typically been associated with mental retardation (MR), however, in recent years a growing body of evidence suggested that KS boys often experience language deficits and academic difficulties. In this study, we screened DNA samples from 1205 patients originally referred for fragile X syndrome (FRAX) testing, because of MR of unknown etiology and detected 8 KS patients. A similar number of males in the same age group were found to have FRAX; 3 of them had a family history of FRAX. Based on these findings, KS might be the most common cause of MR of unknown etiology among prepubertal males. Because of the significant benefits of early recognition and treatment of KS, we emphasize the importance of cytogenetic testing of all prepubertal males with cognitive impairment even without dysmorphic features.

  13. Milk drink with goat milk and goat serum is alternative for exploitation of pulp umbu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkarthe Guerra Araújo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to develop and evaluate the acceptance and intention to purchase two dairy beverages formulations prepared with fermented umbus, goat serum and goat milk in order to add greater economic value to the three raw materials. The treatments consisted of the variation in serum concentrations goat (28,5% and 44% and goat milk (44% and 28,5%, respectively. The pulp has previously been analyzed and showed 15,21mg/100g of ascorbic acid. The fermented dairy beverages showed microbiological characteristics within the established by the legislation. It was found that there was no significant difference (p > 0,05 for color attributes, flavor and consistency of both, however, the flavor attributes and global acceptance have been significantly affected. The formulation with 28,5% of goat serum and 44% goat milk had the best average from 10 days, and acceptances up to 25 days of storage.

  14. Eimeria species in dairy goats in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Antônio César Rocha; Teixeira, Marcel; Monteiro, Jomar Patrício; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes

    2012-02-10

    The focus of this work is to determine the distribution and identify species of Eimeria parasites of dairy goats in the livestock of the National Goat and Sheep Research Center in Sobral, State of Ceará, Northeast Brazil. Results showed the presence of multiple species in 196 of 215 analyzed samples (91.2%). Fifty five out of these were from kids (28%) and 141 from adult goats (72%). Eight different Eimeria species were identified and their prevalence in the herd was: Eimeria alijevi Musaev, 1970 (26.7%), E. arloingi (Marotel, 1905) Martin, 1909 (20.6%), E. hirci Chevalier, 1966 (18%), E. ninakohlyakimovae Yakimoff & Rastegaieff, 1930 (16.2%), E. jolchijevi Musaev, 1970 (8.7%), E. christenseni Levine, Ivens & Fritz, 1962 (6%), E. caprovina Lima, 1980 (2.8%) and E. caprina Lima, 1979 (1%). Moreover, E. ninakohlyakimovae showed higher prevalence in kids (97%), followed by E. arloingi and E. alijevi (88%). On the other hand, E. alijevi (77%) was more common in adult goats followed by E. hirci (74%) and E. ninakohlyakimovae (70%). The species E. caprina had low frequency in both kids (27%) and adult goats (13%). Data indicated that infection was relatively common among kids and adult goats. The implementation of a routine diagnostic strategy can be useful in maintaining Eimeria populations under monitoring and will enable the determination of its potential impact on dairy goat herds in Northeast Brazil. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of prepubertal-onset exercise on body weight changes up to middle age in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Daisuke; Matsuura, Tomokazu; Suzuki, Masato

    2014-03-15

    The present study was conducted to examine whether prepubertal-onset exercise might help adults maintain long-term body weight (BW) reduction and increased energy metabolism after the cessation of exercise. Furthermore, the effects of the exercise regimen were compared with those of food restriction. Twenty-three male obese-diabetic [Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF)] rats were randomly assigned to prepubertal-onset exercise (Childhood-Ex), food restriction (Childhood-Diet), and sedentary control (OLETF-Sed) groups. Childhood-Ex rats exercised voluntarily every day using a rotating wheel, while the food volume of the Childhood-Diet group was restricted to achieve a BW similar to that recorded in the Childhood-Ex group. Both treatments were conducted at 5-19 wk of age; after this period, the rats were kept sedentary and allowed ad libitum food intake until 45 wk of age. BW was significantly lower, and percent lean body mass was significantly higher, in the Childhood-Ex group compared with those in the Childhood-Diet and OLETF-Sed groups throughout maturation and middle age after cessation of the interventions. The Childhood-Ex group also demonstrated higher citrate synthase, succinate dehydrogenase, and phosphofructokinase activity levels, as well as uncoupling protein-3 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. This study revealed that inhibited BW gain in an animal model of human obese diabetes by prepubertal-onset exercise lasted for a long period after the completion of the exercise intervention. This effect may be facilitated by increased energy metabolism. However, these benefits were not found by prepubertal food restriction treatment. Importantly, to allow translation of our work, these novel insights need to be assessed in obese human individuals.

  16. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in healthy prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent girls and adult women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Astrid Marie; Juul, A A; Andersson, A M

    2000-01-01

    Biochemical assessment of gonadal function during maturation in girls and in adult women can be troublesome. With the recent advent of specific assays for the gonadal peptides inhibin A and inhibin B, it might be possible to achieve a clearer picture of events. We therefore determined serum levels...... daily throughout the menstrual cycle in 10 healthy adult women. Levels of inhibin B are low or undetectable in prepubertal girls (median, 26.5 pg/mL; 95% prediction interval,...

  17. Myeloperoxidase Is an Early Biomarker of Inflammation and Cardiovascular Risk in Prepubertal Obese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Olza, Josune; Aguilera, Concepcion M.; Gil-Campos, Mercedes; Leis, Rosaura; Bueno, Gloria; Martínez-Jiménez, Maria D.; Valle, Miguel; Cañete, Ramon; Tojo, Rafael; Moreno, Luis A.; Gil, Angel

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Obesity is associated with a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) plays an important role in the initiation and progression of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objectives of the current study were to evaluate plasma MPO levels in prepubertal obese children and to determine whether MPO could be an early biomarker of inflammation and CVD risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a prospective multicenter case-contr...

  18. Sex hormone binding globulin concentration as a prepubertal marker for hyperinsulinaemia in obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Galloway, P; Donaldson, M.; WALLACE, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Overweight children become obese adults who are prone to develop the "metabolic syndrome" and premature coronary arterial disease (CAD).
AIMS—To assess whether sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is a potential marker for hyperinsulinaemia/insulin resistance in prepubertal obese children.
METHODS—Twenty five obese children (body mass index (BMI) >2SD) who warranted investigation on clinical grounds were enrolled. Their insulin response to an oral glucose tolera...

  19. Implications of gastrointestinal hormones in the pathogenesis of obesity in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascietto, Cinzia; Giannini, Cosimo; D'Adamo, Ebe; de Giorgis, Tommaso; Chiarelli, Francesco; Mohn, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    There is a worsening high prevalence of global obesity. Special attention has been paid to the gut-endocrine system, represented by the regulators of appetite. In particular, it has been suggested that ghrelin ("hunger" peptide), and obestatin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) ("satiety" peptides) could play important roles in the pathogenesis of obesity. The aims of this study were to compare fasting plasma ghrelin, obestatin, and GLP-1 levels between obese and nonobese prepubertal children, and to assess their relations with fatness indexes and insulin resistance (IR). Fifty-two prepubertal obese children and 22 controls were enrolled. Fasting levels of gastrointestinal hormones (ghrelin, obestatin, and GLP-1), glucose, and insulin were evaluated. IR was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) index. Analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Spearman's correlation. Obese prepubertal children and normal-weight controls had similar age distribution. Obese children were more insulin resistant when compared to controls (HOMA-IR: p obese children than in controls (p obese than normal-weight children (p obesity.

  20. Pre-pubertal males practising Taekwondo exhibit favourable postural and neuromuscular performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jlid, Mohamed Chedly; Maffulli, Nicola; Souissi, Nisar; Chelly, Mohamed Souheil; Paillard, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The postural and neuromuscular performances in healthy children taekwondo (TKD) practitioners in comparison with control children were examined. Seventeen healthy pre-pubertal males undertaking only physical education at school (age: 11.88 ± 0.33 years) and 12 pre-pubertal male TKD practitioners (>3 years, 4 sessions a week) (age 11.66 ± 0.49 years) were recruited. Performances in the dynamic postural control (Star Excursion Balance Test -SEBT), vertical jump [squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ)] and sprint running (distances: 5, 10, 20 and 30 m) tests were compared between the two groups. The performances of the TKD practitioners were better than those of the non-TKD active for the SEBT (for 14 of 16 conditions, p  0.05). TKD practice would stimulate sensory input and motor output of the postural system that would enhance its efficiency. In addition, the dynamic nature of TKD would develop the muscle power of the lower limbs. In our sample of healthy pre-pubertal males, TKD appears to improve postural and neuromuscular functions, but further research is required.

  1. Associations of total, dairy, and meat protein with markers for bone turnover in healthy, prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budek, Alicja Zofia; Hoppe, Camilla; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2007-01-01

    We previously reported that high intake of milk, but not meat, equal in protein content, increased serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) in prepubertal boys. sIGF-I plays a key role in bone metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate associations of total...... focus on differential effects of dairy and meat protein on bone health during growth.......We previously reported that high intake of milk, but not meat, equal in protein content, increased serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) in prepubertal boys. sIGF-I plays a key role in bone metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate associations of total......, dairy, and meat protein intake with markers for bone turnover and sIGF-I in prepubertal, healthy boys (n ¼ 81). We measured bone turnover (enzyme-linked immunoassay) in serum osteocalcin (sOC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (sBAP), and C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type-I (sCTX); dietary...

  2. Uric acid, carotid intima-media thickness and body composition in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassols, J; Martínez-Calcerrada, J M; Prats-Puig, A; Carreras-Badosa, G; Díaz-Roldán, F; Osiniri, I; Riera-Pérez, E; de Zegher, F; Ibáñez, L; López-Bermejo, A

    2016-10-01

    Increased uric acid is an independent biomarker for cardiovascular disease in obese adolescents and adults. We investigated whether uric acid relates to carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in prepubertal children, and whether body mass index (BMI) and preperitoneal fat modulate this association. 359 asymptomatic prepubertal Caucasian children were stratified according to BMI categories (171 with BMI-SDS 50th centile). Uric acid levels, insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance; HOMA-IR), C-reactive protein (CRP), triacylglycerol (TG), systolic blood pressure (SBP), abdominal fat and cIMT (both by ultrasound) were assessed. Uric acid was associated with several cardiovascular risk factors, namely higher HOMA-IR, CRP, TG, BMI, waist, SBP, preperitoneal fat and cIMT (all P uric acid and cIMT (both P uric acid was preferentially related to cIMT in heavier children (β = 0.247, P uric acid is associated with cIMT in asymptomatic prepubertal children. Both higher BMI and preperitoneal fat aggravate the potential risk of atherosclerotic disease imposed by higher concentrations of uric acid. © 2015 World Obesity.

  3. Fat mass index performs best in monitoring management of obesity in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Dias, Mónica Pitta-Grós; Dionísio, Elisabete; Virella, Daniel; Alves, Marta; Diamantino, Catarina; Alonso, Anabela; Cordeiro-Ferreira, Gonçalo

    2016-01-01

    An early and accurate recognition of success in treating obesity may increase the compliance of obese children and their families to intervention programs. This observational, prospective study aimed to evaluate the ability and the time to detect a significant reduction of adiposity estimated by body mass index (BMI), percentage of fat mass (%FM), and fat mass index (FMI) during weight management in prepubertal obese children. In a cohort of 60 prepubertal obese children aged 3-9 years included in an outpatient weight management program, BMI, %FM, and FMI were monitored monthly; the last two measurements were assessed using air displacement plethysmography. The outcome measures were the reduction of >5% of each indicator and the time to achieve it. The rate of detection of the outcome was 33.3% (95% CI: 25.9-41.6) using BMI, significantly lower (pBMI. The agreement between the outcome detected by FMI and by %FM was high (kappa 0.701), but very low between the success detected by BMI and either FMI (kappa 0.231) or %FM (kappa 0.125). FMI achieved the best combination of ability and swiftness to identify reduction of adiposity during monitoring of weight management in prepubertal obese children. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF ESTROGEN RECEPTORS IN THE CENTRAL AUDITORY SYSTEM CHANGE IN PREPUBERTAL AND AGED MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charitidi, K.; Frisina, R. D.; Vasilyeva, O. N.; Zhu, X.; Canlon, B.

    2011-01-01

    Estrogens are important in the development, maintenance and physiology of the CNS. Several studies have shown their effects on the processing of hearing in both males and females, and these effects, in part, are thought to result from regulation of the transcription of genes via their classical estrogen receptor (ER) pathway. In order to understand the spatiotemporal changes that occur with age, we have studied the expression of ERs in the central auditory pathway in prepubertal and aged CBA mice with immunohistochemistry. In prepubertal mice a clear dichotomy was noted between the expression of ERα and ERβ. ERβ-positive neurons were found in the metencephalon whereas the majority of ERα was found in mesencephalon, diencephalon or the telencephalon. In the aged animals a different pattern of ER expression was found in terms of location and overall intensity. These age-induced changes in the expression pattern were generally not uniform, suggesting that region-specific mechanisms regulate the ERs’ age-related expression. Neither the prepubertal nor the aged animals showed sex differences in any auditory structure. Our results demonstrate different age-dependent spatial and temporal changes in the pattern of expression of ERα and ERβ, suggesting that each ER type may be involved in distinct roles across the central auditory pathway in different periods of maturation. PMID:20736049

  5. Diagnosis of contagious ecthyma in goats in a quarantine station in Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angie Magaña Ch.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We report an outbreak of contagious ecthyma (CE in a herd of goats at Paso Canoas quarantine station, Panama. The goats were adult intact females. Visible clinical signs became apparent from day 13 after the start of quarantine. We performed clinical examination. Serum biopsy and scabs were collected from crusted lesions in the epithelium of the lips, nose and eyelid corners. Samples were studied by histopathology,complement fixation test, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, DAS-ELISA, viral isolationand nucleic acid amplification tests. Histopathology revealed ortho and parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, epithelial hyperplasia, viral inclusion bodies, keratinocytes with balonoid degeneration, vesicles with neutrophils and degenerated cells, in superficial dermis there is marked neovascularization. Complement fixation test, DAS-ELISA and nucleic acid amplification tests resulted positive for contagious ecthyma. TEM showed viral particles, consistent with Parapoxvirus. Clinical and laboratory findings were consistent with poxvirus infection in the quarantine goat herd.

  6. GnRH-agonist implants suppress reproductive function and affects ovarian LHR and FSHR expression in prepubertal female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, N S; Srisuwatanasagul, S; Swangchan-Uthai, T; Sirivaidyapong, S; Khalid, M

    2017-01-01

    Effect of a GnRH-agonist (deslorelin) was studied on reproductive function and ovarian luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) expression in prepubertal female cats that were either implanted with 4.7-mg deslorelin (implanted: n = 6) or not (controls: n = 18) or ovariohysterectomized at prepubertal age (prepubertal OVH: n = 6). Body weights, fecal estradiol, and sexual behavior of implanted and control cats were monitored for 48 weeks followed by collection of ovaries and uteri. Ovaries and uteri were collected from control cats at follicular, luteal, and inactive stage (n = 6/group) and from prepubertal OVH cats at prepubertal age. Ovaries and uteri were analyzed for anatomical/histological characteristics. Ovaries were also analyzed for LHR and FSHR expression. Statistical analysis showed higher (P ≤ 0.05) body weight in control than implanted cats only during 22nd to 26th weeks of the study. Estrus was observed in control cats only. Deslorelin reduced (P ≤ 0.05) ovarian weight and number of antral follicles but did not affect endometrial thickness and gland diameter. However, myometrial thickness of implanted cats was significantly lower than control cats at follicular and luteal stage. Ovarian LHR mRNA expression was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in implanted cats than control cats at follicular stage. FSHR mRNA and LHR protein expression did not differ among the three groups. FSHR protein expression was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in prepubertal OVH cats and was not affected by deslorelin. In conclusion, deslorelin suppresses reproductive function in prepubertal female cats for at least 48 weeks possibly through a change in the ovarian mRNA expression of LHR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Paratuberculosis in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, P A

    2015-12-14

    Paratuberculosis is a chronic insidious, often serious, disease of the global small ruminant industries, mainly causing losses from mortalities and reduced productivity on-farm, interference in trading and, in Australia, profound socio-economic impacts that have periodically compromised harmony of rural communities. The pathogenesis, diagnosis, impacts and disease management options for ovine and caprine paratuberculosis are reviewed, comparing current controls in the extensive management system for sheep in wool flocks in Australia with the semi-intensive system of dairy flocks/herds in Greece. Improved understanding of the immune and cellular profiles of sheep with varying paratuberculosis outcomes and the recognition of the need for prolonged vaccination and biosecurity is considered of relevance to future control strategies. Paratuberculosis in goats is also of global distribution although the prevalence, economic impact and strategic control options are less well recognized, possibly due to the relatively meagre resources available for goat industry research. Although there have been some recent advances, more work is required on developing control strategies for goats, particularly in dairy situations where there is an important need for validation of improved diagnostic assays and the recognition of the potential impacts for vaccination. For all species, a research priority remains the identification of tests that can detect latent and subclinical infections to enhance removal of future sources of infectious material from flocks/herds and the food chain, plus predict the likely outcomes of animals exposed to the organism at an early age. Improving national paratuberculosis control programs should also be a priority to manage disease risk from trade. The importance of strong leadership and communication, building trust within rural communities confused by the difficulties in managing this insidious disease, reflects the importance of change management

  8. Gambaran Darah Kambing Gembrong, Kambing Peranakan Etawah, dan Kambing Kacang di Bali (BLOOD ILLUSTRATION OF GEMBRONG GOAT, ETAWAH CROSSBRED GOAT AND KACANG GOAT IN BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Sayang Yupardhi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There were three kinds of goat developed in Bali since a long time ago i.e. Gembrong goat, EtawahCrossbred goat, and Kacang goat. Gembrong goat is nearly disappearingrecently due to decrease of itspopulation from year to year. The Gembrong goat has very interesting performance, funny, and this speciesis Balinese native goats. The objective of thisexperiment was to know the blood illustration among thethree speciesof the Balinese native goatwhere in the future it can be used as a guide to develop each ofthem. The experiment was used nine adults goats namely three adult male Gembrong goats, three adultmale Etawah Crossbred goats, and three adult male Kacang Goats respectively. The animal fed dailygreen feed grows around them and additional rice bran. Blood samples of the animals were collected forabout10-15 mL each with venoject, and then was kept in a cooler box and subsequently sent to the ProdiaClinic Laboratory at Denpasar. The results of the experiment showed that blood illustration of the threekinds of goat was not significantly different (P > 0.05 except the triglyseride.

  9. Coronary artery anatomy of the goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovetsky, G; Fenoglio, J J; Gieger, M; Srinivasan, M R; Dobelle, W H

    1983-05-01

    The coronary arteries of the goat heart were studied using angiographic techniques and molds of the coronary vessel trees. Blood supplies to the left and right ventricles, interventricular septum, atrioventricular node, and apex of the caprine heart were studied. The goat possesses a left dominant pattern of coronary supply with relatively uniform coronary anatomy and may provide a good large animal model for testing cardiovascular assist devices.

  10. Oral supplementation of standardized extract of Withania somnifera protects against diabetes-induced testicular oxidative impairments in prepubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyathanahalli, Chandrashekara Nagaraj; Manjunath, Mallayya Jayawanth; Muralidhara

    2014-09-01

    Male reproductive dysfunctions and infertility are the common consequences of overt diabetes. Available evidence support oxidative stress to be the underlying mechanism for the manifestation of testicular complications during diabetes. In the present study, we assessed the attenuating effects of Withania somnifera root extract (WS) on diabetes-induced testicular oxidative disturbances in prepubertal rats. Four-week-old prepubertal rats were assigned into nondiabetic control, streptozotocin (STZ)-treated and STZ+WS supplemented (500 mg/kg b.w./d, oral, 15 days) groups. Experimental diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (90 mg/kg b.w). Terminally, all animals were killed, and markers of oxidative stress were determined in the testis cytosol and mitochondrial fraction. Severe hyperglycemia and regression in testis size were apparent in diabetic rats. A decline in antioxidant defenses with subsequent elevation in the generation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation was discernible in testis cytosol and mitochondria of diabetic prepubertal rats, which was significantly reversed by WS. However, there was partial restoration of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, and 3-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in testis of diabetic prepubertal rats administered with WS. Taken together, data accrued suggest the potential of WS to improve diabetes-induced testicular dysfunctions in prepubertal rats.

  11. Keeping goats or going north? Enhancing livelihoods of smallholder goat farmers through brucellosis control in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.

    2014-01-01

    Smallholder Mexican farmers are embedded in an adverse context, due to neoliberal globalization policies, which threatens their livelihoods, and has caused an unprecedented surge of migration to the US. Keeping goats is one strategy to diversify livelihoods. Goat husbandry is dairy oriented and has

  12. Keeping goats or going north? Enhancing livelihoods of smallholder goat farmers through brucellosis control in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oseguera Montiel, D.

    2014-01-01

    Smallholder Mexican farmers are embedded in an adverse context, due to neoliberal globalization policies, which threatens their livelihoods, and has caused an unprecedented surge of migration to the US. Keeping goats is one strategy to diversify livelihoods. Goat husbandry is dairy oriented and has

  13. Body linear traits for identifying prolific goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avijit Haldar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted on prolific goat breed to identify body linear type traits that might be associated with prolificacy trait in goats. Materials and Methods: Two-stage stratified random sample survey based data were collected from 1427 non-pregnant goats with the history of single, twin and triplet litter sizes (LZ between January 2008 to February 2011 for 3 years in 68 villages located in East and North East India. Data on sixteen body linear traits were analyzed using logistic regression model to do the step-wise selection for identifying the body linear traits that could determine LZ. An average value for each identified body linear trait was determined for classifying the goats into three categories: Goats having the history of single LZ, goats having the history of twin LZ and goats having the history of triplet LZ. Results: The LZ proportions for single, twin and triplet, were 29.50, 59.14 and 11.36%, respectively, with the prolificacy rate of 181.85% in Indian Black Bengal goats. A total of eight body linear traits that could determine LZ in prolific goats were identified. Heart girth (HG measurement (>60.90 cm, paunch girth (PG (>70.22 cm, wither height (WH (>49.75 cm, neck length (>21.45 cm, ear length (>12.80 cm and distance between trochanter major (DTM bones (>12.28 cm, pelvic triangle area (PTA (>572.25 cm2 and clearance at udder (CU (>23.16 cm showed an increase likelihood of multiple LZ when compared to single LZ. Further, HG measurement (>62.29 cm, WH (>50.54 cm, PG (>71.85 cm and ear length (>13.00 cm, neck length (>22.01 cm, PTA (>589.64 cm2, CU (>23.20 cm and DTM bones (>12.47 cm were associated with increased likelihood of triplet LZ, when compared with that of twin LZ. Conclusion: HG measurement was the best discriminating factor, while PG, neck length, DTM bones, CU, PTA, WH and ear length measurements were other important factors that could be used for identifying prolific goats to achieve economic

  14. A Case of Distal Vaginal Agenesis Presenting with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection and Pyuria in a Prepubertal Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dural, Ozlem; Ugurlucan, Funda Gungor; Yasa, Cenk; Bastu, Ercan; Eren, Hulya; Yuksel, Bahar; Celik, Serdal; Akhan, Suleyman Engin

    2017-02-01

    Isolated distal vaginal agenesis is a rare anomaly and mostly becomes symptomatic after menarche. We describe an unusual presentation of this anomaly in a prepubertal girl. An 11-year-old prepubertal girl presented with recurrent urinary tract infection, pyuria, and right-sided renal agenesis. The findings of perineal inspection, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging were consistent with a distal vaginal agenesis with pyometrocolpos. Discharging pyometrocolpos with dissection of the atretic portion and a pull-through vaginoplasty were performed. A cystoscopy showed no sign of a vesicovaginal or uterine fistula. This rare presentation of distal vaginal agenesis reminds us that congenital malformations of the female genital tract should be considered in patients with congenital anomalies of the urinary system and/or recurrent urinary tract infection, even during the prepubertal period. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Association of thyroid gland volume, serum insulin-like growth factor-I, and anthropometric variables in euthyroid prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, M.; Hegedus, L.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.;

    2009-01-01

    . DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 859 prepubertal euthyroid Danish children aged 4-9 yr underwent a thorough clinical investigation, including anthropometrical measurements and determination of TSH, thyroid hormones, autoantibodies, urinary iodine excretion, and thyroid volume (TV) by ultrasound...... significantly associated with TV. Family history of thyroid disease and presence of incidental abnormal ultrasound findings were also positively associated with TV (P = 0.025 and 0.022, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort of prepubertal Danish children, the GH/IGF-I-axis was positively correlated......CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Few studies have focused on the interrelation between thyroid size, anthropometric variables, and IGF-I in adults, but such data are lacking for children. We have investigated thyroid gland volume and several hormonal and anthropometric variables in prepubertal children...

  16. Prevalence of Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia in Goats in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted between November and December 2012 in ... Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae using competitive ELISA. ... goats and also higher in male (66.7%) than female (63.7%) goats (P<0.05).

  17. Milk production potential of South African Boer and Nguni goats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    and the relatively high maintenance costs of cattle, make goat farming an alternative proposition for meat and milk production. Goats are hardy, less labor intensive and have less maintenance nutritional requirements .... Beijing, China. pp132.

  18. Factors affecting goat production in a communal farming system in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting goat production in a communal farming system in the Eastern ... and for cash sales (23%), and only 15% kept goats for home meat consumption. ... is likely to increase to the detriment of other ruminant species in the future.

  19. Cestrum laevigatum poisoning in goats in southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, P V; Brust, L C; Duarte, M D; Franca, T N; Duarte, V C; Barros, C S

    2000-02-01

    Natural and experimental poisonings by Cestrum laevigatum are described in goats. Histologically, livers had marked centrolobular and midzonal coagulative necrosis and hemorrhage. Spontaneous toxicosis by this plant in goats has not been previously reported.

  20. Status and implementation of reproductive technologies in goats in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mené

    2015-02-19

    Feb 19, 2015 ... massively, since goat herds are geographically dispersed and they are a species ..... seed stock producers still rely on the importation of semen from .... the follicular stage of the goat and the heterogeneous response of ...

  1. Evaluation of cashmere production of the meat producing Boer goat

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, JA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available the cashmere production of the experimental Boer goat flock at the Adelaide Experimental Station. The results shown that initiating a cashmere industry with pure Boer goats does not seem to be viable option...

  2. Progressive perineal urethroplasty for pelvic fracture urethral distraction defect in prepubertal children: The outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipin Chandra Pal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urethroplasty in pediatric patients is a challenging task. In this study, we have tried to assess the complexity and evaluate the outcome of progressive perineal anastomotic urethroplasty in prepubertal children. Materials and Methods: Retrospective data of all the prepubertal children who underwent progressive perineal urethroplasty between March 2009 and April 2014 were analyzed. Patients were evaluated with history, examination, essential laboratory investigations, retrograde urethrogram, and voiding cystourethrogram. Before subjecting the patients for definitive surgery, antegrade and retrograde endoscopic assessment was done. The surgery was performed by the transperineal route with the help of ×2.5 magnification. Patients were followed up with uroflowmetry for every 3 months in the 1 st year and for every 6 months in the subsequent years. Results: Mean age of the patients was 7.3 (range 5-11 years. Mean urethral distraction defect was 1.7 (range 1-2.5 cm. All the patients were successfully managed by the perineal approach. Crural separation was performed in all the patients while additional inferior pubectomy was required in six patients. Mean operating time was 298 (range 180-400 min. Mean blood loss was 174 (range 100-500 ml. One patient had the left calf hematoma in the immediate postoperative period. Seven out of nine (77.7% patients had successful urethroplasty. Two patients had failed urethroplasty who were successfully managed by redo-urethroplasty. Transient incontinence was observed in one patient. Erectile function could not be assessed in these patients. Conclusion: This study shows the feasibility of progressive perineal urethroplasty by the perineal route in prepubertal children. An endoscopic assessment should be performed before the definitive surgery. Use of loupe helps in performing better anastomosis and hence yielding a better result.

  3. Educational Possibilities of Keeping Goats in Elementary Schools in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koda, Naoko; Kutsumi, Shiho; Hirose, Toshiya; Watanabe, Gen

    2016-01-01

    Many Japanese elementary schools keep small animals for educational purposes, and the effects and challenges have been investigated. Although goats are medium-sized animals that are familiar to Japanese, few practical studies have been conducted on keeping goats in schools. This study investigated the effects and challenges of keeping goats in elementary schools and discussed its educational possibilities. A semi-structured interview survey was conducted with 11 personnel that were responsible for keeping goats in 6 elementary schools in urban areas. They described benefits, problems, and tips related to keeping goats. Participant observation was also conducted on daily human-goat interactions in these schools. The results indicated that children in all six grades were able to care for goats. Goats were used for various school subjects and activities. As a result of keeping goats, children developed affection for them, attitude of respect for living things, greater sense of responsibility, and enhanced interpersonal interactional skills. Stronger ties between the schools and parents and community were developed through cooperation in goat-keeping. Some anxieties existed about the risk of injury to children when interacting with goats. Other challenges included the burden of taking care of the goats on holidays and insufficient knowledge about treatment in case of their illness or injury. The results suggested similarities to the benefits and challenges associated with keeping small animals in elementary schools, although the responsibility and the burden on the schools were greater for keeping goats than small animals because of their larger size and the need for children to consider the goats' inner state and to cooperate with others when providing care. At the same time, goats greatly stimulated interest, cooperation, and empathy in children. Goats can expand educational opportunities and bring about many positive effects on child development.

  4. Bacterial vaginosis in the context of lichen sclerosus in a prepubertal girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feito-Rodríguez, Marta; Noguera-Morel, Lucero; Casas-Rivero, José; García-Rodríguez, Julio; de Lucas-Laguna, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus cause most vulvovaginal infections seen in prepubertal girls. Bacterial vaginosis is a common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge in women of childbearing age but is rare in children. Data are insufficient to suggest that bacterial vaginosis is an exclusively sexually transmitted disease. We report a 10-year-old girl with no history or suspicion of sexual abuse who developed bacterial vaginosis in the context of a lichen sclerosus being treated with tacrolimus ointment. Secondary bacterial infection in lichen sclerosus is uncommon. We speculate that the immunosuppressive effect of topical tacrolimus could have triggered the infection.

  5. Genital Involvement In Pre-Pubertal Pediatric Population: A Rare Aspect of Crohn’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurratul Ann Warsi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation that causes the loss of immune tolerance leading to bizarre inflammatory signals and disruption of mucosal barriers. Environmental triggers and interaction of genetic determinants also play an indispensible role. In this case report, we present a pre-pubertal girl with intermittent and refractory genital swelling. We emphasize that Crohn’s disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of recurrent, non-tender, erythematous and edematous lesions of the genital area. We conclude with future directions for diagnosing and managing vulvar Crohn’s disease in pediatric population.

  6. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in healthy prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent girls and adult women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, A; Juul, A A; Andersson, A M

    2000-01-01

    of inhibin A, inhibin B, FSH, LH and estradiol in a cross-sectional study of 403 healthy schoolgirls (aged 6 -20 yr) in relation to age and stage of puberty and in 181 healthy nonpregnant women (aged 20-32 yr) in relation to stage of the menstrual cycle. In addition, inhibin A and inhibin B were measured...... daily throughout the menstrual cycle in 10 healthy adult women. Levels of inhibin B are low or undetectable in prepubertal girls (median, 26.5 pg/mL; 95% prediction interval,...

  7. [Disruption of latent inhibition in adult rats after prepubertal dopamine terminals lesions in the ventral hippocampus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loskutova, L V; Kostiunina, N V; Red'kina, A V

    2010-05-01

    Wistar rats were submitted to bilateral ventral hippocampal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine on 32nd day after birth. Latent inhibition was measured in passive or active avoidance tasks when the rats received 20 and 100 pre-exposures of conditioned stimulus. Prepubertal and adult lesioned rats showed a deficit in the latent inhibition but not in the capacity to avoidance learning in presence of the conditioned stimulus novelty. Possible mechanism of the involvement of hippocampal dopaminergic terminals in attention inhibition to irrelevant information is considered.

  8. Traditional goat husbandry may substantially contribute to human toxoplasmosis exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raising goats in settings that are highly contaminated with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii may contribute significantly to human exposure to this zoonotic parasite. Increasing consumption of young goats in Romania, where goats are typically reared in backyards that are also home to cats (the definitiv...

  9. 9 CFR 309.14 - Brucellosis-reactor goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brucellosis-reactor goats. 309.14... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION ANTE-MORTEM INSPECTION § 309.14 Brucellosis-reactor goats. Goats which have reacted to a test for brucellosis shall not be slaughtered in an official establishment....

  10. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Signe A.; Sørensen, Camilla; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met......, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark....

  11. Sarcocystis spp. in sheep and goats: frequency of infection and species identification by morphological, ultrastructural, and molecular tests in Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittencourt, Marta Vasconcelos; Meneses, Iris Daniela S; Ribeiro-Andrade, Müller; de Jesus, Rogério Fernando; de Araújo, Flábio Ribeiro; Gondim, Luís F Pita

    2016-04-01

    Sarcocystis spp. are cyst-forming coccidia that infect numerous animals species, including several livestock species. Despite the importance of sheep and goat production in Brazil, little it is known about the Sarcocystis species that infect small ruminants in the country and their potential impact on meat condemnation due to the presence of macroscopic cysts of the parasite. The aims of the present study were to determine the frequency of infection by Sarcocystis spp. in goats and sheep intended for human consumption in Bahia State, Brazil, as well as to identify the parasite species in selected samples. The entire tongue, esophagus, and heart were collected from 120 goats and 120 sheep. Tissues were examined for Sarcocystis spp. by macroscopic evaluation, light microscopy, electron microscopy, and molecular tests. Microscopic cysts of Sarcocystis spp. were detected in 95.8 % of sheep and 91.6 % of goats. Using either transmission electron microscopy or partial sequencing of the 18S region of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) for species identification, Sarcocystis tenella and Sarcocystis arieticanis were observed in sheep and Sarcocystis capracanis in goats. Macroscopic cysts were not detected in the analyzed samples. We concluded that goats and sheep destined for human consumption in Bahia possess high frequencies of Sarcocystis infection. Carcass condemnation due to Sarcocystis macrocysts seems to be rare in the studied region. S. arieticanis and S. capracanis were confirmed for the first time by electron microscopy or by molecular tests in small ruminants from Brazil.

  12. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Q fever in goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the Netherlands, 2009-2010

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schimmer, B.; Luttikholt, S.; Hautvast, J.L.A.; Graat, E.A.M.; Vellema, P.; Duynhoven, van Y.T.H.P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sam

  13. Experimental transmission of Pasteurella multocida 6:B in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafarin, M S; Zamri-Saad, M; Jamil, S M; Siti Khairani, B; Saharee, A A

    2007-04-01

    Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) is an acute disease of cattle and buffaloes caused by Pasteurella multocida 6:B. Outbreaks of the disease have been closely associated with carrier animals that transmit the organism to susceptible animals during stressful condition. This study was conducted to determine whether goats exposed intranasally to P. multocida 6:B can transmit the organism to contact goats. Thirty-six healthy local Katjang goats were divided into four groups and goats of groups 1 and 3 were each inoculated intranasally with a 1-ml inoculum that contained 1 x 10(9) CFU/ml of live P. multocida 6:B. Following the exposure, all goats of groups 3 and 4 were injected with dexamethasone at the rate of 1 mg/kg for three consecutive days. At the end of the dexamethasone treatment, goats of groups 1 and 2 were commingled but kept separate from goats of groups 3 and 4, which were commingled in another pen. Three surviving goats from each group were killed on days 7, 14 and 21 post-exposure for postmortem examination. Naso-pharyngeal mucus and heart blood were collected on swabs. Tissues from lungs, lymph nodes and tonsils were collected for bacteriological isolation and identification. Only one goat of group 3 died 6 days post-exposure showing clinical signs and lesions typical of HS. Other goats showed mild signs of upper respiratory tract infection. Goats of all groups developed acute mild pneumonic lesions, however, those treated with dexamethasone had significantly (P multocida 6:B was isolated from the nasal mucosa and lung lesions of exposed and contact goats not treated with dexamethasone. Exposed and contact goats treated with dexamethasone carried the organism for 21 days. P. multocida isolation from heart blood was made only from exposed and contact goats treated with dexamethasone. P. multocida was isolated from the lymph node of the goat that died during the experiment.

  14. Metabolic and reproductive parameters in prepubertal gilts after omega-3 supplementation in the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, F; Cheuiche, Z M G; Rizzoto, G; Santos, M Q; Schuch, M S; Flach, M J; Gasperin, B G; Bianchi, I; Lucia, T

    2016-07-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids may benefit reproductive performance of female swine. This study evaluated metabolic and reproductive parameters of prepubertal finishing gilts fed with fish oil as a natural source of omega-3 fatty acids (6.88g/d) (n=12) over a period of 45 d. Gilts in the control group were fed soybean oil (n=13). Body weight and backfat were determined at 15-d intervals. Serum levels of leptin, IGF-1, insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides were measured at the beginning (D0) and at the end of the period (D45). Immunolabeling intensity for leptin and its receptor (ObRb) was assessed in oocytes of preantral follicles. Gilts fed omega-3 presented slightly heavier uteri (P=0.09) than control gilts, but there was no effect on body weight and backfat (P>0.05). Cholesterol serum levels tended to be lower at D45 for omega-3 supplemented gilts than for controls (P=0.06). Triglycerides and IGF-1 serum levels were lower at D45 than at D0 for control gilts (P0.05), but were greater at D45 than at D0 in both treatments (POmega-3 supplementation was associated with reduced serum cholesterol level and more intense staining for leptin in oocytes of prepubertal gilts, which suggests some involvement on triggering puberty.

  15. Profile of oxidant and antioxidant activity in prepubertal children related to age, gender, exercise, and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente-Cantarero, Francisco Jesus; Gil-Campos, Mercedes; Benitez-Sillero, Juan de Dios; Muñoz-Villanueva, Maria Carmen; Tasset, Inmaculada; Pérez-Navero, Juan Luis

    2013-04-01

    Tissue damage resulting from oxidative stress induced by a pathological condition might have more serious consequences in children than in adults. Researchers have not yet identified particular markers - alone or in combination with others - of oxidative stress, or their role in pediatric diseases. The aim of this study was to identify gender-based biomarkers for measuring oxidative stress. Oxidative biomarkers were studied in 138 healthy Spanish children (85 boys, 53 girls) 7 to 12 years of age, at the prepubertal (Tanner I) stage, independent of body mass index (BMI), age, fitness (measured by 20-m shuttle run test), and physical activity (measured by participation in an after-school exercise program). The oxidative biomarkers measured were lipid peroxidation products, total nitrites, protein carbonyls, and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The antioxidant biomarkers measured were total glutathione (TG), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase activity. In the study population, height, weight, waist circumference, and BMI were lower in girls than in boys. For oxidative biomarkers, boys had higher levels of protein carbonyl than girls (p fitness, and physical activity. In conclusion, prepubertal girls had higher oxidative stress than boys, in addition to higher levels of SOD, independent of age, BMI, fitness, and physical activity.

  16. Ganglionic adrenergic action modulates ovarian steroids and nitric oxide in prepubertal rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Silvia Marcela; Casais, Marilina; Sosa, Zulema; Rastrilla, Ana María

    2006-08-01

    Both peripheral innervation and nitric oxide (NO) participate in ovarian steroidogenesis. The purpose of this work was to analyse the ganglionic adrenergic influence on the ovarian release of steroids and NO and the possible steroids/NO relationship. The experiments were carried out in the ex vivo coeliac ganglion-superior ovarian nerve (SON)-ovary system of prepubertal rats. The coeliac ganglion-SON-ovary system was incubated in Krebs Ringer-bicarbonate buffer in presence of adrenergic agents in the ganglionic compartment. The accumulation of progesterone, androstenedione, oestradiol and NO in the ovarian incubation liquid was measured. Norepinephrine in coeliac ganglion inhibited the liberation of progesterone and increased androstenedione, oestradiol and NO in ovary. The addition of alpha and beta adrenergic antagonists also showed different responses in the liberation of the substances mentioned before, which, from a physiological point of view, reveals the presence of adrenergic receptors in coeliac ganglion. In relation to propranolol, it does not revert the effect of noradrenaline on the liberation of progesterone, which leads us to think that it might also have a "per se" effect on the ganglion, responsible for the ovarian response observed for progesterone. Finally, we can conclude that the ganglionic adrenergic action via SON participates on the regulation of the prepubertal ovary in one of two ways: either increasing the NO, a gaseous neurotransmitter with cytostatic characteristics, to favour the immature follicles to remain dormant or increasing the liberation of androstenedione and oestradiol, the steroids necessary for the beginning of the near first estral cycle.

  17. Genome-Wide Expression in Visceral Adipose Tissue from Obese Prepubertal Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción M. Aguilera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of the genes expressed in adipose tissue (AT is key to understanding the pathogenesis of obesity and to developing treatments for this condition. Our objective was to compare the gene expression in visceral AT (VAT between obese and normal-weight prepubertal children. A total of fifteen obese and sixteen normal-weight children undergoing abdominal elective surgery were selected. RNA was extracted from VAT biopsies. Microarray experiments were independently performed for each sample (six obese and five normal-weight samples. Validation by quantitative PCR (qPCR was performed on an additional 10 obese and 10 normal-weight VAT samples. Of 1276 differentially expressed genes (p < 0.05, 245 were more than two-fold higher in obese children than in normal-weight children. As validated by qPCR, expression was upregulated in genes involved in lipid and amino acid metabolism (CES1, NPRR3 and BHMT2, oxidative stress and extracellular matrix regulation (TNMD and NQO1, adipogenesis (CRYAB and AFF1 and inflammation (ANXA1; by contrast, only CALCRL gene expression was confirmed to be downregulated. In conclusion, this study in prepubertal children demonstrates the up- and down-regulation of genes that encode molecules that were previously proposed to influence the pathogenesis of adulthood obesity, as well as previously unreported dysregulated genes that may be candidate genes in the aetiology of obesity.

  18. Transportation decreases the pulse frequency of growth hormone in the blood of prepubertal male calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadokawa, Hiroya; Noguchi, Koutarou; Hajiri, Yuuki; Takeshita, Kazuhisa; Fujii, Youichi

    2013-01-01

    Both the mean concentration and the pulse pattern of growth hormone (GH) in the blood are important for the metabolism and body growth of calves. Transportation is reported to decrease blood GH concentrations in prepubertal male calves. However, the effect of transportation on GH pulsatility remains unknown. Because transportation is important in moving these calves from calf-production farms to markets or fattening farms, we tested whether transportation decreases their GH pulse frequency. Five calves were subjected to transportation by trucking (transport group), while five were left in their shed (non-transport group). Both groups were subsequently subjected to frequent blood sampling at 15-min intervals for 5 h. In the transport group, the cortisol concentrations increased in the first hour (P transport group. During the 5-hour study period, the transport group displayed a similar mean GH concentration relative to the non-transport group, but displayed a delayed first GH pulse, and a lower number of GH pulses than the non-transport group (P transportation is suggested to decrease GH pulse frequency under abnormal cortisol states, presumably suppressing metabolism and body growth in prepubertal male calves.

  19. Changes in body composition and growth pattern after adenotonsillectomy in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koycu, Alper; Aydin, Erdinc; Tulgar Kinik, Sibel

    2016-02-01

    Adenotonsillar hypertrophy and chronic tonsillitis are associated with growth interruption during childhood, while adenotonsillectomy has been associated with growth improvement and increased body mass index (BMI). However, no reported study has investigated the effect of adenotonsillectomy on the proportion of body muscle and fat mass. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effect of adenoidectomy and adenotonsillectomy on body muscle and fat composition in prepubertal children. Thirty prepubertal children (22 boys, 8 girls; 3-9 years of age) were followed up for 6 months after adenoidectomy or adenotonsillectomy. Twenty-eight age-matched healthy children (12 boys, 16 girls) were followed for the same period, as controls. Data on dietary habits and physical activity were obtained from parent-completed questionnaires at baseline and 6 months. Height and weight z-scores, the amount and percentage of body fat and muscle mass, BMI z-scores, relative BMI and basal metabolic rate were evaluated before and 6 months after surgery with bioelectrical impedance analysis. After 6 months, body muscle mass and basal metabolic rate scores were significantly higher than at baseline in both groups (P0.05). The number of overweight and obese children did not change significantly in either group (Pchildren. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Vegetable and Fruit Intakes Are Associated with hs-CRP Levels in Pre-Pubertal Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Pilar; de Dios, Olaya; Jois, Asha; Gavela-Pérez, Teresa; Gorgojo, Lydia; Martín-Moreno, José M; Soriano-Guillen, Leandro; Garcés, Carmen

    2017-03-02

    The influence of diet on inflammation in children remains unclear. We aimed to analyze the influence of diet on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in a pre-pubertal population free of other influences that may affect hs-CRP levels. We determined hs-CRP levels in 571 six- to eight-year-old children using an hs-CRP ELISA kit. Information on food and nutrient intake was obtained through a food-frequency questionnaire. Overall dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI). We found that girls in the highest tertile of hs-CRP levels had a higher intake of saturated fatty acid, and lower intakes of fiber and vitamin E and a lower HEI score when compared to those in tertiles 1 and 2. We also observed a significant decrease in fruit and vegetable intakes by hs-CRP tertile. Factor analysis showed that a dietary pattern that was loaded most strongly with vegetable, fruit, fiber and vitamin A and E intakes correlated negatively (-0.132, p hs-CRP. No such association was found in boys. In conclusion, our data show that girls with a poorer quality diet show higher hs-CRP levels already at a pre-pubertal age.

  1. Tonic control of kisspeptin release in prepubertal monkeys: implications to the mechanism of puberty onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Joseph R; Keen, Kim L; Guerriero, Kathryn A; Terasawa, Ei

    2012-07-01

    Previously we have shown that a reduction in γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) inhibition is critical for the mechanism initiating puberty onset because chronic infusion of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist, bicuculline, significantly increased GnRH release and accelerated the timing of menarche and first ovulation in female rhesus monkeys. Because previous studies in our laboratory indicate that in prepubertal female monkeys, kisspeptin release in the medial basal hypothalamus is low, whereas kisspeptin-10 can stimulate GnRH release, we hypothesized that a low level of kisspeptin release prior to puberty onset is due to tonic GABA inhibition. To test this hypothesis we examined the effects of bicuculline infusion on kisspeptin release using a microdialysis method. We found that bicuculline at 1 μM dramatically stimulates kisspeptin release in the medial basal hypothalamus of prepubertal monkeys but had little effect on kisspeptin release in midpubertal monkeys. We further examined whether bicuculline-induced GnRH release is blocked by the presence of the kisspeptin antagonist, peptide 234. We found that inhibition of kisspeptin signaling blocked the bicuculline-induced stimulation of GnRH release, suggesting that kisspeptin neurons may relay inhibitory GABA signals to GnRH neurons. This implies that a reduction in tonic GABA inhibition of GnRH release is, at least in part, mediated through kisspeptin neurons.

  2. Detection, identification, and differentiation of sheep pox virus and goat pox virus from clinical cases in Giza Governorate, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, M. A.; Khafagi, M. H.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To isolate, identify, and differentiate Capripoxviruses (CaPV) (sheep pox virus and goat pox virus) infections by egg inoculation, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and 30 kDa RNA polymerase subunit gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (RPO30) in clinically affected animals in Hawamdia township of Giza Governorate, Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total of 37 scab samples were collected from clinically suspected field cases of sheep pox and goat pox. These samples were collected during (2014-2015) during different outbreaks of sheep pox and goat pox from Hawamdia township of Giza Governorate, Egypt. The samples were subjected to egg inoculation, TEM, and (RPO30) gene-based PCR. By using the egg inoculation: Previously prepared 37 scab samples (n=23 sheep and n=14 goats) were inoculated on the chorioallantoic membrane of specific pathogen free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs (12 days old age). In the presence of the suitable percentage of humidity and candling, the inoculated eggs were incubated at 37°C. By using the TEM: Samples showed positive pock lesions on the chorioallantoic membranes, were fixed in glutaraldehyde, then processed and sectioned for TEM. Using the (RPO30) gene-based PCR assay, 30 of positive samples after egg inoculation (n=19 sheep and n=11 goats) were screened. Results: Using the egg inoculation, a characteristic pock lesions for poxviruses were seen in 30/37 (n=19 sheep and n=11 goats) (81.08%). Using the TEM, examination of the positive samples after egg inoculation revealed positive result in 23/30 (n=15 sheep and n=8 goats) (76.66%). The positive results represented by the presence of negatively stained oval-shape virus particles. Using the (RPO30) gene-based PCR assay, out of 30 total of positive samples after egg inoculation (n=19 sheep and n=11 goats) were screened, 27 (90%) samples (n=17 sheep and n=10 goats) were positive. The given band sizes of sheep and goats were 172 and 152 bp, respectively. Conclusion: PCR assay

  3. Renal (uremic) encephalopathy in a goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radi, Z A; Thomsen, B V; Summers, B A

    2005-10-01

    Renal encephalopathy was diagnosed in a 2-year-old male boar goat with a history of chronic weight loss and ataxia. Histopathological examination of the brain revealed a striking myelin vacuolation distributed mainly in two patterns: (i) along the junction of the neocortex and corona radiata, and (ii) in the bundles of the internal capsule as it dissects through the basal nuclei. The kidneys had diffuse severe tubular and glomerular necrosis and degeneration. The neural lesions are consistent with renal (uremic) encephalopathy. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of renal encephalopathy in a goat.

  4. Disposition of fenbendazole in the goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, C R; Barker, S A; Hsieh, L C; Ou, S P; Davis, L E; Koritz, G; Neff-Davis, C A; Bevill, R F; Munsiff, I J; Sharma, G C

    1987-05-01

    The disposition of fenbendazole was studied in goats after oral or IV administration. Plasma concentration vs time profiles were determined for fenbendazole and all of its metabolites. The total excretion of the drug and its metabolites in urine and feces was also measured for 6 days. A biliary cannula was inserted in 1 goat to study the excretion of fenbendazole and its metabolites into the bile. Fenbendazole was converted to its sulfoxide (oxfendazole), and the sulfone, primary amine, and p-hydroxylated metabolites. The active metabolite, oxfendazole, appeared in plasma, but only trace amounts were found in feces or urine. The major excretory metabolite was p-hydroxyfenbendazole.

  5. An economic analysis of communal goat production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.J. Sebei

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic impact of different extension messages used was calculated using enterprise budgeting (gross margin analysis. Input data were gleaned from the literature, from participatory appraisals, as well as a field study, spanning 12 months, of small-scalecommunal goat farming systems in Jericho in the Odi District of NorthWest Province. The number of offspring weaned per annum, as a proportion of does owned, was selected as the desired output for analysis. This study has shown that small-scale communal goat farmers are not adopting or implementing extension messages to improve production capacity. In south Africa the majority of goats are slaughtered in the informal sector. If the informal sector is to be persuaded to market goats commercially through formal channels, then knowledge of the economics of goat farming on communal lands should be provided. The economic aspects of extension messages are probably an important factor in determining acceptance and sustainability yet appear to be seldom investigated. The probable reason for lack of adoption of standard extension messages, which promote improved nutrition, parasite control, vaccination and treatment of goats, was economic. In other words, the so-called 'poor management practices' used by communal farmers appeared to be economically more profitable than the 'good management practices' suggested to increase production. The price of communal goats was not related to their mass. A higher level of inputs would probably have resulted in a heavier kid, however it was established that this would not have influenced the price received as a majority of the goats were slaughtered for ritual purposes where age, colour and sex were more important to the purchaser than body mass. It is standard practice in commercial farming systems to evaluate the economic benefits of all management practices before they are implemented. Production animal veterinarians use veterinary economics to compare different

  6. Matrix metalloproteinase and its inhibitor in temporomandibular joint osteoarthrosis after indirect trauma in young goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Liang; Li, Xin-Jun; Qin, Rui-Feng; Lei, De-Lin; Liu, Yan-Pu; Wu, Gao-Yi; Zhang, Yong-Jie; Yan-Jin; Wang, Da-Zhang; Hu, Kai-Jin

    2008-04-01

    Our aim was to examine the change in expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-13), matrix metalloproteinases-3 (MMP-3), and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in the articular cartilage of goats with experimentally-induced osteoarthrosis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) at various times. Osteoarthrosis was induced in 20 goats in the bilateral TMJ and 5 goats acted as controls. There were 5 goats in each group, and a group was killed at 7 days, and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. The samples were collected, and the joints evaluated histologically. Immunofluorescence was used to detect the presence of MMPs and TIMP-1 in the articular disc and condylar cartilage. The ultrastructure of the articular disc and condylar surface at 1 month was examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Osteoarthrosis of the TMJ progressed gradually over time. MMP-13, MMP-3, and TIMP-1 were expressed strongly in the TMJ soon after injury; MMP-13 became gradually weakened, and MMP-3 strengthened later. None of these were expressed in the normal condyle. After a month the surface of the arthrotic condyle was uneven, and the underlying collagen fibrils were exposed in irregular fissures on the surface. The secretion of TIMP-1 was related closely to the changes of MMPs during osteoarthrosis of the TMJ. The unbalanced ratio between them caused degradation of the matrix of the cartilage and might be the cause of osteoarthrosis of the TMJ.

