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Sample records for prepubertal beef heifers

  1. Nonpuberal estrus in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, L M; Randel, R D

    1986-10-01

    The frequency of occurrence of behavioral estrus without subsequent development of functional luteal tissue (termed nonpuberal estrus, NPE), was determined in 43 Simmental X Hereford-Brahman heifers. Blood samples were collected weekly from the start of the study to first behavioral estrus and then daily from d 1 (d 0 = estrus) through d 14 following first and subsequently observed estrous behaviors. All blood samples were analyzed for serum progesterone (P4) concentrations by radioimmunoassay. More heifers (62.8%) exhibited NPE than had luteal development after their first behavioral estrus (37.2%). There was a tendency for fewer light-weight heifers (less than or equal to 240 kg at the start of the experiment) to exhibit a puberal first estrus compared with the heavy-weight (greater than 240 kg at the start of the experiment) heifers (31.2% vs 68.8%, respectively; P = .12). Heifers that had a puberal first estrus were older (376 +/- 12 d vs 334 +/- 9 d, P less than .05) compared with heifers that had NPE. Weight at first behavioral estrus was similar between heifers that had a puberal first estrus and those that had NPE (298 +/- 8 kg and 289 +/- 6 kg, respectively). More heifers that had a puberal first estrus also had an elevation in serum P4 concentrations before that first estrus (64.3% vs 20.0%, P less than .05), and the serum P4 elevation was greater (2.5 +/- .4 ng vs 1.2 +/- .1 ng, P less than .05) than heifers that had NPE. We have concluded from these results that NPE is a common occurrence in heifers approaching puberty.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Impact of puberty status and melengestrol acetate supplementation before the breeding period on reproductive efficiency of Bos indicus beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, J H; Santos, C S; Silva, M A V; Aguiar, H M V S B; França, I G; Pereira, H G; Ribeiro, D L; Chaves, R M; Souza, J A T; Monteiro, B M; Sá Filho, M F; Torres-Júnior, J R S

    2015-06-01

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the impact of puberty status and the administration of melengestrol acetate (MGA) before onset of the breeding period on ovulatory responses (Exp. 1) and conception rate after AI performed on estrus detection during 10 d and the pregnancy rate through 80 d of breeding period (Exp. 2) of pasture-grazed beef heifers. In Exp. 1, heifers (15 pubertal and 15 prepubertal) received 0.5 mg per heifer/d -1 of MGA over 14 d. No differences in the ovulatory responses were found 10 d after the MGA administration (pubertal = 46.7% vs. prepubertal P = 53.3%; P = 0.72). In Exp. 2, 368 heifers were randomly assigned to groups according to pubertal status and the MGA treatment. All heifers were inseminated on estrus detection for up 10 d after MGA administration and following exposure to bulls between 20 and 80 d. The MGA-treated heifers exhibited a greater AI service rate than control heifers (72.1 vs. 41.6%;P breeding period (95.3 vs. 87.5%;P breeding period. At onset of the breeding period, pubertal heifers presented a greater pregnancy rate following AI (pubertal P = 42.2% vs. prepubertal P = 24.9%; P = 0.01). Therefore, pubertal heifers seem to have greater overall reproductive efficiency than prepubertal heifers, particularly at the beginning of the breeding period. Interestingly, administration of MGA before the onset of the breeding period increased AI service rate but did not alter the rate of pregnancy throughout the breeding period of pasture-grazed beef heifers.

  3. Dopamine action in prepubertal Nelore heifers growth hormone secretion

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    Emiliana Oliveira Santana Batista

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of dopamine in the growth hormone secretion (GH during Nellore heifer’s sexual maturation. The animals were randomly assigned into two experimental groups: Sulpiride group (dopamine D2 antagonist, 0.59 mg/kg, S.C. and control group (saline solution S.C. at 8, 12 and 16 months of age. Blood samples were collected every 15 min for 10h after drug injection. Growth hormone was quantified by RIA, sensitivity (0.25 ng/mL and intra and inter-assay variation coefficients were 15% and 17%, respectively. GH concentration was higher in sulpiride group than control group at 8 mo (10.1 ± 0.38 ng/mL vs 4.3 ± 0.34 ng/mL; P 0.05 in total GH secretion area, total peak area and maximum peak amplitude. These results suggested an inhibitory dopamine effect on GH secretion in pre-pubertal Nellore heifers that decreases according to age.

  4. Transcriptome analyses identify five transcription factors differentially expressed in the hypothalamus of post- versus prepubertal Brahman heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, M R S; Nguyen, L T; Weller, M M D C A; Cánovas, A; Islas-Trejo, A; Porto-Neto, L R; Reverter, A; Lehnert, S A; Boe-Hansen, G B; Thomas, M G; Medrano, J F; Moore, S S

    2016-09-01

    Puberty onset is a developmental process influenced by genetic determinants, environment, and nutrition. Mutations and regulatory gene networks constitute the molecular basis for the genetic determinants of puberty onset. The emerging knowledge of these genetic determinants presents opportunities for innovation in the breeding of early pubertal cattle. This paper presents new data on hypothalamic gene expression related to puberty in (Brahman) in age- and weight-matched heifers. Six postpubertal heifers were compared with 6 prepubertal heifers using whole-genome RNA sequencing methodology for quantification of global gene expression in the hypothalamus. Five transcription factors (TF) with potential regulatory roles in the hypothalamus were identified in this experiment: , , , , and . These TF genes were significantly differentially expressed in the hypothalamus of postpubertal versus prepubertal heifers and were also identified as significant according to the applied regulatory impact factor metric ( Brahman). Knowledge of key mutations involved in genetic traits is an advantage for genomic prediction because it can increase its accuracy.

  5. Ultrasonographic evaluation of reproductive tract measures and fat thickness traits in pre-pubertal Nellore heifers

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    Fabio Morato Monteiro

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between reproductive tract and fat thickness measures obtained by ultrasound in prepubertal Nellore heifers. A total of 128 Nellore heifers born in 2006 and 2007 were submitted to ultrasound evaluations (13, 16, 19 and 22 months of age of reproductive tract measures and fat thickness traits. These animals were from a selection experiment (NeC: control line, and NeS: selection line for yearling weight started in 1981. Mean values of ovary area, height of the right uterine horn (HU, maximum follicular diameter (FOL, backfat thickness (BF, rump fat thickness (RF, and body condition score were analyzed. Repeated records were modeled using the PROC MIXED procedure (SAS, fitting a model that included the selection line, year of birth, measurement as fixed effects, and interactions. Body weight differed between the selected (281.48 kg and control (210.51 kg lines. Only the least square means of FOL were lower in the NeC line compared to the NeS line (P < 0.05, although the difference in mean HU between the two lines was of only borderline significance (P = 0.06. The rate of growth for the three reproductive traits was similar in the two lines. Simple and residual correlations between the reproductive and subcutaneous fat traits ranged from low to medium. The highest correlations were observed between HU and RF (Pearson correlation = 0.71 and residual correlation = 0.34. The current results are consistent with the literature, indicating that fat thickness traits are not good predictors of prepubertal reproductive traits in heifers. Further studies are necessary to clarify the relationship between reproduction and body fat in Nellore heifers.

  6. Multiple supplements for beef heifers on pasture in dry season

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    Renata Pereira da Silva-Marques

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate levels of multiple supplement for beef heifers in restricted grazing on average daily gain (ADG, economic analysis and intakes of total dry matter (TDMI, forage dry matter (FDMI, crude protein (CPI and total digestible nutrients (TDNI. For evaluation of performance and economic analysis, twenty Nellore heifers (328.45 kg were used. The following supplements were evaluated as fed to the animals: control (mineral supplement and supplementation levels of 2, 4 and 6 kg/animal/day, composing the following percentages of average body weight (ABW: 0.55, 1.11 and 1.66%, respectively. To evaluate the nutrient intake, additional five Nellore heifers with 344 kg, were used, which were submitted to same supplements previously mentioned, in addition to the level of 2.22% of ABW (8 kg/animal/day. Average daily gain showed quadratic behavior; TDMI, CPI and TDNI had increasing linear behavior; and FDMI showed decreasing linear behavior in function of the supplementation levels. The strategy of supplying 0.55, 1.11 and 1.66% of the ABW to heifers on restricted grazing provides additional weight gains of 608, 762 and 943 g/day, respectively, which are effective in promoting similar productive and economic performance to those obtained in grazing systems in the rainy period.

  7. Candidate Gene Expression in Bos indicus Ovarian Tissues: Prepubertal and Postpubertal Heifers in Diestrus

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    Weller, Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral; Fortes, Marina Rufino S.; Porto-Neto, Laercio R.; Kelly, Matthew; Venus, Bronwyn; Kidd, Lisa; do Rego, João Paulo Arcelino; Edwards, Sophia; Boe-Hansen, Gry B.; Piper, Emily; Lehnert, Sigrid A.; Guimarães, Simone Eliza Facioni; Moore, Stephen Stewart

    2016-01-01

    Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins 6, 7, 15, and two isoforms of transforming growth factor-beta (BMP6, BMP7, BMP15, TGFB1, and TGFB2), and insulin-like growth factor system act as local regulators of ovarian follicular development. To elucidate if these factors as well as others candidate genes, such as estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1), growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9), follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR), bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 2 (BMPR2), type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1), and key steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 aromatase and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (CYP19A1 and HSD3B1) could modulate or influence diestrus on the onset of puberty in Brahman heifers, their ovarian mRNA expression was measured before and after puberty (luteal phase). Six postpubertal (POST) heifers were euthanized on the luteal phase of their second cycle, confirmed by corpus luteum observation, and six prepubertal (PRE) heifers were euthanized in the same day. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of FSHR, BMP7, CYP19A1, IGF1, and IGFR1 mRNA was greater in PRE heifers, when contrasted to POST heifers. The expression of LHR and HSD3B1 was lower in PRE heifers. Differential expression of ovarian genes could be associated with changes in follicular dynamics and different cell populations that have emerged as consequence of puberty and the luteal phase. The emerging hypothesis is that BMP7 and IGF1 are co-expressed and may modulate the expression of FSHR, LHR and IGFR1, and CYP19A1. BMP7 could influence the downregulation of LHR and upregulation of FSHR and CYP19A1, which mediates the follicular dynamics in heifer ovaries. Upregulation of IGF1 expression prepuberty, compared to postpuberty diestrus, correlates with increased levels FSHR and CYP19A1. Thus, BMP7 and IGF1 may play synergic roles and were predicted to interact, from the expression data (P = 0.07, r

  8. Relationship of feed efficiency of replacement beef heifers to subsequent feed efficiency as 3-year old suckled beef cows

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    We determined the correlaton between Residual Feed Intake (RFI) measured as post-weaned growing heifers (phase 1) and RFI measured as lactating beef cows (phase 2) in the same cohort. Individual performance and daily DMI were evaluated in 74 yearling heifers, and were subsequently reevaluated upon t...

  9. Effect of forage:concentrate ratio on digestion and reproduction in primiparous beef heifers.

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    Reed, B K; Hunt, C W; Sasser, R G; Momont, P A; Rode, L M; Kastelic, J P

    1997-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of high- (HF) and moderate- (MF) forage diets on digestive and reproductive characteristics in beef heifers. Thirty primiparous beef heifers were allotted by weight and backfat thickness to receive either 80:20 (HF) or 50: 50 (MF) forage:concentrate ratio diets from parturition to at least 90 d postpartum. Alfalfa hay and wheat straw were the forage sources and barley was the concentrate source. Equal daily amounts of ME were provided to all heifers by restricting intake of the MF diet. Digestibility of DM was greater (P wave dynamics and the intervals from parturition to first and second ovulation, first estrus, first service, and conception were not different between treatments. Shifts in energy supply from forage to concentrate had minimal effect on digestion and reproduction in first-calf beef heifers in this study.

  10. Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and temperament assessed in growing beef heifers and subsequently as 3-year-old, lactating beef cows

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    Seventy-four beef heifers were used to evaluate the relationships among performance, residual feed intake (RFI), and temperament measured as growing heifers (Phase 1) and subsequently as 3-year-old lactating beef cows (Phase 2) in the same cohort. In both phases, females were housed in a covered fac...

  11. Whole rice bran for beef heifers raised on alexander grass pasture

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    P. R. Salvador

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of beef heifers exclusively fed alexander grass (Urochloa plantaginea (Link Hitch or alexander grass and whole rice meal as supplement offered from Monday to Friday. The experimental design was completely randomized, with repeated measures over time, and consisted of two treatments and three replications of area. Heifers receiving whole rice meal exhibited higher average daily gain after day 42 of pasture use and a 21% higher body weight at the end of the grazing period. The stocking rate, weight gain per area, hip height, weight-height ratio, and body condition score were similar for heifers exclusively fed alexander grass and alexander grass plus rice bran. Beef heifers raised exclusively on alexander grass from 15 to 18 months of age reached adequate body development, reproductive tract score (4.22 points and pelvic area (206.3 cm² to be bred at 18-20 months of age.

  12. Effects of bovine somatotropin administration on growth, physiological, and reproductive responses of replacement beef heifers.

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    Cooke, R F; Bohnert, D W; Francisco, C L; Marques, R S; Mueller, C J; Keisler, D H

    2013-06-01

    This experiment compared growth, body composition, plasma IGF-I and leptin, and reproductive development of beef heifers receiving or not recombinant bovine ST (BST) beginning after weaning until the first breeding season. Fifty Angus × Hereford heifers (initial BW = 219 ± 2 kg; initial age = 208 ± 2 d), weaned at approximately 6 mo of age, were assigned to the experiment (d 0 to 210). On d 0, heifers were ranked by initial BW and age and assigned to 1) treatment with BST or 2) saline control. Heifers assigned to the BST treatment received subcutaneous (s.c.) injections containing 250 mg of sometribove zinc whereas control heifers received a 5-mL s.c. injection of 0.9% saline every 14 d. Treatments were initiated on d 14 and last administered on d 196. Heifers were maintained on separate pastures harvested for hay the previous summer according to treatment and received grass and alfalfa hay at a rate to provide a daily amount of 7.0 and 1.0 kg of DM per heifer, respectively. Heifer shrunk BW was collected on d 1 and 211 for heifer ADG calculation. Blood samples were collected weekly from d 0 to 210 for determination of plasma progesterone to estimate puberty attainment as well as plasma concentrations of IGF-I and leptin in selected samples. On d 0, 63, 133, and 189, heifers were evaluated for intramuscular marbling, LM depth, and backfat thickness via real-time ultrasonography. No treatment effects were detected (P = 0.27) for heifer ADG (0.49 vs. 0.51 kg/d for control and BST heifers, respectively; SEM = 0.02). Mean backfat thickness was lesser (P plasma IGF-I concentrations compared with control cohorts 7 d after treatment administration (treatment × day interaction; P plasma leptin concentrations were lesser (P = 0.05) in BST heifers compared with control cohorts (1.82 vs. 2.03 ng/mL, respectively; SEM = 0.07). Onset of puberty was hastened in BST heifers compared with control cohorts (treatment × day interaction; P = 0.04). In summary, a greater

  13. Effect of progesterone supplementation in the first week post conception on embryo survival in beef heifers

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Progesterone is essential for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in mammals. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of elevating progesterone during the different physiological stages of early embryo development on embryo survival. Estrus was synchronized in cross-bred beef heifers (n = 197, ∼2-years old) and they were inseminated 12–18 h after estrus onset (=Day 0). Inseminated heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) Control, n = 69; (2) progesterone s...

  14. Creep-feeding to stimulate metabolic imprinting in nursing beef heifers: impacts on heifer growth, reproductive and physiological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, M M; Cooke, R F; Cappellozza, B I; Marques, R S; Guarnieri Filho, T A; Rodrigues, M C; Bradley, J S; Mueller, C J; Keisler, D H; Johnson, S E; Bohnert, D W

    2015-09-01

    This experiment compared growth, physiological, and reproductive responses of beef heifers with (MI) or without (CON) access to a creep-feeder, as a manner to stimulate metabolic imprinting while nursing their dams. On day 0, 60 Angus × Hereford heifers were ranked by BW and age (140 ± 3 kg and 68±3 days), and assigned to pairs so all ranking criteria were similar between heifers within each pair. On day 1, pairs were randomly assigned to MI (n=15) or CON (n=15). From day 1 to 51, MI pairs and their dams were allocated to 15 drylot pens where heifers had ad libitum access to a corn-based supplement through a creep-feeder. The CON pairs and their dams were maintained in an adjacent single drylot pen. From day 52 to 111, treatments were managed as a single group on a semiarid range pasture. On day 111, heifers were weaned and allocated to two pastures (one pasture/treatment), receiving hay and a corn-based concentrate until day 326. Heifer BW was recorded before and at the end of the creep-feeding period (day 1 to 51), and on days 112 and 326. On days 0, 51, 111, 187, 261, and 325, jugular blood was collected and real-time ultrasonography for longissimus muscle depth and backfat thickness assessment was performed. Blood was also collected every 10 days from days 113 to 323 for puberty evaluation via plasma progesterone. Liver and subcutaneous fat biopsies were performed on days 51, 111, 261 and 325. Average daily gain was greater (Pimprinting effect, but did not hasten their puberty attainment.

  15. Candidate gene expression in Bos indicus ovarian tissues: pre-pubertal and post-pubertal heifers in diestrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Morena Del Cambre Amaral Weller

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth factors such as bone morphogenetic proteins 6, 7, 15 and two isoforms of transforming growth factor-beta (BMP6, BMP7, BMP15, TGFB1 and TGFB2 and insulin-like growth factor system act as local regulators of ovarian follicular development. To elucidate if these factors as well as others candidate genes such as estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1, growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9, follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR, luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR, bone morphogenetic protein receptor, type 2 (BMPR2, type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR1, and key steroidogenic enzymes cytochrome P450 aromatase and 3-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (CYP19A1 and HSD3B1 could modulate or influence diestrus on the onset of puberty in Brahman heifers, their ovarian mRNA expression was measured before and after puberty (luteal phase. Six post-pubertal (POST heifers were euthanized on the luteal phase of their second cycle, confirmed by corpus luteum observation, and six pre-pubertal (PRE heifers were euthanized in the same day. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression of FSHR, BMP7, CYP19A1, IGF1 and IGFR1 mRNA was greater in PRE heifers, when contrasted to POST heifers. The expression of LHR and HSD3B1 was lower in PRE heifers. Differential expression of ovarian genes could be associated with changes in follicular dynamics and different cell populations that have emerged as consequence of puberty and the luteal phase. The emerging hypothesis is that BMP7 and IGF1 are co-expressed and may modulate the expression of FSHR, LHR and IGFR1 and CYP19A1. BMP7 could influence the down-regulation of LHR and up-regulation of FSHR and CYP19A1, which mediates the follicular dynamics in heifer ovaries. Up-regulation of IGF1 expression pre-puberty, compared to post-puberty diestrus, correlates with increased levels FSHR and CYP19A1. Thus, BMP7 and IGF1 may play synergic roles and were predicted to interact, from the expression data (P = 0

  16. Camelina meal and crude glycerin as feed supplements for developing replacement beef heifers.

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    Moriel, P; Nayigihugu, V; Cappellozza, B I; Gonçalves, E P; Krall, J M; Foulke, T; Cammack, K M; Hess, B W

    2011-12-01

    . The cost per pregnancy was similar for heifers fed the crude glycerin or the control supplement, whereas the cost per pregnancy was the least for heifers fed camelina meal. We conclude that camelina coproducts can replace conventional corn-soybean meal supplements in the diets of developing replacement beef heifers.

  17. A note on the early calving of beef heifers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    production in the early calving group due to reduced udder development. The results ..... adipose tissue is different to that of a lean heifer and that this storage adipose, perhaps ... Technical Services, South Africa. AMIR, S. & KALI, J.,1975.

  18. Zinc source and concentration altered physiological responses of beef heifers during a combined viral-bacterial respiratory challenge

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    Three treatments were evaluated in feedlot heifers to determine the effects of zinc supplementation on the immune response to a combined viral-bacterial respiratory disease challenge. Thirty-two beef heifers (255+/-15 kg) were subjected to a 30d period of Zn depletion, then randomly assigned to one ...

  19. In vitro fertilization (IVF) from low or high antral follicle count pubertal beef heifers using semi-defined culture conditions

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    Antral follicle counts (AFC) vary among pubertal beef heifers. Our objective was to compare the in vitro maturation and fertilization of oocytes collected from low and high AFC heifers. Previously we reported results using serum-based IVF media and in this study report results using semi-defined m...

  20. Artificial infestation of Boophilus microplus in beef cattle heifers of four genetic groups

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    Ana Mary da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of beef cattle heifers to the cattle tick Boophilus microplus was evaluated by artificial infestation of 66 beef cattle heifers of the following genetic groups: 16 Nelore (NE, 18 Canchim x Nelore (CN, 16 Angus x Nelore (AN and 16 Simmental x Nelore (SN. The animals, with a mean age of 16.5 months, were maintained with no chemical tick control in a Brachiaria decumbens pasture. Four artificial infestations with 20,000 B. microplus larvae were carried out 14 days apart and from day 18 to day 22 of each infestation the number of engorged female ticks (> 4.5 mm was counted on the left side of each heifer. Data were analyzed as the percentage of return (PR = percentage of ticks counted relative to the number infested, transformed to (PR¼, and as log10 (Cij + 1, in which Cij is the number of ticks in each infestation, using the least squares method with a model that included the effects of genetic group (GG, animal within GG (error a, infestation number (I, GG x I and the residual (error b. Results indicated a significant GG x I interaction, because AN and SN heifers had a higher percentage of return than CN and NE heifers, while CN heifers showed a higher percentage of return than the NE heifers only in infestations 3 and 4. Transformed percentages of return were NE = 0.35 ± 0.06, AN = 0.89 ± 0.06, CN = 0.54 ± 0.05 and SN = 0.85 ± 0.06.

  1. Technical note: A new surgical technique for ovariohysterectomy during early pregnancy in beef heifers.

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    McLean, K J; Dahlen, C R; Borowicz, P P; Reynolds, L P; Crosswhite, M R; Neville, B W; Walden, S D; Caton, J S

    2016-12-01

    We hypothesized that a standing flank ovariohysterectomy procedure could be developed in beef heifers that would provide high quality tissues for addressing critical questions during early pregnancy, while concomitantly keeping livestock stewardship a high priority. To test the hypothesis, we: 1) developed a standing flank ovariohysterectomy procedure for use in beef heifers, and 2) implemented this procedure in a cohort of heifers up to d 50 of pregnancy for tissue collections, documentation of post-surgical recovery, and assessment of feedlot finishing performance. Ovariectomy and cesarean section protocols are well established in research and veterinary medicine and were used as starting points for procedural development. Crossbred Angus heifers ( = 46; ∼ 15 mo of age; BW = 362.3 ± 34.7 kg) were used to develop this new surgical tissue collection technique. Heifers were subjected to the 5-d CO-Synch + CIDR estrous synchronization protocol so ovariohysterectomy occurred at d 16, 22, 28, 34, 40, and 50 of gestation. Key aspects of the standing flank ovariohysterectomy technique included 1) use of local anesthetic for a standing flank incision, 2) locate the uterine and ovarian arteries via blind palpation and ligate them through the broad ligament via an improved clinch knot, 3) cut the ovaries and uterus free from the broad ligament, 4) ligate the cervix and uterine branch of the vaginal artery, and 5) cut through the cervix and remove the reproductive tract. Surgical times, from skin incision to placement of the last suture, were influenced ( = 0.04) by stage of gestation. In pregnant heifers, time decreased from d 22 (120.0 ± 12.0 min) of gestation to d 40 (79.5 ± 12.0 min) of gestation; then increased at d 50 (90.5 ± 14.7 min) of gestation. Using this procedure, we obtained uterine, placental, and embryo/fetal tissues that had experienced limited hypoxia, little or no trauma, and thus were excellent quality for scientific study. All heifers recovered

  2. Feeding microalgae meal (All-G Rich; CCAP 4067/2) to beef heifers. II: Effects on ground beef color and palatability.

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    Phelps, K J; Drouillard, J S; O'Quinn, T G; Burnett, D D; Blackmon, T L; Axman, J E; Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Gonzalez, J M

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of feeding microalgae meal (All-G Rich, CCAP 4087/2; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) to finishing heifers on 85% lean and 15% fat (85/15) ground beef PUFA content, palatability, and color stability. Crossbred heifers ( = 288; 452 ± 23 kg initial BW) were allocated to pens (36 pens and 8 heifers/pen), stratified by initial pen BW (3,612 ± 177 kg), and randomly assigned within strata to 1 of 4 treatments: 0, 50, 100, and 150 g·heifer·d of microalgae meal. After 89 d of feeding, a subset of heifers (3/pen) was harvested and the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius were collected for processing into ground beef. At 42 d postmortem, 85/15 ground beef was formulated and formed into 112-g patties and fatty acid composition, subjective palatability, and 96-h retail color stability analyses were conducted. Increasing dietary microalgae meal concentration increased ground beef 20:5-3 and 22:6-3 fatty acids (quadratic, microalgae tended ( = 0.08) to decrease L*, but patties had similar L* values the remainder of display ( > 0.12). Feeding microalgae meal affected ( = 0.02) b* at 24 h and decreased (linear, = 0.08) b* at 48 h. From h 0 to 36 of display, microalgae affected redness of patties ( microalgae meal decreased a* value (linear, Microalgae meal did not impact sensory panel firmness, overall tenderness, or juiciness scores ( > 0.20) but tended to affect ( = 0.10) cohesiveness scores. As the amount of microalgae meal fed to heifers increased, beef flavor intensity decreased (linear, microalgae meal from 12 to 36 h of display ( microalgae meal to heifers decreased (linear, microalgae meal to heifers increases the PUFA content of 85/15 ground beef, there are undesirable effects on flavor and color stability.

  3. Seasonal differences in the parameters of luteinizing hormone release to exogenous gonadotropin releasing hormone in prepubertal Holstein heifers in Sapporo.

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    Kadokawa, Hiroya

    2007-02-01

    Stress due to summer heat has adverse effects on reproduction in Holstein dairy cattle. Summer suppression of reproduction of Holsteins can pose an important economic problem, even in Hokkaido prefecture located in the northern region of Japan. Hokkaido is one of the most important dairy farming areas of Japan. This study is an attempt to clarify the seasonal differences in the parameters of luteinizing hormone (LH) response to exogenous gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in Sapporo, Hokkaido, Japan. A total of 12 prepubertal heifers received an injection with GnRH analogue intramuscularly in either May (n=4, May group), July (n=4, July group), or November (n=4, November group), and serial blood samples were collected to analyze the parameters of the LH response curve after GnRH injection. The parameters were as follows: the basal LH concentration, peak LH concentration, duration from the time of GnRH injection to the time of the peak LH concentration, and area under the LH response curve (AUC). There were no significant differences in the basal and peak LH concentrations or the AUC among the three groups. The July group reached the LH peak significantly (P<0.05) faster than the May group, but there was no significant difference with the November group. Therefore, the results of the present study do not demonstrate an effect of summer heat on the LH response to the exogenous GnRH in Holstein heifers.

  4. Associations of acute stress and overnight heart rate with feed efficiency in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, J C; Schenkel, F S; Physick-Sheard, P W; Fontoura, A B P; Miller, S P; Tennessen, T; Montanholi, Y R

    2017-03-01

    Proxies have the potential to accelerate feed efficiency (residual feed intake (RFI); kg dry matter/day) improvement, assisting with the reduction of beef cattle feed costs and environmental impact. Heart rate (HR) (beats per minute (BPM)) is associated with feed efficiency and influenced by autonomic activity and peripheral metabolism, suggesting HR could be used as a proxy for feed efficiency. Objectives were to assess associations between overnight HR, lying patterns and RFI, and between acute stress HR and RFI. Heifer calves (n=107; 408±28 days of age, 341±42.2 kg) and yearling heifers (n=36; 604±92 days of age, 539±52.2 kg) were exposed to a performance test to determine productive performance. Overnight HR (electrode based) and lying patterns (accelerometer based) were monitored on a subgroup of heifer calves (n=40; 20 lowest RFI; 20 highest RFI). In the 10-min acute stress assessment, all heifers were individually exposed to the opening and closing of an umbrella and HR before (HRBEF), in response to (HRMAX), after (HRAFT) and change (HRCHG; HRAFT-HRBEF) as a result of exposure were determined. Using polynomial regression, rate of HR decrease pre-exposure (β 1) and rates of HR increase (β 2) and decrease (β 3, β 4) post-exposure were determined. Heifer calves in the overnight assessment were classified into equal RFI groups (low RFI; high RFI) and HR means were treated as repeated measures and compared using multiple regression. In the acute stress assessment, heifers were classified within cattle category into equal RFI groups (low RFI; high RFI) and means and polynomial regression parameters were compared using multiple regression. Low-RFI heifer calves had a lower overnight HR (69.2 v. 72.6 BPM), similar HR change from lying to standing intervals (8.9 v. 9.2 BPM) and similar time lying (61.1% v. 64.5%) compared with high-RFI heifer calves. Low-RFI heifer calves had a higher absolute HRMAX (162.9 v. 145.7 BPM) and β 2 (-0.34 v. -0.20) than high

  5. Impact of progesterone and estradiol treatment before the onset of the breeding period on reproductive performance of Bos indicus beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá Filho, M F; Nasser, L F T; Penteado, L; Prestes, R; Marques, M O; Freitas, B G; Monteiro, B M; Ferreira, R M; Gimenes, L U; Baruselli, P S

    2015-09-01

    The present aimed to develop a hormonal therapy based on the insertion of a progesterone (P4) insert (PI) during 10 d plus an estradiol injection (E2) at PI removal before the onset of breeding of beef heifers. In Exp. 1, the plasma P4 profile of prepubertal heifers showed that the insertion of a PI or 24 d previously used P4 insert (UPI) sustained plasma P4 above 1 ng/mL for at least the first 7 d of the treatment. In Exp. 2 there was no positive effect of additional estradiol benzoate (EB) administered at the insertion of UPI on the proportion of heifers with a corpus luteum (CL/Treated) 30 d after UPI removal [UPI + EB = 85.3%(a) (n = 134); EB + UPI + EB = 80.8%(a) (n = 125)]; however, both were greater (P < 0.0001) than the Control group [60.3%(b) (n = 129)]. In Exp. 3, a positive effect (P=0.01) of UPI treatment and both E2 supplementations [EB and estradiol cypionate (EC); P = 0.10] at the UPI removal was observed on CL/Treated [Control = 42.5%(b) (n = 94); UPI = 58.5%(a) (n= 130); UPI + EB = 64.0%(a) (n = 128); UPI + EC = 67.2%(a) (n = 128)]. However, greater pregnancy per treated heifer (P/Treated) following artificial insemination (AI) upon estrus detection was achieved when EC was applied [Control = 20.2%(b); UPI = 29.2%(ab); UPI + EB = 26.6%(b); UPI + EC = 36.7%(a)]. In Exp. 4, the treatment prior to the timed AI (TAI) tended to improve pregnancy per TAI [P/AI; Control 43.6% (n = 298) vs. UPI+EC 51.9% (n = 342); P = 0.08], but increased P/Treated [26.5% vs. 43.3%; P < 0.001]. Thus, UPI + EC treatment were efficient in increasing the CL/Treated, tended to improve the P/AI and consequently enhanced P/Treated of zebu beef heifers.

  6. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium. Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium on “Factors controlling puberty in beef heifers” was held at the joint annual meeting of the American Dairy Science Association and the American Society of Animal Science in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, July 10 to 14, 2011. The objective of the symposium w...

  7. The effect of pregnancy on visceral growth and energy use in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheaffer, A N; Caton, J S; Bauer, M L; Redmer, D A; Reynolds, L P

    2003-07-01

    Beef heifers (24 mo; 378 +/- 32 kg of BW; 22 pregnant, PR; 17 nonpregnant, NP) were grouped in common pens and fed corn silage- and hay-based diets formulated to provide an ADG of 0.45 kg in NP heifers. Both PR and NP heifers were slaughtered on d 40, 120, 200, and 270 of the study. Intestinal and hepatic tissues were analyzed for protein, DNA, RNA (mg/g of fresh tissue), and in vitro oxygen use. Jejunal samples were analyzed for cellular proliferation via immunohistochemical analysis. For ileum, DNA, which provides an estimate of cell number per unit of tissue, revealed an interaction (P = 0.06) between pregnancy and slaughter day; both PR and NP decreased with time, but NP increased on d 270 (P = 0.09). Cell number in the ileum was reduced at d 200 and 270 in the PR heifers (P 0.10) by pregnancy or day. Energy use (kcal/d) of duodenum and jejunum, calculated from in vitro oxygen consumption, increased linearly (P < 0.02) with time for both PR and NP. Pregnant and NP ileal energy use increased linearly (P < 0.01), but ileal energy use by PR was less throughout gestation (P = 0.07) than ileal energy use by NP. Cellular proliferation in the crypt region of the jejunum was decreased on d 120 and 200 (P < 0.02). These data indicate that the small intestine and liver of PR heifers may conserve energy expenditure compared with NP heifers. Energy conservation can partially be explained by differences in growth and cell proliferation and by energy use of the liver and small intestine.

  8. Altered endometrial immune gene expression in beef heifers with retarded embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, M E; Forde, N; Lonergan, P; Crowe, M A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare endometrial gene expression profiles in a group of beef heifers yielding viable or retarded embryos on Day 7 after oestrus as a means of potentially explaining differences in embryo survival rates. Heifers were classified as either: (1) viable, when the embryo collected on Day 7 after oestrus was at the correct developmental stage (i.e. morula/early blastocyst); or (2) retarded, when the embryo was arrested at the 2-16-cell stage. The focus of the present study was on genes that were associated with either the pro- or anti-inflammatory immune response. Endometrial gene expression was determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Expression of the β-defensin (DEFB1), interferon (IFN)-α (IFNA), IFN-γ (IFNG), interleukin (IL)-6 (IL6), IL-10 (IL10), forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) and natural cytotoxicity triggering receptor 1 (NCR1) genes was lower in endometria from viable than retarded heifers. Expression of the nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells 1 (NKFB1), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β (TGFB), IFN-γ-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) and IL-21 (IL21) genes was higher in viable than retarded heifers. We propose that small disturbances in the expression of immune genes in the endometrium on Day 7 after oestrus can have detrimental effects on embryo survival.

  9. Timed artificial insemination should be performed early when used norgestomet ear implants are applied for synchronizing ovulation in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá Filho, M F; Penteado, L; Siqueira, G R; Soares, J G; Mendanha, M F; Macedo, G G; Baruselli, P S

    2013-10-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of the type of norgestomet ear implant (new vs. used) on the ovarian follicular response (experiment 1) and pregnancy per artificial insemination (AI) (P/AI; experiment 2) of beef heifers subjected to an estradiol plus progestin timed artificial insemination (TAI) program. In experiment 1, 57 cyclic beef heifers were randomly assigned to one of two groups according to the type (new or previously used for 9 days) of norgestomet ear (NORG) implant. At the time of NORG implant insertion, the heifers were treated with 2 mg of intramuscular estradiol benzoate. Eight days later, the NORG implants were removed, and the heifers received an intramuscular administration of 150 μg of d-cloprostenol, 300 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin, and 0.5 mg of estradiol cypionate. The heifers had their ovaries scanned every 12 hours from the time of NORG implant removal to 96 hours after verifying the occurrence and timing of ovulation. No difference (P = 0.89) was observed in the ovulation rates between the two treatments (new = 80.0%; 24/30 vs. used = 81.5%; 22/27). However, the heifers treated with a used NORG implant had (P = 0.04) higher proportion (36.4%; 8/22) of early ovulation (between 36 and 48 hours after NORG implant removal) compared with the heifers treated with a new NORG implant (8.3%; 2/24). In experiment 2, at the beginning of the synchronization protocol, 416 beef heifers were randomly assigned into two groups, as described in the experiment 1. Two days after the NORG implant removal, the heifers were reassigned to be inseminated at 48 or 54 hours after NORG implant removal. There was an interaction (P = 0.03) between the type of NORG implant and the timing of TAI on P/AI. The timing of insemination only had an effect (P = 0.02) on the P/AI when the heifers were treated with a used NORG implant [(TAI 54 hours = 41.9% (44/105) vs. TAI 48 hours = 58.6% (58/99)]. In conclusion, beef heifers synchronized with a used NORG implant

  10. Genome-wide association for heifer reproduction and calf performance traits in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanno, Everestus C; Plastow, Graham; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn; Miller, Stephen P; Baron, Vern; Ominski, Kimberly; Basarab, John A

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify SNP markers that associate with variation in beef heifer reproduction and performance of their calves. A genome-wide association study was performed by means of the generalized quasi-likelihood score (GQLS) method using heifer genotypes from the BovineSNP50 BeadChip and estimated breeding values for pre-breeding body weight (PBW), pregnancy rate (PR), calving difficulty (CD), age at first calving (AFC), calf birth weight (BWT), calf weaning weight (WWT), and calf pre-weaning average daily gain (ADG). Data consisted of 785 replacement heifers from three Canadian research herds, namely Brandon Research Centre, Brandon, Manitoba, University of Alberta Roy Berg Kinsella Ranch, Kinsella, Alberta, and Lacombe Research Centre, Lacombe, Alberta. After applying a false discovery rate correction at a 5% significance level, a total of 4, 3, 3, 9, 6, 2, and 1 SNPs were significantly associated with PBW, PR, CD, AFC, BWT, WWT, and ADG, respectively. These SNPs were located on chromosomes 1, 5-7, 9, 13-16, 19-21, 24, 25, and 27-29. Chromosomes 1, 5, and 24 had SNPs with pleiotropic effects. New significant SNPs that impact functional traits were detected, many of which have not been previously reported. The results of this study support quantitative genetic studies related to the inheritance of these traits, and provides new knowledge regarding beef cattle quantitative trait loci effects. The identification of these SNPs provides a starting point to identify genes affecting heifer reproduction traits and performance of their calves (BWT, WWT, and ADG). They also contribute to a better understanding of the biology underlying these traits and will be potentially useful in marker- and genome-assisted selection and management.

  11. Enteric methane emission, diet digestibility, and nitrogen excretion from beef heifers fed sainfoin or alfalfa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y-H; Mc Geough, E J; Acharya, S; McAllister, T A; McGinn, S M; Harstad, O M; Beauchemin, K A

    2013-10-01

    Effects of plant-bound condensed tannin (CT)-containing sainfoin vs. CT-free alfalfa (or low-CT alfalfa-sainfoin mixture), plant stage of maturity, and their interaction on enteric methane (CH4) emissions, diet digestibility, and N excretion were studied, using 8 ruminally cannulated beef heifers in 2 sequential short-term experiments (Exp. 1 and 2). In Exp. 1, first growth legumes were harvested daily and offered fresh to heifers. Heifers were assigned to 100% sainfoin or 80% alfalfa:20% sainfoin (as-fed basis). Responses were measured at early (late vegetative to early bud; stage 2 to 3) and late (early flower; stage 5) stage of maturity. In Exp. 2, the same legumes were harvested from second growth (late bud; stage 4) and offered to heifers as hay; 100% sainfoin or 100% alfalfa. In both experiments, heifers were fed once daily at 1× maintenance. When fed as fresh forage (Exp. 1), sainfoin, compared with the alfalfa-sainfoin blend, had greater digestibility of OM (74.7 vs. 70.9%; P = 0.02), yet tended to have lower CP digestibility (73.2 vs. 77.1%; P = 0.059). There was no difference between fresh legumes for CH4 emissions [25.9 g/kg DMI ± 4.02 SE; 8.5% of gross energy intake (GEI) ± 1.26 SE; or 36.8 g/kg digested OM ± 1.75 SE]. The fresh legumes were more digestible at early, rather than at late, maturity and, consequently, enteric CH4 (27.4 vs. 24.4 g/kg DMI; P emissions (22.4 g/kg DMI ± 1.29 SD and 7.1% GEI ± 0.40 SD). However, on the basis of OM digested, CH4 emissions were lower for sainfoin than alfalfa hay (44.3 vs. 59.0 g/kg; P = 0.008). Percentage of total N excretion in urine was less for sainfoin compared with alfalfa, both for fresh legumes in Exp. 1 (74 vs. 78%; P = 0.017) or hay in Exp. 2 (64 vs. 72%; P emissions from beef cattle fed at maintenance as compared with feeding either 80% alfalfa:20% sainfoin (fresh forages) or 100% alfalfa (hay). Feeding fresh legumes harvested between the late vegetative to early bud stage, compared with

  12. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: In-plant survey of targeted carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, value, and marketing of fed steers and heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Beef Quality Audit – 2011 (NBQA-2011) assessed the current status of quality and consistency of fed steers and heifers. Beef carcasses (n = 9,802), representing approximately 10 percent of each production lot in 28 beef processing facilities, were selected randomly for the survey. Car...

  13. Levels of multiple supplements or nitrogen salt for beef heifers in pasture during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ériton Egidio Lisboa Valente

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed performance, microbial protein synthesis, intake and digestibility of nutrients by beef heifers receiving levels of multiple supplements or nitrogen salt, in a self-controlled intake, on pasture, during the dry season. Thirty-five beef heifers, from 6 to 9 months of age and average initial body weight of 203.4 + 4.5 kg, were used. Study factors were: control - mineral mixture; nitrogen salt - 50% of urea + mineral mixture, at proportion of 1:1, and 50% of corn (75% of crude protein; levels of multiple supplementation - multiple supplements with different percentages of intake controller mixture (urea + mineral mixture, at the proportion of 1:1, corn and soybean meal (45% of crude protein. Supplement consumptions observed were: 115, 173, 572 and 1214 g/animal/day for animals fed on nitrogen salt, low, medium and high levels of multiple supplement, respectively. Supplemented animals had greater average daily gain, evidencing the positive linear effect of the levels of multiple supplementation on average daily gain. Overall, there were no significant differences between average daily gain of animals fed on multiple supplements or nitrogen salt. Supplementation increased the intake and digestibility of nutrients, except for digestibility of neutral detergent fiber, although the intake of digested neutral detergent fiber increased. Supplementation increased the production of microbial nitrogen as well as nitrogen losses in urine, although the quantity of nitrogen assimilated by bacteria, proportionally to intake, was higher. Supplementation improves nutritional parameters and weight gain.

  14. Hair shedding score may affect body temperature more than hair coat color during heat stress in weaned beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hair shedding score and hair coat color on the vaginal temperature (VT) of calves during heat stress. Weaned Bos taurus beef heifers (n = 32; BW = 282 ± 6.4 kg) were assigned to a hair coat color class (BLACK; RED; or LIGHT, where LIGHT = yel...

  15. Ultrasonographic reproductive tract measures and pelvis measures as predictors of pregnancy failure and anestrus in restricted bred beef heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holm, Dietmar E; Nielen, Mirjam; Jorritsma, Ruurd; Irons, Peter C; Thompson, Peter N

    2016-01-01

    Previous reports have shown that reproductive tract score (RTS) can predict reproduction outcomes in seasonally bred beef heifers, although the accuracy can vary. Some ultrasonographic measures of the female reproductive tract and pelvis area have also been associated with reproductive outcome in yo

  16. Impact of supplemental protein source offered to primiparous heifers during gestation on I. Average daily gain, feed intake, calf birth body weight, and rebreeding in pregnant beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, A F; Meyer, T L; Funston, R N

    2015-04-01

    A 3-yr study was conducted to determine the effect of supplemental protein source on ADG, feed intake, calf birth BW, and subsequent pregnancy rate in pregnant beef heifers. Crossbred, Angus-based, AI-pregnant heifers (yr 1, n = 38; yr 2, n = 40; and yr 3, n = 36) were stratified by BW (450 ± 10 kg) and placed in a Calan Broadbent individual feeding system at approximately d 142 of gestation. Following a 25-d adaptation period, an 84-d feeding trial was conducted. Heifers were offered ad libitum grass hay (8 to 11% CP, DM basis) and no supplement (CON), 0.83 kg/d distillers-based supplement (HI), or 0.83 kg/d dried corn gluten-based supplement (LO). Supplements were formulated to be isocaloric, isonitrogenous (28% CP, DM basis), and equal in lipid content but differed in RUP, with HI (59% RUP) having greater levels of RUP than LO (34% RUP). Dry matter intake was also calculated based on feed NE values to account for different energy levels of the supplement compared with the control diet. Control heifers tended (P = 0.09) to consume less total DM than either supplement treatment. However, forage-only DMI was greater (P feeding period. Calf birth BW was similar (P = 0.99) among treatments. At prebreeding, CON heifers weighed less (P calf birth BW and subsequent pregnancy rates were similar.

  17. Effects of circulating progesterone and insulin on early embryo development in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, G E; Green, M P; Sinclair, K D; Demmers, K J; Fray, M D; Gutierrez, C G; Garnsworthy, P C; Webb, R

    2003-11-20

    The aims of this study were to determine the effect on early embryo development of feeding a diet formulated to enhance circulating insulin concentrations and secondly to investigate the association between early embryo development and maternal progesterone concentrations in beef heifers. The study was carried out in 32 Simmental x Holstein Friesian heifers 22-25 months of age weighing 506+/-7kg and in condition score 3.1+/-0.1. Animals were fed two diets that were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous, but that would encourage either propionate (diet A) or acetate (diet B) production in the rumen. The rationale was that propionate would induce a greater insulin release in response to feeding. Animals were fed a 50:50 mix of the two diets for 14 days at 0.8x maintenance, with straw provided ad libitum. Animals were then fed one of the experimental diets for 3 weeks prior to synchronisation of oestrus and insemination and for a further 16 days following mating. All heifers were blood sampled daily from oestrus synchronisation and eight animals on each diet underwent daily transrectal real-time ultrasonography to determine the day of ovulation. All heifers were slaughtered at Day 16 after mating. While feeding of diet A (propionic) caused a significant (Pbody condition making further increases in insulin difficult to achieve. Diet did not affect size of ovulatory follicle (DIET A: 15.1+/-0.7mm; diet B: 14.6+/-0.7mm), day of ovulation (diet A: 3.5+/-0.2 days; diet B: 3.4+/-0.2 days), mean plasma progesterone concentration (diet A: 4.7+/-0.4ng/ml; diet B: 5.2+/-0.3ng/ml), corpus luteum weight (diet A: 6.0+/-0.2g; diet B: 6.0+/-0.2g) or pregnancy rate (diet A: 81.3%; diet B: 81.3%). However, the proportion of well-elongated (>10cm) embryos on Day 16 was higher in animals fed diet A than in those fed diet B (84.6% versus 38.5%; P10cm) embryos with levels in these animals significantly higher on Days 4 and 5 than in heifers with small (embryos at slaughter. This study

  18. Effect of progesterone supplementation in the first week post conception on embryo survival in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, M E; Lonergan, P; Diskin, M G; Roche, J F; Crowe, M A

    2009-04-15

    Progesterone is essential for establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in mammals. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of elevating progesterone during the different physiological stages of early embryo development on embryo survival. Estrus was synchronized in cross-bred beef heifers (n=197, approximately 2-years old) and they were inseminated 12-18h after estrus onset (=Day 0). Inseminated heifers were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: (1) Control, n=69; (2) progesterone supplementation using a Controlled Internal Drug Release Device (CIDR) from Day 3 to 6.5, n=64; or (3) progesterone supplementation using a CIDR from Day 4.5 to 8, n=64. Body condition (BCS) and locomotion scores (scale of 1-5) were recorded for all animals. Animals with a locomotion score >/=4 (very lame) were excluded. Embryo survival rate was determined at slaughter on Day 25. Conceptus length and weight were recorded and the corpus luteum (CL) of all pregnant animals was dissected and weighed. Supplementation with exogenous progesterone increased (P<0.05) peripheral progesterone concentrations, but did not affect embryo survival rate compared with controls. Mean CL weight, conceptus length and conceptus weight were not different between treatments. There was a positive relationship (P<0.04) between the increase in progesterone concentrations from Days 3 to 6.5 and embryo survival rate in treated heifers and a similar trend existed between the increase from Days 4.5 to 8 (P<0.06). There was also a positive relationship (P<0.05) between the progesterone concentration on Day 6.5 and the embryo survival rate in treated heifers. A direct correlation was seen between locomotion score and embryo survival rate, with higher (P<0.05) early embryo survival rates in heifers with a lower locomotion score. In conclusion, supplementation with progesterone at different stages of early embryo development increased peripheral progesterone concentration and resulted in a positive

  19. Increasing levels of crude protein in multiple supplements for grazing beef heifers in rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Vieira de Barros

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of multiple supplements with differents levels of crude protein (CP or mineral supplements on the nutritional parameters and performance of beef heifers grazing Uruchloa decumbens in the rainy season. A complete random design was employed. The treatments were made up of increasing levels of CP in the multiple supplements and a control treatment (MM in which animals were offered only mineral mixture. Multiple supplements contained 17; 30; 43 and 56% of CP, for treatments CP17; CP30; CP43 and CP56, respectively. Average daily gain (ADG (g was 447.7; 554.6; 638.4; 587.9; 590.4, for treatments MM, CP17; CP30; CP43 and CP56, respectively. A quadratic effect of the levels of crude protein was found (p< 0.10 on ADG. A greater intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, CP, ether extract (EE, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC, total digestible nutrients (TDN, and digested dry matter (p< 0.10 was found in animals supplemented with multiple supplements. Multiple supplements increased the apparent digestibility coefficient of DM, CP, EE and NFC. Supply of multiple multiple supplements for heifers grazing in medium to high quality pastures in the rainy season improves the performance of the animals.

  20. Split-time artificial insemination in beef cattle: I-Using estrous response to determine the optimal time(s) at which to administer GnRH in beef heifers and postpartum cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, B E; Thomas, J M; Abel, J M; Poock, S E; Ellersieck, M R; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments evaluated timing of GnRH administration in beef heifers and cows on the basis of estrous status during split-time artificial insemination (AI) after controlled internal drug release (CIDR) based protocols. In experiment 1, estrus was synchronized for 816 pubertal and prepubertal or peripubertal heifers using the 14-day CIDR-PGF2α (PG) protocol, and in experiment 2, estrus was synchronized for 622 lactating cows using the 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR protocol. For both experiments, estrus detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PG, with estrus recorded at 66 and 90 hours after PG. Treatments were balanced across locations for heifers using reproductive tract score and weight; whereas for cows, treatments were assigned and balanced to treatment according to age, body condition score, and days postpartum. Timing of AI for heifers and cows was on the basis of estrus expression 66 hours after PG. Females in each treatment that exhibited estrus before 66 hours were inseminated at 66 hours, whereas AI was delayed 24 hours until 90 hours after PG for females failing to exhibit estrus before 66 hours. Females in treatment one received GnRH 66 hours after PG irrespective of estrus expression; however, in treatment 2, GnRH was administered coincident with delayed AI only to females not detected in estrus at 66 hours after PG. Among heifers, there was no effect of treatment on overall estrous response (P = 0.49) or AI pregnancy rate (P = 0.54). Pregnancy rate for heifers inseminated at 66 hours was not influenced by GnRH (P = 0.65), and there were no differences between treatments in estrous response during the 24 hours delay period (P = 0.22). Cows in treatment 2 had a greater (P = 0.04) estrous response during the 24-hour delay period resulting in a greater overall estrous response (P = 0.04), but this did not affect AI pregnancy rate at 90 hours (P = 0.51) or total AI pregnancy rate (P = 0.89). Pregnancy rate resulting from AI for

  1. Effect of protein supplementation and forage allowance on the growth and reproduction of beef heifers grazing stockpiled tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, S E; Shaeffer, A D; Drewnoski, M E; Poore, M H; Poole, D H

    2016-04-01

    Stockpiled tall fescue can provide adequate winter forage for beef cattle, although unsupplemented replacement heifers may display marginal performance before breeding. The objective of this study was to determine if protein supplementation and/or additional forage improves growth and reproductive performance of replacement heifers grazing stockpiled fescue. Cattle averaging 272 ± 1.59 kg were stratified by BW and then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 plots within a pasture replication. Treatment combinations were assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement and included 1) a conservative forage allocation ("normal," targeting 85% forage use) and mineral supplement (normal forage allocation with mineral supplement [FM]), 2) normal forage allocation with protein tub (FT), 3) more liberal forage allocation ("extra," targeting 70% forage use) and mineral supplement (extra forage allocation with mineral supplement [EM]), and 4) "extra forage allocation with protein tub (ET). Treatments were administered for 8 wk from early November to early January. Heifers were fed fescue hay for 1 wk before breeding in late January. Heifers were synchronized with the 7-d CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release device protocol and inseminated in late January. Heifers were checked for pregnancy by ultrasonography at 35 and 90 d after AI. Main and interaction effects between the 2 treatments were determined. Total supplement intake was greater for protein tub than mineral supplement (0.36 vs. 0.11 kg·heifer·d, respectively; Reproductive tract scores, pelvic area, and AI pregnancy rates were not different between treatments ( > 0.05). Overall, feeding a protein supplement or providing extra forage increased gain and interacted to increase BCS but did not have an effect on reproductive performance. Supplementing with protein and providing extra forage are strategies that can increase gain in heifers, which could aid heifers in reaching puberty before estrous synchronization.

  2. Effects of label-dose permethrin administration in yearling beef cattle: I. Reproductive function and embryo quality of superovulated heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohlman, Tyler M; Jahnke, Marianna M; West, James K; Phillips, Patrick E; Gunn, Patrick J

    2016-06-01

    The objective was to study the effects of a commercial pyrethroid-based pour-on product, permethrin, on reproductive performance in superovulated beef heifers by assessing steroid biosynthesis and embryo quality. Nonpregnant, yearling beef heifers (n = 10; 418 ± 33 kg; 5.5 ± 0.2 body conditioning scores) were assigned by body weight and breed to either (1) saline control or (2) permethrin pour-on administered at label dose (PYR). Superovulation was achieved on all heifers using a timed, 17-day, CIDR-based protocol with GnRH and PGF2α and decreasing total dosage of 240-mg FSH administered twice daily for 4 days. Heifers were artificially inseminated twice (at onset of estrus and 12 hours later) by same technician with frozen semen from single bull collection. To determine short- and long-term effects of permethrin on embryo quality and steroid biosynthesis, superovulation was initiated twice with collection of embryos occurring at 17 and 51 days after treatment. Embryos were recovered 6.5 days after first artificial insemination via nonsurgical flush and were evaluated by International Embryo Transfer Society standards. Blood was collected at standing estrus and day of embryo recovery. Estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) concentrations were analyzed via RIA. MIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS were used to analyze continuous and categorical data, respectively. Heifer per flush was the experimental unit. Total embryos recovered did not differ because of treatment (P = 0.30), but did decrease in flush 2 compared with flush 1 (P = 0.02). Quality grade, total transferable quality embryos, and overall flush success did not differ because of treatment (P ≥ 0.16). However, transferable quality embryos were decreased in flush 2 compared with flush 1 (P = 0.05). Total unfertilized oocytes were greater in saline control (P = 0.04). The PYR heifers tended to have less total P4 (P = 0.15) and P4 per CL (P = 0.06) at recovery. E2 per ovulated

  3. Yeasts isolated from beef heifers with ringworm Levaduras aisladas de terneras de carne con dermatofitosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ER Duarte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine dermatophytosis has a negative impact in cattle breeding and can cause zoonoses. The aim of this study was to report a ringworm outbreak in Brazil and to evaluate the presence of yeast in the lesions. After weaning, 88 hybrid beef heifers in feedlot were clinically investigated. Lesions suggestive of ringworm were observed in 95.5% of the animals. Hyaline hiphae were observed in 58.3% of the samples using direct microscopy with potassium hydroxide. Skin scrapings from 27 heifers with ringworm were inoculated Sabouraud dextrose agar and Mycosel Agar. Nineteen isolates of Trichophyton spp. were identified according to micromorphological characteristics observed with microculture technique. Yeasts were isolated from 24 heifers (88.8% and the most frequently identified species were Candida lusitaniae and C. glabrata. The meaning of these yeast species in the aetiology and pathogeny of bovine dermatophytosis may be evaluated in further epidemiological investigations.En los bovinos, los dermatofitos producen un impacto negativo en la cría de ganado y pueden causar zoonosis. El objetivo de este trabajo fue describir un brote de tiña en Brasil y evaluar la presencia de levaduras en las lesiones. Después del destete, 88 terneras de carne fueron investigadas clínicamente. Las lesiones típicas de tiña fueron constatadas en 95,5% de estos animales. En la microscopía directa con hidróxido de potasio se observaron hifas hialinas en 58,8% de las muestras. Raspados de piel de 27 terneras con tiña fueron inoculados en Agar Dextrosa Sabouraud y Agar Mycosel. Hubo diecinueve aislamientos de Trichophyton spp.. En 24 animales se aislaron levaduras (88,8% y las especies más frecuentes fueron Candida lusitaniae y C. glabrata. El significado de estas levaduras en la etiología y patogenia de la dermatofitosis bovina deben ser evaluadas en nuevos estudios epidemiológicos.

  4. Effect of high and low antral follicle count in pubertal beef heifers on IVF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pubertal heifers can be classified between those with high (n = 25) or low (n = 15) antral follicle counts (AFC). The objective of this study was to determine oocyte development and maturation (e.g. fertility) in an IVF system for high- and low-AFC heifers. From a pool of 120 heifers, 10 high- and 1...

  5. Effect of space allowance and floor type on performance, welfare and physiological measurements of finishing beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, M P; McGee, M; O'Riordan, E G; Kelly, A K; Earley, B

    2017-06-21

    Accommodating cattle indoors during the winter is widely practiced throughout Europe. There is currently no legislation surrounding the space allowance and floor type that should be provided to cattle during this time, however, concerns have been raised regarding the type of housing systems currently in use. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of space allowance and floor type on performance and welfare of finishing beef heifers. Continental crossbred heifers (n=240: mean initial live; weight, 504 (SD 35.8) kg) were blocked by breed, weight and age and randomly assigned to one of four treatments; (i) 3.0 m2, (ii) 4.5 m2 and (iii) 6.0 m2 space allowance per animal on a fully slatted concrete floor and (iv) 6.0 m2 space allowance per animal on a straw-bedded floor, for 105 days. Heifers were offered a total mixed ration ad libitum. Dry matter intake was recorded on a pen basis and refusals were weighed back twice weekly. Heifers were weighed, dirt scored and blood sampled every 3 weeks. Whole blood was analysed for complete cell counts and serum samples were assayed for metabolite concentrations. Behaviour was recorded continuously using IR cameras from days 70 to 87. Heifers' hooves were inspected for lesions at the start of the study and again after slaughter. Post-slaughter, carcass weight, conformation and fat scores and hide weight were recorded. Heifers housed at 4.5 m2 had a greater average daily live weight gain (ADG) than those on both of the other concrete slat treatments; however, space allowance had no effect on carcass weight. Heifers accommodated on straw had a greater ADG (0.15 kg) (Pfloor type had no effect on the number of hoof lesions gained or on any of the haematological or metabolic variables measured. It was concluded that increasing space allowance above 3.0 m2/animal on concrete slats was of no benefit to animal performance but it did improve animal cleanliness. Housing heifers on straw instead of concrete slats improved

  6. Global proteomic characterization of uterine histotroph recovered from beef heifers yielding good quality and degenerate day 7 embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, M E; Mullen, M P; Elia, G; Hilliard, M; Diskin, M G; Evans, A C; Crowe, M A

    2014-01-01

    The objective was to analyze the proteomic composition of uterine flushes collected from beef heifers on day 7 after insemination. Estrus was synchronized in crossbred beef heifers by using a protocol with a controlled intravaginal drug releasing device. Heifers detected in standing estrus (within 24-48 h after removal of controlled intravaginal drug releasing device) were inseminated (estrus = day 0) with frozen-thawed semen from a single ejaculate of a bull with proven fertility. Heifers from which an embryo was recovered (after slaughter on day 7) were classified as either having a viable embryo (morula/blastocyst stage) or a degenerate embryo (arrested at the 2- to 16-cell stage). The overall recovery rate (viable and degenerate combined) was 64%. Global liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry proteomic analysis of the histotroph collected identified 40 high-confidence proteins present on day 7; 26 proteins in the viable group, 10 in the degenerate group, and 4 shared between both groups. Five proteins (platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase IB subunit γ [PAFAH1B3], tubulin α-1D chain, tubulin β-4A chain, cytochrome C, and dihydropyrimidinase-related protein-2) were unique or more abundant in the histotroph collected from animals with a viable embryo, and 1 protein (S100-A4) was more abundant in the histotroph collected from animals with a degenerate embryo. Of interest, PAFAH1B3, detected only in histotroph from the group yielding viable embryos, belongs to the group of platelet-activating factors that are known to be important for the development of the pre-implantation embryo in other species. To our knowledge this is the first report of PAFAH1B3 in relation to bovine early embryonic development.

  7. Production parameters and forage loss of oat and rye grass pastures managed with beef heifers fed diets with energy supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Angelo Damian Pizzuti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Production parameters of intercropped pastures of oat and rye grass managed with beef heifers supplemented with brown rice meal and/or protected fat were evaluated. Twenty-eight Charolais × Nellore crossbred heifers at initial average age of 18 months and initial average live weight of 274.9 kg were utilized in the experiment. Animals were kept on oat + rye grass pastures and distributed in the following treatments: no-supplementation (NS: heifers kept only in pastures; Megalac (MEG: supplementation with protected fat; brown rice meal (BRM: supplementation with BRM; BRM + MEG: supplementation with BRM plus protected fat. The greater participation of oat leaf was from July 5th to August 10th, 2009 and of rye grass, from August 30th to September 26th, 2009. The crude protein content increased until the 55th day (225.1 g/kg. Pasture total digestible nutrients presented a cubic behavior, with an average of 722.0 g/kg. The highest supply of leaf blades, 5.17 kg of dry matter/100 kg of live weight, was found in the second period. Pasture intake increased throughout the periods. Forage mass and support capacity of the animal did not differ between treatments, presenting means of 1245.02 kg of dry matter/ha and 882 kg of live weight/ha, respectively. Stoking rate, forage loss and pasture intake were not affected by the treatments. Supplementation of beef heifers with rice meal and/or protected fat did not change production parameters of oat + rye grass pastures or pasture intake. Increase in daily accumulation rate of dry matter and supporting capacity of the animals increases forage losses.

  8. Substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal in multiple supplements for grazing beef heifers in the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Román Maza Ortega

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting soybean meal for cottonseed meal in multiple supplements on the nutritional characteristics and performance of beef heifers in their postweaning phase on Brachiaria decumbens pastures during the dry season. Twenty-four Nellore beef heifers (average initial age and weight of 8 mo and 210±6 kg, respectively were used. The design was completely randomized, with four treatments and six replicates. Supplements contained approximately 30% crude protein (CP and a progressive substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal (0, 50 and 100%. The control animals received only a mineral mixture ad libitum, and those on the other treatments received supplementation at 1.0 kg/animal/day. No differences were found in ADG between supplemented and control animals (P>0.10. Supplementation increased crude protein (CP intake only (P<0.10. The level of substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal did not affect (P>0.10 the intake of supplemented animals. Supplementation elevated the apparent digestibility coefficients (P<0.10 of OM, CP, NFC and TDN, but not EE or NDFap (P>0.10. A positive linear effect (P<0.10 of the level of substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed cake was observed on the digestibility of OM, NFC and TDN. Supplementation and the level of substitution had an effect (P<0.10 on the serum urea nitrogen and urine urea nitrogen contents. Supplementation or substitution level had no effect on the flow of microbial nitrogen to the intestine (MICN or efficiency of microbial protein synthesis (EMPS (P>0.10. Substitution caused a decreasing linear effect (P<0.10 on microbial nitrogen/nitrogen intake ratio (MICNR. In conclusion, substitution of soybean meal for cottonseed meal in multiple supplements during the dry season does not impair the productive performance of beef heifers.

  9. Decreasing the frequency and rate of wet brewers grains supplementation did not impact growth but reduced humoral immune response of preconditioning beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriel, P; Piccolo, M B; Artioli, L F A; Poore, M H; Marques, R S; Cooke, R F

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated growth and measurements of innate and humoral immunity of preconditioning beef heifers supplemented with wet brewers grains (WBG) at 2 supplementation rates and frequencies. At 14 d after weaning (d 0), Angus heifers ( = 36; 213 ± 2 kg BW and 254 ± 7 d of age) were stratified by BW and age and randomly assigned to 1 of 12 drylot pens (3 heifers/pen). Treatments were randomly assigned to pens, in a 2 × 2 factorial design, and consisted of heifers provided ground tall fescue hay ad libitum (55% TDN and 12% CP of DM) and supplemented with WBG (75% TDN and 36% CP of DM) either daily (7X) or 3 times weekly (3X; Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) at 0.5 or 1.0% of BW (DM basis) for 42 d. Heifers were vaccinated against infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), Mannheimia haemolytica, and Clostridium on d 14 and 28. Individual BW was measured before feeding on d 0 and 42 following 12 h of feed and water withdrawal. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture 4 h after WBG supplementation on d 14, 15, 16, 17, 21, 28, 29, 30, 31, 35, and 42. Heifers fed WBG 3X had less hay DMI (2.6 ± 0.16 vs. 3.2 ± 0.16 kg/d; against BVDV-2 and IBR were greater for heifers fed WBG at 1.0% of BW vs. heifers fed WBG at 0.5% of BW (7.6 vs. 6.7 and 3.3 vs. 2.8 ± 0.19 log, respectively). In summary, decreasing WBG supplementation frequency (7 vs. 3 times weekly) or rate (1.0 vs. 0.5% of BW) for recently weaned beef heifers did not affect growth but decreased vaccine-induced antibody production against pathogens associated with bovine respiratory disease during a 42-d preconditioning period.

  10. Ultrasonographic reproductive tract measures and pelvis measures as predictors of pregnancy failure and anestrus in restricted bred beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Dietmar E; Nielen, Mirjam; Jorritsma, Ruurd; Irons, Peter C; Thompson, Peter N

    2016-02-01

    Previous reports have shown that reproductive tract score (RTS) can predict reproduction outcomes in seasonally bred beef heifers, although the accuracy can vary. Some ultrasonographic measures of the female reproductive tract and pelvis area have also been associated with reproductive outcome in young heifers. The objectives of this study were to determine which transrectal ultrasound or pelvis measures taken at a single examination are independent predictors of reproductive failure and whether the RTS system can be optimized with this information. In this observational study, year-old beef heifers (n = 488) in 2 birth cohorts were followed from just before the first breeding until confirmation of pregnancy. A single pre-breeding examination included body condition score, RTS, ultrasound measures of the reproductive tract (length and diameter of the left and right ovaries, presence and diameter of a CL, largest follicle diameter and left uterus horn diameter) and transverse and vertical diameters of the pelvis. Additional farm records including dam parity, sire, birth weight and birth date, weaning weight, weaning date, prebreeding body weight, AI dates, and semen used were available. Breeding consisted of 50 days of AI, followed 5 to 7 days later by a 42-day bull breeding period. Pregnancy failure was defined as the failure to become pregnant after the AI and bull breeding periods, while anestrus was defined as the failure to be detected in estrus during the 50-day AI period. From the prebreeding data and farm records, independent predictors of pregnancy failure and anestrus were identified using stepwise reduction in multiple logistic regression models. Age at the onset of breeding was the only consistent independent predictor of pregnancy failure and anestrus in both cohorts of this study (P pelvis area (PA) were the prebreeding examination variables that remained in prognostic models (P < 0.1). Combining either the model based on the 3 remaining ultrasound

  11. Leptin concentrations in finishing beef steers and heifers and their association with dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and body composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of circulating plasma leptin concentrations with production and body composition measures of finishing beef steers and heifers and to determine if multiple sampling time points improve the associations of plasma leptin concentrations ...

  12. Nutrition, metabolic profiles and puberty in Brahman (Bos indicus) beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, F; Blache, D; Martin, G B; D'Occhio, M J

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to gain an improved understanding of the relationships between body weight (BW), body condition (BCS), and metabolic homeostasis, and the attainment of puberty in Brahman heifers in a subtropical environment. Brahman heifers (200±3kg BW; 2.00±0.0 BCS) were assigned to a moderate nutrition (MN, n=11) or improved nutrition (IN, n=11) treatment from 11 to 23 months-of-age. The heifers were monitored at regular intervals for circulating concentrations of GH, IGF-1, insulin, glucose and leptin, and ovarian follicular activity was recorded until the first ovulation. From approximately 16 months of age, heifers on IN had a greater (PBrahman heifers on IN had a metabolic homeostasis that was supportive of reproductive maturation and puberty. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Production performance of beef cows raised on three different nutritionally controlled heifer development programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freetly, H C; Ferrell, C L; Jenkins, T G

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine primiparous heifer performance following three different heifer development strategies that were the result of timed nutrient limitation. Two hundred eighty-two spring-born MARC III heifers were weaned at 203+/-1 d of age and 205+/-1 kg BW. The experiment was conducted on two calf crops with 120 heifers born in 1996 and 162 heifers born in 1997. Treatments consisted of different quantities of the same diet being offered for a 205-d period. Heifers in the HIGH treatment were offered 263 kcal ME/(BWkg)0.75 daily. Heifers in the MEDIUM treatment were offered 238 kcal ME/(BWkg)0.75 daily. Heifers in the LOW-HIGH treatment were offered 157 kcal ME/(BWkg)0.75 daily the first 83 d and 277 kcal ME/(BWkg)0.75 daily for the remainder of the 205 d. Treatments differed in total ME intake (P calved expressed as a fraction of the cows exposed did not differ among treatments (89.7%; P = 0.83). The age of heifer at parturition (P = 0.74) and the time from first bull exposure to calving (P = 0.38) did not differ among treatments. Birth weight of calves (P = 0.80) and the calves' weaning weight (P = 0.60) did not differ among the treatments. Calf survival rate on the LOW-HIGH treatment (73%) was lower than that on the moderate treatment (89%; P = 0.007) but did not differ from that on the HIGH treatment (81%; P = 0.26). The second-calf pregnancy rate (92.8%) for cows with a nursing calf at the start of breeding did not differ between treatments (P = 0.83). These findings suggest that as long as heifers are growing and meet a minimal BW before mating, patterns of growth may be altered in the post-weaning period without a decrease in the ability of the heifer to conceive or a decrease in calf growth potential. However, limit-feeding heifers may decrease first-calf survival. These alterations in postweaning gain through monitoring the amount of feed offered can be used to optimize feed resources.

  14. Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and temperament assessed in growing beef heifers and subsequently as 3-year-old, lactating beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, T E; Bischoff, K M; Mercadante, V R G; Marquezini, G H L; Dilorenzo, N; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Maddock, T D; Lamb, G C

    2013-05-01

    Seventy-four beef heifers were used to evaluate relationships among performance, residual feed intake (RFI), and temperament measured as growing heifers (Phase 1) and subsequently as 3-yr-old lactating beef cows (Phase 2) in the same cohort. In both phases, females were housed in a covered facility and fed similar forage-based diets, and individual feed intakes, BW, BCS, chute scores (CS), exit velocities (EV), and pen scores (PS) were collected throughout the 70-d feeding trials. In Phase 2, cows were milked on trial d 14 (lactation d 28 ± 3.5) and trial d 70 (lactation d 84 ± 3.5) to determine energy-corrected milk (ECM) production. Ultrasonic backfat thickness (BF), and ribeye area (REA) were evaluated on d 0 and 70 of the trial in Phase 2. Heifers were ranked by RFI and placed into Low (0.5 SD mean RFI; n = 24) RFI groups. Body weight, BCS, and ADG were similar among all RFI groups; however, daily DMI differed for all groups (P 0.1) between RFI and temperament. Phase 1 CS was negatively associated with ADG in Phase 1 (r = -0.28; P = 0.02) and 2 (r = -0.32; P = 0.01), and positively associated with d 14 (r = 0.24; P = 0.04) and 70 (r = 0.25; P = 0.03) ECM. Phase 2 CS was negatively associated with Phase 2 ADG (r = -0.29; P = 0.01) and positively associated with d 14 (r = 0.46; P = 0.001) and 70 (r = 0.33; P = 0.004) ECM. Phase 2 PS also tended to be negatively associated with DMI in Phase 1 (r = -0.20; P = 0.096) and 2 (r = -0.20; P = 0.08). In this study, heifers that were most feed efficient subsequently consumed less feed as lactating cows and maintained similar performance. Feed efficiency was not associated with differences in temperament; however, more excitable females had poorer BW gains and tended to have reduced feed intakes but produced more ECM.

  15. Grazed grass herbage intake and performance of beef heifers with predetermined phenotypic residual feed intake classification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lawrence, P; Kenny, D A; Earley, B; McGee, M

    2012-01-01

    ... behaviour were measured for all heifers. Phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI) was calculated for each animal as the difference between actual DMI and expected DMI during the indoor winter period...

  16. Feeding microalgae meal (All-G Rich; CCAP 4087/2) to beef heifers. I: Effects on longissimus lumborum steak color and palatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, K J; Drouillard, J S; O'Quinn, T G; Burnett, D D; Blackmon, T L; Axman, J E; Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Gonzalez, J M

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine effects of 4 levels of microalgae meal (All-G Rich, CCAP 4087/2; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) supplementation to the diet of finishing heifers on longissimus lumborum (LL) steak PUFA content, beef palatability, and color stability. Crossbred heifers ( = 288; 452 ± 23 kg initial BW) were allocated to pens (36 pens and 8 heifers/pen), stratified by initial pen BW (3,612 ± 177 kg), and randomly assigned within strata to 1 of 4 treatments: 0, 50, 100, and 150 g·heifer·d of microalgae meal. After 89 d of feeding, cattle were harvested and LL were collected for determination of fatty acid composition and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), trained sensory panel evaluation, and 7-d retail color stability and lipid oxidation analyses. Feeding microalgae meal to heifers increased (quadratic, microalgae meal did not impact total SFA or MUFA ( > 0.25) but tended ( = 0.10) to increase total PUFA in a quadratic manner ( = 0.03). Total omega-6 PUFA decreased (linear, = 0.01) and total omega-3 PUFA increased (quadratic, microalgae meal level increased in the diet, which caused a decrease (quadratic, microalgae meal did not affect WBSF values or sensory panel evaluation of tenderness, juiciness, or beef flavor scores ( > 0.16); however, off-flavor intensity increased with increasing concentration of microalgae meal in the diet (quadratic, microalgae meal had a reduced a* value and oxymyoglobin surface percentage, with simultaneous increased surface metmyoglobin formation (quadratic, microalgae meal increased in the diet, the level of oxidation increased (quadratic, microalgae meal in diets ( > 0.19); therefore, the negative effects of microalgae on color stability were not due to fiber metabolism differences. Feeding microalgae meal to finishing heifers improves PUFA content of beef within the LL, but there are adverse effects on flavor and color stability.

  17. Fertility after implementation of long- and short-term progesterone-based ovulation synchronization protocols for fixed-time artificial insemination in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, R; Schroeder, S; Hall, J B; Whittier, W D

    2015-04-15

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of long-term (LT; a 14-day controlled internal drug release insert [CIDR]-PGF2α [PGF]-GnRH) and short-term (ST; 5-day CO-Synch + CIDR) progesterone-based protocols on pregnancy rate to fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in beef heifers. In experiment 1, Angus cross beef heifers (N = 1887) at nine locations received a body condition score and a reproductive tract score (RTS). Within the herd, heifers were randomly assigned to LT-72 and ST-56 protocol groups. Heifers in the LT-72 group received a CIDR from Days 0 to 14, followed by 25 mg of PGF 16 days later (Day 30). Heifers in the ST-56 group received a CIDR and 100 μg of gonadorelin hydrochloride (GnRH) on Day 25 followed by 25 mg of PGF at CIDR removal on Day 30 and a second dose of PGF 6 hours later (Day 30). Artificial insemination was performed at 56 hours (Day 32) after CIDR removal for the ST-56 group and at 72 hours (Day 33) after CIDR removal for the LT-72 group, and all heifers were given GnRH (100 μg, intramuscular) at the time of AI. In experiment 2, Angus cross beef heifers (N = 718) at four locations received a body condition score and an RTS. Within the herd, heifers were randomly assigned to LT-72 and ST-72 protocol groups. The protocol was similar to experiment 1 except that AI was performed at 72 hours after CIDR removal for both LT-72 and ST-72 groups. In experiment 1, no difference in AI pregnancy rates between the LT-72 and ST-56 groups was observed (54.5% [489 of 897] and 55.5% [549 of 990], respectively; P = 0.92) after accounting for the RTS. The AI pregnancy rates for heifers with RTS 3 or less, 4, and 5 were 52.6%, 53.6%, and 59.9%, respectively (P insemination in 33 days with the LT protocol compared with just 8 days with the ST protocol.

  18. Feed intake, ruminal fermentation, and animal behavior of beef heifers fed forage free diets containing nonforage fiber sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraira, S P; Ruíz de la Torre, J L; Rodríguez-Prado, M; Calsamiglia, S; Manteca, X; Ferret, A

    2013-08-01

    chewing time was greater (P = 0.001) in BS and WCS than in SH and BP. In conclusion, the nonforage fiber sources tested in this experiment can be used in forage-free diets fed to beef heifers as total mixed ration (TMR) without negative consequences in DMI in SH and BP diets and with an increased DMI in WCS diet. The WCS diet promoted rumination and total chewing time to the same degree as BS, which demonstrates that it is equally effective as this forage fiber source.

  19. Forage and breed effects on behavior and temperament of pregnant beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration of behavioral observations with traditional selection schemes may lead to enhanced animal well-being and more profitable forage-based cattle production systems. Brahman-influenced (BR; n=64) and Gelbvieh x Angus (GA; n=64) heifers consumed either toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+)...

  20. In Utero Exposure to Lipopolysaccharide Alters the Postnatal Acute Phase Response in Beef Heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine the potential effect of prenatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure on the postnatal acute phase response (APR) to an LPS challenge in heifers. Pregnant crossbred cows (n = 50) were separated into prenatal immune stimulation (PIS; n = 25; administered 0.1 microgr...

  1. Influence of pregnancy on body weight, ruminal characteristics, and visceral organ mass in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheaffer, A N; Caton, J S; Bauer, M L; Reynolds, L P

    2001-09-01

    Crossbred heifers (initially 24 mo, approximate age and 378 +/- 32.1 kg BW) were used to evaluate the influence of pregnancy and advancing gestation on DMI, BW, carcass weight, ruminal characteristics, and visceral organ mass. Heifers (naturally serviced (n = 22; nonpregnant controls, n = 17), were grouped in common pens. Heifers were provided corn silage and hay-based diets formulated to provide 0.45 kg of ADG. Treatments were pregnancy and nonpregnancy; pregnant and nonpregnant heifers were slaughtered on d 40, 120, 200, and 270. Live weight at slaughter and BW change throughout the trial were not influenced by pregnancy (P > 0.1). Carcass weight per unit of BW was decreased due to pregnancy (P 0.1) at any of the slaughter periods. Heart mass responded differently when nonpregnant and pregnant were analyzed over time and an interaction was detected as slaughter period advanced (P 0.1). Data indicate that ruminal fill is altered by pregnancy but visceral organ mass is not greatly changed by treatment.

  2. Age at puberty in beef heifers: Criollo cattle versus british crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age at puberty is an important factor in estimating the potential productivity of the bovine female. A study was conducted at the ARS-USDA Jornada Experimental Range in 2006 and 2007 to compare onset of puberty, BW, and serum insulin in Criollo and Angus-Hereford crossbred heifers. In 2006, 7 Crioll...

  3. Effect of antral follicle count in beef heifers on in vitro fertilization/production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective has been to compare the in vitro fertilization (IVF) and production (IVP) of embryos from low and high antral follicle count (AFC) heifers. This is the 4th year of the study with years 1 to 3 reported individually. For this report, we add data for the 4th year and present a combined an...

  4. Effects of creep feeding and monensin on reproductive performance and lactation of beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixon, D L; Fahey, G C; Kesler, D J; Neumann, A L

    1982-09-01

    A 23 factorial arrangement of treatments was utilized to determine the effect of breed, creep feeding and monensin on subsequent reproductive performance and lactation of 32 primiparous heifers. One-half of each breed (Angus and Hereford) group had access to creep feed (2.67 Mcal metabolizable energy/kg) while nursing their dams. Approximately 40 d before breeding through 120 d of lactation, all heifers were fed a suboptimal energy diet and 50% of each breed and creep group received 200 mg monensin/head daily. Estrus was synchronized with a progestogen. Volatile fatty acids (VFA) were determined periodically throughout the monensin-feeding portion of the experiment. Twenty-four hour milk production, percentage butterfat and percentage solids-not-fat were determined at 60 and 120 d postpartum. Weaning weights (adjusted to 205 d and for age of dam) of the original heifers were heavier (P less than .05) for those that were creep fed compared with those not creep fed (219 vs 202 kg). Monensin-supplemented females gained significantly more weight from the initiation of treatment to immediately postcalving and gave birth to heavier calves (P less than .05) even though they received comparable amounts of dietary energy as those that did not receive monensin. The energy stressed, monensin-supplemented first-calf heifers exhibited a shorter postpartum interval (P less than .05) to first estrus than did those that did not receive monensin (55.7 vs 69.1 d, respectively). First-calf heifers that had been creep fed while nursing their dams had a lower (P less than .05) daily milk yield at 120 d post-partum than those that did not have access to creep feed. No detrimental effects were observed due to long-term monensin supplementation.

  5. In vitro fertilization (IVF) using semi-defined culture conditions from low or high antral follicle count pubertal beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    To compare the in vitro fertilization (IVF) and production (IVP) of embryos from low and high antral follicle count (AFC) heifers, AFC were determined on 106 heifers using transrectal ultrasonography. Ten heifers with the lowest AFC (avg. 13.2) and 10 heifers with the highest AFC (avg. 27.4) with ev...

  6. Desenvolvimento de novilhas de corte submetidas a diferentes sistemas alimentares Performance of beef heifers submitted at different feeding systems

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    Marta Gomes da Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito de sistemas alimentares sobre o desenvolvimento de fêmeas de corte, dos oito aos 18/20 meses de idade. Foram avaliadas novilhas da raça Charolês e suas cruzas com Nelore. Os sistemas de alimentação foram: 'aveia + azevém + milheto' - pastagem de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam, seguida de pastagem de milheto (Pennisetum americanum (L. Leeke; 'aveia + azevém + campo' - pastagem de aveia e azevém mais campo nativo ocupado por capim Annoni (Eragrostis planna Nees; 'aveia + azevém + suplementação + milheto' - pastagem de aveia preta e azevém com suplementação energética mais pastagem de milheto; 'aveia + azevém + suplementação + campo'- pastagem de aveia preta e azevém com suplementação mais campo nativo ocupado por capim Annoni. O suplemento foi grão de sorgo moído, 0,7% do peso vivo (PV/dia. Foram tomados registros de PV, escore de condição corporal (ECC, atividade ovariana e manifestação de estro no período dos 18 aos 20 meses de idade das novilhas. Novilhas exclusivamente em pastagem natural durante o verão/outono não atingiram o peso recomendado para acasalamento aos 18/20 meses de idade. Novilhas que apresentaram estro foram mais pesadas e realizaram maior ganho diário médio durante o inverno. Novilhas mantidas em aveia + azevém + milheto apresentaram maior porcentagem de ovários funcionais aos 18/20 meses de idade.The effect of feeding systems on performance of beef heifers, on period of eight to 18/20 months of age. Charolais heifers and their crosses with Nellore were evaluated. The feeding systems were: 'Oat + Annual ryegrass + Pearl millet'- Black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb and Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam and Pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L. Leeke pasture; 'Oat + Annual ryegrass + natural pasture'- Black oat and annual ryegrass and natural pasture with Annoni grass (Eragrostis planna Nees; 'Oat + Annual ryegrass

  7. Life cycle efficiency of beef production: VIII. Relationship between residual feed intake of heifers and subsequent cow efficiency ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M E; Lancaster, P A; Rutledge, J J; Cundiff, L V

    2016-11-01

    Data were collected from 1953 through 1980 from identical and fraternal twin beef and dairy females born in 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, and 1969, and from crossbred females born as singles in 1974, and their progeny. Numbers of dams that weaned at least 1 calf and were included in the first analysis were 37, 45, and 56 in the 1964, 1969, and 1974 data sets, respectively. Respective numbers of dams that weaned 3 calves and were included in a second analysis were 6, 8, 8, 22, 33, and 33 in the 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, 1969, and 1974 experiments. Individual feed consumption was measured at 28-d intervals from the time females were placed on the experiment until 3 calves were weaned or the dams had reached 5 yr of age. Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual gain (RG) of the heifers that subsequently became the dams in this study were determined based on ADG and DMI from 240 d of age to first calving. Various measures of cow efficiency were calculated on either a life cycle or actual lifetime basis using ratios of progeny and dam weight outputs to progeny and dam feed inputs. Residual feed intake was phenotypically independent of ADG and metabolic midweight (MMW), whereas the correlation between RFI and DMI was positive and highly significant ( = 0.67; Residual gain was highly correlated with ADG ( = 0.75; Residual feed intake was not significantly correlated with age at puberty, age at calving, or milk production. Results of this study do not indicate any serious antagonisms of postweaning heifer RFI with subsequent cow and progeny performance traits or with life cycle or actual lifetime cow efficiency. In addition, selection for increased RG would result in earlier ages at calving, but would also tend to result in taller and heavier cows.

  8. Evaluation of pre-breeding reproductive tract scoring as a predictor of long term reproductive performance in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, D E; Nielen, M; Jorritsma, R; Irons, P C; Thompson, P N

    2015-01-01

    In a 7-year longitudinal study 292 Bovelder beef cows in a restricted breeding system in South Africa were observed from 1 to 2 days before their first breeding season, when reproductive tract scoring (RTS, scored from 1 to 5) was performed, until weaning their 5th calves. The objective was to determine whether pre-breeding RTS in heifers is a valid tool to predict long-term reproductive performance. Outcomes measured were failure to show oestrus during the first 24 days of the first 50-day AI season (24-day anoestrus), failure to become pregnant during each yearly artificial insemination (AI) season (reproductive failure), number of days from the start of each AI season to calving, and number of years to reproductive failure. The effect of RTS on each outcome was adjusted for year of birth, pre-breeding age, BW and body condition score (BCS), and for 24-day anoestrus, bull, gestation length, previous days to calving and previous cow efficiency index, the latter two in the case of the 2nd to the 5th calving season. During their first breeding season, heifers with RTS 1 and 2 combined were more likely to be in anoestrus for the first 24 days (OR=3.0, 95% CI 1.5, 6.4, P=0.003), and were also more likely to fail to become pregnant even after adjusting for 24-day anoestrus (OR=2.1, 95% CI 1.1, 3.9, P=0.025), compared to those with RTS 4 and 5 combined. Animals with RTS 1 and 2 combined were at increased risk of early reproductive failure compared to those with RTS 4 and 5 combined (HR=1.4, 95% CI 1.0, 1.9, P=0.045) although RTS was not associated with calving rate or days to calving after the second calving season. Low RTS at a threshold of 1 had consistent specificity of ≥94% for both 24-day anoestrus and pregnancy failure, however its predictive value was lower in the age cohort with a higher prevalence of anoestrus. We conclude that RTS is a valid management tool for culling decisions intended to improve long-term reproductive success in a seasonal breeding system

  9. Effect of refined coconut oil or copra meal on methane output and on intake and performance of beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, E; Lovett, D K; Monahan, F J; Callan, J; Flynn, B; O'Mara, F P

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to establish the effect of feeding either refined coconut oil (CO) or copra meal containing CO to beef heifers on DMI, animal performance, enteric CH4 emissions, diet digestibility, and the fatty acid profile of the resulting meat. Forty-one Charolais and Limousin crossbred beef heifers (474 +/- 29 kg; 661 +/- 89 d of age) were blocked by BW before being assigned in a randomized complete block design to 1 of 3 experimental treatments (n = 12) or to a pretrial slaughter group (n = 5) used to determine the initial carcass weight. The experimental period lasted for 93 d. Enteric CH4 output was recorded for 2 periods of 5 consecutive days from d 14 to 18 and from d 70 to 74. The 3 dietary treatments were 1) control, a barley/soybean meal-based concentrate with 0 g of CO/ d; 2) RCO, a barley/soybean meal-based concentrate with 250 g of CO/d from refined coconut oil; and 3) CM, a copra meal-based concentrate with 250 g of CO/d from copra meal. Each diet had a 50:50 forage:concentrate using grass silage as the forage source. There was no effect of diet on DMI (P = 0.734) or GE intake (P = 0.486). The addition of RCO increased ADG (P < 0.05) compared with the control treatment. The CM treatment decreased (P < 0.05) average daily carcass gain compared with the RCO treatment only. There was a decrease (P < 0.05) in the digestibility of the DM, OM, CP, and GE fractions of the diet only with the CM treatment. Both the RCO and CM concentrates decreased (P < 0.001) daily enteric CH4 output when expressed in terms of liters per day, liters per kilogram of DMI, percentage of GE intake, liters per kilogram of ADG, and liters per kilogram of average daily carcass gain. The RCO treatment produced the greatest numerical response for all measures. Ruminal protozoa numbers on the RCO treatment were lower (P < 0.05) than on the control treatment. The concentrations of the fatty acid methyl esters, lauric (P < 0.001) and myristic (P < 0.002) acids, were

  10. Behavior pattern of beef heifers supplemented with different energy sources on oat and ryegrass pasture

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    Luiz Angelo Damian Pizzuti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate behavior patterns of heifers grazing on black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb. and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam., fed supplementation with brown rice meal and/or protected fat. A total of 28 Charolais × Nellore crossbred heifers at average initial age of 18 months and with initial live weight of 274.9±4.97 kg were used in the experiment. Animals were kept in oat + ryegrass pastures and distributed in the following treatments: no supplementation; Megalac (MEG: protected fat supplementation; supplementation with brown rice meal (BRM; and supplementation with BRM + MEG. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake of pasture either in kg or in percentage of live weight was not changed by supply of supplement, but increased linearly (0.045 kg per day over grazing periods. Supplementation with BRM and BRM + MEG reduced grazing time, 49.63%, in relation to non-supplemented animals and animals supplemented with MEG, 63.13%. Feeding seasons per minute increased over the experimental period with reduction in time spent in each feeding station. The number of bites per feeding station decreased linearly, with a variation of 34.48% in the late grazing period. Heifers supplemented with BRM and BRM + MEG require less time for grazing and increase their idle time, with no modification in displacement patterns within the paddocks and pasture ingestion. Grazing and idle time does not change in the distinct periods of pasture use, but rumination time increases with days of pasture use and with increase in NDF intake.

  11. Characterisation of endometrial gene expression and metabolic parameters in beef heifers yielding viable or non-viable embryos on Day 7 after insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, M E; Forde, N; Furney, P; Carter, F; Roche, J F; Lonergan, P; Crowe, M A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the hormonal and metabolic characteristics and endometrial gene expression profiles in beef heifers yielding either a viable or degenerate embryo on Day 7 after insemination as a means to explain differences in embryo survival. Oestrus was synchronised in cross-bred beef heifers (n = 145) using a controlled internal drug release (CIDR)-prostaglandin protocol. Heifers (n = 102) detected in standing oestrus (within 24-48 h after CIDR removal) were inseminated 12-18 h after detection of oestrus (Day 0) with frozen-thawed semen from a single ejaculate of a bull with proven fertility. Blood samples were collected from Day 4 to Day 7 after oestrus to measure progesterone (on Days 4, 5 and 7), insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I (on Days 4 and 6) and urea (on Day 7) concentrations. All animals were killed on Day 7. Uterine pH was determined at the time of death. Animals from which an embryo was recovered were classified as either having a viable embryo (morula/blastocyst stage; n = 32) or a retarded embryo (arrested at the two- to 16-cell stage; n = 19). In addition, 14 single-celled unfertilised oocytes were recovered, giving an overall recovery rate of 64%. There was no significant difference in the blood parameters determined or uterine pH at the time of death between heifers with either a viable or retarded embryo. The relative abundance of nine transcripts (i.e. MOGAT1, PFKB2, LYZ2, SVS8, UHRF1, PTGES, AGPAT4, DGKA and HGPD) of 53 tested in the endometrial tissue differed between heifers with a viable or retarded embryo. Both LYZ2 and UHRF1 are associated with regulation of the immune system; PFKFB2 is a mediator in glycolysis; MOGAT, AGPAT4 and DGKA belong to the triglyceride synthesis pathway; and PTGES and HGPD belong to the prostaglandin pathway. Both these metabolic pathways are important for early embryonic development. In conclusion, retarded embryo development in the present study was not related to serum

  12. Effect of Exposure to Various Durations of Light on Serum Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I in Prepubertal Holstein Heifers

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    L. J. Spicer

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to determine if prolonged exposure to various durations of light (i.e., photoperiod would affect serum IGF-I concentrations in heifers. Thus, 16 Holstein heifers, 2 to 4 mo of age, were exposed during a 5-wk pretreatment period to 12 h of cool-white fluorescent light (L at an intensity of 1200 lux and 12 h of dark (D. At 5 wk, photoperiods were adjusted to 24 L: 0 D (24 L, 20 L: 4 d (20 L, 16 L: 8 D (16 L or 8 L: 16 D (8 L per 24 h (n=4 heifers per photoperiod treatment. Blood was sampled at 5 wk and monthly for 4 mo. During each sampling period, blood was collected at 16-h intervals for 48 h and serum IGF-I was determined by RIA. Photoperiod treatment, month of experiment and their interactions affected serum IGF-I concentrations. Averaged over months, concentrations of serum IGF-I was greatest in heifers on 16 L; heifers on 20 L had IGF-I concentrations similar to 8 L, 16 L and 24 L and heifers on 24 L had concentrations similar to that of heifers on 8 L. Heifers in all treatment groups exhibited an increase in serum IGF-I concentration during the 4 mo of treatment. Heifers on 16 L and 20 L exhibited the greatest difference in serum IGF-I concentrations compared with 8L heifers after 3 mo of treatment. In conclusion, 16 L increases concentrations of serum IGF-I above that seen for heifers treated with

  13. Effects of dietary sulfur concentration and forage-to-concentrate ratio on ruminal fermentation, sulfur metabolism, and short-chain fatty acid absorption in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amat, S; McKinnon, J J; Penner, G B; Hendrick, S

    2014-02-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary S concentration and forage-to-concentrate ratio (F:C) on ruminal fermentation, S metabolism, and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption in beef heifers. Sixteen ruminally cannulated heifers (initial BW 628 ± 48 kg) were used in a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement. The main factors included F:C (4% forage vs. 51% forage, DM basis) and the S concentration, which was modified using differing sources of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to achieve low- and high-S diets (LS = 0.30% vs. HS = 0.67% S on a DM basis). Elemental S was also added to increase the S content for the HS diets. Serum sulfate concentration from blood, sulfide (S(2-)), and SCFA concentrations from ruminal fluid, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) concentration from the ruminal gas cap, and urinary sulfate concentration were determined. Continuous rumen pH and SCFA (acetate, butyrate, and propionate) absorption were measured. There were no interactions between S concentration and F:C. The F:C did not affect DMI (P = 0.26) or ruminal S metabolite concentrations (P ≥ 0.19), but ruminal pH was lower (P < 0.01) and SCFA absorption was greater (P < 0.01) for low F:C diets. Heifers fed HS diets had less DMI (P < 0.01) but greater ruminal pH (P < 0.01), greater concentrations of ruminal H2S (P < 0.01) and serum sulfate (P < 0.01), and greater urinary sulfate concentration (P < 0.01) and output (P < 0.01) relative to heifers fed LS diets. Ruminal H2S was positively correlated with serum sulfate (r = 0.89; P < 0.01). Ruminal acetate concentration was not affected (P = 0.26) by dietary S concentration. Heifers fed the HS diet had lower (P = 0.01) ruminal propionate concentration and tended to have lower (P = 0.06) butyrate concentration than heifers fed the LS diet. Ruminal acetate was greater (P = 0.01) and butyrate was less (P < 0.01) with the high F:C diet than the low F:C diet. Both HS (P = 0.06) and low F

  14. Split-time artificial insemination in beef cattle: II. Comparing pregnancy rates among nonestrous heifers based on administration of GnRH at AI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, B E; Thomas, J M; Abel, J M; Poock, S E; Ellersieck, M R; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2017-01-01

    This experiment was designed to evaluate split-time artificial insemination (AI) in beef heifers following administration of the 14-day controlled internal drug release (CIDR)-prostaglandin F2α (PG) protocol and to compare pregnancy rates among nonestrous heifers based on administration of GnRH at AI. Estrus was synchronized for 1138 heifers across six locations. Heifers received a CIDR insert (1.38 g progesterone) on Day 0 with removal on Day 14. Estrus detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PG (25 mg), 16 days after CIDR removal on Day 30. Heifers were assigned to balanced treatments based on reproductive tract score and weight, and treatments were represented within each location. Split-time AI was performed at 66 and 90 hours after PG, and estrus was recorded at these times. Heifers in both treatments that exhibited estrus by 66 hours were inseminated and did not receive GnRH, whereas AI was delayed 24 hours until 90 hours after PG for heifers that failed to exhibit estrus by 66 hours. For heifers in treatment 1 that were inseminated at 90 hours, GnRH (100 μg) was administered concurrent with AI at 90 hours. Heifers in treatment 2 that were inseminated at 90 hours did not receive GnRH. Estrous response did not differ between treatments at 66 hours after PG (treatment 1 = 70%; treatment 2 = 71%; P = 0.58) or during the 24-hour delay period (treatment 1 = 59%; treatment 2 = 52%; P = 0.21). There was no effect of treatment on pregnancy rates resulting from AI for heifers inseminated at 66 hours (treatment 1 = 58%; treatment 2 = 62%; P = 0.86) or 90 hours (treatment 1 = 44%; treatment 2 = 39%; P = 0.47) after PG; and there was no difference between treatments when considering total AI pregnancy rate (treatment 1 = 54%; treatment 2 = 56%; P = 0.60). Ovulation was confirmed via ultrasonography for a subset of heifers that failed to exhibit estrus prior to 90 hours after PG. For heifers that failed to exhibit estrus by 90

  15. Dystocia in 3-year-old beef heifers; relationship to maternal nutrient intake during early- and mid-gestation, pelvic area and hormonal indicators of placental function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micke, G C; Sullivan, T M; Rolls, P J; Hasell, B; Greer, R M; Norman, S T; Perry, V E A

    2010-04-01

    The influence of nutrition during the first and second trimesters of gestation on the occurrence of dystocia was investigated in 3-year-old composite-breed beef heifers. Heifers were allocated according to stratification by weight and genotype to either a high (H/-=76 MJ metabolisable energy (ME) and 1.4 kg crude protein (CP)), or low (L/-=62 MJ ME and 0.4 kg CP daily) nutritional treatment on the day of artificial insemination (day 0) to the same Senepol bull. Half of each nutritional group changed to an opposite nutritional group on day 93 of gestation (-/H=82 MJ ME and 1.4 kg CP; -/L=63 MJ ME and 0.4 kg CP daily), resulting in four treatment groups: HH (n=16); HL (n=19); LH (n=17); LL (n=19). From 180 days until calving all heifers were fed the same diets. Pelvic area measures were taken at heifer selection (-72 days) and at 117 days. Maternal circulating concentrations of estrone sulphate (ES), bovine placental lactogen (bPL), bovine pregnancy associated glycoprotein and progesterone were monitored throughout gestation. Heifers were observed continuously over the calving period and delivery type classified as being either eutocic or dystocic. The occurrence of dystocia was 14.1%. Increased calf birth weight increased the odds of occurrence of dystocia (odds ratio (OR)=1.40; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.12-1.76; Pdystocia (OR=0.97; 95% CI 0.93-1.01; P=0.09). Longer gestation length was associated with an increased risk of dystocia (P=0.03). ES (P=0.04) and bPL (P=0.09) at calving were positively associated with the risk of dystocia. In conclusion, the current study demonstrates (a) that pelvic area measurement at selection in 3-year-old Bos indicusxBos taurus heifers may be useful for identifying heifers at an increased risk of dystocia and (b) increased ES and bPL concentrations at calving are associated with increased risk of dystocia. Pelvic area measurements obtained prior to conception remain valid in their assessment of the relationship between

  16. The relationship between feed efficiency and the circadian profile of blood plasma analytes measured in beef heifers at different physiological stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonano, C V; Montanholi, Y R; Schenkel, F S; Smith, B A; Cant, J P; Miller, S P

    2014-10-01

    The characterization of blood metabolite concentrations over the circadian period and across physiological stages is important for understanding the biological basis of feed efficiency, and may culminate in indirect methods for assessing feed efficiency. Hematological analyses for albumin, urea, creatine kinase, glutamate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, carbon dioxide, and acetate were carried out in growing and gestating heifers. These measures were carried out in a sample of 36 Bos taurus crossed beef heifers held under the same husbandry conditions. Hourly blood samples were collected over a 24-h period on three separate sampling occasions, corresponding approximately to the yearling (and open), early-gestation and late-gestation stages. This design was used to determine variation throughout the day, effects due to physiological status and any associations with feed efficiency, as measured by residual feed intake. Blood analyte levels varied with time of day, with the most variation occurring between 0800 and 1600 h. There were also considerable differences in analyte levels across the three physiological stages; for example, creatine kinase was higher (Pcarbon dioxide (Plevels (POver the whole experimental period, carbon dioxide concentrations were numerically lower in more feed efficient heifers (P=0.079). Differences were also observed across physiological stages. For instance, open heifers had increased levels (Pcarbon dioxide than early and late pregnancy heifers. In essence, this study revealed relevant information about the metabolic profile in the context of feed efficiency and physiological stages. Further optimization of our approach, along with the evaluation of complementary analytes, will aid in the development of robust, indirect assessments of feed efficiency.

  17. Relationships between postweaning residual feed intake in heifers and forage use, body composition, feeding behavior, physical activity, and heart rate of pregnant beef females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafla, A N; Carstens, G E; Forbes, T D A; Tedeschi, L O; Bailey, J C; Walter, J T; Johnson, J R

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if residual feed intake (RFI) classification of beef heifers affected efficiency of forage utilization, body composition, feeding behavior, heart rate, and physical activity of pregnant females. Residual feed intake was measured in growing Bonsmara heifers for 2 yr (n=62 and 53/yr), and heifers with the lowest (n=12/yr) and highest (n=12/yr) RFI were retained for breeding. Of the 48 heifers identified as having divergent RFI, 19 second-parity and 23 first-parity females were used in the subsequent pregnant-female trial. Pregnant females were fed a chopped hay diet (ME=2.11 Mcal kg(-1) DM) in separate pens equipped with GrowSafe bunks to measure individual intake and feeding behavior. Body weights were measured at 7-d intervals and BCS and ultrasound measurements of 12th-rib fat depth, rump fat depth, and LM area obtained on d 0 and 77. Heart rate and physical activity were measured for 7 consecutive d. First-parity females had lower (PResidual feed intake classification did not affect bunk visit frequency, but low-RFI females spent 26% less time (Presidual gain were positively correlated with forage intake (r=0.38) and RFI (r=0.42) of pregnant females. Results indicate that heifers identified as having low postweaning RFI have greater efficiency of forage utilization as pregnant females, with minimal impacts on growth, body composition, calving date, and calf birth BW, compared to their high-RFI counterparts.

  18. Effects of roof modifications on growth performance and physiological changes of crossbred beef heifers (Bos indicus

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    Titaporn Khongdee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to examine and evaluate growth performance and physiological changes of cattle raised under normal roof versus a modified roof. Ten Hindu Brazil x Brahman heifers were used in the experiment. The animals were divided randomly into two groups. They were used to evaluate the effects of modified roofing on the subjects’ physiological responses to heat stress and performance under hot humid conditions. It was found that the modified roof (MR offered a more efficient way to lower heat stress in the cattle than the normal roof (NR. The difference was sufficient to enable the NR at 14:00 p.m. to have a THI higher (P<0.001 than that of the MR. Roof temperature of the MR (35.67±4.28°C was found to be lower (P<0.01 than that of the NR (44.49±7.61°C. Rectal temperature (RT and average rate of gain (ADG of the cattle kept under MR (39.02°C; 0.632 kg/d was lower (P<0.01 and higher (P<0.01, respectively than the NR (40.05 °C; 0.350 kg/d cattle

  19. Tech-Savvy Beef Cattle? How Heifers Respond to Moving Virtual Fence Lines

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    Dana L.M. Campbell

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Global Positioning System (GPS-based virtual fences offer the potential to improve the management of grazing animals. Prototype collar devices utilising patented virtual fencing algorithms were placed on six Angus heifers in a 6.15 hectare paddock. After a “no fence” period, sequential, shifting virtual fences restricted the animals to 40%, 60%, and 80% of the paddock area widthways and 50% lengthways across 22 days. Audio cues signaled the virtual boundary, and were paired with electrical stimuli if the animals continued forward into the boundary. Within approximately 48 h, the cattle learned the 40% fence and were henceforth restricted to the subsequent inclusion zones a minimum of 96.70% (±standard error 0.01% of the time. Over time, the animals increasingly stayed within the inclusion zones using audio cues alone, and on average, approached the new fence within 4.25 h. The animals were thus attentive to the audio cue, not the fence location. The time spent standing and lying and the number of steps were similar between inclusion zones (all p ≥ 0.42. More lying bouts occurred at the 80% and lengthways inclusion zones relative to “no fence” (p = 0.04. Further research should test different cattle groups in variable paddock settings and measure physiological welfare responses to the virtual fencing stimuli.

  20. Supplementation based on protein or energy ingredients to beef cattle consuming low-quality cool-season forages: II. Performance, reproductive, and metabolic responses of replacement heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellozza, B I; Cooke, R F; Reis, M M; Moriel, P; Keisler, D H; Bohnert, D W

    2014-06-01

    This experiment evaluated the influence of supplement composition on performance, reproductive, and metabolic responses of Angus × Hereford heifers consuming a low-quality cool-season forage (8.7% CP and 57% TDN). Sixty heifers (initial age = 226 ± 3 d) were allocated into 15 drylot pens (4 heifers/pen and 5 pens/treatment) and assigned to 1) supplementation with soybean meal (PROT), 2) supplementation with a mixture of cracked corn, soybean meal, and urea (68:22:10 ratio, DM basis; ENER), or 3) no supplementation (CON). Heifers were offered meadow foxtail (Alopecurus pratensis L.) hay for ad libitum consumption during the experiment (d -10 to 160). Beginning on d 0, PROT and ENER were provided daily at a rate of 1.30 and 1.40 kg of DM/heifer to ensure that PROT and ENER intakes were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Hay and total DMI were recorded for 5 consecutive days during each month of the experiment. Blood was collected every 10 d for analysis of plasma progesterone to evaluate puberty attainment. Blood samples collected on d -10, 60, 120, and 150 were also analyzed for plasma concentrations of plasma urea N (PUN), glucose, insulin, IGF-I, NEFA, and leptin. Liver samples were collected on d 100 from 2 heifers/pen and analyzed for mRNA expression of genes associated with nutritional metabolism. No treatment effect was detected (P = 0.33) on forage DMI. Total DMI, ADG, and mean concentrations of glucose, insulin, and IGF-I as well as hepatic mRNA expression of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were greater (P ≤ 0.02) for PROT and ENER compared with CON and similar between PROT and ENER (P ≥ 0.13). Mean PUN concentrations were also greater (P beef heifers consuming a low-quality cool-season forage had a similar increase in DMI, growth, and overall metabolic status if offered supplements based on soybean meal or corn at 0.5% of BW.