  7. Communal goat production in Southern Africa: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumosa Gwaze, F; Chimonyo, M; Dzama, K

    2009-10-01

    Despite the fact that about 64% of goats in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are located in rural arid (38%) and semi-arid (26%) agro-ecological zones and that more than 90% of goats in these zones are indigenous, information on indigenous breeds is inadequate. This paper reviews the social and economic importance of goats to the communal farmer and assesses the potential of using goats in rural development in Southern Africa. Farmers in Southern Africa largely use the village goat management system. There are various goat breeds in Southern Africa, of which the Mashona, Matabele, Tswana, Nguni and the Landim are the dominant ones. It is, however, not clear if these breeds are distinct. Major constraints to goat production include high disease and parasite prevalence, low levels of management, limited forage availability and poor marketing management. Potential research areas that are required to ensure that goats are vehicles for rural development include evaluation of constraints to goat production, assessing the contribution of goats to household economies and food securities throughout the year, genetic and phenotypic characterisation of the indigenous breeds to identify appropriate strains and sustainable methods of goat improvement through either selection or crossbreeding.

  8. Effect of Crossbreed on the Muscle Quality (Chemical Composition) in Yun-Ling Black Goats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIA Jun-jing; TIAN Yun-bo; ZHANG Xi; HUANG Qi-chao; WEN Sheng-ping; GU Feng-ying; GE Chang-rong; CAO Zhen-hui; CHENG Zhi-bin; M. Jois

    2009-01-01

    Twenty castrated male goats, each of Yun-Ling Black goats (YLB goat), N×YLB hybrid goats (Nubian ♂×Yun-Ling Black goats ♀) and B×YLB hybrid goats (Boer ♂×Yun-Ling Black goats ♀), were used to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding on the meat chemical composition in the YLB goats of China. After weaning of 90 days, all the experimental goats were reared on natural pasture when they were slaughtered at an age of 730 days. The longissimus dorsi (LD) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles were sampled from each carcass to determine chemical compositions. Both hybrid goats had higher protein content (P0.05). The YLB goats had significantly higher (P0.05). In contrast, the proportion of poly-unsaturated in the YLB goats was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that in the hybrid goats.

  9. Controlled Study of Encopresis and Enuresis in Children with a Prepubertal and Early Adolescent Bipolar-I Disorder Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klages, Tricia; Geller, Barbara; Tillman, Rebecca; Bolhofner, Kristine; Zimerman, Betsy

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of encopresis/enuresis, relationship between maternal hostility and encopresis, parent-child concordance of reporting encopresis/enuresis, and familial aggregation of enuresis in subjects with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar-I disorder phenotype (PEA-BP), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder…

  10. Controlled Study of Encopresis and Enuresis in Children with a Prepubertal and Early Adolescent Bipolar-I Disorder Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klages, Tricia; Geller, Barbara; Tillman, Rebecca; Bolhofner, Kristine; Zimerman, Betsy

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of encopresis/enuresis, relationship between maternal hostility and encopresis, parent-child concordance of reporting encopresis/enuresis, and familial aggregation of enuresis in subjects with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar-I disorder phenotype (PEA-BP), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder…

  11. Association of thyroid gland volume, serum insulin-like growth factor-I, and anthropometric variables in euthyroid prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Few studies have focused on the interrelation between thyroid size, anthropometric variables, and IGF-I in adults, but such data are lacking for children. We have investigated thyroid gland volume and several hormonal and anthropometric variables in prepubertal children...

  12. The cardiac biomarkers troponin I and CK-MB in nonpregnant and pregnant goats, goats with normal birth, goats with prolonged birth, and goats with pregnancy toxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharwat, M; Al-Sobayil, F; Al-Sobayil, K

    2012-10-15

    This study was designed to establish the reference range for the cardiac biomarkers cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and creatine kinase myocardial band (CK-MB) in nonpregnant and pregnant goats, goats with normal birth, goats with prolonged birth associated with dystocia, and goats with pregnancy toxemia. Fifty-seven does, categorized into three groups (G1 to G3), were used. These groups were comprised of 20 healthy does (G1), 19 does with prolonged birth (G2), and 18 does with pregnancy toxemia (G3). Six blood samples (T0 to T5) were collected from G1. The first blood sample (T0) was taken before insemination, the second (T1) at the first trimester, the third (T2) at the second trimester, the fourth (T3) at the last trimester, the fifth (T4) within 12 h of parturition, and the sixth blood sample (T5) was taken 10 days after parturition. A sample of blood was obtained from G2 and G3 upon admission to the hospital. At T0 to T3, no cTnI was detected in any of the 20 does in G1. At parturition (T4), seven of the 20 goats (35%) exhibited slightly elevated cTnI concentrations (range, 0.01 to 0.04 ng/mL). Ten days after parturition (T5), cTnI was not detected in any of the 20 goats. In 10 of the 19 goats (53%) with prolonged birth (G2), the cTnI was significantly elevated to a mean value of 0.094 ± 0.155 ng/mL, with a maximum value of 0.61 ng/mL. In 16 of the 18 goats (89%) with pregnancy toxemia (G3), the cTnI was significantly elevated to a value of 0.852 ± 1.472 ng/mL, with a maximum value of 5.219 ng/mL. Comparing the values of CK-MB in G1 (T0 to T5), G2 and G3 revealed nonsignificant differences. Only a slight elevation in the CK-MB levels in goats with prolonged birth (G2) was noted. We concluded that in healthy does, the cardiac biomarker cTnI is not elevated during normal pregnancy. The serum cTnI concentration may be elevated in a number of goats at normal vaginal or cesarean delivery. Finally, cTnI is significantly elevated in does with pregnancy toxemia and could

  13. Keeping goats or going north? Enhancing livelihoods of smallholder goat farmers through brucellosis control in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Oseguera Montiel, D.

    2014-01-01

    Smallholder Mexican farmers are embedded in an adverse context, due to neoliberal globalization policies, which threatens their livelihoods, and has caused an unprecedented surge of migration to the US. Keeping goats is one strategy to diversify livelihoods. Goat husbandry is dairy oriented and has a range of functions for farmers, like income, food, insurance, credit, and a reason for not having to migrate to the US. However, caprine brucellosis, a zoonosis endemic in Mexico caused by Brucel...

  14. Genetic Relationship Between Gembrong Goat, Kacang Goat and Kacang X Etawah Crossbred (PE Based on Their Mitochondrial DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Lanang Oka

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Gembrong goat is a specific type of goat which has long hair covers its whole body including its neckand face, originated from eastern part of Bali (Karangasem. A study of this type of goat and its relationshipwith other local goats (Kacang and Kacang x Etawah crossbred was carried out at Sawe village, Jembrana,Bali.. A number of 12 gembrong goats, 3 kacang goats from Kubu village, Karangasem and 3 Kacang xEtawah crossbred goats from Denpasar were used in this study. Blood samples of all goats were collectedfor mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA analysis. PCR amplification of D-loop mitochondrial DNA was carriedout by using two primers i.e. CAP-F (5’-CGTGTATGCAAGTACATTAC -3’ and CAP-R (5’-CTGATTAGTCATTAGTCCATC – 3’ . Sequencing of 550 bp (base-pairs of mitochondrial DNA (productof PCR only found one polymorphic site at base number 231 with two haplotypes in gembrong goat only,while the other base-pairs were similar between the three goat types (Gembrong, Kacang and Kacang xEtawah crossbred .The frequency of haplotype 1 was 83.3% and the frequency of haplotype 2 was 16.7%.It was concluded that based on their mitochondrial DNA sequences and “phylogenic analysis”, the threetypes of goat (Gembrong,Kacang and Kacang xEtawah crossbred had a very close genetic relationship(kinship.

  15. Fatal melioidosis in goats in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonpitak, Walaiporn; Sornklien, Chulabha; Chawanit, Mongkol; Pavasutthipaisit, Suvarin; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Hantrakun, Viriya; Amornchai, Premjit; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Day, Nicholas P J; Yingst, Samuel; Peacock, Sharon J; Limmathurotsakul, Direk

    2014-08-01

    Bangkok, Thailand, is a city considered to be at low risk for melioidosis. We describe 10 goats that died of melioidosis in Bangkok. Half of them were born and reared in the city. Multilocus sequence typing ruled out an outbreak. This finding challenges the assumption that melioidosis is rarely acquired in central Thailand.

  16. Infiltrative Cutaneous Hemangiolipoma in a Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R. Collier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An approximately 4-year-old castrated male, Saanen cross goat presented to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation and removal of a 22 cm × 22 cm, dark red, thickened, and crusted cutaneous lesion along the left ventrolateral thorax. An initial incisional biopsy performed approximately 8 weeks earlier was suspicious for cutaneous hemangiosarcoma. Surgical excision was deemed to be the most appropriate treatment option for this goat. A complete physical exam, complete blood count, and chemistry profile were performed and results were within normal limits. Thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound were performed to rule out metastatic disease and comorbid conditions; no metastatic lesions or other abnormalities were observed. En bloc surgical excision of the affected skin was performed and the entire tissue was submitted for histopathology. A final diagnosis of cutaneous hemangiolipoma was reached upon extensive sectioning and histologic examination of the larger tissue specimen. The goat recovered well from surgery and has had no further complications up to 9 months postoperatively. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a hemangiolipoma in a goat and surgical excision for such lesions appears to be a viable treatment method.

  17. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Van den R.; Engelen, van E.; Roest, H.I.J.; Hoek, van der W.; Vellema, P.

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirt

  18. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Van den R.; Engelen, van E.; Roest, H.I.J.; Hoek, van der W.; Vellema, P.

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and

  19. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brom, Van den R.; Engelen, van E.; Roest, H.I.J.; Hoek, van der W.; Vellema, P.

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirt

  20. Gonadal function is associated with cardiometabolic health in pre-pubertal boys with Klinefelter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S; Lahlou, N; Bardsley, M; Temple, M-C; Kowal, K; Pyle, L; Zeitler, P; Ross, J

    2016-11-01

    The most common sex chromosome aneuploidy, Klinefelter syndrome (KS), is associated with primary gonadal failure and increased morbidity and mortality from cardiometabolic disorders in adulthood. Children with KS also have a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) features. To assess the relationship of gonadal and cardiometabolic function in children with KS, we evaluated serum hormones [gonadotropins, inhibin B (INHB), anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), total testosterone (TT)], and features of MetS (waist circumference, fasting lipid panel, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and blood pressure) in 93 pre-pubertal boys with KS age 4-12 years (mean 7.7 ± 2.5 years). The cohort was grouped by age and tanner stage, and biomarkers were compared to normal ranges. A total of 80% of this pre-pubertal cohort had ≥1 feature of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and 11% had ≥3 features of MetS. Risk of MetS was independent of age and body mass index. Sertoli cell dysfunction was common with 18% having an INHB below the normal range. A low INHB was associated with higher FBG, triglycerides, LDL, and lower HDL (p < 0.05). An INHB <50 ng/dL yielded a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 79% for having ≥3 features of MetS. INHB and AMH positively correlated with each other (p < 0.001), and high AMH was protective of MetS. TT was below the lower limit of normal in 49% of subjects, with mean values significantly lower than expected (3.3 ng/dL vs. 4.9 ng/dL, p < 0.0001), however, no convincing relationship between TT and MetS was seen. In conclusion, gonadal and cardiometabolic dysfunction are prevalent in pre-pubertal boys with KS. Although the relationship of testosterone deficiency and MetS is well-known, this study is the first to report an association between impaired Sertoli cell function and cardiometabolic risk.

  1. Impact of the FITKids physical activity intervention on adiposity in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naiman A; Raine, Lauren B; Drollette, Eric S; Scudder, Mark R; Pontifex, Matthew B; Castelli, Darla M; Donovan, Sharon M; Evans, Ellen M; Hillman, Charles H

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the effect of a 9-month physical activity intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity among prepubertal children. Prepubertal children (8- to 9-year-olds, N = 220, 103 girls) were randomly assigned to a 9-month physical activity intervention or a control group. The intervention provided 70 minutes (5 days/week) of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Maximum oxygen consumption (Vo2max percentile) and dual-energy radiograph absorptiometry measured cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity, respectively. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed to assess baseline and follow-up cardiorespiratory fitness, percentage fat mass (%FM), percentage central fat mass (%CFM), and estimated visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area. The intervention group increased in cardiorespiratory fitness (5.4th percentile; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8 to 8.9) and decreased in %FM (-0.7%; 95% CI, -1.1 to -0.4) and %CFM (-1.3%; 95% CI, -1.9 to -0.7). Reductions in %FM were evident for both nonoverweight (-0.62%; 95% CI, -1.07 to -0.17) and overweight or obese (-0.86%; 95% CI,-1.46 to -0.25) intervention participants. Conversely, the control group displayed no change in cardiorespiratory fitness while exhibiting increases in %FM (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.1 to 0.7), %CFM (0.6; 95% CI, 0.1 to 1.1), and VAT area (3.0 cm(2); 95% CI, 1.6 to 4.4). Nonoverweight control participants increased in %FM (0.52%; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.91), and their overweight and obese counterparts increased in VAT (4.76 cm(2); 95% CI, 1.90 to 7.63). The physical activity intervention improved cardiorespiratory fitness, reduced %FM, and prevented accumulation of %CFM among prepubertal children with varying adiposity levels. These findings provide support for daily physical activity recommendations to prevent excess fat mass accumulation in childhood.

  2. Reliability of treadmill measures and criteria to determine VO2max in prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Colon, R; Hunter, G R; Mayo, M S; Aldridge, R A; Goran, M I; Weinsier, R L

    2000-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the reliability of measuring treadmill exercise economy (VO2submax) and the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in prepubertal girls tested twice, 6 wk apart. We also wanted to examine the percentage of young girls who were able to reach the criteria for achieving VO2max and to describe methods that would allow a high proportion of young children to achieve criteria for reaching a true VO2max. We studied 61 normal-weight, prepubertal girls with a mean (+/- SD) age 7.3+/-1.3 yr (range 4.8 to 10.3 yr). VO2submax was determined while walking for 4 min at 2.5 mph with 0% grade. VO2max was measured during a progressive, all-out, continuous treadmill test using standardized procedures and criteria. Heart rate (HR) was measured using a Polar monitor. Respiratory rate (RR), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), ventilation (V), and VO2 were measured using a Sensormedics metabolic monitor. There were no significant differences between visits I and 2 in mean HR, RR, RER, V, VO2submax (421 vs 422 mL x min(-1), respectively), and VO2max (1036 vs 1049 mL x min(-1), respectively). Intra-individual coefficients of variation (CV) between visits 1 and 2 for submaximal tests were: HR = 5.1%, RR = 12.4%, RER = 7.2%, V = 12.5%, and VO2 = 12.4%. Intra-individual CVs for the maximum tests were: HRmax = 2.1%, RRmax = 10.8%, RERmax = 5.3%, Vmax = 11.7%, and VO2max = 7.5%. A high proportion of the girls reached criteria for VO2max [RER> 1.00, HR>85% of age predicted maximum, and plateauing of VO2max] in both visits: 99% reached one of three criteria, 92% reached two of three criteria, and 70% reached all three criteria. Twenty girls [mean age 7.2+/-1.2 yr] reached at least two criteria in both visits, whereas 32 girls [mean (+/- SD) age 8.6+/-1.0 yr] reached three criteria in both visits. Exercise measurements using treadmill testing were reliable in healthy, normal-weight, prepubertal girls. Older girls when compared to the younger girls were able

  3. 青春期前痤疮的研究进展%Prepubertal acne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琪; 张国毅; 尹跃平

    2015-01-01

    青春期前痤疮是儿童期痤疮的一种,多发生于7岁以后青春期体征出现以前,表现为以粉刺样损害为主的皮损.其发病主要与青春期发育初期肾上腺功能初现引起的雄激素分泌增高有关,痤疮丙酸杆菌感染及高雄激素血症在痤疮发病中也有重要作用.青春期前痤疮的严重程度影响青春期痤疮的发展,在诊疗时需仔细询问病史及家族史.并做相应的实验室检查以排除其他疾病影响引起高雄激素血症性痤疮.在治疗时根据患儿年龄、皮损数量选择合适的治疗方法,治疗方案尽量简单.%Prepubertal acne,a kind of childhood acne,usually occurs from 7 years of age to the emergence of puberty signs in children.Comedo-like lesions are the main presentation of prepubertal acne.Its pathogenesis is mainly associated with increased secretion of androgen caused by adrenarche in early puberty.Furthermore,Propionibacterium acne infection and hyperandrogenism also play important roles in the occurrence of acne.The severity of prepubertal acne can affect the development of acne,thus careful inquiry of medical history and family history is suggested for the diagnosis and treatment of acne.Also,relevant laboratory examinations are needed to exclude hyperandrogenism-associated acne caused by other diseases.Therapeutic strategies should be selected according to patients' age and the number of skin lesions,and be as simple as possible.

  4. Lactose intolerance: lack of evidence for short stature or vitamin D deficiency in prepubertal children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithya Setty-Shah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The health consequences of lactose intolerance (LI are unclear. AIMS: To investigate the effects of LI on stature and vitamin D status. HYPOTHESES: LI subjects will have similar heights and vitamin D status as controls. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Prepubertal children of ages 3-12 years with LI (n=38, age 8.61 ± 3.08y, male/female 19/19 were compared to healthy, age- and gender-matched controls (n=49, age 7.95±2.64, male/female 28/21. INCLUSION CRITERIA: prepubertal status (boys: testicular volume <3cc; girls: Tanner 1 breasts, diagnosis of LI by hydrogen breath test, and no history of calcium or vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] <50 nmol/L. Gender-adjusted midparental target height (MPTH z-score was calculated using NCHS data for 18 year-old adults. Data were expressed as mean ± SD. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in 25(OHD between the LI and non-LI subjects (60.1±21.1, vs. 65.4 ± 26.1 nmol/L, p = 0.29. Upon stratification into normal weight (BMI <85(th percentile vs. overweight/obese (BMI ≥85(th percentile, the normal weight controls had significantly higher 25(OHD level than both the normal weight LI children (78.3 ± 32.6 vs. 62.9 ± 23.2, p = 0.025, and the overweight/obese LI children (78.3±32.6 vs. 55.3±16.5, p = 0.004. Secondly, there was no overall difference in height z-score between the LI children and controls. The normal weight LI patients had similar height as normal controls (-0.46 ± 0.89 vs. -0.71 ± 1.67, p = 0.53, while the overweight/obese LI group was taller than the normal weight controls (0.36 ± 1.41 vs. -0.71 ± 1.67, p = 0.049, and of similar height as the overweight/obese controls (0.36 ± 1.41 vs. 0.87 ± 1.45, p = 0.28. MPTH z-score was similar between the groups. CONCLUSION: Short stature and vitamin D deficiency are not features of LI in prepubertal children.

  5. Betamethasone cream for the treatment of pre-pubertal labial adhesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jeremy B; Sorensen, Carsten M; Wisner, Benjamin P; Furness, Peter D; Passamaneck, Michelle; Koyle, Martin A

    2006-12-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of 0.05% betamethasone cream for the treatment of pre-pubertal labial adhesions. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 19 children with labial adhesions who were treated with betamethasone cream from 6/2001 to 3/2003. Children were treated with 1 to 3 courses of twice-daily 0.05% betamethasone cream for 4 to 6 weeks. Successful lysis of adhesions was assessed by clinical exam or parental phone contact and outcomes were defined as: (1) success--complete separation of labia, (2) partial success--greater than 75% separation, (3) progression to surgical lysis, and (4) lost to follow-up. Nineteen patients with an average age of 58 months (range 12 to 132 months) were treated. Four of the 19 patients had never been treated previously and 1 had been treated previously with surgical lysis of adhesions only. Fourteen of the 19 patients had been previously treated with conjugated estrogen (Premarin) cream. Two of these fourteen patients had also undergone surgical lysis of adhesions. Severity of adhesions ranged from 33% to 99% labial closure. Betamethasone cream was successful in treating 13/19 (68%) pre-pubertal labial adhesions. Eleven (85%) of these 13 patients had complete resolution of labial adhesions with 1 course of treatment, 1 (7.5%) had resolution with 2 courses of treatment and 1 (7.5%) had resolution with 3 courses of treatment. One patient had a partial success with 3 courses of betamethasone cream. Two (11%) patients underwent surgical lysis of adhesion after 1 and 2 courses of betamethasone cream respectively. Three (16%) patients were lost to follow-up. Average follow-up was 7 months (range 1-24 months). No adverse outcomes or untoward effects were noted in any of the patients treated. Betamethasone 0.05% cream appears to be a safe and effective treatment of pre-pubertal labial adhesions as primary therapy or in patients that have failed previous therapies and it may avoid the undesirable side effects of breast budding and

  6. Etiology and risk factors for mammary infection of dairy goat from São Paulo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviani Gomes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify etiologic agents and risk factors for mastitis in dairy goats. For this, two aliquots were collected from 257 milk samples, between April and September, 2012, from 136 Saanen goats from six intensive management farms, with manual and mechanical milking system located in the state of São Paulo. The first aliquot of milk samples was obtained in vials containing preservative bronopol for electronic somatic cell count (SCC, and the second in sterile bottles for bacteriological examination. For risk factors evaluation, epidemiologic questionnaires were performed by the research team by visual observation and survey with handler and owners. Analyzes univariate and multivariate were performed using multiple logistic regression. Was observed prevalence of 28.79% of mammary infection, and predominance of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CNS. The SCC median was 4,7x105 cells per mL (cells mL-1 of milk. In univariate analysis, was observed risk for mammary infection in places where, the goat was not the main activity of the property (p=0.03; when the diagnosis of clinical mastitis by proof of dark background was not performed (p=0.07; when chlorine was not used in the cleaning of the teats (p=0.29; improper cleaning of the milking parlor (p= 0.06; inadequate hygiene in the milking process (p=0.03 and inadequate hygiene of the milkers (p=03. The main group of pathogen isolated in this study was CNS. The biggest risk associated with mammary infection was the hygiene of ceilings, room, milker and also the process of milking resulting from these microorganisms. Thus, despite indications of hygienic measures in the programs of milk quality and mastitis control, the applicability and awareness of employees involved in the production chain of milk goats are not sensitized. Therefore, the personnel training is the principal measure recommended for the control of mastitis in dairy goats.

  7. Overview of herd and CAEV status in dwarf goats in South Tyrol, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gufler, H; Baumgartner, W

    2007-06-01

    The analysis of the electronic data processing proved that 323 dwarf goats older than 6 months from 165 farms were kept in 63 of the 116 communes of South Tyrol. The number of dwarf goats maintained ranged from 1 to 19 animals, the average farm size revealed to be of 2 dwarf goats/farm. 47 animals were aged between 6 months and 1 year (AG1), 97 were between 1 - 2 years of age (AG2) and 179 were aged older than 2 years (AG3). The mean age amounted to 3.8 years, the age limit being 10 years. 235 animals were female and 88 animals were male (sex ratio 2.7:1). 187 animals (57.9%) were born between November and April and 136 animals (42.1%) were born between May and October. 13 animals (4.0%) proved to possess antibodies against CAEV in a serological examination performed with ELISA. The herd seroprevalence was 6.1% (10 positive farms). The seropositivity did not vary significantly in the different age groups (AG1: 4.3%; AG2: 4.1%; AG3: 3.9%). The seroprevalence of animals born outdoors between November and April (5.9%) did not differ significantly from those born indoors between May and October (1.5%). The seroprevalence of the female animals (3.4%) did not vary significantly from that of the male goats (5.7%). The low seroprevalence ascertained in the dwarf goats in South Tyrol is due to the non-existing milk production, the marginal contact among each other as well as the sparse animal trade. This study should prompt adequate means of control to be established, so that the introduction of positive animals can be prevented. An eradication programme would be advisable, due to the low disease prevalence and its chances to be successfully implemented.

  8. Do attachment representations predict depression and anxiety in psychiatrically hospitalized prepubertal children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Geoff; Stroh, Martha; Valdez, Adina

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-six prepubertal inpatients were videotaped completing five stories thematically related to attachment experiences and classified by their attachment representations. Children also completed the Children's Depression Inventory and Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-Revised. Mothers completed demographic questionnaires. Percentage of secure (B) attachment was only about one tenth of the normative percentage, anxious-ambivalent (C) attachment was between two and three times the normative percentage, and disorganized (D) attachment was almost twice the normative percentage. Both D attachment and the total number of disorganized story responses were associated with negative self-esteem and clinical-range depression. Anxious-avoidant (A) attachment decreased the likelihood, while C and D attachment increased the likelihood, of separation anxiety disorder. Clinical intervention needs to focus on the meaning of parental relationships represented in the child's mind, specifically the negative self-esteem and separation anxiety associated with the lack of felt security provided by the parents.

  9. Generalized aggressive periodontitis in prepubertal age: description and comparison of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Piergallini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive periodontitis is a rare form of periodontal disease and it can involve both the deciduous dentition and the permanent one. It causes a rapid loss of periodontal attachment. The paper aims to describe two cases of severe generalized prepubertal periodontitis: the first child doesn’t suffer from neither systemic diseases nor alteration of functionality of polymorphonuclear and periodontal disease involved both his deciduous dentition and the first permanent molars. The second child had a deficiency of functionality of polymorphonuclear but periodontal disease involved only primary dentition thanks to his immediate improvement of home dental hygiene. This comparison shows the importance of early diagnosis and especially of optimal dental oral hygiene. Infant healthcare professionals, as pediatric dentists and pediatricians, should have the necessary knowledge for early and correct diagnosis and clinical management of disease.

  10. Prepubertal exposure to cow's milk reduces susceptibility to carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Khan, Galam; Davis, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Cow's milk contains high levels of estrogens, progesterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), all of which are associated with breast cancer. We investigated whether prepubertal milk exposure affects mammary gland development and carcinogenesis in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were given either...... whole milk or tap water to drink from postnatal day (PND) 14 to PND 35, and thereafter normal tap water. Mammary tumorigenesis was induced by administering 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene on PND 50. Milk exposure increased circulating E2 levels on PND 25 by 10-fold (p vaginal...... or apoptosis were seen. IGF-1 mRNA levels were reduced on PND 50 in the mammary glands of rats exposed to milk at puberty. Our results suggest that drinking milk before puberty reduces later risk of developing mammary cancer in rats. This might be mediated by a reduction in the number of TEBs and lower...

  11. The value of positive Oct3/4 and D2-40 immunohistochemical expression in prediction of germ cell neoplasia in prepubertal boys with cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen-Linde, Erik; Kvist, Kolja; Cortes, Dina;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN) is a precursor to testicular germ cell cancer. Adult germ cell cancer immunohistochemical markers fail to detect ITGCN in prepubertal boys with congenital cryptorchidism, because positive immunohistochemistry is commonly seen below 18 months old...

  12. Delay of the Onset of Puberty in Female Rats by Prepubertal Exposure to T-2 Toxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Yang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Growing evidence has revealed the deleterious influence of environmental and food contaminants on puberty onset and development in both animals and children, provoking an increasing health concern. T-2 toxin, a naturally-produced Type A trichothecene mycotoxin which is frequently found in cereal grains and products intended for human and animal consumption, has been shown to impair the reproduction and development in animals. Nevertheless, whether this trichothecene mycotoxin can disturb the onset of puberty in females remains unclear. To clarify this point, infantile female rats were given a daily intragastric administration of vehicle or 187.5 μg/kg body weight of T-2 toxin for five consecutive days from postnatal day 15 to 19, and the effects on puberty onset were evaluated in the present study. The results revealed that the days of vaginal opening, first dioestrus, and first estrus in regular estrous cycle were delayed following prepubertal exposure to T-2 toxin. The relative weights of reproductive organs uterus, ovaries, and vagina, and the incidence of corpora lutea were all diminished in T-2 toxin-treated rats. Serum levels of gonadotropins luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol were also reduced by T-2 toxin treatment. The mRNA expressions of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH and pituitary GnRH receptor displayed significant reductions following exposure to T-2 toxin, which were consistent with the changes of serum gonadotropins, delayed reproductive organ development, and delayed vaginal opening. In conclusion, the present study reveals that prepubertal exposure to T-2 toxin delays the onset of puberty in immature female rats, probably by the mechanism of disturbance of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis function. Considering the vulnerability of developmental children to food contaminants and the relative high level of dietary intake of T-2 toxin in children, we think the findings of

  13. Ultrasonographic evaluation of reproductive tract measures and fat thickness traits in pre-pubertal Nellore heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Morato Monteiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between reproductive tract and fat thickness measures obtained by ultrasound in prepubertal Nellore heifers. A total of 128 Nellore heifers born in 2006 and 2007 were submitted to ultrasound evaluations (13, 16, 19 and 22 months of age of reproductive tract measures and fat thickness traits. These animals were from a selection experiment (NeC: control line, and NeS: selection line for yearling weight started in 1981. Mean values of ovary area, height of the right uterine horn (HU, maximum follicular diameter (FOL, backfat thickness (BF, rump fat thickness (RF, and body condition score were analyzed. Repeated records were modeled using the PROC MIXED procedure (SAS, fitting a model that included the selection line, year of birth, measurement as fixed effects, and interactions. Body weight differed between the selected (281.48 kg and control (210.51 kg lines. Only the least square means of FOL were lower in the NeC line compared to the NeS line (P < 0.05, although the difference in mean HU between the two lines was of only borderline significance (P = 0.06. The rate of growth for the three reproductive traits was similar in the two lines. Simple and residual correlations between the reproductive and subcutaneous fat traits ranged from low to medium. The highest correlations were observed between HU and RF (Pearson correlation = 0.71 and residual correlation = 0.34. The current results are consistent with the literature, indicating that fat thickness traits are not good predictors of prepubertal reproductive traits in heifers. Further studies are necessary to clarify the relationship between reproduction and body fat in Nellore heifers.

  14. The effects of resistance exercise training on body composition and strength in obese prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberga, Angela S; Farnesi, Biagina-Carla; Lafleche, Angele; Legault, Laurent; Komorowski, Joanna

    2013-09-01

    To assess the effects of resistance exercise training on body composition and muscular strength in obese prepubertal children. Study participants, who were between the ages of 8 and 12 years, met Tanner I (stage) criteria, had a body mass index ≥ 95th percentile for age and sex, were randomized to either high-repetition, moderate-intensity resistance training (n = 12) or to the non-intervention control group (n = 7) for 12 weeks. Exercise training was performed twice a week for 75 minutes per session. Body composition was assessed using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and muscular strength was evaluated using a 1-repetition-maximum test. Exercise-group participants attended 98% of the 24 total sessions and showed a significant increase in body weight (57.6± 13.5 vs 59.6± 14.1 kg), height (144.9± 9 vs 146.6± 10.4 cm), lean body mass (32.6± 6.8 vs 34.0± 7.0 kg), lean body mass index (lean body mass in kg/height2; 15.3± 1.6 vs 15.6± 1.5 kg/m2), arm strength (28.4± 5.8 vs 31.2± 6.0 kg), and leg strength (89.4± 31.7 vs 113.4± 34 2 kg) from baseline measures (P strength. When the changes in participant body composition and muscular strength were compared between the exercise and control groups, significant differences were found in leg lean mass and leg strength (P training increases leg lean mass and leg strength in obese prepubertal youth and may have a positive effect on overall physical activity and health.

  15. Stunting delays maturation of triceps surae mechanical properties and motor performance in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Maria das Graças; Souza, Thaysa O L; Canon, Francis; Pérot, Chantal; Xavier, Luciana C C; Ferraz, Karla M; Osório, Mônica M; Manhães-de-Castro, Raul; Lambertz, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Malnutrition can lead to possible irreversible consequences in the development of muscle function and some of them are yet poorly characterized. The present study evaluated the mechanical properties of the triceps surae and motor performance in stunted (S) and eutrophic (E) prepubertal children (9 years ± 6 months). Height-for-age ratio was used as indicator of stunting due to early malnutrition, according to the World Health Organization. Torque was determined by maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) and musculotendinous (MT) stiffness was achieved through quick-release tests to obtain MT stiffness index (SI(MT)) and passive stiffness (K (p)) from linear MT stiffness-torque relationships. Percutaneous supramaximal electrically elicited contractions determined twitch torque (Pt) and electromechanical delay (EMD). Motor performance was evaluated by balance test. S group presented significantly lower MVC and a trend of lower Pt values indicating lower capacities to develop force under voluntary or induced conditions. Significantly higher SI(MT) and EMD values were observed, while K (p) and motor performance in balance were significantly lower. Higher SI(MT) values have been reported previously in youngest prepubertal children, indicating that immature activation capacities can mask MT stiffness assessment during voluntary contractions, taking into consideration the higher EMD values as a measure of muscle stiffness contribution. Lower K (p) may indicate a delay in the maturation of tendinous tissue in S group, influencing motor performance in balance. The present study shows that malnutrition leads to adaptation of intrinsic MT elastic properties, but depends on the level of the observed structure.

  16. The asymmetry of pectoralis muscles is greater in male prepubertal than in professional tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Moysi, Joaquin; Dorado, Cecilia; Idoate, Fernando; González-Henríquez, Juan J; Serrano-Sanchez, Jose A; Calbet, Jose A L

    2016-10-01

    It is generally accepted that preadolescents have a limited capacity to develop muscle hypertrophy in response to exercise compared with older populations; however, studies are scarce and conflicting. The main aim of the present study was to assess if playing tennis is associated with the hypertrophy of dominant pectoralis muscles (PM) in professional (PRO) and in prepubescent tennis players (PRE). A secondary aim was to assess if the degree of asymmetry of PM is greater in PRO than PRE. The volume of PM of both sides was determined using magnetic resonance imaging in 8 male PRO (21.9 years), 6 male PRE (11 years, Tanner 1-2) and 12 male non-active controls (6 adults: 23.5 years; and 6 prepubescents: 10.7 years, Tanner 1-2). PRO and PRE had 15 and 30% greater volume, respectively, in the dominant than in the contralateral PM (P < .01). No significant side-to-side differences in PM volume were observed in the non-active controls (3%, P = .34 in adults and 5%, P = .17 in children). The degree of side-to-side asymmetry in PM volume was greater in PRE than in PRO (P < .05). In conclusion, tennis practice is associated with marked hypertrophy of dominant PM in tennis players, even at prepubertal age, whilst non-active age-matched control subjects display similar volumes in both sides. The larger asymmetry observed in PRE than in PRO may indicate a greater relative loading in the children or increased contralateral hypertrophy in the professionals. This study demonstrates that prepubertal children respond with marked hypertrophy to loading by tennis.

  17. Delay of the Onset of Puberty in Female Rats by Prepubertal Exposure to T-2 Toxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong; Wang, Yi-Mei; Zhang, Li-Shi; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Zeng-Ming; Zhao, Jun; Peng, Shuang-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence has revealed the deleterious influence of environmental and food contaminants on puberty onset and development in both animals and children, provoking an increasing health concern. T-2 toxin, a naturally-produced Type A trichothecene mycotoxin which is frequently found in cereal grains and products intended for human and animal consumption, has been shown to impair the reproduction and development in animals. Nevertheless, whether this trichothecene mycotoxin can disturb the onset of puberty in females remains unclear. To clarify this point, infantile female rats were given a daily intragastric administration of vehicle or 187.5 μg/kg body weight of T-2 toxin for five consecutive days from postnatal day 15 to 19, and the effects on puberty onset were evaluated in the present study. The results revealed that the days of vaginal opening, first dioestrus, and first estrus in regular estrous cycle were delayed following prepubertal exposure to T-2 toxin. The relative weights of reproductive organs uterus, ovaries, and vagina, and the incidence of corpora lutea were all diminished in T-2 toxin-treated rats. Serum levels of gonadotropins luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol were also reduced by T-2 toxin treatment. The mRNA expressions of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and pituitary GnRH receptor displayed significant reductions following exposure to T-2 toxin, which were consistent with the changes of serum gonadotropins, delayed reproductive organ development, and delayed vaginal opening. In conclusion, the present study reveals that prepubertal exposure to T-2 toxin delays the onset of puberty in immature female rats, probably by the mechanism of disturbance of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function. Considering the vulnerability of developmental children to food contaminants and the relative high level of dietary intake of T-2 toxin in children, we think the findings of the present study

  18. Effect of stress hormone antagonists on ovarian follicular development in pre-pubertal rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalid Hamood Abdullah

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Effect of stress on pre-pubertal ovarian follicular development was studied. Fifteen day old female rats were administered under stress (exposed to maternal separation; 6 hours/day from post-natal day 15 to 21 for 7 days, and appropriate controls were maintained. The time of exposure was randomly changed every day during light phase (7AM to 7 PM of the day to avoid habituation. There was a significant decrease in serum estrogen levels on post-natal day 21 in stress group rats compared to controls indicating stress response in these rats. However, mean number of healthy follicles in all categories of follicles were significantly lower in stressed rats compared to controls. Concomitant with these changes, mean number of atreitic follicles showed an increase over control values in stressed rats. In contrast administration of Naltrexone (5μg NTX/rat/day, Mifepristone (1 μg MP/rat/day, FSH (10 IU FSH/rat/day with stressed the significant increases in the relative weight of ovary, uterus, fallopian tube, body weight and the mean number of healthy follicles in the ovary compared to the controls. In the ovary treatment of stressed did not affect primordial follicles. Primordial follicles were reduced in number significantly in the ovary of controls and treated groups when compared with the initial controls whereas there was no significant variation among the controls and the treated groups. The results indicate that stress dose not interfere with the progress of pre-pubertal follicular development. However, it causes increased loss of follicles by atretia.

  19. Induction of ovulation and ovarian characteristics of prepubertal gilts treated with human chorionicgonadotropin or kisspeptin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luis Nogueira Natal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In view of its similar structure and function to luteinizing hormone (LH, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG has conventionally been used as the main hormone to induce estrus and ovulation in sows. Recently, it has been demonstrated that the neuropeptide kisspeptin is associated with pituitary LH release in different mammalian species, including swine. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether kisspeptin-10 combined with equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG could be an efficient method to induce ovulation in prepubertal gilts. Thirty 5-month-old gilts weighing 78.0 ± 8.4 kg were randomly divided into five groups of six animals each. Groups 1, 2 and 3 received 750 IU eCG, while groups 4 and 5 received saline solution. After 72 hours, the animals received 380 nmol kisspeptin-10 (group 2, 500 IU hCG (groups 3 and 4, or saline (groups 1 and 5. The treatments were applied by a single intramuscular injection. The animals were slaughtered 7 days later and ovulation was confirmed by the presence of corpora lutea in the recovered ovaries. Data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher exact tests. The number of gilts that ovulated was similar in groups 2 and 3. This number was higher in group 5 (P<0.01 and in groups 1 and 4 (P=0.08. The weight or size of the ovaries was not influenced by the treatments, although the number of ovulations was higher in groups 2 and 3 (P<0.01. These results suggest that kisspeptin-10 and hCG have similar biological activity to induce ovulation in prepubertal gilts.

  20. Suitability of Norwegian short-tail lambs, Norwegian dairy goats and Cashmere goats for meat production - Carcass, meat, chemical and sensory characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushi, D E; Eik, L O; Thomassen, M S; Sørheim, O; Dnøy, T

    2008-11-01

    Six female Norwegian lambs (29kg body weight, 8 months old), six castrated Norwegian goats (27kg body weight, 10 months old) and six castrated Cashmere goats (20kg body weight, 8 months old) were used to study the relative potential of Norwegian lambs, Norwegian goats and Cashmere goats for meat production. Animals were fattened on silage and commercial concentrate before slaughter. Lamb meat had 4 % lower (PNorwegian goats. Sensory panellists scored lamb meat fattier, juicier and more tender than goat meats. Meat from Cashmere goats scored highest (PNorwegian lamb and Cashmere goats, meats from them are nutritionally comparable to that from Norwegian goats. However, the higher proportion of SFA in Norwegian lambs and Cashmere goats may increase hardness of fat and being easily solidified upon cooling, may influence meat palatability.

  1. 21 CFR 135.115 - Goat's milk ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Goat's milk ice cream. 135.115 Section 135.115... Goat's milk ice cream. (a) Description. Goat's milk ice cream is the food prepared in the same manner prescribed in § 135.110 for ice cream, and complies with all the provisions of § 135.110, except that...

  2. Sheep and Goats: Final Estimates 1989-93

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    This publication presents final sheep and goat inventory estimates for the period 1989-1993 and wool and mohair estimates for the period 1988-1992. made by the Agricultural Statistics Board including some revisions and continues the official series published in Statistical Bulletin No. 800 "Sheep and Goats: Final Estimates 1984-88" issued January 1990. This series includes annual estimates for sheep and goat inventory, sheep and lambs on feed for January 1. 1993, lamb crop. wool and mohair pr...

  3. Efficacy of closantel against Fasciola hepatica in Korean native goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C G; Cho, S H; Kim, J T; Lee, C Y

    1996-10-25

    Closantel (Flukiver), a salicylanilide antiparasitic compound, was tested in Korean native goats infected with Fasciola hepatica. The goats were administered closantel once orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight. Efficacy was monitored weekly by fecal examination of all infected animals starting the second week post-treatment and continuing for 3 weeks. Closantel elicited 80.3, 97.8 and 92.7% efficacy in goats with naturally-acquired fasciolosis at the second, third and fourth week post-treatment, respectively. It elicited a 100% efficacy in goats experimentally infected with F. hepatica metacercariae and treated at 18 weeks post-infection.

  4. Genetic characterisation of CSN2 gene in Girgentana goat breed

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Among calcium sensitive caseins, β-casein is the most abundant in goat milk, representing up to 50% of total casein content. The goat β-casein locus has been widely investigated and at least ten alleles have been identified in different goat breeds. The aim of this work was to investigate the polymorphisms of β-casein gene in Girgentana dairy goat breed in order to assess the genotype distribution and evaluate how frequencies have changed during the last 10 years, as genotype is known to infl...

  5. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Signe A.; Sørensen, Camilla; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met the inclu......The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met...

  6. An update on estrus synchronization in goats: a minor species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitley, N C; Jackson, D J

    2004-01-01

    Estrus synchronization allows for parturition at suitable times to take advantage of niche markets, feed supplies, labor, and rising price trends. In the past, synchronization of estrus in goats has focused primarily on dairy goats to allow for optimal timing of milk production. However, recent interest in meat goat production has resulted in attempts to use dairy goat, sheep, and cattle synchronization regimens in meat goat management systems. Methods of synchronization have included techniques as simple as alteration of light patterns or manipulation of social inputs (i.e., the buck effect) and as complex as varying timed hormonal treatments combined with light alteration and the buck effect. The synchronization of estrus using timed hormonal treatments seems to be more convenient in many meat goat production situations. Examples of hormones used include melatonin, progestogens (administered orally, as an injection, or by using intravaginal releasing devices), gonadotropins/GnRH (or agonists), and PG alone or in combination. As is seen with sheep and cattle, breed and/or breed type, stage of production, and environmental effects can influence synchronization success in goats. The introduction of breeds developed in other countries for rapid growth, such as the Boer goat, and increased consumer and producer interest have added to the impetus for developing cost-efficient and highly effective estrus synchronization regimens. New research is being conducted and various synchronization methods are being attempted in goats, a minor species, and the objective of this paper is to review these efforts.

  7. Anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, N J; Trainor, B L; Urie, J S; Atkins, J W; Pyman, M F; Wolstencroft, I R

    1985-07-01

    Cases of anthelmintic resistance on 3 goat farms in Gippsland were investigated. On the first farm Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Ostertagia (Teladorsagia) circumcincta were found to be resistant to fenbendazole, but the first 2 species were fully susceptible to levamisole. On the second farm a population of T. colubriformis, resistant to concurrent full doses of levamisole and a benzimidazole, was found to retain this resistance when transferred to sheep. On the third farm, heavy mortality due to Ostertagia and Trichostrongylus spp burdens was arrested only by the use of concurrent full doses of levamisole and oxfendazole; no single anthelmintic was found to be effective. A disturbing rise in the incidence of clinical helminthiosis, often accompanied by anthelmintic resistance, occurred on goat farms in Gippsland early in 1984.

  8. Improvement of goat TSE discriminative diagnosis and susceptibility based assessment of BSE infectivity in goat milk and meat

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    In light of the known ability of the BSE agent to cross the animal/human species barrier, the evidence establishing the presence of BSE in goat is especially alarming, as it represents a potential risk of food-born contamination to human consumers of goat milk and meat products. The main objective has been to determine the tissue distribution of BSE after oral exposure of goats while simultaneously generating in dispensable data on genetic susceptibility in the most commonly used production b...

  9. Transcriptome analyses identify five transcription factors differentially expressed in the hypothalamus of post- versus prepubertal Brahman heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, M R S; Nguyen, L T; Weller, M M D C A; Cánovas, A; Islas-Trejo, A; Porto-Neto, L R; Reverter, A; Lehnert, S A; Boe-Hansen, G B; Thomas, M G; Medrano, J F; Moore, S S

    2016-09-01

    Puberty onset is a developmental process influenced by genetic determinants, environment, and nutrition. Mutations and regulatory gene networks constitute the molecular basis for the genetic determinants of puberty onset. The emerging knowledge of these genetic determinants presents opportunities for innovation in the breeding of early pubertal cattle. This paper presents new data on hypothalamic gene expression related to puberty in (Brahman) in age- and weight-matched heifers. Six postpubertal heifers were compared with 6 prepubertal heifers using whole-genome RNA sequencing methodology for quantification of global gene expression in the hypothalamus. Five transcription factors (TF) with potential regulatory roles in the hypothalamus were identified in this experiment: , , , , and . These TF genes were significantly differentially expressed in the hypothalamus of postpubertal versus prepubertal heifers and were also identified as significant according to the applied regulatory impact factor metric ( Brahman). Knowledge of key mutations involved in genetic traits is an advantage for genomic prediction because it can increase its accuracy.

  10. Elevated energy expenditure and reduced energy intake in obese prepubertal children: paradox of poor dietary reliability in obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeis, C; Schutz, Y; Zaffanello, M; Piccoli, R; Pinelli, L

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of two common methods used to assess energy intake. A 3-day weighed dietary record and a dietary history were collected and compared with the total daily energy expenditure (TEE) assessed by the heart rate method in a group of 12 obese and 12 nonobese prepubertal children (mean age 9.3 +/- 1.1 years vs 9.3 +/- 0.4 years). The TEE value was higher in obese than in nonobese children (9.89 +/- 1.08 vs 8.13 +/- 1.39 MJ/day; p obese children (7.06 +/- 0.98 MJ/day; p obese children (8.37 +/- 1.35 MJ/day, p obese children underreport food intake and that the dietary record and the diet history are not valid means of assessing energy intake in obese prepubertal children.

  11. Potential of goat probiotic to bind mutagens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apás, Ana Lidia; González, Silvia Nelina; Arena, Mario Eduardo

    2014-08-01

    The mutagen binding ability of the goat probiotics (Lactobacillus reuteri DDL 19, Lactobacillus alimentarius DDL 48, Enterococcus faecium DDE 39, and Bifidobacterium bifidum DDBA) was evaluated. The oral administration of these probiotics reduced fecal mutagens and intestinal cancer markers in goats. Secondly, the effects of probiotics against the mutagenesis induced by sodium azide (SA), and Benzopyrene (B[α]P) by performing the modified Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA 100 was investigated. The capacity to bind benzopyrene and the stability of the bacterial-mutagen complex was analyzed by HPLC. The dismutagenic potential against both mutagens was proportional to probiotic concentration. Results showed that probiotic antimutagenic capacity against SA was ranging from 13 to 78%. The mixture of four goat probiotics (MGP) displayed higher antimutagenic activity against SA than any individual strains at the same cell concentration. This study shows that the highest diminution of mutagenicity in presence of B[α]P (74%) was observed in presence of MGP. The antimutagenic activity of nearly all the individual probiotic and the MGP were in concordance with the B[α]P binding determined by HPLC. According to our results, the B[α]P binding to probiotic was irreversible still after being washed with DMSO solution. The stability of the toxic compounds-bacterial cell binding is a key consideration when probiotic antimutagenic property is evaluated. MGP exhibits the ability to bind and detoxify potent mutagens, and this property can be useful in supplemented foods for goats since it can lead to the removal of potent mutagens and protect and enhance ruminal health and hence food safety of consumers.

  12. [Nasal and pulmonary flora in the goat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Y; Borges, E; Favier, C; Oudar, J

    1989-01-01

    On the basis of bacteriological examinations carried out on 75 intranasal swabs and 80 goat lung punctures, aerobic, aero-anaerobic respiratory microbes and mycoplasma were studied. Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae was isolated both from nasal flora (37%) and from the lungs (27.5%) as well as Pasteurella spp which accounted respectively for 24% and 12.5%. The nasal flora are characterised by the presence of a Gram-negative strain included in the genus Moraxella and connected with Moraxella bovis species.

  13. Epidemiological features of Morel's disease in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaluś-Jordanow, O; Kaba, J; Czopowicz, M; Witkowski, L; Nowicki, M; Nowicka, D; Stefańska, I; Rzewuska, M; Sobczak-Filipiak, M; Binek, M; Frymus, T

    2010-01-01

    Morel's disease caused by Staphylococcus aureus subsp. anaerobius was diagnosed for the first time in Poland in October 2006 in a goat flock. A second infected flock was found two months later. The course of the disease in both flocks was observed for 15-17 months. Clinical manifestation was confined to abscesses located near major superficial lymph nodes, mostly: superficial cervical, subiliac, parotid and mandibular. At necropsy no other lesions were found. The incubation period was estimated at 3 weeks. Clinical signs were seen both in young and adult goats and up to 7 abscesses in one animal were noted. Abscesses tended to persist for 1 to 5 months, then rupture and heal completely. The initial high in-flock point prevalence in both flocks (93.6% and 84.4%) dropped to approximately 10-30% during next 3-4 months. Until the end of the observation period the in-flock point prevalence remained at this level and only single abscesses were observed, mainly in young animals. No influence of the concurrent caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV) infection on the clinical course of Morel's disease was noticed. It is to be concluded that the clinical course of Morel's disease in a goat flock resembles caseous lymphadenitis (CLA). However, in Morel's disease abscesses occur more frequently in young goats and are located near, not inside, the lymph nodes, as in the case with CLA. Also, the incubation period of Morel's disease seems to be shorter (3 weeks versus 2-6 months in CLA).

  14. The toxicity of Cassia occidentalis to goats

    OpenAIRE

    Suliman, H.B.; Wasfi, I.A.; Adam, S. E. I.

    1982-01-01

    Metadata only record In 8 goats given the leaves or seeds of C. occidentalis , the main signs of poisoning were diarrhea, inappetence, dyspnoea, staggering, ataxia and recumbency. Lesions consisted of hemorrhages and congestion in the heart, lungs, abomasum and spleen, catarrhal enteritis, hepatic fatty change and necrosis, splenic haemosiderosis, pulmonary emphysema, necrosis and/or degeneration of the epithelial cells of the renal convoluted tubule, and packing of the glomeruli with endo...

  15. SEROLOGICAL SURVEY FOR BRUCELLA OVIS DISSEMINATION AMONG GOATS (Capra aegagrus hircus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atanas ARNAUDOV

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available By complement fixation test 230 blood samples from goats and he goats were examined for presence of antibodies against Brucella ovis. 134 blood samples were from goats (23 of them were from slipping goats and 96- from he goats. The animals come from private farms in the Plovdiv and Pazardzhik regions (Southern Bulgaria. 10.87% of all tested blood samples contain antibodies against Brucella ovis. Differences in the percentage of the positive reagents of different goat categories were found. The highest percentage was among slipping goats (39.13% towards to 11.71% among the healthy goats and 3.13% among he goats. It can be concluded that goats play an important role in the epidemiology of the disease. The greatest risk is slipping goats bred together with sheep flocks.

  16. Bacteriocinogenic Bacteria Isolated from Raw Goat Milk and Goat Cheese Produced in the Center of México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Saldaña, Oscar F; Valencia-Posadas, Mauricio; de la Fuente-Salcido, Norma M; Bideshi, Dennis K; Barboza-Corona, José E

    2016-09-01

    Currently, there are few reports on the isolation of microorganisms from goat milk and goat cheese that have antibacterial activity. In particular, there are no reports on the isolation of microorganisms with antibacterial activity from these products in central Mexico. Our objective was to isolate bacteria, from goat products, that synthesized antimicrobial peptides with activity against a variety of clinically significant bacteria. We isolated and identified Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. plantarum, L. pentosus, L. helveticus and Enterococcus faecium from goat cheese, and Aquabacterium fontiphilum, Methylibium petroleiphilum, Piscinobacter aquaticus and Staphylococcus xylosus from goat milk. These bacteria isolated from goat cheese were able to inhibit Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, L. inoccua, Pseudomona aeruginosa, Shigella flexneri, Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae. In addition, bacteria from goat milk showed inhibitory activity against B. cereus, L. lactis, E. coli, S. flexneri, E. cloacae and K. pneumonia; S. aureus, L. innocua, S. agalactiae and S. marcescens. The bacteriocins produced by these isolates were shown to be acid stable (pH 2-6) and thermotolerant (up to 100 °C), but were susceptible to proteinases. When screened by PCR for the presence of nisin, pediocin and enterocin A genes, none was found in isolates recovered from goat milk, and only the enterocin A gene was found in isolates from goat cheese.

  17. Serum inhibin B, FSH, LH and testosterone levels before and after human chorionic gonadotropin stimulation in prepubertal boys with cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, P; Andersson, A-M; Skakkebaek, N E

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that cryptorchidism is associated with degenerative changes in both Sertoli cells and germ cells. The gonadal peptide hormone inhibin B reflects Sertoli cell function. Low inhibin B levels are found in a large portion of formerly cryptorchid men who show compromised...... seminiferous tubule function. It is not known if inhibin B can be used to demonstrate early damage of seminiferous tubules in prepubertal boys with cryptorchidism....

  18. Effect of strength and high-intensity training on jumping, sprinting, and intermittent endurance performance in prepubertal soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrete, Carlos; Requena, Bernardo; Suarez-Arrones, Luís; de Villarreal, Eduardo Sáez

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 26-week on-field combined strength and high-intensity training on the physical performance capacity among prepubertal soccer players who were undertaking a competitive phase of training. Twenty-four prepubertal soccer players between the age of 8 and 9 years were randomly assigned to 2 groups: a control (C; n = 13) and an experimental group (S; n = 11). Both groups performed an identical soccer-training program, whereas the S group also performed combined strength and high-intensity training before the soccer-specific training. The 15-m sprint time (seconds), countermovement jump (CMJ) displacement, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test (Yo-Yo IE), and Sit and Reach flexibility were each measured before (baseline) and after 9 (T2), 18 (T3), and 26 weeks (posttest) of training. There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the variables tested at baseline. After 26 weeks, significant improvements were found in the CMJ (6.72%; effect size [ES] = 0.37), Yo-Yo IE (49.57%, ES = 1.39), and Flexibility (7.26%; ES = 0.37) variables for the S group. Conversely, significant decreases were noted for the CMJ (-10.82%; ES = 0.61) and flexibility (-13.09%; ES = 0.94) variables in the C group. A significant negative correlation was found between 15-m sprint time and CMJ (r = -0.77) and Yo-Yo IE (r = -0.77) in the S group. Specific combined strength and high-intensity training in prepubertal soccer players for 26 weeks produced a positive effect on performance qualities highly specific to soccer. Therefore, we propose modifications to current training methodology for prepubertal soccer players to include strength and high-intensity training for athlete preparation in this sport.

  19. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls, 2009–2014: a single center experience

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hounyoung; Chai, Sun Myung; Ahn, Eun Hee; Lee, Mee-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Objective To update information on the clinical and microbiologic characteristics of pediatric vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls. Methods A total of 120 girls (aged 0 to 9 years) with culture-confirmed pediatric vulvovaginitis, diagnosed between 2009 and 2014, were enrolled in the study. The epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics, and clinical outcomes were assessed. Patients with sexual precocity, as well as those who were referred for suspected sexual abuse, were excluded....

  20. Prepubertal exposure to cow’s milk reduces susceptibility to carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Tina S.; Khan, Galam; Davis, Jennifer; Michels, Karin B; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena

    2011-01-01

    Cow’s milk contains high levels of estrogens, progesterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), all of which are associated with breast cancer. We investigated whether prepubertal milk exposure affects mammary gland development and carcinogenesis in rats. Sprague Dawley rats were given either whole milk or tap water to drink from postnatal day (PND) 14 to PND 35, and thereafter normal tap water. Mammary tumorigenesis was induced by administering 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) on P...

  1. Segregated responses of mammary gland development and vaginal opening to prepubertal genistein exposure in Bscl2(-/-) female mice with lipodystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; El Zowalaty, Ahmed E; Chen, Weiqin; Dudley, Elizabeth A; Ye, Xiaoqin

    2015-07-01

    Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy 2-deficient (Bscl2(-/-)) mice recapitulate human BSCL2 disease with lipodystrophy. Bscl2-encoded seipin is detected in adipocytes and epithelium of mammary gland. Postnatal mammary gland growth spurt and vaginal opening signify pubertal onset in female mice. Bscl2(-/-) females have longer and dilated mammary gland ducts at 5-week old and delayed vaginal opening. Prepubertal exposure to 500ppm genistein diet increases mammary gland area and accelerates vaginal opening in both control and Bscl2(-/-) females. However, genistein treatment increases ductal length in control but not Bscl2(-/-) females. Neither prepubertal genistein treatment nor Bscl2-deficiency affects phospho-estrogen receptor α or progesterone receptor expression patterns in 5-week old mammary gland. Interestingly, Bscl2-deficiency specifically reduces estrogen receptor β expression in mammary gland ductal epithelium. In summary, Bscl2(-/-) females have accelerated postnatal mammary ductal development but delayed vaginal opening; they display segregated responses in mammary gland development and vaginal opening to prepubertal genistein treatment.

  2. Characterization of local goat breeds using RAP-DNA markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Barzinji, Yousif M. S.; Hamad, Aram O.

    2017-09-01

    The present study was conducted on different colors of local goat breeds. A number of 216 does were sampled from the seven groups. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood samples. From the twenty used RAPD primers 12 of them were amplified, and presence of bands. The total fragment number of 12 primers over all the goat breed samples was 485 fragments. Out of the 485 fragments, 90 of them were Polymorphic fragments numbers (PFN). From all bands obtained, 20 of them possessed unique bands. The highest unique band was found in locus RAP 6 which has 4 unique bands, three of them in the Maraz Brown and one in the local Koor. Nei's gene diversity and Shanon's information index in this study were averaged 0.38 and 0.60, respectively. The genetic distance among several goat breeds ranged from 9.11 to 43.33%. The highest genetic distance 43.33% recorded between Maraz goat and other goat breeds and between local Koor and other goat (except Maraz goats) breeds (37.79%). However, the lowest genetic distance recorded between local white and Pnok. The distance between (local Black and Pnok) and (local Black and local white) was 22.75%. In conclusions, the high distance among these goat breeds, polymorphism and high numbers of unique bands found in present study indicates that these goat breeds have the required amount of genetic variation to made genetic improvement. This study helps us to clarify the image of the genetic diversity of the local goat breeds and the breeders can used it for mating system when need to make the crossing among these goat breeds.

  3. Capture and treatment of goat manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate management and disposal of feces and urine derived from goat production systems can help minimize the environmental impact of the activity reflecting in animal welfare, good sanitary conditions, viable indexes and increase revenue by aggregating the activity value of the manure generated. Aiming to take advantage of zootechnical installation already used for the manure in rabbits’ husbandry, it was carried out the suitability of a 15.40 m² pen (5.7 x 2.7 meters, filled with dirt in the goat rearing of UPD Itapetininga/APTA-SAA being deployed on slatted floor system for capturing and processing goat manure. It was dug in the floor of the bay rectangular holes with 15 m² of surface and 80 cm of depth for capturing of the excrements, filled with layers of gravel (0.20 m, coal (0.20 m, medium sand (0, 15 m and clay (0.05 m being the surface in direct contact with feces and urine. The gap of 40 cm between the back of the slatted floor and the last layer allowed the accumulation of manure during the occupation of the stall. We used the pens for 10 consecutive months for the management of newly calved Saanen and crossbred Saanen/Boer goats for 10 to 15 days postpartum in controlled feeding and termination of 27 confined kids. The maintenance of the collection system and treatment of manure was done through constant sweeps in the slatted floor and periodical aplication of 30 g of superphosphate per m² directly in feces, in order to acidifying the compound. This measure contributed to the ambience and animal comfort, controlling flies and neutralizing odors and harmful actions of ammonia coming from the urine. To carry out the sanitary break in the stall, needed for new production cycle, the frames of the slatted floor were raised and about 2500 kg of manure was removed, followed by cleaning and disinfection of floors and pillars of support and rest for 45 days unused until the entry of the new batch of goats recently calved. Using

  4. Effects on milk production in F1 crossbred of Alpine goat breed (♂ and Albanian goat breed (♀

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luan Hajno

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available About 950,000 goats, farmed mostly in hilly and mountainous areas of Albania, contribute about 8% of the country’s total milk production. In order to increase milk production, farmers are currently using crosses of the local goat breed with exotic breeds, mainly the Alpine breed from France. This study examines milk production data of first lactation from 45 goats of the local breed, 82 goats of the Alpine breed and 58 F1 crosses (♂Alpine breed x ♀local breed. The goats were kept on small-scale farms according to the traditional Albanian system. Milking was carried out in the morning and evening. Kids were weaned at 65 days of age after which milking started. Milk yield was recorded twice with a 15-day interval between the two readings. Total milk yield was calculated using the Fleischmann method. The F1 goats produced 37.8 kg more milk than local breed goats although the lactation length (P<0.05 of F1 goats was six days shorter compared to that of local breed goats (P<0.05. Analysis of variance showed a highly significant effect (P<0.01 of the genotype factor on milk production. The average Cappio-Borlino curves of three genotypes indicated that the lactation curves of local breed and F1 crosses were similar. Although the F1 cross goats had 50% of their genomes from a genetically improved breed they were still able to deal with the difficult conditions that characterize the traditional extensive farming systems in Albania. Breeding pure Alpine breed or its crosses with the local goat breed improved milk production in an extensive traditional system.

  5. Effects of resistance training on tendon mechanical properties and rapid force production in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, C M; Korff, T; Fath, F; Blazevich, A J

    2014-08-01

    Children develop lower levels of muscle force, and at slower rates, than adults. Although strength training in children is expected to reduce this differential, a synchronous adaptation in the tendon must be achieved to ensure forces continue to be transmitted to the skeleton with efficiency while minimizing the risk of strain-related tendon injury. We hypothesized that resistance training (RT) would alter tendon mechanical properties in children concomitantly with changes in force production characteristics. Twenty prepubertal children (age 8.9 ± 0.3 yr) were equally divided into control (nontraining) and experimental (training) groups. The training group completed a 10-wk RT intervention consisting of 2-3 sets of 8-15 plantar flexion contractions performed twice weekly on a recumbent calf-raise machine. Achilles tendon properties (cross-sectional area, elongation, stress, strain, stiffness, and Young's modulus), electromechanical delay (EMD; time between the onset of muscle activity and force), rate of force development (RFD; slope of the force-time curve), and rate of electromyographic (EMG) increase (REI; slope of the EMG time curve) were measured before and after RT. Tendon stiffness and Young's modulus increased significantly after RT in the experimental group only (∼29% and ∼25%, respectively); all other tendon properties were not significantly altered, although there were mean decreases in both peak tendon strain and strain at a given force level (14% and 24%, respectively; not significant) which may have implications for tendon injury risk and muscle fiber mechanics. A decrease of ∼13% in EMD was found after RT for the experimental group, which paralleled the increase in tendon stiffness (r = -0.59); however, RFD and REI were unchanged. The present data show that the Achilles tendon adapts to RT in prepubertal children and is paralleled by a change in EMD, although the magnitude of this change did not appear to be sufficient to influence RFD. These

  6. Ultrastructural changes in goat interspecies and intraspecies reconstructed early embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tao, Yong; Gheng, Lizi; Zhang, Meiling

    2008-01-01

    The low efficiency of somatic cell nuclear transfer may be related to the ultrastructural deviations of reconstructed embryos. The present study investigated ultrastructural differences between in vivo-produced and cloned goat embryos, including intra- and interspecies embryos. Goat ear fibroblast...

  7. Anthelmintic resistant nematodes in goats in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Pekelder, J.J.; Dercksen, D.P.

    1996-01-01

    A suspected case of anthelmintic resistance on a farm with Angora and Anglo-Nubian goats was confirmed in a controlled test. Twelve lambs of sheep were infected with larvae cultured from faeces of the goats. The lambs were allocated to four groups: untreated controls and lambs treated 21 days after

  8. Adjacent segment degeneration: observations in a goat spinal fusion study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.W. Hoogendoorn; M.N. Helder; P.I.J.M. Wuisman; R.A. Bank; V. Everts; T.H. Smit

    2008-01-01

    Study Design. The adjacent discs of 13 goats, originally used in a lumbar spinal fusion model study, were analyzed for symptoms of intervertebral disc degeneration by means of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), macroscopy, and histology. These goats were followed for 6 months and the results were com

  9. Dietary copper sulfate for control of gastrointestinal nematodes in goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in goats has necessitated studies for alternative means of gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) control. The objective was to determine the effectiveness of dietary copper sulfate for control of GIN in meat goats. Naturally infected buck kids received 0 (LC), 78 (M...

  10. Growth and carcass characteristics of indigenous (Ethiopian) goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ameha Sebsibe

    supplement in animal nutrition. The challenge is to develop alternative feed resources that will sustain production throughout ... three selected goat breeds fed a grainless diet that included Ethiopian native grass hay, wheat bran and noug cake. ...... Omani goats fed diets containing various metabolizable energy densities.

  11. Alveolar ridge augmentation by osteoinductive materials in goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Haanaes, H R; Roervik, M

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether alveolar ridge augmentation could be induced in goats. In 12 male goats allogenic, demineralized, and lyophilized dentin or bone was implanted subperiosteally on the buccal sides of the natural edentulous regions of the alveolar process of...

  12. Efficacy of garlic as an anthelmintic in adult Boer goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Worku Mulumebet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of garlic (Allium sativum L. for controlling gastroin­testinal parasites in adult female Boer goats. The impact of garlic treatment in goats naturally infected with Haemonchus contortus and Coccidia was evaluated by measuring fecal egg counts, packed cell volume, FAMACHA scores, and body weight. Goats were exposed to four dosage levels of concentrated (99.3% garlic juice (2.5 ml, 5 ml, and 10 ml during four weeks. There was a significant decrease in fecal counts of Coccidia eggs in goats treated with 10 ml of garlic juice (group 4; p<0.05. Garlic extract did not reduce fecal egg counts or alleviate anemia associated with H. contortus infection at the concentrations tested (p>0.05. However, at the intermediate dose of garlic (5 ml, goat body weight was significantly increased (group 3; p<0.05. Packed cell volume and FAMACHA scores did not show significant changes. These studies have implications for the control of Coccidia in goats. Garlic extract contributes to the alleviation of gastrointestinal infections in goats by reducing the Coccidia burden and may enhance animal performance in adult goats.

  13. Biological sex influences learning strategy preference and muscarinic receptor binding in specific brain regions of prepubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, Elin M; Hawley, Wayne R; Hodges, Kelly S; Fawcett-Patel, Jessica M; Dohanich, Gary P

    2013-04-01

    According to the theory of multiple memory systems, specific brain regions interact to determine how the locations of goals are learned when rodents navigate a spatial environment. A number of factors influence the type of strategy used by rodents to remember the location of a given goal in space, including the biological sex of the learner. We recently found that prior to puberty male rats preferred a striatum-dependent stimulus-response strategy over a hippocampus-dependent place strategy when solving a dual-solution task, while age-matched females showed no strategy preference. Because the cholinergic system has been implicated in learning strategy and is known to be sexually dimorphic prior to puberty, we explored the relationship between learning strategy and muscarinic receptor binding in specific brain regions of prepubertal males and female rats. We confirmed our previous finding that at 28 days of age a significantly higher proportion of prepubertal males preferred a stimulus-response learning strategy than a place strategy to solve a dual-solution visible platform water maze task. Equal proportions of prepubertal females preferred stimulus-response or place strategies. Profiles of muscarinic receptor binding as assessed by autoradiography varied according to strategy preference. Regardless of biological sex, prepubertal rats that preferred stimulus-response strategy exhibited lower ratios of muscarinic receptor binding in the hippocampus relative to the dorsolateral striatum compared to rats that preferred place strategy. Importantly, much of the variance in this ratio was related to differences in the ventral hippocampus to a greater extent than the dorsal hippocampus. The ratios of muscarinic receptors in the hippocampus relative to the basolateral amygdala also were lower in rats that preferred stimulus-response strategy over place strategy. Results confirm that learning strategy preference varies with biological sex in prepubertal rats with males

  14. Gonadal and nongonadal mechanisms contribute to the prepubertal hiatus in gonadotropin secretion in the female rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, C R; deRidder, C M; Plant, T M

    1995-07-01

    The present study reexamined the role of the ovary in determining the prepubertal hiatus of gonadotropin secretion in the rhesus monkey. Day- and nighttime blood samples were obtained weekly from neonatally (7-10 days of age) ovariectomized and intact monkeys from birth until 3 yr of age. In the intact monkeys, plasma FSH levels increased during the first month of life, remained elevated until approximately 3 months of age, and then decreased to become undetectable by 7 months of age. Thereafter, plasma FSH remained undetectable until approximately 19 months of age, at which time it again increased to detectable concentrations. In animals ovariectomized as neonates, the developmental pattern in FSH secretion was similar to that in intact animals, but, quantitatively, mean plasma FSH concentrations in the agonadal females were greater than those in the intact control group at all times. Circulating daytime LH concentrations in intact animals were generally below the sensitivity of the assay during the neonatal and prepubertal phases of development, but after 27 months of age, this plasma hormone was measurable on occasion. In neonatally ovariectomized monkeys, daytime LH was elevated during the first month of life, undetectable between 2-20 months of age, and then rose into the adult range by the end of the study. Nocturnal plasma FSH and LH concentrations in agonadal monkeys were generally greater than those during the day at all stages of development. Of particular note was the finding that during the prepubertal hiatus in gonadotropin secretion, when daytime LH levels were mostly immeasurable, nighttime levels of this gonadotropin were consistently elevated. The hypersecretion of gonadotropin during prepubertal development in agonadal animals also occurred when ovariectomy was performed at 61-62 weeks of age. These findings demonstrate that in the female monkey, the open loop activity of the GnRH pulse generator during juvenile development is only partially

  15. Goat milk acceptance and promotion methods in Japan: The questionnaire survey to middle class households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozawa, Takeyuki; Mukuda, Kumiko; Fujita, Masaru; Nishitani, Jiro

    2009-04-01

    A consumer questionnaire conducted with the purpose of ascertaining the acceptability of goat milk and related products in Japan was carried out on 345 guarantees of Nippon Veterinary and Life Science University in December 2006. 275 effective responses (79%) representing middle class urban households were returned. The results revealed that (1) 30% of respondents have experienced drinking goat milk and only 10% are aware of the current retail situation of goat milk and related products; (2) over 70% of goat milk drinkers raised goats by hand at some point in their past and their first experience drinking goat milk was in infancy; (3) those with experience in drinking goat milk expressed a vague evaluation and minimal understanding of drinking goat milk; (4) respondents who were inexperienced goat milk drinkers expressed a strong desire to taste and a weak desire to purchase goat milk; (5) respondents expressed low recognition regarding retailed goat milk products, but those who had already purchased goat milk products expressed a high evaluation and strong desire to purchase these products again; and (6) recognition of goat milk characteristics is low, but those with high recognition also rate goat milk highly. Goats are perceived as being 'mild and familiar.' It is necessary for those who manage goat husbandry to present goat milk and related product tasting opportunities to consumers. The key point is to make the functional differences between cow and goat milk clear and present the advantages of goat milk at the fore of this promotion. Goat milk should not be promoted merely as a drink that is similar to cow milk, but must be positioned as a functional drink or health food in order to expand the Japanese goat milk market.

  16. 9 CFR 51.28 - Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.28 Moving goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. Goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed because of brucellosis must be... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Moving goats, sheep, and horses to...

  17. 9 CFR 51.27 - Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.27 Identification of goats, sheep, and horses to be destroyed. The claimant must ensure that any goats, sheep, and... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of goats, sheep,...

  18. Hygienic quality of goat's milk cheese produced in rural household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Cvrtila

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of small-scale goat breeders produce goat's milk cheese that is sold on markets. In this study we determined the chemical composition and microbiological quality of goat's milk cheese samples. It has been found that the chemical composition of the samples were not standardised. Water content varied from 42,20 to 51,20 %, milk fat content in dry matter from 32,85 to 50,28%, while acidity varied from 15,08 to 39,36 ºSH. Only two samples (20% met the microbiological standards. In 2 samples Escherichia coli in the quantities larger than 102/g was found, whereas in all 8 samples yeasts and moulds were found in quantities larger than 102/g. The results of our study have shown that the hygienic conditions of goat's milk cheese production are often inadequate. Also, the hygienic conditions of goat keeping and milking hygiene are questionable.

  19. Goats on alpine grazing: study on metabolic and hematologic profiles

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    A. Gaviraghi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Summering on alpine pastures from June to October has long been the traditional management of goat flocks in the mountain areas of Lombardy. At present most of the 50.000 goats farmed in Lombardy are still summered, even though only a few thousands - belonging to local breed - are regularly milked. For these goats summering appears to be fundamental not only to allow milk production but also to restore body reserves. The increasing interest in commercial goat milk production in Lombardy involves mainly intensive farming with zero or minimum grazing. However, semi-extensive goat milk production, including summering, could respond to social and environmental goals (Citterio et al., 2002 being able to exploit some economic opportunities...

  20. Improvement of goat TSE discriminative diagnosis and susceptibility based assessment of BSE infectivity in goat milk and meat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossers, A.; Langeveld, J.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    In light of the known ability of the BSE agent to cross the animal/human species barrier, the evidence establishing the presence of BSE in goat is especially alarming, as it represents a potential risk of food-born contamination to human consumers of goat milk and meat products. The main objective h

  1. INFLUENCE OF AUTOLYTIC TRANSFORMATIONS ON ELECTROPHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF GOAT MEAT

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    L. V. Antipova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional foods represented an important element of a balanced, healthy diet. They play an important role in improving the structure of the diet of the population, are a means of prevention, correction and prevention of early transition premorbid conditions and various diseases. Meat and meat products based on it can be considered as a promising raw material for functional foods. Goat has certain dietary properties and can be used in manufacturing, but the production of high-grade products from goat meat, capable of long-term storage is not well developed. The chemical composition of the new raw meat - goat meat, on the example of the longissimus muscle of back is rich in protein, moisture, ash, and low-fat compared with other types of raw meat, which lets you create based on goat meat sector wide functional meat products. Therefore investigated the possibility of using goat meat in the production technology of functional foods. Showing the prospects for the development of goat in Russia. Investigated character of autolysis goat meat electro-physical methods and histological analysis. In the process of autolysis of goat meat are changing the electrical properties of raw meat, which are correlated with the morphological characteristics. Basic autolytic changes occurring in muscle tissue in the early stages of ripening, were reduced to a small extent the political process involving varying degrees of muscle structure in the early stages. In the later stages of maturation revealed changing widespread. Revealed that autolysis has characteristic periods and develops within 12 hours, further changes are irreversible. Shows the change in pH, carbohydrate fractions in the longissimus muscle of back goat. Results of the study of dynamics of change in pH, carbohydrate fractions in the longissimus muscle of back goat show compliance with the laws of classical autolysis noted in other sources, but differ in the time period. Defined stages of autolysis in

  2. Prevalence, morphology, and molecular characteristics of Sarcocystis spp. in domestic goats (Capra hircus) from Kunming, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun-Jie; Liu, Ting-Ting; Liu, Qiong; Esch, G W; Chen, Jin-Qing; Huang, Si; Wen, Tao

    2016-10-01

    Despite the importance of worldwide goat production, little is known about the prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. in domestic goats (Capra hircus) in China. The aims of the present study were to determine prevalence of Sarcocystis spp. in domestic goats in Kunming, China, as well as to identify parasite species based on morphological characteristics and DNA sequence analysis. Only microscopic sarcocysts of Sarcocystis spp. were detected in 174 of 225 goats (77.3 %). By light and transmission electron microscopy, two species, i.e., Sarcocystis capracanis and Sarcocystis hircicanis, were identified. Two sarcocysts from each of the two species were randomly selected for DNA extraction; the 18S rRNA gene (18S rRNA), the 28S rRNA gene (28S rRNA), and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequently sequenced. The results were compared with other previously sequenced Sarcocystis species retrieved from GenBank. There was little sequence variation between two isolates of the same species. S. capracanis was most closely related with Sarcocystis tenella; 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, and mitochondrial cox1 sequences shared identities of 95.7-99.1, 95.3, and 92.3-93.2 % with those of S. tenella, respectively. Thus, mitochondrial cox1 sequences seem to perform better than 18S rRNA sequences or 28S rRNA sequences for identification of the two species. S. hircicanis was most closely related to Sarcocystis arieticanis, i.e., 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA sequences of the former species shared 97.2-97.4 and 95.6-96.1 % identities with those of latter, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis inferred from the three genetic markers yielded similar results and indicated the two species were within a group of Sarcocystis species with canines as known, or presumed, definitive hosts.

  3. Gender’s Effect on a School-Based Intervention in the Prepubertal Growth Spurt

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    Marta Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Children aged 10-11 years pass through a dynamic developmental period marked by rapid changes in body size, shape, and composition, all of which are sexually dimorphic. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of gender on a school-based intervention in the prepubertal growth spurt. One hundred twenty-five healthy children (58 boys, 67 girls, fifth and sixth grade students from an urban public elementary school in Portugal (10.8 ± 0.4 years, were randomly assigned into two experimental groups: a strength training group (19 boys, 22 girls, and an endurance training group (21 boys, 24 girls; and a control group (18 boys, 21 girls; no training program. Training program for the two experimental groups was conducted twice a week for 8 weeks. Compared with the values at the beginning of the protocol, both strength and endurance training programs produced significant improvements (p 0.05, ƞ_p^2= 0.16, Power= 0.29 and aerobic (p> 0.05, ƞ_p^2= 0.05, Power= 0.28 capacity. The results of the present study should be taken into consideration in order to optimize strength training school-based programs.

  4. Nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children

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    Márcia Marília Gomes Dantas Lopes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Zinc is an essential nutrient that is required for numerous metabolic functions, and zinc deficiency results in growth retardation, cell-mediated immune dysfunction, and cognitive impairment. Objective: This study evaluated nutritional assessment methods for zinc supplementation in prepubertal non-zinc-deficient children. Design: We performed a randomised, controlled, triple-blind study. The children were divided into a control group (10% sorbitol, n=31 and an experimental group (10 mg Zn/day, n=31 for 3 months. Anthropometric and dietary assessments as well as bioelectrical measurements were performed in all children. Results: Our study showed (1 an increased body mass index for age and an increased phase angle in the experimental group; (2 a positive correlation between nutritional assessment parameters in both groups; (3 increased soft tissue, and mainly fat-free mass, in the body composition of the experimental group, as determined using bioelectrical impedance vector analysis; (4 increased consumption of all nutrients, including zinc, in the experimental group; and (5 an increased serum zinc concentration in both groups (p<0.0001. Conclusions: Given that a reference for body composition analysis does not exist for intervention studies, longitudinal studies are needed to investigate vector migration during zinc supplementation. These results reinforce the importance of employing multiple techniques to assess the nutritional status of populations.

  5. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis for evaluating zinc supplementation in prepubertal and healthy children

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    Márcia Marília Gomes Dantas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of abnormal nutritional status has increased in children and adolescents. Nutritional assessment is important for monitoring the health and nutritional status. Bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA combines changes in tissue hydration and structure and body composition that can be assessed. Objectives: The objective of this study was to use BIVA to evaluate nutritional status in 60 prepubertal children, aged between 8 and 9 years, supplemented with zinc, to detect possible changes in body composition. Design: We performed a randomized, controlled, triple-blind study. The children were divided into the control group (CG; sorbitol 10%, n=29 or the experimental group (EG; 10 mg Zn/day, n=31, and the duration of the experiment was 3 months. Anthropometric assessments were performed for all of the children. Results: The body mass index-for-age increased after oral zinc supplementation in the EG (p=0.005. BIVA indicated that the CG demonstrated a tendency for dehydration and decreased soft tissue and the EG demonstrated a tendency for increased soft tissue, primarily the fat-free mass. After analyses of BIVA ellipses, we observed that this method could detect improvements in body composition in healthy children supplemented with zinc. Conclusions: These results suggest that BIVA could be an auxiliary method for studying a small population undergoing zinc intervention.

  6. Prepubertal subchronic exposure to soy milk and glyphosate leads to endocrine disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Jessica; Moras, Patricia Bonamigo; Koeppe, Carina; Dallegrave, Eliane; Leal, Mirna Bainy; Rossato-Grando, Luciana Grazziotin

    2017-02-01

    Lactose intolerance is characterized by low or inexistent levels of lactase, and the main treatment consists of dietary changes, especially replacing dairy milk by soy milk. Soy contains phytoestrogens, substances with known estrogenic activity, besides, glyphosate-based herbicides are extensively used in soy crops, being frequently a residue in soy beans, bringing to a concern regarding the consumption of soy-based products, especially for children in breastfeeding period with lactose intolerance. This study evaluated the pubertal toxicity of a soy milk rich feeding (supplemented or not with glyphosate, doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg) during prepubertal period in male rats. Endocrine disruption was observed through decrease in testosterone levels, decrease in Sertoli cell number and increase in the percentage of degenerated Sertoli and Leydig cells in animals receiving soy milk supplemented with glyphosate (both doses) and in animals treated only with soy milk. Animals treated with soy milk with glyphosate (both doses) showed decrease spermatids number and increase of epididymal tail mass compared to control, and decrease in the diameter of seminiferous tubules compared to soy milk control group. Animals receiving soy milk supplemented with 100 mg/kg glyphosate showed decrease in round spermatids and increase in abnormal sperm morphology, compared to control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Otolaryngologic findings in prepubertal obese children with sleep-disordered breathing.

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    de Sousa Caixêta, Juliana Alves; Saramago, Alex Martins; Moreira, Gustavo Antonio; Fujita, Reginaldo Raimundo

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate otolaryngologic findings in obese prepubertal children with sleep-disordered breathing. We prospectively evaluated 29 obese children referred by pediatric endocrinologist, complaining of snoring and without a history of nasal surgery or removal of the palatine tonsils and/or adenoids. Patients underwent ear, nose and throat (ENT) examination, endoscopy, measurements of weight, height, calculation of body mass index (BMI), assessment of BMI z-score and polysomnography, from which were divided into two groups: those with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (nine children) and those with primary snoring (20 children). Then we proceeded to the statistical analysis of the data collected. The groups did not differ in age, gender, weight, height, BMI and BMI z-score. Among the findings of the ENT examination, the adenoid size was the only one that differed between the groups (p = 0.01). The evaluation of the adenoid size is an important in obese children with symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing and is related to the presence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Prepubertal social subjugation and anabolic androgenic steroid-induced aggression in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, R L; McGinnis, M Y

    2008-08-01

    Abused children are more prone to abuse drugs, such as anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), as teenagers and display violence as adults. AAS use has been linked with elevated aggression. Thus, exposure to child abuse and AAS may potentiate aggression. A social subjugation paradigm was used as an animal model of childhood abuse to determine whether prior subjugation increases AAS-induced aggression in male rats. Prepubertal gonadally intact male rats were exposed to social subjugation, a novel cage experience, or remained undisturbed in their home cages. Experimental males were socially subjugated by being placed in the home cage of an adult male. At puberty, both subjugated and nonsubjugated rats were injected with either the AAS testosterone or vehicle. AAS treatment continued for 5 weeks. Aggression was measured during the last week of AAS exposure. AAS was then discontinued. Aggression was again tested 12 weeks after AAS withdrawal. Aggression was tested under three conditions: (i) physical provocation of the experimental male; (ii) provocation of the intruder male; and (iii) without provocation. Both AAS-treated males and socially subjugated males displayed significantly more aggression than did controls. Elevated aggression by subjugated males was still present 17 weeks after social subjugation. AAS males also showed increased aggression 12 weeks after AAS withdrawal. However, exposure to both social subjugation and AAS had no long-term effects on aggression. The results of the present study indicate that social subjugation may have lasting consequences on the expression of adaptive social behaviours.

  9. Body mass index and triceps skinfold thickness in prepubertal children in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planinsec, Jurij; Fosnaric, Samo

    2009-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to analyze overweight and obesity in children on the basis of body mass index (BMI) and triceps skinfold thickness (TSF). The sample included 5613 children, aged 6 to12 years (X = 9.23; SD = 1.69) from Slovenia. Children were classified as non-overweight, overweight and obese according to age and sex specific BMI cut-off points. The results show that 18.3% of boys and 18.5% of girls are overweight and 6.5% of boys and 6.7% of girls are obese. The correlation between BMI and TSF in boys (r = 0.785) and girls (r = 0.783) are almost equal. Body weight has a lower correlation with TSF in boys (r = 0.691) and in girls (r = 0.631). The chi2 test show that there is a significant difference (p < 0.001) in TSF according to weight status. The results show that TSF and weight status of prepubertal children are closely related and that the criterion for the determination of weight status on the basis of BMI is well defined.

  10. Marked elevation of adrenal steroids, especially androgens, in saliva of prepubertal autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majewska, Maria Dorota; Hill, Martin; Urbanowicz, Ewa; Rok-Bujko, Paulina; Bieńkowski, Przemysław; Namysłowska, Irena; Mierzejewski, Paweł

    2014-06-01

    Autism is diagnosed on the basis of behavioral manifestations, but its biomarkers are not well defined. A strong gender bias typifying autism (it is 4-5 times more prevalent in males) suggests involvement of steroid hormones in autism pathobiology. In order to evaluate the potential roles of such hormones in autism, we compared the salivary levels of 22 steroids in prepubertal autistic male and female children from two age groups (3-4 and 7-9 years old) with those in healthy controls. The steroids were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and radioimmunoassay. Statistical analysis (ANOVA) revealed that autistic children had significantly higher salivary concentrations of many steroid hormones (both C21 and C19) than control children. These anomalies were more prominent in older autistic children and in boys. The levels of androgens (androstenediol, dehydroepiandrosterone, androsterone and their polar conjugates) were especially increased, indicative of precocious adrenarche and predictive of early puberty. The concentrations of the steroid precursor, pregnenolone, and of several pregnanolones were also higher in autistic than in healthy children, but cortisol levels were not different. Some steroids, whose levels are raised in autism (allopregnanolone, androsterone, pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone and their sulfate conjugates) are neuroactive and modulate GABA, glutamate, and opioid neurotransmission, affecting brain development and functioning. These steroids may contribute to autism pathobiology and symptoms such as elevated anxiety, sleep disturbances, sensory deficits, and stereotypies among others. We suggest that salivary levels of selected steroids may serve as biomarkers of autism pathology useful for monitoring the progress of therapy.

  11. Perceptions of self, mother and family and behavior of prepubertal depressed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand-Gothelf, A; Yoeli-Bligh, N; Gilboa-Schechtman, E; Benaroya-Milshtein, N; Apter, A

    2015-01-01

    To characterize the perceptions of self, mother and family of prepubertal children and to determine if the perceptions of children with depression and their behavior towards their mothers are different from children with anxiety disorders and nonpsychiatric controls. Children (aged 7-13 years) with major depressive disorder (n=30), anxiety disorders (n=37) and nonpsychiatric controls (n=32) underwent structured psychiatric evaluations and completed questionnaires on their perceptions of themselves and their relations with their mothers and families. The child-mother dyad was observed during structured interactions. Self-perceptions of depressed children were significantly more negative than those of children with anxiety and controls. Depression severity negatively correlated with the child's self-perception and positively correlated with perceptions of the mother as being more rejecting, controlling, less accepting and less allowing autonomy, and of the family as being less cohesive. Depression severity was also positively associated with the child's hostile attitude towards the mother during the interactions. Our findings of greater negative perceptions of self, mother and family in depressed children compared to children with anxiety disorders and nonpsychiatric children suggest that approaches specifically addressing negative perceptions and targeting familial relationships could be especially effective for treating young children with depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultrastructure of the carotid body of the goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Magied, E M; Taha, A A

    1995-09-01

    The carotid body of the goat was found to be a small oval or rounded parenchymatous organ. It was characterized by its profound vascularity. Delicate septa divided the parenchyma into small feebly defined lobules. Electron microscopy revealed that the parenchyma comprised type I cells, type II cells, nerve endings, axons and fenestrated dilated capillaries. Type I cells were characterized with electron dense-cored vesicles. They showed variations in size and concentration of the dense-cored vesicles and number of mitochondria. The possibility that these variations are reflections of different stages of activity is discussed. Type II cells were less numerous than type I cells, relatively small and devoid of dense-cored vesicles. They usually surrounded small groups of type I cells and associated nerve endings and axons. Presumptive afferent nerve endings characterized with many clear vesicles, occasional large granular vesicles and varying numbers of slender mitochondria, lay apposed to type I cells. Nerve endings of this kind showed afferent and efferent synaptic junctions with type I cells. Presumptive sympathetic efferent endings were occasionally seen within the lobules but never lay apposed to type I cells or afferent nerve ending.

  13. Genetic characterisation of CSN2 gene in Girgentana goat breed

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    Lina Tortorici

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among calcium sensitive caseins, β-casein is the most abundant in goat milk, representing up to 50% of total casein content. The goat β-casein locus has been widely investigated and at least ten alleles have been identified in different goat breeds. The aim of this work was to investigate the polymorphisms of β-casein gene in Girgentana dairy goat breed in order to assess the genotype distribution and evaluate how frequencies have changed during the last 10 years, as genotype is known to influence technological and nutritional milk properties. Sequencing analysis and alignment of the obtained sequences of β-casein exon 7, showed the presence of C, C1, and A strong alleles, and 0' null allele, with frequencies of 0.597, 0.326, 0.023, and 0.054, respectively. Seven genotypic classes were found in Girgentana goat breed and the most frequent genotype was CC1 (0.423 followed by CC (0.326, C1C1 (0.110, and C0' (0.096. No AA nor 0'0' homozygous individuals were found. The presence of strong alleles at CSN2 gene in Girgentana goat breed could be useful for the production of milk with high protein content and good cheese-making properties. Moreover, food business operators should consider the possibility of reviving interest in Girgentana goat milk using weak and null genotypes at CSN2 locus to make peculiar food products, such as drinking milk.

  14. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats

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    Stormoen Marit

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasma gondii is a major problem for the sheep industry as it may cause reproduction problems. The importance of T. gondii in Norwegian goat herds is uncertain, but outbreaks of toxoplasmosis in dairy goat farms have been recorded. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of T. gondii infection in Norwegian dairy goats by using serology. Findings Goat serum originally collected as part of two nationwide surveillance and control programmes between 2002 and 2008 were examined for T. gondii antibodies by using direct agglutination test. In total, 55 of 73 herds (75% had one or more serologically positive animals, while 377 of 2188 (17% of the individual samples tested positive for T. gondii antibodies. Conclusions This is the first prevalence study of T. gondii infection in Norwegian goats. The results show that Norwegian goat herds are commonly exposed to T. gondii. Nevertheless, the majority of goat herds have a low prevalence of antibody positive animals, which make them vulnerable to infections with T. gondii during the gestation period.

  15. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection as a Precipitant of Thyroid Storm in a Previously Undiagnosed Case of Graves' Disease in a Prepubertal Girl

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    Charlton RWilliam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Graves' disease is less common in prepubertal than pubertal children, and initial presentation with thyroid storm is rare. We report an 11-year-old prepubertal Hispanic girl who presented with a one-day history of respiratory distress, fever, and dysphagia. She had exophthalmos, a diffuse bilateral goiter and was agitated, tachycardic, and hypertensive. Nasal swab was positive for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV. She was diagnosed with thyroid storm and admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit. While infection is a known precipitant of thyroid storm and RSV is a common pediatric infection, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of RSV infection apparently precipitating thyroid storm in a prepubertal child.

  16. Microbiological quality of goat's milk obtained under different production systems

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    J.K. Kyozaire

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the safety of milk produced by smallholder dairy goat farms, a farm-based research study was conducted on commercial dairy goat farms to compare the microbiological quality of milk produced using 3 different types of dairy goat production systems (intensive, semi-intensive and extensive. A survey of dairy goat farms in and around Pretoria carried out by means of a questionnaire revealed that most of the smallholder dairy goat farms surveyed used an extensive type of production system. The method of milking varied with the type of production system, i.e. machine milking; bucket system machine milking and hand-milking, respectively. Udder half milk samples (n=270 were analysed, of which 31.1 % were infected with bacteria. The lowest intra-mammary infection was found amongst goats in the herd under the extensive system (13.3 %, compared with 43.3 % and 36.7 % infection rates under the intensive and semi-intensive production systems, respectively. Staphylococcus intermedius (coagulase positive, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus simulans (both coagulase negative, were the most common cause of intramammary infection with a prevalence of 85.7 % of the infected udder halves. The remaining 14.3 % of the infection was due to Staphylococcus aureus. Bacteriology of bulk milk samples on the other hand, showed that raw milk obtained by the bucket system milking machine had the lowest total bacterial count (16 450 colony forming units (CFU/mℓ compared to that by pipeline milking machine (36 300 CFU/mℓ or handmilking (48 000 CFU/mℓ. No significant relationship was found between the somatic cell counts (SCC and presence of bacterial infection in goat milk. In comparison with the herds under the other 2 production systems, it was shown that dairy goat farming under the extensive production system, where hand-milking was used, can be adequate for the production of safe raw goat milk.

  17. Sweating responses to isometric hand-grip exercise and forearm muscle metaboreflex in prepubertal children and elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tatsuro; Kai, Seiko; Nakajima, Michi; Ichinose-Kuwahara, Tomoko; Gerrett, Nicola; Kondo, Narihiko; Inoue, Yoshimitsu

    2017-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? Non-thermal factors (e.g. muscle metaboreflex) contribute to the sweating response during exercise. Although it is well recognized that the sweating responses caused by core temperature elevation in prepubertal children and the elderly are attenuated compared with young adults, it is unknown whether non-thermal sweating is also attenuated in these populations. What is the main finding and its importance? The non-thermal sweating response during isometric hand-grip exercise and isolated muscle metaboreflex were attenuated in prepubertal children compared with young adults in a non-uniform manner over the body, but only during the muscle metaboreflex in the elderly. This may explain the maturation- and ageing-related decline of sweating during exercise. The purpose of the present study was to investigate sweating responses to isometric hand-grip (IH) exercise and muscle metaboreflex in prepubertal children and the elderly. In hot conditions (ambient temperature, 35°C; relative humidity, 45%), 13 healthy young adults, 10 prepubertal children and 10 elderly subjects (aged 20.4 ± 1.2, 11.4 ± 0.5 and 63.5 ± 3.1 years, respectively) repeated a three hand-grip exercise protocol that consisted of 1 min IH exercise at 15, 30 or 45% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) followed by 2 min postexercise forearm occlusion. Local sweat rates (SRs) on the forehead, chest, forearm, thigh and palm were continuously measured (ventilated capsule method). The forehead SR in prepubertal children during IH exercise at 45% MVC was significantly lower than that of young adults (0.26 ± 0.22 and 0.08 ± 0.15 mg cm(-2)  min(-1) for young adults and children, respectively; P elderly at any exercise intensities. The SR on the chest (0.22 ± 0.22 and -0.01 ± 0.05 mg cm(-2)  min(-1) for young adults and children, respectively), forearm (0.14 ± 0.12 and 0.03 ± 0.04 mg cm(-2)  min(-1) ) and thigh (0.13 ± 0.10 and 0

  18. The toxicity of Cassia senna to Nubian goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sayed, N Y; Abdelbari, E M; Mahmoud, O M; Adam, S E

    1983-01-01

    Ten Nubian goats were given oral doses of the fresh fruits and leaves of Cassia senna at 1, 5, and 10 g/kg/day. Eight goats died within 30 days and two others were slaughtered in a moribund condition on days 18 and 29. The clinical signs of diarrhoea, inappetence, loss of condition, and dyspnea were well correlated with the pathological findings. There was an increase in G.O.T., ammonia, urea, and total cholesterol and a decrease in total protein in the serum of Cassia-poisoned goats. Blood sugar level was reduced and the increase in the values of Hb, PCV, and RBC was due to haemoconcentration.

  19. Anaerobic treatment of lactic waste and goat manure

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    J. Luís Magaña-Ramírez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic digestion was carried out to obtain biogas from lactic waste in combination with goat manure. Waste from lactic products such as cream, cheese and whey was mixed with goat manure using three formulations; the quantity of waste from cream and cheese was maintained, and only the quantity of manure and whey was varied. Methanogenic bacteria obtained from predigestion of goat manure were used as inoculants. Temperature was 35ºC and pH 7.0.Biogas methane percentage was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed that the highest methane concentration obtained was 82% with formulation III.

  20. Metformin treatment to reduce central adiposity after prenatal growth restraint: a placebo-controlled pilot study in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Marta; Bassols, Judit; López-Bermejo, Abel; de Zegher, Francis; Ibáñez, Lourdes

    2015-11-01

    Children born small-for-gestational-age (SGA) who experience rapid postnatal catch-up in weight are at risk for central adiposity and hyperinsulinemia. To study the effects of prepubertal metformin intervention over 24 months on the body composition and endocrine-metabolic profile of catch-up SGA children. Double-blind, placebo-controlled, pilot study including 23 post-catch-up non-obese prepubertal SGA children [age, 7.7 yr; body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS) >50th and 75th for age]. Patients were randomized to receive either placebo or metformin (425 mg/d) for 24 months. Clinical, biochemical [IGF-I, glucose, insulin, lipids, androgens, sex-hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and high-molecular-weight (HMW)-adiponectin] and imaging [body composition (absorptiometry and MRI; carotid intima-media thickness (ultrasonography)] variables were assessed at baseline, and at 6, 12, and 24 months. After 24 months, metformin-treated children were leaner, had higher SHBG levels, and less total and abdominal fat than placebo-treated children (all p ≤ 0.05). Longitudinal analyses showed that metformin had a significant effect on anthropometric (weight, BMI, and waist) and biochemical variables [glucose, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and triglycerides] (all p ≤ 0.05); and in total and abdominal fat (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02). Prepubertal intervention with metformin reduces central adiposity and improves insulin sensitivity in non-obese catch-up SGA children. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Does soaking temperature during controlled slow freezing of pre-pubertal mouse testes influence course of in vitro spermatogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkoun, Brahim; Dumont, Ludovic; Milazzo, Jean-Pierre; Rondanino, Christine; Bironneau, Amandine; Wils, Julien; Rives, Nathalie

    2016-06-01

    The banking of testicular tissue before highly gonadotoxic treatment is a prerequisite for the preservation of fertility in pre-pubertal boys not yet producing sperm. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the impact of a soaking temperature performed at -7 °C, -8 °C or -9 °C on the ability of frozen-thawed mouse spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) to generate haploid germ cells after in vitro maturation. Testes of 6.5-day-old post-partum CD-1 mice were cryopreserved by using a controlled slow freezing protocol with soaking at -7 °C, -8 °C or -9 °C. Frozen-thawed pre-pubertal testicular tissues were cultured in vitro on agarose gel for 30 days. Histological evaluations were performed and flagellated late spermatids were counted after mechanical dissection of the cultured tissues. The differentiation of frozen SSCs into elongated spermatids was more efficient after treatment at -9 °C than at -7 °C and -8 °C. After dissection, flagellated late spermatids were observed by using Shorr staining. The number of flagellated late spermatids was significantly decreased after slow freezing when compared with a fresh tissue control. Therefore, the soaking temperature during slow freezing of pre-pubertal mouse testicular tissue might positively influence the course of in vitro spermatogenesis. Our slow freezing protocol with a soaking temperature at -9 °C was the optimal condition in terms of the achievement of in vitro spermatogenesis with a higher production of elongated spermatids, although the effectiveness of the maturation process was reduced compared with the fresh tissue control.

  2. Sexually dimorphic innate immunological responses of pre-pubertal Brahman cattle following an intravenous lipopolysaccharide challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jeffery A; Burdick Sanchez, Nicole C; Hulbert, Lindsey E; Ballou, Michael A; Dailey, Jeffery W; Caldwell, Lisa C; Vann, Rhonda C; Welsh, Thomas H; Randel, Ronald D

    2015-08-15

    This study was designed to characterize potential sexually dimorphic immunological responses following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in beef cattle. Six female (heifers) and five male (bulls) Brahman calves (average age=253 ± 19.9 and 288 ± 47.9 days; average body weight=194 ± 11 kg and 247 ± 19 kg for heifers and bulls, respectively) were challenged with LPS (0.25 μg LPS/kg body weight). Following administration of LPS, all cattle displayed increased sickness behavior beginning at 0.5h, with heifers on average displaying less sickness behavior than bulls. A febrile response was observed in all animals following LPS administration, with a maximum response observed from 4 to 5.5h. The average rectal temperature response was greater in heifers than bulls. In all cattle there were elevated serum concentrations of cortisol from 0.5 to 8h, TNF-α from 1 to 2.5h, IL-6 from 2 to 8h, and IFN-γ from 2.5 to 7h after LPS challenge. Additionally, serum concentrations of TNF-α were greater in heifers than bulls from 1.5 to 2h after the LPS challenge. Concentrations of IFN-γ were also greater on average in bulls than heifers. Leukopenia occurred from 1 to 8h, with a decreased neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio for the first 5h among all calves. These data demonstrate the existence of a sexually dimorphic acute-phase response in pre-pubertal Brahman calves. Specifically, heifers may have a more robust acute response to LPS challenge, even though bulls display more signs of sickness. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Major cardiac surgery induces an increase in sex steroids in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Matthias; d'Uscio, Claudia H; de Laffolie, Jan; Neuhaeuser, Christoph; Bödeker, Rolf-Hasso; Thul, Josef; Schranz, Dietmar; Frey, Brigitte M

    2014-03-01

    While the neuroprotective benefits of estrogen and progesterone in critical illness are well established, the data regarding the effects of androgens are conflicting. Surgical repair of congenital heart disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, but there are scant data regarding the postoperative metabolism of sex steroids in this setting. The objective of this prospective observational study was to compare the postoperative sex steroid patterns in pediatric patients undergoing major cardiac surgery (MCS) versus those undergoing less intensive non-cardiac surgery. Urinary excretion rates of estrogen, progesterone, and androgen metabolites (μg/mmol creatinine/m(2) body surface area) were determined in 24-h urine samples before and after surgery using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in 29 children undergoing scheduled MCS and in 17 control children undergoing conventional non-cardiac surgery. Eight of the MCS patients had Down's syndrome. There were no significant differences in age, weight, or sex between the groups. Seven patients from the MCS group showed multi-organ dysfunction after surgery. Before surgery, the median concentrations of 17β-estradiol, pregnanediol, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were (control/MCS) 0.1/0.1 (NS), 12.4/11.3 (NS), 4.7/4.4 (NS), and 2.9/1.1 (p=0.02). Postoperatively, the median delta 17β-estradiol, delta pregnanediol, delta DHT, and delta DHEA were (control/MCS) 0.2/6.4 (p=0.0002), -3.2/23.4 (p=0.013), -0.6/3.7 (p=0.0004), and 0.5/4.2 (p=0.004). Postoperative changes did not differ according to sex. We conclude that MCS, but not less intensive non-cardiac surgery, induced a distinct postoperative increase in sex steroid levels. These findings suggest that sex steroids have a role in postoperative metabolism following MCS in prepubertal children.

  4. Sex-dependent consequences of pre-pubertal gonadectomy: Social behavior, stress and ethanol responsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Esther U; Spear, Linda P

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol consumption can be enhanced or moderated by sensitivity to its aversive and appetitive properties, including positive social outcomes. These differences emerge post-pubertally, suggesting a potential role of gonadal hormones. To determine the role of gonadal hormones in sensitivity to the social impairing and social context-related attenuations in the aversive effects of ethanol, prepubertal male and female rats were gonadectomized (GX) or sham (SH) operated on postnatal day (P) 25, or left non-manipulated (NM). In adulthood (P70), rats were restrained for 90 min prior to challenge with 0.0 or 1.0 g/kg ethanol and social interaction (SI) testing. At P77, groups of 4 same-sex littermates from the same surgical condition were given access to a supersaccharin (SS) solution (3% sucrose, 0.125% saccharin), followed by an intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (0.0, 0.50, 1.0, 1.5 g/kg). Intakes of SS were examined 24h later for expression of conditioned taste aversions. Acute stress prior to SI testing increased frequency of play fighting in both sexes, whereas there were no GX effects on this measure, social investigation nor contact. GX, however, decreased baseline social preference (a social anxiety-like effect) in males, while inducing anxiolytic-like increases in baseline social preference in females. The social drinking test revealed that females developed ethanol conditioned taste aversions at a lower dose relative to males, regardless of surgical condition. These findings suggest a potential role for gonadal hormones in moderating social-anxiety like behaviors but not sensitivity to the social impairing effects of ethanol or ethanol's aversive consequences in a social context.

  5. Visuomotor competencies and primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis in prepubertal aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Maria; Gallai, Beatrice; Parisi, Lucia; Roccella, Michele; Marotta, Rosa; Lavano, Serena Marianna; Mazzotta, Giovanni; Patriciello, Giuseppina; Precenzano, Francesco; Carotenuto, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE) is a common problem in the developmental ages; it is the involuntary loss of urine during the night in children older than 5 years of age. Several clinical observations have suggested an association between bedwetting and developmental delays in motricity, language development, learning disability, physical growth, and skeletal maturation. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence of fine motor coordination and visuomotor integration abnormalities in prepubertal children with PMNE. The study population included 31 children (16 males, 15 females; mean age 8.14 years ± 1.36 years), and the control group comprised 61 typical developing children (32 males, 29 females; mean age 8.03 years ± 1.44 years). The whole population underwent a clinical evaluation to assess total intelligence quotient level, visuomotor integration (VMI) skills, and motor coordination performance (using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, or M-ABC). No significant differences between the two study groups were found for age (P = 0.725), gender (P = 0.886), z-body mass index (P = 0.149), or intellectual abilities (total intelligence quotient) (P = 0.163). The PMNE group showed a higher prevalence of borderline performance on M-ABC evaluation and in pathologic performance on VMI Total Task compared to controls (P VMI Visual Task (P = 0.793), and VMI Motor Task (P = 0.213). Our findings pinpointed that PMNE should not be considered as a voiding disorder alone and, consequently, the children affected should be referred to specific rehabilitative programs that aim to improve motor coordination and visuomotor integration.