  1. National Beef Quality Audit-2011: In-plant survey of targeted carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, value, and marketing of fed steers and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, M C; Gray, G D; Hale, D S; Kerth, C R; Griffin, D B; Savell, J W; Raines, C R; Belk, K E; Woerner, D R; Tatum, J D; Igo, J L; VanOverbeke, D L; Mafi, G G; Lawrence, T E; Delmore, R J; Christensen, L M; Shackelford, S D; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Meadows, L R; O'Connor, M E

    2012-12-01

    The 2011 National Beef Quality Audit (NBQA-2011) assessed the current status of quality and consistency of fed steers and heifers. Beef carcasses (n = 9,802), representing approximately 10% of each production lot in 28 beef processing facilities, were selected randomly for the survey. Carcass evaluation for the cooler assessment of this study revealed the following traits and frequencies: sex classes of steer (63.5%), heifer (36.4%), cow (0.1%), and bullock (0.03%); dark cutters (3.2%); blood splash (0.3%); yellow fat (0.1%); calloused rib eye (0.05%); overall maturities of A (92.8%), B (6.0%), and C or greater (1.2%); estimated breed types of native (88.3%), dairy type (9.9%), and Bos indicus (1.8%); and country of origin of United States (97.7%), Mexico (1.8%), and Canada (0.5%). Certified or marketing program frequencies were age and source verified (10.7%), ≤A(40) (10.0%), Certified Angus Beef (9.3%), Top Choice (4.1%), natural (0.6%), and Non-Hormone-Treated Cattle (0.5%); no organic programs were observed. Mean USDA yield grade (YG) traits were USDA YG (2.9), HCW (374.0 kg), adjusted fat thickness (1.3 cm), LM area (88.8 cm2), and KPH (2.3%). Frequencies of USDA YG distributions were YG 1, 12.4%; YG 2, 41.0%; YG 3, 36.3%; YG 4, 8.6%; and YG 5, 1.6%. Mean USDA quality grade (QG) traits were USDA quality grade (Select(93)), marbling score (Small(40)), overall maturity (A(59)), lean maturity (A(54)), and skeletal maturity (A(62)). Frequencies of USDA QG distributions were Prime, 2.1%; Choice, 58.9%; Select, 32.6%; and Standard or less, 6.3%. Marbling score distribution was Slightly Abundant or greater, 2.3%; Moderate, 5.0%; Modest, 17.3%; Small, 39.7%; Slight, 34.6%; and Traces or less, 1.1%. Carcasses with QG of Select or greater and YG 3 or less represented 85.1% of the sample. This is the fifth benchmark study measuring targeted carcass characteristics, and information from this survey will continue to help drive progress in the beef industry. Results will

  2. Suplementos energéticos para recria de novilhas de corte em pastagens anuais: desempenho animal Energy supplements for beef heifers rearing at annual pastures: animal performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Teixeira dos Santos

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o desempenho de novilhas de corte dos três aos doze meses de idade, mantidas em pastagem cultivada logo após o desmame (experimento 1 e no primeiro inverno pós-desmame (experimento 2, com ou sem o fornecimento de suplementos energéticos. No período de 16/02 a 21/04/2001, as novilhas permaneceram em pastagem de milheto, exclusivamente sob pastejo (PAST1, suplementadas com grão de milho moído (PAST1/M ou com polpa cítrica peletizada e moída (PAST1/P. No período de 13/07 a 09/10/2001, as novilhas foram mantidas em pastagem de aveia preta e azevém, sem suplementação (PAST2, suplementadas com grão de milho moído (PAST2/M ou suplementadas com casca de soja (PAST2/C. Peso vivo (PV, ganho de peso diário médio (GDM e escore de condição corporal (ECC foram avaliados. No experimento 1, os animais suplementados apresentaram maior PV final, GDM e ECC que os não-suplementados, não diferindo entre si. No experimento 2, as novilhas suplementadas com casca de soja apresentaram maior GDM e PV final que as não-suplementadas, enquanto as suplementadas com grão de milho ficaram em posição intermediária. O maior ECC foi obtido pelos animais de PAST2/C, seguidos de PAST2/M e, por último, de PAST2. Novilhas de corte desmamadas aos 60-90 dias devem ser suplementadas no período inicial pós-desmama, para que atinjam desenvolvimento satisfatório nesta fase do crescimento. Os subprodutos polpa cítrica e casca de soja podem substituir o grão de milho como suplementos energéticos para recria de novilhas de corte.It was evaluated beef heifers performance from three until twelve months of age, when they were reared in cultivated pasture soon after their weaning (experiment 1 and in the first winter post-weaning (experiment 2, with or without the supply of energy supplements to the animals. From 02/16 to 04/21/2001, the heifers stayed in Pearl Millet pasture, exclusively under grazing (PAST1; supplemented with milled corn grain (PAST

  3. Effect of high and low antral follicle count in pubertal beef heifers on in vitro fertilization (IVF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pubertal heifers can be classified between those with high (= 25) and low (= 15) antral follicle counts (AFC). The objective of this study was to determine oocyte development and maturation (e.g., fertility) in an in vitro fertilization (IVF) system for high and low AFC heifers. From a pool of 120...

  4. Levels of ground corn supplied to beef heifers at pasture during the rainy season: productive performance, intake, digestibility and microbial efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcilene Maria de Figueiredo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of four levels of ground corn supply on nutritional parameters, microbial synthesis efficiency and growing performance of beef heifers, at the rainy season. For such, 28 crossbred yearling heifers, with initial age of 16-17 months and initial weight of 255 ± 31.0 kg were distributed into five paddoks of B. decumbens, of 2.0 ha each, with average potentially digestible DM availability of 2,377.0 kg/ha. For each one of the lots, one of the following supplements was daily supplied: mineral mix exclusively or with ground corn at levels 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 or 1.00 kg/day. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design with five treatments (supplements, five repetitions for the groups receiving exclusive mineral mix or mineral mix plus corn on the level of 0.50 kg/day and six repetitions for those receiving the other supplements. There was a response of 0.092 kg of weight gain for every 1 kg of ground corn supplied to the animals, and no substitution effect was verified on the dry matter intake of pasture. The increase in ground corn levels increased metabolizable energy intake, which is explained by the crescent linear effect on digestible dry matter intake, on apparent digestibility of dry matter and organic matter as well as on the levels of total digestible nutrients of the diet consistent with the increase in intake of the most digestible ingredient, ground corn. In the same way, there was a positive linear effect for apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber. The supplementation provided linear positive effect on the flow of microbial nitrogen compounds (MICN for the small intestine, and did not affect the microbial synthesis efficiency. The supply of energetic supplement for beef heifers, at pasture, during the rainy season increases the use of the forage and consequently, weight gain.

  5. Desenvolvimento de bezerras de corte após a desmama sob níveis de concentrado After weaning beef heifers development under supplementation levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Pötter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o desenvolvimento de bezerras de corte recebendo diferentes níveis diários de suplemento concentrado: 0,0; 0,3; 0,6 e 0,9% do peso corporal em pastagem de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e duas repetições de área. As bezerras tiveram condições similares de disponibilidade de pasto (massa de forragem e oferta de lâminas verdes em todos os tratamentos. Aumentos na quantidade fornecida de suplemento interferiram positivamente no ganho médio diário, na carga animal, no ganho de peso por área e na eficiência de transformação da forragem. Bezerras suplementadas apresentaram maior peso corporal e maior escore de condição corporal aos 13 meses de idade em relação às não suplementadas. Em aveia preta e azevém, fornecer até 0,9% do peso corporal dos animais em suplementação concentrada é uma alternativa para serem obtidas novilhas mais pesadas e com melhor escore de condição corporal.It was evaluated the performance of beef heifers receiving different levels of supplement: 0; 0.3; 0.6 and 0.9% of body weight day-1, in black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb. plus Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. pasture. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and two area replicates. Beef heifers from different treatments had access to the same forage allowance (herbage mass and supply of green leaves. Increases on supplement quantity positively interfered on average daily gain, stocking rate, weight gain per area and forage transformation efficiency. Supplemented heifers had greater weight and body condition at 13 months of age than the non supplemented ones. In black oats plus Italian ryegrass pasture, providing up to 0.9% of body weight of the animal concentrate supplementation is an alternative for obtaining heavier heifers and in better body condition score.

  6. Leptin concentrations in finishing beef steers and heifers and their association with dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, A P; Tait, R G; Keisler, D H; Hales, K E; Freetly, H C

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of circulating plasma leptin concentrations with production and body composition measures of finishing beef steers and heifers and to determine if multiple sampling time points improve the associations of plasma leptin concentrations with production and body composition traits. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) and ADG were determined for 84 d using steers and heifers (n = 127 steers and n = 109 heifers). Blood was collected on day 0, day 42, and day 83 for determination of plasma leptin concentrations. Leptin concentrations were greater in heifers than those in steers on day 0 (P leptin concentrations increased in both sexes but were not different from each other on day 83. Leptin concentrations at all 3 time points and the mean were shown to be positively associated with DMI (P ≤ 0.006), whereas the mean leptin concentration explaining 8.3% of the variance of DMI. Concentrations of leptin at day 42, day 83, and the mean of all 3 time points were positively associated with ADG (P ≤ 0.011). Mean leptin concentration was negatively associated with gain:feed ratio and positively associated with residual feed intake (RFI), indicating that more efficient cattle had lower leptin concentrations. However, leptin concentrations explained very little of the variation in residual feed intake (≤ 3.2% of the variance). Leptin concentrations were positively associated with body fat measured by ultrasonography at the 12th rib and over the rump (P leptin concentration explaining 21.9% and 12.7% of the variance in 12th rib and rump fat thickness, respectively. The same trend was observed with carcass composition where leptin concentrations were positively associated with 12th rib fat thickness, USDA-calculated yield grade (YG), and marbling score (P ≤ 0.006) and mean leptin concentration explained 16.8, 18.2, and 4.6% of the variance for 12th rib fat thickness, yield grade, and marbling score, respectively

  7. Sexually dimorphic innate immunological responses of pre-pubertal Brahman cattle following an intravenous lipopolysaccharide challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Jeffery A; Burdick Sanchez, Nicole C; Hulbert, Lindsey E; Ballou, Michael A; Dailey, Jeffery W; Caldwell, Lisa C; Vann, Rhonda C; Welsh, Thomas H; Randel, Ronald D

    2015-08-15

    This study was designed to characterize potential sexually dimorphic immunological responses following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge in beef cattle. Six female (heifers) and five male (bulls) Brahman calves (average age=253 ± 19.9 and 288 ± 47.9 days; average body weight=194 ± 11 kg and 247 ± 19 kg for heifers and bulls, respectively) were challenged with LPS (0.25 μg LPS/kg body weight). Following administration of LPS, all cattle displayed increased sickness behavior beginning at 0.5h, with heifers on average displaying less sickness behavior than bulls. A febrile response was observed in all animals following LPS administration, with a maximum response observed from 4 to 5.5h. The average rectal temperature response was greater in heifers than bulls. In all cattle there were elevated serum concentrations of cortisol from 0.5 to 8h, TNF-α from 1 to 2.5h, IL-6 from 2 to 8h, and IFN-γ from 2.5 to 7h after LPS challenge. Additionally, serum concentrations of TNF-α were greater in heifers than bulls from 1.5 to 2h after the LPS challenge. Concentrations of IFN-γ were also greater on average in bulls than heifers. Leukopenia occurred from 1 to 8h, with a decreased neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio for the first 5h among all calves. These data demonstrate the existence of a sexually dimorphic acute-phase response in pre-pubertal Brahman calves. Specifically, heifers may have a more robust acute response to LPS challenge, even though bulls display more signs of sickness. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Comparison of methionine chelated versus sulfate trace minerals on rate and efficiency of gain and pregnancy rates in beef heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objectives of this experiment were to compare rate and efficiency of gain, and conception rates of yearling heifers supplemented with Cu, Zn, and Mn as either metal methionine hydroxy analogue chelated trace minerals (CTM; provided as MINTREX) or the same trace minerals in SO4 form. The experimental...

  9. Fecal shedding of foodborne pathogens and other enterobacteriaceae by Florida heifers and steers in US beef production segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective in this study was to assess breed effects in fecal prevalence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in heifers on a development program in Florida and in their half-sibling steers in stocker and feedlot phases in Oklahoma. A secondary objective was to characterize fecal shedding of Campylobacte...

  10. Performance, behaviour and meat quality of beef heifers fed concentrate and straw offered as total mixed ration or free-choice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iraira, S.P.; Madruga, A.; Pérez-Juan, M.; Ruíz-de-la-Torre, J.; Rodríguez-Prado, M.; Calsamiglia, S.; Manteca, X.; Ferret, A.

    2015-07-01

    Eighteen Simmental heifers were fed concentrate and barley straw offered as a total mixed ration (TMR) or separately as a free choice (FCH) to compare performance, behaviour, and meat quality. The heifers were assigned to treatments in a randomized complete block design. Animals were allotted to roofed pens with 3 animals per pen, and 3 pens per treatment. Intake of concentrate, average daily gain, and gain to feed ratio were not different between diets, being on average 7.6 kg/day, 1.38 kg/day and 0.18 kg/kg, respectively. Straw intake was greater in TMR than in FCH treatment (0.7 vs 0.3 kg/day, respectively; p<0.001). Crude protein intake, neutral detergent fibre intake and water consumption did not differ between treatments. Time spent eating was longer in FCH than in TMR (p=0.001), whereas time spent ruminating and total chewing time were longer (p<0.01) in TMR than in FCH. The number of displacements resulting from competition for feed in the main feeder in TMR treatment tended to be greater than in FCH treatment. There were no differences in the carcass characteristics and quality of meat of animals assigned to the different feeding methods, but the percentage of 18:2 n-6 was higher in FCH treatment. In summary, these results suggest that the use of TMR as a feeding method in beef cattle fed high concentrate diets did not affect performance and increased time spent ruminating with a potential decrease of ruminal acidosis incidence. (Author)

  11. Performance, behaviour and meat quality of beef heifers fed concentrate and straw offered as total mixed ration or free-choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio P. Iraira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eighteen Simmental heifers were fed concentrate and barley straw offered as a total mixed ration (TMR or separately as a free choice (FCH to compare performance, behaviour, and meat quality. The heifers were assigned to treatments in a randomized complete block design. Animals were allotted to roofed pens with 3 animals per pen, and 3 pens per treatment. Intake of concentrate, average daily gain, and gain to feed ratio were not different between diets, being on average 7.6 kg/day, 1.38 kg/day and 0.18 kg/kg, respectively. Straw intake was greater in TMR than in FCH treatment (0.7 vs 0.3 kg/day, respectively; p<0.001. Crude protein intake, neutral detergent fibre intake and water consumption did not differ between treatments. Time spent eating was longer in FCH than in TMR (p=0.001, whereas time spent ruminating and total chewing time were longer (p<0.01 in TMR than in FCH. The number of displacements resulting from competition for feed in the main feeder in TMR treatment tended to be greater than in FCH treatment. There were no differences in the carcass characteristics and quality of meat of animals assigned to the different feeding methods, but the percentage of 18:2 n-6 was higher in FCH treatment. In summary, these results suggest that the use of TMR as a feeding method in beef cattle fed high concentrate diets did not affect performance and increased time spent ruminating with a potential decrease of ruminal acidosis incidence.

  12. The metabolic, stress axis, and hematology response of zilpaterol hydrochloride supplemented beef heifers when exposed to a dual corticotropin-releasing hormone and vasopressin challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntyn, J O; Burdick Sanchez, N C; Schmidt, T B; Erickson, G E; Sieren, S E; Jones, S J; Carroll, J A

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the metabolic, stress, and hematology response of beef heifers supplemented with zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) when exposed to an endocrine stress challenge. Heifers ( = 20; 556 ± 7 kg BW) were randomized into 2 treatment groups: 1) control (CON), no ZH supplementation, and 2) zilpaterol (ZIL), supplemented with ZH at 8.33 mg/kg (DM basis). The ZIL group was supplemented ZH for 20 d, with a 3-d withdrawal period. On d 24, heifers received an intravenous bolus of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH; 0.3 µg/kg BW) and arginine vasopressin (VP; 1.0 µg/kg BW) to activate the stress axis. Blood samples were collected at 30-min intervals for serum and 60-min intervals for plasma and whole blood, from -2 to 8 h relative to the challenge at 0 h (1000 h). Samples were analyzed for glucose, insulin, NEFA, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and complete blood cell counts. Following the challenge, cattle were harvested over a 3-d period. Liver, LM, and biceps femoris (BF) samples were collected and analyzed for glucose, lactate, and glycolytic potential (GP). There was a treatment ( ≤ 0.001) effect for vaginal temperature (VT), with ZIL having a 0.1°C decrease in VT when compared with CON. A treatment × time effect ( = 0.002) was observed for NEFA. A treatment effect was observed for BUN; ZIL had decreased BUN concentrations compared with CON ( challenge; however, no treatment × time effect was observed. There was also a treatment effect for cortisol ( ≤ 0.01) and epinephrine ( = 0.003); ZIL had decreased cortisol and epinephrine during the CRH/VP challenge when compared with CON. There was a time effect for total white blood cells, lymphocytes, and monocytes; each variable increased ( ≤ 0.01) 2 h postchallenge. Additionally, neutrophil counts decreased ( ≤ 0.01) in response to CRH/VP challenge in both treatment groups. Glucose concentrations within the LM were greater ( = 0.03) in CON

  13. Effect of divergence in residual feed intake on feeding behavior, blood metabolic variables, and body composition traits in growing beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A K; McGee, M; Crews, D H; Fahey, A G; Wylie, A R; Kenny, D A

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of feed efficiency and performance with feeding behavior, blood metabolic variables, and various body composition measurements in growing beef heifers. Individual DMI and growth were measured in yearling Limousin x Holstein-Friesian heifers [n = 86; initial BW = 191.8 (SD = 37) kg] fed a TMR diet comprising 70:30 concentrate:corn silage on a DM basis (ME of 2.65 Mcal/kg of DM; DM of 580 g/kg) for 82 d. Meal duration (min/d) and meal frequency (events/d) were calculated for each animal on a daily basis using an Insentec computerized feeding system. Physical measurements as well as ultrasonic fat and muscle depths were recorded on 3 equally spaced occasions during the experimental period. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture on 4 equally spaced occasions and analyzed for plasma concentrations of IGF-I, insulin, leptin, and various metabolites. Phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI) was calculated for all animals as the residuals from a multiple regression model regressing DMI on ADG and midtest BW(0.75). Overall, ADG, DMI, feed conversion ratio (FCR), and RFI were 1.51 (SD = 0.13), 6.74 (SD = 0.99), 4.48 (SD = 0.65), and 0.00 (SD = 0.48) kg/d, respectively. Residual feed intake was positively correlated with DMI (r = 0.47) and FCR (r = 0.46), but not with ADG or midtest BW. Positive correlations (ranging from r = 0.27 to r = 0.63) were estimated between ultrasonic measures of final lumbar fat and lumbar fat accretion over the test period and DMI, FCR, and RFI. The inclusion of gain in lumbar fat to the base RFI model increased R(2) (0.77 vs. 0.80) value for the degree of variation in DMI not explained by midtest BW and ADG alone. The Pearson rank correlation between RFI and carcass-adjusted RFI (RFI(c)) was high (r = 0.93). From the plasma analytes measured, NEFA (r = -0.21; P glucose:insulin (r = -0.23), NEFA (r = -0.32), and beta-hydroxybutyrate (r = 0.25) were associated with FCR. However, systemic IGF-I and

  14. Replacement of soybean meal by soybean in multiple supplements for beef heifers grazing Urochloa decumbens during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mageste de Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of replacing soybean meal with soybean in multiple supplements on nutritional parameters, microbial efficiency and productive and reproductive performance of heifers grazing in Urochloa decumbens during the drought period. Were used 39 crossbred heifers of initial age and initial weight of 21 months and 309.5±7 kg, respectively. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments with eight replicates, and a control treatment with seven replications. Two treatments had soybean meal as the protein source and two treatments had soybean as the protein source, containing 25% and 40% crude protein. The amount of supplement offered was 1.0 kg/animal/day. The animals of the control group received only mineral salt ad libitum. The supplemented animals had higher average daily gain (ADG than control animals (P<0.10, and there was no difference in ADG among the supplements (P>0.10. There was an effect of supplementation (P <0.10 on intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC, total digestible nutrients (TDN and neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDF. There were no differences (P>0.10 on intake of OM and DM grazing between the supplemented and non-supplemented. Supplementation improved DM digestibility and all constituents of the diet (P<0.10. It was found that the provision of multiple supplements optimizes the performance of heifers grazing during the dry season, and that the substitution of soybean meal by soybean did not improve productive performance of animals.

  15. Evaluation of pre-breeding reproductive tract scoring as a predictor of long term reproductive performance in beef heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holm, D E; Nielen, M; Jorritsma, R; Irons, P C; Thompson, P N

    2015-01-01

    In a 7-year longitudinal study 292 Bovelder beef cows in a restricted breeding system in South Africa were observed from 1 to 2 days before their first breeding season, when reproductive tract scoring (RTS, scored from 1 to 5) was performed, until weaning their 5th calves. The objective was to deter

  16. Life cycle efficiency of beef production: VIII. Relationship between residual feed intake of heifers and subsequent cow efficiency ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data were collected from 1953 through 1980 from identical and fraternal twin beef and dairy females born in 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, and 1969, and from crossbred females born as singles in 1974, and their progeny. Numbers of dams that weaned at least 1 calf and were included in the first analysis we...

  17. National Beef Quality Audit-2000: survey of targeted cattle and carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, and value of fed steers and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, D R; Roebert, D L; Bates, P K; Schmidt, T B; Hale, D S; Griffin, D B; Savell, J W; Brooks, J C; Morgan, J B; Montgomery, T H; Belk, K E; Smith, G C

    2002-05-01

    The National Beef Quality Audit-2000 was conducted to assess the current status ofthe quality and consistency of U.S. fed steers and heifers. Between May and November 2000, survey teams assessed hide condition (n = 43,415 cattle for color, brands, mud/manure), bruises (n = 43,595 carcasses), offal and carcass condemnation (n = 8,588 cattle), and carcass quality and yield information (n = 9,396 carcasses) in 30 U.S. beef packing plants. Hide colors were black (45.1%), red (31.0%), yellow (8.0%), Holstein (5.7%), gray (4.0%), white (3.2%), brown (1.7%), and brindle (1.3%). Brand frequencies were no (49.3%), one (46.2%), and two or more (4.4%), and brands were located on the butt (36.3%), side (13.7%), and shoulder (3.6%). Most cattle had no (18.0%) or a small amount (55.8%) of mud/manure on their hides, and they had no (77.3%) horns. Most carcasses (53.3%) were not bruised, 30.9% had one bruise, and 15.8% had multiple bruises. Bruise location and incidence were round (14.9%), loin (25.9%), rib (19.4%), chuck (28.2%), and brisket, flank, and plate (11.6%). Condemnation item and incidence were liver (30.3%), lungs (13.8%), tripe (11.6%), heads (6.2%), tongues (7.0%), and carcasses (0.1%). Carcass evaluation revealed these traits and frequencies: steer (67.9%), heifer (31.8%), and bullock (0.3%) sex-classes; dark-cutters (2.3%); A (96.6%), B (2.5%), and C or older (0.9%) overall maturities; and native (90.1%), dairy-type (6.9%), and Bos indicus (3.0%) breed-types. Mean USDA yield grade traits were USDA yield grade (3.0), carcass weight (356.9 kg), adjusted fat thickness (1.2 cm), longissimus muscle area (84.5 cm2), and kidney, pelvic, and heart fat (2.4%). USDA yield grades were Yield Grade 1 (12.2%), Yield Grade 2 (37.4%), Yield Grade 3 (38.6%), Yield Grade 4 (10.4%), and Yield Grade 5 (1.3%). Mean USDA quality grade traits were USDA quality grade (Select85), marbling score (Small23), overall maturity (A66), lean maturity (A65), and skeletal maturity (A67). Marbling

  18. Endometrial response of beef heifers on day 7 following insemination to supraphysiological concentrations of progesterone associated with superovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forde, N; Carter, F; di Francesco, S; Mehta, J P; Garcia-Herreros, M; Gad, A; Tesfaye, D; Hoelker, M; Schellander, K; Lonergan, P

    2012-11-15

    Ovarian stimulation is a routine procedure in assisted reproduction to stimulate the growth of multiple follicles in naturally single-ovulating species including cattle and humans. The aim of this study was to analyze the changes induced in the endometrial transcriptome associated with superovulation in cattle and place these observations in the context of our previous data on changes in the endometrial transcriptome associated with elevated progesterone (P4) concentrations within the physiological range and those changes induced in the embryo due to superovulation. Mean serum P4 concentrations were significantly higher from day 4 to day 7 in superovulated compared with unstimulated control heifers (P superovulated heifers (n = 5). This was reflected in the number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identified between the two groups with 795 up- and 440 downregulated in superovulated endometria. Ten times more genes were altered by superovulation (n = 1,234) compared with the number altered due to elevated P4 within physiological ranges by insertion of a P4-releasing intravaginal device (n = 124) with only 22 DEGs common to both models of P4 manipulation. Fewer genes were affected by superovulation in the embryo compared with the endometrium, (443 vs. 1,234 DEGs, respectively), and the manner in which genes were altered was different with 64.5% of genes up- and 35.5% of genes downregulated in the endometrium, compared with the 98.9% of DEGs upregulated in the embryo. In conclusion, superovulation induces significant changes in the transcriptome of the endometrium which are distinct from those in the embryo.

  19. The effect of parturition induction treatment on interval to calving, calving ease, postpartum uterine health, and resumption of ovarian cyclicity in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šavc, Miha; Kenny, David A; Beltman, Marijke E

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two parturition induction protocols with a nontreated control group, on interval to calving, calving ease, postpartum uterine health, and ovarian cyclicity in beef heifers. At Day 285 of gestation, 81 crossbred recipient beef heifers carrying purebred Simmental fetuses, were blocked by live-weight, body condition score, expected calving date and fetal sex, and assigned to one of three groups: (1) control (CON; no induction treatment, n = 29); (2) induction with corticosteroids (CORT; n = 27); or (3) induction with corticosteroids plus prostaglandin (CORT + PG; n = 25). Interval from induction to calving in hours and calving ease on a scale of 1 to 5 were recorded. Vaginal mucus samples were collected on Day 21 and Day 42 after calving (Day 0) by means of a Metricheck and scored on a scale of 0 to 3. Reproductive tract examinations were conducted on Day 21 and Day 42 after calving, and uterine cytology samples were obtained on Day 21. A positive cytologic sample was defined as greater than 18% neutrophils in the sample obtained via a cytobrush technique. Cows were considered to have resumed ovarian cyclicity if the presence of the CL was confirmed. Data were analyzed using the Mixed (normally distributed data) and Genmod (nonparametric data) procedures of SAS (v. 9.3). The interval from treatment to calving was longer (P < 0.0001) for CON (161.9 ± 15.12 hours) animals compared with CORT (39.7 ± 11.64 hours) or CORT + PG (32.6 ± 12.10 hours), which did not differ. Treatment did not affect calving difficulty score. There was also no difference in incidence of retained placenta between the three groups. At Day 21 postpartum, cytology score tended to be higher for both induced groups (48%) compared with the control animals (24%), but this was not the case for vaginal mucus score (CON 52%, CORT 70%, and CORT + PG 52%). A higher proportion of CON had an involuted uterus by Day 21 postpartum (69

  20. National Beef Quality Audit-2005: survey of targeted cattle and carcass characteristics related to quality, quantity, and value of fed steers and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, L G; Nicholson, K L; Hoffman, T W; Lawrence, T E; Hale, D S; Griffin, D B; Savell, J W; Vanoverbeke, D L; Morgan, J B; Belk, K E; Field, T G; Scanga, J A; Tatum, J D; Smith, G C

    2008-12-01

    The National Beef Quality Audit-2005 assessed the current status of quality and consistency of US fed steers and heifers. Hide colors or breed type were black (56.3%), red (18.6%), Holstein (7.9%), gray (6.0%), yellow (4.9%), brown (3.0%), white (2.3%), and brindle (1.0%). Identification method and frequency were lot visual tags (63.2%), individual visual tags (38.7%), metal-clip tags (11.8%), electronic tags (3.5%), bar-coded tags (0.3%), by other means (2.5%), and without identification (9.7%). Brand frequencies were no (61.3%), 1 (35.1%), and 2 or more (3.6%), and brands were located on the butt (26.5%), side (7.4%), and shoulder (1.2%). There were 22.3% of cattle without horns, and the majority of those with horns (52.2%) were between 2.54 and 12.7 cm in length. Percentages of animals with mud or manure on specific body locations were none (25.8%), legs (61.4%), belly (55.9%), side (22.6%), and top-line (10.0%). Permanent incisor number and occurrence were zero (82.2%), 1 (5.2%), 2 (9.9%), 3 (0.4%), 4 (1.2%), 5 (0.1%), 6 (0.3%), 7 (0.0%), and 8 (0.7%). Most carcasses (64.8%) were not bruised, 25.8% had one bruise, and 9.4% had multiple bruises. Bruise location and incidence were round (10.6%), loin (32.6%), rib (19.5%), chuck (27.0%), and brisket, flank, and plate (10.3%). Condemnation item and incidence were liver (24.7%), lungs (11.5%), tripe (11.6%), heads (6.0%), tongues (9.7%), and carcasses (0.0%). Carcass evaluation revealed these traits and frequencies: steer (63.7%), heifer (36.2%), bullock (0.05%), and cow (0.04%) sex classes; dark-cutters (1.9%); A (97.1%), B (1.7%), and C or older (1.2%) overall maturities; and native (90.9%), dairy-type (8.3%), and Bos indicus (0.8%) estimated breed types. Mean USDA yield grade (YG) traits were USDA YG (2.9), HCW (359.9 kg), adjusted fat thickness (1.3 cm), LM area (86.4 cm(2)), and KPH (2.3%). The USDA YG were YG 1 (16.5%), YG 2 (36.3%), YG 3 (33.1%), YG 4 (11.8%), and YG 5 (2.3%). Mean USDA quality grade traits

  1. Effect of epinephrine, norepinephrine and(or) GnRH on serum LH in prepuberal beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, D R; Randel, R D

    1983-09-01

    Forty prepuberal Simmental X Brahman-Hereford heifers were utilized to determine the effects of epinephrine (E), norepinephrine (NE), gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) or combinations of GnRH + E and GnRH + NE on serum luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations. Animals were assigned randomly to one of five treatments with four replicates/treatment. Treatments consisted of I) 100 micrograms GnRH at time 0 (n = 8); II) 50 mg NE at time -15 and 0 (n = 8); III) 50 mg E at time -15 and 0 (n = 8); IV) 100 micrograms GnRH at time 0, plus 50 mg NE at time -15 and 0 (n = 8) and V) 100 micrograms GnRH at time 0, plus 50 mg E at time -15 and 0 (n = 8). All treatment compounds were administered im in 2 ml physiological saline and blood samples were collected via tail vessel puncture at -30, -15, 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 min from GnRH injection. Treatment with NE or E alone had no effect (P greater than .10) on serum LH during the sampling period. The initial LH release to GnRH was altered (P less than .05) by concomitant treatment with NE (treatment IV) or E (treatment V). Magnitude of the LH release was reduced (P less than .01) by treatment V. Area under the LH surge was reduced (P less than .05) by treatment IV (NE) and V (E).

  2. Sward canopy structure and performance of beef heifers under supplementation in Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures maintained with three grazing intensities in a continuous stocking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rume Casagrande

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the sward canopy structure of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures maintained in three grazing intensities under continuous stocking system during the rainy season, along with the behavior and performance of grazing beef heifers supplemented with mineral salt or an energy/protein supplement. Three levels of forage allowance were assessed: 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kg of forage/kg of live weight, combined with two supplements (ad libitum mineral salt, and an energy/protein supplement at 0.3% of live weight/day, supplied daily. The experiment was designed as a randomized block study with two replications. The supplements did not influence the variables related to the canopy structure. Canopy height was greater at higher forage allowances during the late summer and early fall. Similarly, the stem mass was greater in pastures with higher forage allowances. Animals fed protein supplement spent less time grazing than animals supplemented with mineral salt. Stocking rate was higher in pastures with lower forage allowance levels, which increased the live weight gain per grazing area. Daily weight gain did not vary according to the forage allowance levels. The use of an energy/protein supplement did not affect the stocking rate; however, it increased individual live weight gain and live weight gain per grazing area compared with mineral salt supplementation. The use of energy/protein supplements is an efficient alternative to enhance animal performance and production under grazing systems during the rainy season

  3. Function of the corpus luteum in beef heifers is affected by acute submaintenance feeding but is not correlated with residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lents, C A; Randel, R D; Stelzleni, A M; Caldwell, L C; Welsh, T H

    2011-12-01

    Seventy-four Angus and Angus × Hereford heifers were used in 2 successive years (yr 1, n = 43; yr 2, n = 31) to determine if luteal function of heifers during acute submaintenance feeding is related to variation in utilization of feed as determined by residual feed intake (RFI). Residual feed intake was determined for heifers beginning at 12.3 ± 0.1 mo of age in yr 1 and at 9.1 ± 0.1 mo of age in yr 2. Heifers were assigned to dry-lot pens (n = 6 to 9 heifers/pen) with electronic gates to measure individual feed intake of a total mixed ration for 70 and 72 d in yr 1 and 2, respectively. Residual feed intake was calculated as the difference between actual DMI and expected DMI from linear regression of DMI on mid-test BW(0.75) and ADG. At 14.4 ± 0.1 mo of age, all heifers were provided a restricted amount of feed to supply 40% of their maintenance energy requirements for 21 d. Estrous cycles of heifers were synchronized with PGF(2α) on d -10, 0, and 11 relative to start of restriction. Concentrations of progesterone in plasma on d 14 to 21 of restriction were used to determine if heifers ovulated. Overall ADG and ADFI were 0.83 ± 0.02 and 7.37 ± 0.67 kg/d, respectively, for yr 1; and 0.50 ± 0.02 and 5.66 ± 0.09 kg/d, respectively, for yr 2. There was no correlation between RFI and BW, ADG, ADFI, or ultrasound measure of backfat, nor was RFI related to concentrations of IGF-I in plasma. All heifers lost BW and had reduced backfat (P feeding. All heifers had reproductive cycles before dietary restriction started. During acute nutritional restriction, 4 heifers became anovulatory. Sixteen heifers had concentrations of progesterone in plasma during restricted feeding that were atypical of normal luteal function. There was no relationship between luteal function during nutrient restriction and RFI of heifers. Circulating IGF-1 was greater at weaning and after restricted feeding in heifers with a smaller RFI (>0.5 SD below the mean) than heifers with a greater RFI

  4. Effects of long- or short-term exposure to a calf identified as persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus on feedlot performance of freshly weaned, transport-stressed beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elam, N A; Thomson, D U; Gleghorn, J F

    2008-08-01

    A single experiment with a completely randomized design was conducted to evaluate the effects of long- or short-term exposure to a calf identified as persistently infected with bovine viral diarrhea virus (PI-BVD) on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of freshly weaned, transport-stressed beef heifers. Two hundred eighty-eight heifers that had been vaccinated for BVD before weaning and transport were processed and given a metaphylactic antibiotic treatment at arrival and were fed common receiving, growing, and finishing diets for a 215-d period. Treatments were designed to directly or adjacently expose the cattle to a PI-BVD heifer. Directly exposed treatments were 1) negative control with no PI-BVD calf exposure (control), 2) PI-BVD calf commingled in the pen for 60 h and then removed (short-term exposure), and 3) PI-BVD calf commingled in the pen for the duration of the study (long-term exposure); and spatially exposed treatments were 1) negative control with no PI-BVD calf exposure (adjacent pen control), 2) PI-BVD calf commingled in the adjacent pen for 60 h and then removed (adjacent pen short-term exposure), and 3) PI-BVD calf commingled in the adjacent pen for the duration of the study (adjacent pen long-term exposure). Exposure to a PI calf transiently (60 h) or for the duration of the feeding period (215 d) did not affect (P > or = 0.25) final BW compared with heifers that were not exposed. Neither period nor overall DMI was affected (P > or = 0.37) by PI-BVD calf exposure, and no differences (P > or = 0.44) were observed between short- and long-term exposed heifers in the direct or spatially exposed groups. Likewise, total trial ADG was not affected (P > or = 0.36) and overall efficiency of gain (P > or = 0.19) was unaffected by PI-BVD calf exposure in the direct or spatially exposed groups. The results from this study suggest that exposing previously vaccinated, freshly weaned, transport- stressed beef calves to a calf that is persistently

  5. Function of the corpus luteum in beef heifers is affected by acute submaintenance feeding but is not correlated with residual feed intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventy-four Angus and Angus x Hereford heifers were used in two successive years (yr 1, n = 43; yr 2, n = 31) to determine if ovarian function of heifers during acute submaintenance feeding is related to variation in utilization of feed as determined by residual feed intake (RFI). Residual feed in...

  6. Serological response to administration of Brucella abortus strain RB51 vaccine in beef and dairy heifers, using needle-free and standard needle-based injection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to compare immunologic responses of heifers vaccinated with 10**10 colony-forming units (CFU) of Brucella abortus strain RB51 (SRB51) by standard needle-and-syringe system or a needle-free injection system. Heifers were randomly assigned to control and vaccination gro...

  7. GROWTH AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF BEEF HEIFERS WEANED AT DIFFERENT AGES DESENVOLVIMENTO E DESEMPENHO REPRODUTIVO DE NOVILHAS DE CORTE SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES IDADES DE DESMAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Restle

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the growth until twenty-eight months of age and the reproductive performance during the first mating at twenty- five months of beef females from two breeding systems, straightbreds (Charolais – C and Nellore – N and crossbreds (1/2 CN, ½ NC, submitted to two ages of weaning: T3 – weaning at three months; T7 – weaning at seven months. After the weaning management heifers were kept only on pasture. The data collected were weights taken at three, four, seven, twelve, eighteen, twenty-four and twenty-eight months of age, average daily weight gain (ADG between the different ages, body conditions at twenty-four and twenty-eight months, pelvic area and pregnancy rate. No significant interaction was observed for, the variables studied, between age at weaning and breeding system. ADG was lower for T3 calves from three to seven months (296 vs 434 g and higher from seven to twelve months (541 vs 417 g, afterward no significant difference was observed between the two treatments. The only significant difference for weight was at seven months, when T7 calves showed higher weight (144 vs 128 kg. Weights at twenty-four months were 333 and 331 kg, respectively, for T3 and T7. Crossbred females showed higher weight gain from three to eighteen months and were heavier at twelve (11.73%, eighteen (17.10%, twenty-four (14.89% and twenty-eight  months (19.03%. No significant differences, between weaning ages, were observed for body condition and pelvic area. Pregnancy rate was similar between T7 (66.7% and T3 (63.0%. Crossbred females showed higher body condition at twenty-four (3.8 vs 3.3 points and twenty-eight months (3.66 vs 3.07 points had larger pelvic area (158.29 vs 166.28 cm2 and higher pregnancy rate (79.1 vs 38.7% than the straightbreds. When nutrition conditions are adequate the weaning at three months does not affect the weight nor the reproductive performance of heifers during the first breeding

  8. Enteric methane emissions from low- and high-residual feed intake beef heifers measured using GreenFeed and respiration chamber techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, A W; Vyas, D; Manafiazar, G; Basarab, J A; Beauchemin, K A

    2017-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationship between residual feed intake (RFI; g/d) and enteric methane (CH) production (g/kg DM) and to compare CH and carbon dioxide (CO) emissions measured using respiration chambers (RC) and the GreenFeed emission monitoring (GEM) system (C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD). A total of 98 crossbred replacement heifers were group housed in 2 pens and fed barley silage ad libitum and their individual feed intakes were recorded by 16 automated feeding bunks (GrowSafe, Airdrie, AB, Canada) for a period of 72 d to determine their phenotypic RFI. Heifers were ranked on the basis of phenotypic RFI, and 16 heifers (8 with low RFI and 8 with high RFI) were randomly selected for enteric CH and CO emissions measurement. Enteric CH and CO emissions of individual animals were measured over two 25-d periods using RC (2 d/period) and GEM systems (all days when not in chambers). During gas measurements metabolic BW tended to be greater ( ≤ 0.09) for high-RFI heifers but ADG tended ( = 0.09) to be greater for low-RFI heifers. As expected, high-RFI heifers consumed 6.9% more feed ( = 0.03) compared to their more efficient counterparts (7.1 vs. 6.6 kg DM/d). Average CH emissions were 202 and 222 g/d ( = 0.02) with the GEM system and 156 and 164 g/d ( = 0.40) with RC for the low- and high-RFI heifers, respectively. When adjusted for feed intake, CH yield (g/kg DMI) was similar for high- and low-RFI heifers (GEM: 27.7 and 28.5, = 0.25; RC: 26.5 and 26.5, = 0.99). However, CH yield differed between the 2 measurement techniques only for the high-RFI group ( = 0.01). Estimates of CO yield (g/kg DMI) also differed between the 2 techniques ( ≤ 0.03). Our study found that high- and low-efficiency cattle produce similar CH yield but different daily CH emissions. The 2 measurement techniques differ in estimating CH and CO emissions, partially because of differences in conditions (lower feed intakes of cattle while in chambers, fewer days

  9. Comparison of methionine hydroxy analogue chelated versus sulfate forms of copper, zinc, and manganese on growth performance and pregnancy rates in yearling beef replacement heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objectives were to compare growth performance and pregnancy rates of heifers supplemented with Cu, Zn, and Mn as either methionine hydroxy analog chelate (provided as MINTREX) or in the S04 form. The experiment used 3 ranches, each having 2 replicate pens per treatment. Performance data were ana...

  10. Effect of divergence in phenotypic residual feed intake on methane emissions, ruminal fermentation, and apparent whole-tract digestibility of beef heifers across three contrasting diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, R P; Hart, K J; Boland, T M; Kelly, A K; McGee, M; Kenny, D A

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of divergent phenotypic ranking for residual feed intake (RFI) on ruminal CH emissions, diet digestibility, and indices of ruminal fermentation in heifers across 3 commercially relevant diets. Twenty-eight Limousin × Friesian heifers were used and were ranked on the basis of phenotypic RFI: 14 low-RFI and 14 high-RFI animals. Ruminal CH emissions were estimated over 5 d using the SF tracer gas technique on 3 successive occasions: 1) at the end of a 6-wk period (Period 1) on grass silage (GS), 2) at the end of an 8-wk period (Period 2) at pasture, and 3) at the end of a 5-wk period (Period 3) on a 30:70 corn silage:concentrate total mixed ration (TMR). Animals were allowed ad libitum access to feed and water at all times. Individual DMI was estimated during CH measurement and rumen samples were taken at the end of each CH measurement period. Diet type affected all feed intake and CH traits measured ( 0.05), but CH yield was greatest in low-RFI heifers ( = 0.03) as a proportion of both DMI and GE intake. Interactions between the main effects were observed ( < 0.05) for CP digestibility (CPD), DM digestibility (DMD), ruminal propionate, and the acetate:propionate ratio. Low-RFI animals had greater ( < 0.05) CPD and DMD than their high-RFI contemporaries when offered GS but not the other 2 diets. Low-RFI heifers also had greater OM digestibility ( = 0.027). Additionally, low-RFI heifers had a lower concentration of propionate ( < 0.05) compared with high-RFI heifers when fed GS, resulting in a greater ( < 0.05) acetate:propionate ratio. However, these differences were not evident for the other 2 diets. Energetically efficient animals do not have a lower ruminal methanogenic potential compared with their more inefficient counterparts and, indeed, some evidence to the contrary was found, which may reflect the greater nutrient digestive potential observed in low-RFI cattle.

  11. Suplementos energéticos para recria de novilhas de corte em pastagens anuais: análise econômica Energy supplements for beef heifers rearing at annual pastures: economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Teixeira dos Santos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizada uma avaliação econômica de dois experimentos com sistemas intensivos de alimentação para recria de novilhas de corte desmamadas aos 60-90 dias. No experimento 1, as novilhas permaneceram em pastagem de milheto, exclusivamente sob pastejo (PAST1; suplementadas com grão de milho moído (PAST1/M ou suplementadas com polpa cítrica peletizada e moída (PAST1/P. No experimento 2, foram mantidas em pastagem de aveia preta e azevém, sem suplementação (PAST2; suplementadas com grão de milho moído (PAST2/M ou suplementadas com casca de soja (PAST2/C. A partir dos resultados de produção animal por hectare e da composição dos custos, realizou-se uma avaliação da resposta financeira direta dos sistemas de alimentação estudados. Com base no peso vivo médio das novilhas aos doze meses de idade, foi apresentada uma análise bioeconômica das tecnologias empregadas. No experimento 1, a suplementação com grão de milho apresentou prejuízo financeiro, enquanto os demais sistemas praticamente cobriram os custos, sem margem bruta excedente. No experimento 2, o sistema que utilizou o grão de milho como suplemento cobriu somente os custos, e o uso exclusivo da pastagem e a suplementação com casca de soja proporcionaram valores satisfatórios de margem bruta por hectare. O aumento da taxa de natalidade de 50 para 80% ou a redução da idade das novilhas ao primeiro acasalamento de três para dois anos poderia reduzir, respectivamente, em 62 e 23% o número de fêmeas improdutivas no rebanho para cada 100 vacas prenhas. Realizadas conjuntamente, estas práticas apresentam potencialidade para reduzir este número de animais em 74%.An economic evaluation was accomplished of two experiments with intensive feeding systems for rearing of beef heifers weaned with 60-90 days. In experiment 1, the heifers reared in Pearl Millet pasture, exclusively under grazing (PAST1; supplemented with milled corn grain (PAST1/C or supplemented with

  12. Desenvolvimento de novilhas de corte sob alternativas de mineralização em pastagem de azevém Development of beef heifers under mineralization alternatives, on Italian ryegrass pasture

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    Luciana Pötter

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o desenvolvimento corporal de bezerras de corte em pastagem de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam., recebendo diferentes alternativas de suplementação mineral, associadas ou não à adição de ionóforo. Os tratamentos testados foram: "Sal comum": mineralização com cloreto de sódio; "Sal 40P": mineralização com sal mineral contendo 40g de fósforo por kg de produto; "Sal 40P + ionóforo": mineralização com 40g de fósforo + 2.000mg de lasalocida sódica por kg de produto. Os valores de proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro, Ca e P na forragem aparentemente consumida, consumo de sal, escore de condição corporal, relação peso: altura e GMD foram semelhantes (P>0,05 entre animais que receberam "Sal comum", "Sal 40P" e "Sal 40P + ionóforo". Em pastagem de azevém, sem restrição ao consumo voluntário, a lasalocida sódica adicionada ao sal mineral proporciona maior peso vivo de bezerras aos 12 meses de idade e um retorno financeiro positivo.Body development of beef heifers grazing Italian ryegrass pasture (Lolium multiflorum Lam. was evaluated. The animals received different alternatives of mineral supplement: associated or not to ionophore addition and the treatments were: 'Common salt': mineralization with sodium chloride; '40P salt': mineralization with mineral salt plus 40g of phosphorus per kilo of product; 40P salt + ionophore: mineralization with 40g of phosphorus plus 2000mg of lasalocid per kg of product. The values of crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and Ca and P of the apparently consumed forage, salt intake, body condition and body weight:height relation were similar (P>0.05 between animals receiving 'common salt', '40P salt' and '40P salt+ionophor'. For beef heifers grazing ryegrass pasture without intake restriction, the lasalocid associated to mineral salt provides a greater body weight at twelve months age and a positive financial.

  13. Efeito da duração do tratamento com progestágeno e da maturidade sexual na taxa de prenhez em novilhas de corte: avaliação econômica e biológica Effect of the duration of progestagen exposure and sexual maturity on the pregnancy rate of beef heifers: economic and biological evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Francisco Machado Pfeifer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos neste experimento foram avaliar o efeito do tempo de exposição a um progestágeno (P4 na taxa de prenhez de novilhas púberes e pré-púberes inseminadas em tempo-fixo (IATF e estudar o retorno econômico dos protocolos utilizados, por meio da comparação desses protocolos ao sistema tradicional de acasalamento natural aos 26 meses de idade. Foram utilizadas 114 novilhas da raça Bradford com 16 meses de idade, classificadas em quatro grupos de acordo com o tratamento e a maturidade sexual: GPPLP - pré-puberes, longo tratamento com P4 (n=21; e GPPCP - pré-puberes, curto tratamento com (n=19; GPLP - púberes, longo tratamento com P4 (n=34; e GPCP - púberes, curto tratamento com P4 (n=40. As novilhas do GPPLP e GPLP receberam no dia -8 um pessário intravaginal impregnado com acetato de medroxiprogesterona. No dia 0, o pessário foi removido e outro foi inserido, juntamente com uma injeção de 2,5 mg de benzoato de estradiol (BE. No dia 8, o pessário foi retirado e as novilhas receberam 0,5 mg de BE e 250 µg de cloprostenol sódico. A inseminação artificial em tempo fixo (IATF foi realizada 54 horas depois. As novilhas do GPPCP e GPCP receberam o mesmo tratamento de sincronização dos grupos GPPLP e GPLP, com exceção do AMP do dia -8 ao dia 0. A taxa de prenhez foi maior nas novilhas púberes (60,3% que nas pré-puberes (35,0%. No entanto, não foi detectado efeito do tempo de tratamento na taxa de prenhez nas novilhas púberes e pré-puberes. A resposta econômica na utilização de protocolos com P4 foi maior em novilhas aos 16 meses que no sistema de acasalamento aos 26 meses. A exposição prolongada a um P4 não foi eficiente para aumentar a taxa de prenhez de novilhas submetidas a IATF.The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of the duration of progestagen (P4 exposure and sexual maturity of prepubertal and pubertal heifers submitted to timed artificial insemination (TAI. A hundred and fourteen 16

  14. Ingestive behavior and displacement patterns of beef heifers on Italian ryegrass pasture Comportamento ingestivo e padrões de deslocamento de bezerras de corte em pastagem de azevém

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    Carine Lisete Glienke

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of supplementation on ingestive behavior and displacement patterns of beef heifers grazing on Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. pasture was evaluated. The grazing method was continuous with variable stocking rate. The experimental design was completely randomized with repeated measures on time. The supplement utilized was a commercial ration (17% CP, 21.4% NDF, daily supplied at 2 pm, in the proportion of 1% of body weight. The evaluations were made through visual observations, in four continuous periods of 24 hours. There was no difference in the bite rate between heifers with and without supplement and bite rate was higher at the end of the period of pasture utilization. Supplemented animals increased bite mass. The number of stations/minute, bites/station and the displacement patterns was influenced by forage changes along the occupation period. The ingestive behavior and displacement patterns of heifers are modified by supplementation and structural variation of the grass along its biological cycle. In the reproductive stage of Italian ryegrass, grazing time, daily number of bites and, feeding stations and time for station are similar between not supplemented and supplemented heifers.Avaliou-se a influência da suplementação no comportamento ingestivo e nos padrões de deslocamento de bezerras de corte em pastagem exclusiva de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam.. Utilizou-se o método de pastejo com lotação contínua e número variável de animais, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com medidas repetidas no tempo. Os animais receberam ração comercial (17% PB, 21,4% FDN na proporção de 1% do PV, fornecida diariamente às 14 h. As avaliações foram feitas por meio de observação visual, em quatro períodos contínuos de 24 horas. A taxa de bocados não diferiu entre bezerras com e sem suplementação, mas foi maior no período final de utilização da pastagem. Animais sob suplementação realizaram bocados

  15. Influence of ruminal or duodenal soybean oil infusion on intake, ruminal fermentation, site and extent of digestion, and microbial protein synthesis in beef heifers consuming grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krysl, L J; Judkins, M B; Bohman, V R

    1991-06-01

    Six heifers (two Hereford X Jersey, four Hereford X Longhorn; average BW 278 kg) cannulated at the rumen and duodenum and fed a grass hay (fescue/orchardgrass) diet were used in a replicated 3 X 3 Latin square. Treatments were either no infusion (C), 150 ml of duodenally infused soybean oil (DI), or 150 ml of ruminally infused soybean oil (RI)/heifer twice daily for a total daily infusion of 300 ml of soybean oil. Periods of the Latin square included 18 d for adaptation and 5 d for collection. Forage OM, ADF, NDF, and N intakes were not affected (P greater than .10) by soybean oil infusion. Ruminal (P = .11) and total tract (P less than .10) OM digestibilities were decreased by RI compared with C or DI, but ADF and NDF digestibilities were not affected by treatment. Duodenal N (P less than .05) and microbial N flows were increased (P less than .10) for C and RI compared with DI. Microbial efficiency (g of N/kg of OM truly fermented) was improved (P less than .10) by RI compared with DI but did not differ (P greater than .10) from C. Ruminal pH was lower (P less than .05) with RI than with either C or DI. Ruminal NH3 N, total VFA, and acetate were not affected (P greater than .10) by treatment. Propionate (mol/100 mol) was greater (P less than .05) with RI than with DI and C, but the proportion of butyrate did not differ among treatments. These data indicate minimal direct benefits for improving forage usage as a result of soybean oil infusion with a 100% grass diet; however, animals should realize benefits from additional dietary energy provided by infused lipid.

  16. Uterine environment and pregnancy rate of heifers with elevated plasma urea nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diets high in protein are associated with lower reproductive performance and changes in the uterine environment. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of elevated systemic concentrations of urea nitrogen on the uterine environment and pregnancy success in beef heifers. Heifers (n...