  6. Effect of thoracic arthrodesis in prepubertal New Zealand white rabbits on cardio-pulmonary function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Canavese

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This experimental study was aimed at evaluating the type of cardiac and pulmonary involvement, in relation to changes of the thoracic spine and cage in prepubertal rabbits with nondeformed spine following dorsal arthrodesis. The hypothesis was that T1-T12 arthrodesis modified thoracic dimensions, but would not modify cardiopulmonary function once skeletal maturity was reached. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in 16 female New Zealand White (NZW rabbits. Nine rabbits were subjected to T1-T12 dorsal arthrodesis while seven were sham-operated. Echocardiographic images were obtained at 12 months after surgery and parameters for 2-dimensional and M-mode echocardiographic variables were assessed. One week before echocardiographic examination, blood samples were withdrawn from the animals′ central artery of the left ear to obtain blood gas values. One week after echocardiographic assessment, a thoracic CT scan was performed under general anesthesia. Chest depth (CD and width (CW, thoracic kyphosis (ThK and sternal length (StL were measured; thoracic index (ThI, expressed as CD/CW ratio. All subjects were euthanized after the CT scan. Heart and lungs were subsequently removed to measure weight and volume. Results: The values for 2-dimensional and M-mode echocardiographic variables were found to be uniformly and significantly higher, compared to those reported in anesthetized rabbits. CD, ThK, and StL were considerably lower in operated rabbits, as compared to the ones that were sham-operated. Similarly, the ThI was lower in operated rabbits than in sham-operated ones. Conclusion: Irregularities in thoracic cage growth resulting from thoracic spine arthrodesis did not alter blood and echocardiographic parameters in NZW rabbits.

  7. Objective Identification of Prepubertal Female Singers and Non-singers by Singing Power Ratio Using Matlab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usha, M; Geetha, Y V; Darshan, Y S

    2017-03-01

    The field of music is increasingly gaining scope and attracting researchers from varied fields in terms of improvising the art of voice modulation in singing. There has been a lot of competition, and young budding singers are emerging with more talent. This study is aimed to develop software to differentiate a prepubertal voice as that of a singer or a non-singer using an objective tool-singing power ratio (SPR)-as an objective measure to quantify the resonant voice quality. Recordings of singing and phonation were obtained from 30 singers and 30 non-singer girls (8-10 years). Three professional singers perceptually evaluated all samples using a rating scale and categorized them as singers or non-singers. Using Matlab, a program was developed to automatically calculate the SPR of a particular sample and classify it into either of two groups based on the normative values of SPR developed manually. Positive correlation for SPR of phonation or singing was found between perceptual and manual ratings, and objective values of SPR. Software could automatically give the SPR values for samples that are fed and could further differentiate them as singer or non-singer. Researchers need not depend on professional singers or musicians for the judgment of voice for research purposes. This software uses an objective tool, which serves as an instrument to judge singing talent using singing and phonation samples of children. Also, it can be used as a first line of judgment in any singing audition process, which could ease the work of professionals. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.

  8. Prepubertal chronic stress and ketamine administration to rats as a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Edward; Raphaeli, Shani; Avital, Avi

    2013-11-01

    Increased vulnerability to psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, has been associated with higher levels of stress. In the early development of the central nervous system, changes in function of glutamatergic N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors can possibly result in the development of psychosis, cognitive impairment and emotional dysfunction in adulthood. Thus, in this study we examined the behavioural consequences of the exposure of male rats to chronic stress (postnatal days 30-60) and ketamine administration (postnatal days 41-45); both during a sensitive developmental time window. We found that the locomotor activity of both ketamine and ketamine+chronic stress groups was significantly higher compared with that of the control rats. In contrast, the locomotor activity of the chronic stress group was significantly lower compared with all other groups. Examining anhedonia in the sucrose preference test we found a significantly decreased sucrose intake in both ketamine+chronic stress and the chronic stress groups compared with the control rats. No significant differences were observed in sucrose intake between the control and the ketamine group. The object recognition test revealed that the attention to the novel object was significantly impaired in the ketamine+chronic stress group. Similarly, the ketamine+chronic stress group showed the poorest learning ability in the eight-arm radial maze, starting on the 8th day. Finally, throughout the different pre-pulse intensities, the ketamine+chronic stress group showed impaired PPI compared with all other groups. The results indicate that the combination of prepubertal onset of chronic stress and ketamine may serve as a valid novel animal model for schizophrenia-like symptoms.

  9. Deleterious effects of obesity on physical fitness in pre-pubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschia, Arianna; Giacomini, Stefano; Santarossa, Simone; Rugo, Miriam; Salvadego, Desy; Da Ponte, Alessandro; Driussi, Caterina; Mihaleje, Martina; Poser, Stefano; Lazzer, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in children has increased dramatically during the past decades in Europe and understanding physical fitness and its components in children is critical to design and implement effective interventions. The objective of the present study was to analyse the association between physical fitness (aerobic, speed, agility, power, flexibility and balance) and body mass index (BMI) in pre-pubertal children. A total of 2411 healthy schoolchildren (7-11 years) participated in this study. Anthropometric characteristics and body composition were assessed by skinfold thickness. Physical fitness was measured by nine physical fitness tests: endurance running, 20 m running speed, agility, handgrip strength, standing long jump and squat jump, sit and reach, medicine ball forward throw and static balance. No relevant differences were observed between boys and girls regarding anthropometric characteristics, body composition and physical fitness. However, overweight and obese children showed significantly lower physical fitness levels in endurance running, speed and agility (mean: +18.8, +5.5 and +14.5% of time to complete tasks, respectively), lower limb power normalised to body mass (-23.3%) and balance tests (number of falls: +165.5%) than their normal weight counterparts. On the other hand, obesity did not affect handgrip, throwing and flexibility. In conclusion, increased BMI was associated with lower performance capabilities limiting proper motor skill development, which directly affects the ability of children to take on sports skills. Actions undertaken to promote children's wellness and fitness should be prioritised and introduced early in life with the aim of enhancing physical fitness as well as preventing overweight and obesity.

  10. Structure and genetic relationships between Brazilian naturalized and exotic purebred goat domestic goat (Capra hircus breeds based on microsatellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelliton Domingos de Oliveira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The genetic relationships and structure of fourteen goat (Capra hircus populations were estimated based on genotyping data from 14 goat populations (n = 410 goats at 13 microsatellite loci. We used analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA, principal component analysis (PCA and F statistics (F IS, F IT and F ST to evaluate the genetic diversity (Ho, He and ad of the goats. Genetic distances between the 14 goat populations were calculated from allelic frequency data for the 13 microsatellite markers. Moderate differentiation was observed for the populations of the undefined breeds (including the Anglo-Nubian-M breed, the naturalized Brazilian breeds (Moxotó, Canindé, the exotic purebred breeds (Alpine, Saanen, Toggenbourg and Anglo-Nubian and the naturalized Brazilian Graúna group. Our AMOVA showed that a major portion (88.51% of the total genetic variation resulted from differences between individual goats within populations, while between-populations variation accounted for the remaining 11.49% of genetic variation. We used a Reynolds genetic distance matrix and PCA to produce a phenogram based on the 14 goat populations and found three clusters, or groups, consisting of the goats belonging to the undefined breed, the naturalized breeds and the exotic purebred breeds. The closer proximity of the Canindé breed from the Brazilian state of Paraíba to the Graúna breed from the same state than to the genetically conserved Canindé breed from the Brazilian state of Ceará, as well as the heterozygosity values and significant deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium suggests that there was a high number of homozygotes in the populations studied, and indicates the importance of the State for the conservation of the local breeds. Cataloguing the genetic profile of Brazilian goat populations provides essential information for conservation and genetic improvements programs.

  11. Discovery of differentially expressed genes in cashmere goat (Capra hircus) hair follicles by RNA sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, X; Wu, J H; Wu, R B; Su, R; Li, C; Zhang, Y J; Wang, R J; Zhao, Y H; Fan, Y X; Zhang, W G; Li, J Q

    2016-09-02

    The mammalian hair follicle (HF) is a unique, highly regenerative organ with a distinct developmental cycle. Cashmere goat (Capra hircus) HFs can be divided into two categories based on structure and development time: primary and secondary follicles. To identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the primary and secondary HFs of cashmere goats, the RNA sequencing of six individuals from Arbas, Inner Mongolia, was performed. A total of 617 DEGs were identified; 297 were upregulated while 320 were downregulated. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the main functions of the upregulated genes were electron transport, respiratory electron transport, mitochondrial electron transport, and gene expression. The downregulated genes were mainly involved in cell autophagy, protein complexes, neutrophil aggregation, and bacterial fungal defense reactions. According to the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, these genes are mainly involved in the metabolism of cysteine and methionine, RNA polymerization, and the MAPK signaling pathway, and were enriched in primary follicles. A microRNA-target network revealed that secondary follicles are involved in several important biological processes, such as the synthesis of keratin-associated proteins and enzymes involved in amino acid biosynthesis. In summary, these findings will increase our understanding of the complex molecular mechanisms of HF development and cycling, and provide a basis for the further study of the genes and functions of HF development.

  12. Proximate analysis of two breeds of goat meat (chevon) and assessment of perception on goat consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharuddin, Azan Azuwan; Abdullah, Aminah

    2015-09-01

    Goat Meat (chevon) has been used as a source of protein and its demand for consumption is increasing yearly in Malaysia. The objective of the research was to determine proximate composition namely moisture, protein, fat and ash level in chevon from different type of breed i.e. Boer and Katjang. The goat breed proximate analyses were compared with sheep meat (mutton). The results for goat breeds were showing that the percentage of moisture, fat, protein and ash were of 73.06 - 74.99, 2.76 - 2.94, 20.81 - 22.47 and 0.97 - 1.21 respectively. Meanwhile the concentration of moisture, fat, protein and ash for mutton were 73.52, 5.06, 22.50 and 1.17 respectively. The pilot study on perception survey indicated that the highest respondent percentage on consumption of chevon was once in a month. Based on the survey, Boer was the most known breed compared to the other breed. Majority of respondents reported that chevon was fairly expensive meat but easier to obtain in the survey area.

  13. Extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the thorax in a goat: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Ueli; Schwarzwald, Colin C; Forster, Eva; Becker-Birck, Mareike; Borel, Nicole; Ohlerth, Stefanie

    2011-09-19

    This report describes the results of clinical, ultrasonographic and computed tomographic examination of a 16-year-old goat with extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the thorax. The lead clinical signs were abnormal condition and demeanour, fever, tachycardia, tachypnoea, dyspnoea and dilated jugular veins. Ultrasonographic examination of the thorax revealed a precardial mass, measuring 16.4 by 11.4 by 14.2 cm. Computed tomographic examination showed dorsocaudal displacement of the trachea, heart and lungs to the right. A tentative diagnosis of mediastinal or pleural neoplasia was made, and the goat was euthanased and necropsied. A definitive diagnosis was based on histological examination of the mass. To our knowledge, this case report is the first description of extraskeletal osteosarcoma of the thorax in goats and serves to broaden the diagnostic spectrum of thoracic diseases in this species. Extraskeletal osteosarcoma should be part of the differential diagnosis in goats with thoracic tumours.

  14. Impacts of intervention objectives in goat production within ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... objectives in goat production within subsistence farming systems in South Africa. ... impact of intervention objectives, namely an increase in kidding percentage ... Most important outputs included the slaughter for home consumption, sale of ...

  15. Milk production of Tswana goats fed diets containing different levels ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    Tswana goat does were allocated to one of three diets formulated to provide energy for maintenance and a ... supplement were available ad libitum. .... peaks since the observed trends are likely to have been influenced by the feeding regime.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of Nanjiang Yellow goat (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haijun; Meng, Xiangren; Zhang, Hao; Duan, Xiaoyue; Niu, Lili; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Wu, Hongda; Zhong, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Nanjiang Yellow goat (Capra hircus) is the first cultured mutton breed in China. In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Nanjiang Yellow goat has been identified for the first time. The total length of the mitochondrial genome was 16,639 bp, with the base composition of 33.54% A, 26.05% C, 13.11% G and 27.30% T. It contained 37 genes (22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 13 protein-coding genes) and a major non-coding control region (D-loop). Most of the genes have ATG initiation codons, whereas ND2, ND3 and ND5 start with ATA. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Nanjiang Yellow goat provides an important data set for further estimation on the phylogeographic structure of domestic goats.

  17. PREVALENCE OF FASCIOLA HEPATICA IN GOATS AROUND MULTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. TASAWAR, U. MUNIR, C. S. HAYAT AND M. H. LASHARI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Faecal Samples of 80 goats belonging to Nachi and Teddy breeds were collected bimonthly from areas around Multan, Pakistan. The overall prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in goats and relationship between body weight, age, breed of the host and also effect of parasite on the litter size of the host were studied. The overall prevalence of F. hepatica was 28.75%. Infection of parasite was more prevalent in Teddy than in Nachi goats (42.10 VS 16.67%; P45 kg, the difference was significant (p36 months. The prevalence was significantly different (P<0.05 in different age groups. It was concluded that the prevalence of Fasciola hepatica in goats was significantly affected by the breed age, and body weight of the animal. However, it had no effects on the litter size.

  18. growth and physiological performance of west african dwarf goats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2014-09-02

    Sep 2, 2014 ... Department of Animal Science and ** Department of Crop Science. Faculty of ... production of small ruminants such as sheep ... JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN FORESTRY, WILDLIFE AND .... African Dwarf Goat project.

  19. Assessment of Quality Characteristics of Cellulose, Sheep and Goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of Quality Characteristics of Cellulose, Sheep and Goat Casings as Sausage Containers. ... Sheep casing is recommended as substitute to imported cellulose casing for stuffing sausages produced in Nigeria. ... Article Metrics.

  20. Spatial epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in goats in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitomir Djokić

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A major risk factor for Toxoplasma gondii infection is consumption of undercooked meat. Increasing demand for goat meat is likely to promote the role of this animal for human toxoplasmosis. As there are virtually no data on toxoplasmosis in goats in Serbia, we undertook a cross-sectional serological study, including prediction modelling using geographical information systems (GIS. Sera from 431 goats reared in 143 households/farms throughout Serbia, sampled between January 2010 and September 2011, were examined for T. gondii antibodies by a modified agglutination test. Seroprevalence was 73.3% at the individual level and 84.6% at the farm level. Risk factor analysis showed above two-fold higher risk of infection for goats used for all purposes compared to dairy goats (P = 0.012, almost seven-fold higher risk for goats kept as sole species versus those kept with other animals (P = 0.001 and a two-fold lower risk for goats introduced from outside the farm compared to those raised on the farm (P = 0.027. Moreover, households/farms located in centre-eastern Serbia were found to be less often infected than those in northern Serbia (P = 0.004. The risk factor analysis was fully supported by spatial analysis based on a GIS database containing data on origin, serology, land cover, elevation, meteorology and a spatial prediction map based on kriging analysis, which showed western Serbia as the area most likely for finding goats positive for T. gondii and centre-eastern Serbia as the least likely. In addition, rainfall favoured seropositivity, whereas temperature, humidity and elevation did not.

  1. Interspecific transmission of small ruminant lentiviruses from goats to sheep

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza, Thiago S.; Pinheiro,Raymundo R.; Joselito N. Costa; Lima,Carla C.V. de; Alice Andrioli; de Azevedo, Dalva A.A.; Vanderlan W.S. dos Santos; Araújo,Juscilânia F.; de Sousa, Ana Lídia M.; Pinheiro, Danielle N.S.; Flora M.C. Fernandes; Antonio O. Costa Neto

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the transmission of caprine lentivirus to sheep using different experimental groups. The first one (colostrum group) was formed by nine lambs receiving colostrum from goats positive for small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). The second group (milk group) was established by nine lambs that received milk of these goats. Third was a control group, consisting of lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of negative mothers. Another experimental group (contac...

  2. Monitoring of clinical signs in goats with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldmann Wilfred

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As there is limited information about the clinical signs of BSE and scrapie in goats, studies were conducted to describe the clinical progression of scrapie and BSE in goats and to evaluate a short clinical protocol for its use in detecting scrapie-affected goats in two herds with previously confirmed scrapie cases. Clinical assessments were carried out in five goats intracerebrally infected with the BSE agent as well as five reported scrapie suspects and 346 goats subject to cull from the two herds, 24 of which were retained for further monitoring. The brain and selected lymphoid tissue were examined by postmortem tests for disease confirmation. Results The sensitivity and specificity of the short clinical protocol in detecting a scrapie case in the scrapie-affected herds was 3.9% and 99.6%, respectively, based on the presence of tremor, positive scratch test, extensive hair loss, ataxia and absent menace response. All BSE- and scrapie-affected goats displayed abnormalities in sensation (over-reactivity to external stimuli, startle responses, pruritus, absent menace response and movement (ataxia, tremor, postural deficits at an advanced clinical stage but the first detectable sign associated with scrapie or BSE could vary between animals. Signs of pruritus were not always present despite similar prion protein genotypes. Clinical signs of scrapie were also displayed by two scrapie cases that presented with detectable disease-associated prion protein only in lymphoid tissues. Conclusions BSE and scrapie may present as pruritic and non-pruritic forms in goats. Signs assessed for the clinical diagnosis of scrapie or BSE in goats should include postural and gait abnormalities, pruritus and visual impairment. However, many scrapie cases will be missed if detection is solely based on the display of clinical signs. PrPd accumulation in the brain appeared to be related to the severity of clinical disease but not to the display of

  3. Effect of goat breed on the meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanović Snežana D.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of goat meat has recently become an important aspect in the marketing of goats in Serbia. The aim of this study was to compare some goat meat quality parameters of various races and to determine the differences between them. Goat breeds were Balkan goat and Serbian White goat, both female in the age of four years. Analysis of quality parameters: chemical composition (moisture, protein, total fat, ash,, pH value, fatty acids, amino acids, microelements content, tenderness, cooking loss and colour measurements were done. Statistically significant difference was found between the samples of two groups of goat meat (P <0.05 in relation to: live weight (kg, water (%, fat (%, protein (%, ash (%, among 11 of 15 tested fatty acids, amino acid leucin, sensory examination of fresh meat for the palpatory evaluated firmness and in the content of copper and zinc. Statistically significant differences between the groups did not existed regarding the pH value, fatty acids eicosenoic, cis-heptadecenoic, t-elaidic, t-linolelaidic and amino acids alanine, arginine, aspartic acid, cysteine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, threonine, tryptophan, tyrosine, valine. Also there was no statistically significant difference in instrumental testing of the meat color, sensory evaluation of surface color, visual evaluated structure, olfactory evaluated odor and iron and manganese. These results suggest that the race of animal has an impact on meat quality. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31053: Implementation of new biotechnological solutions in breeding of cattle, sheep and goats for the purpose of obtaining biologically valuable and safe food

  4. Interactions between gastrointestinal parasitism and pneumonia in Nigerian goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Mosunmola T; Morenikeji, Olajumoke A; Emikpe, Benjamin O; Jarikre, Theophilus A

    2017-09-01

    This study was carried out to determine the burden and interactions between parasitism and pneumonia in Nigerian goats. A total of 430 goats were examined for gastrointestinal (GIT) parasites by faecal analysis using sedimentation by gravity, Modified Winconsin sugar floatation method, McMaster egg counting techniques and for lung consolidation, pathology and morphometry of pneumonia were evaluated by standard techniques. The results from the faecal examination revealed the presence of nine (9) gastrointestinal parasites namely Eimeria, Trichuris, Oesophagostomum, Strongyloides, Moniezia, Haemonchus, Bunostomum, Trichostrongylus, and Nematodirus species and at an overall high prevalence of 74%. Eimeria species was found to have the highest prevalence of 26% for single infection, while co-infection of Eimeria and Trichuris species 21% was highest amongst other parasites, and of the breeds of goats examined for GIT parasites, the Red Sokoto (RS) breed had the highest infection rate 37%. The results from the lungs analysis showed 59% prevalence with the highest consolidation in RS (48.2%), followed by WAD (34.2%). The age of the goats was key in the infection rate of both parasites and pneumonia, which was seen to be highest in younger goats, with a significant (2.10 ± 0.4 × 10(3)) GI parasite burden in >1-2 years group. The prevalence of GIT infection with lung consolidation in the goats, was observed to influence their Body condition scores (BCS) (p goats may be predisposing factors to gastrointestinal parasites and pneumonia in Nigerian goats. There was a strong correlation (+0.243, p = 0.00) of occurrence of gastrointestinal parasitism and pneumonia in this study. Possibility of combined prophylactic measures should be considered in the nearest future.

  5. Use of goats in poverty alleviation and potential effects on the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Henriksen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Goats are a powerful tool in assistance to alleviate poverty and they are also a powerful tool to utilize scarce vegetation in areas not suitable for other forms of agricultural production. If goats are kept in a wrong place and not managed well they may, however, destroy the environment. According...... to this paper, financed by DanChurchAid, the solution to the dilemma between the very efficient and useful goats for the poor people and the potential very destructive goats for the environment is found in intelligent management of the goats and not in preventing poor people to keep goats. Education...

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of Sicilian goats reveals a new mtDNA lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardina, M T; Ballester, M; Marmi, J; Finocchiaro, R; van Kaam, J B C H M; Portolano, B; Folch, J M

    2006-08-01

    The mitochondrial hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) sequence of 67 goats belonging to the Girgentana, Maltese and Derivata di Siria breeds was partially sequenced in order to present the first phylogenetic characterization of Sicilian goat breeds. These sequences were compared with published sequences of Indian and Pakistani domestic goats and wild goats. Mitochondrial lineage A was observed in most of the Sicilian goats. However, three Girgentana haplotypes were highly divergent from the Capra hircus clade, indicating that a new mtDNA lineage in domestic goats was found.

  7. Use of goats in poverty alleviation and potential effects on the environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jørgen; Nielsen, Mette Benedicte Olaf; Henriksen, Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Goats are a powerful tool in assistance to alleviate poverty and they are also a powerful tool to utilize scarce vegetation in areas not suitable for other forms of agricultural production. If goats are kept in a wrong place and not managed well they may, however, destroy the environment. According...... to this paper, financed by DanChurchAid, the solution to the dilemma between the very efficient and useful goats for the poor people and the potential very destructive goats for the environment is found in intelligent management of the goats and not in preventing poor people to keep goats. Education...

  8. Multiple anthelmintic resistance in a goat herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, A M; Gipson, T A

    2000-01-01

    Anthelmintic resistance was monitored over a 30 month period within a goat herd in eastern Virginia, USA. Resistance to ivermectin, levamisole and benzimidazole drugs was detected in Haemonchus contortus using the fecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). When levamisole use was discontinued for 1 year, susceptibility to levamisole appeared to return. Although a single treatment with fenbendazole was able to reduce fecal egg counts by only 50%, two doses administered in a 12 h interval increased efficacy to 92%, however, confidence intervals indicated that resistance was still present. When fecal egg counts were determined the following year after several treatment using this protocol, the efficacy of fenbendazole had fallen again to 57% reduction in fecal egg counts. The predominant genus present in cultured composite fecal samples was Haemonchus. Trichostrongylus, Cooperia and Teladorsagia were also present in smaller numbers.

  9. Osteoporose em caprinos Osteoporosis in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio B. Rosa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um estudo de casos de osteoporose em caprinos provenientes de uma propriedade na área de abrangência do LPV-UFSM, determinando a epidemiologia, o quadro clínico-patológico e discutindo os prováveis mecanismos patogenéticos. Cinco cabras, fêmeas, SRD, de seis meses a seis anos de idade foram afetadas. As cabras eram mantidas em campo nativo, sem suplementação com ração e sob superlotação. Os principais sinais clínicos foram emagrecimento, dificuldade de locomoção e permanência em decúbito por longos períodos. As principais alterações macroscópicas nos ossos examinados foram vistas nas superfícies de corte e caracterizavam-se por depleção do osso esponjoso (porosidade e redução acentuada da espessura do osso cortical. Havia também marcada atrofia serosa da gordura da medula óssea. Microscopicamente, nas regiões avaliadas (úmero proximal, rádio distal, fêmur distal, tíbia proximal e corpos das vértebras lombares foi observada redução moderada a acentuada do número e da espessura das trabéculas ósseas nas epífises e metáfises dos ossos longos e nos corpos vertebrais. Os achados clínico-patológicos indicaram que a osteoporose observada provavelmente foi causada pela desnutrição. As alterações ósseas (diminuição no número e na espessura das trabéculas do osso esponjoso sugerem que ambos os mecanismos, má formação óssea e reabsorção óssea aumentada, contribuíram para a ocorrência de osteoporose nos caprinos deste estudo.A study of cases of osteoporosis in goats diagnosed in the Laboratório de Patologia Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, was performed. The epidemiology, clinicopathological changes and possible pathogenetic mechanisms were determined and discussed. Five goats, females, mixed breed, with six months to six years of age were affected. The goats were kept on natural pasture without supplemental feed and under

  10. Healthy goats naturally devoid of prion protein

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    Benestad Sylvie L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prion diseases such as scrapie in small ruminants, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE in cattle and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD in man, are fatal neurodegenerative disorders. These diseases result from the accumulation of misfolded conformers of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP in the central nervous system. To date naturally-occurring PrP free animals have not been reported. Here we describe healthy non-transgenic animals, Norwegian Dairy Goats, lacking prion protein due to a nonsense mutation early in the gene. These animals are predicted to be resistant to prion disease and will be valuable for research and for production of prion-free products.

  11. Survey on coenurosis in sheep and goats in Egypt

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    Enas A. Desouky

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 75 sheep and goats from apparently healthy and from clinically affected flocks were examined for Coenurus cerebralis cysts from different localities in Egypt. Of 25 animals examined from clinically diseased sheep and goats, 25 (100% revealed the presence of infestation with one to four coenuri in the brain. The sites of predilection were the left hemisphere (48%, followed by the right hemisphere (40% and the cerebellum (12%. There was no apparent effect of the age of sheep and goats on susceptibility to infestation with C. cerebralis. Another 50 animals from apparently healthy sheep and goat herds presented no C. cerebralis cysts. The cysts from infested sheep could infest newborn puppies experimentally, with a prepatent period of 60 days post infestation. A total of 15 immature worms that were recovered from one puppy did not reach patency until 105 days post infestation with C. cerebralis cyst scolices. Pathological changes in C. cerebralis-infested sheep brain revealed parasitic elements, demyelinated nerve tracts, hyperaemic blood vessels with round cell infiltration, encephalomalacia with round cell infiltration and palisading macrophages and giant cells, as well as focal replacement of the brain parenchyma with caseated and calcified materials. The morphological characteristics of both the larval stage from sheep and goats and adult worms of Taenia multiceps from experimentally infested dogs are described. The results conclude that C. cerebralis is one of the principal causes of nervous manifestations of coenurosis in clinically diseased sheep and goats in Egypt.

  12. Pharmacokinetics of single-dose oral ponazuril in weanling goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, D; Gibbons, P; Fajt, V; Jones, M

    2016-06-01

    Ponazuril (toltrazuril sulfone) is a triazine antiprotozoal agent that targets apicomplexan organisms. Ponazuril may have clinical application in the treatment of clinical coccidiosis due to Eimeria species in goats, along with other protozoal infections. To evaluate the absorption, distribution and elimination characteristics of ponazuril in goats, a sensitive, validated high-pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy method for ponazuril in caprine plasma was developed. After a single oral dose of ponazuril at 10 mg/kg, plasma samples from seven weanling goats were collected and assayed. Plasma concentrations of ponazuril in the goats peaked at 36 ± 13 h post drug administration at a concentration of 9 ± 2 μg/mL. Concentrations declined to an average of 4.2 ± 0.8 μg/mL after 168 h with an average elimination half-life of 129 ± 72 h post drug administration. This study shows that ponazuril is relatively well absorbed after a single oral dose in goats. Efficacy trials are underway to determine clinical efficacy of ponazuril in the treatment of clinical coccidiosis in goats at 10 mg/kg dosage.

  13. Effect of selenium supplementation on spermatogenic cells of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganabadi, S; Halimatun, Y; Amelia Choong, K L; Nor Jawahir, A; Mohammed Hilmi, A

    2010-04-01

    Selenium is an essential trace mineral that is required for many physiological functions in animals and the potential relevance of selenium to the reproductive system of livestock has been considered by many researchers. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of selenium supplementation on the spermatogenic cells of goat. Eight young male crossbred (Katjang x Boer) goats, aged between 9 to 11 months, were used in this study. The control group (CON; n = 4) was fed with a diet consisting of 60% Guinea grass and 40% concentrates while the treatment group (Se-SUP; n = 4) was fed with the same diet as the goats in the control group but with supplementation of 0.6mg selenium (sodium selenite powder) per goat daily for 100 days and were slaughtered on the 101st day. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in the mean number of spermatogonium, spermatocytes, spermatozoa and the total number of spermatogenic cells between the CON and Se-SUP goat respectively. However, there was a significant increase (pspermatozoa was significantly decreased (pselenium supplementation increased the percentages of spermatids and decreased the percentages of spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules in goats.

  14. Improving Milk Quality for Dairy Goat Farm Development

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    L. Cyrilla

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to evaluate factors affecting goat’s milk quality, consumer’s satisfaction to goat’s milk, and technical responses associated with goat’s milk quality. Three farms having more than 100 dairy goats were purposively selected for the study. Thirty consumers were determined by using judgement sampling techniques to assess the satisfaction of consumer to goat’s milk quality. Data were analyzed by using fishbone diagram and House of Quality matrix. The study revealed that milk quality produced by dairy goat farms met the standard quality of milk composition namely; specific gravity, total solid, fat, protein, and total solid non-fat. The main factors affecting goat milk quantity and quality were the quality of does, pregnancy status, number of kids per birth, shape and size of the udder, lactation length, and the health status of the goat. The attributes of goat’s milk that were able to achieve customer’s satisfaction targets were nutritional content, packaging size, and goat milk color. Technical responses that were major concern in ensuring goat’s milk quality included goat breed quality and health conditions, skills and performances of farmers and employees, feed quality, farm equipment hygiene and completeness, cleanliness, and hygiene of livestock housing and environment. Technical response on livestock health condition was the first priority to be improved.

  15. Lack of effect on sexual behaviour or the development of testicular function after removal of olfactory bulbs in prepubertal boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, W D; Baldwin, B A

    1980-01-01

    Bilateral olfactory bulb ablation was carried out surgically on 8 prepubertal Large White boars when they were 10-12 weeks of age. Between 26 weeks and slaughter at 47-49 weeks of age, androgen was determined in peripheral blood plasma of bulbectomized and unoperated control animals. The pigs were exposed to oestrous female pigs to observe mating behaviour, and to alien boars to observe aggressive behaviour. Saliva produced during behaviour tests was extracted with diethyl ether and levels of the pheromonal 16-androstene steroids in the extracts were determined by a colorimetric assay. After slaughter the testes, accessory organs and submaxillary glands were weighed, and pices of tissue together with olfactory epithelium were processed for light microscopy; fructose and zinc were determined in the seminal vesicles. The results showed that, contrary to findings in some rodents, prepubertal bilateral bulbectomy in the male pig had no significant effect on mating or aggressive behaviour, or testicular function in so far as complete spermatogenesis was present and normal levels of androgen and pheromone were maintained together with the integrity of the accessory organs. However, in keeping with findings in other species, the height of the olfactory epithelium was generally reduced in the bulbectomized pigs.

  16. Rib overgrowth may be a contributing factor for pectus excavatum: Evaluation of prepubertal patients younger than 10years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul Hwan; Kim, Tae Hoon; Haam, Seok Jin; Lee, Sungsoo

    2015-11-01

    We compared the costal cartilage and rib length between prepubertal patients with symmetric pectus excavatum and age- and sex-matched controls without anterior chest wall depression to evaluate if rib overgrowth is a contributing factor for pectus excavatum The sample included 18 prepubertal patients ribs and costal cartilage were measured using three-dimensional volume-rendered computed tomography and curved multiplanar reformatting techniques. The rib and costal cartilage lengths, total combined rib and costal cartilage length, and costal index ([length of cartilage/length of rib]×100 [%]) at the fourth to sixth levels were compared between the groups. The rib lengths in the patient group were significantly longer than in the control group for the 6th right rib and 4th, 5th, and 6th left ribs. The costal cartilage lengths and costal indices were not different between two groups. In patients with symmetric pectus excavatum aged ribs were longer than those of controls, suggesting that abnormal rib overgrowth may be a contributing factor responsible for pectus excavatum rather than cartilage overgrowth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Active immunization against GnRH in ovine (Ovis aries: testicular morphometry, histopathology and endocrine responses in prepubertal ram lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutierrez-Reinoso MA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present research was to assess the effects of an active immunization against GnRH on male reproductive function as an alternative to surgical sterilization evaluating testicular morphometry, histopathological alterations and plasma gonadotropin levels in prepubertal ram lambs. Dorper ram lambs (age= 2 months; control group, n= 5; treatment group, n=15 were immunised by using an anti-GnRH vaccine (two administrations spaced 15d developed by linking a GnRH homologous molecule to tetanus toxoid (clostridial toxoid with aluminum hydroxide as coadjuvant. To determine the effectiveness of the vaccination protocol, testicular morphometry was evaluated (length, width, mean volume and total volume together with histopathological alterations in testicular tissue samples (seminiferous tubule diameters, spermatogonia per testis and sperm presence and endocrine responses (ELISA from blood samples (FSH, LH, testosterone and cortisol plasma levels. Morphometric parameters (testicular length, width and volume were significantly reduced in vaccinated animals with respect to the control group (p0.05. In conclusion, prepubertal active immunization against GnRH led to marked differences on testes morphometry and activity in ovine species, however, it did not affect endocrine levels nor spermatogenesis in all individuals studied showing a partial vaccination effect in some of them. Thus, taking into account the heterogeneous dysfunctional responses obtained, different vaccination assays and strategies should be tested before active immunization against GnRH is considered as a viable alternative to conventional surgical sterilization.

  18. Management of developing skeletal class III malocclusion in a prepubertal girl with prognathic mandible in late mixed dentition

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    Satinder Pal Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of skeletal Class III patients at younger age is highly unpredictable. The patient may respond well to the treatment or may show excessive mandibular growth during growth spurt which may require orthognathic surgery later on. If not treated at earlier stages of life, the condition may worsen with time. This case report will present the comprehensive orthodontic management of a 9-year-old prepubertal girl in late mixed dentition with prognathic mandible. Chin cup therapy was started and continued for 3 years. After chin cup therapy, maxillary and mandibular dentition were bonded with standard edgewise appliance. After leveling and alignment, Class III elastics were started. Fixed orthodontic treatment was completed in 3 years. At the end, good Class I molar and canine relationship with normal overjet and overbite were achieved. The total treatment time of orthopedic and orthodontic correction was 6 years, 2 months. The patient revealed the same Class I molar and canine relationship after 6 years of treatment. Redirection of mandibular growth pattern from hyperdivergent to normodivergent advocates the use of chin cup as a viable treatment regimen for the management of prognathic mandible in prepubertal patients.

  19. Focusing on the goat casein complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroli, A; Chiatti, F; Chessa, S; Rignanese, D; Bolla, P; Pagnacco, G

    2006-08-01

    The analysis of casein polymorphisms in goat species is rather difficult, because of a large number of mutations at each locus, and the tight linkage involving the 4 casein genes. Three goat breeds from Northern Italy, Orobica, Verzasca, and Frisa, were analyzed at the casein complex by milk isoelectrofocusing and analyses at the DNA level to identify the majority of all known polymorphisms. The casein gene structure of the 3 local breeds at alpha(S1)-casein (CSN1S1), beta-casein (CSN2), alpha(S2)-casein (CSN1S2), and kappa-casein (CSN3) was compared with that of Camosciata, a more widely distributed breed. A new allele was identified and characterized at CSN2 gene, which seemed to be specific to the Frisa breed. It was named CSN2*E, and was characterized by a transversion TCT --> TAT responsible for the amino acid exchange Ser(166) --> Tyr(166) in the mature protein. The casein haplotype structure is highly different among breeds. A total of 26 haplotypes showed a frequency higher than 0.01 in at least 1 of the 4 breeds considered, with 12, 3, 5, and 19 haplotypes in Frisa, Orobica, Verzasca, and Camosciata breeds, respectively. Only 13 haplotypes occurred at a frequency higher than 0.05 in at least 1 breed. With the molecular knowledge of each locus, the ancestral haplotype coding for CSN1S1*B, CSN2*A, CSN1S2*A, and CSN3*B protein variants can be postulated. A protein evolutionary model considering the whole casein haplotype is proposed.

  20. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Q fever in goats on commercial dairy goat farms in the Netherlands, 2009-2010

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    Schimmer Barbara

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in dairy goat farms in the Netherlands and to identify risk factors for farm and goat seropositivity before mandatory vaccination started. We approached 334 eligible farms with more than 100 goats for serum sampling and a farm questionnaire. Per farm, median 21 goats were sampled. A farm was considered positive when at least one goat tested ELISA positive. Results In total, 2,828 goat serum samples from 123 farms were available. Farm prevalence was 43.1% (95%CI: 34.3%-51.8%. Overall goat seroprevalence was 21.4% (95%CI: 19.9%-22.9% and among the 53 positive farms 46.6% (95%CI: 43.8%-49.3%. Multivariable logistic regression analysis included 96 farms and showed that farm location within 8 kilometres proximity from a bulk milk PCR positive farm, location in a municipality with high cattle density (≥ 100 cattle per square kilometre, controlling nuisance animals through covering airspaces, presence of cats or dogs in the goat stable, straw imported from abroad or unknown origin and a herd size above 800 goats were independent risk factors associated with Q fever on farm level. At animal level almost identical risk factors were found, with use of windbreak curtain and artificial insemination as additional risk factors. Conclusion In 2009-2010, the seroprevalence in dairy goats in the Netherlands increased on animal and farm level compared to a previous study in 2008. Risk factors suggest spread from relatively closely located bulk milk-infected small ruminant farms, next to introduction and spread from companion animals, imported straw and use of artificial insemination. In-depth studies investigating the role of artificial insemination and bedding material are needed, while simultaneously general biosecurity measures should be updated, such as avoiding companion animals and vermin entering the stables, next to advice on farm stable constructions on

  1. Efficacy of albendazole against nematode parasites isolated from a goat farm in Ethiopia: relationship between dose and efficacy in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguale, Tadesse; Chaka, Hassen; Gizaw, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    A suspected case of albendazole resistance in a goat farm of Hawassa University was examined using faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT), controlled anthelmintic efficacy test and egg hatch assay (EHA) to verify the development of resistance and/or the need for higher doses of the drug in goats than in sheep. The experiment was conducted in 12 sheep (2 groups: treatment versus control) and 24 goats (4 groups: 3 treatments versus control, n = 6; per group) following artificial infection with infective larvae of Haemonchus contortus and Oesophagostomum columbianum. The first group of sheep and goats were treated orally with albendazole at the dose rate of 3.8 mg/kg body weight (i.e. manufacturer's recommended dose for sheep) while the second group of sheep and the fourth group of goats were left untreated. The second and the third group of goats were treated with albendazole at 5.7 and 7.6 mg/kg respectively. The FECRT showed an efficacy of albendazole in goats to be 65.5, 81.4 and 84.1% at the dose rate of 3.8, 5.7 and 7.6 mg/kg body weight respectively while in sheep it was 62% at the dose rate of 3.8 mg/kg. Increasing the dose to 1.5 the sheep recommended dose induced minor improvement of efficacy in goats; however the efficacy was almost the same at 1.5 and twice the dose recommended for sheep. Worm counts at day 15 post-treatment revealed that H. contortus has developed resistance to albendazole. EHA results also supported these findings. On the other hand, O. columbianum was 100% susceptible at all dose levels tested.

  2. Comparison of Kil Goat and Saanen x Kil Goat Crosbred (F1, G1 Raised At The Farm Conditions In Terms of Fertility Characteristics

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    Hilal Tozlu Çelik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research Amasya Sarilar (40°54'23"N, 35°08'min5"E, a private business in the years 2011-2012 between the grown Saanen x Kil goat crosbred (F1, G1 and Kil goat in the fertility characteristics to detect and genotype on these features, year was conducted to determine the effects of such factors. In the study of reproductive traits for the year 2011 only twin goats giving birth rate among genotypes were found statistically difference. The twin birth rate of Kil goat was similar in F1 crosbred and G1 is different from both genotypes were found. In 2012, the remaining infertile among genotypes goat, dead goat giving birth and twin goats rate has been determined that there are statistical differences. Infertility rate, Saanen x Kil goat F1, G1 crosbred was found to be higher than in the Kil goat. Twin goat giving birth rate F1 genotypes in high, genotypes G1 and Kil goats find similar.

  3. Candidate Gene Expression in Bos indicus Ovarian Tissues: Prepubertal and Postpubertal Heifers in Diestrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral; Fortes, Marina Rufino S.; Porto-Neto, Laercio R.; Kelly, Matthew; Venus, Bronwyn; Kidd, Lisa; do Rego, João Paulo Arcelino; Edwards, Sophia; Boe-Hansen, Gry B.; Piper, Emily; Lehnert, Sigrid A.; Guimarães, Simone Eliza Facioni; Moore, Stephen Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins 6, 7, 15, and two isoforms of transforming growth factor-beta (BMP6, BMP7, BMP15, TGFB1, and TGFB2), and insulin-like growth factor system act as local regulators of ovarian follicular development. To elucidate if these factors as well as others candidate genes, such as estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 2 (BMPR2), type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1), and key steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 aromatase and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (CYP19A1 and HSD3B1) could modulate or influence diestrus on the onset of puberty in Brahman heifers, their ovarian mRNA expression was measured before and after puberty (luteal phase). Six postpubertal (POST) heifers were euthanized on the luteal phase of their second cycle, confirmed by corpus luteum observation, and six prepubertal (PRE) heifers were euthanized in the same day. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of FSHR, BMP7, CYP19A1, IGF1, and IGFR1 mRNA was greater in PRE heifers, when contrasted to POST heifers. The expression of LHR and HSD3B1 was lower in PRE heifers. Differential expression of ovarian genes could be associated with changes in follicular dynamics and different cell populations that have emerged as consequence of puberty and the luteal phase. The emerging hypothesis is that BMP7 and IGF1 are co-expressed and may modulate the expression of FSHR, LHR and IGFR1, and CYP19A1. BMP7 could influence the downregulation of LHR and upregulation of FSHR and CYP19A1, which mediates the follicular dynamics in heifer ovaries. Upregulation of IGF1 expression prepuberty, compared to postpuberty diestrus, correlates with increased levels FSHR and CYP19A1. Thus, BMP7 and IGF1 may play synergic roles and were predicted to interact, from the expression data (P = 0.07, r

  4. Stress induced alterations in pre-pubertal ovarian follicular development in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajurvedi H.N.

    2011-12-01

    receptor antagonist prevents pre-pubertal ovarian stress response.

  5. Visuomotor competencies and primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis in prepubertal aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito M

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Maria Esposito,1 Beatrice Gallai,2 Lucia Parisi,3 Michele Roccella,3 Rosa Marotta,4 Serena Marianna Lavano,4 Giovanni Mazzotta,5 Giuseppina Patriciello,1 Francesco Precenzano,1 Marco Carotenuto1 1Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Department of Mental Health, Physical and Preventive Medicine, Second University of Naples, Italy; 2Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Italy; 3Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Italy; 4Department of Psychiatry, "Magna Graecia" University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, Italy; 5Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, AUSL Umbria 2, Terni, Italy Background: Primary monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (PMNE is a common problem in the developmental ages; it is the involuntary loss of urine during the night in children older than 5 years of age. Several clinical observations have suggested an association between bedwetting and developmental delays in motricity, language development, learning disability, physical growth, and skeletal maturation. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence of fine motor coordination and visuomotor integration abnormalities in prepubertal children with PMNE. Methods: The study population included 31 children (16 males, 15 females; mean age 8.14 years ± 1.36 years, and the control group comprised 61 typical developing children (32 males, 29 females; mean age 8.03 years ± 1.44 years. The whole population underwent a clinical evaluation to assess total intelligence quotient level, visuomotor integration (VMI skills, and motor coordination performance (using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, or M-ABC. Results: No significant differences between the two study groups were found for age (P = 0.725, gender (P = 0.886, z-body mass index (P = 0.149, or intellectual abilities (total intelligence quotient (P = 0.163. The PMNE group showed a higher prevalence of borderline performance on M

  6. The Sertoli cell hormones inhibin-B and anti Müllerian hormone have different patterns of secretion in prepubertal cryptorchid boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortes, Dina; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Hutson, John M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES AND HYPOTHESES: The Sertoli-cells produce inhibin-B and Anti-Müllerian-Hormone (AMH). Much is still unknown about these hormones in prepubertal cryptorchids. The Sertoli-cells are mandatory for germ cell development. The aim of the study was to investigate if there are differences in s...

  7. UPF2, a nonsense-mediated mRNA decay factor, is required for prepubertal Sertoli cell development and male fertility by ensuring fidelity of the transcriptome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Jianqiang; Tang, Chong; Yuan, Shuiqiao

    2015-01-01

    SCs and germ cells during prepubertal testicular development. RNA-Seq and bioinformatic analyses revealed impaired transcriptomic homeostasis in SC-specific Upf2 knockout testes, characterized by an accumulation of PTC-containing transcripts and the transcriptome-wide dysregulation of genes encoding...

  8. Assessment of circulating sex steroid levels in prepubertal and pubertal boys and girls by a novel ultrasensitive gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courant, Frédérique; Aksglæde, Lise; Antignac, Jean-Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Estrogens and androgens play key roles for pubertal onset and sexual maturation. Most currently used immunoassays are not sensitive enough to accurately measure the low circulating levels of sex steroids in children without any signs of puberty. However, this does not exclude that sex steroids have...... important biological roles in prepubertal children....

  9. The Influence of Socio-Economic Status on the Long-Term Effect of Family-Based Obesity Treatment Intervention in Prepubertal Overweight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langnase, Kristina; Asbeck, Inga; Mast, Mareike; Muller, Manfred J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of the socio-economic status (SES) on long-term outcomes of a family-based obesity treatment intervention in prepubertal children. A total of 52 overweight and 26 normal weight children were investigated. Nutritional status, intake of fruit, vegetables and low fat foods, in-between meals, sports…

  10. The Influence of Socio-Economic Status on the Long-Term Effect of Family-Based Obesity Treatment Intervention in Prepubertal Overweight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langnase, Kristina; Asbeck, Inga; Mast, Mareike; Muller, Manfred J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of the socio-economic status (SES) on long-term outcomes of a family-based obesity treatment intervention in prepubertal children. A total of 52 overweight and 26 normal weight children were investigated. Nutritional status, intake of fruit, vegetables and low fat foods, in-between meals, sports…

  11. Physiochemical properties, microstructure, and probiotic survivability of nonfat goats' milk yogurt using heat-treated whey protein concentrate as fat replacer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tiehua; McCarthy, James; Wang, Guorong; Liu, Yanyan; Guo, Mingruo

    2015-04-01

    There is a market demand for nonfat fermented goats' milk products. A nonfat goats' milk yogurt containing probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Bifidobacterium spp.) was developed using heat-treated whey protein concentrate (HWPC) as a fat replacer and pectin as a thickening agent. Yogurts containing untreated whey protein concentrate (WPC) and pectin, and the one with only pectin were also prepared. Skim cows' milk yogurt with pectin was also made as a control. The yogurts were analyzed for chemical composition, water holding capacity (syneresis), microstructure, changes in pH and viscosity, mold, yeast and coliform counts, and probiotic survivability during storage at 4 °C for 10 wk. The results showed that the nonfat goats' milk yogurt made with 1.2% HWPC (WPC solution heated at 85 °C for 30 min at pH 8.5) and 0.35% pectin had significantly higher viscosity (P yogurts and lower syneresis than the goats' yogurt with only pectin (P yogurt samples did not change much throughout storage. Bifidobacterium spp. remained stable and was above 10(6) CFU g(-1) during the 10-wk storage. However, the population of Lactobacillus acidophilus dropped to below 10(6) CFU g(-1) after 2 wk of storage. Microstructure analysis of the nonfat goats' milk yogurt by scanning electron microscopy revealed that HWPC interacted with casein micelles to form a relatively compact network in the yogurt gel. The results indicated that HWPC could be used as a fat replacer for improving the consistency of nonfat goats' milk yogurt and other similar products.

  12. Study on transition of g.11584A>G of goat melanophilin gene in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-19

    Apr 19, 2010 ... MLPH gene of ruminant. In order to extend knowledge of. MLPH gene ... Genomic DNA from blood sample of goat was isolated according to the standard phenol : chloroform extraction method. According to the goat sequence ...

  13. Socio-economic aspects of goat farming enterprise in Teso region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    so that farmers can increase their present holdings for improved profitability. Key words: Benefits, farming system, goat production, Uganda .... business related activities were also reported. ... indicated cash income from sale of goats.

  14. Summer Diet, Feeding Site Selection, and Forage Resources of Mountain Goats on Kodiak Island, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report discusses managing mountain goat populations and their habitats on Kodiak Island. Introduced mountain goats (Oreamnus americanus) on Kodiak Island...

  15. Socio-economic aspects of goat farming enterprise in Teso region ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    A study was conducted to document the socio-economic aspects of goat production in Teso sub- region of Uganda ... Key words: Benefits, farming system, goat production, Uganda. Introduction ...... level of adoption of innovations in dairy cattle.

  16. The prospect of biogas among small-holder dairy goat farmers in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prospect of biogas among small-holder dairy goat farmers in the Uluguru ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... In Mgeta ward, Morogoro region, introduction of Norwegian dairy goats in the 1980s has ...

  17. Progress in the uitilization and promotion of South African indigenous goats for cashmere production

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Braun, AL

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available . Utilization of the fibres as an addition source of income would make the goat flocks more profitable Cashmere production is labour intensive and ideally suited for farmers with small number of goats Supports rural and economic development...

  18. Potential disease agents in domestic goats and relevance to bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Mark L; Weiser, Glen C

    2017-01-01

    Domestic goats are raised for meat, milk and hair production, in herds for rangeland weed control, and as pack animals. Domestic sheep, goats and wild bighorn sheep are all susceptible to a multifactorial pneumonia. We sampled 43 herd goats from 7 herds and 48 pack goats from 11 herds for viral and bacterial serology, parasitology, and Pasteurellaceae microbiology. The goats in this study were in generally good health, although most goats did harbor various pathogens and parasites including several bacteria, specifically Pasteurellaceae, which have been associated with pneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep. It is not known if domestic goats can transmit the Pasteurellaceae or other pathogens found in this study readily to wild bighorn sheep. However, due the possibility of transmission, domestic goats in areas in or near bighorn sheep habitat should be managed to minimize the risk of spreading disease agents to bighorn sheep.