  17. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride feeding duration and postmortem aging on Warner-Bratzler shear force of three muscles from beef steers and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J C; Claus, H C; Dikeman, M E; Shook, J; Hilton, G G; Lawrence, T E; Mehaffey, J M; Johnson, B J; Allen, D M; Streeter, M N; Nichols, W T; Hutcheson, J P; Yates, D A; Miller, M F

    2009-11-01

    To determine the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; 6.8 g/t on 90% DM basis) feeding duration (0, 20, 30, and 40 d) on Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of longissimus lumborum (LL), triceps brachii (TB), and gluteus medius (GM) muscles, beef from feeding trials was collected and shipped to participating universities. Animals were slaughtered at commercial processing facilities across the United States. Strip loin, shoulder clod, and top sirloin butt subprimals (IMPS 180, 114, and 184, respectively) were obtained from a portion of USDA Choice and Select grade carcasses for WBSF using standardized procedures and equipment. Feeding ZH increased (P feeding durations. Increased postmortem aging decreased LL WBSF of control and treated steaks. Postmortem aging from 7 to 21 d decreased LL WBSF values by 17.6 and 16.4% for USDA Choice and Select steaks, respectively. The percentage of LL steaks from ZH-supplemented cattle with a WBSF value feeding durations. Feeding ZH for 20, 30, or 40 d increased (P Feeding ZH for 0, 20, and 40 d had a similar effect on WBSF of USDA Select GM steaks, and produced lesser values than steaks from cattle fed ZH for 30 d. Feeding ZH for 20, 30, and 40 d had no effect on WBSF values of USDA Select TB steaks. However, the 20-, 30-, and 40-d duration produced WBSF values greater (P feeding ZH increased (P feeding also decreased (P < 0.01) the percentage of steaks with WBSF <4.5 kg regardless of US quality grade, whereas postmortem aging increased (P < 0.01) the percentage of US Choice and Select steaks with WBSF <4.5 kg. Finally, postmortem aging reduced (P < 0.05) WBSF of steaks from ZH-supplemented beef cattle.

  18. Suplementação energética pré-acasalamento aos 13/15 meses de idade para novilhas de corte: desenvolvimento e desempenho reprodutivo Pre-mating energetic supplementation at 13/15 months of age for beef heifers: development and reproductive performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Pilau

    2009-12-01

    dias pré-acasalamento proporciona maior taxa de prenhez em novilhas de corte aos 13/15 meses de idade.The effect was assessed of pre-mating supplementary feeding on the reproductive performance of 13-15 month old beef heifers. Eighty-nine heifers were used with a mean age of 12 months and mean body weight (BW of 242 kg from three herds Aberdeen Angus heifers from the Santa Cecilia and Capitao Rodrigo ranches and crossbred Aberdeen Angus heifers in a feeding system of only grazing pasture or supplemented heifers on pasture with milled corn grain. The supplement was offered daily at the proportion of 0.7% of the BW for 29 days on Oats (Avena strigosa Schreb and annual Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam cultivated pastures and 19 days on natural pasture. The grazing was continuous with variable stocking rate. The variables analyzed were: body weight, body condition, average daily live weight gain, body condition gain, percentage of pubescent heifers, pregnancy rate and conception order. There was no feeding systems ×herd interaction. During the pre-mating, the supplemented heifers had greater ADG, 0.800 kg, compared to those without supplementation, 0.658 kg. During the mating period, the heifers lost weight, mean of -0.104 kg/day. The variables body weight and body condition did not differ at the beginning of the mating period mean of 277 kg and 3.6 points, respectively. The supplemented heifers showed higher percentage of pubescent heifers (78% and higher pregnancy rate (47%. There was herd ×period interaction for body weight. The body weight variation was quadratic for the three herds. Crossbred heifers always had greater body weight compared to the Santa Cecília Angus heifers. Capitão Rodrigo Angus heifers had higher higher percentage of pubescent heifers (80% and PR (48%. Energy supplementation during 48 days pre-mating promoted higher pregnancy rate in 13 to 15 month old beef heifers.

  19. Avaliação biológica e econômica do uso de flunixin meglumine em vacas e novilhas de corte inseminadas em tempo fixo Biological and economic evaluation of flunixin meglumine in postpartum beef cows and heifers inseminated at fixed time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Francisco Machado Pfeifer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar a redução de perdas embrionárias por meio do bloqueio da secreção de prostaglandina com a utilização de flunixin meglumine (FM e avaliar o retorno econômico desta técnica. No experimento 1, utilizaram-se vacas de corte no pós-parto e, no experimento 2, somente novilhas. Todas as fêmeas foram sincronizadas e inseminadas em tempo fixo (IATF e, após 14 dias da IATF, foram distribuídas em dois grupos: grupo flunixin meglumine (GFM, composto de 59 vacas no experimento 1 e 23 novilhas no experimento 2; e grupo controle (GC, de 56 vacas no experimento 2 e 20 novilhas no experimento 1, que receberam ou não flunixin no dia 14, respectivamente. O tratamento com flunixin não influenciou a taxa de prenhez, que, no experimento 1, foi de 42,4% no grupo flunixin e 42,8% no grupo controle e, no experimento 2, de 39,1% no grupo flunixin e 25,0% no grupo controle. Verificou-se rentabilidade de 21,62; 9,24; 14,36 e 12,06% para os protocolos dos grupos controle e flunixin dos experimentos 1 e 2, respectivamente. A taxa de prenhez não foi influenciada pelo uso de flunixin meglumine no dia 14 após inseminação artificial em vacas no pós-parto e novilhas inseminadas em tempo fixo.This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and the economical advantage of using flunixin meglumine (FM to block uterine secretion of prostaglandin in order to reduce embryonic losses in beef cattle females. Postpartum cows (E1 and heifers (E2 were submitted to estrus synchronization and inseminated at fixed time. Fourteen days after the insemination the animals were assigned to the FM treatment group (FMG, including 59 cows and 23 heifers and to the control group (CG, including 56 cows and 20 heifers. Pregnancy rates (42.4% for FMG and 42.8% for CG in E1 and (39.1% for FMG and 25.0% for CG in E2 did not differ between groups. Estimates of net income were 21.62, 9.24, 14.36 and 12.06% for the CG e FMG protocols in cows and in heifers, respectively

  20. Gene network analyses of first service conception in Brangus heifers: use of genome and trait associations, hypothalamic-transcriptome information, and transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, M R S; Snelling, W M; Reverter, A; Nagaraj, S H; Lehnert, S A; Hawken, R J; DeAtley, K L; Peters, S O; Silver, G A; Rincon, G; Medrano, J F; Islas-Trejo, A; Thomas, M G

    2012-09-01

    Measures of heifer fertility are economically relevant traits for beef production systems and knowledge of candidate genes could be incorporated into future genomic selection strategies. Ten traits related to growth and fertility were measured in 890 Brangus heifers (3/8 Brahman × 5/8 Angus, from 67 sires). These traits were: BW and hip height adjusted to 205 and 365 d of age, postweaning ADG, yearling assessment of carcass traits (i.e., back fat thickness, intramuscular fat, and LM area), as well as heifer pregnancy and first service conception (FSC). These fertility traits were collected from controlled breeding seasons initiated with estrous synchronization and AI targeting heifers to calve by 24 mo of age. The BovineSNP50 BeadChip was used to ascertain 53,692 SNP genotypes for ∼802 heifers. Associations of genotypes and phenotypes were performed and SNP effects were estimated for each trait. Minimally associated SNP (P < 0.05) and their effects across the 10 traits formed the basis for an association weight matrix and its derived gene network related to FSC (57.3% success and heritability = 0.06 ± 0.05). These analyses yielded 1,555 important SNP, which inferred genes linked by 113,873 correlations within a network. Specifically, 1,386 SNP were nodes and the 5,132 strongest correlations (|r| ≥ 0.90) were edges. The network was filtered with genes queried from a transcriptome resource created from deep sequencing of RNA (i.e., RNA-Seq) from the hypothalamus of a prepubertal and a postpubertal Brangus heifer. The remaining hypothalamic-influenced network contained 978 genes connected by 2,560 edges or predicted gene interactions. This hypothalamic gene network was enriched with genes involved in axon guidance, which is a pathway known to influence pulsatile release of LHRH. There were 5 transcription factors with 21 or more connections: ZMAT3, STAT6, RFX4, PLAGL1, and NR6A1 for FSC. The SNP that identified these genes were intragenic and were on chromosomes

  1. Efeito do hipotireoidismo induzido na resposta superovulatória em novilhas de corte mestiças = Induced hypothyroidism on the superovulatory response in crossbred beef heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Maia Bettini

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito do hipotireoidismo induzido sobre a resposta ovariana à superovulação, à atividade do corpo lúteo e ao ganho de peso em novilhas de corte mestiças (½ Bos TaurosxBos Indicus. Nas análises estatísticas realizadas, não foi observada a influência dos tratamentos sobre a variação de peso (P>0,05. Os níveis de T3, T4 e TSH foram, respectivamente, 1,31+0,77, 16,71+0,44 e 10,35+5,74 para o grupo tratado e 2,08+0,77, 57,46+0,44 e 2,08+5,74 para o controle (P0,05. Desse modo, concluiu-se que o hipotireoidismo não afetou a resposta superovulatória, a atividade do corpo lúteo e a variação de peso.This study was aimed at the effect of hypothyroidism induced on the ovarian superovulation response, corpus luteum activity, and the weight gain in crossbred heifers (½ Bos taurosxBos indicus. The data showed that the females weight remained the same (P>0.05 even after the treatment. The levels of T3, T4 e Tsh values were respectively1.31+0.77, 16.71+0.44 and TSH 10.35+5.74 to treated animals, and 2.08+0.77, 57.46+0.44, 2.08+5.74 to control group (P0.05 considering the number of viable embryos and total number of structures 2.52 and 4.86 for the induced animals, and 2.67 and 5.60 for the control group respectively. Therefore, the results demonstrated that the hypothyroidism did not affect the superovulatory response, the corpus luteum activity, or the weight variation.

  2. The effect of yeast cell wall supplementation on the metabolic responses of crossbred heifers to endotoxin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the effect of feeding yeast cell wall (YCW) products on the metabolic responses of newly-received heifers to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Heifers (n=24; 218.9±2.4 kg) were obtained from commercial sale barns and transported to the Texas Tech University Beef Cent...

  3. Sistemas de Alimentação Pós-Desmama de Bezerras de Corte para Acasalamento com 14/15 Meses de Idade Post Weaning Feeding Systems for Beef Heifers to be Bred at 14/15 Months of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Gomes da Rocha

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho de bezerras de corte submetidas a sistemas alternativos de alimentação, no primeiro período outono/inverno pós-desmama, por 88 dias, e, após este período, mantidas sobre pastagem melhorada, até o final do seu primeiro acasalamento, com 14-15 meses de idade. Os sistemas utilizados foram: pastagem- pastejo contínuo em pastagem cultivada de azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam; suplementação- pastejo contínuo em pastagem natural e suplementação energético-protéica; confinamento- confinamento, a céu aberto, com silagem de sorgo + nitrogênio não-protéico (NNP. Após esse período, as bezerras pastejaram em conjunto pastagens naturais melhoradas compostas por azevém, trevo branco (Trifolium repens e cornichão (Lotus corniculatus. Os dados foram coletados em uma Empresa Agropecuária, localizada em Dom Pedrito, RS, em 395 bezerras de corte pertencentes a três grupos genéticos: Hereford; 3/4 Hereford-1/4 Nelore; 5/8 Hereford-3/8 Nelore. Foram tomados registros de peso vivo (PV, ganho de peso médio diário (GMD e condição corporal (CC. As bezerras mostraram comportamento semelhante quanto ao PV e GMD. A CC foi maior nos animais do grupo confinamento. No início e final da estação de acasalamento, novilhas alimentadas exclusivamente em pastagens tiveram maior PV e CC do que novilhas dos grupos suplementação e confinamento, que não diferiram entre si.The experiment evaluated the performance of beef heifers submitted to three alternatives of autumn-winter feeding systems, during 88 days, and after this period on improved pastures all together until the end of theirs first mating season, with 14-15 months of age. The systems were: Pasture- continuous grazing on cultivated annual ryegrass (L. multiflorum Lam; supplementation- continuous grazing on natural pasture plus energy and protein supplementation; feedlot - feedlot, with sorghum silage plus non- proteic nitrogen

  4. Gene network analyses of first service conception in Brangus heifers: Use of genome and trait associations, hypothalamic-transcriptome information, and transcription factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measures of heifer fertility are economically relevant traits for beef production systems and knowledge of candidate genes could be incorporated into future genomic selection strategies. Ten traits related to growth and fertility were measured in 890 Brangus heifers (3/8 Brahman × 5/8 Angus, from 6...

  5. Nutritionally directed compensatory growth enhances heifer development and lactation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, J A; Park, C S

    2001-07-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to examine the interactive influence of a compensatory nutrition regimen and lasalocid supplementation on dairy heifer growth performance and 2) to document the extent to which compensatory growth sustains lactation potential over the first two lactation cycles. Twelve Holstein heifers, weighing an average of 160 kg (about 6 mo of age) were randomly assigned to treatments arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial design. Treatment variables were two dietary regimens (control and stair-step compensatory nutrition) and two levels of lasalocid (0 and 200 mg/d). The control heifers were fed a diet containing 12% crude protein (CP) and 2.35 Mcal of metabolizable energy (ME) per kilogram of dry matter. The stair-step compensatory nutrition heifers were subjected to a phased nutrition regimen and reared according to an alternating 3-2-4-3-4-2-mo schedule. The first stair-step (prepubertal phase) consisted of energy restriction [17% CP and 2.35 Mcal/kg of ME] for 3 mo followed by realimentation (12% CP and 3.05 Mcal/kg of ME) for 2 mo. The second step (puberty and breeding) consisted of energy restriction for 4 mo followed by realimentation for 3 mo. The third step (gestation period) was energy restriction for 4 mo concluding with realimentation for 2 mo. Dry matter intake of heifers during the restriction phase was limited to 70% of the control intake. Heifers were given ad libitum access to a high energy density diet during realimentation to allow compensatory development. Stair-step heifers supplemented with lasalocid had the highest efficiency of growth (body weight gain/dry matter intake), suggesting synergistic metabolism of lasalocid with compensatory growth action. Compensatory growth induced during the last trimester enhanced metabolic status by increasing circulating insulin and decreasing triglyceride levels. Heifers on the stair-step regimen had a significant increase in milk yield during the first (21%) and second (15%) lactation

  6. MOET Utility in Beef Production Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Theodor Paraschivescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the reason of beef production for human food security and the necessity of special dairy and beefbreeds in order to balance the milk and the meat production in cattle farming. That is a difficult target for manycountries since they don’t dispose of large natural pastures to extensively feed the beef cattle herds. At the same timemany European countries breed only dual purpose cattle breeds. So the idea of intensive farming with beef breeds orcrosses is developed. To speed up this kind of programs Open MOET (Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer Farmtechnology is proposed and it is completed with the needed facilities for production and preservation of embryos.Concerning the MOET Farm which confers directly pure bred beef calves, emphases is put on veterinary quarantineand heifer receptors conditioning. Concerning embryo conservation the direct transfer (DT technique isrecommended. Modalities of integrating dairy farms and beef cattle farms are finally discussed as recommendedstrategy for Romanian Agriculture.

  7. Feeding fat from distillers dried grains with solubles to dairy heifers: III. Effects on long-term reproductive and lactation performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the prepubertal growth phase, 33 Holstein heifers (133 ± 18 d old) were used in a 24-week randomized complete block design. Treatments included: 1) a control diet (CON) containing ground corn (15.9% of DM) and soybean products (17.9%); 2) a low-fat diet (LFDG) formulated with 21.9% fat-extrac...

  8. Effects of flunixin meglumine on pregnancy establishment in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, T W; Ansotegui, R P; MacNeil, M D; Roberts, A J; Waterman, R C

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this research was to determine effects of a single injection of the PG synthesis inhibitor flunixin meglumine (FM; 1.1 mg/kg of BW, intramuscularly) approximately 13 d (range 10 to 15 d) after AI on pregnancy establishment. Three experiments were conducted using estrus-synchronized heifers and cows. Technicians and AI sires were equally represented across treatments within locations and experiments. Bulls were introduced on the day of FM treatment. Pregnancy to AI was diagnosed 28 to 50 d after AI using ultrasonography. In Exp. 1, beef heifers (n = 1,221) were divided within 5 locations to receive FM or no further treatment (control). At insemination, heifers were divided into 2 similar pastures or pens, and approximately 13 d later, 1 group of heifers within each location was processed through an animal handling facility to administer FM treatment. There was no location x treatment interaction (P = 0.62) on AI pregnancy rates, so data were pooled. Pregnancy rates to AI were reduced (P = 0.02) among heifers receiving the FM treatment procedure (66%) compared with control heifers (72%). In Exp. 2, suckled beef cows (n = 719) were assigned within 2 locations to receive FM or no further treatment (control) approximately 13 d after AI. At insemination, control and FM cows were divided into separate pastures, and only FM cows were handled after AI for the FM treatment procedure. There was no location x treatment interaction (P = 0.75), so data were pooled. Pregnancy rates to AI did not differ (P = 0.80) between FM (57%) and control cows (59%). In Exp 3, beef heifers (n = 247) and suckled beef cows (n = 335) from 1 location received no injection (control) or injection of FM approximately 13 d after AI when all cows and heifers were processed through a working facility. Pregnancy rates to AI were not different (P = 0.37) between FM (45%) and control (42%) cows or between FM (56%) and control (55%) heifers. We conclude FM administration at 1.1 mg/kg of BW

  9. Genetic relationships between calving performance and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albera, A.; Groen, A.F.; Carnier, P.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to obtain estimates of genetic correlations between direct and maternal calving performance of heifers and cows and beef production traits in Piemontese cattle. Beef production traits were daily gain, live fleshiness, and bone thinness measured on 1,602 young bulls tested at

  10. Association between seropositivity for Neospora caninum and reproductive performance of beef heifers in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil Associação entre soropositividade para Neospora caninum e o desempenho reprodutivo de novilhas de corte no Pantanal Sul-Mato-Grossense, Brasil

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    Renato Andreotti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular parasite that can infect domestic and wild canids, ruminants, and horses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between the presence of antibodies to N. caninum and reproductive loss in beef heifers in the South Pantanal region of Mato Grosso, Brazil. A total of 1098 heifers were evaluated from breeding to calving with regard to reproductive performance, and serology for neosporosis was assayed by indirect immunofluorescence reaction. The prevalence of N. caninum in cows that had failed to conceive was 22.13% higher than in those that had conceived (p Neospora caninum é um parasita intracelular obrigatório que pode infectar canídeos domésticos e selvagens, ruminantes e equídeos. Neste trabalho estudou-se a associação entre soropositividade para Neospora caninum e perda reprodutiva em novilhas de corte na região do Pantanal Sul-Mato-Grossense. Foram avaliadas 1098 novilhas da estação de reprodução ao nascimento dos bezerros com relação ao desempenho reprodutivo e realizada a sorologia para N. caninum através da reação de imunofluorescência indireta. A soroprevalência de N. caninum nas vacas que falhara na concepção foi 22,13% maior que nas que conceberam (p < 0,0001, indicando que há uma correlação significativa entre a não concepção e a presença de anticorpos anti-N. caninum. As taxas de desfrute para as novilhas soropositivas e soronegativas para neosporose foram de 28,24 e 50,12%, respectivamente, mostrando uma redução de 44% na taxa de desfrute de novilhas soropositivas para N. caninum. Ressalta-se a importância do monitoramento do diagnóstico da neosporose em primíparas, e o indicador de fêmeas soropositivas como um fator nas estratégias de descarte no rebanho bovino de corte.

  11. Effect of intensive or extensive systems on buffalo heifers performances: onset of puberty and ovarian size

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    A. Borghese

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the effect of intensive feeding (IF group or pasture system (PS group on the onset of puberty and on the ovarian size in buffaloes. The trial was carried out on 26 prepubertal 8-months old buffalo heifers weighing a mean of 134 kg (n =13 per group. The heifers were weighed monthly and, starting from the 13th month of age, blood samples were collected every 10 days to determine the concentration of plasma progesterone by RIA. Heifers were considered to have achieved puberty and cyclic ovarian activity when plasma progesterone levels exceeded 1 ng/ml for two samples with a lower intermediate value. After two cycles, the heifers were naturally mated. Transrectal ultrasonography was performed every twenty days to follow changes in size of ovaries and in follicles number. Significantly higher (P<0.001 gains were obtained by IF system (870 g/d than PS one (620 g/d but the mean age at puberty was the same in both groups ( 599d vs 610d, respectively. Within 21 months 8 (IF group and 10 heifers (PS group showed cyclic ovarian activity. Ovarian size increased with age in both groups; however, the length of the right ovary and the number of follicles tended to be higher in IF vs PS group.

  12. The influence of forage diets and aging on beef palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, T; Busboom, J R; Nelson, M L; O'Fallon, J; Ringkob, T P; Rogers-Klette, K R; Joos, D; Piper, K

    2010-11-01

    To investigate the influence of diet and aging on beef palatability, lipid oxidative stability, and fatty acid composition, crossbred steers were assigned to Feedlot S (alfalfa and grain), Forage TR (triticale and annual ryegrass), Forage TK (triticale and kale), or Forage+Feedlot (grazing ryegrass, fescue and orchardgrass, finished on alfalfa and grain) dietary treatments. Heifers were finished on Feedlot H (alfalfa and grain). Longissimus and tricep muscles were sampled from these animals for steaks and ground beef, respectively. Steaks were either dry- or wet-aged for 14 d. Ground beef was dry-aged, wet-aged for 14 d, or not aged. Trained sensory panelists evaluated palatability attributes of steaks and ground beef. Diet did not influence sensory attributes of steaks or ground beef. Aging impacted (Pbeef. Diet and aging had no impact on lipid oxidative stability but affected fatty acid composition of raw ground beef.

  13. Influência do manejo alimentar no ganho de peso e no desempenho reprodutivo de novilhas de corte Influence of feeding management on weight gain and reproductive performance of beef heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Menegaz

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos de três manejos alimentares nos meses de inverno (CN - campo nativo; CNS - campo nativo + suplementação; CNM - campo nativo melhorado e de três grupos de peso (leve; média; pesada no desempenho reprodutivo subseqüente de novilhas Brangus com primeiro serviço aos 24/27 meses de idade. Os manejos alimentares determinaram diferenças no ganho médio diário (GMD durante o inverno (0,261; 0,376 e 0,679 kg/dia e no peso vivo ao início do período reprodutivo (302,8; 317,8 e 330,7 kg para CN, CNS e CNM, respectivamente. A taxa de prenhez (TP não diferiu entre os manejos alimentares (88,3; 93,3 e 95,0% para CN, CNS e CNM, respectivamente. Entretanto, o CNM resultou em menor intervalo do início da reprodução à concepção (IRC de 30,5 dias. Os manejos em campo nativo e em campo nativo com suplementação resultaram em intervalos reprodução-concepção de 36,4 e 39,4 dias, respectivamente. Os grupos de peso tiveram GMD semelhantes (0,600; 0,612 e 0,634 kg/dia e mantiveram a diferença de peso vivo ao início dos manejos alimentares e ao início do período reprodutivo (299,6; 316,0 e 335,6 kg para leves, médias e pesadas, respectivamente. Nas novilhas pesadas, a taxa de prenhez foi maior (100% e o intervalo do início da reprodução à concepção (IRC, menor (29,86 dias. As novilhas leves tiveram taxa de prenhez de 91,6% e o maior IRC (39,83 dias, cujas médias foram de 85,0% e de 36,8 dias. Novilhas em melhor nível nutricional têm maior ganho de peso durante o inverno e maior peso ao início da reprodução. Novilhas mais velhas e mais pesadas concebem mais cedo e têm maior prenhez.The effects of three feeding management were evaluated in the winter months (CN: natural pasture; CNS: natural pasture + supplementation; CNM: improved natural pasture and three live weight groups (light, medium, heavy on the subsequent reproductive performance of Brangus heifers with first service to 24/27 mo old. Feeding

  14. Influence of branched-chain fatty acid supplementation on voluntary intake, site and extent of digestion, ruminal fermentation, digesta kinetics and microbial protein synthesis in beef heifers consuming grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, S A; Krysl, L J; Judkins, M B; Broesder, J T; Barton, R K

    1990-09-01

    Four heifers (British x British; average BW 372 kg) cannulated at the rumen and duodenum and consuming a grass hay (fescue-orchardgrass) diet were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square and supplemented with four levels (0, 20, 40, and 60 g.head-1.d-1) of supplemental four- and five-carbon VFA (BCFA). Forage OM, ADF, NDF and N intakes and digestibilities were not affected (P greater than .10) by BCFA supplementation. Likewise, duodenal N (microbial, feed and ammonia) flows and microbial efficiency were not altered (P greater than .10) by BCFA supplementation. Neither particulate and fluid passage rate nor in situ rate of NDF digestion was affected (P greater than .10) by treatment. Ruminal pH, ammonia concentrations and total VFA concentrations were similar (P greater than .10) among treatments. Ruminal proportions of acetate and propionate were not affected (P greater than .10) by treatment; however, butyrate responded in a cubic (P less than .05) fashion to BCFA, with the lowest proportion of butyrate at the 40 g BCFA feeding level. A time x treatment interaction (P less than .05) was noted for isobutyrate, isovalerate and valerate proportions; they were increased as a function of BCFA dosage at 2 to 8 h postdosing. Supplemental four- and five-carbon VFA had no effect on digestion and fermentation of grass hay. Supplementation of low-quality roughages with BCFA is not justified.

  15. Evaluation of hair cortisol in beef cattle of divergent temperaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the relationships among hair and serum cortisol concentrations and cattle disposition. Spring born (n = 101) crossbred beef heifers (7 to 8 mo. of age) were evaluated for temperament preweaning and at weaning by pen score (PS; 1 = calm and 5 = e...

  16. Sexual development of prepubertal children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, H. de; Rademakers, J.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of childhood sexuality are scarce and often focus on sexual abuse. In this review, an attempt is made to establish what is known, from empirical studies, about sexual behaviors (solitary and interpersonal) and feelings in pre-pubertal boys and girls. In addition, the research methods used wi

  17. Moderate nutrient restriction influences transcript abundance of genes impacting production efficiencies of beef cattle in fetal liver, muscle, and cerebrum by d 50 of gestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    We hypothesized that a moderate maternal nutrient restriction during the first 50 d of gestation in beef heifers would affect transcript abundance of genes impacting production efficiency phenotypes in fetal liver, muscle, and cerebrum. Fourteen Angus-cross heifers were estrus synchronized and assig...

  18. Efeitos da taxa de ganho de peso pré-desmama de bezerras de corte e do nível nutricional pós-parto, quando vacas, sobre a produção e composição do leite e o desempenho de bezerros Preweaning gain rate of beef heifers and postpartum nutritional level, as cows, on milk production and composition and performance of their calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Restle

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a taxa de ganho de peso de bezerras de corte na fase de aleitamento, do nascimento aos sete meses, e seu reflexo sobre o desempenho posterior, enquanto vacas. As taxas de ganho de peso avaliadas quando bezerras, durante o período pré-desmame, foram: baixa (menor que 350 g/dia e moderada (maior que 350 g/dia. Quando vacas e após o parto, foram mantidas com seus bezerros até o desmame, em pastagem nativa (PN ou pastagem cultivada (PC. As vacas, quando bezerras, foram pesadas ao nascer e aos sete meses de idade (desmame e, quando vacas, foram pesadas, com seus bezerros nas primeiras 24 horas pós-parto; aos 14, 42, 70, 98, 126, 154, 182 dias; e ao desmame, que ocorreu com idade média dos bezerros de 228 dias. As avaliações da produção de leite e a coleta de amostras para avaliação da composição do leite foram realizadas nas mesmas datas das pesagens, com exceção do nascimento. Taxas de ganho de peso inferiores a 350 g/dia até os sete meses de idade não foram prejudiciais ao futuro peso das bezerras, em razão da compensação no peso que apresentaram na fase pós-desmama. Bezerras com taxas de ganho de peso menores que 350 g/dia até os sete meses de idade, enquanto vacas produziram maiores quantidades de leite (4,83 vs 3,71 L/dia, total de gordura (47,4 vs 35,9 kg, lactose (52,6 vs 39,7 kg, extrato seco total (140,4 vs 107,2 kg e extrato seco desengordurado (94,8 vs 71,2 kg, e bezerros com maiores ganhos de peso (717 vs 617 g/dia e mais pesados ao desmame (189,0 vs 166,1 kg que as vacas que, quando bezerras, apresentaram taxas de ganho de peso acima de 350 g/dia.The preweaning weight gain rate of beef heifers and its effects on their subsequent performance as cows, was studied. The weight gain rates evaluated as heifer calves before weaning were low (below 350 g/day and moderate (above 350 g/day. As cows and after calving, they were kept together with their calves until weaning on native (NP or cultivated pasture (CP

  19. Introducing heifers to freestall housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Keyserlingk, M A G; Cunha, G E; Fregonesi, J A; Weary, D M

    2011-04-01

    Little work to date has assessed how dairy cattle respond when first introduced to freestall housing. In this study we carried out 2 experiments. The aim of experiment 1 was to assess the behavioral responses of naïve heifers to pens fitted with freestalls. Holstein heifers (n=7 groups, each containing 3 heifers, 3 mo of age), with no previous experience with freestalls, were initially housed on a sawdust bedded pack and fed through a fixed feed barrier for at least 6 wk and then moved to a freestall pen fitted with a head-locking feed barrier. When kept on the bedded pack, the heifers' lying time averaged 14.2 h/d. On the day heifers were moved to the freestall pen, lying times declined by 2.9 h, but recovered on the following days. The time spent lying down on the barn floor (i.e., outside the lying area) increased by 2.5 h on the day heifers were introduced to freestalls and remained higher during subsequent days. Heifers spent 46 min/d less time feeding on the day they were switched to the head-locking barrier, but recovered on the following days. In experiment 2 we assessed the behavioral responses of naïve heifers introduced to pens fitted with freestalls with or without a neck rail. Holstein heifers (n=12 groups, each containing 2 heifers, 3 mo of age), with no previous experience with freestalls, were initially housed on a sawdust bedded pack and then moved to a freestall pen with or without neck rails. Heifers spent 4.2 h/d less time lying down in the 24 h following introduction into the freestall pen; the neck rail treatment had no effect on lying time but heifers spent more time standing with just their front 2 hooves in the stall when a neck rail was in the stall. In summary, lying and feeding behavior of naïve heifers is altered following introduction to new housing. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faure, Alice; Bouty, Aurore; O'Brien, Mike

    2016-01-01

    in undervirilized patients with 46,XY disorders of sexual development. Testicular histology is also of considerable value in the prediction of both fertility potential and risk of cancer in individuals with undescended testes, particularly those with intraabdominal undescended testes. New possibilities......No consensus exists regarding the precise role of testicular biopsy in prepubertal boys, although it is considered useful for assessing the potential consequences of undescended testes on fertility. Current scientific knowledge indicates that surgeons should broaden indications for this procedure...... for the preservation of fertility after gonadotoxic chemotherapy - even for prepubertal boys - are emerging. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue samples for the preservation of fertility - although still an experimental method at present - is appealing in this context. In our opinion, testicular biopsy...

  1. Effect of intensive or extensive systems on buffalo heifers performances: blood metabolite values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Borghese

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Blood nutritional indicators were measured on twenty-six prepubertal 8- mo-old buffalo heifers, weighing a mean of 134 kg to determine the effect of different feeding and management systems. Animals were randomly assigned to an intensive feeding (n=13; IF group or to a pasture system plus hay (n=13; PS group, according to weight and age. Measurements of live weight and blood collection began on day 0 (=date of onset of trial.The heifers were weighed monthly, up to puberty, to evaluate the growth rate and blood samples were withdrawn every three months to assay the concentrations of blood metabolites. Significantly higher (P0.05.

  2. Beef lovers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Pedrozo, Eugenio A.; van der Lans, Ivo A.

    2009-01-01

    In this chapter we will explore beef consumption behaviour from a cross-cultural perspective. Data collected in Brazil, Australia and the Netherlands supports the main objectives of identifying consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitudes and main concerns towards beef...

  3. Diferentes fontes de gordura sobre o desempenho e características da carcaça de novilhas de corte confinadas - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i1.1250 Different fat source effects on feedlot beef heifers' performance and carcass traits - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v27i1.1250

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalfredo Rocha Lobo Júnior

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da suplementação com diferentes fontes de gordura sobre o desempenho e as caracterísiticas da carcaça de novilhas terminadas em confinamento. Foram utilizadas 23 novilhas cruzadas (½ Red Angus x ½ Nelore, com 20 meses de idade e peso médio inicial de 351 kg, durante 46 dias. Foram avaliados 3 tratamentos: suplementação com semente de linho (LIN, suplementação com gordura protegida (GOP - Lac100 e sem suplementação com gordura (SGO. As novilhas foram distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Não houve efeito do tratamento sobre peso vivo final (382,0 ± 34,1 kg, ganho médio diário (1,1 ± 0,3 kg/dia e conversão alimentar (8,1 ± 1,7 kg MS/kg PV. Não houve diferença para o peso de carcaça quente (202,1 ± 23,3 kg, rendimento de carcaça quente (53,1 ± 2,4%, espessura de gordura de corbertura (6,5 ± 1,4 mm e 3,2 ± 0,5 mm/100 kg carcaça, peso do traseiro especial (64,7 ± 7,3 kg, comprimento da carcaça (121,6 ± 5,3 cm, comprimento do traseiro (76,0 ± 2,5 cm e comprimento do dianteiro (96,6 ± 3,2 cm, marmoreio (9,0 ± 4,4 pontos, coloração (4,3 ± 0,5 pontos, textura (3,4 ± 0,7 pontos e área de olho de lombo (62,3 ± 4,6 cm2 e 31,1 ± 2,2 cm2/100 kg carcaça. Estes dados mostram que as fontes de gordura (LIN ou GOP podem ser utilizadas sem causar decréscimo no desempenho e nas características da carcaça de novilhas confinadasThis work aimed to evaluate the effects of different fat sources on feedlot beef heifers' performance and carcass traits. Twenty-three 20-month-old crossbreed heifers (½ Red Angus ½ Nelore with 351 kg initial body weight were monitored for 46 days. Three different treatments were evaluated: linseed supplement (LIN, protected fat supplement (PFA, and no fat supplement (NOF. The heifers were allotted into a completely randomized design. No effect was observed in the final live weight (382.04 ± 34.12 kg, daily gain (1.11 ± 0.33 kg

  4. Genome-wide association for the outcome of fixed-time artificial insemination of Brahman heifers in northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto-Neto, L R; Edwards, S; Fortes, M R S; Lehnert, S A; Reverter, A; McGowan, M

    2015-11-01

    Fixed-time AI (FTAI) is a powerful tool for genetic improvement of extensively managed beef cattle. A genomewide association study (GWAS) was conducted to investigate genes and genetic markers associated with the outcome (pregnant or not pregnant) of FTAI in 614 commercial Brahman heifers genotyped for 18,895 SNP and imputed to 51,588 SNP. The likelihood of Brahman heifers becoming pregnant after hormonal treatment to synchronize ovulation followed by FTAI was influenced by the content of their genomes, as determined by a principal component analysis. The principal component analysis involved comparisons between the studied heifers and populations of known and ancestry. The heritability of FTAI outcome was = 0.18, which is higher than for most other reproductive outcome traits. The number of SNP associated with FTAI outcome was 101 ( Brahman heifer puberty and postpartum anestrus interval, 3 genomic regions emerge as important for overall Brahman heifer fertility, which mapped to chromosomes 1, 7, and 9. Further analyses, including improved genome annotation, are required to elucidate the link between these regions and heifer fertility. Additional studies are needed to confirm SNP and gene associations reported herein and further elucidate the genetics of FTAI outcome. Future GWAS should target other Braham populations and additional cattle breeds with FTAI records, including breeds with higher ancestry.

  5. Comportamento ingestivo de novilhas de corte submetidas a estratégias de suplementação em pastagens de aveia e azevém Ingestive behavior of beef heifers submitted to strategies of supplementation on oats and ryegrass pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bremm

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o comportamento ingestivo de novilhas de corte recebendo suplemento em pastagem de aveia preta (Avena strigosa Schreb. e azevém (Lolium multiflorum Lam. sob lotação contínua. Como tratamentos, foram avaliadas quatro estratégias de suplementação: sem suplemento - animais em pastagem de aveia (AV e azevém (AZ; crescente - animais em pastagem de AV e AZ recebendo níveis crescentes de suplemento (0,3; 0,6 e 0,9% do peso vivo -PV; fixo - animais em pastagem de AV e AZ recebendo nível fixo de suplemento (0,9% PV; e decrescente - animais em pastagem de AV e AZ recebendo níveis decrescentes (1,5; 1,2 e 0,9% do PV de suplemento. As características estruturais (massa de forragem, massa de forragem verde, oferta de forragem, oferta de lâminas foliares verdes, relação folha:colmo, proporção de lâminas foliares e colmos + bainhas de aveia e proporção de lâminas foliares e colmos + bainhas de azevém e bromatológicas (proteína bruta, digestibilidade in vitro da matéria orgânica, nutrientes digestíveis totais e fibra em detergente neutro do pasto foram semelhantes entre as estratégias de suplementação, mas variaram conforme os períodos de utilização do pasto. Os tempos diários de pastejo, ruminação e ócio e de permanência no cocho (min/dia e a massa de bocado (g MO/boc diferiram entre as estratégias de suplementação e as características do pasto no decorrer do ciclo. A taxa de bocado/minuto foi influenciada apenas pelo ciclo do pasto.It was evaluated the ingestive behavior of beef heifers on black oats (Avena strigosa Schreb. and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. pastures under different strategies of supplementation and continuous stocking system. The treatments evaluated were: 'no supplement'- animals on black oats (BO and Italian ryegrass (IR pasture; 'increasing' - animals on BO and IR pasture receiving increasing levels (0.3, 0.6, and 0.9% of live weight - LW of supplement; 'fixed' - animals on

  6. Effects of residual feed intake and dam body weight on replacement heifer intake, efficiency, performance, and metabolic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R S; Martin, R M; Buttrey, B

    2015-07-01

    Thirty-eight Angus-based, crossbred, nulliparous beef heifers (BW = 280 ± 26.3 kg) sired by 2 Angus sires were used to determine if dam BW affected heifer performance, DMI, residual feed intake (RFI), and endocrine markers. Heifers were housed in individual pens (2.2 by 9.1 m) equipped with 2.2 m of bunk space and fed a diet (90.4% DM, 13.7% CP, 67.2% NDF, and 56.2% TDN) consisting of 87.2% bermudagrass hay and 12.8% liquid protein supplement for a 14-d adaption period and a 70-d feeding period. Individual daily feed intake was used to calculate RFI for each heifer, and heifer was the experimental unit. Two-day beginning and end BW were recorded and hip height was used to calculate frame score (FS). Heifer dams were assigned to a light (LIT; 544 ± 21.3 kg) or heavy (HEV; 621 ± 34.8 kg) BW group on the basis of mean BW at the beginning of their lactation period the previous year to determine differences in heifer offspring DMI and RFI. Based on heifer RFI ranking, heifers were classified as positive (POS; 0.34) or negative (NEG; –0.31) RFI and low (LOW; –0.45), medium (MED; 0.00), or high (HI; 0.49) RFI for analysis of BW, FS, BW gain, and DMI. There were no dam BW group × sire interactions (P > 0.10) for all independent variables. Beginning and end BW was greater (P 0.10) for heifers out of HEV compared with LIT BW dams; however, a sire effect existed (P 0.10) whereas DMI was greater (P = 0.03) among heifers in the POS compared with the NEG RFI group and greater (P = 0.01) among heifers in the MED and HI compared with LOW RFI group, respectively. Plasma insulin levels were greater (P = 0.03) in the NEG compared with the POS RFI heifers, and thyroxine (T4) levels were greater (P = 0.02) in the POS compared with the NEG RFI heifers. A positive relationship existed (P ≤ 0.05) between dam BW and heifer DMI (r = 0.42), beginning and end BW (r = 0.45 and 54), and FS (r = 0.58) and between RFI and d 70 triiodothyronine (r = 0.34), d 70 T4 (r = 0.35), and d 0 and

  7. Produção de novilhas de corte em pastagem de Coastcross-1 consorciada com Arachis pintoi com e sem adubação nitrogenada Beef heifer production in Coastcross-1 and Arachis pintoi mixed pasture with or without nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Paris

    2009-01-01

    de nitrogênio em comparação àquelas de coastcross + Arachis adubada com 100 kg de nitrogênio e sem adubação (0,51; 0,51; 0,42 e 0,38 kg/dia, respectivamente. Os ganhos anuais por hectare foram superiores a 1.000 kg/ha/ano e foram maiores no verão (221,4 kg/ha.This trial was carried out to evaluate forage mass (FM, daily accumulation rate (DAR, forage offer (FO, stocking rate (SR, Arachis pintoi percentage (APP, average daily gain (ADG and gain per hectare (GPH of beef heifers under grazing in Coastcross-1 and Arachis pintoi mixed pasture during different seasons, from July 2003 to June 2004. The treatments were: CA0 = Coastcross + Arachis pintoi without N; CA100 = Coastcross + Arachis pintoi with 100 kg of N; CA200 = Coastcross + Arachis pintoi with 200 kg of N; and C200 = Coastcross with 200 kg of N, distributed in a randomly block design, with two repetitions. Pasture management was done through continuous grazing with variable stocking rate, using crossbred heifers with three test animals per treatment. The FM was 2641, 2431, 2760 and 2704 kg of DM/ha for CA0, CA100, CA200 and C200, respectively. Treatments presented similar DAR (66.12 kg of DM/ha between pastures, with higher production in the summer, followed by spring and autumn, which were not different from each other, and the winter with the lowest value: 108.6; 71.7; 54.2; 30.6 kg of DM/ha, respectively. In the CA0 treatment, the highest FO and the lowest SR were obtained (4.0 AU/ha. The highest SR and lowest FO were observed in treatments with nitrogen fertilization, without difference among them. The APP in the mixture was higher in the spring, and for the CA0 treatment, with visual estimations were always higher in function of the lower dry matter percentage of this legume. For ADG was higher for CA200 and C200 treatments in relation to CA100 and CA0 with values of 0.51, 0.51, 0.42 and 0.38 kg/day, respectively. The GPH were above 1000 kg/ha/year and the summer presented the highest gain (221

  8. Suspected ergotism in two heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, D M; Dorling, P R

    1983-10-01

    A syndrome similar to gangrenous ergotism was seen in 2 Friesian heifers grazing meadow hay containing perennial rye grass seed heads parasited by an ergot presumed to be Claviceps purpurea. Clinical signs were bilateral hind limb lameness and gangrene. There was angiographic evidence of vasoconstriction in the lower hind limbs with necrosis of all tissues in the distal region of both hind limbs.

  9. Estratégias de suplementação para antecipação da idade à puberdade para novilhas de corte em pastagem tropical - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i4.1372 Supplementation strategies for the anticipation of age to puberty for beef heifers on tropical pasture - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v30i4.1372

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Rezende Moreira Couto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar suplementos formulados com diferentes fontes de proteína, no período das águas, sobre o desempenho produtivo de novilhas de corte em recria. Para avaliar o desempenho produtivo, 20 novilhas mestiças Holandês x Zebu e aneloradas, com peso corporal médio de 234 kg e idade aproximada de 14 meses, foram distribuídas em cinco piquetes de B. decumbens Stapf de 2,5 ha cada, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os suplementos foram à base de farelo de soja (FS, farelo de algodão 38% PB (FA38, farelo de glúten de milho 60% PB (GM e farelo de trigo + ureia (FT, além de um tratamento-testemunha, constituído apenas de mistura mineral (MM. A quantidade diária de suplemento foi fixada para fornecer aproximadamente 180 g de PB dia-1, sendo 0,450; 0,550; 0,350 e 0,450 kg animal-1 dia-1, respectivamente, para os tratamentos FS, FA38, GM e FT. Os animais foram pesados a cada 28 dias e rotacionados entre os piquetes a cada sete dias. Os animais submetidos ao tratamento FT apresentaram ganhos médios diários (GMD superiores (p -1. Recomenda-se o fornecimento de 500 g de suplemento que contém ureia, farelo de trigo e minerais para novilhas em recria, quando se deseja obter ganhos de peso moderados, em torno de 850 g dia-1.This paper aimed to evaluate the supplements formulated from different sources of protein during the rainy season over the productive performance of beef heifers during breeding. In order to evaluate productive performance, 20 Holstein x Zebu crossbred heifers, with average body weight of 234 kg and approximate age of 14 months, were divided into five paddocks of B. decumbens Stapf of 2.5 ha each, in a completely randomized design with five treatments and four repetitions. The supplements were based on soybean meal (FS; cottonseed meal (FA 38% crude protein (CP (FA 38; corn gluten meal 60% CP (GM and wheat bran + urea (FTU; and a treatment witness, composed of

  10. Composição química e perfil de ácidos graxos da carne de bovinos de diferentes condições sexuais recebendo silagem de milho e concentrado ou cana-de-açúcar e concentrado contendo grãos de girassol Chemical traits and fatty acids composition of beef from young bulls, steers and heifers fed corn silage and concentrate or sugarcane and concentrate with sunflower grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rodrigo Mendes Fernandes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar as características químicas e a composição em ácidos graxos do contrafilé (músculo Longissimus de tourinhos, novilhos e novilhas da raça Canchim. Os animais foram terminados em confinamento com duas dietas experimentais, uma com silagem de milho e concentrado e outra com cana-de-açúcar e concentrado contendo grãos de girassol. Os teores de umidade, proteína e minerais no músculo não diferiram entre as dietas e as condições sexuais dos animais. A carne de novilhos terminados com a dieta com grãos de girassol apresentou maior teor de lipídios (3,31% em comparação à dos animais de outras categorias. Os animais que receberam a dieta com grãos de girassol apresentaram maiores concentrações de ácido linoléico conjugado (18:2 cis9, trans-11 (0,73% e ácidos graxos poliinsaturados (8,12% no músculo, e também relações mais elevadas de ácidos graxos insaturados:saturados (0,93 e ácidos graxos poliinsaturados:saturados (0,16 em comparação àqueles que receberam a dieta convencional, à base de silagem de milho (0,34%; 6,31%; 0,86; e 0,11, respectivamente. A composição em ácidos graxos da carne de bovinos pode ser melhorada com a utilização de cana-de-açúcar e grãos de girassol na dieta dos animais terminados em confinamento.The objective in this work was to evaluate the chemical characteristics and the fatty acids composition of beef loin (Longissimus muscle of young bulls, steers and heifers of Canchim breed. The animals were finished in feedlot system and fed two experimental diets, one with corn silage and concentrate (SIL and the other with sugar cane, as exclusive roughage, and concentrate containing sunflower grains (CNA. Differences were not detected in relation to moisture, protein and mineral contents between diets or sexual categories. The meat from steers that received the CNA diet had higher lipid content (3.31% in relation to meat from young bulls and heifers

  11. A new application of pelvis area data as culling tool to aid in the management of dystocia in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, D E; Webb, E C; Thompson, P N

    2014-05-01

    Although fetomaternal disproportion is the major cause of dystocia in heifers, pelvis area (PA) is not recommended as a culling tool due to its relatively low importance and genetic correlation with calf birth weight (BWT), the most important factor associated with dystocia. The objective of this observational study of 484 limited bred yearling beef heifers was to compare the effects of different methods of adjustment of PA data for culling to select against dystocia. Multivariable analyses were used to determine predictors of PA, calf BWT, and dystocia. Hypothetical culling rates of 10 and 20% were then applied after ranking heifers by each of the following: unadjusted PA, PA adjusted to 365 d of age by subtracting 0.27 cm(2) per day of age difference between each heifer's age and 365 d (APA), PA:prebreeding BW ratio (PA:BW), PA adjusted to the median BW of the group using the regression coefficient of PA on BW within age group (BWPA), and PA similarly adjusted to the median lean BW (LBWPA). Dam parity, sire, prebreeding age, prebreeding BW, and prebreeding BCS were associated with PA whereas dam parity, sire, own BWT, PA, AI bull, and calf gender were associated with calf BWT (P dystocia (P dystocia. After hypothetical culling by PA, retained heifers were heavier and had a higher calving rate and calves tended to be heavier at birth compared to culled heifers, but dystocia rates were not different. Culling by APA resulted in similar effects, except that dystocia rate tended to be lower in retained heifers. Culling by PA:BW resulted in lower dystocia rate in retained than in culled heifers, but retained heifers had lower prebreeding BW than culls. Culling by BWPA and LBWPA resulted in lower proportions with dystocia and a tendency towards higher calving rates in the retained heifers, without affecting the prebreeding BW or calf BWT. It is concluded that pelvimetry is a useful culling tool to aid in the management of dystocia in yearling heifers and that adjustment

  12. Uterine environment and pregnancy rate of heifers with elevated plasma urea nitrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Olivia L; Larimore, Erin L; McNeel, Anthony K; Chase, Chad C; Cushman, Robert A; Freetly, Harvey C; Perry, George A

    2016-10-01

    Diets high in protein are associated with lower reproductive performance and changes in the uterine environment. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of elevated systemic concentrations of urea nitrogen on the uterine environment and pregnancy success in beef heifers. Heifers (n=150) were matched by breed, age, and body weight then randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments: 1) Control (10% CP) or 2) High protein (14% CP) over three replicates (n=40/replicate). Estrus was synchronized with an injection of PGF2α. Uterine pH, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), ammonia, and glucose concentrations were determined on d 7 of the estrous cycle. Pregnancy status was determined by ultrasonography 30 d following the breeding season. In vitro fertilization was performed on heifers precluded from uterine analysis (n=15/diet) to determine the effect of a High Protein diet on oocyte quality. Plasma urea concentrations were greater in the High Protein diet compared to Control (P0.40) on the number of oocytes collected, number of oocytes cleaved, amount of blastocysts, percentage of oocytes cleaved and percentage of blastocysts present. In summary, high nitrogen diets increased PUN concentrations in heifers; however, there were no deleterious effects on reproduction.

  13. Can rapeseed lower methane emission from heifers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    Twelve heifers were assigned to either a control diet (CON) with 26 g fat per kg dry matter (DM) or a supplemented diet (FAT) with crushed rapeseed with 53 g fat per kg DM. Methane (CH4) emission was measured by open-circuit indirect calorimetry for four days when the heifers weighed approximately...

  14. Enterprise level implications of heifer development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research emphasis has been placed on heifer development strategies in recent years, comparing traditional, more intensive systems to more extensive systems using less feed and relying on compensatory gain to reach a target BW. Recent research has suggested that developing heifers to a lighter target...

  15. Changes in feed intake, growth, feed efficiency, and body composition of beef cattle fed forage then concentrate diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this experiment was to determine changes in production traits and body composition of beef steers and heifers when fed a forage-based ration followed by a concentrate-based ration. Cattle were progeny of composite breed cows bred to Charolais, Simmental, and Red Angus bulls. Appro...

  16. Potential for sorghum forages for dairy heifers in the midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy heifers have lower dietary energy needs than lactating cows (63-65% TDN for 6-12 month old heifers; 58-60% TDN for >12 month old heifers), but forage-based diets containing significant amounts of corn silage often exceed the needs of pregnant heifers. Use of low-energy forages to decrease ener...

  17. Influence of category--heifers, primiparous and multiparous lactating cows--in a large-scale resynchronization fixed-time artificial insemination program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Márcio de Oliveira; Morotti, Fábio; da Silva, Camila Bizarro; Júnior, Mario Ribeiro; da Silva, Rubens César Pinto; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio; Seneda, Marcelo Marcondes

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the influence of category (heifers, primiparous or multiparous cows) on pregnancy rates in a large scale resynchronization ovulation program. Nelore heifers (n = 903), primiparous lactating cows (n = 338) and multiparous lactating cows (n = 1,223) were synchronized using a conventional protocol of estradiol/P4-based fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI). Thirty days after ultrasonography, females who failed the first FTAI were resynchronized with the same hormonal protocol prior to a second FTAI. The pregnancy status of each cohort was evaluated by ultrasonography 30 days after each FTAI. The average conception rate after the first FTAI and resynchronization was 80.5%. Heifers had a higher conception rate (85%) than primiparous (76%) or multiparous cows (78%; p = 0.0001). The conception rate after the first FTAI was similar among heifers (57%), primiparous cows (51%) and multiparous cows (56%; p = 0.193). After the second FTAI, heifers exhibited a higher conception rate (66%) than primiparous or multiparous cows (51%; p = 0.0001). These results demonstrate the feasibility of resynchronization in large beef herds for providing consistent pregnancy rates in a short period of time. We also demonstrated that ovulation resynchronization 30 days after FTAI is particularly effective for heifers, providing a conception rate of up to 66%.