  19. Relationship between body mass index and adiposity in prepubertal children: ethnic and geographic comparisons between New York City and Jinan City (China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navder, Khursheed P.; He, Qing; Zhang, Xiaojing; He, Suyuan; Gong, Luxia; Sun, Yungao; Deckelbaum, Richard J.; Thornton, John; Gallagher, Dympna

    2009-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is often used as a surrogate estimate of percent body fat in epidemiological studies. This study tested the hypothesis that BMI is representative of body fatness independent of age, sex, ethnicity, and geographic location in prepubertal children. The study sample included a total of 605 prepubertal children (275 girls and 330 boys) of which 247 were Chinese from Jinan, Shandong, Mainland China, and 358 children were from various ethnic backgrounds in New York City (NYC): 121 Caucasians, 94 African Americans, and 143 Asians (Chinese and Korean). In this cross-sectional study, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to quantify total body fat (TBF) and percent body fat (PBF). Prepubertal status was assessed by the criteria of Tanner. Multiple regression models were developed with TBF and PBF as the dependent variables and BMI, age, sex, and ethnicity as independent variables. Multiple regression analysis showed that BMI alone explained 85% and 69% of between-subject variance for TBF and PBF, respectively. Sex was a significant contributor to the models (P < 0.001) with girls having higher TBF and PBF than boys. Ethnicity and geographic location were significant contributors to the model (P < 0.0001) with Asians (Jinan and NYC Asians) having higher PBF than all non-Asian groups (P < 0.0001), and Jinan Asians having higher TBF and PBF than NYC-Asians. Among prepubertal children, for the same BMI, Asians have significantly higher PBF compared with African Americans and Caucasians. Caution is warranted when applying BMI across sex and ethnic prepubertal groups. PMID:19541740

  20. An update on oestrus synchronisation of goats in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.O. Omontese

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This review is aimed at providing information on current status of oestrus synchronization as a management tool in goats in Nigeria. Oestrus synchronisation is a reproductive tool that enables goat farmers breed their animals within a short pre-determined period. The principle of oestrus synchronisation is chiefly the control of the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle and two basic mechanisms are employed. These include the use of prostaglandins or its analogues to shorten luteal life/induce premature luteolysis or the use of exogenous progesterone to prolong luteal life, thereby simulating the activity of natural progesterone produced by the corpus luteum. The latter is advantageous where the reproductive status of the flock is unknown. However, the former is easy to apply and only effective in cycling animals. Pharmaceutical products that have been employed in ES protocols in Nigeria include Lutalyse®, Estrumate®, EstroPLAN®, Fluorogestone acetate®, Sil-Oestrus®, Medroxyl-progesterone acetate®, Synchromate-B®, PMSG®, and more recently, the Controlled Internal Drug Release® (CIDR devices. Over the last three decades, many attempts have been made at assessing the response of goats to various oestrus synchronisation agents and protocols in Nigeria. However, the low availability of these pharmaceutical agents and cost preclude the widespread use of oestrus synchronisation technique in goat production. The inclusion of gonadotrophins in oestrus synchronisation protocols have been reported to improve oestrus responses in goats, while season has been reported to influence the efficiency of oestrus synchronisation programmes. Increasing the dose levels of exogenous hormones in oestrus synchronisation protocols has caused variable and sometimes inconsistent effects. The effects of combining the male stimulus with exogenous hormones, seasonal variation, extra-label use of products and short-term nutritional manipulation on oestrus responses in

  1. Transmission of caprine herpesvirus 2 in domestic goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Keller, Janice; Knowles, Donald P; Taus, Naomi S; Oaks, J Lindsay; Crawford, Timothy B

    2005-04-25

    Caprine herpesvirus 2 (CpHV-2) is a recently recognized gammaherpesvirus that is endemic in domestic goats and has been observed to cause clinical malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in certain species of deer. In this study, transmission of CpHV-2 in goats was examined. A total of 30 kids born to a CpHV-2 positive goat herd were selected and divided into two groups: group 1 (n=16) remained in the positive herd; group 2 (n=14) was separated from the herd at 1 week of age after obtaining colostrum. Peripheral blood samples from each kid were examined regularly by competitive ELISA for MCF viral antibody and by PCR for CpHV-2 DNA. Fifteen out of 16 goats (94%) that remained with the positive herd seroconverted and became PCR-positive for CpHV-2 by 10 months of age. In contrast, all kids (100%) that were separated from the positive herd at 1 week of age remained negative until termination of the experiment at 1 year of age. Additional transmission experiments revealed that all CpHV-2-free adult goats were susceptible to CpHV-2 or ovine herpesvirus 2 (OvHV-2) infection. The data indicate that the transmission pattern of CpHV-2 in goats is similar to the pattern of OvHV-2 in sheep and that CpHV-2-free goats can be established by early separation of kids from positive herds, which has significant implications for MCF control programs.

  2. Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez-Granda, R.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, M.; Arce, C.; Rodriguez-Estevez, V.

    2014-06-01

    Somatic cell count (SCC) in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI), and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cows milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats), prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births), milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking) and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking), seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards. (Author)

  3. Factors affecting somatic cell count in dairy goats: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Jiménez-Granado

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Somatic cell count (SCC in monitoring udder health has been described in numerous studies as a useful method for the diagnosis of intramammary infection (IMI, and it is considered in standards of quality and hygiene of cow’s milk in many countries. However, several authors have questioned the validity of SCC as a reliable IMI diagnosis tool in dairy goats. This review attempts to reflect the importance of different infectious and non-infectious factors that can modify SCC values in goat milk, and must, therefore, be taken into account when using the SCC as a tool in the improvement of udder health and the quality of milk in this species. In dairy goats, some investigations have shown that mammary bacterial infections are a major cause of increased SCC and loss of production. In goats however, the relationship between bacterial infections and SCC values is not as simple as in dairy cattle, since non-infectious factors also have a big impact on SCC. Intrinsic factors are those that depend directly on the animal: time and number of lactation (higher SCC late in lactation and in aged goats, prolificity (higher SCC in multiple births, milking time (higher SCC in evening compared to morning milking and number of milkings per day, among others. Extrinsic factors include: milking routine (lower SCC in machine than in manual milking, seasonality and food. In addition, milk secretion in goats is mostly apocrine and therefore characterized by the presence of epithelial debris or cytoplasmic particles, which makes the use of DNA specific counters mandatory. All this information is of interest in order to correctly interpret the SCC in goat milk and to establish differential SCC standards.

  4. Spraying Effects on Goat Welfare in Hot and Humid Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Darcan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress is one of the major factors adversely affecting animal welfare and thus economic benefits of farms. This study was designed to determine the effects of three different spraying methods on goats for reducing heat stress. Thirty goats divided into three groups for the trial (One time sprayed a day: OTS, Two times sprayed a day TTS and Non-sprayed: Control. Respiration and pulse rates, rectal and surface temperatures (from head and udder skin were taken three times a day (08.00-09.00, 16.00-17.00 and 12.00-01.00 on hot summer days in July-2005 under Mediterranean conditions. Some behavioural aspects such as eating, ruminating, drinking, walking and resting, daily feed and water consumption were regularly measured. The results showed that rectal temperatures (p≤0.005, pulse (p≤0.054 and respiration rates (p≤0.049, udder (p≤0.041 and head temperatures (p≤0.033 in three groups were significantly different. Depending on rising air temperature, rectal, head and udder temperatures and respiration and pulse rates increased during daytime and retired to normal level at night time. TTS goats were superior to the others regarding above-mentioned physiological data. TTS goats spent more time than OTS and Control goats while eating (p≤0.02, ruminating (p≤0.04 and walking (p≤0.01 but less time while drinking (p≤0.01 and resting (p≤0.01. Significant changes between three groups were ascertained regarding feed and water consumptions. TTS goats consumed more concentrate feed (p≤0.042 and alfalfa hay (p = 0.032 than other two groups, whereas Control groups consumed more water (p≤0.012 than the others. Ultimately, the spraying has positive effects on yearling goats for alleviating heat stress and improve animal welfare.

  5. Validation of the FAMACHA© method for selective anthelmintic treatment in dairy goat herds

    OpenAIRE

    Zárate Rendón, Daniel; Laboratorio de Parasitología, Departamento Académico de Nutrición, Facultad de Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima; Rojas Flores, Julio; Laboratorio de Parasitología, Departamento Académico de Nutrición, Facultad de Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima; Segura Hong, Alan; Laboratorio de Parasitología, Departamento Académico de Nutrición, Facultad de Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina, Lima

    2017-01-01

    A study in goats was carried out in the central coast of Peru to validate the FAMACHA© method for selective anthelmintic treatment in dairy goat herds. Blood and fecal samples were taken from 120 adult goats in five dairy goat farms. The micro haematocrit and the McMaster techniques plus faecal culture were used to evaluate the haematocrit, faecal nematode egg count (EPG) and to identify major nematode species, respectively. Spearman correlation coefficients were obtained. Two FAMACHA© criter...

  6. Pathogenicity of local isolates of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and Mycoplasma arginini in experimental West African Dwarf goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinedu Adive Akwuobu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was carried out to assess the pathogenicity of local isolates of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae and M. arginini in West African dwarf goats (kids in Nigeria. Materials and methods: A total of 22 goats aged less than 1-year were purchased from markets. The goats were divided into six groups comprising of four experimental groups (EG; 4 in each and two control groups (CG; 3 in each. The goats were fed ad libitum with standard diets and safe water. Groups EG1 and EG2 were infected with M. ovipneumoniae through trans-tracheal (TT and intravenous (IV routes, respectively, while those in groups EG3 and EG4 were infected with M. arginini through the same routes. Goats in groups CG1 and CG2 were inoculated with sterile Mycoplasma broth through TT and IV routes, respectively. In all cases, the amount of bacteria inoculated was 1.5x108 cells/mL. After the onset of the disease in goats, re-isolation of Mycoplasma was performed by culturing on mycoplasma agar supplemented with mycoplasma supplement G. The goats were monitored for 14 days post-infection (PI to observe respiratory signs and mortality. Post-mortem (PM examination was performed on each animal that died, while one surviving goat from each of the groups was sacrificed at 14 days PI for PM. After PM, histopathology was performed to observe the changes in tissues. Results: Cough and nasal discharges were observed in all the experimentally infected goats seven days PI. Mortalities were recorded in goats in EG1 (two goats, EG2 (one goats, EG3 (two goats and EG4 (one goat. At PM, pneumonic lesions were observed in the lungs of all the experimentally infected goats. Conclusion: This study provides evidence that the local isolates of M. ovipneumoniae and M. arginini strains are pathogenic for goats in Nigeria. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(3.000: 242-251

  7. Inflammatory adipokines, high molecular weight adiponectin, and insulin resistance: a population-based survey in prepubertal schoolchildren.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Murdolo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate sex differences and associations of high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin, leptin and proinflammatory adipokines, individually or in combinations, with adiposity and insulin resistance (IR measures in prepubertal childhood. METHODOLOGY: We studied 305 prepubertal children (boys/girls: 144/161; Tanner stage 1; age: 5-13 yr, included in a cohort of 44,231 adolescents who participated in an extensive Italian school-based survey. According to Cole's criteria, 105 individuals were lean (L; boys/girls: 59/46, 60 overweight (OW; boys/girls: 32/28 and 140 obese (OB; boys/girls: 70/70. Measurements comprised total and HMW adiponectin, leptin, as well as a panel of proinflammatory adipokines/chemokines associated with diabetes risk. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Leptin-, and the leptin-to-HMW adiponectin ratio (L/HMW-, increased progressively (p<0.0001 from L to OW to OB boys and girls. When compared with L peers, OW and OB girls exhibited lower (p<0.001 HMW adiponectin levels, while in boys the HMW multimers did not differ significantly across the BMI-stratified groups. OB girls displayed higher (p<0.05 IL-8, IL-18, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 levels (sICAM-1 than L girls, whereas increased macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF concentrations in OB vs OW boys were seen. HMW adiponectin (negatively, leptin or inflammatory markers (positively correlated with adiposity and IR measures. In multivariate models, leptin represented a strong and independent determinant of HOMA-IR (R(2 0.378; p<0.01. Adjustment for age, BMI(z-score, lipids and inflammatory mediators abolished the association between leptin and HOMA-IR in boys, while in girls leptin remained still a significant predictor of IR (R(2 0.513; p<0.01. Finally, in both sexes, the joint effect of the L/HMW did not improve the prediction of basal IR as compared with leptin levels alone, which were

  8. Array of Hall Effect Sensors for Linear Positioning of a Magnet Independently of Its Strength Variation. A Case Study: Monitoring Milk Yield during Milking in Goats

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Diego, Fernando-Juan; Sánchez-Quinche, Angel; Merello, Paloma; Beltrán, Pedro; Peris, Cristófol

    2013-01-01

    In this study we propose an electronic system for linear positioning of a magnet independent of its modulus, which could vary because of aging, different fabrication process, etc. The system comprises a linear array of 24 Hall Effect sensors of proportional response. The data from all sensors are subject to a pretreatment (normalization) by row (position) making them independent on the temporary variation of its magnetic field strength. We analyze the particular case of the individual flow in milking of goats. The multiple regression analysis allowed us to calibrate the electronic system with a percentage of explanation R2 = 99.96%. In our case, the uncertainty in the linear position of the magnet is 0.51 mm that represents 0.019 L of goat milk. The test in farm compared the results obtained by direct reading of the volume with those obtained by the proposed electronic calibrated system, achieving a percentage of explanation of 99.05%. PMID:23793020

  9. Array of Hall Effect Sensors for Linear Positioning of a Magnet Independently of Its Strength Variation. A Case Study: Monitoring Milk Yield during Milking in Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristófol Peris

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we propose an electronic system for linear positioning of a magnet independent of its modulus, which could vary because of aging, different fabrication process, etc. The system comprises a linear array of 24 Hall Effect sensors of proportional response. The data from all sensors are subject to a pretreatment (normalization by row (position making them independent on the temporary variation of its magnetic field strength. We analyze the particular case of the individual flow in milking of goats. The multiple regression analysis allowed us to calibrate the electronic system with a percentage of explanation R2 = 99.96%. In our case, the uncertainty in the linear position of the magnet is 0.51 mm that represents 0.019 L of goat milk. The test in farm compared the results obtained by direct reading of the volume with those obtained by the proposed electronic calibrated system, achieving a percentage of explanation of 99.05%.

  10. Genetic parameters for physical and quality traits of mohair in South African Angora goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, C.; Snyman, M.A.; Marle-Koster, van E.; Bovenhuis, H.

    2009-01-01

    The continuous evaluation and genetic improvement of fleece traits in Angora goats are of major importance to the Angora goat industry. The objective of this study was to estimate variance components and genetic parameters for both physical and quality traits of mohair in South African Angora goats.

  11. 76 FR 29991 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... brucellosis testing of goats and breeding swine intended for export to countries that do not require such... brucellosis prior to export. Some countries do not require that goats and breeding swine be tested for... eliminate the requirement for pre-export tuberculosis and brucellosis testing of goats and breeding...

  12. 9 CFR 51.22 - Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.22 Payment to owners for goats, sheep, and horses destroyed. (a) The Administrator may authorize the payment of Federal... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment to owners for goats,...

  13. 75 FR 56912 - Live Goats and Swine for Export; Removal of Certain Testing Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... requirement for pre-export tuberculosis and brucellosis testing of goats and breeding swine intended for... exportation be tested for tuberculosis and, for some goats, brucellosis prior to export. Section 91.9 requires... countries do not require that goats and breeding swine be tested for tuberculosis and brucellosis prior...

  14. 9 CFR 93.428 - Sheep and goats and wild ruminants from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... that such goats have been tested for tuberculosis and brucellosis with negative results within 30 days... provided in § 93.427 and retested for brucellosis. (c) If sheep or goats are unaccompanied by the... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sheep and goats and wild...

  15. Loading density and welfare of goat kids during long distance road transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindle, V.A.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Werf, van der J.T.N.; Lambooij, E.

    2013-01-01

    Many goat kids (Capra aegagrus hircus) are transported live from The Netherlands for slaughter in France or Spain. Current standards indicate that goats (<35 kg) should have sufficient space at 0.2–0.30 m2 per animal (approximately 5 goats per m2). Research was devised to assess behaviour and phy

  16. Feeding Chromonaela odorata during pregnancy to goat dams affects acceptance of this feedstuff by their offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hai, P.V.; Everts, H.; Tien, van D.; Schonewille, J.T.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Chromonaela odorata ingestion by goat dams during pregnancy on intake of C. odorata by their kids. Alteration of prenatal feed preference may be used to increase feed intake of novel feeds and the transit from outdoor to indoor goat farming in Vietnam. Ten female goats

  17. Feeding Chromonaela odorata during pregnancy to goat dams affects acceptance of this feedstuff by their offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hai, P.V.; Everts, H.; Tien, van D.; Schonewille, J.T.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Chromonaela odorata ingestion by goat dams during pregnancy on intake of C. odorata by their kids. Alteration of prenatal feed preference may be used to increase feed intake of novel feeds and the transit from outdoor to indoor goat farming in Vietnam. Ten female goats

  18. Comparison of Saanen x Hair Goat Crossbred (F1, G1 and Hair Goat Raised at The Farm Conditions in Terms of Milk Yield Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal Tozlu Çelik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine milk yield characteristics and its effect on genotypes, years and ages Hair goat x Saanen crossbred and Hair goat breed between 2011-2012 years in private enterprise which is located in Amasya province Sarılar village. In this study, the effect of genotypes was found significant on average daily milk yield, lactation length and lactation milk yield in 2011 and 2012 years. In 2011, the effect of goat ages were determined on average daily milk yield (ADMY and lactation milk yield (LMY for all goat genotypes. In 2012, the effect of goat ages was determined on average daily milk yield and lactation length (LL for all goat genotypes. The effect of year F1 and Hair goat were found significant on ADMY, LMY, and LL. The effect of year was found significant on only LL for G1 genotype. As a result it can be say that Saanen goat x Hair goat crossbred F1 and G1 genotype milk yield was higher than Hair goat reared in farmer conditions.

  19. Comparative Response of the West African Dwarf Goats to Experimental Infections with Red Sokoto and West African Dwarf Goat Isolates of Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Atehmengo Ngongeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Response of the West African Dwarf (WAD goats to two different isolates of Haemonchus contortus, the Red Sokoto (RS goat isolate (RSHc and the WAD goat isolate (WADHc (isolated from WAD goats, was studied by experimental infections of 4–6-month-old male WAD goat kids. Group 1 and Group 2 goats were each infected with 4500 infective larvae (L3 of RSHc and WADHc, respectively. Group 3 animals served as uninfected control. Prepatent period (PPP, faecal egg counts (FEC, worm burden (WB, body weight (BW, packed cell volume (PCV, and body condition score (BCS were determined. WAD goats infected with RSHc isolate and the ones infected with WADHc isolate had mean PPP of 19.63±0.26 and 19.50±0.19, respectively. Goats infected with WADHc isolate had significantly higher FEC (P=0.004 and WB (P=0.001. BW were significantly higher (P=0.004 both in the controls and in Group 2 goats infected with WADHc isolate than in Group 1 goats infected with the RSHc isolate. BCS of animals in both infected groups dropped significantly (P=0.001. There was a significant drop in PCV (P=0.004 of both infected groups in comparison. Both isolates of H. contortus were pathogenic to the host.

  20. Factors of welfare reduction in dairy sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Pazzona

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research on factors causing the reduction of well-being in sheep and goats is rather recent, as are studies of strategies to minimize the adverse effects of environmental challenges and improper management practices on flock welfare. Sheep and goats, considered very rustic animals, are reared prevalently under extensive production systems and are widespread mainly in marginal areas. For these reasons, only few studies on the welfare of these species have been carried out in the past. More recently, the scenario has changed, due to a gradual diffusion of intensive and semi-intensive production systems, especially in dairy sheep and goat breeds, to the growing concern of consumers about the life conditions of farmed animals, and to the issuing of a number of rules and laws on the safety of animal products and well-being of farmed livestock. As a consequence, several research groups have turned their attention to the welfare of sheep and goats. Nevertheless, information on this topic is still scarce. This paper reviews major critical points regarding the endangerment of welfare in farmed sheep and goats. Climatic extremes and seasonal fluctuations in herbage amount and quality are discussed as important causes of the reduction of well-being in extensive production systems, which can impair production efficiency of grazing animals and dramatically affect the welfare and health status of sheep and goats. Space allowance and structures of sheep and goat houses are described as the main potential sources of discomfort for housed flocks, together with inadequate control of micro-environment, and inappropriate milking procedures and human-animal interactions. Recent studies on the impact of high ambient temperature, different ventilation regimes, high stocking densities, reduced airspace and poor litter management on behaviour, immune and endocrine response, and on performance of sheep and goats are discussed. The effects of inadequate milking

  1. Short communication: casein haplotype variability in sicilian dairy goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigli, I; Maizon, D O; Riggio, V; Sardina, M T; Portolano, B

    2008-09-01

    In the Mediterranean region, goat milk production is an important economic activity. In the present study, 4 casein genes were genotyped in 5 Sicilian goat breeds to 1) identify casein haplotypes present in the Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, Messinese, Derivata di Siria, and Maltese goat breeds; and 2) describe the structure of the Sicilian goat breeds based on casein haplotypes and allele frequencies. In a sample of 540 dairy goats, 67 different haplotypes with frequency >or=0.01 and 27 with frequency >or=0.03 were observed. The most common CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN1S2-CSN3 haplotype for Derivata di Siria and Maltese was FCFB (0.17 and 0.22, respectively), whereas for Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana and Messinese was ACAB (0.06, 0.23, and 0.10, respectively). According to the haplotype reconstruction, Argentata dell'Etna, Girgentana, and Messinese breeds presented the most favorable haplotype for cheese production, because the casein concentration in milk of these breeds might be greater than that in Derivata di Siria and Maltese breeds. Based on a cluster analysis, the breeds formed 2 main groups: Derivata di Siria, and Maltese in one group, and Argentata dell'Etna and Messinese in the other; the Girgentana breed was between these groups but closer to the latter.

  2. Interspecific transmission of small ruminant lentiviruses from goats to sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Thiago S.; Pinheiro, Raymundo R.; Costa, Joselito N.; de Lima, Carla C.V.; Andrioli, Alice; de Azevedo, Dalva A.A.; dos Santos, Vanderlan W.S.; Araújo, Juscilânia F.; de Sousa, Ana Lídia M.; Pinheiro, Danielle N.S.; Fernandes, Flora M.C.; Costa, Antonio O.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the transmission of caprine lentivirus to sheep using different experimental groups. The first one (colostrum group) was formed by nine lambs receiving colostrum from goats positive for small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). The second group (milk group) was established by nine lambs that received milk of these goats. Third was a control group, consisting of lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of negative mothers. Another experimental group (contact group) was formed by eight adult sheep, confined with two naturally infected goats. The groups were monitored by immunoblotting (IB), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). All lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of infected goats and six sheep of the contact group had positive results in the nPCR, although seroconversion was detected only in three of the exposed animals, with no clinical lentiviruses manifestation, in 720 days of observation. There was a close relationship between viral sequences obtained from infected animals and the prototype CAEV-Cork. Thus, it was concluded that SRLV can be transmitted from goats to sheep, however, the degree of adaptation of the virus strain to the host species probably interferes with the infection persistence and seroconversion rate. PMID:26413072

  3. Interspecific transmission of small ruminant lentiviruses from goats to sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Thiago S de; Pinheiro, Raymundo R; Costa, Joselito N; Lima, Carla C V de; Andrioli, Alice; Azevedo, Dalva A A de; Santos, Vanderlan W S dos; Araújo, Juscilânia F; Sousa, Ana Lídia M de; Pinheiro, Danielle N S; Fernandes, Flora M C; Costa Neto, Antonio O

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the transmission of caprine lentivirus to sheep using different experimental groups. The first one (colostrum group) was formed by nine lambs receiving colostrum from goats positive for small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV). The second group (milk group) was established by nine lambs that received milk of these goats. Third was a control group, consisting of lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of negative mothers. Another experimental group (contact group) was formed by eight adult sheep, confined with two naturally infected goats. The groups were monitored by immunoblotting (IB), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). All lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of infected goats and six sheep of the contact group had positive results in the nPCR, although seroconversion was detected only in three of the exposed animals, with no clinical lentiviruses manifestation, in 720 days of observation. There was a close relationship between viral sequences obtained from infected animals and the prototype CAEV-Cork. Thus, it was concluded that SRLV can be transmitted from goats to sheep, however, the degree of adaptation of the virus strain to the host species probably interferes with the infection persistence and seroconversion rate.

  4. Interspecific transmission of small ruminant lentiviruses from goats to sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago S. de Souza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate the transmission of caprine lentivirus to sheep using different experimental groups. The first one (colostrum group was formed by nine lambs receiving colostrum from goats positive for small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV. The second group (milk group was established by nine lambs that received milk of these goats. Third was a control group, consisting of lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of negative mothers. Another experimental group (contact group was formed by eight adult sheep, confined with two naturally infected goats. The groups were monitored by immunoblotting (IB, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID and nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR. All lambs that suckled colostrum and milk of infected goats and six sheep of the contact group had positive results in the nPCR, although seroconversion was detected only in three of the exposed animals, with no clinical lentiviruses manifestation, in 720 days of observation. There was a close relationship between viral sequences obtained from infected animals and the prototype CAEV-Cork. Thus, it was concluded that SRLV can be transmitted from goats to sheep, however, the degree of adaptation of the virus strain to the host species probably interferes with the infection persistence and seroconversion rate.

  5. Immunological and biochemical studies of fascioliasis in goats and cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddington, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    Using the goat as a susceptible host and cattle as a resistant species to Fasciola hepatica infections, the humoral response of these animals to the surface of the newly excysted juvenile (NEJ) fluke was examined. Tegumental proteins of the NEJ were labeled with /sup 125/I by lactoperoxidase and analyzed after immunoprecipitation using a double antibody system. In addition, a comparison was made between the infected sera's capacity to immunoprecipitate surface antigens and their in vitro cytotoxic activity against the NEJ. In both goats and cattle the levels of NEJ surface antigens precipitated increased during the first 4 weeks PI. The peak immunoprecipitation of NEJ surface antigens by cattle sera (58%) was significantly higher than that of infected goat sera (33%). Immunoprecipitation of the available radiolabeled NEJ surface proteins by the infected cattle sera remained consistently higher than goat sera until the 16th week PI. The cytotoxic effects of these same caprine sera on NEJs in vitro was limited, while the cytotoxicity of the infected bovine sera closely approximated the sera's ability to precipitate NEJ surface antigens. There was also a qualitative difference between the species in their recognition of /sup 35/S and /sup 125/I radiolabeled NEJ surface antigens. Uninfected goat or cattle sera failed to precipitate any /sup 125/I or /sup 35/S-labeled surface proteins.

  6. [Cashmere goat bacterial artificial chromosome recombination and cell transfection system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tian; Cao, Zhongyang; Yang, Yaohui; Cao, Gengsheng

    2016-03-01

    The Cashmere goat is mainly used to produce cashmere, which is very popular for its delicate fiber, luscious softness and natural excellent warm property. Keratin associated protein (KAP) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) of the Cashmere goat play an important role in the proliferation and development of cashmere fiber follicle cells. Bacterial artificial chromosome containing kap6.3, kap8.1 and bmp4 genes were used to increase the production and quality of Cashmere. First, we constructed bacterial artificial chromosomes by homology recombination. Then Tol2 transposon was inserted into bacterial artificial chromosomes that were then transfected into Cashmere goat fibroblasts by Amaxa Nucleofector technology according to the manufacture's instructions. We successfully constructed the BAC-Tol2 vectors containing target genes. Each vector contained egfp report gene with UBC promoter, Neomycin resistant gene for cell screening and two loxp elements for resistance removing after transfected into cells. The bacterial artificial chromosome-Tol2 vectors showed a high efficiency of transfection that can reach 1% to 6% with a highest efficiency of 10%. We also obtained Cashmere goat fibroblasts integrated exogenous genes (kap6.3, kap8.1 and bmp4) preparing for the clone of Cashmere goat in the future. Our research demonstrates that the insertion of Tol2 transposons into bacterial artificial chromosomes improves the transfection efficiency and accuracy of bacterial artificial chromosome error-free recombination.

  7. Prevalence of Tick Infestation and Theileriosis in Sheep and Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nausheen Irshad, M. Qayyum, M. Hussain1 and M. Qasim Khan1*

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of tick infestation and theileriosis in small ruminants maintained at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC Islamabad and Barani Livestock Production Research Institute (BLPRI Kherimurat district Attock, Pakistan. A total of 662 animals (219 sheep and 443 goats were screened for the presence of ticks. Of these, 95(43.37% sheep and 184(41.53% goats were found infested with different species of ticks. The difference in prevalence of ticks between two farms in sheep and goats (combined was statistically significant (P≤0.01. Difference in the prevalence during different months of study at NARC was non significant (χ2=0.95596, whereas at BLPRI this difference was significant (P≤ 0.01. Ticks were identified on the basis of their morphological features. Rhipicephalus spp was found to be the most abundant tick infesting both in sheep and goats. Prevalence of theileriosis in sheep was 7.36% (7/95, while in goats it was 3.8% (7/184, the difference being statistically non significant (χ2=0.6427.

  8. Pestivirus infection in sheep and goats in West Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krametter-Froetscher, R; Duenser, M; Preyler, B; Theiner, A; Benetka, V; Moestl, K; Baumgartner, W

    2010-12-01

    Blood samples from 3112 sheep (185 flocks) and 1196 goats (163 flocks) from the Western region of Austria were tested for pestivirus-specific RNA. In this area, communal Alpine pasturing of sheep, cattle and goats is an important part of farming. The prevalence of sheep persistently-infected (PI) with pestivirus was 0.32% (10 animals) and the PI animals originated from five flocks (2.7% of those investigated). In goats, only one PI animal (0.08%) was detected. Sequence analysis of the 5'-end untranslated region (UTR) revealed that the strains of Border disease virus (BDV) detected were closely related to genotype 3 but the PI animals did not show any clinical signs of Border disease. The goat was PI with bovine viral diarrhoea virus-1 (BVDV-1). On one farm a high abortion rate among sheep had been observed 1year before the study was carried out but the other farms did not show any evidence of reproductive failures. Pestiviruses are endemic in small ruminants in some Alpine regions of Austria and PI healthy animals as described here have a key epidemiological role. A successful BVDV eradication programme in Austria will create highly pestivirus-susceptible cattle populations. Sheep and goats present a high risk for the reintroduction of pestiviruses to cattle herds because they are less likely to be considered to be PI. The results underline the need for the immediate consideration of small ruminants in eradication programmes.

  9. Quantitative determination of casein genetic variants in goat milk: Application in Girgentana dairy goat breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalbano, Maria; Segreto, Roberta; Di Gerlando, Rosalia; Mastrangelo, Salvatore; Sardina, Maria Teresa

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to develop a high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method to quantify casein genetic variants (αs2-, β-, and κ-casein) in milk of homozygous individuals of Girgentana goat breed. For calibration experiments, pure genetic variants were extracted from individual milk samples of animals with known genotypes. The described HPLC approach was precise, accurate and highly suitable for quantification of goat casein genetic variants of homozygous individuals. The amount of each casein per allele was: αs2-casein A = 2.9 ± 0.8 g/L and F = 1.8 ± 0.4 g/L; β-casein C = 3.0 ± 0.8 g/L and C1 = 2.0 ± 0.7 g/L and κ-casein A = 1.6 ± 0.3 g/L and B = 1.1 ± 0.2 g/L. A good correlation was found between the quantities of αs2-casein genetic variants A and F, and β-casein C and C1 with other previously described method. The main important result was obtained for κ-casein because, till now, no data were available on quantification of single genetic variants for this protein.

  10. Pregnancy diagnosis in Thai native goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restall, B J; Milton, J T; Klong-yutti, P; Kochapakdee, S

    1990-08-01

    Pregnancy status was determined in two groups of native Thai goats, mated in either October (n = 116) or March (n = 37), by assay of the progesterone level in four plasma samples taken at 7 day intervals after the completion of mating. The progesterone level (P) in each sample was determined using facilities in a local hospital, and a commercial assay kit with human serum-based standards was used. The distribution of log(10) P yielded a discriminatory value of 2 ng/ml; any value below this level was assumed to indicate a follicular phase. Pregnancy diagnoses based on this criterion were 96.2% accurate. Diagnoses based on returns to service were not accurate, as 36.5% of pregnant does were recorded as returning. Real-time ultrasonic imaging of the March mated group was 100% accurate for pregnancies, but detection of twins was poor. The progesterone technique described here is useful in field studies where mating dates are not known, and where there is no access to an animal assay laboratory.

  11. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF ASSAM HILL GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galib Uz Zaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 23 polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to evaluate genetic diversity and population structure in Assam Hill Goat (AHG. All the loci studied were polymorphic in nature. The number of observed alleles (Na detected ranged from 2 to 10 with an overall mean of 4.9±2.220. A total of 114 alleles were observed across all the loci. The effective number of alleles (Ne ranged from 1.035 to 7.127 with a mean of 2.68±1.590. The allele frequency ranged from 0.013 to 0.982. The overall mean observed (HO and expected (He heterozygosity were 0.43 and 0.48 respectively and this population was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at most of the loci studied. The overall mean of within-population inbreeding estimate (FIS was 0.085. The population was stable with respect to size and was non-bottlenecked. The observed normal L-shaped curve indicated no mode shift in the population.

  12. Testicular biopsy and cryopreservation for fertility preservation of prepubertal boys with Klinefelter syndrome: a pro/con debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Inge; Oates, Robert; De Schepper, Jean; Tournaye, Herman

    2016-02-01

    In about one-half of adult Klinefelter syndrome (KS) patients, spermatozoa can be retrieved by means of testicular biopsy (TESE). Given the expected increase in the number of diagnosed KS patients owing to the use of noninvasive prenatal testing, the probable questions of young KS patients and their parents regarding future fertility, and the fact that widespread apoptosis of spermatogonia occurs at onset of puberty, an attempt to increase the retrieval rates at TESE above those found in adult KS men by undertaking preservation techniques peripubertally has been initiated. To date, however, only a limited number of KS adolescents have been examined, demonstrating no increases in the chances of finding sperm. Furthermore, spermatogonial stem cell and testicular tissue freezing techniques, as well as in vitro maturation strategies, require further validation. Given these controversies, banking testicular tissue from prepubertal KS boys should be performed only in a research framework.

  13. The effect of platelet-rich plasma on early and late bone healing: an experimental study in goats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooren, R.E.C.M.; Merkx, M.A.W.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Jansen, J.A.; Stoelinga, P.J.W.

    2007-01-01

    Four round critical-size defects were made in the foreheads of 20 goats. The defects were filled with autogenous particulate cancellous bone, in which 1 ml of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) was added in two of the four defects of each goat. The goats were divided into four subgroups of five goats each,

  14. Comparative pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of albendazole sulfoxide in sheep and goats, and dose-dependent plasma disposition in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksit, Dilek; Yalinkilinc, Hande Sultan; Sekkin, Selim; Boyacioğlu, Murat; Cirak, Veli Yilgor; Ayaz, Erol; Gokbulut, Cengiz

    2015-05-27

    The aims of this study were to compare the pharmacokinetics of albendazole sulfoxide (ABZ-SO, ricobendazole) in goats and sheep at a dose of 5 g/kg bodyweight (BW), after intravenous (IV) and subcutaneous (SC) administrations, and to investigate the effects of increased doses (10 and 15 mg/kg BW) on the plasma disposition of ABZ-SO in goats following SC administration. A total of 16 goats (Capra aegagrus hircus, eight males and eight females) and 8 sheep (Ovis aries, four males and four females) 12-16 months old and weighing 20-32 kg, were used. The study was designed according to two-phase crossover study protocol. In Phase-1, eight sheep were assigned as Group I and 16 goats were allocated into two groups (Group II and Group III). ABZ-SO was applied to Group I (sheep) and Group II (goats) animals subcutaneously, and to Group III (goats) animals intravenously, all at a dose rate of 5 mg/kg BW. In Phase-2, the sheep in the Group I received ABZ-SO intravenously in a dose of 5 mg/kg BW; the goats in Group II and Group III received ABZ-SO subcutaneously at a dose of 10 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg BW, respectively. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at different times between 1 and 120 h after drug administrations. The plasma concentrations of ABZ-SO and its metabolites were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography. In goats, the area under the curve, terminal half-life and plasma persistence of ABZ-SO were significantly smaller and shorter, respectively, compared with those observed in sheep following both IV and SC administrations at a dose of 5 mg/kg BW. On the other side, dose-dependent plasma dispositions of ABZ-SO were observed following SC administration at increased doses (10 and 15 mg/kg) in goats. Consequently, ABZ-SO might be used at higher doses to provide higher plasma concentration and thus to achieve greater efficacy against the target parasites.

  15. Effect of rapid freezing-thawing techniques on the sperm parameters and ultrastructure of Chinese Taihang black goat spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Liguang; Ren, Youshe; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu; Xun, Wenjuan; Yue, Wenbin; Zhang, Chunxiang; Yang, Rujie

    2014-02-01

    Supercooling sperm in liquid nitrogen vapour is a feasible and economic technique for the practical production. The study aimed to reveal the negative effects of this rapid freezing and thawing processes on Taihang black goat spermatozoa and to find out the changing of spermatozoa motility and ultrastructure by using CASA and TEM. Qualified semen samples, which collected from twenty Chinese Taihang black goats using artificial vagina were pooled and investigated the kinematics parameters and ultrastructural morphology. The results showed that freezing-thawing caused a significant reduction in the spermatozoon total motility (Psperm nucleus characterized by ruptures, bend and deformity was observed. The plasma membranes were broken, and nucleoplasm erupted. The mitochondria in the middle piece were disturbed by partial absence or additional accumulations. Swelling, coiling, vacuolization and structural disorganization of mitochondria were also observed. In conclusion, Freezing-thawing procedure has a detrimental effect on motility, membrane integrity and mitochondria of goat spermatozoa. Transmission electron microscopy provides an intuitive observation to investigate deformity spermatozoa.

  16. Effect of inactive dry yeast from sugar cane as protein source on rumen fermentation in Saanen goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Lima

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Five castrated and ruminally cannulated Saanen goats (±48.19kg were used to evaluate intake, digestibility and rumen fermentation parameters of diets with inactive dry yeast as a soybean meal substitute (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%. Goats were randomly assigned to a 5×5 (five levels of dry yeast x five periods Latin square design. Diets were composed of corn silage (40%, ground corn, soybean meal and/or dry yeast and mineral supplement. The intake and digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF and TC were not influenced by the treatments. However, EE intake showed negative linear effect. The TDN content did not change with the inclusion of dry yeast in the diets. The pH, N-NH3 concentration and rumen short-chain fatty acids content did not differ among diets. Rumen content scanning electron microscopy observations did not suggest microbial colonization and degradation changes. Dry yeast from sugar cane can replace soybean meal in diets for Saanen goats without changing the rumen fermentation pattern, intake and digestibility.

  17. Swainsonine-induced lysosomal storage disease in goats caused by the ingestion of Turbina cordata in Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, A F M; Riet-Correa, F; Gardner, D R; Medeiros, R M T; Barros, S S; Anjos, B L; Lucena, R B

    2007-01-01

    A disease of the central nervous system in goats was observed in the municipalities of Juazeiro, Casa Nova and Curaça, state of Bahia, and Petrolina, state of Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. The disease was produced experimentally in two goats by the administration of dry Turbina cordata mixed with grain. Clinical signs were observed after the ingestion of 62 and 106 g/kg body weight in 28 and 54 days, respectively. The concentration of swainsonine in the plant varied from less than 0.001% to 0.14% (dry weight). Clinical signs of natural and experimental cases included difficulties in standing, ataxia, hypermetria, wide-based stance, intention tremors, spastic paresis mainly in the hind legs, nystagmus, abnormal postural reactions, head tilting, and falling. Diffuse vacuolation of neurons, epithelial cells of pancreas, thyroids, and renal tubules were observed on the histology. From the electron microscopy of Purkinje cells the vacuoles represented dilated lysosomes. These findings demonstrated that T. cordata causes an acquired glycoprotein lysosomal storage disease. The intoxication occurs at least in an area of 27,000 km2 causing severe losses in goats, and some farmers report the disease also in cattle.

  18. Influence of the informal primary caretaker on glycemic control among prepubertal pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Nallely Zurita-Cruz

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: In prepubertal type 1 diabetic patients (DM1, the availability of an informal primary caregiver (ICP is critical to making management decisions; in this study, the ICP-related risk factors associated with glycemic control were identified. Patients, materials, and methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was performed. Fifty-five patients with DM1 under the age of 11 years were included. The patient-related factors associated with glycemic control evaluated were physical activity, DM1 time of evolution, and adherence to medical indications. The ICP-related factors evaluated were education, employment aspects, depressive traits (Beck questionnaire, family functionality (family APGAR, support of another person in patient care, stress (Perceived Stress Scale, and socioeconomic status (Bronfman questionnaire. Multivariate logistic and linear regression analyses were performed. Results: The patients' median age was 8 years; 29 patients had good glycemic control, and 26 were uncontrolled. The main risk factor associated with glycemic dyscontrol was stress in the ICP (OR 24.8; 95% CI 4.06-151.9, p = 0.001. While, according to the linear regression analysis it was found that lower level of education (β 0.991, 95% CI 0.238-1.743, p = 0.011 and stress (β 1.918, 95% CI 1.10-2.736, p = 0.001 in the ICP, as well as family dysfunction (β 1.256, 95% CI 0.336-2.177, p = 0.008 were associated with higher levels of glycated hemoglobin. Conclusions: Level of education and stress in the ICP, as well as family dysfunction, are factors that influence the lack of controlled blood glucose levels among prepubertal DM1 patients.

  19. A one-year exercise intervention program in pre-pubertal girls does not influence hip structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahlborg Henrik G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have previously reported that a one-year school-based exercise intervention program influences the accrual of bone mineral in pre-pubertal girls. This report aims to evaluate if also hip structure is affected, as geometry independent of bone mineral influences fracture risk. Methods Fifty-three girls aged 7 – 9 years were included in a curriculum-based exercise intervention program comprising 40 minutes of general physical activity per school day (200 minutes/week. Fifty healthy age-matched girls who participated in the general Swedish physical education curriculum (60 minutes/week served as controls. The hip was scanned by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA and the hip structural analysis (HSA software was applied to evaluate bone mineral content (BMC, areal bone mineral density (aBMD, periosteal and endosteal diameter, cortical thickness, cross-sectional moment of inertia (CSMI, section modulus (Z and cross-sectional area (CSA of the femoral neck (FN. Annual changes were compared. Group comparisons were done by independent student's t-test between means and analyses of covariance (ANCOVA. Pearson's correlation test was used to evaluate associations between activity level and annual changes in FN. All children remained at Tanner stage 1 throughout the study. Results No between-group differences were found during the 12 months study period for changes in the FN variables. The total duration of exercise during the year was not correlated with the changes in the FN traits. Conclusion Evaluated by the DXA technique and the HSA software, a general one-year school-based exercise program for 7–9-year-old pre-pubertal girls seems not to influence the structure of the hip.

  20. A Research on Structural Characteristics and Problems of Goat Breeding in Nigde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Ceyhan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to reveal the present status of goat farms in Nigde, to detect basic priority problems and to offer some solutions to these problems. For this purpose, a survey was conducted to the goat breeders face to face in randomly selected total 38 goat farms.The survey questions; goat farms and growing core business activities of enterprises that reveals the overall structure, and also the level of satisfaction with the priority issues of breeders are designed to measure. Analyze the results was shown that a large portion of goat breeders (85.0% were primary school graduates, 5.3%secondery school and also 5.3% high school graduates, goat farms have whole hair goat breed. Goat enterprises have rate of 44.7%, more than 500 goat, 92.1% of goat enterprises go out to highlands, also provided 73.7% of the shepherd's family. In addition, operating revenues were determined come from 50% of goat's milk. Goat breeders were evaluated only 39.5% the form of cheese production, as 60.5% of the cheese, butter, yogurt, and the sale of raw milk of the total milk yield. All business was assessed that owners a profitable goat farming as an occupation and the first five main problems were member alliance, ownership sufficient technical knowledge, serving the technical staff, buck mating and breeding presses, goat shelter, respectively. In addition, it was seen that according to Likert scale, at least the first five issues were satisfied that such as feed, labor, and electricity inputs, product marketing price, sold animals the price, market opportunities related to the sale of manufactured products and finacial supply, respectively. As a result, it could be said that the most important problem for goat enterprises in Nigde province is high production costs and low product prices.

  1. Genotyping of Echinococcus granulosus from goats and sheep indicating G7 genotype in goats in the Northeast of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadakar, Bahman; Tabatabaei, Nasim; Borji, Hassan; Naghibi, Abolghasem

    2015-11-30

    Although cystic echinococcosis (CE) has been a human public health problem in the Northeast of Iran, molecular data regarding the genotypes of Echinococcus granulosus in goats and sheep in these regions are still scarce. In the present study, we determined the genotypes of E. granulosus infecting sheep and goats in northeast of Iran. During April 2013-June 2014, 50 and 30 hydatid cysts were recovered from liver tissue of sheep and goats, respectively,. Protoscoleces or germinal layers were collected from individual cysts, DNA was extracted, and the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) gene was amplified by PCR. The results of PCR-RFLP and the sequence analysis showed that all the samples isolated from sheep (n=50) and most of samples in goats (n=24) were G1 strain, the most prevalent strain in livestock ruminants of Iran. Furthermore, six parasites isolated from goats were found to correspond to E. intermedius (G7 genotype), here reported for the first time from Iran. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of MAP-specific peptides following vaccination of goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lybeck, Kari; Sjurseth, Siri K.; Melvang, Heidi Mikkelsen

    Our aim is to develop a subunit MAP vaccine not interfering with the diagnosis of paratuberculosis or bovine tuberculosis. This study’s objective was to evaluate MAP-specific peptides defined by in silico analysis. Peptides were picked by 1) comparing MAP genomes to that of other mycobacterium...... species or 2) selected based on “experience”. Peptides predicted to bind bovine MHC II by in silico analysis were included in further studies, resulting in two panels 1) genome-based and 2) selected. Initially, two groups of 15 healthy goats were vaccinated with one of the two panels (50 µg/peptide in CAF......01 adjuvant/CAF04 for boosting). Four MAP-infected goats were also vaccinated. In a second vaccination trail, groups of 8 healthy goat kids were vaccinated with genome-based peptides, selected peptides or selected peptides linked together in a recombinant protein (20 µg/peptide or 50 µg protein...

  3. [Care of pregnancy and prevention of lamb diseases in goats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elze, K; Krische, G

    1995-12-01

    The breeding of dairy goats has spread in Saxony for over 200 years. Recently the keeping of bigger flocks (30-300 animals) for milk and cheese production has become more common. Within the care of the pregnant she goats the feeding recommendation is a main point of the veterinary herd management. The special performances done by the pregnant animals are discussed. The daily need of energy intake is given with about 11 Megajoule Nettoenergy-lactation as well as the daily need of protein with 230 g. Additionally the minimal daily intake of minerals and vitamins is mentioned. Supervising she goats during lambing and avoiding temperatures lower than 18 degrees C in the stables is considered as necessary to prevent hypoglycemia of the newborn lambs. The enzootic process of Clostridium-perfringens-type-B-infection is discussed in connection with the intake of colostrum and the increasing density of pathogen microorganism during the lambing period.

  4. [Nuclear transfer of goat somatic cells transgenic for human lactoferrin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lan; Shen, Wei; Pan, Qing-Yu; Min, Ling-Jiang; Sun, Yu-Jiang; Fang, Yong-Wei; Deng, Ji-Xian; Pan, Qing-Jie

    2006-12-01

    Transgenic animal mammary gland bioreactors are being used to produce recombinant proteins with appropriate post-translational modifications, and nuclear transfer of transgenic somatic cells is a more powerful method to produce mammary gland bioreactor. Here we describe efficient gene transfer and nuclear transfer in goat somatic cells. Gene targeting vector pGBC2LF was constructed by cloning human lactoferrin (LF) gene cDNA into exon 2 of the milk goat beta-casein gene, and the endogenous start condon was replaced by that of human LF gene. Goat fetal fibroblasts were transfected with linearized pGBC2LF and 14 cell lines were positive according to PCR and Southern blot. The transgenic cells were used as donor cells of nuclear transfer, and some of reconstructed embryos could develop to blastocyst in vitro.

  5. Genetic Diversity of Eight Domestic Goat Populations Raised in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Bulut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the intra- and intergenetic diversities of eight different goat populations in Turkey including Hair, Angora, Kilis, Yayladag, Shami, Honamli, Saanen, and Alpine. A total of 244 DNA samples were genotyped using 11 microsatellites loci. The genetic differentiation between breeds was considerable as a result of the statistically significant (P0.05. Heterozygosity values ranged between 0.62 and 0.73. According to the structure and assignment test, Angora and Yayladag goats were assigned to the breed they belong to, while other breeds were assigned to two or more different groups. Because this study for the first time presented genetic data on the Yayladag goat, results of structure analysis and assigned test suggest that further analyses are needed using additional and different molecular markers.

  6. Gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats - prevalence and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sörensen, C.; Holm, S. A.; Thamsborg, S. M.

    2012-01-01

    The aims were to examine prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats, based on faecal examination, in relation to geographical distribution and risk factors, and to investigate the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes in selected farms. In April 2012 all Danish goat farms...... with ≥10 female goats (N=132) according to the Central Husbandry Register, were invited to participate. Of these, 25 herds each submitted faecal samples, collected approximately 1 month after turn out, from 4‐12 kids born earlier the same year. During May‐July, a total of 232 samples were examined using......, and herds with a mean EPG>150 were offered a faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT). All herds were asked to complete a questionnaire about management and risk factors concerning parasites, particularly nematodes. Faecal egg counts were generally low; 2 out of 25 herds had a mean EPG>150. Herd prevalence...

  7. Comparison of the reproduction of the goats on the ecological and the conventional farm

    OpenAIRE

    Pravdová, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    The aim of my diploma thesis is comparison and evaluation of reproduction of goats on an eco-farm and on a conventional farm. Measures of reproduction of observed herds were assessed in the years of 2009 and 2010 on an eco-farm Hana Langová and on a conventional farm Bára Schneedorferová. On an eco-farm, a herd of 20 does was observed. Crossbreeds of White shorthaired goat, Brown shorthair goat, Boer goat and Anglo-Nubian goat; all bred with a White shorthaired buck and a Boer buck. On a conv...

  8. Survey on coenurosis in sheep and goats in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desouky, Enas A; Badawy, Ahmed I; Refaat, Refaat A

    2011-01-01

    A total of 75 sheep and goats from apparently healthy and from clinically affected flocks were examined for Coenurus cerebralis cysts from different localities in Egypt. Of 25 animals examined from clinically diseased sheep and goats, 25 (100%) revealed the presence of infestation with one to four coenuri in the brain. The sites of predilection were the left hemisphere (48%), followed by the right hemisphere (40%) and the cerebellum (12%). There was no apparent effect of the age of sheep and goats on susceptibility to infestation with C. cerebralis. Another 50 animals from apparently healthy sheep and goat herds presented no C. cerebralis cysts. The cysts from infested sheep could infest newborn puppies experimentally, with a prepatent period of 60 days post infestation. A total of 15 immature worms that were recovered from one puppy did not reach patency until 105 days post infestation with C. cerebralis cyst scolices. Pathological changes in C. cerebralis-infested sheep brain revealed parasitic elements, demyelinated nerve tracts, hyperaemic blood vessels with round cell infiltration, encephalomalacia with round cell infiltration and palisading macrophages and giant cells, as well as focal replacement of the brain parenchyma with caseated and calcified materials. The morphological characteristics of both the larval stage from sheep and goats and adult worms of Taenia multiceps from experimentally infested dogs are described. The results conclude that C. cerebralis is one of the principal causes of nervous manifestations of coenurosis in clinically diseased sheep and goats in Egypt.

  9. Comparative pharmacokinetic disposition of closantel in sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, D R; Sangster, N C; Steel, J W; Collins, G H

    1993-09-01

    The pharmacokinetic disposition of closantel was examined following intraruminal (i.r.) or intramuscular (i.m.) administration to adult Merino sheep and to adult and 3-month-old, suckling Angora goats. In adult goats the maximum concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration with time curve (AUC) following 3.75, 7.5 and 15.0 mg closantel/kg given i.r. increased with dose however the time of Cmax (Tmax = 2.6d) in plasma was unaffected by dose rate. The elimination phase (K10) of closantel was monoexponential with a half-life (t1/2) of 4.7d again unaffected by dose rate. Apart from a more rapid absorption phase and earlier Tmax following 3.75 mg closantel/kg i.m., pharmacokinetic behaviour was similar to that following i.r. administration at 3.75 or 7.5 mg/kg. Although absorption rate was more rapid in kids after i.r. administration at 7.5 mg/kg, pharmacokinetic disposition of closantel was otherwise similar to that in adult goats. No closantel was detected in milk of treated doses or in the plasma of their kids. I.R. closantel at 7.5 mg/kg was more slowly absorbed in goats than in sheep but Cmax was similar in both species. However, K10 t1/2 was significantly shorter in goats (4d) than in sheep (14d). Faster elimination resulted in an almost three-fold lowering of AUC in goats and could dramatically reduce the sustained action of closantel in this species compared with sheep.

  10. Genetic resistance to scrapie infection in experimentally challenged goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroux, Caroline; Perrin-Chauvineau, Cécile; Corbière, Fabien; Aron, Naima; Aguilar-Calvo, Patricia; Torres, Juan Maria; Costes, Pierrette; Brémaud, Isabelle; Lugan, Séverine; Schelcher, François; Barillet, Francis; Andréoletti, Olivier

    2014-03-01

    In goats, several field studies have identified coding mutations of the gene encoding the prion protein (I/M142, N/D146, S/D146, R/Q211, and Q/K222) that are associated with a lower risk of developing classical scrapie. However, the data related to the levels of resistance to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of these different PRNP gene mutations are still considered insufficient for developing large-scale genetic selection against scrapie in this species. In this study, we inoculated wild-type (WT) PRNP (I142R154R211Q222) goats and homozygous and/or heterozygous I/M142, R/H154, R/Q211, and Q/K222 goats with a goat natural scrapie isolate by either the oral or the intracerebral (i.c.) route. Our results indicate that the I/M142 PRNP polymorphism does not provide substantial resistance to scrapie infection following intracerebral or oral inoculation. They also demonstrate that H154, Q211, and K222 PRNP allele carriers are all resistant to scrapie infection following oral exposure. However, in comparison to WT animals, the H154 and Q211 allele carriers displayed only moderate increases in the incubation period following i.c. challenge. After i.c. challenge, heterozygous K222 and a small proportion of homozygous K222 goats also developed the disease, but with incubation periods that were 4 to 5 times longer than those in WT animals. These results support the contention that the K222 goat prion protein variant provides a strong but not absolutely protective effect against classical scrapie.