  18. Rebuilding the US beef herd: rethinking the way industry develops replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, David J; Brown, D Scott

    2013-11-01

    Use of existing and emerging management technologies enable beef producers to improve breeding performance of heifers during the first breeding season and during subsequent calving and rebreeding periods as 2 year olds. These practices ensure that heifers that enter the herd as raised or purchased replacements contribute to the general performance and productivity of an entire cowherd immediately, and cumulatively long-term. Rebuilding the US cowherd requires careful consideration and use of these newer management technologies. Veterinarians will play a crucial role in influencing the technologies used during the rebuilding process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Stress and immunological response of heifers divergently ranked for residual feed intake following an adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A K; Lawrence, P; Earley, B; Kenny, D A; McGee, M

    2017-01-01

    When an animal is exposed to a stressor, metabolic rate, energy consumption and utilisation increase primarily through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Changes to partitioning of energy by an animal are likely to influence the efficiency with which it is utilised. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the physiological stress response to an exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge in beef heifers divergently ranked on phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI). Data were collected on 34 Simmental weaning beef heifers the progeny of a well characterized and divergently bred RFI suckler beef herd. Residual feed intake was determined on each animal during the post-weaning stage over a 91-day feed intake measurement period during which they were individually offered adlibitum grass silage and 2 kg of concentrate per head once daily. The 12 highest [0.34 kg DM/d] and 12 lowest [-0.48 kg DM/d] ranking animals on RFI were selected for use in this study. For the physiological stress challenge heifers (mean age 605 ± 13 d; mean BW 518 ± 31.4 kg) were fitted aseptically with indwelling jugular catheters to facilitate intensive blood collection. The response of the adrenal cortex to a standardised dose of ACTH (1.98 IU/kg metabolic BW(0.75)) was examined. Serial blood samples were analysed for plasma cortisol, ACTH and haematology variables. Heifers differing in RFI did not differ (P = 0.59) in ACTH concentrations. Concentration of ACTH peaked (P feed efficiency is associated with HPA axis function and susceptibility to stress, and responsiveness of the HPA axis is likely to contribute to appreciable variation in the efficiency feed utilisation of cattle.

  20. Managing the reproductive performance of beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diskin, M G; Kenny, D A

    2016-07-01

    A reproductively efficient beef cow herd will be fundamental to meeting the protein and specifically, red meat demand of an ever increasing global population. However, attaining a high level of reproductive efficiency is underpinned by producers being cognizant of and achieving many key targets throughout the production cycle and requires considerable technical competency. The lifetime productivity of the beef-bred female commences from the onset of puberty and will be dictated by subsequent critical events including age at first calving, duration of the postpartum interval after successive calvings, conception and pregnancy rate, and ultimately manifested as length of intercalving intervals. In calved heifers and mature cows, the onset of ovarian activity, postpartum is a key event dictating the calving interval. Again, this will be the product mainly of prepartum nutrition, manifested through body condition score and the strength of the maternal bond between cow and calf, though there is increasing evidence of a modest genetic influence on this trait. After the initiation of postpartum ovarian cyclicity, conception and subsequent pregnancy rate is generally a function of bull fertility in natural service herds and heat detection and timing of insemination in herds bred through AI. Cows and heifers should be maintained on a steady plane of nutrition during the breeding season, but the contribution of significant excesses or deficiencies of nutrients including protein and trace elements is likely to be minor where adequate pasture is available. Although increased efforts are being made internationally to genetically identify and select for more reproductively efficient beef cows, this is a more long-term strategy and will not replace the need for a high level of technical efficiency and management practice at farm level.

  1. Evaluating the reproductive performance of British beef and dairy herds using national cattle movement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, M C

    2013-11-23

    National cattle movement databases provide a valuable opportunity to monitor the reproductive performance of breeding cattle on an industry-wide scale. In this analysis, records from the Cattle Tracing System database were used to derive key measures of reproductive efficiency for British beef and dairy herds, including calving spread, age at first calving, calving interval, culling rate and calf mortality rate. At the animal level, only 8.5 per cent of beef heifers and 6.9 per cent of dairy heifers calved by the target age of 24 months. The average calving interval was 394 days for beef dams (median: 371) and 426 days for dairy dams (median: 400). Differences in performance were noted between cattle breeds. An estimated 43.9 per cent calves born in dairy herds were crossbreed beef animals, which may limit the availability of replacement dairy heifers. At the herd level, calving spread and calf mortality rates increased with herd size, while average age at first calving, calving interval, and crossbreeding generally decreased with herd size. Dam age, calving month, breed and twinning were significant risk factors for culling and calf mortality at the animal level. Wide variation in performance between individual herds highlights the potential for improving the efficiency of British cattle production.

  2. Impact of hard vs. soft wheat and monensin level on rumen acidosis in feedlot heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W Z; Xu, L; Zhao, Y L; Chen, L Y; McAllister, T A

    2014-11-01

    Many feedlot finishing diets include wheat when the relative wheat prices are low. This study was conducted to examine the responses in ruminal pH and fermentation as well as site and extent of digestion from substituting soft or hard wheat for barley grain and to determine whether an elevated monensin concentration might decrease indicators of ruminal acidosis in feedlot heifers. Five ruminally cannulated beef heifers were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square with 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement. Treatments included barley (10% barley silage, 86% barley, 4% supplement, with 28 mg monensin/kg DM) and diets where barley was substituted by either soft or hard wheat with either 28 or 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM. Intake of DM was not affected by grain source, whereas increasing monensin with wheat diets reduced (P type or monensin level. Total VFA concentrations were greater (P type. The molar proportion of propionate was greater (P Feeding soft vs. hard wheat delivered a greater (P feed use by heifers fed wheat-based finishing diets.

  3. Prepubertal testicular tumors: Our 10 years experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R B Nerli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Testicular tumors in the pediatric population are distinct from those of the adults. In contrast to the prevalence data reported in tumor registries, several studies have shown that a majority of the prepubertal testis tumors are benign. We retrospectively analyzed a series of prepubertal testicular tumors. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of all testicular tumors at our institution was done from Jan 1999 to Dec 2008. Data relating to presentation, evaluation, and management were collected. Results: A total of 22 children with prepubertal testicular tumors were identified. The mean age at presentation was 4.6 years. Mature teratoma, epidermoid cysts, immature teratoma, and yolk sac tumor accounted for 49.94%, 13.62%, 9.08%, and 18.16%, respectively. All surgeries were successful with respect to cancer control and testicular preservation. Conclusions: Benign tumors formed the majority (72.64% of the tumors that were encountered, with yolk sac tumors (18.16% being a minority. Testicular preserving surgery appears to be a feasible option for benign tumors and is safe and efficacious in long-term follow-up.

  4. Economic viability of production of Nellore heifers on Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu pastures deferred and fertilized with nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Batista de Aguilar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of nitrogen on deferred pastures of Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu, and the implications on the economic viability of production of Nellore heifers. This was a completely randomized design with four treatments (T1 = deferred pasture without nitrogen fertilization; T2 = deferred pasture fertilized with 50 kg N ha-1, T3 = deferred pasture with 100 kg N ha-1, T4 = deferred pasture with 150 kg N ha-1 and four replications (16 fertilized paddocks. First, there were used 48 Nellore heifers, average eight months of age and initial body weight of 178.69 ± 26.67 kg, with three heifers in each paddock, in all treatments, in a continuous grazing system, with variable stocking rate. Only the treatment the without nitrogen fertilization showed negative monetary values of R$ -181.96, R$ ha-1 -72.79 and R$ @-1 -32.11. The treatment with 50 kg N ha-1 achieved the highest positive monetary values of R$ 756.02, R$ ha-1 302.40 and R$ @-1 50.52. Economic viability data in beef heifer production demonstrate that the treatment with 50 kg N ha-1 is the most financially viable under the conditions of this study.

  5. [Endemic and epidemic bovine neosporosis: description of two events in beef cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandra, Patricio M; Di Matía, José M; Cano, Dora B; Odriozola, Ernesto R; García, Juan A; Späth, Ernesto J A; Odeón, Anselmo C; Paolicchi, Fernando A; Morrell, Eleonora L; Campero, Carlos M; Moore, Dadín P

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe two events in which Neospora caninum was involved in bovine abortions in beef cattle. In the first event, 11 abortions in 57 heifers were recorded in 45 days. One aborted heifer was 5 times more likely to be seropositive than a non-aborted heifer (OR=4.9; IC 1.2-19.9) (p0.05). Neither antibodies nor isolation of other pathogens were achieved in any case. On the contrary, antibodies and pathognomonic histopathological lesions were observed in the four fetuses from both cases. Interestingly, the findings in the first event suggest the epidemic behavior of the disease. In contrast, in the second event it appears that few abortions were due to N. caninum, suggesting the presence of endemic neosporosis. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Argentina de Microbiología. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. Haematological studies of Gaolao Heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M.Kapale,D.G.Jagtap

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Hematological study of 15 healthy Gaolao heifers has been carried out. The mean ±S.E. values of total erythrocyte (10.3 ±0.34 million/cu mm, Hb (11.92 ±0.33 gm%, PCV (34.07±1.11%, MCV (33.14±0.75cuμ, MCH (11.63±0.32 μμgm, MCHC (35.07 ±0.70%,TLC (9.51±0.92 thousand/cmm, Lymphocytes (64.93 ±1.74%,Neutrophil (28.93 ±1.8%, Monocyte (2.2 ±0.34%, Basophil (0.2±0.11 and Eosinophil (3.7 ± 0.44% have been reported. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(1.000: 16-16

  7. Fatty acid composition of muscle and adipose tissue of beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Jurić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid (FA composition of muscle and adipose tissue was investigated in intensively fed beef cattle. Heifers had more intramuscular fat with higher proportion of monounsaturated FA, while bulls had higher proportion of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA. The same was found in adipose tissue accompanied by higher proportion of saturated FA (SFA in bulls. The PUFA/SFA ratio was close to recommendation for human diet only in bulls’ muscle, while n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios were generally higher than recommended. The observed FA variability between sexes was due to the differences in fatness. To improve the nutritional value, the n-3 PUFA in beef should be increased.

  8. Reproductive Systems for North American Beef Cattle Herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Robert L; White, Brad J

    2016-07-01

    A systems approach to beef cattle reproduction facilitates evaluating the flow of cattle through the herd population based on temporal changes in reproductive and production state. The previous years' timing of calving has either a positive or negative effect on the present year's reproductive success. In order to create and maintain high reproductive success, one must focus on: developing heifers to become pregnant early in the breeding season, ensuring bull breeding soundness, aligning the calving period with optimal resource availability, managing forage and supplementation to ensure good cow body condition going into calving, and minimizing reproductive losses due to disease.

  9. Effects of temperament and acclimation to handling on reproductive performance of Bos taurus beef females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Bohnert, D W; Cappellozza, B I; Mueller, C J; Delcurto, T

    2012-10-01

    Two experiments evaluated the effects of temperament and acclimation to handling on reproductive performance of Bos taurus beef females. In Exp. 1, 433 multiparous, lactating Angus × Hereford cows were sampled for blood and evaluated for temperament before the breeding season. Cow temperament was assessed by chute score and exit velocity. Chute score was assessed on a 5-point scale according to behavioral responses during chute restraining. Exit score was calculated by dividing exit velocity into quintiles and assigning cows with a score from 1 to 5 (1 = slowest, 5 = fastest cows). Temperament score was calculated by averaging chute and exit scores. Cows were classified for temperament type according to temperament score (≤ 3 = adequate, > 3 = aggressive). Plasma cortisol concentrations were greater (P temperament. Cows with aggressive temperament had reduced (P ≤ 0.05) pregnancy and calving rate and tended to have reduced (P = 0.09) weaning rate compared with cows with adequate temperament. Hence, kilogram of calf born per cow was reduced (P = 0.05) and kilogram of calf weaned per cow tended to be reduced (P = 0.08) in aggressive cows. In Exp. 2, 88 Angus × Hereford heifers (initial age = 206 ± 2 d) were weighed (d 0 and 10) and evaluated for temperament score (d 10). On d 11, heifers were ranked by these variables and assigned to receive or not (control) an acclimation treatment. Acclimated heifers were processed through a handling facility 3 times weekly for 4 wk (d 11 to 39; Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays), whereas control heifers remained undisturbed on pasture. Heifer puberty status, evaluated via plasma progesterone concentrations, was assessed on d 0 and 10, d 40 and 50, 70 and 80, 100 and 110, 130 and 140, 160 and 170, and 190 and 200. Blood samples collected on d 10 and 40 were also analyzed for plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin. Temperament score was assessed again on d 40 and d 200. Acclimated heifers had reduced (P = 0

  10. Environmental sustainability of beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    A national assessment of the sustainability of beef is being conducted in collaboration with the National Cattlemen’s Beef Association through the support of the Beef Checkoff. This includes surveys and visits to cattle operations throughout the U.S. to gather production information. With this infor...

  11. 9 CFR 78.6 - Steers and spayed heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Steers and spayed heifers. 78.6... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.6 Steers and spayed heifers. Steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate without restriction under this subpart....

  12. 9 CFR 78.21 - Bison steers and spayed heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bison steers and spayed heifers. 78.21... Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.21 Bison steers and spayed heifers. Bison steers and spayed heifers may be moved interstate without restriction under this subpart....

  13. Growth parameters of Holstein-Friesland heifers reared on complete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    balanced complete diets were formulated for heifers of different age groups, i.e. ... had higher (P < 0.01) condition scores than heifers fed diets containing other roughages. .... The effect of roughage source on DM intake is presented in Table 2. ..... heifers at calving are not desired because such animals have poor appetites, ...

  14. 7 CFR 1260.121 - Imported beef or beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Imported beef or beef products. 1260.121 Section 1260... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.121 Imported beef or...

  15. Pre-breeding blood urea nitrogen concentration and reproductive performance of Bonsmara heifers within different management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshuma, Takula; Holm, Dietmar Erik; Fosgate, Geoffrey Theodore; Lourens, Dirk Cornelius

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated the association between pre-breeding blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration and reproductive performance of beef heifers within different management systems in South Africa. Bonsmara heifers (n = 369) from five herds with different estimated levels of nitrogen intake during the month prior to the commencement of the breeding season were sampled in November and December 2010 to determine BUN concentrations. Body mass, age, body condition score (BCS) and reproductive tract score (RTS) were recorded at study enrolment. Trans-rectal ultrasound and/or palpation was performed 4-8 weeks after a 3-month breeding season to estimate the stage of pregnancy. Days to pregnancy (DTP) was defined as the number of days from the start of the breeding season until the estimated conception date. Logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards survival analysis were performed to estimate the association of pre-breeding BUN concentration with subsequent pregnancy and DTP, respectively. After stratifying for herd and adjusting for age, heifers with relatively higher pre-breeding BUN concentration took longer to become pregnant when compared to those with relatively lower BUN concentration (P = 0.011). In the herd with the highest estimated nitrogen intake (n = 143), heifers with relatively higher BUN were less likely to become pregnant (P = 0.013) and if they did, it was only later during the breeding season (P = 0.017), after adjusting for body mass. These associations were not present in the herd (n = 106) with the lowest estimated nitrogen intake (P > 0.500). It is concluded that Bonsmara heifers with relatively higher pre-breeding BUN concentration, might be at a disadvantage because of this negative impact on reproductive performance, particularly when the production system includes high levels of nitrogen intake.

  16. Milk consumption and the prepubertal somatotropic axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamoto Erika K

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nutrients, hormones and growth factors in dairy foods may stimulate growth hormone (GH, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I, and raise the ratio of IGF-I to its binding protein, IGFBP-3. We conducted pilot studies in Mongolia and Massachusetts to test the extent to which milk intake raised somatotropic hormone concentrations in prepubertal children. Methods In Ulaanbaatar, we compared plasma levels before and after introducing 710 ml daily whole milk for a month among 46 10–11 year old schoolchildren. In a randomized cross-over study in Boston, we compared plasma hormone levels of 28 6–8 year old girls after one week of drinking 710 ml lowfat (2% milk with their hormone levels after one week of consuming a macronutrient substitute for milk. Results After a month of drinking whole milk, Mongolian children had higher mean plasma levels of IGF-I (p th percentile of GH levels (p = 0.005. After a week of drinking lowfat milk, Boston girls had small and non-significant increases in IGF-1, IGF-1/IGFBP-3 and GH. Conclusion Milk drinking may cause increases in somatotropic hormone levels of prepubertal girls and boys. The finding that milk intake may raise GH levels is novel, and suggests that nutrients or bioactive factors in milk may stimulate endogenous GH production.

  17. Estradiol levels in prepubertal boys and girls--analytical challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Katrine; Andersson, Anna-Maria; Skakkebaek, Niels E

    2004-01-01

    Increasing evidence points at an important function of low concentrations of estradiol (E2) in prepubertal boys and girls. E2 serum levels in prepubertal children are, however, often immeasurable in conventional E2 assays. This strongly hampers further investigation of the physiological relevance...... of analysis are examined and their applicability for evaluation of low E2 serum concentrations in children is estimated. Furthermore, available data on E2 levels in prepubertal boys and girls are evaluated and discussed, taking into consideration the limitations of the methods of analysis. In conclusion...

  18. Prepubertal gynecomastia linked to lavender and tea tree oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Derek V; Lipson, Natasha; Korach, Kenneth S; Bloch, Clifford A

    2007-02-01

    Most cases of male prepubertal gynecomastia are classified as idiopathic. We investigated possible causes of gynecomastia in three prepubertal boys who were otherwise healthy and had normal serum concentrations of endogenous steroids. In all three boys, gynecomastia coincided with the topical application of products that contained lavender and tea tree oils. Gynecomastia resolved in each patient shortly after the use of products containing these oils was discontinued. Furthermore, studies in human cell lines indicated that the two oils had estrogenic and antiandrogenic activities. We conclude that repeated topical exposure to lavender and tea tree oils probably caused prepubertal gynecomastia in these boys.

  19. Nutrient analysis of the Beef Alternative Merchandising cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desimone, T L; Acheson, R A; Woerner, D R; Engle, T E; Douglass, L W; Belk, K E

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to generate raw and cooked nutrient composition data to identify Quality Grade differences in proximate values for eight Beef Alternative Merchandising (BAM) cuts. The data generated will be used to update the nutrient data in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference (SR). Beef Rib, Oven-Prepared, Beef Loin, Strip Loin, and Beef Loin, Top Sirloin Butt subprimals were collected from a total of 24 carcasses from four packing plants. The carcasses were a combination of USDA Yield Grades 2 (n=12) and 3 (n=12), USDA Quality Grades upper two-thirds Choice (n=8), low Choice (n=8), and Select (n=8), and two genders, steer (n=16) and heifer (n=8). After aging, subprimals were fabricated into the BAM cuts, dissected, and nutrient analysis was performed. Sample homogenates from each animal were homogenized and composited for analysis of the following: proximate analysis, long chain and trans-fatty acids, conjugated linoleic acid, total cholesterol, vitamin B-12, and selenium. This study identified seven BAM cuts from all three Quality Grades that qualify for USDA Lean; seven Select cuts that qualify for USDA Extra Lean; and three Select cuts that qualify for the American Heart Association's Heart Healthy Check.

  20. Delayed insemination of non-estrous heifers and cows when using conventional semen in timed artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J M; Poock, S E; Ellersieck, M R; Smith, M F; Patterson, D J

    2014-09-01

    Two experiments were designed to test the hypothesis that pregnancy rates after fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in beef heifers and cows may be improved by delaying insemination of females that have not expressed estrus before FTAI. In Exp. 1, estrus was synchronized for 931 heifers across 3 locations using the 14-d CIDR-PG protocol (controlled internal drug-release [CIDR] insert [1.38 gm progesterone] on d 0 with removal of CIDR insert on d 14; 25 mg PGF2α 16 d after CIDR insert removal on d 30; and 100 μg GnRH on d 33, 66 h after PGF2α). Estrous detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PGF2α on d 30, and estrous expression was recorded at GnRH on d 33. Heifers within each location were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments based on weight and reproductive tract score (RTS): 1) FTAI (concurrent with GnRH, 66 h after PGF2α) regardless of estrous expression or 2) FTAI for heifers expressing estrus and delayed AI (20 h after GnRH) for heifers failing to express estrus. Heifers assigned to treatment 2 achieved a higher AI pregnancy rate than heifers assigned to treatment 1 (54 versus 46%; P = 0.01). The observed increase in AI pregnancy rate is attributed to the delayed AI of non-estrous heifers in treatment 2, as AI pregnancy rates for non-estrous heifers were significantly higher for treatment 2 (49 versus 34%; P = 0.02), while AI pregnancy rates of estrous heifers did not differ by treatment (P = 0.24). In Exp. 2, estrus was synchronized for 951 mature, suckled cows across 9 locations using the 7-d CO-Synch + CIDR protocol (100 μg GnRH + CIDR insert [1.38 gm progesterone] on d 0; 25 mg PGF2α at CIDR insert removal on d 7; and 100 μg GnRH on d 10, 66 h after CIDR insert removal). Estrus detection aids (Estrotect) were applied at PGF2α and CIDR insert removal on d 7, and estrous expression was recorded at GnRH on d 10. Cows within each location were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments based on age, days postpartum, and BCS: 1) FTAI (concurrent with Gn

  1. Methane emissions of beef cattle on forages: efficiency of grazing management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRamus, H Alan; Clement, Terry C; Giampola, Dean D; Dickison, Peter C

    2003-01-01

    Fermentation in the rumen of cattle produces methane (CH4). Methane may play a role in global warming scenarios. The linking of grazing management strategies to more efficient beef production while reducing the CH4 emitted by beef cattle is important. The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) tracer technique was used to determine the effects of best management practices (BMP) grazing compared with continuous grazing on CH4 production in several Louisiana forages during 1996-1998. Cows and heifers (Bos taurus) grazed common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flugge), and ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) pastures and were wintered on bahiagrass hay with supplements of protein molasses blocks (PMB), cottonseed meal and corn (CSMC), urea and corn (URC), or limited ryegrass grazing (LRG). Daily CH4 emissions were between 89 and 180 g d(-1) for young growing heifers and 165 to 294 g d(-1) for mature Simbrah cows. Heifers on "ad lib" ryegrass in March and April produced only one-tenth the CH4 per kg of gain as heifers on LRG of 1 h. Using BMP significantly reduced the emission of CH4 per unit of animal weight gain. Management-intensive grazing (MIG) is a BMP that offers the potential for more efficient utilization of grazed forage crops via controlled rotational grazing and more efficient conversion of forage into meat and milk. Projected CH4 annual emissions in cows reflect a 22% reduction from BMP when compared with continuous grazing in this study. With the BMP application of MIG, less methane was produced per kilogram of beef gain.

  2. Effects of zearalenone in prepubertal gilts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia C. Teixeira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Prepubertal gilts were fed with a diet containing zearalenone (ZEA in a concentration of 0.75 mg/kg for 21 days. The effects of this mycotoxin on morphologic aspects of the reproductive tract as well as on complete blood count (CBC, serum biochemistry analysis (SBA and humoral immune response against sheep red blood cells (SRBC were evaluated. There was a significant increase (P<0.05 on the reproductive tract weight, vulvar area, height of the epithelial cells of endometrial glands and uterine mucosa. These results showed the ability of this nonsteroidal mycotoxin in mimicking actions of 17β estradiol at the concentration of 0.75mg/kg. No changes in weight gain, CBC, SBA parameters and humoral response against SRBC were observed.

  3. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium: Nutritional aspects of developing replacement heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funston, R N; Martin, J L; Larson, D M; Roberts, A J

    2012-04-01

    Studies in numerous species provide evidence that diet during development can mediate physiological changes necessary for puberty. In cattle, several studies have reported inverse correlations between postweaning growth rate and age at puberty and heifer pregnancy rates. Thus, postweaning growth rate was determined to be an important factor affecting age of puberty, which in turn influences pregnancy rates. This and other research conducted during the late 1960s through the early 1980s indicated puberty occurs at a genetically predetermined size, and only when heifers reach their target BW can increased pregnancy rates be obtained. Guidelines were established indicating replacement heifers should achieve 60 to 65% of their expected mature BW by breeding. Traditional approaches for postweaning development of replacement heifers used during the last several decades have primarily focused on feeding heifers to achieve or exceed an appropriate target BW and thereby maximize heifer pregnancy rates. Intensive heifer development systems may maximize pregnancy rates, but not necessarily optimize profit or sustainability. Since inception of target BW guidelines, subsequent research demonstrated that the growth pattern heifers experience before achieving a critical target BW could be varied. Altering rate and timing of BW gain can result in compensatory growth periods, providing an opportunity to decrease feed costs. Recent research has demonstrated that feeding replacement heifers to traditional target BW increased development costs without improving reproduction or subsequent calf production relative to development systems in which heifers were developed to lighter target BW ranging from 50 to 57% of mature BW.

  4. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty......European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  5. European consumers and beef safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Kügler, Jens Oliver

    2010-01-01

    consumption decision making process. Eight focus group discussions were performed with a total of 65 beef consumers in four European countries. Content analysis revealed that European consumers experienced difficulties in the assessment of the safety of beef and beef products and adopted diverging uncertainty......European beef consumption has been gradually declining during the past decades, while consumers' concerns about beef safety have increased. This paper explores consumer perceptions of and interest in beef safety and beef safety information, and their role in beef safety assessment and the beef...... reduction strategies. These include the use of colour, labels, brands and indications of origin as cues signalling beef safety. In general, consumer trust in beef safety was relatively high, despite distrust in particular actors....

  6. Different true-protein sources do not modify the metabolism of crossbred Bos taurus × Bos indicus growing heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Azevedo Mota

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of alternative true-protein sources to soybean meal, with different ruminal degradability, using a sugarcane-based diet, on nutrient digestion, ruminal fermentation, efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and passage rate in prepubertal dairy heifers. Eight crossbred rumen- and duodenum-cannulated Holstein × Gyr dairy heifers (202.0±11.5 kg BW were evaluated in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design with four treatments and four periods in two simultaneous replicates. Dietary treatments were: soybean meal; cottonseed meal; peanut meal; and sunflower meal. When associated with diets containing sugarcane, the different protein sources did not affect intake or digestibility of dry mater, crude protein, organic matter and neutral detergent fiber. The average ruminal pH, NH3-N and concentration of total volatile fatty acids were not different among the diets supplied. The concentration of butyric acid was different among the protein sources, wherein the animals fed the diet with sunflower meal presented lower values than those fed the other sources. Diets did not affect nitrogen balance, microbial nitrogen, microbial synthesisefficiency, estimated dry matter flow, or passage rate. Alternative protein sources can be used to reduce the costs without changing the animal metabolism.

  7. Effect of heifer frame score on growth, fertility, and economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şentürklü, S; Landblom, D G; Perry, G A; Petry, T

    2015-01-01

    A non-traditional forage-based protocol was employed to evaluate replacement heifer growth, fertility, and economics between small frame (SF, 3.50; n = 50) and large frame (LF, 5.56; n = 50) heifers using three increasing gain growth phases. Preceding an 85 d growing-breeding period (Phase 3; P3) the heifers were managed as a common group for Phases 1 and 2 (P1 and P2). During P1, heifers grazed common fields of unharvested corn and corn residue (total digestible nutrients [TDN] 56%) with supplemental hay. For P2, heifers grazed early spring crested wheatgrass pasture (CWG; TDN 62%) that was followed by the final P3 drylot growing and breeding period (TDN 68%). Small frame heifers were lighter at the end of P1 in May and at the start of P3 breeding in August (p = 0.0002). Percent of mature body weight (BW) at the end of P1 (209 d) was 48.7% and 46.8%, respectively, for the SF and LF heifers and the percent pubertal was lower for SF than for LF heifers (18.0% vs 40.0%; p = 0.02). At breeding initiation (P3), the percentage of mature BW was 57.8 and 57.2 and the percentage pubertal was 90.0 and 96.0 (p = 0.07) for the SF and LF heifers, respectively; a 5-fold increase for SF heifers. Breeding cycle pregnancy on days 21, 42, and 63, and total percent pregnant did not differ (p>0.10). In drylot, SF heifer dry matter intake (DMI) was 20.1% less (p = 0.001) and feed cost/d was 20.3% lower (p = 0.001), but feed cost/kg of gain did not differ between SF and LF heifers (p = 0.41). Economically important live animal measurements for muscling were measured in May and at the end of the study in October. SF heifers had greater L. dorsi muscle area per unit of BW than LF heifers (p = 0.03). Small frame heifer value was lower at weaning (p = 0.005) and the non-pregnant ending heifer value was lower for SF heifers than for the LF heifers (p = 0.005). However, the total development cost was lower for SF heifers (p = 0.001) and the net cost per pregnant heifer, after accounting for

  8. Effect of Heifer Frame Score on Growth, Fertility, and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şentürklü, S.; Landblom, D. G.; Perry, G. A.; Petry, T.

    2015-01-01

    A non-traditional forage-based protocol was employed to evaluate replacement heifer growth, fertility, and economics between small frame (SF, 3.50; n = 50) and large frame (LF, 5.56; n = 50) heifers using three increasing gain growth phases. Preceding an 85 d growing-breeding period (Phase 3; P3) the heifers were managed as a common group for Phases 1 and 2 (P1 and P2). During P1, heifers grazed common fields of unharvested corn and corn residue (total digestible nutrients [TDN] 56%) with supplemental hay. For P2, heifers grazed early spring crested wheatgrass pasture (CWG; TDN 62%) that was followed by the final P3 drylot growing and breeding period (TDN 68%). Small frame heifers were lighter at the end of P1 in May and at the start of P3 breeding in August (p = 0.0002). Percent of mature body weight (BW) at the end of P1 (209 d) was 48.7% and 46.8%, respectively, for the SF and LF heifers and the percent pubertal was lower for SF than for LF heifers (18.0% vs 40.0%; p = 0.02). At breeding initiation (P3), the percentage of mature BW was 57.8 and 57.2 and the percentage pubertal was 90.0 and 96.0 (p = 0.07) for the SF and LF heifers, respectively; a 5-fold increase for SF heifers. Breeding cycle pregnancy on days 21, 42, and 63, and total percent pregnant did not differ (p>0.10). In drylot, SF heifer dry matter intake (DMI) was 20.1% less (p = 0.001) and feed cost/d was 20.3% lower (p = 0.001), but feed cost/kg of gain did not differ between SF and LF heifers (p = 0.41). Economically important live animal measurements for muscling were measured in May and at the end of the study in October. SF heifers had greater L. dorsi muscle area per unit of BW than LF heifers (p = 0.03). Small frame heifer value was lower at weaning (p = 0.005) and the non-pregnant ending heifer value was lower for SF heifers than for the LF heifers (p = 0.005). However, the total development cost was lower for SF heifers (p = 0.001) and the net cost per pregnant heifer, after accounting for

  9. Comparison of two feeding finishing treatments on production and quality of organic beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The study compared growth and slaughter performance and meat quality of organic beef cattle finished with or without pasture grazing. One group of 10 Limousin heifers was finished under confined conditions and fed ad libitum a total mixed ration based on maize silage, hay and cereals grains. A second group of 10 Limousin heifers rotationally grazed two contiguous pasture plots of 1.5 ha each with a daily supplementation of a concentrate mix based on cereal grains and roasted soybeans. Heifers were slaughtered at commercial finishing and meat quality traits were assessed on Longissimus thoracis muscle. The grazing group, due to a lower average daily gain (0.74 vs 0.95 kg/day; Pvs 155 days; Pvs 3.24 kg/cm2; Pvs 35.8; Pvs 13.7; Pvs 14.6; Pvs 3.66 % of total fatty acids; Pvs 0.10 % of total fatty acids; Pvs 0.30 % of total fatty acids; P<0.001 than confined animals. The detrimental effects of pasture grazing on growth performance and on some important meat quality traits explain the limited adoption of this finishing system in organic beef production.

  10. Electronic Inspection of Beef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmo, Victor J.; Gammell, Paul M.; Clark, Jerry

    1987-01-01

    Two proposed methods for grading beef quality based on inspection by electronic equipment: one method uses television camera to generate image of a cut of beef as customer sees it; other uses ultrasonics to inspect live animal or unsliced carcasses. Both methods show promise for automated meat inspection.

  11. Malignant catarrhal fever infection in a heifer in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameeh M. Abutarbush

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A 14-month-old Holstein Friesian heifer was presented for decreased appetite, ocular discharge, and diarrhea. The heifer was raised at the farm since she was 3 days old. On presentation, the heifer had bilateral mucopurulent ocular discharge and corneal opacity, ulcerative and necrotic skin, and enlarged superficial lymph nodes. Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF infection was diagnosed based on clinical signs and PCR. MCF infection has never been reported in Jordan.

  12. Efeito do hipotireoidismo induzido na resposta superovulatória em novilhas de corte mestiças - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i3.48 Induced hypothyroidism on the superovulatory response in crossbred beef heifers - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i3.48

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Luiz Bim Cavalieri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito do hipotireoidismo induzido sobre a resposta ovariana à superovulação, à atividade do corpo lúteo e ao ganho de peso em novilhas de corte mestiças (½ Bos TaurosxBos Indicus. Nas análises estatísticas realizadas, não foi observada a influência dos tratamentos sobre a variação de peso (P>0,05. Os níveis de T3, T4 e TSH foram, respectivamente, 1,31+0,77, 16,71+0,44 e 10,35+5,74 para o grupo tratado e 2,08+0,77, 57,46+0,44 e 2,08+5,74 para o controle (P0,05. Desse modo, concluiu-se que o hipotireoidismo não afetou a resposta superovulatória, a atividade do corpo lúteo e a variação de peso.This study was aimed at the effect of hypothyroidism induced on the ovarian superovulation response, corpus luteum activity, and the weight gain in crossbred heifers (½ Bos taurosxBos indicus. The data showed that the females weight remained the same (P>0.05 even after the treatment. The levels of T3, T4 e Tsh values were respectively 1.31+0.77, 16.71+0.44 and TSH 10.35+5.74 to treated animals, and 2.08+0.77, 57.46+0.44, 2.08+5.74 to control group (P0.05 considering the number of viable embryos and total number of structures 2.52 and 4.86 for the induced animals, and 2.67 and 5.60 for the control group respectively. Therefore, the results demonstrated that the hypothyroidism did not affect the superovulatory response, the corpus luteum activity, or the weight variation

  13. Into beef consumers' mind

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Brei, Vinicius A.

    The objectives of this survey were to identify consumers' anticipated emotions, degree of involvement, attitude, and concerns in beef consumption. Data collection was carried out in 2005-2006 in Brazil, Australia and in the Netherlands 816 complete questionnaires were obtained. The results...... of involvement with beef consumption. Fulfillment and pleasantness were found to be positive emotions expected in special beef consumption situations. Relevant multicultural data were obtained. Segmented marketing campaigns and sales efforts can be market-driven towards consumers' needs and expectations....... indicated similarities amongst Brazilian and Australian consumers regarding their positive attitude towards beef and main concerns regarding its consumption. Dutch consumers, although presented negative attitudes, considered beef consumption as important. In general respondents presented a high degree...

  14. Microbiological findings in prepubertal girls with vulvovaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikanić-Dugić, Nives; Pustisek, Nives; Hirsl-Hećej, Vlasta; Lukić-Grlić, Amarela

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to define the most common causes, symptoms and clinical features of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls, and to evaluate treatment success depending on the causative agent involved. The study included 115 girls aged 2-8 (mean 4.8) years, presenting with vulvovaginitis to the Outpatient Clinic for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology, Zagreb Children's Hospital, between September 2006 and July 2007. Medical history data were obtained from parents. Vaginal samples were collected for microbiological culture by using cotton-tipped swabs moistened with saline. All samples were referred to microbiology laboratory, where standard microbiological diagnostic procedures were performed. Selective and non-selective media were used. Of 115 study patients, 43 (37.4%) had received antibiotic therapy more than one month prior to their visit to the Clinic, mainly for upper respiratory tract infection. The most common presenting symptom was increased vaginal discharge usually noticed on the pants or diaper, found in 26 of 115 (22.6%) patients, followed by vulvar redness in 16 (13.9%), burning in seven (6.1%), itching in the vulvovaginal area in seven (6.1%), soreness in six (5.2%), odor in three (2.6%) patients, and two or more of these symptoms in another 50 (43.5%) patients. Fifty-nine of 115 children had normal clinical finding on gynecologic examination. Among the remaining 56 children, the most common finding was erythema observed in 19, vaginal discharge in ten, and a combination of discharge and erythema in 13 patients. Of 115 study patients, causative agents were isolated from vaginal culture in 38 (33%) cases. Of these, 21 grew group A beta hemolytic streptococcus, five patients Haemophilus influenzae, three Escherichia coli, two Enterococcus spp., and one each Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic therapy was administered in 31 of these 38 patients, except for those cases where intestinal bacteria and

  15. Record keeping and economics of dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Alex; Ahedo, José

    2008-03-01

    Calves represent the future of the dairy enterprise. Like in any other business, a careful allocation of resources and planning is needed to ensure the production of a new line, new products, and so forth. This article describes the most important objectives while rearing heifers, reviews the main aspects of implementing a record system, and provides examples of some of the decisions that can be taken by analyzing records.

  16. BEEF MARKET IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena SOARE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This scientific paper presents the cattle market dynamics in Romania during 2007-2013. In order to realize this research there were used certain indicators, as following: herds of cattle, realized beef production, selling price, human consumption, import and export. The data were collected from the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, National Institute of Statistics and Faostat. During the analysis, the presented indicators were modified from a period to another, because of both internal and external factors. Consumption demand is being influenced by: beef price, beef quality, price of other meat categories, consumers incomes, population’s food consumption pattern and so on.

  17. Comparison of two feeding finishing treatments on production and quality of organic beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Cozzi

    Full Text Available The study compared growth and slaughter performance and meat quality of organic beef cattle finished with or without pasture grazing. One group of 10 Limousin heifers was finished under confined conditions and fed ad libitum a total mixed ration based on maize silage, hay and cereal grains. A second group of 10 Limousin heifers rotationally grazed two contiguous pasture plots of 1.5 ha each with a daily supplementation of a concentrate mix based on cereal grains and roasted soybeans. Heifers were slaughtered at commercial finishing and meat quality traits were assessed on Longissimus thoracis muscle. The grazing group, due to a lower average daily gain (0.74 vs. 0.95 kg/day; P<0.05, required a prolonged finishing period (172 vs. 155 days; P<0.05 than the confined animals. Meat samples from grazing cattle were less tender (shear force: 3.92 vs. 3.24 kg/cm2; P<0.05 and showed a lower lightness (L*: 33.0 vs. 35.8; P<0.001 and a higher redness (15.4 vs. 13.7; P<0.01 and yellowness (15.6 vs. 14.6; P<0.05. Fatty acid composition of the intramuscular fat was significantly affected by the finishing system. Grazing heifers had a higher content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (4.06 vs. 3.66% of total fatty acids; P<0.05, conjugated linoleic acids (0.16 vs. 0.10% of total fatty acids; P<0.01 and ω-3 (0.44 vs. 0.30% of total fatty acids; P<0.001 than confined animals. The detrimental effects of pasture grazing on growth performance and on some important meat quality traits explain the limited adoption of this finishing system in organic beef production.

  18. Impacts of incorporation of follicle stimulating hormone into an estrous synchronization protocol for timed artificial insemination of crossbred beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, G T; Walker, R S; Gentry, L R

    2016-05-01

    One-hundred-eighty crossbred beef cows and 66 crossbred beef heifers across three locations were stratified by body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), and age (within location) to evaluate administration of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) on Day 2 using a modified 7-day CO-Synch plus CIDR(®) protocol (Day 0=CIDR insertion) with timed-artificial insemination (TAI) at 72 h (cows) or 54 h (heifers) following CIDR removal. Estrous response following CIDR removal was determined using an Estrotect patch and TAI and final pregnancy rates were determined by transrectal ultrasonography 42-45 days following TAI and ≥ 45 days following removal of clean-up bulls. Estrous response rate, TAI and final pregnancy rates for cows were not affected (P ≥ 0.65) by treatment. Cows that exhibited estrus had greater (P<0.01) TAI pregnancy rate (66%) than cows not exhibiting estrus (38%). There was an estrous response by postpartum length interaction (P=0.02) where cows exhibiting estrus and ≥ 55 days postpartum had greater TAI pregnancy rates (75%) compared to cows not exhibiting estrus and < 55 days postpartum (39%) or ≥ 55 days postpartum (28%). For heifers, timed AI (P=0.46) and final pregnancy rates (P=0.45) were similar across treatments and estrous response had no effect (P=0.30) on TAI pregnancy rates. In conclusion, the addition of FSH to the CO-Synch plus CIDR estrous synchronization protocol did not increase TAI pregnancy rates in beef cows or heifers. However, a positive estrous response to the synchronization protocol was associated with increased TAI pregnancy rates in cows.

  19. A review of current timed-AI (TAI) programs for beef and dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colazo, Marcos G; Mapletoft, Reuben J

    2014-08-01

    This is a review of the physiology and endocrinology of the estrous cycle and how ovarian physiology can be manipulated and controlled for timed artificial insemination (TAI) in beef and dairy cattle. Estrus detection is required for artificial insemination (AI), but it is done poorly in dairy cattle and it is difficult in beef cattle. Protocols that synchronize follicle growth, corpus luteum regression and ovulation, allowing for TAI, result in improved reproductive performance, because all animals are inseminated whether they show estrus or not. As result, TAI programs have become an integral part of reproductive management in many dairy herds and offer beef producers the opportunity to incorporate AI into their herds. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-based protocols are commonly used in North America for estrus synchronization as part of a TAI program. Protocols that increase pregnancy rates in lactating dairy cows and suckling beef cows have been developed. Protocols that improve pregnancy rates in heifers, acyclic beef cows, and resynchronized lactating dairy cows are also discussed.

  20. Pathogen group specific risk factors at herd, heifer and quarter levels for intramammary infections in early lactating dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepers, S; Peeters, K; Opsomer, G; Barkema, H W; Frankena, K; De Vliegher, S

    2011-05-01

    Risk factors for intramammary infections caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci, contagious major pathogens and environmental major pathogens in early lactating heifers were evaluated at the herd, heifer and quarter levels. In total, 764 quarters of 191 dairy heifers in 20 randomly selected farms in Flanders (Belgium) were sampled. Quarter milk samples were collected between 1 and 4 days in milk and between 5 and 8 days in milk for bacteriological culture. Data were analyzed using multivariable, multilevel logistic regression analysis. Higher average herd milk somatic cell count (>200,000 cells/mL), not having an effective fly control strategy, contact with lactating cows prior to calving and moderate to severe udder edema prior to calving increased the odds of intramammary infections caused by contagious major pathogens. Poor heifer hygiene and lack of mineral/vitamin supplementation prior to calving were risk factors for intramammary infection caused by environmental major pathogens. Teat apex colonization with coagulase-negative staphylococci prior to calving seemed to protect quarters against intramammary infections caused by major pathogens. Poor heifer hygiene before calving, a non-clipped udder and not practicing of teat dipping prior to calving increased the odds of intramammary infection with coagulase-negative staphylococci. Although management is important in the prevention and control of intramammary infections in early lactating heifers, most variation in the prevalence of intramammary infections resided at the heifer and quarter levels, indicating that the susceptibility for intramammary infections around calving is mainly determined by heifer and quarter characteristics.

  1. Manejo de novilhas prenhes aos 13/15 meses de idade em sistemas a pasto Pregnant heifers management at 13/15 months of age in grazing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides Pilau

    2008-07-01

    de vaca.This experiment was carried out to evaluate the development of 32 primiparous beef heifers Aberdeen Angus and Angus crossbred raised and mating from 13 to the 15 months of age. The experiment had beginning in the pregnancy diagnosis of using ultra-sound technique, realized at 28 days after the ending of the reproductive period. The initial average weight and body condition (BC was 288 kg LW and 3.2 points, respectively. In this occasion, the beef heifers were uniformly distributed by genetic group, LW and conception order in two grazing systems. Grazing systems were: PMI - pregnant beef heifers maintained in the initial pregnancy period on pearl millet pasture (Pennisetum americanum, L.; PNA - pregnant heifers maintained in the initial pregnancy period on natural pasture. Grazed period was 67 days in pearl millet pasture. At end of the treatments the beef heifers were maintained as a unique group: on natural pasture at pre calving period, on annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum, Lam pasture at post calving period and on natural pasture at second reproductive period. In the initial pregnancy phase, the average daily gain (ADG of 0.899 kg and body condition gain (BCG, 0.34 points of the PMI heifers were higher then the ADG of 0.377 kg and BC lost of -0.15 for PNA heifers. The PMI beef heifers had post calving live weight (PCW and post calving body condition of 301 kg and 2.9 points, respectively, higher values than of PNA beef heifers, 267 kg and 2.7 points. Calving, dystocia, birth and weaning rates were not different between the feeding treatment. The PMI beef heifers were 31 kg heaviest and with more 0.30 point of BC at initial second reproductive period. The pregnancy rate (PR and estimations of calving productive efficiency (CPEE and weaning productive efficiency at 100 days of age (WPEE were not different between feeding treatments. Mean PR was 77%. Mean CPEE was 30.3 and WPEE 28.1 kg of weaning calf/100 kg of cow.

  2. FEEDING GENISTEIN TO PREPUBERTAL GILTS STIMULATES THEIR MAMMARY DEVELOPMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The possible role of dietary genistein on mammary development of prepubertal gilts was investigated. Forty-five gilts were fed one of three diets from 90 d of age until slaughter (day 183 ± 1). Diets were: without soya (CTL0, n=15); soya-based commercial (CTLS, n=15); and soya-based commercial with ...

  3. Methylphenidate-induced erections in a prepubertal child.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, B D

    2013-02-01

    Methylphenidate is a medication used routinely in the management of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. We report a case of a prepubertal child who developed unwanted erections after commencing a response-adjusted dosing regimen of sustained release methylphenidate. Despite priapism being a rare adverse reaction associated with methylphenidate, physicians and parents need to be aware as it can have significant long-term complications.

  4. Prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia: a report of two cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaren, I.A.; Schott, D.A.; Otten, B.J.; Kroese-Deutman, H.C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gynecomastia is defined as the presence of excessive breast tissue in males, which can appear unilateral or bilateral. Bilateral gynecomastia is frequently found in the neonatal period, early in puberty, and with increasing age. Prepubertal unilateral gynecomastia in the absence of endoc

  5. Fertility of beef cattle females with mating stimuli around insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R O; Rivera, M J

    1999-01-29

    An experiment was conducted to test the hypothesis that sterile mounts around insemination improves pregnancy rate to artificial insemination (AI) and to define the effects of age, season, time to complete AI and time of day of insemination. A total of 178 Simbrah females were randomly assigned by calving date and body condition to one of three treatments during two consecutive years: (1) mating stimuli with a sterile bull at the time the cows were detected in estrus; (2) mating stimuli immediately after completing AI; (3) without mating stimuli. All cows and heifers were maintained under the same conditions of handling and feeding within the two breeding seasons (winter 1995 and summer 1996). Vasectomized bulls were used for the sterile mounts. Cows and heifers that were given a sterile mount at the time of detection of estrus, had an increased pregnancy rate (60.0%) compared with females given a sterile mount after completing AI (25.4%) or females without the sterile mount (35.6%) (P 0.05). Therefore, there is a biostimulatory effect of mating at the time beef cattle females are detected in estrus, on pregnancy rates to AI.

  6. Nutritional programming of reproductive development in heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developmental programming is the biological process by which environmental factors influence the development of the organs and tissues in the body. There are two areas of developmental programming being investigated with applicability to beef production systems to improve performance of replacement...

  7. Improved grazing activity of dairy heifers in shaded tropical grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Cristina Tavares de Mello

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Trees in the production systems can effectively reduce hot weather-induced stress in the Brazilian Midwest. High temperatures cause changes in animals daily routine, and trees into pastures can promote benefits. The aim of this research was to evaluate the behavior of dairy heifers in silvopastoral systems in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. A herd of 24 crossbreed heifers (3/4 and 7/8 Holstein/Zebu, 350kg average weight, was evaluated over three seasons. Piatã grass was managed under three shade levels: full-sun, moderate-shade, and intensive-shade provided by 10 to 12m high Eucalyptus trees. Behavior data were collected every 15 minutes from 8:30h to 16h. Shade availability significantly impacted heifer behavior, mainly affecting grazing frequency and time during the hottest hours. Grazing behavior was affected by shade levels during the different seasons. Heifers showed preferred grazing times. Heifers in the intensive-shade system visited shady areas during the hottest hours throughout the seasons. Heifers in the full sun-system avoided grazing during the warmer times, ceasing feeding activities. Our results from the Brazilian Midwest showed that shade availability causes breed heifers to change their daily routine.

  8. Formation of mutagens in beef and beef extract during cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commoner, B; Vithayathil, A J; Dolara, P; Nair, S; Madyastha, P; Cuca, G C

    1978-09-08

    Mutagens, distinguishable from benzo[a]pyrene and from mutagenic amino acid and protein pyrolysis products, are formed when ground beef is cooked in a home hamburger cooking appliance or when beef stock is concentrated, by boiling, to a paste known commercially as beef extract. "Well-done" hamburgers contain about 0.14 part per million of the mutagens, and beef bouillon cubes which contain beef extract about 0.1 part per million. Since such mutagens may be potentially carcionogenic and are formed during ordinary cooking procedures, their occurrence raises questions about possible risks to human health.

  9. Prevalence, virulence and antibiotic susceptibility of Salmonella spp. strains, isolated from beef in Greater Tunis (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oueslati, Walid; Rjeibi, Mohamed Ridha; Mhadhbi, Moez; Jbeli, Mounir; Zrelli, Samia; Ettriqui, Abdelfettah

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the presence of Salmonella spp. in 300 beef meat samples collected from cattle carcasses of different categories (young bulls, culled heifers and culled cows). The detection of Salmonella spp. was performed by the alternative VIDAS Easy Salmonella technique and confirmed by PCR using Salmonella specific primers. Salmonella serotypes were determined by slide agglutination tests. The resistance to 12 antibiotics was determined by the diffusion method on Mueller-Hinton agar antibiotic discs. The overall contamination rate of beef by Salmonella spp. was 5.7% (17/300). This rate varied from naught (0/100) in bulls' meat to 14% (14/100) in culled cows' meat (pinvA and negative for the virulence gene spvC. Only one isolate (S. Kentucky) harbored the h-li virulence gene.

  10. Effect of heifer-raising practices on E. coli antimicrobial resistance and Salmonella prevalence in heifer raisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R V; Siler, J D; Cummings, K J; Davis, M A; Warnick, L D

    2015-11-01

    Although cattle movement and commingling play an important role in the inter-herd transmission of pathogens, little is known about the effect of commingling of heifers at raising operations. The objective of this study was to compare the resistance of E. coli and prevalence of Salmonella from pooled faecal pats of heifers raised off-farm at multi-source raisers (MULTI) that raised heifers from at least two farms compared with on-farm raisers (HOME), with heifers from only that farm. MULTI faecal pat samples were collected from pens with animals that had arrived at the farm within the previous 2 months (AP) and from animals that would be departing the heifer raiser in 2-3 months (DP). Corresponding age sampling was conducted at HOME raisers. Odds of ampicillin resistance were 3·0 times greater in E. coli collected from MULTI compared to HOME raisers. E. coli from AP pens had significantly (P Salmonella recovery was not significantly different between heifer-raising systems (P = 0·3). Heifer-raising system did not have a major overall impact on selection of resistant E. coli, which was strongly affected by the age of the animals sampled.

  11. Consumer perceptions of beef healthiness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Verbeke, Wim; Dutra de Barcellos, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    discussions were conducted in four European countries (France, UK, Germany, Spain), each consisting of seven to nine participants. A content analysis was performed on the transcripts of these discussions. RESULTS: Although beef was generally perceived as healthful, focus group participants expected positive...... as well as negative effects of beef consumption on their health. Labelled, branded, fresh and lean beef were perceived as signalling healthful beef, in contrast with further processed and packaged beef. Consumers felt that their individual choices could make a difference with respect to the healthiness...

  12. 9 CFR 319.313 - Beef with gravy and gravy with beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef with gravy and gravy with beef... Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.313 Beef with gravy and gravy with beef. “Beef with Gravy” and “Gravy with Beef” shall not be made with beef which, in the aggregate for each lot contains more than...

  13. 7 CFR 1260.120 - Beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef products. 1260.120 Section 1260.120 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.120 Beef products. Beef products means edible...

  14. 7 CFR 1260.119 - Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef. 1260.119 Section 1260.119 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.119 Beef. Beef means flesh of cattle....

  15. [Pneumothorax during right-sided nephrectomy in a heifer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, K; Muggli, E; Gerspach, C; Schramm, S; Dettwiler, M; Bach, F; Ringer, S

    2016-01-01

    A 250-kg heifer had signs of colic attributable to urolithiasis of the right kidney. Medical treatment did not result in resolution of clinical signs, and nephrectomy was carried out. The surgery was started with the heifer standing, and the 13th rib was resected. However, during blunt dissection of the kidney, air suddenly entered the pleural space and the heifer had acute severe dyspnoea. The hole in the pleural cavity was sutured and a chest drain was placed. Inhalation anaesthesia was then induced and nephrectomy could be completed without further complications. The heifer was discharged 11 days postoperatively, and was healthy and had been integrated into the herd 12 months after surgery. Pneumothorax must be considered a possible complication of rib resection in right-sided nephrectomy in cattle.

  16. Follicular atresia in the prepubertal spiny mouse (Acomys cahirinus) ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hułas-Stasiak, Monika; Gawron, Antoni

    2011-10-01

    This study was designed to determine follicular atresia in the newborn and the prepubertal spiny mouse. We analyzed the processes of follicle loss using classical markers of apoptosis (TUNEL reaction, active caspase-3) and autophagy (Lamp1). Numerous small clear vacuoles and autophagosomes as well as strong Lamp1 staining were observed in dying oocytes of all follicle types, especially of the primordial and primary ones. Active caspase 3 and the TUNEL reaction were detected only in the granulosa cells of large secondary and antral follicles. The expression of apoptosis and autophagy markers was also changing during the prepubertal period. Western blot analysis indicated that at the moment of birth, females undergo an increased rate of follicular atresia mediated by autophagy, while apoptosis is the dominant form of ovarian atresia in consecutive postnatal days. On the basis of these observations, we concluded that apoptosis and autophagy are involved in follicular atresia and these processes are cell and developmental stage-specific.

  17. The involvement of dopaminergic system on LH secretion Nelore heifers Sistema dopaminérgico na secreção de LH de novilhas Nelore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Helena Venturoli Perri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of sulpiride administration (dopamine D2 antagonist, 0.59 m/kg body weight, s.c. and blood collected every 15 min for 10 h thereafter on Luteinizing Hormone (LH secretion in B. indicus pre-pubertal heifers at 8, 12 and 16 month of age. LH was quantified by RIA, sensitivity (0.039 ng/ml and CV (15.51%. In heifers given sulpiride treatment didn’t differ (P≥0.05 in LH concentration, total secretion area, peak total area, number of peaks, area of highest secretion peak and time to highest peak occurrence and maximum LH secretion, from control group. The results suggest absence of dopamine D2 antagonist effect on LH secretion in pre-pubertal Nellore heifers, didn’t neurotransmitter participating on sexual maturation.O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de investigar a variação na secreção do Hormônio Luteinizante (LH em resposta ao tratamento com sulpiride, antagonista de receptor (D2 dopaminérgico, com administração de 0,59mg/kg, s.c. e colheita de amostras de sangue a cada 15min, por 10h. Foram utilizadas 10 novilhas da raça Nelore pré-púberes, aos 8, 12 e 16 meses de idade. A concentração de LH foi quantificada por radioimunoensaio, e o coeficiente de variação intra, o interensaio e a sensibilidade dos ensaios de LH foram respectivamente de: 11,86%; 15,51%; 0,039ng/mL. O tratamento com sulpiride não diferiu na concentração média de LH, área total de secreção de LH e picos, número de picos, área do maior pico, tempo necessário ao aparecimento do maior pico de secreção de LH e amplitude máxima de LH, em comparação ao grupo controle. Os resultados indicam ausência de efeito da dopamina, através de receptores D2, durante a fase pré-púbere, em novilhas da raça Nelore, o que sinaliza a não participação como neurotransmissora na secreção de LH durante o processo de maturação sexual.

  18. Effects of chitosan on nutrient digestibility, methane emissions, and in vitro fermentation in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, D D; Ruiz-Moreno, M; Ciriaco, F M; Kohmann, M; Mercadante, V R G; Lamb, G C; DiLorenzo, N

    2015-07-01

    Chitosan was evaluated as a feed additive to mitigate in vivo CH4 emissions in beef cattle. Twenty-four crossbred heifers (BW = 318 ± 35 kg) were used in a randomized block design replicated in 2 periods. The design included a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments, which included diet (high concentrate [HC] or low concentrate [LC]) and 0.0, 0.5, or 1.0% of chitosan inclusion (DM basis). Diets were offered ad libitum and individual intake was recorded. An in vitro experiment to analyze chitosan’s effect on fermentation parameters and gas production kinetics was performed. A diet effect (P 0.10) by chitosan in HC substrate; however, when incubated with the LC substrate, CH4 production increased quadratically (P feeding up to 1% of chitosan (DM basis) to heifers consuming a LC diet increased apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients. Enteric CH4 emissions were not affected by chitosan feeding, regardless of type of diet, and heifers consuming a 36% concentrate diet produced 2.6 times more methane per day than those consuming an 85% concentrate diet.

  19. Cooking Class: Pumpkin Beef

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Slice the beef, mix with seasoning (1) and marinate for 10 minutes. Clean, peel and thickly slice the pumpkin. Put in a wok and fry in 2 tbsp cooking oil. Add the salt and soy sauce as per seasoning (2) plus 1/2 cup water. Bring to the boil, lower the heat and simmer for 10 minutes.

  20. Agriculture. Beef Livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michigan State Univ., East Lansing. Coll. of Agriculture and Natural Resources Education Inst.

    This task-based curriculum guide for agricultural production, specifically for beef livestock, is intended to help the teacher develop a classroom management system where students learn by doing. Introductory materials include a Dictionary of Occupational Titles job code and title sheet, a task sheet for developing leadership skills, and a task…

  1. Beef grading by ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammell, P. M.

    1981-01-01

    Reflections in ultrasonic A-scan signatures of beef carcasses indicate USDA grade. Since reflections from within muscle are determined primarily by fat/muscle interface, richness of signals is direct indication of degree of marbling and quality. Method replaces subjective sight and feel tests by individual graders and is applicable to grade analysis of live cattle.

  2. Creep Feeding Beef Calves

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Creep feeding is the managerial practice of supplying supplemental feed (usually concentrates) to the nursing calf. Milk from a lactating beef cow furnishes only about 50 percent of the nutrients that a 3-4 month-old calf needs for maximum growth.

  3. Testicular tumours in prepubertal children: About eight cases

    OpenAIRE

    Rachid Khemakhem; Yosra Ben Ahmed; Said Jlidi; Faouzi Nouira; Faten Fdhila; Awatef Charieg; Sofiene Ghorbel; Sihem Barsaoui; Béji Chaouachi

    2013-01-01

    Background: To analyze the spectrum of testicular tumors in prepubertal children and the therapeutic resultants in an unselected population. Materials and Methods: Our hospital database was analyzed for testicular tumors from January 1995 to December 2010 concerning clinical presentation, treatment and therapeutic results. Results: Eight patients were operated on because of testicular tumors. In six cases (75%) the tumor was benign: benign teratoma (four cases), epidermoid cyst (one case) and...

  4. Fertility Preservation for Prepubertal Girls: Update and Current Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Resetkova, Nina; Hayashi, Masanori; Lisa A. Kolp; Christianson, Mindy S.

    2013-01-01

    With increasing rates of diagnosis of childhood cancers and the evolution of more effective treatment options resulting in prolonged life spans, fertility preservation counseling is an integral component of the discussion at the time of diagnosis of childhood cancers. The primary fertility preservation option that exists for prepubertal girls is ovarian tissue cryopreservation. Although ovarian tissue cryopreservation is still considered to be experimental in nature, live births have resulted...

  5. Effect of a single growth hormone (rbST) treatment at breeding on conception rates and pregnancy retention in dairy and beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, Melanie J; Inskeep, E Keith; Dailey, Robert A

    2006-07-01

    Initiation of long-term treatment with rbST (Posilac, Monsanto, St. Louis, MO) coincident with first insemination increased pregnancy rates in dairy cattle, but neither the efficacy of using only the initial injection, nor its effects on retention of pregnancy are known. Lactating dairy cows, dairy heifers, and lactating beef cows were assigned at random to treatment (rbST) or control. Dairy cows, dairy heifers, and beef cows received 500 mg rbST (n = 48, 35, 137 inseminations, respectively) at artificial insemination or were left untreated (n = 62, 33, 130 inseminations, respectively). Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography at 28-36 days. Treatment with rbST at insemination improved conception rates in dairy cows (60.4% versus 40.3%; P or =5 mm, and crown-rump lengths of embryos were not affected by treatment. The second objective was to examine the effects of rbST at insemination on birth weight and post-natal calf growth in beef cows. However, birth and weaning weights of beef calves were not affected by treatment. In conclusion, a single treatment with rbST at insemination increased conception rates in dairy cows, specifically in those >100 DIM.

  6. Efficiency of fixed-time artificial insemination using a progesterone device combined with GnRH or estradiol benzoate in Nellore heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Antônio Pelissari Poncio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available he use of estrogens in artificial insemination protocols for cattle is the least expensive and most efficient method currently available. However, the trend to prohibit the use of estrogens for this purpose has made it necessary to find alternatives that replace estrogens without compromising the reproductive performance of the animals. The objective of this study was to evaluate conception rates in Bos indicus beef heifers treated with a progesterone device (P4 combined with GnRH or an estradiol ester. On day 0, pubertal Nellore heifers (n = 100 received an intravaginal device containing 1 g P4 and were randomly divided into two groups. The GnRH group (n = 49 received an intramuscular injection of 100 µg GnRH, while the E2 group (n = 51 received 2 mg estradiol benzoate (EB. The P4 device was removed after 5 (GnRH group or 8 days (E2 group, followed by an injection of 125 µg of the PGF2α, analog cloprostenol. On that occasion, the E2 group received an additional injection of 300 IU eCG. Twenty-four hours later, the GnRH group received a second injection of 125 µg cloprostenol, while the E2 group received 1 mg EB. The heifers were inseminated 72 (GnRH group or 54 hours (E2 group after removal of the P4 device. At the time of insemination, the GnRH group received additionally an injection of 100 µg GnRH. Estrus was monitored during the period of cloprostenol injection until the time of artificial insemination and pregnancy was diagnosed 40 days after insemination by transrectal ultrasonography. The data were analyzed by Fisher’s exact test. The pregnancy rate was 38.8% and 31.4% in the GnRH and E2 groups, respectively (P>0.05. The ovarian condition of the heifers (estrus or anestrus tended to influence (P=0.07 pregnancy rates in the GnRH group, but not in the E2 group. At the time of artificial insemination, 33.3% of heifers in the GnRH group showed signs of estrus versus 88.2% in the E2 group (P<0.05. However, the time of estrus

  7. Learning strategy is influenced by trait anxiety and early rearing conditions in prepubertal male, but not prepubertal female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, Elin M; Hawley, Wayne R; Bromley-Dulfano, Sarah S; Marino, Sarah E; Stathopoulos, Nicholas G; Dohanich, Gary P

    2012-09-01

    Rodents solve dual-solution tasks that require navigation to a goal by adopting either a hippocampus-dependent place strategy or a striatum-dependent stimulus-response strategy. A variety of factors, including biological sex and emotional status, influence the choice of learning strategy. In these experiments, we investigated the relationship between learning strategy and anxiety level in male and female rats prior to the onset of puberty, before the activational effects of gonadal hormones influence these processes. In the first experiment, prepubertal male rats categorized as high in trait anxiety at 26days of age exhibited a bias toward stimulus-response strategy at 28days of age, whereas age-matched females exhibited no preference in strategy regardless of anxiety level. In the second experiment, male and female rats were separated from their dams for either 15 or 180min per day during the first 2weeks of life and tested on a battery of anxiety and cognitive tasks between 25 and 29days of age. Prolonged maternal separations for 180min were associated with impaired spatial memory on a Y-maze task in both prepubertal males and females. Furthermore, prolonged maternal separations were linked to elevated anxiety and a bias for stimulus-response strategy in prepubertal males but not females. Alternatively, brief separations from dams for 15min were associated with intact spatial memory, lower levels of anxiety, and no preference for either learning strategy in both sexes. These results provide evidence of sex-specific effects of trait anxiety and early maternal separation on the choice of learning strategy used by prepubertal rodents.

  8. Multi-tissue omics analyses reveal molecular regulatory networks for puberty in composite beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánovas, Angela; Reverter, Antonio; DeAtley, Kasey L; Ashley, Ryan L; Colgrave, Michelle L; Fortes, Marina R S; Islas-Trejo, Alma; Lehnert, Sigrid; Porto-Neto, Laercio; Rincón, Gonzalo; Silver, Gail A; Snelling, Warren M; Medrano, Juan F; Thomas, Milton G

    2014-01-01

    Puberty is a complex physiological event by which animals mature into an adult capable of sexual reproduction. In order to enhance our understanding of the genes and regulatory pathways and networks involved in puberty, we characterized the transcriptome of five reproductive tissues (i.e. hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ovary, uterus, and endometrium) as well as tissues known to be relevant to growth and metabolism needed to achieve puberty (i.e., longissimus dorsi muscle, adipose, and liver). These tissues were collected from pre- and post-pubertal Brangus heifers (3/8 Brahman; Bos indicus x 5/8 Angus; Bos taurus) derived from a population of cattle used to identify quantitative trait loci associated with fertility traits (i.e., age of first observed corpus luteum (ACL), first service conception (FSC), and heifer pregnancy (HPG)). In order to exploit the power of complementary omics analyses, pre- and post-puberty co-expression gene networks were constructed by combining the results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS), RNA-Seq, and bovine transcription factors. Eight tissues among pre-pubertal and post-pubertal Brangus heifers revealed 1,515 differentially expressed and 943 tissue-specific genes within the 17,832 genes confirmed by RNA-Seq analysis. The hypothalamus experienced the most notable up-regulation of genes via puberty (i.e., 204 out of 275 genes). Combining the results of GWAS and RNA-Seq, we identified 25 loci containing a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associated with ACL, FSC, and (or) HPG. Seventeen of these SNP were within a gene and 13 of the genes were expressed in uterus or endometrium. Multi-tissue omics analyses revealed 2,450 co-expressed genes relative to puberty. The pre-pubertal network had 372,861 connections whereas the post-pubertal network had 328,357 connections. A sub-network from this process revealed key transcriptional regulators (i.e., PITX2, FOXA1, DACH2, PROP1, SIX6, etc.). Results from these multi-tissue omics

  9. Multi-tissue omics analyses reveal molecular regulatory networks for puberty in composite beef cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Cánovas

    Full Text Available Puberty is a complex physiological event by which animals mature into an adult capable of sexual reproduction. In order to enhance our understanding of the genes and regulatory pathways and networks involved in puberty, we characterized the transcriptome of five reproductive tissues (i.e. hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ovary, uterus, and endometrium as well as tissues known to be relevant to growth and metabolism needed to achieve puberty (i.e., longissimus dorsi muscle, adipose, and liver. These tissues were collected from pre- and post-pubertal Brangus heifers (3/8 Brahman; Bos indicus x 5/8 Angus; Bos taurus derived from a population of cattle used to identify quantitative trait loci associated with fertility traits (i.e., age of first observed corpus luteum (ACL, first service conception (FSC, and heifer pregnancy (HPG. In order to exploit the power of complementary omics analyses, pre- and post-puberty co-expression gene networks were constructed by combining the results from genome-wide association studies (GWAS, RNA-Seq, and bovine transcription factors. Eight tissues among pre-pubertal and post-pubertal Brangus heifers revealed 1,515 differentially expressed and 943 tissue-specific genes within the 17,832 genes confirmed by RNA-Seq analysis. The hypothalamus experienced the most notable up-regulation of genes via puberty (i.e., 204 out of 275 genes. Combining the results of GWAS and RNA-Seq, we identified 25 loci containing a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP associated with ACL, FSC, and (or HPG. Seventeen of these SNP were within a gene and 13 of the genes were expressed in uterus or endometrium. Multi-tissue omics analyses revealed 2,450 co-expressed genes relative to puberty. The pre-pubertal network had 372,861 connections whereas the post-pubertal network had 328,357 connections. A sub-network from this process revealed key transcriptional regulators (i.e., PITX2, FOXA1, DACH2, PROP1, SIX6, etc.. Results from these multi

  10. Tapeworm infection - beef or pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teniasis; Pork tapeworm; Beef tapeworm; Tapeworm; Taenia saginata ; Taenia solium ; Taeniasis ... undercooked meat of infected animals. Cattle usually carry Taenia saginata ( T. saginata ). Pigs carry Taenia solium (T. ...

  11. Yeast cell wall supplementation alters the metabolic responses of crossbred heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the effect of feeding yeast cell wall (YCW) products on the metabolic responses of newly-received heifers to endotoxin challenge. Heifers (n = 24; 219 ± 2.4 kg) were separated into treatment groups receiving a Control diet (n = 8), YCW-A (2.5 grams/heifer/d; n = 8) or YCW-C (2.5 ...

  12. Genetic aspects of feed intake and efficiency in lactating dairy heifers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Nieuwhof, G.J.; Vos, H.; Korver, S.

    1991-01-01

    In 1982, an experiment was initiated to study the relationships between feed intake and feed efficiency of young AI bulls, growing heifers and lactating heifers. This paper focuses on the genetic parameters for feed intake, production, and efficiency of lactating heifers. Measurements of feed

  13. GnRH treatment at artificial insemination in beef cattle fails to increase plasma progesterone concentrations or pregnancy rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, G A; Perry, B L

    2009-03-15

    Treatment with GnRH at the onset of standing estrus increased pregnancy percentages and circulating concentrations of progesterone in repeat breeder dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of treatment with GnRH at AI on concentrations of progesterone and conception rates in beef cattle that exhibited estrus. Two hundred ninety-three heifers at four locations were synchronized with the Select Synch plus CIDR protocol (given GnRH and a CIDR was placed into the vagina, and 7 d later, given PGF(2alpha) and CIDR removed; n=253) or the 14-19 melengestrol acetate (MGA) protocol (MGA fed at 0.5mg/head/d for 14 d, with PGF(2alpha) 19 d after MGA withdrawal n=40) and AI was done after detection of estrus. At Location 1, blood samples were collected on Day 2, 4, 6, 10, 15, and 18 after AI (Day 0=AI). Two hundred and fifty postpartum cows at two locations were synchronized with the Select Synch plus CIDR protocol, and AI was performed after detection of estrus. At AI, cattle were alternately assigned to one of two treatments: (1) treatment with GnRH (100microg) at AI (n=127 heifers and n=108 cows); or (2) non-treated control (n=120 heifers and n=119 cows). Concentrations of progesterone tended to be greater in control heifers compared to GnRH-treated heifers on Days 6 (P=0.08), 10 (P=0.07), and 15 (P=0.11). Overall conception rates were 68% and 66% for GnRH treated and control, respectively, and were not different between treatments (P=0.72). In summary, treatment with GnRH at time of AI had no influence on conception rates in cattle that had exhibited estrus.

  14. Beef heifers with diminished numbers of antral follicles have decreased uterine protein concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research demonstrated a favorable relationship between the number of follicles detectable in the bovine ovary by ultrasonography and fertility, and bovine females with diminished numbers of antral follicles had smaller reproductive tracts. Therefore, we hypothesized that uterine function w...

  15. Changes in leptin and metabolite concentrations over time in finishing beef steers and heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptin is a hormone produced in adipocytes that is involved in the control of feed intake, growth, and carcass composition. Composite breed cows were bred to working ranch bulls representing Angus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Limousin, Red Angus, and Simmental breeds to produce calves with a wide range in...

  16. Children with a Prepubertal and Early Adolescent Bipolar Disorder Phenotype from Pediatric Versus Psychiatric Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Rebecca; Geller, Barbara; Frazier, Jeanne; Beringer, Linda; Zimerman, Betsy; Klages, Tricia; Bolhofner, Kristine

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine characteristics between subjects with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype from pediatric versus psychiatric venues. Method: Subjects (N = 93) with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype were obtained through consecutive new case ascertainment from designated pediatric and…

  17. Non-invasive measurement of adrenal response after standardized exercise tests in prepubertal children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijsman, Sigrid M.; Koers, Nicoline F.; Bocca, Gianni; van der Veen, Betty S.; Appelhof, Maaike; Kamps, Arvid W. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the feasibility of non-invasive evaluation of adrenal response in healthy prepubertal children by standardized exercise tests. Methods: On separate occasions, healthy prepubertal children performed a submaximal cycling test, a maximal cycling test, and a 20-m shuttle-run test

  18. Dietary melatonin alters uterine artery hemodynamics in pregnant Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockus, K E; Hart, C G; Gilfeather, C L; Fleming, B O; Lemley, C O

    2016-04-01

    The objective was to examine uterine artery hemodynamics and maternal serum profiles in pregnant heifers supplemented with dietary melatonin (MEL) or no supplementation (CON). In addition, melatonin receptor-mediated responses in steroid metabolism were examined using a bovine endometrial epithelial culture system. Twenty singleton pregnant Holstein heifers were supplemented with 20 mg of melatonin (n = 10) or no melatonin supplementation (control; n = 10) from days 190 to 262 of gestation. Maternal measurements were recorded on days 180 (baseline), 210, 240, and 262 of gestation. Total uterine blood flow was increased by 25% in the MEL-treated heifers compared with the CON. Concentrations of progesterone were decreased in MEL vs CON heifers. Total serum antioxidant capacity was increased by 43% in MEL-treated heifers when compared with CON. Activity of cytochrome P450 1A, 2C, and superoxide dismutase was increased in bovine endometrial epithelial cells treated with melatonin, whereas the melatonin receptor antagonist, luzindole, negated the increase in cytochrome P450 2C activity. Moreover, estradiol or progesterone treatment altered bovine uterine melatonin receptor expression, which could potentiate the melatonin-mediated responses during late gestation. The observed increase in total uterine blood flow during melatonin supplementation could be related to its antioxidant properties. Compromised pregnancies are typically accompanied by increased oxidative stress; therefore, melatonin could serve as a therapeutic supplementation strategy. This could lead to further fetal programming implications in conjunction with offspring growth and development postnatally.

  19. Quantitative Prediction of Beef Quality Using Visible and NIR Spectroscopy with Large Data Samples Under Industry Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, T.; Ren, J.; Craigie, C.; Zabalza, J.; Maltin, Ch.; Marshall, S.

    2015-03-01

    It is well known that the eating quality of beef has a significant influence on the repurchase behavior of consumers. There are several key factors that affect the perception of quality, including color, tenderness, juiciness, and flavor. To support consumer repurchase choices, there is a need for an objective measurement of quality that could be applied to meat prior to its sale. Objective approaches such as offered by spectral technologies may be useful, but the analytical algorithms used remain to be optimized. For visible and near infrared (VISNIR) spectroscopy, Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) is a widely used technique for meat related quality modeling and prediction. In this paper, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) based machine learning approach is presented to predict beef eating quality traits. Although SVM has been successfully used in various disciplines, it has not been applied extensively to the analysis of meat quality parameters. To this end, the performance of PLSR and SVM as tools for the analysis of meat tenderness is evaluated, using a large dataset acquired under industrial conditions. The spectral dataset was collected using VISNIR spectroscopy with the wavelength ranging from 350 to 1800 nm on 234 beef M. longissimus thoracis steaks from heifers, steers, and young bulls. As the dimensionality with the VISNIR data is very high (over 1600 spectral bands), the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique was applied for feature extraction and data reduction. The extracted principal components (less than 100) were then used for data modeling and prediction. The prediction results showed that SVM has a greater potential to predict beef eating quality than PLSR, especially for the prediction of tenderness. The infl uence of animal gender on beef quality prediction was also investigated, and it was found that beef quality traits were predicted most accurately in beef from young bulls.

  20. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  1. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  2. 7 CFR 65.155 - Ground beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground beef. 65.155 Section 65.155 Agriculture... OF BEEF, PORK, LAMB, CHICKEN, GOAT MEAT, PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, MACADAMIA NUTS, PECANS, PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.155 Ground beef. Ground beef has the...

  3. 7 CFR 65.110 - Beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beef. 65.110 Section 65.110 Agriculture Regulations of... MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING OF BEEF..., AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.110 Beef. Beef means meat produced from...

  4. [Urogenital bleeding revealing urethral prolapse in a prepubertal girl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballouhey, Q; Abbo, O; Sanson, S; Cochet, T; Galinier, P; Pienkowski, C

    2013-06-01

    Urethral prolapse is a complete eversion of the distal urethral mucosa through the external meatus. It occurs primarily in prepubertal, primarly Black girls. Its pathophysiology has not been clearly identified. We report a case of a 5-year-old girl who came to the Emergency Department with a 1-day history of genital pain and "vaginal bleeding". Early recognition makes differential diagnosis with sexual abuse and staging allows prompt management under general anesthesic like prolapse reduction or surgical excision. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of animal class and genotype on beef muscle nanostructure, pHu, colour and tenderness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Y. Chulayo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal class and genotype of cattle on Muscularis longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL nanostructure, ultimate pH (pHu, colour and tenderness of beef. We found significant positive relationships between distance travelled (DT and meat temperature (Tm (p"less than"0.01; lairage duration (LDhr and lightness of colour (L* (p"less than"0.01; ambient temperature (Ta and L* (p"less than"0.05 and LDhr and yellowness (b* (p"less than"0.05 of beef from Bonsmara cattle. Positive linear relationships were observed between DT and Tm (p"less than"0.05 and DT and L* (p"less than"0.01 of the non-descript cattle. There were no significant relationships between pre-slaughter stress and other beef quality parameters (pHu, Warner– Bratzler shear force [WBSF], redness [a*] and b* of Bonsmara, Nguni and non-descript cattle. Muscle fibres differed among class and genotype and had an effect on meat quality. The Bonsmara, non-descript and Nguni cows and heifers had visible skeletal muscle fibres which were thin and long, promising improved tenderness of beef. Genotype and class had significant effects on meat quality parameters (Tm, pHu, L*, a*, b* and WBSF. The first important principal components as they appeared from the analysis were pHu, Tm, L*, a*, b* and WBSF. Therefore, animal class did not affect the nanostructure of beef; instead, meat tenderness was enhanced by the longer and visible muscle fibres. Nguni cattle produced meat of superior quality to that of the Bonsmara and the non-descript cattle.

  6. Glycerin levels for crossbred heifers supplemented in pasture: intake behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Farias,Mariana de Souza; Silva,Robério Rodrigues; Zawadzki,Fernando; Eiras, Carlos Emanuel; Lima,Beatriz Silva; Prado,Ivanor Nunes do

    2012-01-01

    The effect of glycerin inclusion on the intake behavior of heifers was analyzed. During the 102-day experimental period, thirty-six 13-month old heifers, average initial weight 226±12 kg, were distributed in a completely randomized design with four treatments and nine replications: G0.0 = control, G2.8 = 2.8%, G6.1 = 6.1%, and G9.1 = 9.1% glycerin in DM intake. Intake behavior was undertaken by monitoring animal activities for 24 hours every five minutes. The inclusion of glycerin in the diet...

  7. Heifer ovariectomy using the Willis spay instrument: Technique, morbidity and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermehl, N L

    1993-11-01

    Two field trials were conducted to determine the morbidity and mortality rates in heifers ovariectomized with a Willis spay instrument.Trial A used 384 Hereford and Hereford cross, auction source, heifers, weighing an average of 230 kg. In trial B, 138 auction and ranch source heifers of mixed breeding and weighing an average of 285 kg were used. All heifers were ovariectomized per vaginam, with the ovaries left in the abdomen. Prophylactic antibiotics were administered and heifers were observed at pasture for the next 150 days.The morbidity and mortality rates for heifers in trial A were 0.5% and 0.26%, respectively. In trial B, there was no morbidity or mortality.These trials indicate that the technique described is a low risk, expedient method of ovariectomizing heifers.

  8. Prepubertal vaginal discharge: Vaginoscopy to rule out foreign body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Saniye; Karnak, İbrahim; Tanyel, Feridun Cahit; Çiftçi, Arbay Özden

    2016-01-01

    Medical records of all prepubertal patients who underwent vaginoscopy to rule out vaginal foreign body between 2004 and 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. All patients were evaluated by pediatricians prior to surgical consultation. Vaginoscopy is performed in the operating room under general anesthesia. During the study period, 20 girls with persistent vaginal discharge with a mean age of 6.8 years (1-13 years) underwent vaginoscopy to rule out vaginal foreign body. Six patients had bloody vaginal discharge and 4 had recurrent vaginal bleeding lasting for more than one month. Ten patients had purulent vaginal discharge lasting for 1-7 months. None of vaginal cultures revealed pathological bacteria or candida species. Preoperative imaging techniques revealed vaginal foreign body in one patient only. Vaginoscopy demonstrated vaginal foreign bodies in four patients. Foreign bodies were grass inflorescence, safety pin and undefined brownish particles (n=2), which may be pieces of toilet paper or feces. There was no complication related to vaginoscopy and removal of foreign body. Hymen integrity was preserved in all patients. Persistent or recurrent vaginal discharge in prepubertal girls should raise the suspect of vaginal foreign body. Continuous flow vaginoscopy is mandatory to detect and remove any vaginal foreign body. Early diagnosis would prevent complications secondary to long-standing foreign bodies.

  9. Chemosensory anxiety signals prime defensive behavior in prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lübke, Katrin T; Busch, Anne; Hoenen, Matthias; Schaal, Benoist; Pause, Bettina M

    2017-05-01

    Chemosensory anxiety signals effectively prime motor responses related to withdrawal behavior, such as the startle reflex, in adult humans. As the reproductive status strongly affects the response to social chemosignals, the current study examined whether chemosensory anxiety signals would augment the startle response in prepubertal children as it does in adults. Using cotton pads, axillary sweat was collected from 28 men while waiting for an important oral examination (anxiety condition), and during ergometer training (sport control condition). Using a constant-flow olfactometer, sweat samples and pure cotton samples (cotton control) were presented to 10 prepubertal girls aged 9-13years (M=11.25, SD=1.25) for 3000ms during inhalation. White noise bursts of 102dB(A) served as startle probes, and startle responses were recorded via electromyography of the orbicularis oculi muscle. The girls showed larger startle amplitudes to probes presented in the context of chemosensory anxiety signals as compared to a context of sport control sweat (panxiety signals prime defensive motor behavior. This effect appears unrelated to the odorous quality of anxiety sweat, but seems to reflect a specific preparedness to respond to the underlying social alarm signal. Thus, chemosensory communication supporting individual harm protection is independent of the reproductive status in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Testicular tumours in prepubertal children: About eight cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Khemakhem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To analyze the spectrum of testicular tumors in prepubertal children and the therapeutic resultants in an unselected population. Materials and Methods: Our hospital database was analyzed for testicular tumors from January 1995 to December 2010 concerning clinical presentation, treatment and therapeutic results. Results: Eight patients were operated on because of testicular tumors. In six cases (75% the tumor was benign: benign teratoma (four cases, epidermoid cyst (one case and immature teratoma (one case. Two patients (25% had a malignant tumour: yolk-sac tumour (two cases. All this children underwent surgery. Radical inguinal orchidectomy was performed in six cases and conservative surgery was performed in two cases. One patient has received adjuvant chemotherapy. Follow-up was uneventfully three years after primary surgery. Conclusion: In prepubertal children, most testicular tumours are benign. If tumour markers were negative testis-preserving surgery can be proposed, complete excision of the tumour should be ascertained. In the case of testicular teratoma, the possibility of contralateral tumour should be considered in the follow-up.

  11. Developmental potential of prepubertal mouse oocytes is compromised due mainly to their impaired synthesis of glutathione.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Zhong Jiao

    Full Text Available Although oocytes from prepubertal animals are found less competent than oocytes from adults, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Using the mouse oocyte model, this paper has tested the hypothesis that the developmental potential of prepubertal oocytes is compromised due mainly to their impaired potential for glutathione synthesis. Oocytes from prepubertal and adult mice, primed with or without eCG, were matured in vitro and assessed for glutathione synthesis potential, oxidative stress, Ca(2+ reserves, fertilization and in vitro development potential. In unprimed mice, abilities for glutathione synthesis, activation, male pronuclear formation, blastocyst formation, cortical granule migration and polyspermic block were all compromised significantly in prepubertal compared to adult oocytes. Cysteamine and cystine supplementation to maturation medium significantly promoted oocyte glutathione synthesis and blastocyst development but difference due to maternal age remained. Whereas reactive oxygen species (ROS levels increased, Ca(2+ storage decreased significantly in prepubertal oocytes. Levels of both catalytic and modifier subunits of the γ-glutamylcysteine ligase were significantly lower in prepubertal than in adult oocytes. Maternal eCG priming improved all the parameters and eliminated the age difference. Together, the results have confirmed our hypothesis by showing that prepubertal oocytes have a decreased ability to synthesize glutathione leading to an impaired potential to reduce ROS and to form male pronuclei and blastocysts. The resulting oxidative stress decreases the intracellular Ca(2+ store resulting in impaired activation at fertilization, and damages the microfilament network, which affects cortical granule redistribution leading to polyspermy.

  12. Analysis of modern technologies commonly used in beef cattle production: conventional beef production versus nonconventional production using meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wileman, B W; Thomson, D U; Reinhardt, C D; Renter, D G

    2009-10-01

    Conventional feeding systems use pharmaceutical products not allowed in natural or organic systems for finishing cattle. This review of data compares the performance effects (ADG, G:F, DMI) of technologies used in conventional feeding programs that are prohibited in organic programs, natural programs, or both. The technologies evaluated were steroid implants, monensin, tylosin, endectocides, and metaphylaxis with any antimicrobial. For inclusion in this analysis, studies were conducted in North America, reported randomization to treatment group, used beef cattle, contained an untreated control group, and were sourced from peer-reviewed journals. Forest plots were used to examine the data visually for trends toward a uniform effect of the technology on the outcomes of interest (ADG, DMI, G:F). Technologies that displayed a uniform response on the forest plot compared with negative controls were then analyzed using mixed models. Examination of forest plots for endectocides, steroid implants, monensin, and metaphylaxis technologies appeared to show performance advantages for treated cattle relative to cattle in negative control groups. An insufficient number of studies met the inclusion criteria to conduct meta-analyses comparing endectocides, monensin, or tylosin with negative controls. Average daily gain in feeder cattle given metaphylaxis on arrival was 0.11 kg/d (P < 0.01) greater relative to cattle that did not receive metaphylaxis on arrival. Implanting heifers increased ADG by 0.08 kg/d compared with nonimplanted controls (P = 0.09). Implants had no effect on G:F (P = 0.14) in heifers or on DMI (P = 0.44) relative to nonimplanted control heifers. Implanting steers was associated with greater ADG, by 0.25 kg/d (P < 0.01), and DMI, by 0.53 kg/d (P < 0.01), relative to nonimplanted control steers. Implants also improved G:F in steers relative to nonimplanted steers, by 0.02 (0.17 vs. 0.15; implanted vs. controls, P < 0.01; n = 21 studies). When average estimated

  13. [EPIDIDYMO-ORCHITIS IN PREPUBERTAL CHILDREN--PREVALENCE, ETIOLOGY, SUGGESTED DIAGNOSIS ALGORITHM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halachmi, Sarel

    2015-12-01

    Gonadal inflammation (GI) is a common disease that may affect prepubertal boys. Neonates may suffer from bacterial infection due to congenital or aging processes affecting the urinary tract. This inflammatory process is also prevalent in prepubertal boys. However, in this group, the etiology, the needed imaging modalities and proper management have not yet been clearly defined. This manuscript will systematically review the various etiologies causing GI in pre-pubertal boys, discuss the proper imaging needed, and image interpretation and will provide treatment and follow-up recommendations.

  14. Utility of alfalfa stemlage for feeding dairy heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dairy heifers are typically offered high-forage diets to control weight gains; however, these forage-based diets often contain significant portions of corn silage or other high-quality forages with low fiber concentrations. Inadequate concentrations of dietary fiber can lead to greater feed and ener...

  15. Event-time analysis of reproductive traits in dairy heifers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas, B.; Lende, van der T.; Baaijen, M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Data on the reproductive traits of dairy heifers were analyzed using event-time techniques. Traits analyzed were age at first calving (n = 4631), days to first breeding, and days open (n = 1992) during the first lactation. A proportional hazard model was used that included fixed effects of herd-year

  16. Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Plasma Half-Life Determination and Long-Term Tissue Distribution in Beef Cattle (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Sara J; Dearfield, Kerry L; Johnston, John J; Wagner, Sarah; Huwe, Janice K

    2015-12-30

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is used in consumer products as a surfactant and is found in industrial and consumer waste, which ends up in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). PFOS does not breakdown during WWTP processes and accumulates in the biosolids. Common practices include application of biosolids to pastures and croplands used for feed, and as a result, animals such as beef cattle are exposed to PFOS. To determine plasma and tissue depletion kinetics in cattle, 2 steers and 4 heifers were dosed with PFOS at 0.098 mg/kg body weight and 9.1 mg/kg, respectively. Plasma depletion half-lives for steers and heifers were 120 ± 4.1 and 106 ± 23.1 days, respectively. Specific tissue depletion half-lives ranged from 36 to 385 days for intraperitoneal fat, back fat, muscle, liver, bone, and kidney. These data indicate that PFOS in beef cattle has a sufficiently long depletion half-life to permit accumulation in edible tissues.

  17. Effects of acclimation to handling on performance, reproductive, and physiological responses of Brahman-crossbred heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Arthington, J D; Austin, B R; Yelich, J V

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acclimation to handling on growth, plasma concentrations of progesterone (P4) and cortisol, temperament, and reproductive performance of Brahman-crossbred heifers. Over 2 consecutive years, 37 Braford and 43 Brahman x Angus heifers were initially evaluated, within 30 d after weaning, for BW and puberty status via transrectal ultrasonography and plasma P4 concentrations (d 0 and 10), and for temperament by measurements of chute score, pen score, and exit velocity (d 10 only). On d 11, heifers were stratified by breed, puberty status, temperament score, BW, and age and randomly assigned to receive or not (control) the acclimation treatment. Acclimated heifers were exposed to a handling process 3 times weekly (Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays) for 4 wk (d 11 to 39 of the experiment). The acclimation treatment was applied individually to heifers by processing them through a handling facility, whereas control heifers remained undisturbed on pasture. Heifer puberty status, evaluated via plasma P4 concentrations and transrectal ultrasonography, and BW were assessed again on d 40 and 50, d 80 and 90, and d 120 and 130. Blood samples collected before (d 10) and at the end of the acclimation period (d 40) were also analyzed for plasma concentrations of cortisol. Heifer temperament was assessed again on d 40 of the study. No interactions containing the effects of treatment, breed, and year were detected. Acclimated heifers had reduced (P Brahman-crossbred heifers.

  18. 9 CFR 319.142 - Fresh beef sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh beef sausage. 319.142 Section... Sausage § 319.142 Fresh beef sausage. “Fresh Beef Sausage” is sausage prepared with fresh beef or frozen beef, or both, but not including beef byproducts, and may contain Mechanically Separated (Species)...

  19. 9 CFR 319.15 - Miscellaneous beef products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Miscellaneous beef products. 319.15... Miscellaneous beef products. (a) Chopped beef, ground beef. “Chopped Beef” or “Ground Beef” shall consist of chopped fresh and/or frozen beef with or without seasoning and without the addition of beef fat as...

  20. Resynchronization with unknown pregnancy status using progestin-based timed artificial insemination protocol in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá Filho, M F; Marques, M O; Girotto, R; Santos, F A; Sala, R V; Barbuio, J P; Baruselli, P S

    2014-01-15

    Two experiments were designed to evaluate the use of resynchronization (RESYNCH) protocols using a progestin-based timed artificial insemination (TAI) protocol in beef cattle. In experiment 1, 475 cyclic Nelore heifers were resynchronized 22 days after the first TAI using two different inducers of new follicular wave emergence (estradiol benzoate [EB; n = 241] or GnRH [n = 234]) with the insertion of a norgestomet ear implant. At ear implant removal (7 days later), a pregnancy test was performed, and nonpregnant heifers received a dose of prostaglandin plus 0.5 mg of estradiol cypionate, with a timed insemination 48 hours later. The pregnancy rate after the first TAI was similar (P = 0.97) between treatments (EB [41.9%] vs. GnRH [41.5%]). However, EB-treated heifers (49.3%) had a greater (P = 0.04) pregnancy per AI (P/AI) after the resynchronization than the GnRH-treated heifers (37.2%). In experiment 2, the pregnancy loss in 664 zebu females (344 nonlactating cows and 320 cyclic heifers) between 30 and 60 days after resynchronization was evaluated. Females were randomly assigned to one of two groups (RESYNCH 22 days after the first TAI [n = 317] or submitted only to natural mating [NM; n = 347]). Females from the NM group were maintained with bulls from 15 to 30 days after the first TAI. The RESYNC-treated females were resynchronized 22 days after the first TAI using 1 mg of EB on the first day of the resynchronization, similar to experiment 1. No difference was found in P/AI (NM [57.1%] vs. RESYNC [61.5%]; P = 0.32) or pregnancy loss (NM [2.0%] vs. RESYNC [4.1%]; P = 0.21) after the first TAI. Moreover, the overall P/AI after the RESYNCH protocol was 47.5%. Thus, the administration of 1 mg of EB on day 22 after the first TAI, when the pregnancy status was undetermined, promotes a higher P/AI in the resynchronized TAI than the use of GnRH. Also, the administration of 1 mg of EB 22 days after the TAI did not affect the preestablished pregnancy.

  1. Ground Beef and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... torn. If possible, place the package in a plastic bag so leaking juices won't drip on other ... duty plastic wrap, aluminum foil, freezer paper, or plastic bags made for freezing. Ground beef is safe indefinitely ...

  2. Beef Consumption, Supply and Trade in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jung-Sup; Zhou, Zhang-Yue; Cox, Rodney J.

    2002-01-01

    Until recently the Korean beef market was heavily protected. However, since the beginning of 2001 there have been significant changes to beef import arrangements and their distribution channels, and the protection in the beef market has fallen. In January 2001 beef import quotas were lifted and replaced by an import tariff. The dual retail system – where domestic and imported beef are sold separately – was abolished in September 2001, and now domestic and imported beef can be sold in the ...

  3. Dry aging of beef; Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humid...

  4. Growth hormone treatment in 35 prepubertal children with achondroplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Niels Thomas; Eklöf, Ole; Ivarsson, Sten

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Achondroplasia is a skeletal dysplasia with extreme, disproportionate, short stature. AIM: In a 5-y growth hormone (GH) treatment study including 1 y without treatment, we investigated growth and body proportion response in 35 children with achondroplasia. METHODS: Patients were...... treatment of children with achondroplasia improves height during 4 y of therapy without adverse effect on trunk-leg disproportion. The short-term effect is comparable to that reported in Turner and Noonan syndrome and in idiopathic short stature....... randomized to either 0.1 IU/kg (n = 18) or 0.2 IU/kg (n = 17) per day. GH treatment was interrupted for 12 mo after 2 y of treatment in prepubertal patients to study catch-down growth. Mean height SDS (HSDS) at start was -5.6 and -5.2 for the low- and high-dose groups, respectively, and mean age 7.3 and 6...

  5. PREPUBERTAL EXPOSURES TO COMPOUNDS THAT INCREASE PROLACTIN SECRETION IN THE MALE RAT: EFFECTS ON ADULT PROSTATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prepubertal exposure to compounds that increase prolactin secretion in the male rat: effects on the adult prostate.Stoker TE, Robinette CL, Britt BH, Laws SC, Cooper RL.Endocrinology Branch, Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effec...

  6. A pre-pubertal girl with giant juvenile fibroadenoma: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Through this case we want to emphasize that these giant benign neoplasms should be suspected in any pre-pubertal girl with breast lump and should always be treated with breast conserving surgery.

  7. Dry aging of beef; Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %), trims loss (3 to 24 %), risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as "dry-aged beef". But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef.

  8. Body composition and lipodystrophy in prepubertal HIV-infected children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Zanin Palchetti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify lipodystrophy in prepubertal HIV-infected children using anthropometric parameters and body composition assessment. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 40 prepubertal HIV-infected children of both genders seen at the Care Center of the Division of Pediatric Infectious Diseases - Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo city, Brazil, was carried out from August to December 2008. Age, clinical and immunological status, prophylaxis, transmission and highly active antiretroviral therapy were recorded. Body mass index z-score and height-for-age z-score were calculated to characterize the nutritional status. Circumferences were measured with flexible tape and skinfolds were assessed by an adipometry. Fat mass and lean mass were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Presence of clinical signs of lipodystrophy was assessed by a trained clinician. Data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0 software. RESULTS: The mean age and standard deviation were 9.8 (1.2 years, 50% were girls and 82.5% children from B and C categories. Clinical lipodystrophy and dislypidemia were present in 27.5% and 70%, respectively. The trunk to arm ratio and the limb to trunk ratio had positive association with lipodystrophy. Patients with lipodystrophy had short stature, higher triglycerides values and lower HDL-cholesterol. CONCLUSION: The ratios obtained by skinfolds and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements can be considered as indicators of preclinical lipodystrophy. The cutoff points have not been determined yet; however, continuous assessment may be useful to identify early body composition changes.

  9. The Pattern of Ovarian Development in the Prepubertal Antarctic Minke Whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis)

    OpenAIRE

    TETSUKA, MASAFUMI; ASADA, Masatsugu; MOGOE, Toshihiro; Fukui, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Hajime; OHSUMI, Seiji; 手塚, 雅文; 福井, 豊

    2004-01-01

    This study describes the morphological and morphometrical changes associated with prepubertal ovarian development in the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis). Ovaries were harvested from 94 immature minke whales caught in the Antarctic Ocean during the summer feeding season (December-March). Notable differences in ovarian size and morphology were found among animals. Up to 10 folds difference in ovarian weight was found among prepubertal whales of similar body size. During the pre...

  10. Effects of road transportation on metabolic and immunological responses in Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyeok-Joong; Lee, In Kyu; Piao, Min-Yu; Kwak, Chae-Won; Gu, Min Jeong; Yun, Cheol Heui; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Ahn, Hyeon-Ju; Kim, Hee-Bal; Kim, Gyeom-Heon; Kim, Soo-Ki; Ko, Jong-Youl; Ha, Jong K; Baik, Myunggi

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of road transportation on metabolic and immunological responses in dairy heifers. Twenty Holstein heifers in early pregnancy were divided into non-transported (NT; n = 7) and transported (T; n = 13) groups. Blood was collected before transportation (BT), immediately after transportation for 100 km (T1) and 200 km (T2), and 24 h after transportation (AT). The T heifers had higher (P  0.05) to the BT concentrations at 24 h AT in the T heifers. The granulocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio and the percentage of monocytes were higher (P transportation stress increased the numbers of innate immune cells. T heifers had higher (P transportation increased cortisol secretion and was correlated with increased metabolic responses and up-regulation of peripheral innate immune cells in dairy heifers.

  11. 9 CFR 319.102 - Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. 319.102 Section 319.102 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Meats, Unsmoked and Smoked § 319.102 Corned beef round and other corned beef cuts. In preparing...

  12. A regional mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen for estimating ammonia emissions from beef cattle in Alberta Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Lilong; Kröbel, Roland; Janzen, H. Henry; Beauchemin, Karen A.; McGinn, Sean M.; Bittman, Shabtai; Atia, Atta; Edeogu, Ike; MacDonald, Douglas; Dong, Ruilan

    2014-08-01

    Animal feeding operations are primary contributors of anthropogenic ammonia (NH3) emissions in North America and Europe. Mathematical modeling of NH3 volatilization from each stage of livestock manure management allows comprehensive quantitative estimates of emission sources and nutrient losses. A regionally-specific mass balance model based on total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) content in animal manure was developed for estimating NH3 emissions from beef farming operations in western Canada. Total N excretion in urine and feces was estimated from animal diet composition, feed dry matter intake and N utilization for beef cattle categories and production stages. Mineralization of organic N, immobilization of TAN, nitrification, and denitrification of N compounds in manure, were incorporated into the model to account for quantities of TAN at each stage of manure handling. Ammonia emission factors were specified for different animal housing (feedlots, barns), grazing, manure storage (including composting and stockpiling) and land spreading (tilled and untilled land), and were modified for temperature. The model computed NH3 emissions from all beef cattle sub-classes including cows, calves, breeding bulls, steers for slaughter, and heifers for slaughter and replacement. Estimated NH3 emissions were about 1.11 × 105 Mg NH3 in Alberta in 2006, with a mean of 18.5 kg animal-1 yr-1 (15.2 kg NH3-N animal-1 yr-1) which is 23.5% of the annual N intake of beef cattle (64.7 kg animal-1 yr-1). The percentage of N intake volatilized as NH3-N was 50% for steers and heifers for slaughter, and between 11 and 14% for all other categories. Steers and heifers for slaughter were the two largest contributors (3.5 × 104 and 3.9 × 104 Mg, respectively) at 31.5 and 32.7% of total NH3 emissions because most growing animals were finished in feedlots. Animal housing and grazing contributed roughly 63% of the total NH3 emissions (feedlots, barns and pastures contributed 54.4, 0.2 and 8.1% of

  13. PRE-PUBERTAL CHILDREN AND EXERCISE IN HOT AND HUMID ENVIRONMENTS: A BRIEF REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wade H. Sinclair

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability of pre-pubertal children to regulate their body temperature under thermoneutral environments is similar to that of an adult albeit via differing routes. However, this ability is challenged when exposed to extreme environments. Thermoregulatory responses of pre-pubertal children differ from adults via adaptations that occur during growth and maturation and disadvantage children when exercising in hot and humid environments. When ambient temperatures exceed that of the skin, an influx of thermal energy from the environment increases thermal stress. When coupled with exercise, the increased thermal stress results in reduced physical performance and an increased risk of developing heat-related illness. Evidence suggesting the severity of heat-related illness is greater in pre-pubertal children than adults is inconclusive because age-related differences in thermoregulatory responses are attributed to either morphologic or functional changes. Additionally, the majority of research on pre-pubertal children exercising in the heat has been maturational or comparative studies with adults conducted in the near absence of convective cooling, complicating extrapolation to field-based environments. However, current consensus is that pre-pubertal children are disadvantaged when exercising in extreme temperatures and that care should be taken in preparing for and conducting sporting activities in hot and humid environments for pre-pubertal children

  14. Measuring residual feed intake in dairy heifers fed an alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cube diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghorn, G C; Macdonald, K A; Williams, Y; Davis, S R; Spelman, R J

    2012-03-01

    Selection for divergence between individuals for efficiency of feed utilization (residual feed intake, RFI) has widespread application in the beef industry and is usually undertaken when animals are fed diets based on silages with grain. The objective of this research was to develop a feeding system (using Gallagher, Hamilton, New Zealand, electronics) to measure RFI for growth in Holstein-Friesian heifers (aged 5-9 mo), and identify divergent individuals to be tested for RFI during lactation. A dry forage diet (alfalfa cubes) was fed because intakes could be measured accurately, and the New Zealand dairy industry (4.4 million milking cows in lactation) relies heavily on forage feeding. The evaluation was undertaken over 3 yr with 1,052 animals fed in a facility for 7 wk, and weighed 3 times weekly. The mean age at the start of measurements was 215 d, body weight (BW) 189 kg, and mean daily dry matter intakes averaged 6.7 kg. Body weight gain (all animals) averaged 0.88 kg/d. The RFI was determined as the residuals from the regression of mean intake on mean BW(0.75) and daily BW gain of individuals. Actual and fitted intakes were strongly related (R(2) = 0.82). In terms of gross efficiency (feed intake/BW gain), RFI+year explained 43% of the variation, BW gain+year explained 66%, and RFI+BW gain+year explained 79% of the variation (all Pdry matter/d. The most and least efficient animals will be tested for RFI during lactation and genetic markers will be identified for the trait.

  15. Beef labelling: The Emergence of Transparancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, van C.A.

    2003-01-01

    Prior to the Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) crisis, detailed information on beef products seemed no real necessity. However, following the outbreak of BSE, the Government felt obliged to protect consumer interest with legislation. Obligatory product information became required for beef

  16. Current merchandising practices and characteristics of beef wholesale rib usage in three U.S. cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf, D M; Romans, J R; Costello, W J

    1994-01-01

    Packers/processors, supermarket meat managers, and restaurant meat purchasers were surveyed to determine industry utilization of the beef wholesale rib. Nine packer/processors representing > 52% of the U.S. steer-heifer slaughter reported that more than two-thirds (68.5%) of the ribs were wholesaled as ribeye, lip-on (IMPS 112A) subprimals and that its predominance in the market makes it the standard for pricing. For merchandising variations of this cut (e.g., ribeye, lip-off), packer prices are adjusted to lip-on bases according to the relative yield. Excess fat was the most common complaint about ribeye steaks, reported by 78% of the packer/processors. In particular, 71% of them reported the "kernel" fat near the center of a ribeye steak between the longissimus and spinalis dorsi muscles is quite difficult to trim out and represents the greatest problem in merchandising. Forty-two percent of supermarket meat managers and 58% of restaurant meat purchasers thought the fat content of beef ribeyes discouraged consumers from purchasing all beef. Kernel fat was specifically cited by 36% of the restaurateurs. Alternative merchandising strategies should be employed to minimize the negative value effects of kernel fat. Even with excess fat being a concern to approximately half of the beef rib buyers, most still bought lip-on ribeyes and trimmed excess fat away. Apparently, they made this choice of lower price per weight, even though price per trimmed serving might be similar to lip-off ribeyes. Excess fat is being transported from packer/processor to buyers in the form of lip-on ribeyes because of the price relationships.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Superovulation with different doses of follicle stimulating hormone in Kamphaeng Saen beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peerayut Nilchuen*,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different doses of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH usedin a superovulation program on numbers of corpora lutea, total ova/embryos and transferable embryos in Kamphaeng Saenbeef cattle. Cyclic cows (n=3 and heifers (n=3 of Kamphaeng Saen beef breed were assigned to two levels of FSH (200 and250 mg. NIH-FSH-P1 in Crossover Design by which two changes over treatments were studied over two periods in allanimals. Cows and heifers were estrous synchronized by Cloprostenol (500 μg. Estrus detection was performed by teaserbull (Day 0 = day of the onset of standing estrus. On day 9 after the onset of standing estrus, all animals were treated withFSH twice daily in decreasing doses over 4 days. On day 3 of FSH injection, each animal was treated with Cloprostenol (500μg. At the first standing estrus, all animals were artificially inseminated three times at 12 h intervals. Two straws of frozenthawedsemen of Kamphaeng Saen bull were used per insemination. All animals were treated with gonadotropin releasinghormone (10 μg of Buserelin at first insemination. Numbers of corpora lutea were determined by rectal palpation and embryoswere flushed seven days after the onset of standing estrus and classified according to the development stage and quality.The results showed that numbers of corpora lutea, percentages of total ova/embryos and percentages of transferable embryoswere not significantly different (P>0.05 between treatments (FSH: 200 versus 250 mg in either cows or heifers.

  18. Milk yield and reproductive performance of dairy heifers and cows supplemented with polyunsaturated fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Gonzalez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine productive and fertility responses of Holstein-Friesian heifers and cows to supplementation with extruded linseed and soybean as sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Supplementation had a positive effect on profitability, with significant increases in milk yield in supplemented cows, but not in heifers. Treatments had no effect on milk fat content, but higher milk protein contents were observed with supplementation. A higher conception rate was found for supplemented heifers, but not for cows. Fat sources containing PUFAs are recommended for dairy cattle supplementation, since they improve fertility in heifers and milk yield in cows.