  11. Epidemiology and Economic Benefits of Treating Goat Coccidiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauseef-ur-Rehman, Muhammad Nisar Khan*, Izhar Ahmad Khan1 and Mansoor Ahmad

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to determine the prevalence of Eimeria species and to compare the efficacy of Toltrazuril and Amprolium against coccidosis. Of the total 121 fecal samples examined for Eimeria, 67 (55.99% were found infected with four species of Eimeria. Amongst the identified species, E. ninakohlyakimovae was the commonest one (49.25% followed were E. arloingi, E. caprina and E. hirci with prevalence of 44.78, 25.37 and 19.40%, respectively. Kids had significantly (P<0.05 higher prevalence of Eimeria than adults. Higher prevalence of Eimeria was observed in female goats. Forty five Eimeria positive animals were randomly divided into three equal groups, i.e., groups A to C. Group A was treated with Amprolium (2g/40kg BW and group B was treated with Toltrazuril (15mg/kg BW for three days each while no drug was given to Group C. On day 7 post treatment, all goats of group B stopped shedding oocysts while 8 (53.33% goats of group A stopped shedding oocysts. After the treatment, goats of group B gained 2.2 kg body weight over a period of 15 days compared 1.2 kg weight in group A. The lowest weight gain (0.5 kg was in goats of group C (untreated control. No significant difference in milk yield of the three groups was recorded. It can be concluded that control of goat coccidiosis through single treatment of Toltrazuril is economically beneficial.

  12. Applications of somatic cell nuclear transfer in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ton Yoisungnern

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A number of animals with genetically identical appearance can be produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT. From current advancement of SCNT and molecular techniques, production of a transgenic animal becomes easier. Although cloning efficiency in goat is low, the ability to propagate genetically identical animals, with a gene or genes of interest, would be important for increasing productivity and ultimately the economic livelihood. In this paper, the potential applications and uses of SCNT technology like production of transgenic goat for production of quality milk and meat are discussed.

  13. Spoilage potential of Pseudomonas species isolated from goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scatamburlo, T M; Yamazi, A K; Cavicchioli, V Q; Pieri, F A; Nero, L A

    2015-02-01

    Pseudomonas spp. are usually associated with spoilage microflora of dairy products due to their proteolytic potential. This is of particular concern for protein-based products, such as goat milk cheeses and fermented milks. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to characterize the proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. isolated from goat milk. Goat milk samples (n=61) were obtained directly from bulk tanks on dairy goat farms (n=12), and subjected to a modified International Organization for Standardization (ISO) protocol to determine the number and proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. Isolates (n=82) were obtained, identified by PCR, and subjected to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with XbaI macro-restriction. Then, the isolates were subjected to PCR to detect the alkaline protease gene (apr), and phenotypic tests were performed to check proteolytic activity at 7°C, 25°C, and 35°C. Mean Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 2.9 to 4.8 log cfu/mL, and proteolytic Pseudomonas spp. counts ranged from 1.9 to 4.6 log cfu/mL. All isolates were confirmed to be Pseudomonas spp., and 41 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, which clustered into 5 groups sharing approximately 82% similarity. Thirty-six isolates (46.9%) were positive for the apr gene; and 57 (69.5%) isolates presented proteolytic activity at 7°C, 82 (100%) at 25°C, and 64 (78%) at 35°C. The isolates were distributed ubiquitously in the goat farms, and no relationship among isolates was observed when the goat farms, presence of apr, pulsotypes, and proteolytic activity were taken into account. We demonstrated proteolytic activity of Pseudomonas spp. present in goat milk by phenotypic and genotypic tests and indicated their spoilage potential at distinct temperatures. Based on these findings and the ubiquity of Pseudomonas spp. in goat farm environments, proper monitoring and control of Pseudomonas spp. during production are critical.

  14. The Effects of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 on Dairy Goat Mastitis and Cell Survival of Goat Mammary Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Zheng, Huiling; Li, Lihui; Shen, Xingai; Zang, Wenjuan; Sun, Yongsen

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is a zinc-dependent enzyme, and plays a crucial role in extracellular matrix degeneration, inflammation and tissue remodeling. However, the relationship between MMP-9 and somatic cell count (SCC) in goat milk and the role of MMP-9 in the regulation of mastitis are still unknown. In this study, we found MMP-9 was predominantly expressed in the spleen, intestine and mammary gland. The SCC in goat milk was positively correlated with MMP-9 expression, and staphylococcus aureus could markedly increase MMP-9 expression in goat mammary epithelial cells (GMEC) in dosage and time dependent manner. We also demonstrated that SB-3CT, an inhibitor of MMP-9, promoted apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in GMEC. Thus, MMP-9 may emerge as an easily measurable and sensitive parameter that reflects the number of somatic cells present in milk and a regulatory factor of apoptosis in GMEC.

  15. Goat farm management and Brucella serological test among goat keepers and livestock officers, 2011-2012, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, southern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te-Chaniyom, Thanidtha; Geater, Alan F; Kongkaew, Wandee; Chethanond, Usa; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2016-12-01

    Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease particularly affecting goats, emerged in Thailand in 2003, resulting in both an occupational hazard for goat keepers and livestock officers, and production losses. Farm management practices have been identified as risk factors associated with Brucella sero-positivity in many studies. Our finding in this study should be considered in order to strengthen the system of biosecurity control in farm animals as one health approach. The objectives of the study were to describe the distribution of potential risk factors by types of goat farms and to document the prevalence of human Brucella sero-positivity among goat keepers and livestock officers in Nakhon Si Thammarat, Thailand. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to December 2012. The study population included three types of goat farms: standard, community enterprise and private goat farms that were located in Nakhon Si Thammmarat Province in southern Thailand. Information on whether the farm had any Brucella sero-positivity goats since 2011 was retrieved from the local livestock office records. Information on farming management was also traced back to 2011. Field researchers collected information from goat keepers of the selected farms using a structured questionnaire. Goat keepers on all farms pre-identified (January to June 2012) as having had at least one positive goat were considered to have been exposed. Goat keepers on a random sample of farms having all goats with negative results were considered to be unexposed. Venous blood samples were collected from goat keepers exposed and unexposed and from livestock officers and the samples were tested by IgG ELISA. Statistical analysis was done under the complex survey design in R software. Fourteen standard farms, 66 community enterprise farms and 68 private farms participated in the study; 82.4% (122/148) used public pasture and 53.4% (79/148) shared breeder goats with other farms. Farm management practices corresponding

  16. Relationship of goat milk flow emission variables with milking routine, milking parameters, milking machine characteristics and goat physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, G; Panzalis, R; Ruegg, P

    2017-04-10

    The aim of this paper was to study the relationship between milk flow emission variables recorded during milking of dairy goats with variables related to milking routine, goat physiology, milking parameters and milking machine characteristics, to determine the variables affecting milking performance and help the goat industry pinpoint farm and milking practices that improve milking performance. In total, 19 farms were visited once during the evening milking. Milking parameters (vacuum level (VL), pulsation ratio and pulsation rate, vacuum drop), milk emission flow variables (milking time, milk yield, maximum milk flow (MMF), average milk flow (AVMF), time until 500 g/min milk flow is established (TS500)), doe characteristics of 8 to 10 goats/farm (breed, days in milk and parity), milking practices (overmilking, overstripping, pre-lag time) and milking machine characteristics (line height, presence of claw) were recorded on every farm. The relationships between recorded variables and farm were analysed by a one-way ANOVA analysis. The relationships of milk yield, MMF, milking time and TS500 with goat physiology, milking routine, milking parameters and milking machine design were analysed using a linear mixed model, considering the farm as the random effect. Farm was significant (Pvariables. Milk emission flow variables were similar to those recommended in scientific studies. Milking parameters were adequate in most of the farms, being similar to those recommended in scientific studies. Few milking parameters and milking machine characteristics affected the tested variables: average vacuum level only showed tendency on MMF, and milk pipeline height on TS500. Milk yield (MY) was mainly affected by parity, as the interaction of days in milk with parity was also significant. Milking time was mainly affected by milk yield and breed. Also significant were parity, the interaction of days in milk with parity and overstripping, whereas overmilking showed a slight tendency

  17. Haemonchotolerance in West African Dwarf goats: contribution to sustainable, anthelmintics-free helminth control in traditionally managed Nigerian dwarf goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiejina, Samuel N; Behnke, Jerzy M; Fakae, Barineme B

    2015-01-01

    West African Dwarf (WAD) goats are extremely important in the rural village economy of West Africa, but still little is known about their biology, ecology and capacity to cope with gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) infections. Here, we summarise the history of this breed and explain its economic importance in rural West Africa. We review recent work showing that Nigerian WAD goats are highly trypanotolerant and resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than other breeds of domestic goat (haemonchotolerance). We believe that haemonchotolerance is largely responsible for the generally low level GIN infections and absence of clinical haemonchosis in WADs under field conditions, and has contributed to the relatively successful and sustainable, anthelmintics-free, small-scale system of goat husbandry in Nigeria's humid zone, and is immunologically based and genetically controlled. If haemonchotolerance can be shown to be genetically controlled, it should be possible to exploit the underlying genes to improve GIN resistance among productive fibre and milk producing breeds of goats, most of which are highly susceptible to nematode infections. Genetic resistance to GIN and trypanosome infections would obviate the need for expensive chemotherapy, mostly unaffordable to small-holder farmers in Africa, and a significant cost of goat husbandry in more developed countries. Either introgression of resistance alleles into susceptible breeds by conventional breeding, or transgenesis could be used to develop novel parasite-resistant, but highly productive breeds, or to improve the resistance of existing breeds, benefitting the local West African rural economy as well as global caprine livestock agriculture. © S.N. Chiejina et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of moxidectin and doramectin in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, E; Carceles, C M; Diaz, M S; Sutra, J F; Galtier, P; Alvinerie, M

    1999-10-01

    The pharmacokinetic behaviour of doramectin after a single subcutaneous administration and moxidectin following a single subcutaneous or oral drench were studied in goats at a dosage of 0.2 mg kg(-1). The drug plasma concentration-time data were analysed by compartmental pharmacokinetics and non-compartmental methods. Maximum plasma concentrations of moxidectin were attained earlier and to a greater extent than doramectin (shorter t(max) and greater C(max) and AUC than doramectin). MRT of doramectin (4.91 +/- 0.07 days) was also significantly shorter than that of moxidectin (12.43 +/- 1.28 days). Then, the exposure of animals to doramectin in comparison with moxidectin was significantly shorter. The apparent absorption rate of moxidectin was not significantly different after oral and subcutaneous administration but the extent of absorption, reflected in the peak concentration (C(max)) and the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), of the subcutaneous injection (24.27 +/- 1.99 ng ml(-1) and 136.72 +/- 7.35 ng d ml(-1) respectively) was significantly greater than that of the oral administration (15.53 +/- 1.27 ng ml(-1) and 36.72 +/- 4.05 ng d ml(-1) respectively). The mean residence time (MRT) of moxidectin didn't differ significantly when administered orally or subcutaneously. Therefore low oral bioavailability and the early emergence of resistance in this minor species may be related. These results deserve to be correlated with efficacy studies for refining dosage requirements of endectocides in this species.

  19. Exposure assessment of prepubertal children to steroid endocrine disrupters 1. Analytical strategy for estrogens measurement in plasma at ultra-trace level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courant, Frédérique; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Maume, Daniel; Monteau, Fabrice; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Skakkebaek, Niels; Andre, François; Le Bizec, Bruno

    2007-03-14

    Global concern has been raised in recent years over adverse effects that may result from exposure to chemicals that may interfere with the endocrine system. A specific question is related to low-dose effects and long-term exposure consequences, especially for critical populations (foetus, new born, prepubertal children). In this context, we decided to focus our attention on steroid hormones as they are the most potent endocrine disrupters. Our general goal is to investigate whether the steroid intake through food may represent a risk for prepubertal children, from an endocrine disruption point of view, especially with regard to the corresponding endogenous production level in this target population. As a starting point, it was estimated that a (re)-evaluation of the endogenous production of natural estrogens for this population was necessary, on the basis of a very sensitive and specific confirmatory measurement technique (gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry or gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry). Thus, a new ultra-sensitive approach for steroid trace measurement in biological samples was developed, which was mainly based on a specific derivatisation (pentafluorobenzyl derivative) and negative chemical ionisation (NCI). Preliminary results obtained by applying this method on plasma samples from healthy prepubertal children demonstrated that estradiol endogenous level in prepubertal children is unsurprisingly very low. Estrone was determined in almost all samples at concentration in the 2-70 ng L(-1) range while 17alpha and 17beta estradiol were quantified in only few samples at concentrations ranging from 2 to 6 ng L(-1). Exogenous contributions of estrogens will therefore constitute a relatively higher proportion of sex hormone activity in the immature child.

  20. haematological values of appararently healthy sheep and goats as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    sheep and goats reared under traditional husbandry system have low ... from each animal was collected and examined for the presence of helminth ova using floatation method (Basu, et al,. 1994 ..... poor management in this area, since the economic hardship is on the ... Uquhart, G.M., Armour, J., Duncan, J.L., Dunn, A.M..

  1. Responses of Tswana goats to various lengths of water deprivation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    The aim of this trial was to determine the water intake of Tswana goats and ... country with low and erratic rainfall, and the scarcity of surface water limits the use of .... Water deprivation tended to cause some physiological stress to animals at ...

  2. Mammary remodeling in primiparous and multiparous dairy goats during lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safayi, Sina; Theil, Peter Kappel; Elbrønd, Vibeke Sødring

    2010-01-01

    Milk production is generally lower but lactation persistency higher in primiparous (PP) than in multiparous (MP) goats. This may be related to differences in development and maintenance of mammary gland function, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. The present study aimed to el...

  3. Seroprevalence of border disease in Danish sheep and goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, C.; Stryhn, H.; Uttenthal, Åse

    2000-01-01

    A study was conducted in 1994-96 with the aim of assessing the serological prevalence of Border Disease (BD) among sheep and goats in Denmark and to investigate possible relations to herd factors. From each of 1000 herds, 2 blood samples were obtained from animals older than 1 year. The examinati...

  4. Behavioral and hormonal studies on Egyptian Baladi goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Fakhry Abdel Fattah

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: It concluded that visual, alfactactory, auditory contact with the male stimulate estrus response of anestrus females to be sexually responsive resulting in an increase in the economic gain of goat farm. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(2.000: 160-165

  5. Detection and control of lentiviral infections in sheep and goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, J.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Infections caused by the small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) of sheep (maedi visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus) are a serious economical threat to small ruminant farming particularly in the more intensive settings like dairy farms. Revenue is ultimately negatively

  6. Time resolved fluorescence of cow and goat milk powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandao, Mariana P.; de Carvalho dos Anjos, Virgílio; Bell., Maria José V.

    2017-01-01

    Milk powder is an international dairy commodity. Goat and cow milk powders are significant sources of nutrients and the investigation of the authenticity and classification of milk powder is particularly important. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to distinguish chemical composition and structure modifications could assist develop a portable and non-destructive methodology to perform milk powder classification and determine composition. This study goal is to differentiate milk powder samples from cows and goats using fluorescence lifetimes. The samples were excited at 315 nm and the fluorescence intensity decay registered at 468 nm. We observed fluorescence lifetimes of 1.5 ± 0.3, 6.4 ± 0.4 and 18.7 ± 2.5 ns for goat milk powder; and 1.7 ± 0.3, 6.9 ± 0.2 and 29.9 ± 1.6 ns for cow's milk powder. We discriminate goat and cow powder milk by analysis of variance using Fisher's method. In addition, we employed quadratic discriminant analysis to differentiate the milk samples with accuracy of 100%. Our results suggest that time-resolved fluorescence can provide a new method to the analysis of powder milk and its composition.

  7. Characteristics of rural goat production and marketing in Kumi and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mo

    Water is mainly drawn from spring wells and the maximum walking distance is 3.0 km. All labour for ... Indigenous goats have, however, low productivity for meat and milk. ... In the two districts, men take the upper head in deciding whether to ...

  8. Cytokines level changes in goats infected with Fasciola hepatica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To study the changes of IL-2 and TNF-α in serum and the IL-2 secreted by peripheral blood lymphocytes of goats infected with Fasciola hepatica,thirty six clinically healthy white goats were randomly divided into groups coded as Ⅰ,Ⅱ,Ⅲ,every 12 goats.Goats in group Ⅰ and Ⅱ were inoculated with a single oral dose of 200 and 500 encysted Fasciola hepatica metacercaria,respectively,while those in group Ⅲ were untreated controls.Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein once a week for 11 weeks.Changes in the serum levels of IL-2 and TNF-α and the ability of peripheral blood lymphocytes to secrete IL-2 were detected.Serum IL-2 levels decreased in group I,but increased in group Ⅱ.The levels of TNF-α and secreted IL-2 were elevated by varying degrees in both groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ.Lymphocytes displayed reactivity during the first week after infection with a significantly increased response to both specific and non-specific challenges.TNF-α may be involved in the hepatic injury process caused by Fasciola hepatica.The infective dose of Fasciola hepatica greatly influenced IL-2 levels in the host playing a vital role in the initiation of host defense.

  9. Genetic characterization of two Sudanese goat breeds (Capra hircus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... Commission for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, National Center for Research, Ministry of Science and. Technology, P. O. ... The Nubian (common breed that is distributed in north ... naturalized Sudanese goat breeds, suffer genetic losses .... collection based on the location, it was very obvious that.

  10. Production Systems for the Muslim Goat's Meat Market

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1Norwegian Agricultural Economics Research Institute ... This paper investigates economic feasible production systems in agriculture to meet the ... Halal products such as pizzas, sausages and hamburgers, takes place ... Key words: Goat's meat; Norway; Production systems; Halal meat; Muslims; Mountain range pastures;.

  11. Prevalence and aetiology of subclinical mastitis in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Štoković

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted in 2006 on 20 French alpine goat farms in Croatia. Milk samples were taken from each udder half, for the mastitis test and the bacteriological test, 2120 samples in total. Subclinical mastitis was diagnosed in 211 out of 1060 goats, or in 20% of the studied population. Mastitis of one udder half was diagnosed in 84% of the affected population, while mastitis of both udder halves was diagnosed in 16% of the affected goats. A positive mastitis test reaction was identified in 605 samples (28%, and the pathogenic bacterium was isolated from 244 of these samples (36%. From 22 samples (1.5% which were negative to mastitis test, pathogenic bacteria, namely S. aureus (21 samples and Streptococcus D (1 sample, were isolated. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 72% mastitis test positive samples, coagulase-negative staphylococci in 16%, other bacteria were isolated from a smaller number of samples: Streptococcus D (6%, Bacillus spp. (2%, and E. coli (2%. The results of the study lead to the conclusion that the subclinical mastitis in goats has a prevalence of 20% on average which increases with higher lactation number. Staphylococcus aureus is the primary causative agent of the inflammations.

  12. Seroprevalence of border disease in Danish sheep and goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, C.; Stryhn, H.; Uttenthal, Åse;

    2000-01-01

    A study was conducted in 1994-96 with the aim of assessing the serological prevalence of Border Disease (BD) among sheep and goats in Denmark and to investigate possible relations to herd factors. From each of 1000 herds, 2 blood samples were obtained from animals older than 1 year. The examinati...

  13. Hydrolysis by Alcalase Improves Hypoallergenic Properties of Goat Milk Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Sung-Seob; Lee, Won-Jae; Kim, Jin-Wook; Ha, Ho-Kyung; Yoo, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Goat milk is highly nutritious and is consumed in many countries, but the development of functional foods from goat milk has been slow compared to that for other types of milk. The aim of this study was to develop a goat milk protein hydrolysate (GMPH) with enhanced digestibility and better hypoallergenic properties in comparison with other protein sources such as ovalbumin and soy protein. Goat milk protein was digested with four commercial food-grade proteases (separately) under various conditions to achieve the best hydrolysis of αs -casein and β-lactoglobulin. It was shown that treatment with alcalase (0.4%, 60℃ for 30 min) effectively degraded these two proteins, as determined by SDS-PAGE, measurement of nonprotein nitrogen content, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Hydrolysis with alcalase resulted in a significant decrease in β-lactoglobulin concentration (almost to nil) and a ~40% reduction in the level of αs-casein. Quantification of histamine and TNF-α released from HMC-1 cells (human mast cell line) showed that the GMPH did not induce an allergic response when compared to the control. Hence, the GMPH may be useful for development of novel foods for infants, the elderly, and convalescent patients, to replace cow milk. PMID:27621693

  14. Brucellosis in dairy cattle and goats in northern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Keith P; Hutchins, Frank T; McNulty, Chase M; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7-6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0-8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2-44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis.

  15. Contamination of Bovine, Sheep and Goat Meat with Brucella Spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalinuovo, Francesco; Ciambrone, Lucia; Cacia, Antonio; Rippa, Paola

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%): 1 bovine (2.5%), 9 sheep (15%) and 15 goats (7.2%) and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%). Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method. PMID:27853716

  16. Analysis of coprolites from the extinct mountain goat Myotragus balearicus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welker, F.; Duijm, E.; van der Gaag, K.J.; de Knijff, P.; van Leeuwen, J.; Mol, D.; van der Plicht, J.; Raes, N.; Reumer, J.; Gravendeel, B.

    2014-01-01

    Humans colonized the Balearic Islands 5-4. ka ago. They arrived in a uniquely adapted ecosystem with the Balearic mountain goat Myotragus balearicus (Bovidae, Antilopinae, Caprini) as the only large mammal. This mammal went extinct rapidly after human arrival. Several hypotheses have been proposed t

  17. Analysis of coprolites from the extinct mountain goat Myotragus balearicus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welker, F.; Duijm, E.; van der Gaag, K.J.; van Geel, B.; de Knijff, P.; van Leeuwen, J.; Mol, D.; van der Plicht, J.; Raes, N.; Reumer, J; Gravendeel, B.

    2014-01-01

    Humans colonized the Balearic Islands 5-4 ka ago. They arrived in a uniquely adapted ecosystem with the Balearic mountain goat Myotragus balearicus (Bovidae, Antilopinae, Caprini) as the only large mammal. This mammal went extinct rapidly after human arrival. Several hypotheses have been proposed to

  18. Analysis of coprolites from the extinct mountain goat Myotragus balearicus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welker, Frido; Duijm, Elza; Gaag, Kristiaan J. van der; Geel, Bas van; Knijff, Peter de; Leeuwen, Jacqueline van; Mol, Dick; Plicht, Johannes van der; Raes, Niels; Reumer, Jelle; Gravendeel, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Humans colonized the Balearic Islands 5–4 ka ago. They arrived in a uniquely adapted ecosystem with the Balearic mountain goat Myotragus balearicus (Bovidae, Antilopinae, Caprini) as the only large mammal. This mammal went extinct rapidly after human arrival. Several hypotheses have been proposed to

  19. Determinants of sheep and goat meat consumption in Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aepli, M.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the influence of different meat prices, socio-demographic and geographic variables on sheep and goat meat demand using the Swiss household expenditure survey from 2000 to 2005, a micro data set on 20,940 households resident in Switzerland. This study is motivated by the f

  20. [Resistance to anthelmintics in nematodes in sheep and goats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praslicka, J; Corba, J

    1995-08-01

    The article offers a brief view on the most important theoretical knowledge of resistance of gastrointestinal nematodes to anthelmintic drugs in sheep and goats. Besides the definition and basic terms, factors of development and occurrence of resistance on farm are analyzed. Furthermore, methods for detection of resistant nematodes as well as complex of recommended preventive measures are given.

  1. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats: an opinionated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Brom, R; van Engelen, E; Roest, H I J; van der Hoek, W; Vellema, P

    2015-12-14

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirths can occur, mainly during late pregnancy. Shedding of C. burnetii occurs in feces, milk and, mostly, in placental membranes and birth fluids. During parturition of infected small ruminants, bacteria from birth products become aerosolized. Transmission to humans mainly happens through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In the last decade, there have been several, sometimes large, human Q fever outbreaks related to sheep and goats. In this review, we describe C. burnetii infections in sheep and goats, including both advantages and disadvantages of available laboratory techniques, as pathology, different serological tests, PCR and culture to detect C. burnetii. Moreover, worldwide prevalences of C. burnetii in small ruminants are described, as well as possibilities for treatment and prevention. Prevention of shedding and subsequent environmental contamination by vaccination of sheep and goats with a phase I vaccine are possible. In addition, compulsory surveillance of C. burnetii in small ruminant farms raises awareness and hygiene measures in farms help to decrease exposure of people to the organism. Finally, this review challenges how to contain an infection of C. burnetii in small ruminants, bearing in mind possible consequences for the human population and probable interference of veterinary strategies, human risk perception and political considerations.

  2. Brucellosis in Dairy Cattle and Goats in Northern Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Keith P.; Hutchins, Frank T.; McNulty, Chase M.; Tremblay, Marlène; Zabala, Carmen; Barragan, Veronica; Lopez, Luis; Trueba, Gabriel; Bethel, Jeffrey W.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a convenience study for brucellosis prevalence in dairy-producing animals in northern Ecuador. In total, 2,561 cows and 301 goats were tested. Cattle sera were tested using the Rose Bengal card antigen test (RBCT), yielding an overall apparent prevalence of 5.5% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 4.7–6.5%) and true prevalence of 7.2% (95% CI = 6.0–8.5%). Prevalence varied by herd size and was highest in larger commercial herds. Polymerase chain reaction was used to test goat milk and lymph nodes, resulting in 9% and 8% positivity, respectively. The RBCTs from goat sera yielded an adjusted true prevalence of 17.8% (95% CI = 6.2–44.2%). Our findings are similar to other overall prevalence estimates for dairy herds but show higher prevalence in commercial herds compared with small groups (less than five animals). We also identify urban milking goats living in metropolitan Quito as a potential source of zoonosis. PMID:24591429

  3. Detection and control of lentiviral infections in sheep and goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkhof, J.M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Infections caused by the small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) of sheep (maedi visna virus) and goats (caprine arthritis encephalitis virus) are a serious economical threat to small ruminant farming particularly in the more intensive settings like dairy farms. Revenue is ultimately negatively influence

  4. Hydrolysis by Alcalase Improves Hypoallergenic Properties of Goat Milk Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Tae-Hwan; Yun, Sung-Seob; Lee, Won-Jae; Kim, Jin-Wook; Ha, Ho-Kyung; Yoo, Michelle; Hwang, Hyo-Jeong; Jeon, Woo-Min; Han, Kyoung-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Goat milk is highly nutritious and is consumed in many countries, but the development of functional foods from goat milk has been slow compared to that for other types of milk. The aim of this study was to develop a goat milk protein hydrolysate (GMPH) with enhanced digestibility and better hypoallergenic properties in comparison with other protein sources such as ovalbumin and soy protein. Goat milk protein was digested with four commercial food-grade proteases (separately) under various conditions to achieve the best hydrolysis of αs -casein and β-lactoglobulin. It was shown that treatment with alcalase (0.4%, 60℃ for 30 min) effectively degraded these two proteins, as determined by SDS-PAGE, measurement of nonprotein nitrogen content, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Hydrolysis with alcalase resulted in a significant decrease in β-lactoglobulin concentration (almost to nil) and a ~40% reduction in the level of αs-casein. Quantification of histamine and TNF-α released from HMC-1 cells (human mast cell line) showed that the GMPH did not induce an allergic response when compared to the control. Hence, the GMPH may be useful for development of novel foods for infants, the elderly, and convalescent patients, to replace cow milk.

  5. Economic aspects of Q fever control in dairy goats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Bontje, D.M.; Backer, J.A.; Roermund, van H.J.W.; Bergevoet, R.H.M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an economic analysis of Q fever control strategies in dairy goat herds in The Netherlands. Evaluated control strategies involved vaccination strategies (being either preventive or reactive) and reactive non-vaccination strategies (i.e., culling or breeding prohibition). Reacti

  6. Analysis of coprolites from the extinct mountain goat Myotragus balearicus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welker, Frido; Duijm, Elza; Gaag, Kristiaan J. van der; Geel, Bas van; Knijff, Peter de; Leeuwen, Jacqueline van; Mol, Dick; Plicht, Johannes van der; Raes, Niels; Reumer, Jelle; Gravendeel, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Humans colonized the Balearic Islands 5–4 ka ago. They arrived in a uniquely adapted ecosystem with the Balearic mountain goat Myotragus balearicus (Bovidae, Antilopinae, Caprini) as the only large mammal. This mammal went extinct rapidly after human arrival. Several hypotheses have been proposed to

  7. Analysis of coprolites from the extinct mountain goat Myotragus balearicus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Welker; E. Duijm; K.J. van der Gaag; B. van Geel; P. de Knijff; J. van Leeuwen; D. Mol; J. van der Plicht; N. Raes; J Reumer; B. Gravendeel

    2014-01-01

    Humans colonized the Balearic Islands 5-4 ka ago. They arrived in a uniquely adapted ecosystem with the Balearic mountain goat Myotragus balearicus (Bovidae, Antilopinae, Caprini) as the only large mammal. This mammal went extinct rapidly after human arrival. Several hypotheses have been proposed to

  8. Analysis of coprolites from the extinct mountain goat Myotragus balearicus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welker, F.; Duijm, E.; van der Gaag, K.J.; de Knijff, P.; van Leeuwen, J.; Mol, D.; van der Plicht, J.; Raes, N.; Reumer, J.; Gravendeel, B.

    2014-01-01

    Humans colonized the Balearic Islands 5-4. ka ago. They arrived in a uniquely adapted ecosystem with the Balearic mountain goat Myotragus balearicus (Bovidae, Antilopinae, Caprini) as the only large mammal. This mammal went extinct rapidly after human arrival. Several hypotheses have been proposed t

  9. Contamination of Bovine, Sheep and Goat Meat with Brucella Spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalinuovo, Francesco; Ciambrone, Lucia; Cacia, Antonio; Rippa, Paola

    2016-06-03

    A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%): 1 bovine (2.5%), 9 sheep (15%) and 15 goats (7.2%) and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%). Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method.

  10. Contamination of bovine, sheep and goat meat with Brucella spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Casalinuovo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the lymph nodes and internal organs of the same animals. Brucella spp. was detected by means of PCR in 25/307 carcasses (8%: 1 bovine (2.5%, 9 sheep (15% and 15 goats (7.2% and was isolated by means of a cultural method in 136/307 carcasses (44%. Moreover, additional analysis, performed on lymph nodes from the same carcasses that had proved positive by PCR, allowed highlighting type 3 Brucella abortus in the bovine carcass and type 3 Brucella melitensis in the sheep and goat carcasses. The study shows that cattle, sheep and goats meat of animals slaughtered because they had tested positive for brucellosis may be contaminated by Brucella spp. As this could constitute a real risk of transmission to both butchery personnel and consumers, the meat of animals infected by Brucella spp. should be analysed before being marketed. In this respect, PCR technique performed on swabs proved to be more useful, practical and faster than the traditional bacteriological method.

  11. Cryoprotectant-free freezing of the goat epididymal sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katanbafzadeh, H; Barati, F; Tabandeh, M

    2014-01-01

    Cryoprotectant free approach successfully removed the impact of physical and chemical damages in preserving human sperm in a vitrification protocol. There is no any report on this technology in farm animal sperm freezing. The aim of the present study was to find the efficacy of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin (CLC; 1 mg per 60 million) and sucrose (0.1 and 0.2 M) on freezing of the goat epididymal sperm. Caudal epididymides (n=5 pairs) were dissected, incised and incubated in the Tris-BSA solution for 15 min, followed by swim-up at room temperature. Sperm was loaded in 0.25 mL French straws and cooled on nitrogen vapor for 3 min then immersed in liquid nitrogen and remained for 48 h. Then the straws thawed by immersing in 37 degree C waterbath for 30 sec and analyzed. The results showed the impact of freezing on the goat epididymal sperm motility, viability and DNA fragmentation that were improved by incorporation of CLC and sucrose (0.2 M). In conclusion, the goat epididymal sperm was frozen in a cryoprotectant-free freezing model. CLC and 0.4 M sucrose protected the goat epididymal sperm against freezing-induced damages.

  12. First outbreak of bluetongue in goats in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dercksen, D.; Groot Nibbelink, N.; Paauwe, R.; Backx, A.; Rijn, van P.A.; Vellema, P.

    2007-01-01

    For the first time, bluetongue has been diagnosed in goats in the Netherlands and in Northwest-Europe. On the 17th of August 2006, bluetongue was for the first time diagnosed in sheep and a little later in cattle in The Netherlands. The clinical symptoms, diagnostics and differential diagnosis of

  13. Female tail wagging enhances sexual performance in male goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haulenbeek, Andrea M; Katz, Larry S

    2011-08-01

    Preference testing has shown that sexually experienced male goats choose females that are tail wagging, a behavior that may function as both attractivity and proceptivity, over those that are not. We hypothesized that exposure to females expressing high rates of tail wagging would arouse males, increasing sexual performance. Tail wagging rate could be manipulated because we have shown previously that flutamide treatment increases the frequency of tail wagging in estrous goats. Sexually experienced males observed different stimuli for 10 min before a 20 min sexual performance test (SPT). The stimuli were an empty pen (MT), or groups of three females that were all estrous (E), non-estrous (NE), estrous+flutamide (E(F)) or non-estrous+flutamide (NE(F)). During the stimulus observation period, tail wagging was recorded. During SPT, frequencies and latencies of sexual behaviors were recorded. E(F) females displayed the most tail wagging. Viewing E(F) females before SPT increased the number of ejaculations attained by males and decreased the latencies to first and second ejaculation, as well as the inter-ejaculatory interval. Viewing estrous females (E and E(F)) before SPT decreased the latency to first mount, as compared to non-estrous females (NE and NE(F)). We conclude that male goats are sexually aroused by tail wagging. This study and previous work demonstrate that tail wagging functions as both attractivity and proceptivity in goats. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Biochemical and hematological profile of different breeds of goat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shthomas

    number of red blood cells was within the normal range (11.20-11.90 × 106/µL). However ... since this is the first time that biochemical and hematological parameters were determined in Aardi, ... value data for the physiological variables of goat breeds ..... and serum biochemistry of captive unsedated chital deer (Axis axis).

  15. Enteral fluid therapy through nasogastric tube in rumen cannulated goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Atoji-Henrique

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the effects of fluid therapy in goats through nasogastric route with an electrolyte solution composed by concentrations of sodium, potassium and chloride similar to goat plasma (140mmol/L of Na+, 4.5mmol/L of K+, 110mmol/L of Cl-. Four Alpine Chamoisee goats, two of them with evident leakage of the rumen cannulas, were used in a crossover experimental design of two periods and two groups. In one group the two goats were submitted to a treatment protocol to induce dehydration before the fluid therapy, whereas the other group was not. Fluid therapy consisted supplying 10mL/kg/h of the electrolyte solution during 8 hours. No signs of discomfort or stress were observed. The dehydration model employed caused a mild dehydration indicated by decrease in feces humidity, body weight and abdominal circumference, and increase in plasma total solids concentration. During fluid therapy globular volume and plasma total solids decreased, whereas % body weight and abdominal circumference increased. No signs of hyperhydration were observed and serum electrolytes (Na+, Cl-, K+ presented no significant alterations in both groups. Fluid therapy proposed in this study was efficient to treat dehydration, even for rumen cannulated animals with evident leakage, and can be administrated safely with no electrolyte imbalance.

  16. Determinants of sheep and goat meat consumption in Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aepli, M.; Finger, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the influence of different meat prices, socio-demographic and geographic variables on sheep and goat meat demand using the Swiss household expenditure survey from 2000 to 2005, a micro data set on 20,940 households resident in Switzerland. This study is motivated by the

  17. Effects on steroid hormones secretion resulting from the acute stimulation of sectioning the superior ovarian nerve to pre-pubertal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales-Ledesma Leticia

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the adult rat, neural signals arriving to the ovary via the superior ovarian nerve (SON modulate progesterone (P4, testosterone (T and estradiol (E2 secretion. The aims of the present study were to analyze if the SON in the pre-pubertal rat also modulates ovarian hormone secretion and the release of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing (LH hormone. P4, T, E2, FSH and LH serum levels were measured 30 or 60 minutes after sectioning the SON of pre-pubertal female rats. Our results indicate that the effects on hormone levels resulting from unilaterally or bilaterally sectioning the SON depends on the analyzed hormone, and the time lapse between surgery and autopsy, and that the treatment yielded asymmetric results. The results also suggest that in the pre-pubertal rat the neural signals arriving to the ovaries via the SON regulate the enzymes participating in P4, T and E2 synthesis in a non-parallel way, indicating that the mechanisms regulating the synthesis of each hormone are not regulated by the same signals. Also, that the changes in the steroids hormones are not explained exclusively by the modifications in gonadotropins secretion. The observed differences in hormone levels between rats sacrificed 30 and 60 min after surgery reflect the onset of the compensatory systems regulating hormones secretion.

  18. Volatiles and sensory evaluation of goat milk cheese Gokceada as affected by goat breeds (Gokceada and Turkish Saanen) and starter culture systems during ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayaloglu, A A; Tolu, C; Yasar, K; Sahingil, D

    2013-05-01

    The effect of goat breed and starter culture on volatile composition and sensory scores in goat milk cheese was studied during 90d of ripening. Milk from 2 goat breeds (Gokceada and Turkish Saanen) and different starter culture systems (no starter, mesophilic and thermophilic starters) were used in the manufacture of goat milk cheeses (called Gokceada goat cheese). Volatile composition was determined by a solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric method. Sixty compounds including esters (13), carboxylic acids (7), aldehydes (6), ketones (8), alcohols (14), and miscellaneous compounds (12) were identified. Esters, alcohols, and carboxylic acids were the main classes of volatile components in the cheeses. Both qualitatively and quantitatively, the use of different starter cultures and goat breeds significantly influenced the volatile fraction of goat milk cheese. Decanoic, hexanoic, and octanoic (commonly named capric, caproic, and caprylic) acids were indicator compounds to distinguish the goat breeds. Principal component analysis grouped the cheeses based on the use of starter culture and goat breed. Starter-free cheeses were separately located on the plot and age-related changes were present in all samples. Sensory evaluation of 90-d-old cheeses showed that the cheeses from the Gokceada breed received higher odor, flavor, and quality scores than those from the Turkish Saanen breed, and cheeses made using mesophilic starters resulted in the most satisfactory scores for flavor and quality attributes. In conclusion, goat milk cheeses made using milk from Gokceada goats and mesophilic starter culture had the best quality in terms of volatile composition and sensory attributes.

  19. Evaluation of the Activity of Plant Extracts in Boer Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Worku

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The effect of extracts from Neem (Azadirachta indica, Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium and Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum with added copper sulfate, on female Boer goats infected with gastrointestinal parasites (GIN was evaluated. Approach: Following initial screening for infection, animals were artificially infected with a mix containing approximately 80% Haemonchus contortus and 20% Trichostrongylus spp. After 21 days, fecal samples were collected to determine the fecal egg count. Plant extracts (200 mg kg-1 body weight in sterile distilled water were administered on day 28. Treatment I was a control without anthelmintic (distilled water; treatment II received Neem leaf extracts; treatment III received an extract prepared from Wormwood leaves, flowers and roots; treatment IV received Tobacco leaf extracts with copper sulphate. Body Weight (BW, Fecal Egg Count (FEC, Packed Cell Volume (PCV, Total White Blood Cell Counts (TWBCC and White Blood Cell Differential Counts (WBCDC were determined in goats once a week, for a 4-week period. Results: There was no difference in FEC among the groups. The results showed that the plant extracts at the tested concentration were not effective anthelmintics; The PCV of the control group was significantly higher than all treatment groups (p≤0.05. Groups treated with Wormwood and Tobacco copper sulphate had dramatic decreases in PCV which may be an indicator of toxicity from these treatments. Significant differences in BW were observed between the control group and that of the Tobacco-copper sulphate group (p≤0.05. Low concentrations of Tobacco-copper sulphate treatment enhanced body weight. The extracts tested were not effective in reducing the levels of TWBCC. Circulating eosinophil counts, TWBCC and FEC, were negatively correlated with PCV in goats in this study. Conclusion: Aqueous extracts containing water soluble proteins from Neem, wormwood and tobacco are not effective anthelmintics in

  20. Characteristics of non-cerebral coenurosis in tropical goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulopoulos, G; Kassab, A; Theodoropoulos, G

    2015-07-30

    The epidemiological, clinical, and biochemical profile of non-cerebral coenurosis in goats and the morphological characteristics of the responsible metacestodes (cysts) were examined in a cross-sectional survey of slaughtered goats in abattoirs of the United Arab Emirates (U.A.E.) originating from Abu Dhabi and various tropical countries. The age, country of origin, and location of each cyst in the body of goats were recorded. Blood samples collected from infected and matching healthy goats were subjected to biochemical analysis. Data on the morphological characteristics of the cysts as well as the clusters, scoleces, and rostellar hooks in one cyst from each affected carcass were collected. The data collected were subjected to statistical analysis. A total of 2,284 slaughtered goats were examined and 40 goats were diagnosed as infected with non-cerebral coenurus cysts. The prevalence of non-cerebral coenurosis was 1.75% and the degree of parasite aggregation (k) was 0.003, which is indicative of overdispersion (kgoats were palpation of large single cysts in thigh muscles and higher serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) value. A total of 76 non-cerebral coenurus cysts from 14 different body locations were collected. No cysts were found in the brain or spinal cord. Cysts located in psoas muscles had on average significantly bigger volumes and higher numbers of scoleces and clusters compared to cysts located in other body parts (P-value=0.000). Significant differences in the morphometric measurements of the rostellar hooks were observed between cysts found in goats from different countries of origin (P-value5; R-Sq=89.4%; P-value=0.000) and between number of clusters and number of scoleces (b=25.13>1; R-Sq=79.8%; P-value=0.000) indicative of following a positive allometric growth as well as between number of clusters and volume of cysts (b=0.25parasite is investing its resources more on the growth of scoleces, less on the growth of cyst volume, and even less on the

  1. Excitability scores of goats administered ascorbic acid and transported during hot-dry conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayo, J O; Minka, N S; Mamman, M

    2006-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of ascorbic acid (AA) administration on goat excitability due to transportation. Ten goats administered AA (p.o.) at 100 mg/kg of body weight before transportation served as the experimental group, and seven goats administered only 10 ml/kg of sterile water (p.o.) served as controls. Excitability scores were recorded for each goat; when weighed, before, immediately after, and 3 h after 8 h of transportation. A score of one to four was allocated to each goat; higher scores represent greater excitability. Immediately after transportation, excitability scores decreased significantly, especially those of control goats (p 0.05) different from their pre-transportation normal values, whereas those of control goats were significantly lower (p < 0.01). The correlation i.e. the relationship between excitability score values and percent excitability (percentage of goat with particular excitability score) for different excitability score group 3 h post-transportation was positive and highly significant (p < 0.001), in both experimental and control goats. Our results indicate that road transportation induces considerable stress (depression) in goats as evidenced by a lower excitability score posttransportation. Moreover, the administration of AA pretransportation facilitated the transition from a state of depression to excitation. In conclusion, AA administration to animals prior to transportation may ameliorate the depression often encountered after road transportation.

  2. Fermentation optimization of goat milk with Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum by Box-Behnken design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Guowei; Bao, Chunju; Chen, He; Wang, Changfeng; Yang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Goat milk is only limited to the processing of goat milk powder and liquid milk, the products are mainly about milk powder and a few of them are made as milk tablet. Therefore, the study of probiotic goat milk will have great significance in the full use of goats and the development of the goat milk industry in China. The effect of fermentation temperature (35°C, 37°C, 39°C), strain ratio (1:1:1, 2:1:1, 3:1:1) and inoculum size (4%, 5%, 6%) on viable counts of L. acidophilus and B. bifidum, total bacteria and sensory value during fermentation process of L. acidophilus and B. bifidum goat yogurt (AB-goat yogurt) was investigated. The optimum fermentation conditions for AB-goat yogurt were: fermentation temperature 38°C, the strain ratio 2:1:1, inoculum size 6%. Under the optimum conditions, the viable counts of B. bifidum, L. acidophilus, total bacteria and sensory value reached (4.30 ±0.11)×107  cfu/mL, (1.39 ±0.09)×108  cfu/mL, (1.82±0.06)×109  cfu/mL and 7.90 ±0.14, respectively. The fermentation temperature, the strain ratio and inoculum size had a significant effect on the fermentation of AB-goat yogurt and these results are beneficial for developing AB-goat yogurt.

  3. Serum enzymes levels and influencing factors in three indigenous Ethiopian goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbo, M; Jibril, Y; Woldemeskel, M; Dawo, F; Aragaw, K; Rege, J E O

    2008-12-01

    Serum enzymes were studied in 163 apparently healthy goats from three indigenous goat breeds of Ethiopia. The effect of breed, age, sex and season on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) / glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) / glutamic oxalacetic transaminases (GOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and acid phosphatase (AcP) levels was assessed. The mean serum enzymes levels of the indigenous Arsi-Bale, Central Highland and Long-eared Somali goat breeds ranged from 14.0-20.2 iu L(-1) for ALT/GPT, from 43.2-49.3 iu L(-1) for AST/GOT, from 83.7-98.8 iu L(-1) for ALP, and from 2.99-4.23 iu L(-1) for AcP, were within the normal range for goats elsewhere. Breed had significant influence on AST/GOT values. Sex had significant effect on ALT/GPT for Arsi-Bale goats with higher values in males than females. Age was significant on all serum enzymes studied in the Arsi-Bale goats and on ALP in the Central Highland goats. Season had significant influence on all serum enzymes except for ALT/GPT in the Arsi-Bale goats. The serum enzyme levels of these indigenous goat breeds can be used as normal reference values for Ethiopian goat breeds adapted to similar agro-ecology and production system.

  4. Haemato-biochemical profiles of indigenous goats (Capra hircus at Chittagong, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossan Shaikat

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: A 6 month long study was undertaken to determine various hemato-biochemical profiles of indigenous goats (Caprahircus in Bangladesh.Materials and methods: Blood samples were collected from goats of different ages of 5 Upazilla of Chittagong. Atotal of 120goats (60 Black Bengal and 60 Jamnapari having > 6 months of age were included. The whole blood was analyzed forhematology, and plasma and serum samples for biochemical analysis.Results: The study found higher number of RBC (million/cumm and PCV% in the goats of age 48 months and above (18.23± 1.89 and 28 ± 3.2 respectively. Besides, total protein was found higher (78.9 ± 14.5g/L in the goats of 6-24 months of age.Significant increase (p<0.01 of the number of WBC (thousand/cumm, RBC (million/cumm, PCV% was observed in BlackBengal over Jamnapari goat. In contrast, WBC, lymphocytes, RBC, PCV, ALT, and ASTwere significantly (p<0.01 higher inBlack Bengal than Jamnapari goat; whereas, monocyte, TP, Albumin, and Urea levels were significantly (p<0.01 higher inJamnapari than Black Bengal goats.Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate the normal haemato-biochemical values of two local goat breeds.Present results stated some significant variation of parameters between two goats whereas some shows no significant variationat all.

  5. COMPARISON OF SLAUGHTER, CARCASS VALUES OF SUDAN GOAT ECOTYPES FED DIFFERENT LEVELS OF ENERGY/PROTEIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. TAMEEM ELDAR

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to assess the slaughter and carcass values of different Sudan goat ecotypes (Nubian, Desert and Swiss Nubian fed different levels of energy/protein. Nine male goat kids (2-3 months and average weight 9.23 kg of either ecotypes were used in a 3x3x3 arrangement, fed three experimental diets A (control, B and C, with varying energy: protein 1:0.14, 1:0.16 and 1:0.18 respectively. The study showed that Nubian goats possessed heavier slaughter weight; empty body weight, warm and cold carcass weight than the Desert and Swiss Nubian goats in the ration B and C. Dressing percentage on both basis (slaughter weight and empty body weight of Nubian were higher for ration B and C. Warm carcass weights of all goat ecotypes increased directly with energy: protein ratio. Highest weight of leg, loin, rack and neck and shoulder were recorded by Nubian goats for ration B and C. It was concluded that, all ecotype kids respond well to increasing energy protein levels. According to the results obtained local goat ecotypes, mainly Nubian goats, responded well to improved nutrition, therefore results obtained can be applied for the local goat ecotypes studied to encourage goat meat consumption and exportation.

  6. The Quality of Spermatozoa of Gembrong Goats during Cryopreservation Process

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    F. A. Pamungkas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Gembrong goat is an Indonesia local goat having specific characteristic that is currently categorized as a breed that is at risk of extinction. In this context, the cryopreservation of gametes is important to support a genome resource bank for storage of gametes for an indefinite period of time. Evaluation of semen and spermatozoa quality was performed to determine the survival of spermatozoa and this information will be used as a reference in the cryopreservation of semen and spermatozoa. The aim of this experiment was to study the characteristics of Gembrong goat’s semen and spermatozoa during cryopreservation process. Once a week, semen from three Gembrong goats (ages about 2-3 years old was collected using artificial vagina and then frozen with TRIS extender. After freezing, the semen was thawed. Macro- and microscopic parameters of semen and spermatozoa were assessed in fresh and frozen-thawed semen. Results showed that in the fresh semen, the volume was 0.5 mL, sperm abnormalities was 5.74%, sperm concentration was 6731 x 106/mL, the sperm motility was 78.33%, live sperm was 83.17%, and sperm membrane integrity was 78.53%. After-thawing observation showed that sperm motility decreased to 49% (P<0.05 that was lower as compared to that in the fresh and post-equilibration semen. Similarly, the percentage of sperm viability and membrane integrity during cryopreservation showed a similar pattern with the sperm motility. In conclusion, the fresh semen of Gembrong goat had a good quality and met the requirement for further cryopreservation process. Similarly, the quality of frozen-thawed semen of Gembrong goat is eligible for artificial insemination (AI or in vitro embryo production.

  7. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from domestic goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandmaier, Shelley E S; Nandal, Anjali; Powell, Anne; Garrett, Wesley; Blomberg, Leann; Donovan, David M; Talbot, Neil; Telugu, Bhanu P

    2015-09-01

    The creation of genetically modified goats provides a powerful approach for improving animal health, enhancing production traits, animal pharming, and for ensuring food safety all of which are high-priority goals for animal agriculture. The availability of goat embryonic stem cells (ESCs) that are characteristically immortal in culture would be of enormous benefit for developing genetically modified animals. As an alternative to long-sought goat ESCs, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) by forced expression of bovine POU5F1, SOX2, MYC, KLF4, LIN-28, and NANOG reprogramming factors in combination with a MIR302/367 cluster, delivered by lentiviral vectors. In order to minimize integrations, the reprogramming factor coding sequences were assembled with porcine teschovirus-1 2A (P2A) self-cleaving peptides that allowed for tri-cistronic expression from each vector. The lentiviral-transduced cells were cultured on irradiated mouse feeder cells in a semi-defined, serum-free medium containing fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and/or leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). The resulting goat iPSC exhibit cell and colony morphology typical of human and mouse ESCs-that is, well-defined borders, a high nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio, a short cell-cycle interval, alkaline phosphatase expression, and the ability to generate teratomas in vivo. Additionally, these goat iPSC demonstrated the ability to differentiate into directed lineages in vitro. These results constitute the first steps in establishing integration and footprint-free iPSC from ruminants. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 82: 709-721, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Gastrointestinal parasitism of goats in hilly region of Meghalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Das

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI parasitic infections in goats of hilly region of Meghalaya. Materials and Methods: A total of 834 fecal samples of goats were screened for 1 year (2014-2015 using flotation techniques. Results: The overall prevalence of GI parasitic infections in goats was 28.65%. Season-wise highest infections were recorded during rainy season (34.92% followed by cool (26.87%, hot (26.62%, and cold (20.39% seasons. Helminths and protozoa infections were recorded in 63.60% and 23.02% animals, respectively. Among the helminths, Strongyle spp. (32.63% was recorded highest followed by Trichuris spp. (12.55%, Moniezia spp. (10.04%, and Trichuris spp. (8.36%. Among protozoa, only Eimeria spp. was detected. Seven different species of Eimeria spp. were identified, viz., Eimeria christenseni, Eimeria hirci, Eimeria caprina, Eimeria jolchijevi, Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae, Eimeria arloingi, and Eimeria kocharii for the first time from Meghalaya. Maximum egg per gram and oocyst per gram of feces were recorded in the month of August (932.4 and September (674.05, respectively. Mixed infections were recorded in 13.38% samples. Coproculture of goat fecal samples revealed the presence of Haemonchus contortus (72.16%, Oesophagostomum spp. (14.41%, Strongyloides spp. (8.91%, and Trichostrongylus spp. (4.50% larvae. Conclusion: This study indicates that GI helminths and protozoa infections are prevalent in goats of this hilly region of Meghalaya, throughout the year and highly prevalent during rainy season.

  9. A review of nutritional and physiological factors affecting goat milk lipid synthesis and lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilliard, Y; Ferlay, A; Rouel, J; Lamberet, G

    2003-05-01

    Although the effect of lactation stage is similar, the responses of milk yield and composition (fat and protein contents) to different types of lipid supplements differ greatly between goats and cows. Milk fat content increases with almost all studied fat supplements in goats but not in cows. However, the response of milk fatty acid (FA) composition is similar, at least for major FA, including conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in goats and cows supplemented with either protected or unprotected lipid supplements. Goat milk CLA content increases sharply after either vegetable oil supplementation or fresh grass feeding, but does not change markedly when goats receive whole untreated oilseeds. Important interactions are observed between the nature of forages and of oil supplements on trans-10 and trans-11 C18:1 and CLA. Peculiarities of goat milk FA composition and lipolytic system play an important role in the development of either goat flavor (release of branched, medium-chain FA) or rancidity (excessive release of butyric acid). The lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, although lower in goat than in cow milk, is more bound to the fat globules and better correlated to spontaneous lipolysis in goat milk. The regulation of spontaneous lipolysis differs widely between goats and cows. Goat milk lipolysis and LPL activity vary considerably and in parallel across goat breeds or genotypes, and are low during early and late lactation, as well as when animals are underfed or receive a diet supplemented with protected or unprotected vegetable oils. This could contribute to decreases in the specific flavor of goat dairy products with diets rich in fat.

  10. Tuberculosis in Goats and Sheep in Afar Pastoral Region of Ethiopia and Isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezahegne Mamo Kassa

    2012-01-01

    epidemiology of tuberculosis in goats and sheep using comparative intradermal tuberculin skin test, postmortem examination, mycobacteriological culture and molecular typing methods. The overall animal prevalence of TB in small ruminants was 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2%–0.7% at ≥4 mm and 3.8% (95% CI: 3%–4.7% at cutoff ≥2 mm. The herd prevalence was 20% (95% CI: 12–28% and 47% (95% CI: 37–56% at ≥4 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points, respectively. The overall animal prevalence of Mycobacterium avium complex infection was 2.8% (95% CI: 2.1–3.5% and 6.8% (95% CI: 5.8–7.9% at ≥4 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points, respectively. Mycobacteriological culture and molecular characterization of isolates from tissue lesions of tuberculin reactor goats resulted in isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (SIT149 and non-tuberculosis mycobacteria as causative agents of tuberculosis and tuberculosis-like diseases in goats, respectively. The isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in goat suggests a potential transmission of the causative agent from human and warrants further investigation in the role of small ruminants in epidemiology of human tuberculosis in the region.

  11. Effect of insulin supplementation on in vitro maturation of pre-antral follicles from adult and pre-pubertal mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Amar; Hakim, Bilal Ahmad; Rajender, Singh; Singh, Kavita; Sachdev, Monika; Konwar, Rituraj

    2016-05-01

    This study was aimed to determine the impact of insulin concentrations on in vitro pre-antral follicle growth, survival, antrum formation rate, and retrieval of mature oocytes in mice. Mice pre-antral follicle growth were recorded on days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 in α-modified essential media (α-MEM) supplemented with insulin concentrations of 6, 8, and 10 μg/ml along with 10% FBS, 100 mIU/ml follicle stimulating hormone, 10 mIU/ml luteinizing hormone, 100 μg/ml penicillin, and 50 μg/ml streptomycin. After 12 d of growth in vitro, follicles were allowed to mature for 16-18 h in α-MEM supplemented with 1.5 IU/ml human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) and 5 ng/ml epidermal growth factor (EGF). The initial diameter (54.86 ± 2.5 μm) of mice oocyte progressively increased in all the three insulin concentration groups and attained a maximum size on day 12 (71.90 ± 2.8 μm). Supplementation with higher concentrations of insulin (both 8 and 10 μg/ml) significantly enhanced antrum formation without effecting the oocyte diameter and percent retrieval of mature oocyte in all the three concentration groups. Both in vitro cultured as well as in vivo collected follicles and oocytes showed similar localization and expression of oocyte maturation markers SAS1B and GDF9. Insulin concentration of 8 μg/ml was found to be optimal for in vitro follicle culture of adult mice (42-49 d). Optimized follicle culture conditions were also assessed successfully with pre-pubertal mice (12-14 d); however, adult mice showed higher follicle survival, antrum formation, and more mature oocytes production in comparison to pre-pubertal mice.

  12. Repair of large osteochondral defects with mix-mosaicplasty in a goat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Ping; Wang, Ying-Zhen; Zhang, Hai-Ning

    2013-03-01

    Osteochondral defects in weight-bearing regions must be repaired with cartilage and subchondral bone support simultaneously, as well as the integration between the 2, particularly in young, active patients. In this study, a new method called mix-mosaicplasty was used to reconstruct large osteochondral defects (6-mm diameter) in the weight-bearing region of the femoral condyle of goats. Two periosteum-bone plugs and 1 osteochondral plug harvested from the proximal tibia and intertrochlea groove were assembled to fill the defects in a mosaic mode. The goats were euthanized 16 weeks postoperatively, and the result of the repair process was assessed using macroscopy, morphologic analysis, electron microscope observation, glycosaminoglycan assay, and magnetic resonance imaging. Sixteen weeks postoperatively, the superficial surface of the defective region was covered with regenerated cartilage, and the periosteum-bone plugs were combined with each other. However, cleavage between cartilage plugs was noted. The donor site, which was filled with periosteum-bone plugs, was regenerated with fibrocartilage-like tissue. The repaired tissue was composed of small chondrocyte-like cells arranged tightly within an evenly distributed extracellular matrix containing type II collagen. Cells of the regenerated tissue in periosteum-bone plugs were smaller and distributed more densely. Electron microscopy demonstrated regular matrix fibers and abundant organelles within the repaired tissue. No significant differences of glycosaminoglycan content were observed between reconstructed tissue and normal hyaline cartilage. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed the healing process between plugs other than the control group. The new technique of mix-mosaicplasty can reconstruct full-thickness osteochondral compound defects in the weight-bearing region of the femoral condyle.

  13. Forma nervosa de listeriose em caprinos Listeric meningoencephalitis in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Rissi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Em um rebanho de 100 caprinos, foram observados casos de uma doença neurológica em três animais adultos jovens (identificados como A-C entre outubro e dezembro de 2004. Os sinais clínicos incluíam desvio da cabeça, torcicolo, nistagmo, andar desequilibrado e quedas que acabavam em decúbito, durante o qual o caprino executava movimentos de pedalagem com os membros rígidos. Tratamento com antibióticos no Caprino C resultou em remissão temporária dos sinais. A evolução clínica foi de 5, 10 e 30 dias, respectivamente, para os Caprinos A, B e C. O Caprino A morreu espontaneamente e os outros dois foram eutanasiados na fase terminal da doença. Não foram observadas alterações macroscópicas. Lesões histológicas eram predominantemente unilaterais e consistiam de alterações inflamatórias e degenerativas que se estendiam do bulbo ao tálamo. Em todos os casos havia manguitos perivasculares de um ou mais tipos de células mononucleares (linfócitos, plasmócitos, macrófagos ativados e ocasionalmente neutrófilos associados a áreas de malacia onde células Gitter preenchiam os espaços de perda do parênquima. Adicionalmente, o Caprino B tinha microabscessos no bulbo, ponte, e mesencéfalo e infiltrado neutrofílico e linfocítico multifocal nos fascículos do nervo trigêmeo, próximo ao gânglio de Gasser, e nas leptomeninges do cerebelo. No tronco encefálico do Caprino C, a reação era multifocal e com característica granulomatosa e incluía células epitelióides e, ocasionalmente, células gigantes multinucleadas. Listeria sp foi detectada por imunoisto-química em cortes de mesencéfalo rotineiramente processado dos Caprinos A e C e de ponte do Caprino B.A neurologic disease was observed in three young adult goats (indentified as A-C from a herd of 100 goats during October-December, 2004. Clinical signs included head tilt, torticollis, nystagmus, staggering, falls and eventually recumbency and paddling, with stiff limbs

  14. Changes in cisternal udder compartment induced by milking interval in dairy goats milked once or twice daily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salama, A A K; Caja, G; Such, X

    2004-01-01

    intervals, cisterns of goats milked 1x did not become larger than cisterns of goats milked 2x after 5 wk of treatment. The highest correlation between cisternal area and cisternal milk was detected at 8 h after milking (r = 0.74). Primiparous goats had smaller cisternal areas and less cisternal milk than...... milking. Nevertheless, cisternal size did not increased after 1x milking, probably because of lesser milk yield. Multiparous goats had larger cisterns than primiparous goats and were able to store more milk in their cisterns at all milking intervals. Because of the high capacity of goat cisterns, no milk...

  15. Concentration of nutritional important minerals in Croatian goat and cow milk and some dairy products made of these

    OpenAIRE

    Slačanac, V.; Hardi, J.; Lučan, Mirela; Koceva Komlenić, Daliborka; Krstanović, V.; Jukić, M.

    2011-01-01

    The concentration of the minerals (Ca, Mg and P) and trace elements (Zn, Fe) were determined in goat and cow’s dairy products. The aim of this work was to determine the concentrations of mentioned minerals and trace elements in fermented dairy products made of goat milk, as well as in East Croatia traditional White Slice goat cheese. Obtained results show that goat milk and dairy products from goat milk had higher concentration of Mg and Fe than these of cow milk. Goat milk and dairy products...

  16. Evaluation of Humoral Response and Protective Efficacy of an Inactivated Vaccine Against Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus in Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosseddu, G M; Polci, A; Pinoni, C; Capobianco Dondona, A; Iapaolo, F; Orsini, G; Izzo, F; Bortone, G; Ronchi, F G; Di Ventura, M; El Harrak, M; Monaco, F

    2016-10-01

    Four goats were inoculated with an inactivated peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) vaccine. Three unvaccinated goats were kept as controls. After 36 days, the four goats were revaccinated. The immune response was monitored by virus neutralization test showing that two doses of the vaccine were able to stimulate strong immune response in all the vaccinated animals. The vaccinated goat and the controls were challenged with virulent PPRV intranasally. After PPRV challenge, the three control goats showed fever, viremia and virus excretion through mucosal surfaces, whereas the vaccinated goats were fully protected against PPRV infection and replication. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Intake and milk production of goats grazing Sulla forage under different stocking rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. Alicata

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 24 Girgentana goats was divided into 3 homogeneous groups grazing a sulla monoculture under stocking rate of 30, 50 or 70 goats/ha (LSR, MSR and HSR. Available biomass, herbage selected by goats and milk yield were measured and sampled. The DM intake of goats and its botanic composition and digestibility were assessed by the n-alkane method. Grazing at HSR was suspended 18 d before MSR and LSR (35 vs. 53 d, due to the low biomass availability. Over the first 35 d of grazing, the HSR reduced height and availability of herbage. The herbage intake and milk yield of goats increased from HSR to LSR, without relevant changes in milk quality. During all grazing period (53 d, the higher grazing pressure led to a lower total milk yield per goat, whereas the HSR produced the highest daily and total milk amount per ha.

  18. Modulating effect of ascorbic Acid on transport-induced immunosuppression in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minka, Ndazo Salka; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun

    2011-01-01

    The effect of 12 h road transportation on some basic blood cells and the modulating role of ascorbic acid were investigated in 40 adult Red Sokoto goats during the hot dry season. The animals were divided into two groups, GI (experimental; n = 20) and GII (control; n = 20). Group 1 was administered with ascorbic acid (AA) per os at a dosage rate of 100 mg/kg body weight, while GII was given 10 mL of sterile water per goat. Forty minutes after the administration and loading, the goats were transported for 12 h. The result obtained in GII goats showed that loading, transportation, high ambient temperature (AT), and relative humidity (RH) encountered during transportation induced lymphopenia, neutrophilia, and eosinopenia, which can cause immunosuppression. In GI goats, the administration of AA prior to loading and transportation ameliorated the adverse effects of loading and transportation stress on neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio and eosinopenia of the goats.

  19. Detection of Anaplasma sp. in Korean Native Goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) on Jeju Island, Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Giyong; Han, Yu-Jung; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Chae, Joon-Seok; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Lee, Young-Sung; Park, Jinho; Park, Bae-Keun; Yoo, Jae-Gyu; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2015-12-01

    Anaplasma species are obligate intracellular pathogens that can cause tick-borne diseases in mammalian hosts. To date, very few studies of their occurrence in Korean native goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) have been reported. In the present study, we investigated Anaplasma infection of Korean native goats on Jeju Island, Republic of Korea, and performed phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences. Our results showed that Anaplasma infection was found mostly in adult female goats. The phylogenetic tree revealed that the 7 sequences identified in Korean native goats could belong to Anaplasma sp. and were distinct from A. marginale, A. centrale, and A. ovis. The results indicated that the sequences identified to belong to Anaplasma were closely related to sequences isolated from goats in China and were clustered within the same group. To our knowledge, this is the first study to detect Anaplasma sp. infection in Korean native goats.

  20. Seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in Korean black goats (Capra hircus aegagrus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung Woo; Jung, Byeong Yeal; Moon, Oun Kyoung; Yang, Dong Kun; Lee, Su Hwa; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kweon, Chang Hee

    2006-12-01

    In total, 582 sera from 116 black goat herds were analyzed by a commercially available ELISA kit to monitor the seroprevalence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (Mpt) in Korean black goats (Capra hircus aegagrus). The mean number of goats sampled per herd was 5.11, 4.66, and 5.38 for the northern, central, and southern regions of Korea, respectively. The apparent regional prevalence of Mpt was estimated at 18.2-38.2% and 4.6-15.3% for herds and goats, respectively. The Mpt-positive goats were predominantly detected in the south (n=28), compared to either the northern (n=9) or central (n=11) regions (chi=14.459, P<0.05). Our findings indicate that Mpt is prevalent among the goat population, but regional variation exists.

  1. Genetic characterization of Meigu goat (Capra hircus) based on the mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoyue; Zhang, Hao; Li, Haijun; Niu, Lili; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Zhong, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Meigu goat (Capra hircus) is one of the indigenous goat breeds in China. Our research findings revealed that the entire mitochondrial genome of Meigu goat was 16,643 bp in length. The contents of A, C, T and G in the mitochondrial genome were 33.59%, 26.05%, 27.31% and 13.05%, respectively. The mitogenome of meigu goat contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. Components of the Meigu goat's mitogenome were similar to those of other Capra hircus in gene arrangement and composition. These results could provide essential information for molecular phylogenetic and evolutionary analyses of domestic goats.

  2. Characteristics of the mitochondrial genome of four native goats in China (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Guang-Xin; Huang, Yong-Fu; Liu, Nan; Zhao, Yong-Ju; He, Jian-Ning; Na, Ri-Su; Zhao, Zhong-Quan; Jiang, Cao-De; Zhang, Jia-Hua; Ma, Yue-Hui; Chen, Li-Peng; Qiu, Xiao-Yu; Sun, Ya-Wang; Zeng, Yan; Sun, Yuan-Zhi; Yu, Chang-Hui; Wei, Shu-Ya

    2016-09-01

    Here, we describe the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of Jining Gray goat, Fushun black goat, Youzhou black-skin goat, and Hechuan white goat. The mitogenome of those four goats consisted of 16,640 nt, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and a control region. As in other mammals, most mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand, except for ND6 and eight tRNA genes, which are encoded on the light strand. The complete mitogenome of these four local breeds of Chinese native goats could provide an important data to further breed improvement and animal genetics resource conservation in China.

  3. Isolation of Brucella melitensis from a RB51-vaccinated seronegative goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Enrique; Rivera, Aldo; Palomares, E Gabriela; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Díaz-Aparicio, Efrén

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the etiology of abortions presented in a goat herd declared as free of brucellosis and vaccinated with RB51 located in Mexico. The serological diagnosis of brucellosis in 33 animals was performed. The study included three goats that aborted in the last third of gestation and 15 goats that gave birth normally; samples of milk and vaginal exudate were subjected to bacteriological study. All animals were negative for serological diagnosis, and isolation of Brucella melitensis was achieved in a single goat from vaginal exudate. However, the particularity is that this goat was negative to the card, indirect ELISA, and radial immunodiffusion tests. Isolation of a field strain was confirmed by biochemical test resistance to rifampicin and PCR. It is concluded that a goat which aborted in the last third of gestation was found spreading B. melitensis through vaginal discharge despite being vaccinated with RB51 and seronegative for brucellosis.

  4. Seasonal differences in the parameters of luteinizing hormone release to exogenous gonadotropin releasing hormone in prepubertal Holstein heifers in Sapporo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadokawa, Hiroya

    2007-02-01

    Stress due to summer heat has adverse effects on reproduction in Holstein dairy cattle. Summer suppression of reproduction of Holsteins can pose an important economic problem, even in Hokkaido prefecture located in the northern region of Japan. Hokkaido is one of the most important dairy farming areas of Japan. This study is an attempt to clarify the seasonal differences in the parameters of luteinizing hormone (LH) response to exogenous gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan. A total of 12 prepubertal heifers received an injection with GnRH analogue intramuscularly in either May (n=4, May group), July (n=4, July group), or November (n=4, November group), and serial blood samples were collected to analyze the parameters of the LH response curve after GnRH injection. The parameters were as follows: the basal LH concentration, peak LH concentration, duration from the time of GnRH injection to the time of the peak LH concentration, and area under the LH response curve (AUC). There were no significant differences in the basal and peak LH concentrations or the AUC among the three groups. The July group reached the LH peak significantly (P<0.05) faster than the May group, but there was no significant difference with the November group. Therefore, the results of the present study do not demonstrate an effect of summer heat on the LH response to the exogenous GnRH in Holstein heifers.

  5. Ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian pre-pubertal children: A cross-sectional multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon Poh Bee

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ethnic differences in body fat distribution contribute to ethnic differences in cardiovascular morbidities and diabetes. However few data are available on differences in fat distribution in Asian children from various backgrounds. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore ethnic differences in body fat distribution among Asian children from four countries. Methods A total of 758 children aged 8-10 y from China, Lebanon, Malaysia and Thailand were recruited using a non-random purposive sampling approach to enrol children encompassing a wide BMI range. Height, weight, waist circumference (WC, fat mass (FM, derived from total body water [TBW] estimation using the deuterium dilution technique and skinfold thickness (SFT at biceps, triceps, subscapular, supraspinale and medial calf were collected. Results After controlling for height and weight, Chinese and Thai children had a significantly higher WC than their Lebanese and Malay counterparts. Chinese and Thais tended to have higher trunk fat deposits than Lebanese and Malays reflected in trunk SFT, trunk/upper extremity ratio or supraspinale/upper extremity ratio after adjustment for age and total body fat. The subscapular/supraspinale skinfold ratio was lower in Chinese and Thais compared with Lebanese and Malays after correcting for trunk SFT. Conclusions Asian pre-pubertal children from different origins vary in body fat distribution. These results indicate the importance of population-specific WC cut-off points or other fat distribution indices to identify the population at risk of obesity-related health problems.

  6. Clinical, laboratory, and immunological studies of a family with a high prevalence of generalized prepubertal and juvenile periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, N J

    1992-05-01

    A study of a consanguineous family with a high prevalence of localized juvenile periodontitis (LJP) and generalized prepubertal periodontitis (GPP) was done over a 7-and-a-half year period. The parents had adult periodontitis, while 2 daughters, aged 13 and 15, had LJP. Furthermore, 2 other daughters, ages 14 and 10, and a son, aged 9, were affected by GPP. Two remaining siblings were not affected. Clinical and radiographic examinations on all family members were done, and chemotaxis for blood neutrophils was assessed. Laboratory tests, immunological examinations, and evaluation for neutrophil functions were done on the GPP patients. Microbiological cultures were performed on 2 of the GPP patients, as well as in the mother. The mother, the 2 LJP patients, and 1 of the unaffected siblings had depressed PMN chemotaxis. The other family members, including the 3 GPP patients, had normal PMN chemotaxis. GPP patients did not have any systemic disease, and evidence of major defects in the immunological functions was not detected. LJP patients were successfully treated with root planing, subgingival curettage, and tetracycline therapy. Intensive periodontal therapy, combined with systemic administration of antibiotics, was not effective in halting periodontal tissue destruction in the 3 GPP patients. Results indicate that the underlying cause of GPP is not always related to leukocyte dysfunction. Since Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was the most frequent pathogen found in subgingival microflora of 2 of the GPP patients, it is assumed that it may play a key role in the etiology of GPP.

  7. The effect of experimental exposure to low doses of zearalenone on uterine histology and morphometry in prepubertal bitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopa, Ewa; Gajęcka, Magdalena; Babińska, Izabella; Zielonka, Lukasz; Gajęcki, Maciej

    2014-09-01

    The experiment involved 30 clinically healthy prepubertal bitches aged approximately 70 days with an estimated initial body weight (BW) of 8 kg. The animals were randomly divided into two experimental groups (EI and EII) and a control group of 10 animals each. Group EI was administered 50 μg zearalenone (ZEN)/kg BW per os for 42 days, group EII received 75 μg zearalenone/kg BW per os for 42 days, and the control group was administered placebo per os for 42 days. The bitches were hysterectomized at the end of treatment, and samples of uterine tissue were collected for histological and morphometric analyses. The results of the study indicate that exposure to very low doses of ZEN (100% and 150% of the NOAEL) causes simple glandular hyperplasia of the endometrium accompanied by adenogenesis, angiogenesis, and vasodilatation with the related consequences. The noted changes were more pronounced in group EI and less visible in group EII in comparison with group C, which could be indicative of a hormetic dose response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Predicting total fat mass from skinfold thicknesses in Japanese prepubertal children: a cross-sectional and longitudinal validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midorikawa, Taishi; Ohta, Megumi; Hikihara, Yuki; Torii, Suguru; Bemben, Michael G; Sakamoto, Shizuo

    2011-01-01

    The present study was performed to develop regression based prediction equations for fat mass from skinfold thickness in Japanese children, and to investigate the cross-sectional and longitudinal validity of these equations. A total of 127 healthy Japanese prepubertal children aged 6-12 years were randomly separated into two groups: the model development group (54 boys and 44 girls) and the cross-sectional validation group (18 boys and 11 girls). Fat mass was initially determined by using DXA (Hologic Delphi A-QDR whole-body scanner) to provide reference data. Then, fat thickness was measured at triceps and subscapular using an Eiken-type skinfold calipers. Multiple anthropometric and DXA measures were obtained one year later for 28 of the original 127 subjects (longitudinal validation group: 14 boys and 14 girls). Strong significant correlations were observed between total fat mass by DXA measurement and the skinfold thickness × height measures by caliper in the model development group of boys and girls (R2=0.91-0.92, pSkinfold-derived prediction equations underestimate for obese children but are generally useful for estimating total fat mass in field research.

  9. Gonadectomia pré-puberal em cães e gatos Prepubertal gonadectomy in dogs and cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Azevedo Voorwald

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A população de cães e gatos errantes é um problema grave de saúde pública e bem estar animal e a gonadectomia pré-puberal a partir de seis semanas de idade é a base para controle populacional efetivo. Os efeitos benéficos e maléficos são discutidos nesta revisão, auxiliando o médico veterinário a obter conhecimento e fundamentação científica para análise crítica do tema, propagação dessa prática e conscientização de proprietários.Stray dogs and cats is a serious problem to public health and animal welfare. Prepubertal gonadectomy from six weeks of age is a solution to effective pet overpopulation control. The benefits and adverse effects of this procedure are discussed in this paper, allowing the veterinarians to obtain knowledge and scientific basis to critical analysis to the topic, practice spread and owner awareness.

  10. Subgingival bacteria in a case of prepubertal periodontitis, before and one year after extractions of the affected primary teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, D; Bimstein, E

    1994-01-01

    The treatment of children with prepubertal periodontitis (PP), may be complicated by the extent of the lesions and the possibility of tetracycline stain of the developing permanent dentition. Therefore, with the purpose of preventing the infection of permanent teeth during the mixed dentition, it has been recommended that the treatment of children with PP, should include the early extraction of the primary teeth affected with alveolar bone loss (ABL). Still, there is little evidence which confirms that extraction of the affected primary teeth do in fact reduce the periodonto-pathogens load of the subgingival plaque. The present study reports values of colony forming units (CFU) of total anaerobic bacteria, Actinobacillus actynomicetemcomitans (Aa) and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) from the subgingival plaque from a child with PP, collected immediately before and 1 year after extractions of the primary teeth affected with ABL. CFU of Aa and Pg developed only from the subgingival plaque collected before the extraction of the primary teeth affected with ABL. These findings suggest that in cases of PP, extraction of the affected primary teeth may reduce the possibility of infection of the periodontum of the permanent teeth during the mixed dentition period.

  11. Ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera Lam. leaves protect the pre-pubertal spermatogonial cells from cyclophosphamide-induced damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Guruprasad; Honguntikar, Sachin D; Kalthur, Sneha Guruprasad; D'Souza, Antony Sylvan; Mutalik, Srinivas; Setty, Manjunath M; Kalyankumar, Raksha; Krishnamurthy, Hanumanthappa; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2016-04-22

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is widely cultivated in Asian and African countries for its medicinal and dietary significance. The leaves are highly nutritious and are known to possess various biological activities. Pre-pubertal Swiss albino male mice were injected with single dose of cyclophosphamide (CP, 200mg/kg body weight) or ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (MOE, 100mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally. In combination group, MOE was administered 24h prior to CP injection. CP induced a significant decrease in testicular weight (p<0.01) and depletion of germ cells (p<0.001) and higher level of DNA damage (p<0.001) compared to control. The expression of P53, Bax, Cytochrome C (Cyt C) was increased while there was a decrease in the expression of Bcl2, c-Kit and Oct4. Administration of MOE 24h prior to CP treatment ameliorated the depletion (p<0.001), DNA damage (p<0.001) and apoptosis (p<0.01) of germ cells induced by CP. The mitigating effect of MOE appears to be mediated by up-regulating the expression of c-Kit and Oct4 transcripts in P53-independent manner. MOE protects the spermatogonial cells from CP-induced damage by modulating the apoptotic response elicited by CP and therefore can be considered as an efficient method of male fertility preservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Is anti-Mullerian hormone an indicator of potential polycystic ovary syndrome in prepubertal girls with simple obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Özlem; Gökşen, Damla; Özen, Samim; Darcan, Şükran

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels in prepubertal obese girls are a predictive marker for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to investigate the relationship between insulin resistance and AMH. Sixty girls with premature pubarche or obesity and 20 healthy controls between the ages of 6-9 were enrolled. Of the patients, 22 (36.7%) were in the obese group (Group 1), 28 (46.7%) in the early pubarche group (Group 2) and 10 (16.6%) in the early pubarche + obese group (Group 3). Comparison of the subjects' fasting insulin and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) demonstrated significantly higher values for group 1 compared to group 2 (p=0.001 and 0.001) and, likewise, significantly higher values for group 3 compared to group 2. There was no significant differences between all groups for AMH levels. AMH levels were not significantly different in the obese girls compared to the other groups. There was also no relationship between AMH and insulin resistance in any of the groups. Further studies, however, are needed due the limited number of subjects in this study and in the absence of adequate relevant data.

  13. Age at voice break in Danish boys: effects of pre-pubertal body mass index and secular trend

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Magnusdottir, Steinunn; Scheike, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    in the boys choir and pre-pubertal body mass index (BMI)] by survival analysis techniques based on retrospective analyses of age at voice break in 463 Danish choir boys who were studied over a 10-year period. We found an overall median age at voice break of 14.0 [13.9-14.6] years, and a statistically...... significant downwards trend in age at voice break in the 10-year period (1994-2003) (log-rank test p = 0.0146). There was a statistically significant difference in age at voice break between boys in the different BMI quartiles in pre-puberty (p = 0.00822) with a tendency towards early voice break...... with increasing BMI standard deviation scores. Thus boys in the heaviest quartile at 8 years of age had an increased risk of early voice break (RR of 1.74 [1.14-2.65]) approximately 6 years later, compared with boys in the thinnest quartile. The earlier voice break seen during the 10-year observation period could...

  14. The plasticizer butyl benzyl phthalate induces genomic changes in rat mammary gland after neonatal/prepubertal exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamartiniere Coral A

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phthalate esters like n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP are widely used plasticizers. BBP has shown endocrine-disrupting properties, thus having a potential effect on hormone-sensitive tissues. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of neonatal/prepubertal exposure (post-natal days 2–20 to BBP on maturation parameters and on the morphology, proliferative index and genomic signature of the rat mammary gland at different ages of development (21, 35, 50 and 100 days. Results Here we show that exposure to BBP increased the uterine weight/body weight ratio at 21 days and decreased the body weight at time of vaginal opening. BBP did not induce significant changes on the morphology of the mammary gland, but increased proliferative index in terminal end buds at 35 days and in lobules 1 at several ages. Moreover, BBP had an effect on the genomic profile of the mammary gland mainly at the end of the exposure (21 days, becoming less prominent thereafter. By this age a significant number of genes related to proliferation and differentiation, communication and signal transduction were up-regulated in the glands of the exposed animals. Conclusion These results suggest that BBP has an effect in the gene expression profile of the mammary gland.

  15. Effect of bacteria proportion on the fermentation of goat yoghurt with probiotic culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Guowei; Wang, Shuai; Chen, Zikun; Chen, He; Wang, Changfeng; Ma, Yaning

    2015-01-01

    Goat milk production in Shaanxi province is dominant in China, but the product is mainly infant formula and adult milk powder; product homogeneity is serious and has no goat yoghurt with probiotic culture. The effect of bacteria proportion (1:3:1, 1:2:1, 1:1:1, 2:1:1, 3:1:1) on pH, acidity, and viable counts and sensory evaluation of goat milk fermented by probiotics including L. acidophilus, B. bifidum  or L. casei besides, S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus for developing AB-goat yoghurt and BC-goat yoghurt was investigated. The optimum bacteria proportion of L. acidophilus : B. bifidum : S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus for AB-goat yoghurt and B. bifidum : L. casei : S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus for BC-goat yoghurt were both 2:1:1. The pH, acidity, the viable counts of L. acidophilus and B. bifidum, the total viable counts were respectively 4.60, 7.73 (g/L), 3.50×107 cfu/mL, 3.40×107 cfu/mL and 2.30×109 cfu/mL in AB-goat yoghurt. The pH, acidity, the viable counts of B. bifidum and L. casei, the total viable counts were respectively  4.61, 8.16 (g/L), 7.60×107 cfu/mL, 5.60×107 cfu/mL and 2.04×109 cfu/mL in BC-goat yoghurt. The bacteria proportion had a significant effect on fermentation of AB- and BC-goat yoghurt, the results are beneficial for developing AB-goat yoghurt and BC-goat yoghurt.

  16. Risk assessment of the risk of introduction and distribution of Sheep and goat pox in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    Grigorova, Krasimira

    2014-01-01

    Sheep pox and Goat pox (Variola ovina; Variola caprina; Sheep pox, Goat pox) is a contagious viral disease of small ruminants. The disease can take place with moderate clinical presentations of local breeds, but for animals that have met for the first time the virus ends with death. Caused by a virus of Sheep pox and a virus of Goat pox, genus Capripoxvirus, family Poxviridae. Economic losses come from reduced milk production, lowering the quality of the leather, wool and more. Sheep...

  17. Yeast Culture and Vitamin E Supplementation Alleviates Heat Stress in Dairy Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lizhi; Wang, Zhisheng; Zou, Huawei; Peng, Quanhui

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of yeast yeast culture (YC) and vitamin E (VE) supplementation on endotoxin absorption and antioxidant status in lactating dairy goats suffering from heat stress (HS). Three first lactation Saanen dairy goats (body weight 30±1.5 kg) were surgically fitted with indwelling catheters in the portal vein, mesenteric vein and carotid artery, and were randomly assigned to a 3×3 Latin square design. Dietary treatments were the basal diet, and the basal diet supplemented with either 100 IU VE or 30 g YC. Goats were kept in temperature and humidity-controlled room at 35°C from 8:00 to 20:00 and at 24°C from 20:00 till the next morning at 8:00. The relative humidity was kept at 55%. HS increased dairy goats' rectum temperature and respiration frequency (pdairy goats' rectum temperature during thermo-neutral period (p0.05). Dietary supplementation of VE and YC reduced heat stressed dairy goats' endotoxin concentration of the carotid artery and portal vein (pdairy goats' absorption of endotoxin in portal vein (pdairy goats' superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration during HS and the whole experiment period (pdairy goats' malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration during HS and the whole experimental period, and the MDA concentration in the VE treatment was lower than the YC treatment (pdairy goats total antioxidant potential (TAP) concentration during HS, thermo-neutral and the whole experimental period (pdairy goats by weakening endotoxin absorption and promoting antioxidant capacity. Compared with YC, VE is much more powerful in easing dairy goats HS.

  18. Polymorphism of caprine milk alphas1-casein in relation to performance of four Polish goat breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barłowska, J; Litwińczuk, Z; Kedzierska-Matysek, M; Litwińczuk, A

    2007-01-01

    Polymorphism of goat milk alphas1-casein was determined and potential relations between genetic variants of this protein fraction and goat performance were evaluated. The investigations were performed on 598 goats assigned to of 4 breed groups (White improved 254 units, Coloured improved--124, White non-improved--146 and Coloured non-improved--74). For each goat, alphas1-casein polymorphism was determined in polyacrylamide gel by the PAGE-SDS method and percentage of milk alphas1-casein and gene frequency established. There was evaluated goat performance at successive lactations. In the goat population investigated, AA, AB, BB, AE, BE and EE alphas1-casein genotypes were identified. In all four breeds, alphas1-casein genotype EE clearly predominated (27.2-39.2%), recognized as "medium" and its share was higher in the groups of non-improved goats. It was conditioned by high frequency of gene E alphas1-casein (0.419-0.622). Generally, EE genotype percentage was higher in the non-improved goat groups. The improved goats, though, obtained higher productivity in each of the lactation studied. Analysis of relationships between alphas1-casein genetic variants and goats performance confirmed a significant influence on milk, protein and fat yields only in the Coloured improved goat group. There was revealed a more general tendency indicating a significant impact of "strong" alphas1-casein genotypes on a concentration of basic milk components, i.e. fat and protein, especially casein. In a group of goats producing milk of the highest casein content (over 2.4%) and protein (over 3.0%), the animals showing "strong" alphas1-casein variants dominated (85 and 70 %).

  19. The Small Ruminant Nutrition System: development and evaluation of a goat submodel

    OpenAIRE

    FOX, D. G.; A. S. Atzori; Tedeschi,L.O.; Cannas, A.

    2010-01-01

    The Small Ruminant Nutrition System (SRNS) is a computer model based on the structure of the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System for Sheep.A version of the SRNS for goats is under development and evaluation. In the SRNS for goats, energy and protein requirements are predicted based on the equations developed for the SRNS for sheep, modified to account for specific requirements of goats. Feed biological values are predicted based on carbohydrate and protein fractions and th...

  20. Productivity of sheep and goats under three management systems at Bamenda, Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndamukong, K J; Sewell, M M; Asanji, M F

    1987-11-01

    The productivity of sheep and goats was examined under three management systems. A regime by which each animal received five doses of fenbendazole in a year gave similar results in terms of survival and liveweight gain to monthly dosing. Sheep kept by traditional methods without anthelmintic treatment survived and grew less well than goats. In contrast goats grew better and produced more young under traditional management although they were in general lighter than sheep.

  1. The effects of L-carnitine administration on energy metabolism in pregnant Halep (Damascus) goats

    OpenAIRE

    KAÇAR, Cihan; ZONTURLU, Abuzer Kaffar; KARAPEHLİVAN, Mahmut

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of parenteral administration of L-carnitine on some biochemical parameters in Halep (Damascus) goats during the last month of pregnancy. L-carnitine was administrated to goats in group I (n = 13) by subcutaneous injections once a week during the last month of the pregnancy. Physiologic salt solution was administered to goats in group II (n = 12) by the same route during the same period. Differences of glucose concentration between groups were...

  2. Molecular Characterization of Black Bengal and Jamuna Pari Goat Breeds By RAPD Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Rahman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in the Genetics, Breeding and Reproductive Biotechnology Laboratory under Goat and Sheep Production Research Division, Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute (BLRI, Saver, Dhaka, Bangladesh. DNA was extracted from 14 goat breeds and the extracted DNA was observed by gel electrophoresis. Eight goat specific primers were synthesized by ASM-800 DNA synthesizer and screened in the study and all these primers were capable of priming polymorphic amplification pattern in both the breeds. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA – Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR analysis was carried out using DNA samples of 14 black bengal goat and Jamuna pari goat breeds. Only unambiguous, reproducible and scorable polymorphic fragments were taken into consideration for analysis. Data were analyzed by using a computer programe POPGENE (Version 1.31. Highest level of Nei's[1] gene diversity value (0.4898 was observed in BMS 1494 locus and the mean genetic diversity was obtained 0.3724 among the 14 goat breeds. The highest number of polymorphism obserbed in primer BM1818.The pair-wise genetic distance value ranged from 0.2500 to 1.000. Dendrogram based on Nei's[1] genetic distance using Unweighted Pair Group Method of Arithmetic Means (UPGMA indicated segregation of the 14 goat breeds. Within Jamuna pari goat genetic similarity is low as well as black Bengal goat.

  3. Pathological changes in the respiratory tract of goats infected by Pasteurella multocida B:2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafarin, M S; Zamri-Saad, M; Khairani, B Siti; Saharee, A A

    2009-01-01

    Clinical and pathological changes are described in groups of five goats pretreated with dexamethasone and then infected with a large dose of Pasteurella multocida B:2 (the cause of haemorrhagic septicaemia) by the intratracheal, subcutaneous or intranasal route (groups A, B and C, respectively). In group A, two goats died (on day 1 and 4 post-inoculation); in group B three died (days 2, 5 and 14); and in group C one died (day 20). The infecting organism was recovered from the four goats that died within cattle and buffalo, was absent in goats.

  4. A survey of West African Dwarf (WAD goats enterprises in Lafia area, Nasarawa State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ishaq Ibrahim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available West African Dwarf (WAD Goat enterprises were studied using data collected from 120 households where goats are kept. The result revealed that majority of the households heads were male and married, with an average of 46 years and had up to eight years experience in goat production. A very few were members of cooperative societies. Contact with extension agents by the respondents was also minimal, while 40% rear goats for both home consumption and income generation. Goats were kept by the respondents under semi intensive and extensive feeding systems. The average number of goats kept per household was 12. Majority of the respondents sell their goats at home and the selling price was determined by the prevailing market price or by reproductive value. Feed shortage was the major constraint militating against goat production in the study area. There is a high potential to increase the productivity of goats if the technical and managerial constraints can be solved by providing better quality feeds and improved extension service delivery.

  5. A retrospective study of the inheritance of peromelia in Angora goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Kielsgaard, M.E.; Pedersen, Jan W.

    1997-01-01

    in Angora goats, breeding results for goats being daughters of known carriers and which were then mated to a known carrier were analysed. Of 45 kids born in 1993 and 1994, five kids had peromelia. This corresponded to the expected 7:1 segregation. The difference between the number of affected male...... and female kids was not statistically significant. Peromelia affected kids occurred significantly more frequently among goats selected in the breeding study than among other goats in the respective herds. The study demonstrated that peromelia is inherited as an autosomal recessive defect. Based on knowledge...

  6. Replacement of alfalfa hay (Medicago sativa) with maralfalfahay (Pennisetum sp.) in diets of lactating dairy goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Criscioni, P.; Marti, J.V.; Pérez-Baena, I.

    2016-01-01

    tThe objective of this experiment was to study the effects of substituting alfalfa (Medicagosativa) with maralfalfa (Pennisetum sp.) on energy, nitrogen and carbon balance, methaneemission, and milk performance in dairy goats. Ten Murciano-Granadina dairy goats in latelactation (45.7 ± 2.96 kg...... of body weight [BW]) were selected in a 2-treatment and crossoverdesign experiment where each goat received both treatments in 2 periods. One group offive goats was fed a mixed ration with alfalfa as forage (A diet) and the other diet replacedalfalfa with maralfalfa (M diet) in a forage concentrate ratio...

  7. Sex determination in goat by amplification of the HMG box using duplex PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Yue, Wenbin; Ren, Youshe; Lei, Fulin; Zhao, Junxing

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain a fast, accurate and reliable method of determining the sex of goat embryos prior to implantation through amplification of the high-motility-group (HMG) box of the sex-determining region of the Y chromosome (SRY) gene of the goats. Goat specific primers were designed for duplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). As an internal control gene, the goat beta-action gene sequence was simultaneously amplified together with the HMG box of goat SRY gene. Males showed both 1 SRY band and 1 beta-action band, but only 1 beta-action band was present in the agarose gel electrophoresis of females. The result indicated that the goat HMG-box sequence motif of SRY was male specific. Afterward, the optimized PCR procedure was applied in 30 embryo biopsies and the biopsied embryos were transferred into 30 recipient female goats. The sex of the 13 kids proved anatomically corresponded to the sex determined by PCR (100% accuracy). Thus, this study showed that this duplex PCR method can be applied to sex the goat pre-implantation embryos and to manipulate the sex ratio of offspring in goat breeding programs.

  8. Levels of hormones and cytokines associated with growth in Honamlı and native hair goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devrim, A K; Elmaz, O; Mamak, N; Sudagidan, M

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to assess alterations of hormone and cytokine levels associated with growth period during puberty in Honamlı goats which were identified as a new goat breed and had one of the highest meat production potential among the other goat breeds in Turkey. Honamlı goats are originated from native hair goats, so parallel studies of sampling and analyzing were conducted also in native hair goats which have moderate meat production. Blood serum samples of Honamlı (n=90) and native hair goats (n=90) were obtained from the pure herds in Korkuteli and Ka districts of Anatolia. Concentrations of growth hormone (GH), myostatin (MSTN), insulin-like growth factor (IGF), growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH), growth hormone releasing peptide (GHRP), leptin, transforming growth factor-betal (TGF-β1) and vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) levels were measured by ELISA in each breed in the age groups of 4, 8 and 12 months. The present results indicate interesting correlations among the age groups and all the examined hormone and cytokine parameters exhibited significant (Phormonal alterations of goats could occur at 4th month of age. The results reported here emphasize the primary role played by GH, MSTN, IGF-1, leptin, GHRH, GHRP, TGF-βi and VEGF in the first year growth period of goats.

  9. Trypanosomiasis in Red Sokoto and West African Dwarf Goats at Ikpa Abattoir, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okafor Obioma Juliet

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Goat serves as a major investment to most homes in Nigeria, mainly for provision of animal protein and income. The output of this animal is disturbed by Tsetse infestation which is the primary vector of Trypanosome. A survey of Trypanosomiasis of goat in Ikpa abattoir Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria was carried out between September and October 2010. This was aimed at determining the species of Trypanosome prevalent in the area and their infection rates among breeds of goat. 106 goats were sampled, among which 15(14.1% were positive for Trypanosome infection. The infection rates among the goat breeds were; Sokoto red (10.4% and West African Dwarf Goat (50.0%. The species of Trypanosome encountered were Trypanosoma vivax(66.7% and Trypanosoma brucei (33.3%. In the infection by sex, this was common among female goats in the various breeds examined and this stood as follows; 9.4% in Sokoto red and 4.7% in West African Dwarf goat. Considering the overall infection rate of Trypanosome in the breeds of goat in the study area, this was relatively high when compared with similar results in related areas; chemo prophylactic and insect control measures should be put in place to rescue the area.

  10. Molecular cytogenetics and comparative mapping in goats (Capra hircus, 2n = 60).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schibler, L; Di Meo, G P; Cribiu, E P; Iannuzzi, L

    2009-01-01

    Few goat genome analysis projects have been developed in the last 10 years. The aim of this review was to compile and update all available cytogenetic mapping data, according to the last goat chromosome nomenclature, as well as human and cattle whole genome sequences. In particular, human regions homologous to most of the FISH-mapped microsatellites were identified in silico. This new goat cytogenetic map made it possible to refine delineation of conserved segments relative to the human and cattle genomic sequence. These improvements did not lead to detection of major new rearrangements within ruminants but confirmed the good conservation of synteny and the numerous intrachromosomal rearrangements observed between goats and humans.

  11. Serology and clinical relevance of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Byeong Yeal; Lee, Seung-Hun; Kim, Ha-Young; Byun, Jae-Won; Shin, Dong-Ho; Kim, Daekeun; Kwak, Dongmi

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the seroprevalence and clinical relevance of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, which is the causative agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA), in native Korean goats (Capra hircus coreanae). A total of 466 native Korean goats from 40 herds (11 to 12 samples per herd) were randomly selected throughout the nation and evaluated by direct palpation, bacterial isolation, ELISA, and PCR. In serological examinations, 267 (57.3 %) of the goats tested were positive against C. pseudotuberculosis. When seroprevalence was analyzed according to age, region, and season, statistically significant differences were observed in relation to all three parameters (P < 0.05). For clinical examination, the superficial lymph nodes of all goats were palpated to diagnose CLA. Pus samples taken from superficial abscesses were used for bacterial isolation. Among the 466 goats tested, 34 (7.3 %) were presumptively diagnosed with CLA, and C. pseudotuberculosis was isolated from 24 goats (70.6 % of goats with CLA lesions) whose infections were confirmed by PCR. Considering the high seroprevalence and bacterial isolation rate from most of the superficial CLA lesions, it is suspected that many internal CLA lesions exist in this goat population. These results suggest that C. pseudotuberculosis infection is widespread in native Korean goats, and appropriate control programs need to be established.

  12. Goat Production in El Salvador: A Focus on Animal Health, Milking Hygiene, and Raw Milk Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Linderot de Cardona

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Often referred to as “the poor man’s cow,” goats are important livestock in developing countries and in El Salvador goat management and milk are growing in popularity. This study focuses on the general health of Salvadoran goats and national husbandry systems as well as goat products and milking hygiene. The survey was submitted in western and central parts of the country: 191 goat owners were interviewed on animal management and production, 434 goats underwent a basic clinical exam, and raw milk samples were taken from 60 lactating does. Milk samples were examined for total plate count, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes. The majority of goats were managed under a traditional husbandry system naming milk production as their main purpose. Based on the physical exam, the overall goat health was acceptable but in need of improvement. The results of the raw milk samples did not indicate a mayor microbial contamination. Development programs and education of Salvadoran goat owners are recommended to improve goats’ health and productivity in El Salvador. Further studies on the microbial quality on raw goat’s milk are necessary to determine the health risk when consumed. The information obtained in this investigation will serve as a base for future projects.

  13. Characterization of Exon 2 and Intron 2 of Leptin Gene in Native Anatolian Goat Breeds

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    Özge BAKIRCIOĞLU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies performed on farm animals like cattle and pig have shown that there has been a relationship between leptin gene (LEP and carcass meat quality, milk production and content, and economic parameters such as reproduction and food consumption. There has been scarce research conducted related to leptin gene of sheep and especially goat. The aim of the study is to reveal the genetic structures of goats living in Turkey through nucleotide sequence analysis in targeted zones of LEP gene Exon 2 and Intron 2 of Anatolian Black, Kilis and Angora goat breeds which are commonly fed in Anatolia. According to the sequence analysis results of each three breeds, Anatolian Black goat breed have the highest haplotype number with nucleotide and haplotype diversity both in exon 2 and intron 2. There was only one haplotype found in both exon 2 and intron 2 in Angora goat breed. There was no nucleotide diversity found in individuals belonging to Angora goat breed. Taking the regions analyzed for LEP gene into consideration, it is seen that Anatolian Black goat breed has the highest genetic diversity among other goat breeds fed in Anatolia. Future studies upon the LEP gene in goats should take into account of increasing the sample size and of base in order to obtain more useful information for better understanding the gene structure.

  14. Fate of sodium arsenate in dairy sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatpanahi, M; Anderson, A C

    1985-08-01

    This study followed the uptake, distribution, and elimination of sodium arsenate administered in a single dose and in multiple doses, respectively, to Iranian dairy sheep and goats. In the single dosing study, the blood concentration data fit an open two-compartment model of the form:C b (t)=-(A+B)e (-kat) +Ae (-αt) +Be (-βt) Absorption distribution and elimination rate constants were statistically significantly different for the two animal species. In the multiple dosing study, arsenic accumulated in the blood of both animal species, as expressed by a one compartment model of the form:C t =C ss (1-e (-kt) ) Arsenic was eliminated rapidly at the termination of dosing, with the blood washout half-life being shorter in sheep than in goats. Urinary excretion was the major elimination route from the body of both species.

  15. Isolation of prion with BSE properties from farmed goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiropoulos, John; Lockey, Richard; Sallis, Rosemary E; Terry, Linda A; Thorne, Leigh; Holder, Thomas M; Beck, Katy E; Simmons, Marion M

    2011-12-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are fatal neurodegenerative diseases that include variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, scrapie in small ruminants, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle. Scrapie is not considered a public health risk, but BSE has been linked to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Small ruminants are susceptible to BSE, and in 2005 BSE was identified in a farmed goat in France. We confirm another BSE case in a goat in which scrapie was originally diagnosed and retrospectively identified as suspected BSE. The prion strain in this case was further characterized by mouse bioassay after extraction from formaldehyde-fixed brain tissue embedded in paraffin blocks. Our data show that BSE can infect small ruminants under natural conditions and could be misdiagnosed as scrapie. Surveillance should continue so that another outbreak of this zoonotic transmissible spongiform encephalopathy can be prevented and public health safeguarded.

  16. Serial Nuclear Transfer of Goat-Rabbit Interspecies Reconstructed Embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-guo; CHENG Li-zi; ZHANG Xiao-rong; LIU Ya; JING Ren-tao; WANG Cun-li; ZHAO Huan; LI Bin; CAO Chen-chong; LI Dong-wei

    2005-01-01

    The experiments of serial nuclear transfer were conducted between Boer goat and rabbit. The enucleated oocytes of rabbit were used as recipients while the blastomeres of goat morula was used as nuclear donor. The reconstructed embryos developing to morula were used as donor for serial cloning. As a result, two generations of reconstructed embryos were obtained, including 58 first generation reconstructed embryos and 14 second generation reconstructed embryos. The fusion rates were 79.5 and 70%, respectively. and there was no significant difference between them (P>0.05). The cleavage rates were 75.9 and 28.6% respectively with significant difference (P<0.01). No blastocyst was obtained from the second generation reconstructed embryos while 13.8% of first generation reconstructed embryos developed to blastocyst.

  17. Sister chromatid exchange in Polish White improved goats (Capra hircus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Ewa; Smalec, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    The study was aimed at evaluating the frequency of spontaneous sister chromatid exchange in Polish White Improved goats (Capra hircus). The mean number of SCEs/cell was 2.73 +/- 1.84. The effect of sex and age on SCE incidence was also investigated. No statistically significant differences in the number of SCEs/cell were observed between the males and females. On the other hand, age was found to significantly influence SCE frequency. A lower SCE frequency was observed in younger goats. A positive correlation between chromosome length and SCE number was identified. The longer the chromosome, the more exchanges occurred. The highest number of SCEs was observed in the interstitial region, the lowest in the distal area.

  18. Oestrus ovis larval myiasis among goats in northern Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo-Shehada, Mahmoud N; Batainah, Tharwat; Abuharfeil, Nizar; Torgerson, P R

    2003-05-30

    From December 1998 to December 1999, heads of 520 local goats slaughtered at the Irbid, Ramtha and Howarra Abattoirs (northern Jordan) were examined for the three larval instars (L(1)-L(3)) of Oestrus ovis. Of 520 heads, 126 (24%) were infested with O. ovis larvae. All three larval instars were observed in both sexes; all age groups were infested in each month of the year. The mean age of the goats sampled was 1.5 years. The numbers of parasites infesting hosts showed a significant (P<0.05) correlation with sheep age (r(sp)=0.31-0.42) for all three larval instars. The numbers of larvae in each host followed an overdispersed distribution, which fit a negative-binomial model (but not a Poisson distribution). There were more parasites recorded in the presence of purulent discharge or laryngitis, fewer in the presence of catarrhal discharge and no association with pharyngitis sinusitis, or rhinitis.

  19. Tick population in goats and sheep in Šabac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Pavlović

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available During our examination performed in the period from 2010 to 2012, we collected ticks from 52 flocks of sheep and 38 goat flocks. Ticks infestation occured in 15.97% (214/1340 of sheep and 16.93% (107/632 of goats. The result showed the presence of Ixodes ricinus, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, R. bursa, Dermacentor marginatus, D. pictus, Haemaphysalis punctata and Ha. inermis. Additional to determination of tick species during the research, the sex ratio and the monthly influence of microclimate conditions (temperature, relative humidity and precipitation quantity on the dynamics of populations of ticks were followed. Obtained results indicate the importance of the impact of climatic factors on the population dynamics of some species of ticks as well as the dynamics and abundance of different sexes within established species of ticks.

  20. Survey on the fatty acids profile of fluid goat milk

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    Daniela Pittau

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluid goat milk submitted to thermal treatment has interesting nutritional properties and a potential expanding market. The present study was aimed to conduct fatty acids profile characterisation of goat milk placed on market. Forty-nine fluid milk samples were collected: 12 pasteurised, 12 pasteurised at high temperature, 11 ultrahigh temperature (UHT whole milk and 14 UHT semi-skimmed milk. Milk samples were collected at retail level from 7 different companies and from different production batches. After extraction and methilation, fatty acids (FAs profile was determined on each sample using a gas chromatograph with flame ionisation detector (GC-FID with high-polarity capillary column. The concentration (g/100mL of saturated fatty acids (SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, trans fatty acids (t-FAs, and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA was determined. N-6/n-3 ratio, atherogenic index (AI and thrombogenic index (TI were also assessed. Fluid goat milk lipid profile was characterised by SFAs (68.4% of total FAs, PUFAs (5.3%, MUFAs (21.3%, t-FAs (3.6% and CLA (0.8%. The most represented fatty acids were: 16:0 (24.5%, 9cis-18:1 (18.2%, 18:0 (9.6%, 14:0 (9.5%, 10:0 (9.3% and 12:0 (4.5%. Nutritional indices were 2.8-6.8 for n-6/n-3 ratio; 2.3-2.9 for AI; and 2.7-3.2 for TI. Milk produced by small scale plants, with no milk fat standardisation, showed greater differences in fatty acid profile as compared to industrial plants milk. Large scale production is characterised by commingled bulk tank milk of different origins and then is more homogeneous. The whole goat milk supply chain should be controlled to obtain milk with fatty acids of high nutritional value.