  19. Investigation of Anaplasma marginale Seroprevalence in a Traditionally Managed Large California Beef Herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Janet E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent observations by stakeholders suggested that ecosystem changes may be driving an increased incidence of bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis, resulting in a reemerging cattle disease in California. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to estimate the incidence of Anaplasma marginale infection using seroconversion in a northern California beef cattle herd. A total of 143 Black Angus cattle (106 prebreeding heifers and 37 cows) were enrolled in the study. Serum samples were collected to determine Anaplasma marginale seroprevalence using a commercially available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kit. Repeat sampling was performed in seronegative animals to determine the incidence density rate from March through September (2013). Seroprevalence of heifers was significantly lower than that of cows at the beginning of the study (P < 0.001) but not at study completion (P = 0.075). Incidence density rate of Anaplasma marginale infection was 8.17 (95% confidence interval: 6.04, 10.81) cases per 1000 cow-days during the study period. Study cattle became Anaplasma marginale seropositive and likely carriers protected from severe clinical disease that might have occurred had they been first infected as mature adults. No evidence was found within this herd to suggest increased risk for clinical bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis. PMID:27656312

  20. Evaluation of bull prolificacy on commercial beef cattle ranches using DNA paternity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eenennaam, A L; Weber, K L; Drake, D J

    2014-06-01

    SNP-based DNA testing was used to assign paternity to 5,052 calves conceived in natural service multisire breeding pastures from 3 commercial ranches in northern California representing 15 calf crops over 3 yr. Bulls present for 60 to 120 d at a 25:1 cow to bull ratio in both fall and spring breeding seasons in ∼40 ha or smaller fenced breeding pastures sired a highly variable (P paternity testing of the subset of those calves born in wk 3 of the calving season was highly predictive of overall bull prolificacy and may offer a reduced-cost DNA-based option for assessing prolificacy. Prolificacy of young bulls in their first breeding season was positively linearly related (P < 0.05) to subsequent breeding seasons, explaining about 20% of the subsequent variation. Prolificacy was also positively linearly related (P < 0.05) to scrotal circumference (SC) EPD for Angus bulls that had SC EPD Beef Improvement Federation accuracies greater than 0.05. Varying prolificacy of herd bulls has implications for the genetic composition of replacement heifers, with the genetics of those bulls siring an increased number of calves being disproportionately represented in the early-born replacement heifer pool.

  1. Investigation of Anaplasma marginale Seroprevalence in a Traditionally Managed Large California Beef Herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Tucker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent observations by stakeholders suggested that ecosystem changes may be driving an increased incidence of bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis, resulting in a reemerging cattle disease in California. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to estimate the incidence of Anaplasma marginale infection using seroconversion in a northern California beef cattle herd. A total of 143 Black Angus cattle (106 prebreeding heifers and 37 cows were enrolled in the study. Serum samples were collected to determine Anaplasma marginale seroprevalence using a commercially available competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test kit. Repeat sampling was performed in seronegative animals to determine the incidence density rate from March through September (2013. Seroprevalence of heifers was significantly lower than that of cows at the beginning of the study (P<0.001 but not at study completion (P=0.075. Incidence density rate of Anaplasma marginale infection was 8.17 (95% confidence interval: 6.04, 10.81 cases per 1000 cow-days during the study period. Study cattle became Anaplasma marginale seropositive and likely carriers protected from severe clinical disease that might have occurred had they been first infected as mature adults. No evidence was found within this herd to suggest increased risk for clinical bovine erythrocytic anaplasmosis.

  2. Enteric methane emissions and efficiency of use of energy in Holstein heifers and steers at age of six months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, H P; Yan, T; McDowell, D A; Carson, A F; Ferris, C P; Easson, D L; Wills, D

    2013-01-01

    Twenty 5-mo-old Holstein cattle (10 steers and 10 heifers) were selected from a dairy herd for a 28 d study of enteric methane emissions and energy utilization. The cattle were offered a completely mixed diet with grass silage and concentrates (0.45 and 0.55, DM basis, respectively). They were housed as a single group in cubicle accommodation for the first 20 d, transferred to metabolism units for 3 d, and subsequently housed in indirect open-circuit respiration calorimeter chambers for next 5 d with measurements of feed intake, feces and urine outputs, and gaseous exchange. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between the 2 groups in terms of animal performance (feed intake, BW, or BW gain), energy metabolism (energy intake, energy outputs, or energy use efficiency), or methane emission rates (total methane emissions expressed on feed intake or energy intake basis). Therefore, the data from the 2 groups were pooled to develop a range of relationships between inputs and outputs. The regression of energy balance or heat production against ME intake (r2=0.85; Pcattle. The methane energy output was found to be 0.068 of GE intake when the intercept was omitted from the linear equation (r2=0.73; Pcattle used for development of methane emission inventories for dairy and beef production systems. These data can add useful information, as there is little information available on measurements of maintenance energy requirement or methane emissions in young stock (6 mo old) of the current high-yielding dairy cattle. The use of these data can potentially improve the accuracy of prediction of energy requirement and methane emissions for dairy and beef production systems in these dietary conditions.

  3. 9 CFR 319.100 - Corned beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef. 319.100 Section 319.100... Corned beef. “Corned Beef” shall be prepared from beef briskets, navels, clods, middle ribs, rounds... A or Subchapter B. Canned product labeled “Corned Beef” shall be prepared so that the weight of...

  4. Characterization of transfer of passive immunity in dairy heifer calves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Elizondo-Salazar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the transfer of passive immunity in dairy heifer calves in Costa Rica. The data presented correspond to total serum protein (TSP measurements obtained in the period between 2010 and 2013, between August and November in 50 dairy farms. A total of 2500 heifer calves were sampled. Dams breed were classified into Holstein, Jersey, Holstein.Jersey crosses and others. For the purpose of this study, failure of passive immunity was considered when TSP concentration was less than 5.5 g/dl. TSP concentration ranged from 2.0 to 10.0, with an overall mean of 5.9 g/dl. Of all the calves evaluated, 38.8% presented failure of passive transfer of immunity. Calves born to Jersey and Holstein×Jersey crosses had significantly higher TSP concentrations than calves born to Holstein and other breeds. When considering calving of the dam, there were no significant differences on TSP concentration; however, offsprings born to first lactation heifers showed the lowest percentage of animals with failure of passive transfer of immunity. There were significant differences on TSP concentrations (P<0,05 between calves that were allowed to suckle their dams and calves that were given colostrum by bottle. Failure of passive transfer of immunity was higher when calves stayed with their dams (44% vs. 33%.

  5. Vitamin E and polyunsaturated fatty acids in bovine muscle and the oxidative stability of beef from cattle receiving grass or concentrate-based rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luciano, G; Moloney, A P; Priolo, A; Röhrle, F T; Vasta, V; Biondi, L; López-Andrés, P; Grasso, S; Monahan, F J

    2011-11-01

    The present study was designed to assess the balance between antioxidant and prooxidant components and the oxidative stability of beef from cattle fed exclusively grazed pasture (PAS) or a barley-based concentrate offered indoors (CONC) for 11 mo, or fed grass silage indoors for a 5-mo winter period, followed for the remaining 6-mo summer period by grazed pasture (SiP) or by grazed pasture plus concentrate at 50% of the dietary DM (SiPC). Muscle prooxidant and antioxidant components were determined by measuring fatty acids and α-tocopherol concentration of LM, respectively. Lipid oxidation and color stability were monitored in ground LM, packaged in a high-oxygen modified atmosphere, over 11 d of refrigerated storage. Vitamin E concentration decreased (P < 0.0005) with an increasing proportion of concentrate in the diet (2.59, 2.45, 1.76, and 1.15 μg/g for PAS, SiP, SiPC, and CONC, respectively). A greater proportion of PUFA was found in LM from cattle in the PAS, SiP, and SiPC groups compared with animals in the CONC group (9.62, 11.04, 8.96, and 6.94%, respectively; P < 0.0005). A greater concentration of highly peroxidizable PUFA was found in LM from heifers in the PAS, SiP, and SiPC groups compared with those in the CONC group (0.84, 0.85, 0.87, and 0.65 mg/g of muscle, respectively; P = 0.02). Dietary treatment affected lipid oxidation (P < 0.0005), with greater 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substance values in beef from heifers in the SiPC group than in beef from those in the PAS, SiP, and CONC groups. Dietary treatment affected myoglobin oxidation (P = 0.002) during storage, with greater metmyoglobin accumulation in beef from animals receiving concentrate (CONC and SiPC treatments) than in beef from cattle in the PAS and SiP groups. Consequently, feeding concentrate impaired meat color stability over the storage duration, with greater H* (hue angle) values (P < 0.0005) in meat from heifers in the SiPC and CONC groups compared with meat from those in the

  6. Colour of fat, and colour, fatty acid composition and sensory characteristics of muscle from heifers offered alternative forages to grass silage in a finishing ration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloney, A P; Mooney, M T; Kerry, J P; Stanton, C; O'Kiely, P

    2013-11-01

    The effect of type of silage offered to beef heifers during the finishing period on aspects of beef quality was determined. In two experiments, a diet based on grass silage (GS) was compared with a diet based on maize silage (MS) or whole-crop wheat silage (WCW). Compared to the GS-based diet, increasing the amount of MS linearly increased fat whiteness while the increase in fat whiteness due to WCW was dependent on the stage of crop maturity at harvesting. There was no effect of diet on muscle colour or on muscle pH measured at 48h post-mortem, drip loss, taste panel traits after 14days ageing or shear force values at 2, 7 or 14days ageing. The alternative silages decreased the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid proportion and increased the linoleic:linolenic acid ratio in intramuscular lipid. It is concluded that type of silage affects fat colour and fatty acid composition of muscle but not the other muscle characteristics examined. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. European beef consumers' interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Wezemael, Lyn; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra

    2010-01-01

    . The development of a beef quality grading and guarantee system, backed up by objective knowledge that is obtained through muscle profiling research, can allow the beef industry to meet these consumer demands. A qualitative consumer study has been carried out with beef consumers in France, Spain, United Kingdom...... and Germany to assess their opinions about beef muscle profiling and their interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee. Findings indicate that both concepts are well accepted by European beef consumers, although not unconditional. Besides acknowledging the opportunity to purchase beef with guaranteed......Consumer demand in relation to food is increasingly shifting towards products that are safe, nutritious, and of good eating quality. Beef consumers are demanding for experience quality that matches their quality expectations formed prior to consumption, particularly with respect to beef tenderness...

  8. 9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319... Cured beef tongue. In preparing “Cured Beef Tongue,” the application of curing solution to the fresh beef tongue shall not result in an increase in the weight of the cured beef tongue of more than...

  9. Cost estimation of heifer mastitis in early lactation by stochastic modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijps, K.; Vliegher, de S.; Lam, C.; Hogeveen, H.

    2009-01-01

    Heifer mastitis, reflected by an elevated somatic cell count (SCC) in early lactation (SCCel), results in a decreased milk production, a higher risk for subclinical and clinical mastitis during lactation, and an elevated culling hazard. The aims of this study were to calculate the costs of heifer ma

  10. 7 CFR 59.103 - Mandatory weekly reporting for steers and heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Mandatory weekly reporting for steers and heifers. 59... (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK MANDATORY REPORTING Cattle Reporting § 59.103 Mandatory weekly reporting for steers and heifers. (a) In general. The corporate officers or officially designated representatives of each steer...

  11. Endocrine profiles during attainment of puberty may predict reproductive longevity in heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    We hypothesized that attainment of puberty through initiation and continuation of cyclic activity may be a predictor of reproductive longevity in heifers. Blood plasma was collected from 379 spring born heifers over four years from weaning to prior to breeding (October-June) in 2012-2015. Four pube...

  12. Hair coat characteristics in Friesian heifers in the Netherlands and Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udo, H.M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The export of about 2600 Friesian heifers to Kenya between 1971-1973 provided an opportunity of studying the adaptation problems experienced by these heifers. Within the framework of the NUFFIC (Netherlands Universities Foundation for International Cooperation) a research project entitled 'Adaptatio

  13. Effect of diet energy level and genomic residual feed intake on dairy heifer performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency of dairy heifers with different genomically predicted residual feed intakes (RFI), and offered diets differing in energy density. Post-bred Holstein heifers (N=128; ages 14-20 months) were blocked by initial we...

  14. Effect of limit feeding and genomic residual feed intake on bred dairy heifer performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate growth, intake, and feed efficiency of dairy heifers with different predicted genomic residual feed intakes as lactating cows (RFI) offered diets for ad-libitum intake or limit-fed. Post-bred Holstein heifers (128, ages 14-20 months), were blocked by initi...

  15. Regulation of tonic gonadotropin release in prepubertal female hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.G.; Matt, K.S.; Prestowitz, W.F.; Stetson, M.H.

    1982-04-01

    Basal serum gonadotropin levels were monitored weekly in female hamsters from birth to 10 weeks of age. Hamsters raised on three different photoperiods presented uniform pre- and postpubertal patterns of serum LH and FSH, suggesting that gonadotropin release in the young hamster occurs independently of ambient photoperiod. In all groups, serum LH levels increased gradually in animals up to 4 weeks of age, after which levels plateaued at 50--100 ng/ml. Serum FSH was markedly elevated in 2- and 3-week-old hamsters (800--1200 ng/ml), but remained at 200--400 ng/ml in all other groups. We next examined the change in the responsiveness of the pituitary to exogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) challenge. Female hamsters 2 days of age failed to respond to any dose (0.025--1000 ng) of GnRH, while 10-day old females responded in typical dose-dependent fashion. GnRH-stimulated LH release first occurred in 6-day-old hamsters and was maximal by day 9, whereas FSH release first occurred on day 8 and was maximal by day 9. The prepubertal pattern of gonadotropin release can, in part, be explained on the basis of the development of pituitary GnRH sensitivity, which occurs independently of photoperiod.

  16. Effects of combined electromyostimulation and gymnastics training in prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deley, Gaëlle; Cometti, Carole; Fatnassi, Anaïs; Paizis, Christos; Babault, Nicolas

    2011-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of a 6-week combined electromyostimulation (EMS) and gymnastic training program on muscle strength and vertical jump performance of prepubertal gymnasts. Sixteen young women gymnasts (age 12.4 ± 1.2 yrs) participated in this study, with 8 in the EMS group and the remaining 8 as controls. EMS was conducted on knee extensor muscles for 20 minutes 3 times a week during the first 3 weeks and once a week during the last 3 weeks. Gymnasts from both groups underwent similar gymnastics training 5-6 times a week. Isokinetic torque of the knee extensors was determined at different eccentric and concentric angular velocities ranging from -60 to +240° per second. Jumping ability was evaluated using squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ), reactivity test, and 3 gymnastic-specific jumps. After the first 3 weeks of EMS, maximal voluntary torque was increased (+40.0 ± 10.0%, +35.3 ± 11.8%, and +50.6 ± 7.7% for -60, +60, and +240°s⁻¹, respectively; p gymnasts, a 6-week EMS program, combined with the daily gymnastic training, induced significant increases both in knee extensor muscle strength and nonspecific and some specific jump performances.

  17. [Gonococcal vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls: sexual abuse or accidental transmission?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daval-Cote, M; Liberas, S; Tristan, A; Vandenesch, F; Gillet, Y

    2013-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis is the most frequent gynecologic pathology among prepubertal females. An infectious cause is found in 30% of cases and is highly associated with the presence of vaginal discharge upon examination. Neisseria gonorrhoeae may be one of the causative agents. Since N. gonorrhoeae is a common sexually transmitted disease, sexual abuse should be considered in the pediatric setting. We report the case of a 5-year-old girl with N. gonorrhoeae vulvovaginitis. Her previous history, multiple interviews with the patient and her parents, and clinical examination showed no evidence or signs of sexual abuse. Both parents presented gonorrhea, urethritis for the father and vaginitis for the mother. The discrepancy between pediatric evaluation and the presence of a bacterium associated with sexually transmitted disease led us to consider other means of contamination. Previous studies have shown that other routes of transmission are possible but are often neglected. Hence, contamination can be transmitted by the hands or mostly through passive means (towels, rectal thermometer, etc.). Many epidemics have been noted in group settings with young girls with no evidence of sexual transmission. Therefore, we concluded that this patient's infection was likely an accidental transmission within her family. The acknowledgement of these transmission routes is very important in order to avoid misguided suspicion of sexual abuse and the possible traumatic family and psychosocial consequences.

  18. Effect of progesterone concentration and duration of proestrus on fertility in beef cattle after fixed-time artificial insemination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadarwal, D; Mapletoft, R J; Adams, G P; Pfeifer, L F M; Creelman, C; Singh, J

    2013-03-15

    The objective was to determine the effect of plasma progesterone concentration and the duration of proestrus during growth of the ovulatory follicle on fertility in beef cattle. Heifers (N = 61) and postpartum cows (N = 79) were assigned randomly to four groups in a two-by-two design involving luteal-phase versus subluteal-phase plasma progesterone concentrations and normal versus short proestrus. To synchronize follicular wave emergence, estradiol-17β was given im during the midluteal phase (Day 0) and concurrently, a once-used controlled intravaginal progesterone-releasing device was placed intravaginally. In the subluteal-phase progesterone groups, a luteolytic dose of PGF(2α) was given on Day 0 and again 12 hours later. In the luteal-phase progesterone groups, PGF(2α) was not given (so as to retain a functional CL). The controlled intravaginal progesterone-releasing device was removed and PGF(2α) was given on Days 7 or 8 in the normal- and short-proestrus groups, respectively. Cattle were given lutropin im 12 or 36 hours later in the short- and normal-proestrus groups, respectively, with AI at 12 hours after lutropin treatment. Transrectal ultrasonography was used to monitor ovarian response during treatments and to diagnose pregnancy 60 days after AI. Cattle (heifers and cows combined) in the subluteal-phase progesterone groups and normal proestrus groups had a larger follicle at the time of AI, and a larger CL that secreted more progesterone 9 days after AI than cattle with luteal-phase progesterone concentrations or those with short proestrus (P < 0.03). There was a higher incidence of ovulation (P < 0.01) the day after AI in heifers (55/61; 90%) than in cows (44/79; 56%). Pregnancy rates ranged from 11% to 54%, and were higher in cattle (heifers and cows combined) in the subluteal-phase progesterone groups and normal proestrus groups than in the luteal-phase progesterone or short proestrus groups, respectively, (P < 0.02). In conclusion, a short

  19. Effect of monensin on the estrogen-induced LH surge in prepuberal heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randel, R D; Rutter, L M; Rhodes, R D

    1982-04-01

    The effect of dietary monensin on the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge following estradiol-17 beta (E2) injection was investigated in prepuberal Simmental X Brahman-Hereford heifers. Ten heifers, weighing approximately 260 kg and approximately 10 mo of age, were equally divided by age and weight into two groups: control (C) heifers each received 1.8 kg/d of a concentrate diet plus Coastal bermudagrass hay ad libitum; monensin (M) heifers each received the same diet plus 200 mg monensin/d. All heifers were maintained in dry lots on their respective diets for 14 d before the E2 challenge. On d 15, all heifers were injected in with 5 mg of E2 in corn oil. Blood samples were collected via tail vessel puncture immediately before E2 injection and at 2-h intervals until 48 h after the E2 injection. The samples were processed for serum and stored at -20 degrees C until LH concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay. Mean concentrations of LH in serum differed (P less than .005) between C and M heifers and with time after E2 injection. A treatment X sampling period interaction (P less than .10) indicated that maximum serum concentrations of LH (LH surge) were detected earlier (P less than .001) for M (17.2 +/- 1.8 h) than C (27.0 +/- 6.0 h) heifers after the E2 injection. When the data were arrayed relative to the time of the LH surge, treatment (P less than .05) and sampling period (P less than .001) effects were significant, but a treatment X sampling period interaction was not detected. Peak LH concentration was 23.1 +/- 3.0 ng/ml for M heifers and 21.6+/- 4.2 ng/ml for controls (P greater than .10). Duration of the LH surge was 8.0 +/- .9 h in M heifers and 4.8 +/- 1.6 h in C heifers (P less than .001). Area under the LH surge was greater (P less than .001) in M heifers than in control heifers. We conclude that dietary monensin altered the estrogen-induced LH surge in prepuberal heifers.

  20. Effect of the administration of flunixin meglumine on pregnancy rates in Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzeloglu, A; Erdem, H; Saribay, M K; Thatcher, W W; Tekeli, T

    2007-03-24

    Fifty-two 15-month-old Holstein heifers were synchronised with single or double injections of prostaglandin F(2alpha), followed by an injection of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (gnrh) 48 hours later, and inseminated 12 to 14 hours after the injection of gnrh (day 0). Half of them were then injected twice intramuscularly with 1.1 mg/kg flunixin meglumine 12 hours apart, on the evening of day 15 and the morning of day 16, and the other 26 were not treated. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasound 29 and 65 days after they were inseminated. On day 29, 20 of the treated heifers were pregnant compared with 13 of the control heifers (P<0.05); on day 65, 18 of the treated heifers were still pregnant compared with 12 of the control heifers (P<0.10).

  1. Ability of heifers to discriminate between familiar herdmates and members of an unfamiliar group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koba, Yuki; Munksgaard, Lene; Tanida, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    Using a preference test and operant conditioning in a Y-maze, this experiment examined the ability of heifers to discriminate between their own familiar herdmates and member(s) of an unfamiliar group. Sixteen Danish Friesian heifers, eight older animals (360.6 ± 24.2 days of age) and eight younger...... individual in the Y-maze. The test was repeated 12 times, with a different unfamiliar subject for each test. In experiment 2, eight heifers were individually tested in a conditioning experiment to examine whether they could learn to discriminate between a group of their three herdmates and a group of three......, heifers did not show a preference toward familiar or unfamiliar individuals; but after conditioning, some heifers could learn to discriminate between familiar and unfamiliar groups....

  2. The Use of Bali Cattle on Local Feed Resources for Beef Cows Development in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Diwyanto

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle as an animal genetic resource of Indonesia is one of the appropriate cattle breed to be developed in Indonesia. Intensification of breeding program using Bali cattle may solve one of the heifer supply shortage in the beef cattle industry. Technology innovation base on the local feed resources and the use of agricultural by products is needed to meet the demand of sustainable feed supply for beef cattle. This will be the main basic components on the complete feed formulation that is cheap and easily accessible for the farmers. The crop livestock systems innovation through the zero waste approach need to be implemented to yield the zero cost cattle raising system. The cow calf operation system will only be run sustainable if the feed cost and the use of external inputs can be minimized. The program need to be integrated by the grower and fattening (finisher activities. The grower cattle activities, such as run by the Center Village Cooperation in East Nusa Tenggara could afford the farmers participation and had a significant contribution to the farmers’ household. The success of an introduction program is largely determined by the involvement of the farmers in the very beginning based on the local indigenous technology. There is a need to empower the farmers group based on the cooperative principles to increase bargaining power, information accessibility and communication effectiveness. This effort will also simultaneously conducted with the policy support on accessibility of micro finance through the agriculture credit scheme.

  3. Sensory and Flavor Chemistry Characteristics of Australian Beef: Influence of Intramuscular Fat, Feed, and Breed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Damian; Ball, Alex; Hughes, Joanne; Krishnamurthy, Raju; Piyasiri, Udayasika; Stark, Janet; Watkins, Peter; Warner, Robyn

    2016-06-01

    The sensory attributes and flavor chemistry of grilled beef striploins (M. longissimus lumborum, n = 42) varying widely in marbling from commercial production types typical for Southern Australia were extensively characterized. Striploins from Angus grass-fed yearlings (5.2-9.9% intramuscular fat), Angus grain-finished steers (10.2-14.9%), and Wagyu grass-fed heifers (7.8-17.5%) were evaluated. Inherent differences between samples from grass- and grain-fed Angus cattle were minimal when the intramuscular fat content was above ∼5%. After adjusting for intramuscular fat, Wagyu samples had more intense flavor and higher tenderness and juiciness compared to Angus grass-fed samples. Grilled beef flavor, dairy fat, and sweetness increased with the marbling level, and sourness and astringency decreased. Tenderness and juiciness increased with the marbling level and were correlated with Warner-Bratzler peak force measurements. Trained panel sensory differences in flavor corresponded with increases in aroma volatiles and changes in nonvolatile flavor compounds. Unsaturated fatty acids with potential health benefits (vaccenic, oleic, and rumenic acids) increased with the level of marbling.

  4. Produção de carne de bovinos contemporâneos, machos e fêmeas, terminados em confinamento Meat production in feedlot Santa Gertrudis young bulls and heifers fed finishing diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Viana Coutinho Filho

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os desempenhos produtivo e econômico de bovinos de corte submetidos a dietas para terminação em confinamento. Foram utilizados 28 bovinos jovens da raça Santa Gertrudis, 14 machos não-castrados e 14 fêmeas, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em baias individuais. A alimentação foi fornecida de acordo com as exigências para ganho de peso em terminação. As variáveis estudadas foram afetadas pelo sexo. O ganho de peso médio diário foi de 1,80 e 1,22 kg/animal/dia; a conversão alimentar, de 5,61 e 7,18 kg MS/kg de ganho de peso; o rendimento de carcaça, de 55,61 e 52,75%; e a ingestão de MS, de 10,08 e 8,87 kg MS/dia, respectivamente, para machos e fêmeas. A avaliação das carcaças indicou melhor rendimento para os machos, mas as fêmeas foram superiores quanto à porcentagem de traseiro especial e de seus principais cortes comerciais. Na avaliação econômica, o custo com alimentação para produzir uma arroba de carcaça foi de R$ 33,95 para os machos e R$ 37,02 para as fêmeas.Economic and animal performance of feedlot beef young bulls and heifers fed finishing diets were evaluated in this trial. Twenty-eight Santa Gertrudis bovines (14 young bulls and 14 heifers were assigned to a completely randomized design and maintained in individual pens. Diets were formulated to fulfill the weight gain requirements of finishing animals. The measured variables were affected by sex. Daily weight gain (DWG, feed conversion, carcass yield, and dry matter (DM intake were: 1.80 and 1.22 kg/day, 5.61 and 7.18 kg DM/kg DWG, 55.61 and 52.75%, and 10.08 and 8.87 kg/day, respectively, for young bulls and heifers. Males had greater carcass yield but females showed higher proportion of beef round as well as the main commercial cuts. According to an economic analysis, the cost to produce 15 kg of carcass was R$33.95 for young bulls and R$37.02 for heifers.

  5. Effects of Rumen Protozoa of Brahman Heifers and Nitrate on Fermentation and In vitro Methane Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, S H; Li, L; Hegarty, R S

    2016-06-01

    Two experiments were conducted assessing the effects of presence or absence of rumen protozoa and dietary nitrate addition on rumen fermentation characteristics and in vitro methane production in Brahman heifers. The first experiment assessed changes in rumen fermentation pattern and in vitro methane production post-refaunation and the second experiment investigated whether addition of nitrate to the incubation would give rise to methane mitigation additional to that contributed by defaunation. Ten Brahman heifers were progressively adapted to a diet containing 4.5% coconut oil distillate for 18 d and then all heifers were defaunated using sodium 1-(2-sulfonatooxyethoxy) dodecane (Empicol). After 15 d, the heifers were given a second dose of Empicol. Fifteen days after the second dosing, all heifers were allocated to defaunated or refaunated groups by stratified randomisation, and the experiment commenced (d 0). On d 0, an oral dose of rumen fluid collected from unrelated faunated cattle was used to inoculate 5 heifers and form a refaunated group so that the effects of re-establishment of protozoa on fermentation characteristics could be investigated. Samples of rumen fluid collected from each animal using oesophageal intubation before feeding on d 0, 7, 14, and 21 were incubated for in vitro methane production. On d 35, 2% nitrate (as NaNO3) was included in in vitro incubations to test for additivity of nitrate and absence of protozoa effects on fermentation and methane production. It was concluded that increasing protozoal numbers were associated with increased methane production in refaunated heifers 7, 14, and 21 d after refaunation. Methane production rate was significantly higher from refaunated heifers than from defaunated heifers 35 d after refaunation. Concentration and proportions of major volatile fatty acids, however, were not affected by protozoal treatments. There is scope for further reducing methane output through combining defaunation and dietary

  6. Effects of Rumen Protozoa of Brahman Heifers and Nitrate on Fermentation and Methane Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Nguyen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted assessing the effects of presence or absence of rumen protozoa and dietary nitrate addition on rumen fermentation characteristics and in vitro methane production in Brahman heifers. The first experiment assessed changes in rumen fermentation pattern and in vitro methane production post-refaunation and the second experiment investigated whether addition of nitrate to the incubation would give rise to methane mitigation additional to that contributed by defaunation. Ten Brahman heifers were progressively adapted to a diet containing 4.5% coconut oil distillate for 18 d and then all heifers were defaunated using sodium 1-(2-sulfonatooxyethoxy dodecane (Empicol. After 15 d, the heifers were given a second dose of Empicol. Fifteen days after the second dosing, all heifers were allocated to defaunated or refaunated groups by stratified randomisation, and the experiment commenced (d 0. On d 0, an oral dose of rumen fluid collected from unrelated faunated cattle was used to inoculate 5 heifers and form a refaunated group so that the effects of re-establishment of protozoa on fermentation characteristics could be investigated. Samples of rumen fluid collected from each animal using oesophageal intubation before feeding on d 0, 7, 14, and 21 were incubated for in vitro methane production. On d 35, 2% nitrate (as NaNO3 was included in in vitro incubations to test for additivity of nitrate and absence of protozoa effects on fermentation and methane production. It was concluded that increasing protozoal numbers were associated with increased methane production in refaunated heifers 7, 14, and 21 d after refaunation. Methane production rate was significantly higher from refaunated heifers than from defaunated heifers 35 d after refaunation. Concentration and proportions of major volatile fatty acids, however, were not affected by protozoal treatments. There is scope for further reducing methane output through combining

  7. Environmental impacts of beef production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.J.; Mottet, Anne; Opio, C.I.; Falcucci, Alessandra; Teillard, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Beef makes a substantial contribution to food security, providing protein, energy and also essential micro-nutrients to human populations. Rumination allows cattle - and other ruminant species - to digest fibrous feeds that cannot be directly consumed by humans and thus to make a net positive con

  8. Environmental impacts of beef production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerber, P.J.; Mottet, Anne; Opio, C.I.; Falcucci, Alessandra; Teillard, Félix

    2015-01-01

    Beef makes a substantial contribution to food security, providing protein, energy and also essential micro-nutrients to human populations. Rumination allows cattle - and other ruminant species - to digest fibrous feeds that cannot be directly consumed by humans and thus to make a net positive

  9. Immunological parameters and residual feed intake of Nellore heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleisy Ferreira Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The residual feed intake (RFI is a parameter used in the identification of animals with respect to more efficient feed utilization. However, physiological basis are still unknown, however, the interrelationships between nutrition an immunity of the animal can contribute to the investigation of biological phenomena relevant to the RFI, since the defense system to oxidative effects caused by free radicals, is formed by acid polyunsaturated fatty acids, water soluble substances and enzymes, which derive mainly from the use of nutrients in the diet. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunological parameters of Nellore heifers classified according to RFI. It were evaluated 176 heifers (born between 2008 and 2010, Traditional Nellore herd from Instituto de Zootecnia - Sertãozinho/SP, forming three groups of evaluation, submitted to test post weaning feed efficiency and classified into high (> mean + 0.5 SD, n= 55, medium (± 0.5 SD, n= 65 and low RFI (< mean – 0.5 SD, n= 56. The diet was formulated based on Brachiaria decumbens hay, corn, cottonseed meal and mineral mixture (45:55, forage: concentrate. The weight of the animals were performed in fasting blood samples collected by venipuncture vein, using tubes of 10 ml type vacuntainer with EDTA anticoagulant. In the clinical laboratory, we measured the values of leukocytes (LEU; Targeted (SEG and lymphocytes (LIN. The experimental design was a randomized block design using PROC GLM of SAS, considering the fixed effects of year and the age covariate in the statistical model and the averages compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. There was no significant difference (P>0,005 between variables leukocyte (LEU, SEG and LIN and class of RFI (table 1, indicating that there is no distinction between animals more efficient (low RFI and less efficient (high RFI, for inflammatory and immune responses to oxidative effects. Therefore the variables measured leukocytes not explain the differences

  10. Can balance training promote balance and strength in prepubertal children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granacher, Urs; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Maestrini, Lea; Zahner, Lukas; Gollhofer, Albert

    2011-06-01

    The prevalence of sustaining a fall is particularly high in children. Deficits in postural control and muscle strength are important intrinsic fall risk factors. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of balance training (BT) followed by detraining on postural control, plantar flexor strength, and jumping height in prepubertal children. Thirty grade 1 school children participated in this study and were assigned to either an intervention class (INT, n = 15, age 6.7 ± 0.5 years) or a control class (n = 15, age 6.6 ± 0.5 years). The INT participated in 4 weeks of BT (3 per week) integrated in their physical education lessons. Pre, post, and follow-up tests included the measurements of postural sway on a balance platform, maximal torque and rate of force development of the plantar flexors on an isokinetic device, and jumping height on a force platform. The significance level was set at p training resulted in tendencies in terms of small to medium interaction effects yet not statistically significant improvements in postural sway (f = 0.14; p > 0.05), force production of the plantar flexors (f = 0.18; p> 0.05), and jumping height (f = 0.25; p> 0.05). Immaturity of the postural control system and deficits in attentional focus during practice of balance exercises could be responsible for the nonsignificant findings in this study. Thus, other training regimen (e.g., resistance training) should be applied alone or in combination with BT, which may have the potential to promote balance and strength in children.

  11. Feeding frequency and appetite in lean and obese prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Rinku; Tsalikian, Eva; Chenard, Catherine A; Zimmerman, M Bridget; Sivitz, William I

    2011-03-01

    To determine the effect of feeding frequency on appetite in normal weight (NW) and obese (OB) prepubertal children, we carried out a prospective, randomized interventional study of 18 NW and 17 OB children ages 6-10. Children received three or five feedings in random order on separate days. Total calories, carbohydrate, protein, and fat composition on each day were equal. Two hours following the last feeding, children were offered ice cream ad lib. The major outcome variable was kilocalories ice cream consumed. A visual analog scale to assess fullness was also administered before consumption of ice cream. We observed that OB children consumed 73.0 ± 37.4 kcal more after five feedings than after three feedings whereas the NW children consumed 47.1 ± 27.8 kcal less. There was significant interaction between meal pattern and weight group indicating that this change in ice cream consumption differed significantly between groups (P = 0.014 by two-factor analysis). Ice cream intake/kg was less in OB compared to NW subjects (P = 0.012). Fullness ratings before ice cream did not differ by meal pattern or weight group. However, pre-ice cream fullness predicted ice cream intake in NW but not OB children. In summary, OB and NW children differed in appetite response to meal frequency. Our data suggest that: (i) satiety in OB children is related more to proximity of calories (larger supper) than to antecedent distribution of calories and; (ii) NW children may be more prone to restrict intake based on subjective fullness.

  12. Chordee without hypospadias: report of 79 Chinese prepubertal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yun-Man; Chen, Shao-Ji; Huang, Lu-Gang; Wang, Ming-He

    2007-01-01

    A series of Chinese prepubertal patients with congenital chordee without hypospadias is presented and the clinical data described. From July 1999 to September 2006, 79 boys with congenital chordee without hypospadias were treated in the Department of Pediatric Surgery, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, China. The ages ranged from 21 months to 14 years, with a mean of 76.8 months (6.4 years). The patients were categorized according to structural defect into 4 groups, with the aid of intraoperative artificial erection. Group I included those with skin tethering (28 cases, 35.4%); group II, fascial chordee (22, 27.8%); group III, corporal disproportion (10, 12.7%); and group IV, urethral tethering (19, 24.1%). Chordee-related structural defect was considered the only criterion for classification, and urethral dysgenesis influenced the choice of surgical procedure. The chordee in group I patients was corrected with penile degloving; group II, release of dense fibrous tissue in addition; group III, dorsal-midline-plication-based correction; and group IV, longitudinal-island-flap-urethroplasty-based repair. At a mean follow-up of 14.8 months (range, 2 to 63), all patients had penile straightening except 1 group III patient with residual curvature that was managed upon reoperation. Glans dehiscence occurred in 1 group II patient who underwent a tubularized incised plate urethroplasty. Urethrocutaneous fistula and urethral stricture were found in 2 group IV patients who underwent island flap urethroplasty. With the categorization based on structural defect, chordee without hypospadias may be managed well with minimized complications.

  13. Low serum leptin concentration in vegetarian prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambroszkiewicz, J; Laskowska-Klita, T; Klemarczyk, W

    2004-01-01

    Vegetarian diet may play a positive role in reducing risk of several chronic diseases such as diabetes, coronary heart disease and some types of cancer. There are different vegetarian dietary patterns, some of which are nutritionally adequate for children, whereas other may lack some essential nutrients. Leptin, a hormone from adipose tissue plays a key role in the control of body fat stores and energy expenditure. Higher leptin levels were observed in obese subjects and lower in anorectic patients. Recent studies support that diet may be a factor which influences leptin levels. The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of leptin, lipids and apolipoproteins in prepubertal children with two different nutritional habits: vegetarian and omnivorous diet. We examined 22 vegetarians and 13 omnivores in age 2-10 years. Serum leptin concentration was determined by immunoenzyme assay (ELISA) and serum lipids were measured by enzymatic and immunoturbidimetric methods. Average daily dietary energy intake and the percentage of energy from protein, fat and carbohydrates were similar for both groups of children. We observed that in vegetarian diet there is a high rate of fiber nearly twice as high as in omnivorous diet. Vegetarians had lower total cholesterol and HDL- and LDL-cholesterol concentrations than children on traditional mixed diet. There is no significant differences in triglyceride concentration between studied groups. The apolipoproteins levels in vegetarian children were significantly below that of omnivores. The serum concentration of leptin was lower in vegetarians (3.0 +/- 1.1 ng/mL) than in nonvegetarians (5.1 +/- 2.0 ng/mL) (p vegetarian diet may be accompanied by lower serum leptin concentration. Further studies on large group of children are needed for understanding this problem better.

  14. Role for endogenous estrogen in prepubertal Sertoli cell maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Eddy; Villalon, Rosalina; Ribeiro, Salustiano; Berger, Trish

    2012-11-01

    Reducing prepubertal endogenous estrogens led to increased numbers of Sertoli cells and the associated increased testicular size and testicular sperm production capacity in boars. The increased number of Sertoli cells might be due to a longer time for proliferation; delayed differentiation of Sertoli cells during suppressed endogenous estrogens would be consistent with this hypothesized, prolonged proliferation interval. This study used immunohistochemical detection of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), a marker of immature Sertoli cells, and of CDKN1B, a cell cycle inhibitor associated with more mature Sertoli cells, to determine if suppressing endogenous estrogens detectably delayed "differentiation" of porcine Sertoli cells. Testes were from littermate pairs of boars previously treated with Letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, or vehicle, from the first week of age until tissue collection at 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 months of age. Four animals were examined at each age following Letrozole treatment and their corresponding littermates evaluated following treatment with vehicle. Amount of AMH protein in Sertoli cells decreased with age of boar and could not be detected at 6 months of age. The AMH labeling was greater in the Letrozole-treated boars compared with littermate vehicle controls at 4 months of age (P=0.03). The percentage of CDKN1B-labeled Sertoli cells apparently increased with age through 5 months of age. At 4 and 5 months of age, the mean percentage of CDKN1B-labeled Sertoli cells was less in the Letrozole-treated animals than in the vehicle control animals (P = 0.03 and 0.04, respectively). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that continual inhibition of aromatase (and concomitatant reduced estrogen synthesis) causes a delay in Sertoli cell maturation in boars.

  15. Electro convulsive therapy in a pre-pubertal child with severe depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell P

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Electro Convulsive Therapy (ECT in pre-pubertal children is a controversial and underreported treatment. Even though the effectiveness and side effects of ECT in adolescents are comparable with those in adults, there is a pervasive reluctance to use ECT in children and adolescents. We report the case of a pre-pubertal child in an episode of severe depression with catatonic features, where a protracted course of ECT proved life-saving in spite of prolonged duration of seizures and delayed response to treatment. The case illustrates the safety and efficacy of ECT in children. Relevant literature is also reviewed along with the case report.

  16. Mutation analysis of cathepsin C gene in a Chinese patient with pre-pubertal periodontitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yuan; BAI Xiao-wen; SONG Shu-juan; GE Li-hong; CAO Cai-fang

    2005-01-01

    @@ Pre-pubertal periodontitis (PPP) is a rare and rapidly progressive form of early onset periodontitis resulting in premature tooth loss of primary and permanent dentitions. Mutations in cathepsin C (CTSC) gene have been found in patients with pre-pubertal periodontitis and Papillon-Lefevre syndrome which also characterized with severe periodontitis and palmoplantar hyperkera-tosis.1-3 To date, more than 40 mutations of CTSC gene have been identified in ethnically diverse people worldwide.4 However, there is no such genetic analysis in China. In the present study, we report the mutation analysis of a Chinese patient with PPP.

  17. Calf form bovine leukosis with lameness in a Holstein heifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfeeq, Mohammad Monir; Miura, Saori; Nakanishi, Yuuki; Sugimoto, Kazuya; Kobayashi, Yoshiyasu; Furuoka, Hidefumi; Inokuma, Hisashi

    2012-09-01

    A 12-month-old Holstein heifer with anorexia, lameness, and enlargement of peripheral lymph nodes was suspected of having bovine leukosis. Although lymphocytosis was not observed, cytology of fine needle aspirate from a superficial cervical node, and increased serum lactate dehydrogenase and thymidine kinase activities, strongly suggested lymphosarcoma. Increased numbers of mononuclear cells as well as mitotic cells were observed in synovial fluid collected from swollen joints. Pathological examination confirmed B-cell calf form bovine leukosis and joint swelling related to neoplastic cell infiltration. Both interleukin-2 receptor and thymidine kinase 1 genes were highly expressed in cells from superficial cervical lymph node aspirate.

  18. Efficiency and rumen responses in younger and older Holstein heifers limit-fed diets of differing energy density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanton, G I; Heinrichs, A J

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of limit feeding diets of different predicted energy density on the efficiency of utilization of feed and nitrogen and rumen responses in younger and older Holstein heifers. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (4 heifers beginning at 257 ± 7 d, hereafter "young," and 4 heifers beginning at 610 ± 16 d, hereafter "old") were limit-fed high [HED; 2.64 Mcal/kg of dry matter (DM), 15.31% crude protein (CP)] or low (LED; 2.42 Mcal/kg of DM, 14.15% CP) energy density diets according to a 4-period, split-plot Latin square design with 28-d periods. Diets were limit-fed to provide isonitrogenous and isoenergetic intake on a rumen empty body weight (BW) basis at a level predicted to support approximately 800 g/d of average daily gain. During the last 7d of each period, rumen contents were subsampled over a 24-h period, rumen contents were completely evacuated, and total collection of feces and urine was made over 4d. Intakes of DM and water were greater for heifers fed LED, although, by design, calculated intake of metabolizable energy did not differ between age groups or diets when expressed relative to rumen empty BW. Rumen pH was lower, ammonia (NH3-N) concentration tended to be higher, and volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was not different for HED compared with LED and was unaffected by age group. Rumen content mass was greater for heifers fed LED and for old heifers, so when expressing rumen fermentation responses corrected for this difference in pool size, NH3-N pool size was not different between diets and total moles of VFA in the rumen were greater for heifers fed LED, whereas these pool sizes were greater for old heifers. Total-tract digestibility of potentially digestible neutral detergent fiber (NDF) was greater in heifers fed LED and for young heifers, whereas the fractional rate of ruminal passage and digestion of NDF were both greater in heifers fed LED. Digestibility of N was greater for

  19. New findings of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in beef and dairy cattle in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Fiuza, Vagner Ricardo; Lopes, Carlos Wilson Gomes; de Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues; Fayer, Ronald; Santin, Monica

    2016-01-30

    Microsporidia are widely recognized as important human pathogens with Enterocytozoon bieneusi as the most common species infecting humans and animals, including cattle. Although Brazil has the second largest cattle herd in the world and it is the largest exporter of beef there are no data on the presence or impact of E. bieneusi on this important population. To fill this knowledge gap, fecal specimens were collected from 452 cattle from pre-weaned calves to adult cattle in the state of Rio de Janeiro. Host factors including age, gender, dairy/beef, body composition, and fecal consistency were included in the study. Using molecular methods, E. bieneusi was found in 79/452 (17.5%) fecal specimens. This represents the first report of this parasite in Brazilian cattle. A significantly higher prevalence was found in calves less than 2 months of age (27.6%) and those 3-8 months of age (28.8%) versus heifers (14.1%) and adults (1.4%) (PDairy cattle (26.2%) had a higher prevalence than beef cattle (9.7%) (P<0.001). No correlation was found between infection and gender, body composition, and fecal consistency. Molecular characterization of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) revealed 12 genotypes; five previously reported in cattle (BEB4, BEB8, D, EbpA and I), and seven novel genotypes (BEB11-BEB17). A phylogenetic analysis showed that 6 genotypes (D, EbpA, BEB12, BEB13, BEB15, and BEB16) identified in 18 animals clustered within the designated zoonotic Group 1 while the other 6 genotypes (I, BEB4, BEB8, BEB11, BEB14, BEB17) identified in 61 animals clustered within Group 2. The identification of genotypes in Brazilian cattle that have previously been reported in humans highlights the potential risk of zoonotic transmission and suggests that the role of cattle in transmission of human infections requires further study.

  20. Effects of feeding extruded full-fat cottonseed pellets in place of tallow as a fat source for finishing heifers on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, sensory traits, display color, and fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelzleni, A M; Froetschel, M A; Pringle, T D

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of supplemental feeding of full-fat extruded cottonseed pellets (FFECS) compared with tallow on carcass characteristics, sensory traits, retail display color, and fatty acid profiles, especially CLA isomers in finishing heifers. Twenty-one Angus heifers (450 ± 5 kg) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 experimental diets: 1) 100% supplemental fat from tallow at 4.1% of ration DM (TAL), 2) a 50:50 ratio of supplemental fat from a combination of tallow at 2.1% and FFECS at 12.8% of ration DM (TAL/ECS), and 3) 100% supplemental fat from FFECS at 25.6% ration DM (ECS). All rations were formulated to contain 7.5% fat on a DM basis. Heifers were individually fed, ad libitum, for 82 d, and BW, G:F, DMI, ADG, and body composition via ultrasound were collected at 3 to 4 wk intervals. After 82 d on feed heifers were slaughtered under federal inspection, and carcass characteristics were measured (at 24 h). The LM was removed for retail display color (1, 3, 6, 10 d), Warner-Bratzler shear force (1, 3, 7, 14, 21 d postmortem aging), sensory analysis (1, 7, 14, 21 d postmortem aging), and fatty acid profile analysis. Subcutaneous fat, including all layers, was removed from the LM for fatty acid profile analysis, and ground beef patties (80:20) were produced with lean from the brisket and fat from the plate for retail color analysis (1, 2, 4, 7 d). Supplemental fat source did not influence feedlot performance for any of the traits measured (P > 0.12) or any carcass traits related to yield, quality, or LM color at the 12th- to 13th-rib interface (P > 0.15). Supplemental fat source did not affect Warner-Bratzler shear force or any sensory traits (P > 0.20), but LM steaks became more tender as postmortem aging time increased up to 14 d (P tallow increased linoleic acid (C18:2(n-6)) in both intramuscular and subcutaneous fat (P 0.90). Full-fat extruded cottonseed pellets are interchangeable with tallow in heifer finishing diets

  1. Genetic and ageing effects on beef quality

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate genetic and ageing effects on beef quality. To study the genetic effects, association analyses were carried out between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at DGAT1, LEP, SCD1, CAPN1 and CAST genes with colour, marbling, water holding capacity (WHC) and tenderness in meat from young bulls of the beef cattle population in Sweden. In total 243 young bulls from five beef breeds were included in the analysis. The results confirmed previous...

  2. The effect of road and sea transport on inflammatory, adrenocortical, metabolic and behavioural responses of weanling heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murray Margaret

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective was to investigate the effect of transport on inflammatory, adrenocortical, metabolic and behavioural responses of weanling heifers transported from Ireland to Spain. Background At the end of the grazing season, 60 Charolais × beef heifers (mean live weight 245, s.e. 4.3 kg and mean weaning age 219, s.e. 4.9 days were abruptly weaned from their dams on day 0. The animals were assigned by live weight to two treatments, transport (T (n = 40 (mean 246, s.e. 5.4 kg and control (C (n = 20 (mean 247, s.e. 7.2 kg on day 0. The T animals were transported from Ireland to France on a roll-on roll-off ferry at a stocking density of 0.93 m2/animal and then by road for 9 h to a French lairage while C animals remained in Ireland and were not transported. On arrival at the French lairage (d 2, 20 T animals were unloaded (ULT and rested for 12 h in the French lairage and 20 animals rested (RT on the transporter. All animals had access to hay and water. After the rest period, the ULT animals were re-loaded. The subsequent journey by road from France to Spain was 9 h travel, 7 h rest (on the transporter and a further 7 h travel by road. All T animals were blood sampled prior to transport (day (d 0; baseline, on arrival in the French lairage (d 2, after 12 h rest in the French lairage (d 2, on arrival at the feedlot in Spain (d 4 and on d 6, d 8, d 10 and d 34. Control animals were blood sampled at the same times as T animals. Results ULT and RT animals had lower (P 0.05 in plasma protein concentration between RT and ULT animals from day 2 to d 34. Plasma concentrations of urea were higher (P Conclusion It is concluded that, within the conditions of the present study, the performance of the animals that remained on the transporter during the 12 h lairage period in France was not different post-transport from the transported animals that were unloaded and lairaged in France.

  3. A study of the level and dynamics of Eimeria populations in naturally infected, grazing beef cattle at various stages of production in the Mid-Atlantic USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Aaron S; Swecker, William S; Lindsay, David S; Scaglia, Guillermo; Neel, James P S; Elvinger, Francois C; Zajac, Anne M

    2014-05-28

    There is little information available on the species dynamics of eimerian parasites in grazing cattle in the central Appalachian region of the United States. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe the level of infection and species dynamics of Eimeria spp. in grazing beef cattle of various age groups over the course of a year in the central Appalachian region. Rectal fecal samples were collected from male and female calves (n=72) monthly from May through October 2005, heifers only (n=36) monthly from November 2005 to April 2006, and cows (n=72) in May, July, and September, 2005. Eimeria spp. oocysts were seen in 399 of 414 (96%) fecal samples collected from the calves from May through October. Fecal oocysts counts (FOC) in the calves were lower (PEimeria spp. oocysts were detected in 198 of 213 (92%) of fecal samples collected from the 36 replacement heifers monthly from November to April and monthly mean FOC did not differ during this time period. The prevalence of oocyst shedding increased to 100% in calves in September and remained near 100% in the replacement heifers during the sampling period. Eimeria spp. oocysts were also detected in 150 of 200 (75%) samples collected in May, July, and September from the cows and mean FOC did not differ significantly over the sampling period. Eimeria spp. composition was dominated by Eimeria bovis in fecal samples collected from calves, replacement heifers and cows. Mixed Eimeria spp. infections were, however, common in all groups and 13 Eimeria spp. oocysts were identified throughout the sampling period.

  4. A genetic Study of Mortality in Danish Jersey Heifer Calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norberg, Elise; Pryce, Jennie; Pedersen, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    . The mortality traits included in the analysis were defined as mortality in 8 different periods from 24h after birth to age 180d (d 1–14, d 15–30, d 31–60, d 61–90, d 91–120, d 121–150, and d 151–180) and mortality over the entire period. A linear model was used for estimation of genetic parameters, breeding......The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for mortality of Jersey heifer calves during the first 6mo after birth, calculate the genetic trend of the trait, and estimate breeding values of widely used Jersey sires. More than 260,000 heifer calves were included in the study...... values of sires, and genetic trend. Fixed effects included in the model were herd-year class, month of birth, parity of mother, and whether the calf was sold to another farm in the first 6mo. Both direct and maternal genetic effects were included in the model; however, the maternal genetic effect...

  5. Detection of bias in animal model pedigree indices of heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. LIDAUER

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to test whether the pedigree indices (PI of heifers are biased, and if so, whether the magnitude of the bias varies in different groups of heifers. Therefore, two animal model evaluations with two different data sets were computed. Data with all the records from the national evaluation in December 1994 was used to obtain estimated breeding values (EBV for 305-days' milk yield and protein yield. In the second evaluation, the PIs were estimated for cows calving the first time in 1993 by excluding all their production records from the data. Three different statistics, a simple t-test, the linear regression of EBV on PI, and the polynomial regression of the difference in the predictions (EBV-PI on PI, were computed for three groups of first parity Ayrshire cows: daughters of proven sires, daughters of young sires, and daughters of bull dam candidates. A practically relevant bias was found only in the PIs for the daughters of young sires. On average their PIs were biased upwards by 0.20 standard deviations (78.8 kg for the milk yield and by 0.21 standard deviations (2.2 kg for the protein yield. The polynomial regression analysis showed that the magnitude of the bias in the PIs changed somewhat with the size of the PIs.;

  6. High Sierra Beef Progress Update

    OpenAIRE

    Ingram, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Research similar efforts in other regions Research was completed on similar efforts in other regions. There are over 300 grass-fed beef marketing operations across the United States. Here in California, there are approximately 10. Most are selling approximately 50-60 head per year. This appears to be a marketing limit for those who produce, process, market and distribute on their own. Additional labor and space requirements for marketing, storage for dry-aging, and distribution appea...