  1. Goat farming systems in Martinique: management and breeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, G; Leimbacher, F; Maurice, O; Domarin, D; Naves, M; Mandonnet, N

    2009-04-01

    To be successful, initiatives to improve farmer's goat production should directly address the needs and objectives of the keepers while promoting rational use of local genetic resources. A survey was carried out to implement a genetic policy governing meat goat farming in Martinique (11,400 heads and 33,400 ha arable land). The questionnaire comprised a total of 27 items with 306 modalities, and included questions on farm structure, crop and animal productions, management of feeding, reproduction and health control. The sample consisted of 33 farmers with 644 ha and 2,680 goats (1,286 does and 52 bucks), 97% of does in the studied sample were crossbred, 56% of bucks were" imported" breeds (Boer or Anglo-Nubian). The number of goats per farm varied from 16 to 582. The feeding system was predominantly grazing, according to a rotation (55% of cases) or continuous grazing system (42%). On 62% of farms, the males remained with the females permanently, also 83% of farmers did not resort to methods of controlled-mating. The first criteria used for choosing animals (80 to 90% of answers) of both sex, were development and conformation. Assuming that adaptive together with productive traits are important in tropical zones, it is advisable to better define the maternal lineage of the local livestock (presently very sparse records), to improve reproduction management and culling strategies (poor and inadequate management practices do not support any genetic improvement programme), and to guide the farmers in their decisions by employing concerted interprofessional actions (choice of meat breed, market studies).

  2. Acute metabolic and physiologic response of goats to narcosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatte, C. L.; Bennett, P. B.

    1973-01-01

    Assessment of the metabolic consequences of exposure to elevated partial pressures of nitrogen and helium under normobaric and hyperbaric conditions in goats. The results include the finding that hyperbaric nitrogen causes and increase in metabolic rate and a general decrease in blood constituent levels which is interpreted as reflecting a shift toward fatty acid metabolism at the expense of carbohydrates. A similar but more pronounced pattern was observed with hyperbaric helium.

  3. Contamination of bovine, sheep and goat meat with Brucella spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Casalinuovo; Lucia Ciambrone; Antonio Cacia; Paola Rippa

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted in order to evaluate the contamination by Brucella spp. of meat from animals slaughtered because they had resulted positive for brucellosis at some time during their life. After slaughter and before delivery to market outlets, swab samples were taken from 307 carcasses of infected animals: 40 cattle, 60 sheep and 207 goats. The swabs were subsequently analysed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests. In addition, bacteriological tests were carried out on the ly...

  4. Chlamydiaceae and chlamydial infections in sheep or goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodolakis, A; Laroucau, K

    2015-12-14

    Chlamydiae induce a range of pathological syndromes in small ruminants. Abortion is the most common clinical expression of the infection that causes important economic losses and presents a risk to human health, particularly in pregnant women. The present paper gives an overview of chlamydial infections in sheep and goats, focusing specifically on abortion and on recent data brought by cellular and genomic approaches regarding genotyping, virulence of strains, epidemiology, diagnosis, pathogenesis and control of the disease.

  5. Cabra (goat and cultural issues of animal metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Carneiro Cavalcanti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The vision of an embodied mind which joins the Theory of Conceptual Metaphor is, above all, based on the idea of a mind which results from the interaction between the human sensory-motor program and the physical and social-cultural environment. However, claiming the existence of what he calls the paradox of metaphor, Gibbs (2008 identifies a tension between the universal and variational aspects of metaphors. From this perspective, this article discusses the role of knowledge and cultural norms in the constitution of animal metaphors, especially in the conceptualization of man in terms of cabra (goat by members of the Fortaleza-Ceara community in northeastern Brazil. For this purpose, the article is organized in four sections, apart from an introduction. In three sections, we discuss the cultural model of the Great Chain of Being and its relation to animal metaphors based on Kövecses (2010 and Lakoff and Turner (1989; the issue of universality in Conceptual Metaphors according to Kövecses (2005; 2009; cultural variation of metaphors with emphasis on the animal metaphor cabra (goat based on Kövecses (2009 and Rodriguez (2009. In the fifth and last section final considerations are presented which point to the animal metaphor cabra (goat of an example of Conceptual Metaphor both potentially universal since it maps in the generic level the conceptual domains human being and animal, as well as variational since the cross domain mappings of man and cabra (goat are motivated by norms and shared cultural knowledge among the members of the Fortaleza-Ceara community.

  6. Pathology of AA amyloidosis in domestic sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménsua, C; Carrasco, L; Bautista, M J; Biescas, E; Fernández, A; Murphy, C L; Weiss, D T; Solomon, A; Luján, L

    2003-01-01

    We describe the main pathologic changes in small ruminants affected by AA amyloidosis, together with the partial sequence of the protein involved. Twenty-one sheep and one goat were selected for presenting macroscopic kidney lesions compatible with systemic amyloidosis. Available tissue samples were studied by histologic, immunopathologic, and ultrastructural means. Renal lesions were characterized grossly by pale cortical surfaces with scattered, miliary, whitish-yellow foci and on cut cortical surfaces by straight, whitish-yellow striations. Gangrenous pneumonia was observed in 16 out of 21 affected sheep (76.2%), although other chronic inflammations were also observed. Amyloid was detected in all grossly affected kidneys using Congo red staining, lesions being most remarkable in glomeruli, affecting 95.5% of animals studied. Congophilic deposits were also observed in intertubular interstitium (68.2%) and medulla (57.1%). All amyloid-affected animals presented proximal convoluted tubule lesions, mostly characterized by an increase in diameter and by hyaline granular degeneration that were responsible for the macroscopic appearance of the kidney. Histologically, amyloid was also seen in blood vessels, spleen, liver, lymph nodes, gastrointestinal tract, and adrenal glands. All amyloid deposits demonstrated greenish-yellow birefringence with polarized light, and the antisera prepared against goat amyloid extracts specifically reacted with birefringent congophilic deposits of both sheep and goats. Ultrastructurally, these deposits were formed by masses of straight, nonbranching fibrils located predominantly in the basement membranes of glomerular capillaries and in the mesangium. Partial sequence of the protein in sheep and goats indicated a high degree of homology with the previously reported sequence of sheep Serum Amyloid A.

  7. Comparative Evaluation of Midventral and Flank Laparotomy Approaches in Goat

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    A. A. Abubakar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare two laparotomy approaches (flank and midventral. Ten (n=10 apparently healthy goats of different breeds and sex, average age of 12±2.1 months, and average weight of 13.4±2 kg were used for the investigation. The goats were randomly divided into flank and midventral groups, each group comprising five goats (n=5. Standard aseptic laparotomy was performed under lumbosacral epidural anaesthesia with mild sedation. Postsurgical wound score showed significant difference (P<0.05 in erythema at 18–24 hours and 10–14 days after surgery between the two approaches; significant difference of dehiscence between the two groups was also recorded at 10–14 days after surgery. Total white blood cells (WBC and lymphocytes counts were significantly different (P<0.05 at the first and second week after surgery. There was significant difference of platelets critical value and platelets dimension width at the first and second week after surgery. Significant difference of packed cells volume between the two approaches was also recorded one week after surgery. It was concluded that midventral laparotomy approach can be conveniently and safely performed under aseptic precautions without fear of intra- and postoperative clinical problems.

  8. Clinical pharmacology of buprenorphine in healthy, lactating goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvast-Larsson, C; Svartberg, K; Hydbring-Sandberg, E; Bondesson, U; Olsson, K

    2007-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics and the effects of the opioid buprenorphine on behavior, cardiovascular parameters, plasma concentrations of cortisol and vasopressin were studied in the goat. After intravenous injection at a dosage of 0.02 mg/kg bw, the terminal half-life was 73.8+/-19.9 min (mean+/-SD), the apparent volume of distribution 5.22+/-1.01 L/kg, and total body clearance 79.1+/-18.5 mL/min/kg. After intramuscular administration of buprenorphine at the same dosage, bioavailability was complete and clearance was 54.7+/-16.6 mL/min/kg. Heart rate, blood pressure and concentrations of cortisol and vasopressin in plasma increased after drug administration. The goats became agitated and stopped ruminating. The effects were more pronounced the first time the animals received the drug, especially the influence on the hormone levels. The concentrations of cortisol and vasopressin in plasma remained unaffected after the second dose despite a wash-out period of 3-6 weeks. Buprenorphine may be an unsuitable drug in goats because of the profound inhibition of rumination and the agitation it causes. The short half-life of buprenorphine may limit its use if long-term analgesia is required but be advantageous if a short acting drug is desirable.

  9. Hybrid origin of the Pliocene ancestor of wild goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ropiquet, Anne; Hassanin, Alexandre

    2006-11-01

    Recent theories on speciation suggest that interspecific hybridization is an important mechanism for explaining adaptive radiation. According to this view, hybridization can promote the rapid transfer of adaptations between different species; the hybrid population thus invades new habitats and diversifies into a variety of new species. Although hybridization is well accepted as a fairly common mechanism for diversification in plants, its role in the evolution of animals is more controversial, because reduced fitness would typically condemn animal hybrids to an evolutionary dead-end. Here, we examine DNA sequences of four mitochondrial and four nuclear genes selected for resolving phylogenetic relationships between goats, sheep, and their allies. Our analyses provide evidence of strong discordance for the position of Capra between mitochondrial and nuclear phylogenies. We suggest that the common ancestor of wild goats arose from interspecific hybridization, and that the mitochondrial genome of a species better adapted to life at high altitudes was transferred via this route into the common ancestor of Capra. We propose that the acquisition of more efficient mitochondria has conferred a selective advantage on goats, allowing their rapid adaptive radiation during the Plio-Pleistocene epoch. Our study therefore agrees with theories that predict an important role for interspecific hybridization in the evolution and diversification of animal species.

  10. Experimental Clostridium perfringens type D enterotoxemia in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzal, F A; Kelly, W R

    1998-03-01

    The effects of intraduodenal administration of Clostridium perfringens cultures and culture products in goats were evaluated to develop a reliable experimental model of enterotoxemia in this species. Five conventionally reared, 11-16-week-old Angora goat kids were dosed intraduodenally with whole cultures of C. perfringens type D; five similar animals were dosed with C. perfringens type D filtered culture supernatant; and a third group of five kids was dosed with C. perfringens type D washed cells. Two kids were used as controls and received sterile, nontoxic culture medium intraduodenally. All animals received starch solution into the abomasum. All five kids inoculated with whole culture and three of five dosed with culture supernatant and with washed cells developed central nervous system signs. Diarrhea was observed in two of five kids inoculated with whole culture, in all five of those dosed with culture supernatant, and in three of five of those that received washed cells. The most striking postmortem findings consisted of lung edema, necrotizing pseudomembranous colitis, and cerebral vasogenic edema. The protocol thus provided a reasonable model of naturally occurring enterotoxemia in goats, producing a range of clinical signs and postmortem changes similar to those observed in the natural disease.

  11. Extinct mountain goat ( Oreamnos harringtoni) in Southeastern Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mead, Jim I.; Agenbroad, Larry D.; Phillips, Arthur M.; Middleton, Larry T.

    1987-05-01

    The extinct Harrington's mountain goat ( Oreamnos harringtoni Stock) is predominantly known from dry cave localities in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, in addition to two sites in the Great Basin, Nevada, and from San Josecito Cave, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A dry shelter in Natural Bridges National Monument, on the central Colorado Plateau, southeastern Utah, preserves numerous remains of the extinct mountain goat in addition to pack rat middens. Remains from a 100-cm stratigraphic profile indicate that O. harringtoni lived on the plateau >39,800 yr B.P., the oldest directly dated find of extinct mountain goat. Plant macrofossils indicate that Engelmann's spruce ( Picea engelmannii), limber pine ( Pinus flexilis), rose ( Rosa cf. woodsii), and Douglas fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii) grew during the late Pleistocene where a riparian and a pinyon-juniper ( Pinus edulis-Juniperus osteosperma) community now predominates; Douglas fir are found only in mesic, protected, north-facing areas. Limber pine, Douglas fir, bark, and grasses were the major dietary components in the dung. A springtime diet of birch ( Betula) is determined from pollen clumps in dung pellets.

  12. Abattoir survey on extra-cerebral coenurosis in goats

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    Schuster R. K.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Out of 19,046 goats aged between 5 and 6 month and slaughtered at an abattoir in Dubai between September 2012 and March 2014, 57 carcasses were objected at meat inspection due to the presence of bladder worms of the coenurus type. The majority showed single cysts that were cut out but 10 carcasses had to be discharged due to the presence of multiple cysts and with a maximum number of 41 coenuri. In the majority of carcasses, cysts were located in the legs (n=45 followed by abdominal muscles (n=16, diaphragm (n=14 and shoulder (n=13. Loin, rack, renal fat, heart, neck, masseter were other cyst locations. The size of the detected parasitic cysts ranged from 0.7 ml to 90 ml. The maximum number of 1,102 scolices was counted in an 86 ml coenurus found in the leg of a goat. Cysticercus tenuicollis was another cestode larval stage found in livers of 302 goats. A mixed infection with both parasites was detected in 35 carcasses.

  13. [First outbreak of bluetongue in goats in The Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dercksen, D; Groot Nibbelink, N; Paauwe, R; Backx, A; van Rijn, P; Vellema, P

    2007-10-15

    For the first time, bluetongue has been diagnosed in goats in the Netherlands and in Northwest-Europe. On the 17th of August 2006, bluetongue was for the first time diagnosed in sheep and a little later in cattle in The Netherlands. The clinical symptoms, diagnostics and differential diagnosis of bluetongue (BT) in goats in the Netherlands are described. The most obvious clinical signs were an acute drop in milk production and high fever (up to 42 degrees C). Clinical signs were less obvious than usually seen for clinically diseased sheep and cattle. A few goats showed oedema of the lips and the head, some nasal discharge and scabs on the nose and lips. Further erythema of the skin of the udder and small subcutaneous hemorrhages were seen. Just like one year ago, for the very first suspicion of bluetongue in Northwest-Europe, a good collaboration between practitioners, specialists of the Animal Health Service (GD Deventer), the Specialist Team of the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (VWA), and the Central Institute for animal Disease Control (CIDC-Lelystad) in The Netherlands, led to the first and rapid notification and confirmation of the suspicion of bluetongue.

  14. Arterial supply of the stomach of the Egyptian native goat

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    Reda Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the origin, course and distribution of the arteries supplying the stomach of the goat which is of extreme clinical importance for surgeon during caprine rumenotomy. Materials and methods: Fifteen adult goats were used in this study to demonstrate the arterial supply of the stomach by injection of the thoracic aorta with red gum milk latex after general anesthesia and slaughtering of the animals. Gross dissection of the arteries of the stomach was done to detect the origin, course and distribution of these arteries. Results: The study revealed that the rumen was richly supplied by the right and left ruminal arteries as well as ruminal branches from the reticular artery. The reticulum was supplied with reticular branches of reticular and accessory reticular arteries. The omasum was vascularized by omasal branches of the left gastric artery. While the abomasum received its entire arterial supply from abomasal branches of the left gastric, left gastroepiploic, right gastric and right gastroepiploic arteries. Conclusion: The stomach of the goat receives its arterial supply from the branches of the right ruminal, left ruminal, reticular, left gastric and hepatic arteries. Rumenotomy could be done in the left aspect of the dorsal ruminal sac, between the area of anastomoses of the terminal branches of the left and right ruminal arteries as the blood supply was minimal, so that bleeding will be low. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(1.000: 80-87

  15. Effect of zinc supplementation on reproductive performance of Teressa goat

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    M. S. Kundu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study evaluates the effect of dietary zinc supplementation on reproductive and productive performance of Teressa goat, an indigenous species of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Materials and Methods: Eighteen female goats were randomly divided into 3 groups of 6 animals each; (A control with basal ration without any zinc supplementation (B Treatment 1 with basal ration supplemented with 50 ppm zinc oxide (C Treatment 2 with basal ration supplemented with 100 ppm zinc oxide. Different reproductive parameters, e.g. numbers of days to oestrus, the incidence of oestrus, pregnancy rate, kidding rates and weight of kids were recorded. Results: Data indicated that the supplementation of different levels of inorganic zinc oxide significantly increased the incidence of oestrus (33%, pregnancy rate (12%, kidding rate (5% and resulted in shorter onset (8 days of oestrus as compared to the control. The mean body weight and daily weight gain of kids born to supplemented does were significantly (p<0.05 higher than the kids born to control. Conclusion: The supplementation of 50 to 100 ppm zinc oxide to the basal diet of Teressa goat significantly improved different productive and reproductive parameters.

  16. Endocrine and metabolic traits in goat kids around weaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rosi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Eleven Saanen kids, three days after birth, were divided into two groups: WEAN and MILK. All kids were fed goat milk until the 5th week of age, when the WEAN group began a weaning protocol. MILK group continued to receive goat milk for the entire experimental period, while WEAN group was weaned at 47 days of age. Starting from the 3rd week of age, body weight was recorded and blood samples were taken weekly, before the first meal of the day. Plasma was analysed for glucose, total protein, free aminoacid, insulin, leptin and ghrelin.Weaning did not affect plasma levels of total protein and leptin, but decreased plasma glucose and free aminoacid, and increased ghrelin concentration. Moreover, weaning decreased plasma insulin level more than three times. This result was probably the consequence of the lower concentration of plasma glucose of the WEAN group, but the effect could be enforced by the milk-borne insulin ingested by the MILK kids with the diet. Goat milk contains peptides that can pass across the intestinal epithelium and enter the systemic circulation, suggesting a possible role in accomplishing the immature ability of suckling animals to produce hormones and growth factors.

  17. Tannic acid degradation by Klebsiella strains isolated from goat feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Tahmourespour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Tannins are toxic polyphenols that either bind and precipitate or condense proteins. The high tannin content of some plants is the preliminary limitation of using them as a ruminant feed. So, the aim of this study was the isolation and characterization of tannic acid degrading bacterial strains from goat feces before and after feeding on Pis- tachio-Soft Hulls as tannin rich diet (TRD.Materials and Methods: Bacterial strains capable of utilizing tannic acid as sole carbon and energy source were isolated and characterized from goat feces before and after feeding on TRD. Tannase activity, maximum tolerable concentration and biodegradation potential were assessed.Results: Four tannase positive isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae. Isolated strains showed the maximum tolerable concentration of 64g/L of tannin. The tannic acid degradation percentage at a concentration of 15.0 g/L reached a maximum of 68% after 24 h incubation, and more than 98% after 72 h incubation. The pH of the medium also decreased along with tannic acid utilization.Conclusions: It is obvious that TRD induced adaptive responses. Thus, while the bacteria were able to degrade and detoxify the tannic acids, they had to adapt in the presence of high concentrations of tannic acid. So, these isolates have an amazing potential for application in bioremediation, waste water treatment, also reduction of tannins antinutritional effects in animal feeds.Keywords: Biodegradation; Goat feces; Klebsiella strains; Tannic acid

  18. The diagnostic impact of testicular biopsies for intratubular germ cell neoplasia in cryptorchid boys and the subsequent risk of testicular cancer in men with prepubertal surgery for syndromic or non-syndromic cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, Lene; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Cortes, Dina

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Cryptorchidism is a risk factor for testicular cancer in adult life. It remains unclear how prepubertal surgery for cryptorchidism impacts later development of adult testicular cancer. The aim of study was to investigate tools to identify the cryptorchid boys who later develop...... testicular cancer. METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 1403 men operated prepubertally/pubertally for undescended testis between 1971 and 2003. At surgery testicular biopsies were taken from the cryptorchid testes. The boys were followed for occurrence of testicular cancer. The testicular cancer risk....... We identified 16 cases with testicular cancer in adulthood. The standardized incidence ratio was 2.66 (95% CI: 1.52-4.32). At time of primary surgery in prepubertal/pubertal age Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia (ITGCN) was diagnosed in 5 cases and the boys were unilaterally orchiectomized. At follow...

  19. Altered lipid and salt taste responsivity in ghrelin and GOAT null mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Cai

    Full Text Available Taste perception plays an important role in regulating food preference, eating behavior and energy homeostasis. Taste perception is modulated by a variety of factors, including gastric hormones such as ghrelin. Ghrelin can regulate growth hormone release, food intake, adiposity, and energy metabolism. Octanoylation of ghrelin by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT is a specific post-translational modification which is essential for many biological activities of ghrelin. Ghrelin and GOAT are both widely expressed in many organs including the gustatory system. In the current study, overall metabolic profiles were assessed in wild-type (WT, ghrelin knockout (ghrelin(-/-, and GOAT knockout (GOAT(-/- mice. Ghrelin(-/- mice exhibited decreased food intake, increased plasma triglycerides and increased ketone bodies compared to WT mice while demonstrating WT-like body weight, fat composition and glucose control. In contrast GOAT(-/- mice exhibited reduced body weight, adiposity, resting glucose and insulin levels compared to WT mice. Brief access taste behavioral tests were performed to determine taste responsivity in WT, ghrelin(-/- and GOAT(-/- mice. Ghrelin and GOAT null mice possessed reduced lipid taste responsivity. Furthermore, we found that salty taste responsivity was attenuated in ghrelin(-/- mice, yet potentiated in GOAT(-/- mice compared to WT mice. Expression of the potential lipid taste regulators Cd36 and Gpr120 were reduced in the taste buds of ghrelin and GOAT null mice, while the salt-sensitive ENaC subunit was increased in GOAT(-/- mice compared with WT mice. The altered expression of Cd36, Gpr120 and ENaC may be responsible for the altered lipid and salt taste perception in ghrelin(-/- and GOAT(-/- mice. The data presented in the current study potentially implicates ghrelin signaling activity in the modulation of both lipid and salt taste modalities.

  20. Evolution of chemical-physical parameters and rheological characteristics of Sarda and Maltese goat dry hams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Mazzette

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In Sardinia, goat farming is a very important resource. Sarda and Maltese breed are reared mainly for milk production and for suckling kids meat, while meat from adult goats is undervalued. The use of adult goat meat to obtain ripened ham will contribute to safeguard the Sardinian goat supply chain. The aim of the present study was to characterize Sarda and Maltese goat dry ham in order to evaluate the quality of autochthonous goat breed meat. Chemical-physical characteristics were determined dur-ing the production stages, while the rheological and colour parameters and the composition of the goat ham were determined at the end of ripening. The pH evolution during processing were similar to other cured meat products, e.g. sheep hams, even though the values were high, especially in the products from Sarda breed. The aw value regularly decreased during processing. Colour parameters (L*, a*, b* in the hams from Maltese goat breed were significantly (P<0.05 higher than in those from Sarda. The Sarda goat ham showed a significantly lower percentage of moisture (42% vs 52%, an higher protein content (44.35% vs 34.19%, while no differences were pointed out in the total fat content. Among the ham rheological properties, hardness parameters showed higher levels (13850.22±7589.92 vs 11073.99±6481.31, respectively in Sarda and Maltese hams in comparison to similar products from pork and sheep, while adhesiveness value was lower. The results show that the quality parameters of goat ripened hams are affected mainly by the charac-teristics of the goat meat, in relation on the breed and the breeding system, and, less, by the traditional technology.

  1. Goats challenged with different members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex display different clinical pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezos, J; Casal, C; Díez-Delgado, I; Romero, B; Liandris, E; Álvarez, J; Sevilla, I A; Juan, L de; Domínguez, L; Gortázar, C

    2015-10-15

    Tuberculosis (TB) in goats (Capra hircus) is due to infection with members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC), mainly Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium caprae. We report a comparative experimental infection of goats with M. bovis, M. caprae and M. tuberculosis strains. We hypothesized that goats experimentally infected with different members of the MTC would display different clinical pictures. Three groups of goats were challenged with either M. bovis SB0134 (group 1, n=5), M. caprae SB0157 (group 2, n=5) and M. tuberculosis SIT58 (group 3, n=4). The highest mean total lesion score was observed in M. bovis challenged goats (mean 15.2, range 9-19), followed by those challenged with M. caprae (10.8, 2-23). The lowest score was recorded in goats challenged with M. tuberculosis (3, 1-6). Culture results coincided with the lesion scores in yielding more positive pools (7/15) in M. bovis challenged goats. By contrast, only three pools were positive from goats challenged M. tuberculosis (3/12) and with M. caprae (3/15), respectively. Differences in the performance of the intradermal and gamma-interferon (IFN-γ) tests depending of the group were observed since all goats from group 1 were diagnosed using intradermal test and these goats reacted earlier to the IFN-γ assay in comparison to the other groups. This study confirmed that goats experimentally infected with different members of the MTC display different clinical pictures and this fact may have implications for MTC maintenance and bacterial shedding.

  2. Altered lipid and salt taste responsivity in ghrelin and GOAT null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huan; Cong, Wei-Na; Daimon, Caitlin M; Wang, Rui; Tschöp, Matthias H; Sévigny, Jean; Martin, Bronwen; Maudsley, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Taste perception plays an important role in regulating food preference, eating behavior and energy homeostasis. Taste perception is modulated by a variety of factors, including gastric hormones such as ghrelin. Ghrelin can regulate growth hormone release, food intake, adiposity, and energy metabolism. Octanoylation of ghrelin by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is a specific post-translational modification which is essential for many biological activities of ghrelin. Ghrelin and GOAT are both widely expressed in many organs including the gustatory system. In the current study, overall metabolic profiles were assessed in wild-type (WT), ghrelin knockout (ghrelin(-/-)), and GOAT knockout (GOAT(-/-)) mice. Ghrelin(-/-) mice exhibited decreased food intake, increased plasma triglycerides and increased ketone bodies compared to WT mice while demonstrating WT-like body weight, fat composition and glucose control. In contrast GOAT(-/-) mice exhibited reduced body weight, adiposity, resting glucose and insulin levels compared to WT mice. Brief access taste behavioral tests were performed to determine taste responsivity in WT, ghrelin(-/-) and GOAT(-/-) mice. Ghrelin and GOAT null mice possessed reduced lipid taste responsivity. Furthermore, we found that salty taste responsivity was attenuated in ghrelin(-/-) mice, yet potentiated in GOAT(-/-) mice compared to WT mice. Expression of the potential lipid taste regulators Cd36 and Gpr120 were reduced in the taste buds of ghrelin and GOAT null mice, while the salt-sensitive ENaC subunit was increased in GOAT(-/-) mice compared with WT mice. The altered expression of Cd36, Gpr120 and ENaC may be responsible for the altered lipid and salt taste perception in ghrelin(-/-) and GOAT(-/-) mice. The data presented in the current study potentially implicates ghrelin signaling activity in the modulation of both lipid and salt taste modalities.

  3. Effect of colostrum type on serum gamma globulin concentration, growth and health of goat kids until three months

    OpenAIRE

    Iepema, G.L.; Eekeren, N. van

    2008-01-01

    In this study the effect of three colostrum types; goat, cow and artificial colostrum, on serum gamma globulin concentration (GGC), growth and health of goat kids during the first three months of the rearing phase was measured. Thirty newborn goat kids were randomly assigned to three experimental groups; goat colostrum (GC), cow colostrum (CC) and artificial colostrum (AC). At 2, 28, 56 and 86 days serum GGC and live weight were measured. The three colostrum types were analysed on immunoglobu...

  4. The diagnostic impact of testicular biopsies for intratubular germ cell neoplasia in cryptorchid boys and the subsequent risk of testicular cancer in men with prepubertal surgery for syndromic or non-syndromic cryptorchidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterballe, Lene; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Cortes, Dina; Engholm, Gerda; Hertzum-Larsen, Rasmus; Reinhardt, Susanne; Thorup, Jorgen

    2017-04-01

    Cryptorchidism is a risk factor for testicular cancer in adult life. It remains unclear how prepubertal surgery for cryptorchidism impacts later development of adult testicular cancer. The aim of study was to investigate tools to identify the cryptorchid boys who later develop testicular cancer. The study cohort consisted of 1403 men operated prepubertally/pubertally for undescended testis between 1971 and 2003. At surgery testicular biopsies were taken from the cryptorchid testes. The boys were followed for occurrence of testicular cancer. The testicular cancer risk was compared to the risk in the Danish Population. Testicular biopsies from the boys who developed testicular cancer during follow-up underwent histological examination with specific diagnostic immunohistochemical markers for germ cell neoplasia. The cohort was followed for 33,627 person years at risk. We identified 16 cases with testicular cancer in adulthood. The standardized incidence ratio was 2.66 (95% CI: 1.52-4.32). At time of primary surgery in prepubertal/pubertal age Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia (ITGCN) was diagnosed in 5 cases and the boys were unilaterally orchiectomized. At follow-up new immunohistochemical staining indicated ITGCN in two of the 16 cancer cases at reevaluation of the original biopsies from time of prepubertal/pubertal surgery. One had syndromic cryptorchid and developed seminoma, and another showed nonsyndromic cryptorchidism and developed embryonic teratocarcinoma. Totally, ITGCN was diagnosed in 0.5% (7/1403) of prepubertal cryptorchid boys, whereof 57% (4/7) in syndromic-cryptorchidism. ITGCN is predominantly observed prepubertally in boys with syndromic-cryptorchidism. In nonsyndromic cryptorchidism testicular cancer develops postpubertally, generally not based on dormant germ cells of ITGCN caused by an early fetal maldevelopment. LEVEL I. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The bacteriological quality of goat and ovine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Bogdanovičová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study concentrates on information concerning the microbiological hazards that can be present in raw milk from animal species other than cows. A total of 54 (23 of ovine and 31 of goat bulk tank milk samples from 10 farms in the Czech Republic were collected in years 2013 - 2014. The sampling was done at regular time intervals during the whole year, with five to eight samples collected from each of the 10 dairy farms involved in the study. All milk samples were collected into sterile sampling bottles and transported in a cooler sampling case to the laboratory for immediate examination. Farms were randomly selected to cover the whole area of the Czech Republic. The prevalence and characteristic of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp. and Listeria monocytogenes was studied. Raw cow's milk can be contaminated by E. coli intramammarily during clinical or subclinical mastitis and either directly through animal feces or indirectly during milk collection through farm employees or the milking equipment. E. coli was detected in 90.3% of the goat milk and 95.7% of the ovine milk samples. The genes encoding Shiga toxins 1 and 2- (stx1, stx2 were not detected and no STEC was identified. The Eae was the detected in 3 (4.6% isolates. S. aureus was detected in 9 (29.0% samples of goat milk and 8 (34.8% samples of ovine milk. A total 12 (57.1% enterotoxin positive S. aureus were obtained; 6 (28.6% were positive for the production of sec encoding enterotoxin SEC; in 4 (19.0% isolates the gene seh was detected; 2 (9.5% isolates were proven positive for seg (4.8% and combination seg and sei (4.8%. The presence of MRSA was not detected in the tested samples in our study. L. monocytogenes was detected in 1 (3.2% samples of goat milk and 1 (4.3% samples of ovine milk. The serotype (1/2a, 1/2b was detected in our study. Campylobacter spp. and Salmonella spp. were not isolated from any of the samples. These results form

  6. Pharmacokinetic parameters of meloxicam after its oral administration in goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A R. Wani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of the present study was to find out the levels of analgesic drug meloxicam in the blood plasma of young goats. The drug was given to them through oral route. Data was used to elucidate the Pharmacokinetic determinants of the drug which were employed to arrive at the dose schedule and frequency of the drug in goats. Materials and Methods: Elaborate pharmacokinetic research of the drug meloxicam was done on 18 to 24 months old, five adult male local goats (Capra hircus of Assam weighing 20 to 25 kg.The drug was given orally at the dose rate of 0.35 mg/kg at the Goat Rearing farm, Guwahati, Assam. Analysis of blood was done by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC system. Results: The mean values of area under curve (AUC and mean area under curve (AUMC were 3137.488 ± 125.3749 µg.min/ml and 4650460 ± 380892.4744 µg.min2/ml respectively .The mean peak plasma level of meloxicam was 1.972 ± 0.0477 µg/ml at 600 min. The mean values of elimination half life (t1/2β and absorption half life (t1/2Ka were 693±0.00 min and 170.6 ± 17.0076 min respectively. The mean values of volume of distribution (Vd and mean residence time (MRT were 0.114 ± 0.0156 L/kg and 1472.264 ± 63.336 min respectively. The mean value of Tmax was found to be 497 ± 19.8040 min. Following single oral administration the minimum effective therapeutic concentration or minimum effective plasma concentration of meloxicam was detectable up to 1200 min. The bioavailibity (F of the drug was 80.5 ± 10.0150%. Conclusion: These pharmacokinetic determinants were used to determine the frequency and dose schedule of meloxicam in goats. The minimum effective concentration of the drug is 0.7 µg/ml in plasma. To maintain this, an initial loading dose of 0.5 mg/kg body weight should be followed by a maintenance dose of 0.4 mg/kg body weight/10 hour.

  7. Ammoniated babassu palm hay in anglo-nubian goat diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Leidiana Moreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Leaves of babassu may be used in diets for goats under maintenance, however, it is a low-quality roughage due to its high fiber content. The chemical treatment by ammonia causes reduction in the proportion of the cell wall, in addition to providing non-protein nitrogen for the microbial protein synthesis in the rumen. Babassu palm hay ammoniated with 4% urea (BHAU4% was evaluated in this study as a substitute for guinea grass hay in the maintenance diets of goats in terms of intake, digestibility in vivo, and the partitioning of energy and nitrogen compounds. Twenty Anglo-Nubian male goats were used in a randomised block design with four treatments (diets containing 0, 33, 66, or 100% BHAU4% and five replicates (animals/block. The chemical compositions of the feeds, leftovers, faeces, nitrogen and crude energy of the urine were evaluated. In addition, the rumen fluid pH, the rumen N-NH3, and the blood serum urea were evaluated. The digestibility of the dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crud protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDFap and detergent acid (ADFap, corrected for ash and protein, declined (P<0.05 0.0939, 0.0722, 0.0953, 0.1113, and 0.2666%, respectively, with the 1% inclusion of babassu palm hay in the diet. A negative linear effect (P<0.05 was observed in the ingested nitrogen (N, excretion of N in the urine, retained N, and N balance, with decreases of 0.15711, 0.0225 and 0.1071 g/day and 0.1388%, respectively, per percentage unit of the babassu palm hay included in the diet. The intake and digestibility of the DM and nutrients are reduced with the inclusion of BHAU4% in maintenance diets for goats, with positive nitrogen balance and stability of the ruminal pH and N-NH3 as well as blood urea, which presented values within the normal physiological range for goats.

  8. The potential of Elephantorrhiza elephantina as an anthelminthic in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maphosa, V; Masika, P J

    2012-08-01

    Elephantorrhiza elephantina Bruch. Skeels. is used by farmers in the Eastern Cape Province to control helminths in goats. An in vitro study revealed efficacy of its fractions against adult Haemonchus contortus. This study was conducted to validate efficacy of fractions in vivo, on gastrointestinal nematodes in naturally infected goats. A total of 36 goats (18 males and 18 females) between ages of 8 and 12 months were used; these were randomly assigned to six treatments (A-F). For treatments A and B, goats received Prodose orange® (Albendazole 1.92 % m/v, closantel 3.94 % mv) at 2 ml/10 kg and distilled water at 0.5 ml/kg per os, respectively, whereas those under treatments C to E received aqueous fractions of E. elephantina at concentrations of 12. 5, 25, 50 and 75 mg/ml, dosed at 2 ml/10 kg. On days 1, 28 and 56, faecal samples were collected for faecal egg counts (FEC) and larval count, blood samples taken for packed cell volume (PCV) and body weights recorded to assess weight changes. The aqueous fraction caused highest the total faecal egg count reductions (TFECR) % of 81.7 %, 96.8 % and 98.6 % at doses of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg, respectively, on day 56. This was comparable to the commercial drug Prodose orange®, which caused TFECR% of 94.9 % at the same time. The fraction also caused reduction of Haemonchus contortus and strongyloides larvae at all dose levels, but these were not significantly different (P > 0.05) to the negative control. There was an increase in body weights of animals at dose concentrations of 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg. Animals receiving the fraction had weight increases of between 3 and 4 kg by end of experiment (over 56 days), but those drenched with Prodose orange ® gained by less than 2 kg. The fraction also increased PCV levels at all doses on days 28 and 56 and this was comparable to the group on commercial drug. The reductions of FEC and worm larvae, as well as increase in PCVs are indicative that E. elephantina posses some

  9. Assessment of safety and interferon gamma responses of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine in goat kids and milking goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez de Val, Bernat; Vidal, Enric; López-Soria, Sergio; Marco, Alberto; Cervera, Zoraida; Martín, Maite; Mercader, Irene; Singh, Mahavir; Raeber, Alex; Domingo, Mariano

    2016-02-10

    Vaccination of domestic animals has emerged as an alternative long-term strategy for the control of tuberculosis (TB). A trial under field conditions was conducted in a TB-free goat herd to assess the safety of the Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine. Eleven kids and 10 milking goats were vaccinated with BCG. Bacterial shedding and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) responses were monitored throughout the study. Comprehensive pathological examination and mycobacterial culture of target tissues were performed. BCG vaccine strain was only isolated from the draining lymph node of the injection site of a kid euthanized at week 8 post-vaccination. The remaining animals were euthanized at week 24. Six out of 20 showed small granulomas at the injection site. BCG shedding was not detected in either faeces or in milk throughout the study. All vaccinated kids showed BCG-induced IFN-γ responses at week 8 post-vaccination. BCG vaccination of goats showed no lack of biological safety for the animals, environment and public health, and local adverse reactions were negligible.

  10. TITLE OF MANUSCRIPT IMPORTANT GROUPS OF MICROORGANISMS IN RAW GOAT MILK AND FRESH GOAT CHEESES DETERMINED DURING LACTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libor Kalhotka

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The total counts of microorganisms, coliform bacteria, psychrotrophic microorganisms, lactic acid bacteria, enterococci and many others are ranked among the important groups of microorganisms affecting the quality of milk and cheese. In the samples of raw goat milk (farms breeding I and II collected within 24 h (morning milking - a, afternoon milking - b and fresh goat cheese, these groups of microorganisms were determined by standard methods: the total counts of microorganisms (TCM, lactic acid bacteria, coliform bacteria, psychrotrophic microorganisms and enterococci. In cheeses, there was also carried out the determination of yeasts and moulds. After the cultivation, colonies from Petri dishes were counted and the result was expressed in CFU/ml, g. Samples of raw goat milk (except farm II 27.3. corresponded the requirement of a given legislative act. However, it contained a higher number of coliform and psychrotrophic microorganisms than the stated recommendations. Microbiological analysis showed relatively high numbers of adverse coliform bacteria (up to 1.2 x 107 CFU/g in all cheeses. Counts of psychrotrophic microorganisms were relatively high as well, they moved between of 103 – 108 CFU/g.

  11. Trypanotolerance in Djallonke sheep and West African Dwarf goats : Importance of trypanosomosis, nutrition, helminth infections and management factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osaer, S.; Goossens, B.

    1999-01-01

    The main breeds of sheep and goats in The Gambia, the Djallonke sheep and West African Dwarf goats are trypanotolerant. The Djallonke sheep, however, have a higher degree of trypanotolerance than the WAD goats. This trait is genetically linked although the mechanism of trypanotolerance is different

  12. Tongue Epithelium Cells from shRNA Mediated Transgenic Goat Show High Resistance to Foot and Mouth Disease Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenting; Wang, Kejun; Kang, Shimeng; Deng, Shoulong; Han, Hongbing; Lian, Ling; Lian, Zhengxing

    2015-12-16

    Foot and mouth disease induced by foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is severe threat to cloven-hoofed domestic animals. The gene 3Dpol in FMDV genome encodes the viral RNA polymerase, a vital element for FMDV replication. In this study, a conserved 3D-7414shRNA targeting FMDV-3Dpol gene was designed and injected into pronuclear embryos to produce the transgenic goats. Sixty-one goats were produced, of which, seven goats positively integrated 3D-7414shRNA. Loss of function assay demonstrated that siRNA effectively knockdown 3Dpol gene in skin epithelium cells of transgenic goats. Subsequently, the tongue epithelium cells from transgenic and non-transgenic goats were infected with FMDV O/YS/CHA/05 strain. A significant decrease of virus titres and virus copy number was observed in cells of transgenic goats compared with that of non-transgenic goats, which indicated that 3D-7414siRNA inhibited FMDV replication by interfering FMDV-3Dpol gene. Furthermore, we found that expression of TLR7, RIG-I and TRAF6 was lower in FMDV infected cells from transgenic goats compared to that from non-transgenic goats, which might result from lower virus copy number in transgenic goats' cells. In conclusion, we successfully produced transgenic goats highly expressing 3D-7414siRNA targeting 3Dpol gene, and the tongue epithelium cells from the transgenic goats showed effective resistance to FMDV.

  13. Trypanotolerance in Djallonke sheep and West African Dwarf goats : Importance of trypanosomosis, nutrition, helminth infections and management factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osaer, S.; Goossens, B.

    1999-01-01

    The main breeds of sheep and goats in The Gambia, the Djallonke sheep and West African Dwarf goats are trypanotolerant. The Djallonke sheep, however, have a higher degree of trypanotolerance than the WAD goats. This trait is genetically linked although the mechanism of trypanotolerance is different

  14. Nitric oxide in prepubertal rat ovary contribution of the ganglionic nitric oxide synthase system via superior ovarian nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casais, Marilina; Delgado, Silvia Marcela; Vallcaneras, Sandra; Sosa, Zulema; Rastrilla, Ana María

    2007-02-01

    Both peripheral innervation and nitric oxide (NO) participate in ovarian steroidogenesis. Considering the existence of the nitric oxide/ nitric oxide synthase system in the peripheral neural system and in the ovary, the aim of this work was to analyze if the liberation of NO in the ovarian compartment of prepubertal rats is of ovarian and/or ganglionic origin. The analysis is carried out from a physiological point of view using the experimental coeliac ganglion--Superior Ovarian Nerve--ovary model with and without ganglionic cholinergic stimulus Acetylcholine (Ach) 10(-6) M. Non selective and selective inhibitors of the synthase nitric oxide enzyme were added to the ovarian and ganglionic compartment, and the liberation of nitrites (soluble metabolite of the nitric oxide) in the ovarian incubation liquid was measured. We found that the non-selective inhibitor L-nitro-arginina methyl ester (L-NAME) in the ovarian compartment decreased the liberation of nitrites, and that Aminoguanidine (AG) in two concentrations in a non-dose dependent form provoked the same effect. The addition of Ach in ganglion magnified the effect of the inhibitors of the NOS enzyme. The most relevant results after the addition of inhibitors in ganglion were obtained with AG 400 and 800 microM. The inhibition was made evident with and without the joint action of Ach in ganglion. These data suggest that the greatest production of NO in the ovarian compartment comes from the ovary, mainly the iNOS isoform, though the coeliac ganglion also contributes through the superior ovarian nerve but with less quantity.

  15. Growth hormone treatment in 35 prepubertal children with achondroplasia: a five-year dose-response trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Niels Thomas; Eklöf, Ole; Ivarsson, Sten; Aronson, Stefan; Westphal, Otto; Sipilä, Ilkka; Kaitila, Ilkka; Bland, Jon; Veimo, Dag; Müller, Jørn; Mohnike, Klaus; Neumeyer, Lo; Ritzen, Martin; Hagenäs, Lars

    2005-10-01

    Achondroplasia is a skeletal dysplasia with extreme, disproportionate, short stature. In a 5-y growth hormone (GH) treatment study including 1 y without treatment, we investigated growth and body proportion response in 35 children with achondroplasia. Patients were randomized to either 0.1 IU/kg (n = 18) or 0.2 IU/kg (n = 17) per day. GH treatment was interrupted for 12 mo after 2 y of treatment in prepubertal patients to study catch-down growth. Mean height SDS (HSDS) at start was -5.6 and -5.2 for the low- and high-dose groups, respectively, and mean age 7.3 and 6.6 y. Mean growth velocity (baseline 4.5/4.6 cm/y for the groups) increased significantly by 1.9/3.6 cm/y during the first year and by 0.5/1.5 cm/y during the second year. During the third year, a decrease of growth velocity was observed at 1.9/1.3 cm/y below baseline values. HSDS increased significantly by 0.6/0.8 during the first year of treatment and in total by 1.3/1.6 during the 5 y of study. Sitting height SDS improved significantly from -2.1/-1.7 to -0.8/0.2 during the study. Body proportion (sitting height/total height) or arm span did not show any significant change. GH treatment of children with achondroplasia improves height during 4 y of therapy without adverse effect on trunk-leg disproportion. The short-term effect is comparable to that reported in Turner and Noonan syndrome and in idiopathic short stature.

  16. Clinical and microbiologic characteristics of vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls, 2009–2014: a single center experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hounyoung; Chai, Sun Myung; Ahn, Eun Hee

    2016-01-01

    Objective To update information on the clinical and microbiologic characteristics of pediatric vulvovaginitis in Korean prepubertal girls. Methods A total of 120 girls (aged 0 to 9 years) with culture-confirmed pediatric vulvovaginitis, diagnosed between 2009 and 2014, were enrolled in the study. The epidemiologic and microbiologic characteristics, and clinical outcomes were assessed. Patients with sexual precocity, as well as those who were referred for suspected sexual abuse, were excluded. Results Girls aged 4 to 6 years were at the highest risk of pediatric vulvovaginitis. Seasonal distribution indicated obvious peaks in summer and winter. Of the 120 subjects, specific pathogens were identified in the genital specimens in only 20 cases (16.7%). Streptococcus pyogenes (n=12, 60%) was the leading cause of specific vulvovaginitis. Haemophilus influenzae was isolated in one patient. No cases presented with enteric pathogens, such as Shigella or Yersinia. A history of recent upper respiratory tract infection, swimming, and bubble bath use was reported in 37.5%, 15.8%, and 10.0% of patients, respectively. Recent upper respiratory tract infection was not significantly correlated with the detection of respiratory pathogens in genital specimens (P>0.05). Of 104 patients who underwent perineal hygienic care, 80 (76.9%) showed improvement of symptoms without antibiotic treatment. Furthermore, the efficacy of hygienic care was not significantly different between patients with or without specific pathogens (P>0.05). Conclusion Specific pathogens were only found in 16.7% of pediatric vulvovaginitis cases. Our results indicate an excellent outcome with hygienic care, irrespective of the presence of specific pathogens. PMID:27004204

  17. Hypothyroidism during neonatal and perinatal period induced by thyroidectomy of the mother causes depressive-like behavior in prepubertal rats

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    Marisol Pineda-Reynoso

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Marisol Pineda-Reynoso, Edgar Cano-Europa, Vanessa Blas-Valdivia, Adelaida Hernandez-Garcia, Margarita Franco-Colin, Rocio Ortiz-ButronDepartamento de Fisiología ‘Mauricio Russek Berman,’ Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, IPN, Carpio y Plan de Ayala, MéxicoAbstract: The objective of this study was to see if neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism caused anxiety and depressive-like behaviors. Twenty female Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: 1 thyroidectomy caused hypothyroidism, in which the thyroid gland had been removed and the parathyroid reimplanted; and 2 false thyroidectomy. The thyroidectomy was made on rats anesthetized with ketamine-xylazine. The rats were mated and one day after giving birth, eight pups were assigned to each group randomly and they were distributed into two groups: a hypothyroid group containing male pups of a hypothyroid mother with a hypothyroid wet nurse; and a euthyroid group of male pups of a euthyroid mother with a euthyroid wet nurse. We analyzed the behavioral test at a prepubertal age. The neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism caused by the mother’s thyroidectomy caused a decrease in body weight and length. We found that the neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism enhanced the total exploratory activity without affecting social contact and the time spent in the open and closed arms in an elevated plus-maze. The hypothyroidism caused immobility without altering the lower climbing duration in the swimming test. This study shows a novel model to cause neonatal and perinatal hypothyroidism without using pharmacological drugs. We demonstrated that hypothyroid animals had a reduction in body weight and length, a retardation of neurodevelopment, and they had depressive-like behavior.Keywords: perinatal hypothyroidism, thyroidectomy, thyroid hormone, behavior, metabolism

  18. Sertoli-cell-specific knockout of connexin 43 leads to multiple alterations in testicular gene expression in prepubertal mice

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    Sarah Giese

    2012-11-01

    A significant decline in human male reproductive function has been reported for the past 20 years but the molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. However, recent studies showed that the gap junction protein connexin-43 (CX43; also known as GJA1 might be involved. CX43 is the predominant testicular connexin (CX in most species, including in humans. Alterations of its expression are associated with different forms of spermatogenic disorders and infertility. Men with impaired spermatogenesis often exhibit a reduction or loss of CX43 expression in germ cells (GCs and Sertoli cells (SCs. Adult male transgenic mice with a conditional knockout (KO of the Gja1 gene [referred to here as connexin-43 (Cx43] in SCs (SCCx43KO show a comparable testicular phenotype to humans and are infertile. To detect possible signaling pathways and molecular mechanisms leading to the testicular phenotype in adult SCCx43KO mice and to their failure to initiate spermatogenesis, the testicular gene expression of 8-day-old SCCx43KO and wild-type (WT mice was compared. Microarray analysis revealed that 658 genes were significantly regulated in testes of SCCx43KO mice. Of these genes, 135 were upregulated, whereas 523 genes were downregulated. For selected genes the results of the microarray analysis were confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR and immunostaining. The majority of the downregulated genes are GC-specific and are essential for mitotic and meiotic progression of spermatogenesis, including Stra8, Dazl and members of the DM (dsx and map-3 gene family. Other altered genes can be associated with transcription, metabolism, cell migration and cytoskeleton organization. Our data show that deletion of Cx43 in SCs leads to multiple alterations of gene expression in prepubertal mice and primarily affects GCs. The candidate genes could represent helpful markers for investigators exploring human testicular biopsies from patients showing corresponding spermatogenic deficiencies and for

  19. [Glicemic control in prepubertal and pubertal patients with diabetes type 1 - a one year ambulatory follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, M B; Castro, S H; Garfinkel, T; Fernandes, L M; Cunha, E F; Lobão, V I

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate glycemic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus patients followed in 1998. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 38 patients [22 males; age = 10.4 -/+ 4.1 years; 12 (31.6%) prepubertal, 26 (68.4%) pubertal], with diabetes duration of 3.7-/+3.4 years and age of diagnosis of 7.2 -/+ 4.7 years. HbA1c was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (L-9100 Merck Hitachi, reference value =2.6 to 6.2%). RESULTS: HbA1c was 8.04 -/+ 2.4%, without association with gender and puberty. In the 27 patients with at least two HbA1c determinations, the level of glycemic control changed in 8 (29.6%) and remained the same in 19 (70.4%). From these, glycemic control was poor in 3 (11.1%) and good in 16 (59.3%). Among the patients with good glycemic control, HbA1c was always within reference values in 4 (25%); 7 (43.75%) had at least one HbA1c measurement within these limits; and in 5 (31.25%), all HbA1c measurements were above the upper limit of the reference range. There was no association between the last glycemic control evaluation and the number of HbA1c determinations. The intraindividual coefficient of variation of HbA1c in the group that had at least three HbA1c determinations (n = 19) was 11.2 -/+ 5.6% (P = 0.0000). CONCLUSION: In our study, although most patients presented satisfactory glycemic control during the follow-up period, only 4 patients (14.8%) maintained normal values of HbA1c. The variability of HbA1c must be evaluated when considering the interrelation between glycemic control and evolution to microvascular complications in diabetis.

  20. Stirred suspension bioreactors as a novel method to enrich germ cells from pre-pubertal pig testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dores, C; Rancourt, D; Dobrinski, I

    2015-05-01

    To study spermatogonial stem cells the heterogeneous testicular cell population first needs to be enriched for undifferentiated spermatogonia, which contain the stem cell population. When working with non-rodent models, this step requires working with large numbers of cells. Available cell separation methods rely on differential properties of testicular cell types such as expression of specific cell surface proteins, size, density, or differential adhesion to substrates to separate germ cells from somatic cells. The objective of this study was to develop an approach that allowed germ cell enrichment while providing efficiency of handling large cell numbers. Here, we report the use of stirred suspension bioreactors (SSB) to exploit the adhesion properties of Sertoli cells to enrich cells obtained from pre-pubertal porcine testes for undifferentiated spermatogonia. We also compared the bioreactor approach with an established differential plating method and the combination of both: SSB followed by differential plating. After 66 h of culture, germ cell enrichment in SSBs provided 7.3 ± 1.0-fold (n = 9), differential plating 9.8 ± 2.4-fold (n = 6) and combination of both methods resulted in 9.1 ± 0.3-fold enrichment of germ cells from the initial germ cell population (n = 3). To document functionality of cells recovered from the bioreactor, we demonstrated that cells retained their functional ability to reassemble seminiferous tubules de novo after grafting to mouse hosts and to support spermatogenesis. These results demonstrate that the SSB allows enrichment of germ cells in a controlled and scalable environment providing an efficient method when handling large cell numbers while reducing variability owing to handling.