  7. Gender differences in cadmium and cotinine levels in prepubertal children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fucic, A., E-mail: afucic@imi.hr [Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Ksaverska c 2, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Plavec, D [Children Hospital Srebrnjak (Croatia); Casteleyn, L. [KU Leuven (Belgium); Aerts, D. [Federal Public Service Health, Food Chain Safety and Environment - DG Environment (Belgium); Biot, P. [DG Environment, Multilateral and Strategic Affairs (Belgium); Katsonouri, A. [State General Laboratory, Ministry of Health (Cyprus); Cerna, M. [Laboratoire National de Sante (Luxembourg); National Institute of Public Health (Czech Republic); Knudsen, L.E. [University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Castano, A. [Instituto de Salud Carlos III (Spain); Rudnai, P. [National Institute of Environmental Health (Hungary); Gutleb, A. [Centre de Recherche Public - Gabriel Lippmann (Luxembourg); Ligocka, D. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine (Poland); Lupsa, I-R. [Environmental Health Center (Romania); Berglund, M. [Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet (Sweden); Horvat, M. [Institute Josef Stefan (Slovenia); Halzlova, K. [Public Health Authority (Slovakia); State General Laboratory, Ministry of Health (Cyprus); Schoeters, G.; Koppen, G. [Flemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO), Environmental Risk and Health (Netherlands); Hadjipanayis, A. [Larnaca General Hospital, Ministry of Health, Republic of Cyprus (Cyprus); Krskova, A. [Laboratoire National de Sante (Luxembourg); National Institute of Public Health (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-08-15

    Susceptibility to environmental stressors has been described for fetal and early childhood development. However, the possible susceptibility of the prepubertal period, characterized by the orchestration of the organism towards sexual maturation and adulthood has been poorly investigated and exposure data are scarce. In the current study levels of cadmium (Cd), cotinine and creatinine in urine were analyzed in a subsample 216 children from 12 European countries within the DEMOCOPHES project. The children were divided into six age–sex groups: boys (6–8 years, 9–10 years and 11 years old), and girls (6–7 years, 8–9 years, 10–11 years). The number of subjects per group was between 23 and 53. The cut off values were set at 0.1 µg/L for Cd, and 0.8 µg/L for cotinine defined according to the highest limit of quantification. The levels of Cd and cotinine were adjusted for creatinine level. In the total subsample group, the median level of Cd was 0.180 µg/L (range 0.10–0.69 µg/L), and for cotinine the median wet weight value was 1.50 µg/L (range 0.80–39.91 µg/L). There was no significant difference in creatinine and cotinine levels between genders and age groups. There was a significant correlation between levels of cadmium and creatinine in all children of both genders. This shows that even at such low levels the possible effect of cadmium on kidney function was present and measurable. An increase in Cd levels was evident with age. Cadmium levels were significantly different between 6–7 year old girls, 11 year old boys and 10–11 year old girls. As there was a balanced distribution in the number of subjects from countries included in the study, bias due to data clustering was not probable. The impact of low Cd levels on kidney function and gender differences in Cd levels needs further investigation. - Highlights: • In 216 children from 6 to 11 years old the median level of Cd was 0.18 µg/L. • The median level of cotinine was 1.50 µg/L.

  8. Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplementation affects folliculogenesis, progesterone and ghrelin levels in fattening pre-pubertal gilts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abadjieva, Desislava; Nedeva, Radka; Marchev, Yordan; Jordanova, Gergana; Chervenkov, Mihail; Dineva, Julieta; Shimkus, Almantas; Shimkiene, Aldona; Teerds, Katja; Kistanova, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis supplemented diet on follicular development and related endocrine parameters, such as estradiol and progesterone levels as well as ghrelin levels in pre-pubertal gilts. Twenty-one 60-day-old Danube

  9. The pattern of ovarian development in the prepubertal antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetsuka, Masafumi; Asada, Masatsugu; Mogoe, Toshihiro; Fukui, Yutaka; Ishikawa, Hajime; Ohsumi, Seiji

    2004-08-01

    This study describes the morphological and morphometrical changes associated with prepubertal ovarian development in the Antarctic minke whale (Balaenoptera bonaerensis). Ovaries were harvested from 94 immature minke whales caught in the Antarctic Ocean during the summer feeding season (December-March). Notable differences in ovarian size and morphology were found among animals. Up to 10 folds difference in ovarian weight was found among prepubertal whales of similar body size. During the prepubertal period, ovaries grew slowly and approximately doubled their weight. The morphologies of right and left ovaries were almost identical while the growth of the ovary appears to occur preferentially on the right side. The most striking morphological feature was numerous small antral follicles less than 5 mm in diameter found in ovaries of younger immature whales. The occurrence of these ovaries was highest in whales less than 6 m long and gradually decreased as body length increased. In larger whales, the occurrence of ovaries with a smaller number of follicles up to 10 mm and thick tunica albuginea increased. Thus, the ovary of the Antarctic minke whale experiences bursts of small follicular development during the early prepubertal period before becoming a more developed ovary with fewer but larger follicles, and thick tunica albuginea.

  10. Myoepithelial cell differentiation markers in prepubertal bovine mammary gland: Effect of ovariectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have previously reported that ovariectomy alters prepubertal development of mammary myoepithelial cells (MC), but the mechanisms involved are not well understood. We therefore analyzed the expression of the myoepithelial differentiation markers a-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and the common acute ly...

  11. Insulin resistance in obese pre-pubertal children: Relation to body composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Elsedfy

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: Dysglycaemia and dyslipidaemia are common among pre-pubertal obese children. Insulin sensitivity indices based on OGTT are superior to fasting indices in identifying at risk children. OGTT should be included in assessing obese children with BMI > 2 SDS. DXA scanning has limited value for this purpose in clinical settings.

  12. The oral rehabilitation and 5 years follow up of a patient with prepubertal periodontitis- one case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelal Seyfioglu Polat

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Ethiologic, pathogenetic and host factors definition and classifications ofperiodontal diseases are done in many studies till nowadays. To regard these studiesprepubertal periodontitis is defined as early onset periodontitis.In our study it is aimed to present the treatment results of of apatient who isdiagnosed with prepubertal periodontitis, treated and followed up for five years.

  13. Adult Immunohistochemical Markers Fail to Detect Intratubular Germ Cell Neoplasia in Prepubertal Boys with Cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvist, Kolja; Clasen-Linde, Erik; Cortes, Dina;

    2014-01-01

    Intratubular germ cell neoplasia is a precursor to testicular germ cell cancer. The condition is characterized by large germ cells with large nuclei with a hyperchromatic, coarse chromatin pattern, large prominent nucleoli and abundant pale cytoplasm. In prepubertal boys these cells are located c...

  14. Enhanced insulin sensitivity in prepubertal children with constitutional delay of growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Dyanne A; Hofman, Paul L; Miles, Harriet L; Sato, Tim A; Billett, Nathalie E; Robinson, Elizabeth M; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2010-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that prepubertal children with presumed constitutional delay of growth and development (CDGD) have enhanced insulin sensitivity and, therefore, insulin sensitivity is associated with later onset of puberty. Twenty-one prepubertal children with presumed CDGD and 23 prepubertal control children, underwent a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test to evaluate insulin sensitivity and other markers of insulin, glucose, and growth regulation. Children in the CDGD group were shorter and leaner than control subjects. Children with presumed CDGD were 40% more insulin sensitive (17.0 x 10(-4) min(-1)/[mU/L] versus 12.1 x 10(-4) min(-1)/[mU/L]; P = .0006) and had reduced acute insulin response, thus maintaining euglycemia (216 mU/L versus 330 mU/L; P = .02) compared with control subjects. In addition, the CDGD group had lower serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 levels (3333 ng/mL versus 3775 ng/mL; P = .0004) and a trend toward lower serum insulin-like growth factor-II levels (794 ng/mL versus 911 ng/mL; P = .06). Prepubertal children with presumed CDGD have enhanced insulin sensitivity, supporting the hypothesis that insulin sensitivity is associated with timing of puberty. It may signify long-term biological advantages with lower risk of metabolic syndrome and malignancy. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Social behavior and kin discrimination in a mixed group of cloned and non cloned heifers (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, M; Baudoin, C; Abdi, H; Heyman, Y; Deputte, B L

    2010-12-01

    For more than ten years, reproductive biotechnologies using somatic cell nuclear transfer have made possible the production of cloned animals in various domestic and laboratory species. The influence of the cloning process on offspring characteristics has been studied in various developmental aspects, however, it has not yet been documented in detail for behavioral traits. Behavioral studies of cloned animals have failed to show clear inter-individual differences associated with the cloning process. Preliminary results showed that clones favor each other's company. Preferential social interactions were observed among cloned heifers from the same donor in a mixed herd that also included cloned heifers and control heifers produced by artificial insemination (AI). These results suggest behavioral differences between cloned and non-cloned animals and similarities between clones from the same donor. The aim of the present study was to replicate and to extend these previous results and to study behavioral and cognitive mechanisms of this preferential grouping. We studied a group composed of five cloned heifers derived from the same donor cow, two cloned heifers derived from another donor cow, and AI heifers. Cloned heifers from the same donor were more spatially associated and interacted more between themselves than with heifers derived from another donor or with the AI individuals. This pattern indicates a possible kin discrimination in clones. To study this process, we performed an experiment (using an instrumental conditioning procedure with food reward) of visual discrimination between images of heads of familiar heifers, either related to the subjects or not. The results showed that all subjects (AI and cloned heifers) discriminated between images of familiar cloned heifers produced from the same donor and images of familiar unrelated heifers. Cattle discriminated well between images and used morphological similarities characteristic of cloned related heifers. Our

  16. Beef healthiness and nutritional enhancement in beef as perceived by European consumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; van Wezemael, Lynn

    enhancement in beef as perceived by European consumers. The research is under the scope of ProSafeBeef project - Pillar 5 Consumer Issues: Safety and New Products. Pillar 5 will focus on assessing consumer expectations with respect to beef safety, healthiness and on consumer acceptance of new technologies...... or certifications, and brands) attributes or cues. Most consumers considered lean and "natural" beef to be the healthiest type: the more processed beef is, the less healthy it is believed to be. In the eyes of European consumers, healthiness also depends on how animals were fed and kept, how the meat was processed...... of excess fat and connective tissues was rejected by the most of the focus group participants. For most respondents, the government (both national and European) should be responsible for beef healthiness. The role if industry is to improve beef healthiness, in particular through its research branches...

  17. Effects of vitamin A on in vitro maturation of pre-pubertal mouse spermatogonial stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albanne Travers

    Full Text Available Testicular tissue cryopreservation is the only potential option for fertility preservation in pre-pubertal boys exposed to gonadotoxic treatment. Completion of spermatogenesis after in vitro maturation is one of the future uses of harvested testicular tissue. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin A on in vitro maturation of fresh and frozen-thawed mouse pre-pubertal spermatogonial stem cells in an organ culture system. Pre-pubertal CD1 mouse fresh testes were cultured for 7 (D7, 9 (D9 and 11 (D11 days using an organ culture system. Basal medium was supplemented with different concentrations of retinol (Re or retinoic acid (RA alone or in combination. Seminiferous tubule morphology (tubule diameter, intra-tubular cell type, intra-tubular cell death and proliferation (PCNA antibody and testosterone level were assessed at D7, D9 and D11. Pre-pubertal mouse testicular tissue were frozen after a soaking temperature performed at -7 °C, -8 °C or -9 °C and after thawing, were cultured for 9 days, using the culture medium preserving the best fresh tissue functionality. Retinoic acid at 10(-6M and retinol at 3.3.10(-7M, as well as retinol 10(-6M are favourable for seminiferous tubule growth, maintenance of intra-tubular cell proliferation and germ cell differentiation of fresh pre-pubertal mouse spermatogonia. Structural and functional integrity of frozen-thawed testicular tissue appeared to be well-preserved after soaking temperature at -8 °C, after 9 days of organotypic culture using 10(-6M retinol. RA and Re can control in vitro germ cell proliferation and differentiation. Re at a concentration of 10(-6M maintains intra-tubular cell proliferation and the ability of spermatogonia to initiate spermatogenesis in fresh and frozen pre-pubertal mouse testicular tissue using a soaking temperature at -8 °C. Our data suggested a possible human application for in vitro maturation of cryopreserved pre-pubertal testicular

  18. Staphylococcus aureus is More Prevalent in Retail Beef Livers than in Pork and other Beef Cuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubna S. Abdalrahman

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is one of the top five pathogens contributing to acquired foodborne illnesses causing an estimated quarter million cases every year in the US. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Methicillin Susceptible S. aureus (MSSA and Methicillin Resistant S. aureus (MRSA in retail beef livers, beef, and pork meats sold in Tulsa, Oklahoma and to characterize the recovered strains for their virulence and antimicrobial resistance. Ninety six chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 46 beef other cuts, and 99 pork meat samples were collected. The prevalence in beef livers was 40/50 (80% followed by other beef cuts 23/46 (50% then pork 43/99 (43.3%. No isolates were positive for MRSA since none harbored the mecA or mecC gene. A total of 334 recovered S. aureus isolates (143 beef livers, 76 beef, and 115 pork isolates were screened for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 16 different antimicrobials and their possession of 18 different toxin genes. Multidrug resistance was more prevalent in the pork isolates followed by beef then beef livers. The prevalence of enterotoxin genes such as seg, seh, and sei and the toxic shock syndrome gene tst was higher in the pork isolates than in the beef ones. The hemolysin genes, particularly hlb, were more prevalent in isolates from beef livers. Molecular typing of a subset of the recovered isolates showed that they are highly diverse where spa typing was more discriminatory than PFGE. The alarmingly high incidence of S. aureus in retail beef livers in this study should raise awareness about the food safety of such meat products.

  19. Endothelial function in pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy: a new frontier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cristina Tavares

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is known that obesity, diabetes, and Kawasaki's disease play important roles in systemic inflammation and in the development of both endothelial dysfunction and cardiomyopathy, there is a lack of data regarding the endothelial function of pre-pubertal children suffering from cardiomyopathy. In this study, we performed a systematic review of the literature on pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy to assess the endothelial function of pre-pubertal children at risk of developing cardiomyopathy. We searched the published literature indexed in PubMed, Bireme and SciELO using the keywords 'endothelial', 'children', 'pediatric' and 'infant' and then compiled a systematic review. The end points were age, the pubertal stage, sex differences, the method used for the endothelial evaluation and the endothelial values themselves. No studies on children with cardiomyopathy were found. Only 11 papers were selected for our complete analysis, where these included reports on the flow-mediated percentage dilatation, the values of which were 9.80±1.80, 5.90±1.29, 4.50±0.70, and 7.10±1.27 for healthy, obese, diabetic and pre-pubertal children with Kawasaki's disease, respectively. There was no significant difference in the dilatation, independent of the endothelium, either among the groups or between the genders for both of the measurements in children; similar results have been found in adolescents and adults. The endothelial function in cardiomyopathic children remains unclear because of the lack of data; nevertheless, the known dysfunctions in children with obesity, type 1 diabetes and Kawasaki's disease may influence the severity of the cardiovascular symptoms, the prognosis, and the mortality rate. The results of this study encourage future research into the consequences of endothelial dysfunction in pre-pubertal children.

  20. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  1. Antimicrobial resistance issues in beef production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial resistance threats to human health as identified have been recognized as a critical global public health concern. Linkage of some threats to beef production is discussed. The relevance to beef production of recent government actions will be examined. Prominent antimicrobial resistance ...

  2. 76 FR 18422 - Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-04

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1260 Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment AGENCY... representation on the Cattlemen's Beef Promotion and Research Board (Board), established under the Beef Promotion and Research Act of 1985 (Act), to reflect changes in cattle inventories and cattle and beef...

  3. 9 CFR 319.303 - Corned beef hash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef hash. 319.303 Section 319... Products § 319.303 Corned beef hash. (a) “Corned Beef Hash” is the semi-solid food product in the form of a compact mass which is prepared with beef, potatoes, curing agents, seasonings, and any of the...

  4. 7 CFR 1260.115 - Qualified State beef council.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State beef council. 1260.115 Section 1260... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.115 Qualified State beef...

  5. The North Dakota Beef Industry Survey: Implications for Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlen, Carl R.; Hadrich, Joleen C.; Lardy, Gregory P.

    2014-01-01

    A portion of the North Dakota Beef Industry Survey was developed to determine how educational programs can evolve to meet future needs of North Dakota beef producers. Of the 2,500 surveys mailed out to beef producers, 527 responses were completed and returned. Results highlight the level of education of North Dakota beef producers, anticipated use…

  6. Introduction to Beef Production. Instructor Guide [and] Student Reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Kevin

    This packet contains an instructor guide and student reference for a course in introduction to beef production. The curriculum contains the following seven lessons: (1) introduction to the beef industry; (2) breeds of beef cattle; (3) principles of beef cattle selection; (4) production systems; (5) herd health; (6) herd management; and (7)…

  7. 9 CFR 319.101 - Corned beef brisket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corned beef brisket. 319.101 Section... Smoked § 319.101 Corned beef brisket. In preparing “Corned Beef Brisket,” the application of curing solution to the beef brisket shall not result in an increase in the weight of the finished cured product...

  8. 76 FR 42012 - Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 1260 Beef Promotion and Research; Reapportionment AGENCY... the Cattlemen's Beef Promotion and Research Board (Board), established under the Beef Promotion and Research Act of 1985 (Act), to reflect changes in cattle inventories and cattle and beef imports that...

  9. Repeatability of feed efficiency, carcass ultrasound, feeding behavior, and blood metabolic variables in finishing heifers divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A K; McGee, M; Crews, D H; Sweeney, T; Boland, T M; Kenny, D A

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between feed efficiency and performance, and feeding behavior, blood metabolic variables, and various ultrasonic measurements in finishing beef heifers. Within-animal repeatability estimates of feed intake and behavior, performance, feed efficiency, ultrasonic body measures, and plasma analytes across the growing and finishing stages of the lifespan of the animal were also calculated. Fifty heifers previously ranked as yearlings on phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI) were used. Animals [initial BW = 418 (SD = 31.5) kg] were offered a TMR diet consisting of 70:30 concentrate and corn silage on a DM basis (ME 10.7 MJ/kg of DM; DM 530 g/kg) for 84 d. Feeding duration (min/d) and feeding frequency (events/d) were calculated for each animal on a daily basis using a computerized feeding system. Ultrasonic kidney fat and lumbar and rump fat and muscle depths were recorded on 3 equally spaced occasions during the experimental period. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture on 4 occasions during the experimental period and analyzed for plasma concentrations of IGF-I, insulin, and various metabolites. Phenotypic RFI was calculated for all animals as the residuals from a regression model regressing DMI on ADG and midtest BW(0.75). Repeatability was calculated for several traits both within and between production phase using intraclass correlation and Pearson correlation coefficients as appropriate. Overall ADG, DMI, G:F, and RFI were 1.17 kg/d (SD = 0.19), 10.81 kg/d (SD = 1.02), 0.11 kg of BW gain/kg of DM (SD = 0.02), and 0.00 kg of DM/d (SD 0.59). Daily feeding events and eating rate tended to be positively correlated (P = 0.08) with RFI. Ultrasonic kidney fat depth tended to be related to G:F (r = -0.28; P = 0.07), and kidney fat accretion tended to be related to RFI (r = 0.29; P = 0.08). Plasma urea (r = 0.38; P glucose (r = -0.25; P = 0.07), glucose:insulin (r = 0.33; P 0.10) to any measure of feed efficiency

  10. European consumers' acceptance of beef processing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    The use of new technologies in beef production chains may affect consumers' opinion of meat products. A qualitative study was performed to investigate consumers' acceptance of seven beef processing technologies: marinating by injection aiming for increased 1) healthiness; 2) safety; and 3) eating...... adults (19-60 years old) participated in eight focus groups in Spain, France, Germany and the UK. Results suggested a relationship between acceptance of new beef products, technology familiarity and perceived risks related to its application. Excessive manipulation and fear of moving away from 'natural......' beef were considered negative outcomes of technological innovations. Beef processing technologies were predominantly perceived as valuable options for convenience shoppers and less demanding consumers. Overall, respondents supported the development of 'non-invasive' technologies that were able...

  11. QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN ECOLOGICAL BEEF PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Producing high quality beef asks for the implementation of a performing management of raising cattle ecologically. The main ways of improving beef quality management have a technical nature: sustaina ble grazing management to conserve floral diversity and to obtain ecological beef and rational distribution of the cattle over the grassland to facilitate vegetation recovery and to avoid the setting of invasive species. Implementing a sustainable manageme nt of the resources in the neighborhood of animal farms has beneficial effects on beef quality, brings good economic income through the practice of best beef quality management, protects the environment long - term, and reduces infrastructure expenses thus a voiding the risks of meat contamination.

  12. Risk Factors Influencing Conception Rate in Holstein Heifers before Artificial Insemination or Embryo Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to show the risk factors affecting the conception rate in Holstein heifers after synchronization of estrus. A total of 275 Holstein heifers housed in a free barn were used for the experiment. The herd was visited regularly at four week intervals for synchronization of estrus using Heatsynch and CIDR-Heatsynch protocols. A group of four to 14 animals, depending on the availability, were referred to the experiment at each visit. Estrus induction rates in the two ...

  13. Efficacy of actaplanin fed on a twice-weekly basis to grazing stocker heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, C C; Randel, R D; Carroll, L H

    1987-02-01

    Brahman (16), Brangus (32) and Simmental X Brahman (16) open heifers were assigned to four treatment levels and two body weight categories. The weight categories were light (250 kg) and heavy (306 kg). Treatment groups were 0, 600, 900 and 1,200 mg actaplanin.head-1.feeding-1 with feeding only on Monday and Friday. Heifers were group-fed .91 kg/head of supplement (95% soybean meal: 5% molasses) containing actaplanin. Heifers grazed eight Coastal bermudagrass pastures throughout the experiment (July 29 to November 15, 1982). After 75 d on experiment, an additional 1.36 kg of a commercial 14% crude protein supplement was fed on the days that actaplanin was not fed. All heifers were weighted and rotated among pastures at 14-d intervals (last weight period was 11 d) as an attempt to equalize forage availability among groups. Over the entire experiment (109 d), light-weight heifers that were fed actaplanin responded (P less than .01) with greater average daily gain (ADG; .37, .35, .21 kg/d; 600, 900, 1,200) compared with controls (0 mg; .18 kg/d). A trend in response (P less than .10) to actaplanin feeding occurred for heavy-weight heifers (.23, .38, .34 kg/d; 600, 900, 1,200 mg vs controls (.22 kg/d). For light-weight heifers, ADG decreased lineraly (P less than .01) as actaplanin increased from 600 to 1,200 mg, while ADG for heavy-weight heifers increased linearly (P less than .10).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Increased Fecal Ethanol and Methanol Concentration in Dairy Heifers after Grazing

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, H.; Kurosawa, T.

    2011-01-01

    To clarify fermentative alterations in the large intestine (hindgut) during grazing, fecal alcohol and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentrations were evaluated in 30 dairy heifers. The heifers were kept in pasture growing mixed grass herbage from spring (mid May) until October, and their rectal feces were collected periodically. Concentrations of ethanol, methanol and isopropanol were increased in runny feces at early stage of grazing, but gradually decreased thereafter, despite the fact tha...

  15. Simulated efficiency of range beef production. III. Culling strategies and nontraditional management systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdon, R M; Brinks, J S

    1987-10-01

    A modified version of the Texas A&M Beef Cattle Production Model was used to simulate life-cycle biological and economic efficiency of various culling strategies and non-traditional management systems in a northern plains, range environment. Biological efficiency was defined as the ratio of TDN input (kg) to product output (kg), and economic efficiency was defined as the ratio of cost ($) to product output (100 kg), where products were live weight at weaning (LWW), empty body weight at slaughter (EBW) and fat-free weight at slaughter (FFW). Several economic scenarios were simulated. Culling cows at younger ages increased biological efficiency, but not necessarily economic efficiency. The simulated optimal age at culling was 8 yr, the same age at which simulated feed intake and milk production began to decline. Finishing young cows in the feedlot had little effect on biological efficiency and generally increased economic efficiency, although specific results depended on feed prices and relative values of cull cows vs fed animals. A simulated sex-controlled system in which only heifer calves were produced, while extremely biologically efficient for production of lean, resulted in relatively little output and was not economically efficient in most cases. Sex control combined with feeding of 2-yr-old cows was economically efficient, but not markedly more efficient than a conventional system. Results suggest that sex-controlled systems may be more appropriate where emphasis is on lean product and heifers can be bred at very early ages. General results indicate that producers should pay attention to relative values of cull cows and fed animals in choosing culling strategies and management systems.

  16. Effect of feed intake restriction on reproductive performance and pregnancy rate in Egyptian buffalo heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Hassan Ali; Abdel-Raheem, Sherief Mohamed

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the present experiment is to study the effect of feed intake restriction on the reproductive performance and pregnancy rate in Egyptian buffalo heifers. Thirty anestrus buffalo heifers were randomly divided into two equal groups. The low feed intake (LFI, n=15, 50 % restriction) group was fed a diet that consists of 3 kg concentrate, 1 kg wheat straw, and 3 kg fresh alfalfa, while the high feed intake (HFI, n=15) group was fed double the amount given to the LFI group for 4 months. All animals were weighed, transrectally examined, and visually checked for the signs of estrus, and blood samples were collected. Heifers in heat were mated with one fertile bull. The number of heifers showing estrus activity was 93.3 % in HFI vs. 20 % in LFI (Prate, and overall mean of progesterone and estrogen concentrations were significantly higher (Pglucose, total cholesterol, and calcium were significantly higher (Pfeed intake to 50 % from NRC recommendations impair reproductive performance in terms of increasing the age at first service and reducing the pregnancy rate in buffalo heifers. In conclusion, feed intake could be effective in improvement of reproductive performance in buffalo heifers and further studies should be done on large scale of buffaloes in this point.

  17. Effect of meloxicam on pregnancy rate of recipient heifers following transfer of in vitro produced embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, T S; Araújo, C V; Tirloni, R R; Martins, L R

    2013-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine if administration of meloxicam, a cyclooxygenase (COX) two inhibitor, to heifers in which embryo transfer (ET) is more difficult and requires a greater manipulation of the tract, would be beneficial. Nulliparous recipient heifers were divided in two groups: CON (n = 102), in which animals received 10 ml of saline IM (the same volume of meloxicam) and MEL (n = 105) animals that were treated with meloxicam. According to the degree in passing the catheter, recipients from both groups were classified as Grade I, easy (meloxicam (10 ml).There was no difference in the pregnancy rates on Day 35 considering animals which presented Grade I cervix independently whether the treatment was performed or not (p = 0.22). There was a statistical difference in the pregnancy rates (p meloxicam had a positive influence on general pregnancy rate of treated heifers in comparison to non-treated heifers. It was also observed that pregnancy rate was not influenced by meloxicam administration in Grade I heifers. Treatment increased the pregnancy rate of Grade II heifers.

  18. Duration of estrus induced after GnRH-PGF2alpha protocol in dairy heifer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Chikako; Yusuf, Muhammad; Nakao, Toshihiko

    2009-12-01

    Estrous expressions in dairy cows have been shortened and weakened. Dairy heifers, on the other hand, may not have had such changes in estrous signs as observed in cows, since they have less stresses than cows. The aim of this study was to describe the duration of estrus in a herd of dairy heifers. A total of 56 Holstein Friesian heifers estrus was synchronized using two different hormonal protocols. They were checked for primary and secondary estrous signs with the help of heat detection devices for 48 h at an interval of 4 h starting at 16.00 hour, one day after PGF(2alpha) treatment. Onset and end of standing estrus during 48 h observation period was recorded in 35 of the 44 heifers coming into estrus within 5 days after PGF(2alpha) treatment during the observation period. The duration of standing estrus on the average (+/-SD) was 9.7 +/- 5.3 h. Percentage of heifers with standing estrus longer than 12 h was 40%, and 53% showed standing estrus only for 4-8 h. It is indicated that duration of estrus in dairy heifers has been shortened recently.

  19. Herpetiform genital lesions in a heifer with mucosal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabis, J J; Szkudlarek, L; Risatti, G R; Sura, R; Garmendia, A E; Van Kruiningen, H J

    2008-03-01

    A 14-month-old heifer with a 17-day history of unresponsive bloody diarrhea was necropsied. There were focal, pink-red erosions of the nares and hard palate; ulcers and fissures of the tongue; and multiple ulcerative lesions of the alimentary canal. Interdigital skin of both rear limbs was ulcerated and bleeding; and the margins of the vulva contained punctiform red ulcers. The gross lesions were consistent with mucosal disease. Histopathology and laboratory testing ruled out rinderpest, foot-and-mouth disease, and vesicular stomatitis, and identified bovine virus diarrhea virus to be the cause of this disease. Lesions of the vulva similar to those seen in some stages of infectious pustular vulvovaginitis were negative for bovine herpesvirus-1 and tested positive for bovine viral diarrhea virus antigen by immunohistochemistry.

  20. Different roles of prepubertal and postpubertal germ cells and Sertoli cells in the regulation of serum inhibin B levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Müller, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1998-01-01

    To elucidate the role of germ cells in the regulation of inhibin B secretion, serum inhibin B levels in prepubertal boys and adult men whom had a concurrent testicular biopsy showing either normal or impaired testicular function were compared. In addition, by immunohistochemistry the cellular...... localization of the two subunits of inhibin B (alpha and betaB) were examined in adult testicular tissue with normal spermatogenesis, spermatogenic arrest, or Sertoli cell only tubules (SCO) as well as in normal testicular tissue from an infant and a prepubertal boy. Adult men with testicular biopsy showing...... SCO boys, inhibin B levels were undetectable as in the adult SCO men. Intense inhibin alpha-subunit immunostaining was evident in Sertoli cells in both prepubertal and adult testes. In the prepubertal testis, positive immunostaining for the betaB-subunit was observed in Sertoli cells. In the adult...

  1. Prepubertal vulval fibroma with a coincidental ectopic breast fibroadenoma: report of an unusual case with literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Chen, Yue; Wang, Kana; Xi, Mingrong; Yang, Kaixuan; Liu, Hui

    2011-11-01

    Prepubertal vulval fibroma and ectopic breast fibroadenoma of the vulva are two rare tumors, and they are very difficult to distinguish from other vulval masses, both clinically and pathologically. The complication of the two diseases is extremely rare. We report the case of an extremely large and progressively enlarging mass in the vulva of an 18-year-old Chinese girl. The mass was excised completely and pathologically diagnosed as a prepubertal vulval fibroma and ectopic breast fibroadenoma. The patient was followed up for 10 months and no evidence of recurrence was observed. Prepubertal vulval fibroma and vulval ectopic breast fibroadenoma should be considered in their preoperative differential diagnosis of a vulval mass, especially in prepubertal girls. Pathologically, immunohistochemical staining for vimentin and CD34 is valuable for diagnosis. Complete surgical excision is effective and long-term follow up is necessary.

  2. The vaginal microbiome is stable in prepubertal and sexually mature Ellegaard Göttingen Minipigs throughout an estrous cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Emma; Kudirkiene, Egle; Gutman, Nicole;

    2015-01-01

    in prepubertal and sexually mature Göttingen Minipigs during an estrous cycle. The dominating phyla in the vaginal microbiota consisted of Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes and Tenericutes. The most abundant bacterial families were Enterobacteriaceae, unclassified families from...

  3. Use of a stair-step compensatory gain nutritional regimen to program the onset of puberty in beef heifers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cardoso, R C; Alves, B R C; Prezotto, L D; Thorson, J F; Tedeschi, L O; Keisler, D H; Park, C S; Amstalden, M; Williams, G L

    2014-01-01

    It was hypothesized that metabolic programming of processes underlying puberty can be shifted temporally through the use of a stair-step compensatory growth model such that puberty is optimally timed...

  4. Brand Premiums in the U.S. Beef Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez, Stephen W.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. beef industry has experienced considerable reductions in beef demand over the past 30 years. One possible factor in declining beef demand is lack of progress in the development of consistent, high-quality branded beef products. This article uses Nielsen Homescan data and hedonic models to estimate the value that U.S. consumers place on various beef attributes, including brand.

  5. Evaluation of the California Mastitis Test as a precalving treatment selection tool for Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jean-Philippe; Du Tremblay, Denis; Descôteaux, Luc; Messier, Serge; Scholl, Daniel; Bouchard, Emile

    2009-02-16

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and a portable electrical conductivity meter for diagnosing precalving intramammary infection (IMI) in Holstein heifers. A total of 428 dairy heifers from 23 dairy herds were enrolled between 6 and 12 days before the expected calving date from June 2002 to June 2003. Mammary secretions were tested by both diagnostic methods and by bacterial culture for evidence of IMI. California Mastitis Test was considered negative if the score was negative, trace or 1 and was considered positive otherwise. Two cut-off points were evaluated for milk electrical conductivity (>5 and >6.5 mS/cm). From this study, an overall proportion of 69% of heifers had precalving IMI and the overall heifer prevalence of major pathogen IMI was 16.8%. At the quarter level, sensitivity and specificity of CMT (68.9% and 68.4%, respectively) and milk conductivity >5 mS/cm (41.0% and 65.2%, respectively) or >6.5 mS/cm (25.2% and 83.3%, respectively) to identify all IMI were low. However, the heifer level sensitivity and specificity of CMT for major pathogens were 91.0% (81.5-96.6) and 27.5% (22.8-32.6), respectively. Using a cut-off point of 5 mS/cm, the heifer level sensitivity and specificity for major pathogens was 68.7% (56.2-79.4) and 44.1% (38.7-49.6), respectively. A conductivity cut-off value of 6.5 mS/cm decreased the sensitivity and increased the specificity to 53.7% (41.1-66.0) and 59.5% (54.0-64.8), respectively. California Mastitis Test and milk electrical conductivity are not good predictors of major pathogen IMI in heifers during the last 2 weeks before calving. However, the negative predictive values at quarter or heifer level were high and the heifer false negative rate was 6-14% using CMT or conductivity, respectively. Therefore, these measures could be useful for screening out heifers or quarters that are unlikely to have a major pathogen IMI.

  6. Feed delivery method affects the learning of feeding and competitive behavior in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greter, A M; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; McBride, B W; DeVries, T J

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how different feeding methods may affect the learning of feeding, sorting, and competitive behavior of growing dairy heifers. We hypothesized that heifers previously fed a total mixed ration (TMR) would distribute their feeding time more evenly throughout the day, sort the new ration less, compete less for feed, maintain a more solid fecal consistency, and continue to grow rapidly compared with heifers previously fed a top-dressed ration (TDR). Thirty-two Holstein heifers (237.2+/-21.9 d of age) were divided into 8 groups of 4 and exposed to 1 of 2 treatments for 13 wk: 1) TMR or 2) TDR, with each containing 65% grass/alfalfa haylage and 35% textured concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Following this feeding period, all heifers were switched to an unfamiliar TMR containing 56.1% grass/alfalfa haylage, 21.0% corn silage, 21.0% high-moisture corn, and 1.9% mineral supplement (DM basis) for 7 wk. Group DM intakes were recorded daily throughout the experiment. Feeding behavior, recorded using time-lapse video, and sorting behavior were measured for 7 d during wk 1, 4, and 7 after the dietary change. Feeding competition was measured on d 2, 4, and 6 of each recording week. Sorting activity was determined through particle size analysis of the fresh feed and orts. The particle size separator separated feed into 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting of each fraction was calculated as actual intake expressed as a percentage of predicted intake. Animals were scored for fecal consistency twice weekly, using a scale from 1 (liquid) to 4 (solid). Heifers were weighed every 2 wk. Neither DM intake (9.0 kg/d) nor average daily gain (1.2 kg/d) differed between treatments. Sorting also did not differ between treatments. Heifers tended to spend more time feeding if they had previously been fed a TDR (198.8 vs. 186.8 min/d). As they had done before the dietary change, heifers previously fed the TDR spent more time at the

  7. OPPORTUNITIES TO PRODUCE HEALTHIER BEEF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. HOLLÓ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the opportunities for enhancing the beneficial fatty acid in beef was examined. The effect of diet (extensive vs. intensive diet, forage to concentrate ratio, feeding concentrates rich in n-3 fatty acids and the breed (old: Hungarian Grey, dual purpose: Hungarian Simmental, dairy: Hungarian Holstein-Friesian was investigated on the fatty acid composition of beef. Findings reveal that the extensive diet with linseed supplemented concentrate influenced the n-6/n-3 ratio and the CLA content of longissimus muscle more advantageous concerning human nutrition. The meat from Hungarian Grey (HG contained more CLA and less n-6 fatty acids than that of Holstein-Friesian bulls. The different forage to concentrate ratio with/without linseed supplementation did not significantly affect the performance and slaughter traits in Hungarian Simmental (HS young bulls. The wider forage to linseed concentrate ratio caused slightly higher dressing percentage, meat and fat proportion and lower bone in carcass. The effect of muscle type on chemical composition of muscles is more significant than that of the diet. SFA and MUFA were affected by muscle type, n-3 fatty acids and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio of the diet. The level of cis-9 trans-11 CLA (mg/100 g was influenced by muscle type, but not by diet.

  8. Giant fibroadenoma of the breast in a pre-pubertal girl: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunder Goyal

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile fibroadenoma comprises about 4% of the total fibroadenomas. The incidence of giant juvenile fibroadenomas is merely 0.5% of all the fibroadenomas. Bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas are extremely rare. We are presenting a case of giant juvenile fibroadenomas in an 11-year-old pre-pubertal girl. The diagnosis was made on fine-needle aspiration cytology which was confirmed on histopathology. As these tumors are mostly benign, breast-conserving surgery is done so that patient can lead a normal life without psychological trauma.-----------------------------------Cite this article as: Goyal S, Garg G, Narang S. Giant fibroadenoma of the breast in a pre-pubertal girl: a case report. Int J Cancer Ther Oncol 2014; 2(1:020113.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14319/ijcto.0201.13

  9. Associations of total, dairy, and meat protein with markers for bone turnover in healthy, prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budek, Alicja Zofia; Hoppe, Camilla; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2007-01-01

    We previously reported that high intake of milk, but not meat, equal in protein content, increased serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) in prepubertal boys. sIGF-I plays a key role in bone metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate associations of total......, dairy, and meat protein intake with markers for bone turnover and sIGF-I in prepubertal, healthy boys (n ¼ 81). We measured bone turnover (enzyme-linked immunoassay) in serum osteocalcin (sOC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (sBAP), and C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type-I (sCTX); dietary...

  10. Klinefelter syndrome is a common cause for mental retardation of unknown etiology among prepubertal males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, M M; Struthers, J L

    2002-01-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) has not typically been associated with mental retardation (MR), however, in recent years a growing body of evidence suggested that KS boys often experience language deficits and academic difficulties. In this study, we screened DNA samples from 1205 patients originally referred for fragile X syndrome (FRAX) testing, because of MR of unknown etiology and detected 8 KS patients. A similar number of males in the same age group were found to have FRAX; 3 of them had a family history of FRAX. Based on these findings, KS might be the most common cause of MR of unknown etiology among prepubertal males. Because of the significant benefits of early recognition and treatment of KS, we emphasize the importance of cytogenetic testing of all prepubertal males with cognitive impairment even without dysmorphic features.

  11. Effects of prepubertal-onset exercise on body weight changes up to middle age in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindo, Daisuke; Matsuura, Tomokazu; Suzuki, Masato

    2014-03-15

    The present study was conducted to examine whether prepubertal-onset exercise might help adults maintain long-term body weight (BW) reduction and increased energy metabolism after the cessation of exercise. Furthermore, the effects of the exercise regimen were compared with those of food restriction. Twenty-three male obese-diabetic [Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF)] rats were randomly assigned to prepubertal-onset exercise (Childhood-Ex), food restriction (Childhood-Diet), and sedentary control (OLETF-Sed) groups. Childhood-Ex rats exercised voluntarily every day using a rotating wheel, while the food volume of the Childhood-Diet group was restricted to achieve a BW similar to that recorded in the Childhood-Ex group. Both treatments were conducted at 5-19 wk of age; after this period, the rats were kept sedentary and allowed ad libitum food intake until 45 wk of age. BW was significantly lower, and percent lean body mass was significantly higher, in the Childhood-Ex group compared with those in the Childhood-Diet and OLETF-Sed groups throughout maturation and middle age after cessation of the interventions. The Childhood-Ex group also demonstrated higher citrate synthase, succinate dehydrogenase, and phosphofructokinase activity levels, as well as uncoupling protein-3 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle. This study revealed that inhibited BW gain in an animal model of human obese diabetes by prepubertal-onset exercise lasted for a long period after the completion of the exercise intervention. This effect may be facilitated by increased energy metabolism. However, these benefits were not found by prepubertal food restriction treatment. Importantly, to allow translation of our work, these novel insights need to be assessed in obese human individuals.

  12. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in healthy prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent girls and adult women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Astrid Marie; Juul, A A; Andersson, A M

    2000-01-01

    Biochemical assessment of gonadal function during maturation in girls and in adult women can be troublesome. With the recent advent of specific assays for the gonadal peptides inhibin A and inhibin B, it might be possible to achieve a clearer picture of events. We therefore determined serum levels...... daily throughout the menstrual cycle in 10 healthy adult women. Levels of inhibin B are low or undetectable in prepubertal girls (median, 26.5 pg/mL; 95% prediction interval,...

  13. Myeloperoxidase Is an Early Biomarker of Inflammation and Cardiovascular Risk in Prepubertal Obese Children

    OpenAIRE

    Olza, Josune; Aguilera, Concepcion M.; Gil-Campos, Mercedes; Leis, Rosaura; Bueno, Gloria; Martínez-Jiménez, Maria D.; Valle, Miguel; Cañete, Ramon; Tojo, Rafael; Moreno, Luis A.; Gil, Angel

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Obesity is associated with a state of chronic low-grade inflammation. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) plays an important role in the initiation and progression of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objectives of the current study were to evaluate plasma MPO levels in prepubertal obese children and to determine whether MPO could be an early biomarker of inflammation and CVD risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a prospective multicenter case-contr...

  14. Sex hormone binding globulin concentration as a prepubertal marker for hyperinsulinaemia in obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Galloway, P; Donaldson, M.; WALLACE, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Overweight children become obese adults who are prone to develop the "metabolic syndrome" and premature coronary arterial disease (CAD).
AIMS—To assess whether sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) is a potential marker for hyperinsulinaemia/insulin resistance in prepubertal obese children.
METHODS—Twenty five obese children (body mass index (BMI) >2SD) who warranted investigation on clinical grounds were enrolled. Their insulin response to an oral glucose tolera...

  15. Implications of gastrointestinal hormones in the pathogenesis of obesity in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascietto, Cinzia; Giannini, Cosimo; D'Adamo, Ebe; de Giorgis, Tommaso; Chiarelli, Francesco; Mohn, Angelika

    2012-01-01

    There is a worsening high prevalence of global obesity. Special attention has been paid to the gut-endocrine system, represented by the regulators of appetite. In particular, it has been suggested that ghrelin ("hunger" peptide), and obestatin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) ("satiety" peptides) could play important roles in the pathogenesis of obesity. The aims of this study were to compare fasting plasma ghrelin, obestatin, and GLP-1 levels between obese and nonobese prepubertal children, and to assess their relations with fatness indexes and insulin resistance (IR). Fifty-two prepubertal obese children and 22 controls were enrolled. Fasting levels of gastrointestinal hormones (ghrelin, obestatin, and GLP-1), glucose, and insulin were evaluated. IR was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) index. Analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney U-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and Spearman's correlation. Obese prepubertal children and normal-weight controls had similar age distribution. Obese children were more insulin resistant when compared to controls (HOMA-IR: p obese children than in controls (p obese than normal-weight children (p obesity.

  16. Pre-pubertal males practising Taekwondo exhibit favourable postural and neuromuscular performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jlid, Mohamed Chedly; Maffulli, Nicola; Souissi, Nisar; Chelly, Mohamed Souheil; Paillard, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The postural and neuromuscular performances in healthy children taekwondo (TKD) practitioners in comparison with control children were examined. Seventeen healthy pre-pubertal males undertaking only physical education at school (age: 11.88 ± 0.33 years) and 12 pre-pubertal male TKD practitioners (>3 years, 4 sessions a week) (age 11.66 ± 0.49 years) were recruited. Performances in the dynamic postural control (Star Excursion Balance Test -SEBT), vertical jump [squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ)] and sprint running (distances: 5, 10, 20 and 30 m) tests were compared between the two groups. The performances of the TKD practitioners were better than those of the non-TKD active for the SEBT (for 14 of 16 conditions, p  0.05). TKD practice would stimulate sensory input and motor output of the postural system that would enhance its efficiency. In addition, the dynamic nature of TKD would develop the muscle power of the lower limbs. In our sample of healthy pre-pubertal males, TKD appears to improve postural and neuromuscular functions, but further research is required.

  17. Associations of total, dairy, and meat protein with markers for bone turnover in healthy, prepubertal boys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budek, Alicja Zofia; Hoppe, Camilla; Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer

    2007-01-01

    We previously reported that high intake of milk, but not meat, equal in protein content, increased serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) in prepubertal boys. sIGF-I plays a key role in bone metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate associations of total...... focus on differential effects of dairy and meat protein on bone health during growth.......We previously reported that high intake of milk, but not meat, equal in protein content, increased serum insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) in prepubertal boys. sIGF-I plays a key role in bone metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate associations of total......, dairy, and meat protein intake with markers for bone turnover and sIGF-I in prepubertal, healthy boys (n ¼ 81). We measured bone turnover (enzyme-linked immunoassay) in serum osteocalcin (sOC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (sBAP), and C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type-I (sCTX); dietary...

  18. Uric acid, carotid intima-media thickness and body composition in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassols, J; Martínez-Calcerrada, J M; Prats-Puig, A; Carreras-Badosa, G; Díaz-Roldán, F; Osiniri, I; Riera-Pérez, E; de Zegher, F; Ibáñez, L; López-Bermejo, A

    2016-10-01

    Increased uric acid is an independent biomarker for cardiovascular disease in obese adolescents and adults. We investigated whether uric acid relates to carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) in prepubertal children, and whether body mass index (BMI) and preperitoneal fat modulate this association. 359 asymptomatic prepubertal Caucasian children were stratified according to BMI categories (171 with BMI-SDS 50th centile). Uric acid levels, insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance; HOMA-IR), C-reactive protein (CRP), triacylglycerol (TG), systolic blood pressure (SBP), abdominal fat and cIMT (both by ultrasound) were assessed. Uric acid was associated with several cardiovascular risk factors, namely higher HOMA-IR, CRP, TG, BMI, waist, SBP, preperitoneal fat and cIMT (all P uric acid and cIMT (both P uric acid was preferentially related to cIMT in heavier children (β = 0.247, P uric acid is associated with cIMT in asymptomatic prepubertal children. Both higher BMI and preperitoneal fat aggravate the potential risk of atherosclerotic disease imposed by higher concentrations of uric acid. © 2015 World Obesity.

  19. Fat mass index performs best in monitoring management of obesity in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-da-Silva, Luís; Dias, Mónica Pitta-Grós; Dionísio, Elisabete; Virella, Daniel; Alves, Marta; Diamantino, Catarina; Alonso, Anabela; Cordeiro-Ferreira, Gonçalo

    2016-01-01

    An early and accurate recognition of success in treating obesity may increase the compliance of obese children and their families to intervention programs. This observational, prospective study aimed to evaluate the ability and the time to detect a significant reduction of adiposity estimated by body mass index (BMI), percentage of fat mass (%FM), and fat mass index (FMI) during weight management in prepubertal obese children. In a cohort of 60 prepubertal obese children aged 3-9 years included in an outpatient weight management program, BMI, %FM, and FMI were monitored monthly; the last two measurements were assessed using air displacement plethysmography. The outcome measures were the reduction of >5% of each indicator and the time to achieve it. The rate of detection of the outcome was 33.3% (95% CI: 25.9-41.6) using BMI, significantly lower (pBMI. The agreement between the outcome detected by FMI and by %FM was high (kappa 0.701), but very low between the success detected by BMI and either FMI (kappa 0.231) or %FM (kappa 0.125). FMI achieved the best combination of ability and swiftness to identify reduction of adiposity during monitoring of weight management in prepubertal obese children. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF ESTROGEN RECEPTORS IN THE CENTRAL AUDITORY SYSTEM CHANGE IN PREPUBERTAL AND AGED MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charitidi, K.; Frisina, R. D.; Vasilyeva, O. N.; Zhu, X.; Canlon, B.

    2011-01-01

    Estrogens are important in the development, maintenance and physiology of the CNS. Several studies have shown their effects on the processing of hearing in both males and females, and these effects, in part, are thought to result from regulation of the transcription of genes via their classical estrogen receptor (ER) pathway. In order to understand the spatiotemporal changes that occur with age, we have studied the expression of ERs in the central auditory pathway in prepubertal and aged CBA mice with immunohistochemistry. In prepubertal mice a clear dichotomy was noted between the expression of ERα and ERβ. ERβ-positive neurons were found in the metencephalon whereas the majority of ERα was found in mesencephalon, diencephalon or the telencephalon. In the aged animals a different pattern of ER expression was found in terms of location and overall intensity. These age-induced changes in the expression pattern were generally not uniform, suggesting that region-specific mechanisms regulate the ERs’ age-related expression. Neither the prepubertal nor the aged animals showed sex differences in any auditory structure. Our results demonstrate different age-dependent spatial and temporal changes in the pattern of expression of ERα and ERβ, suggesting that each ER type may be involved in distinct roles across the central auditory pathway in different periods of maturation. PMID:20736049

  1. Crossbreeding heifers performance in different reproductive stage / Desempenho de novilhas mestiças em diferentes estádios reprodutivos Crossbreeding heifers performance in different reproductive stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Zawadzki

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one crossbreeding heifers (½ Nelore vs ½ Aberdeen Angus with about 307.90 kg of live weight and eighteen months of age were used in a complete randomized design with three treatments and seven repetitions. The treatments were: control heifers, ovariectomized animals and with fifty gunshot spheres in uterine corn. The heifers were fed with 50% of corn silage and 50% concentrated. The feed intake was about 2,5% weight live in dry matter. The heifers gunshot treatments showed was bigger weight gain than the heifers ovariectomized treatments and this more weight gains what control heifers treatments. There was not difference in carcass yield and fat covering amongst treatments. The hematocrito increased in three heifers groups in the first collection (before for the second collection (after treatments. However, the increase was superior (P Foram utilizadas vinte e uma novilhas mestiças ½ Nelore vs ½ Aberdeen Angus, com idade aproximada de dezoito meses e peso médio de 307,90 kg. Os animais foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e sete repetições. Os tratamentos foram compostos por: novilhas vazias, novilhas ovariectomizadas e novilhas com implante de cinqüenta esferas de chumbo esterilizadas no interior do corno uterino. As novilhas foram alimentadas com ração composta de 50% silagem de milho (MS e 50% concentrado (MS, fornecida na base de 2,5% (MS do peso vivo dos animais. As novilhas com implante de chumbo apresentaram ganho médio diário superior (P < 0,05 aos das novilhas ovariectomizadas e das vazias. Ainda, as novilhas ovariectomizadas apresentam ganho superior (P < 0,05 aos das novilhas vazias. Todavia, não houve diferença no que se refere ao rendimento de carcaça e cobertura de gordura. O valor do hematócrito aumentou nos três grupos de animais da primeira coleta (antes para a segunda coleta (depois dos tratamentos. Todavia, este aumento foi maior (P < 0,05 nas novilhas

  2. Intramuscular variation in mitochondrial functionality of beef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suman, Surendranath P

    2017-08-16

    Aug 16, 2017 ... revenue loss to the United States beef industry due to discoloration is estimated to be more than 1 billion USD ... to estimate the surface color stability of steaks; greater ratio indicates ..... Elsevier, Oxford, United Kingdom.

  3. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger

    are suckler cows which goes to show that milk production is in the main focus for most European cattle farmers who get only a small part of their income from beef production. 8. The beef slaughtering industry has become quite concentrated at the national level but at the European level concentration is still...... characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows...... small with the largest slaughtering company slaughtering only 3% of the total. 9. Relations between industry (slaughterhouses) and farmers tend to be much looser in the beef market than it is in other agricultural markets, eg the milk market. Cattle markets are still quite important although the share...

  4. The beef market in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Niels Asger; Jeppesen, Lisbeth Fruensgaard

    are suckler cows which goes to show that milk production is in the main focus for most European cattle farmers who get only a small part of their income from beef production. 8. The beef slaughtering industry has become quite concentrated at the national level but at the European level concentration is still...... characteristics determining the consumers' value perception of a piece of meat appear to be fat, tenderness, taste and freshness. 7. The primary production of beef is fragmented in most European countries and the average number of cattle at a European cattle farm is only slowly rising. Two thirds of the cows...... small with the largest slaughtering company slaughtering only 4% of the total. 9. Relations between industry (slaughterhouses) and farmers tend to be much looser in the beef market than it is in other agricultural markets, eg the milk market. Cattle markets are still quite important although the share...

  5. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being dependent on imports. Romanian natural potential allows the achievement of sufficient production to meet domestic and export demand for beef, which brings high income for producers. The article proposes a review of the domestic production of beef and veal, their consumption and the origin of products on the domestic market in the European and international context.

  6. ROMANIAN BEEF AND VEAL MEAT MARKET ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ilvius T. STANCIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Current nutritional trends, oriented towards a healthy nutrition, lead to the re-evaluation of the share held by beef in the diet of the population. The demand for beef and veal at European and global market level can represent a significant opportunity to increase domestic producers’ business. Though cattle breeding is a traditional activity for the indigenous population from rural areas, livestock for slaughter have decreased steadily in the last years, thus the domestic market being dependent on imports. Romanian natural potential allows the achievement of sufficient production to meet domestic and export demand for beef, which brings high income for producers. The article proposes a review of the domestic production of beef and veal, their consumption and the origin of products on the domestic market in the European and international context.

  7. Embryo production in heifers with low or high dry matter intake submitted to superovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollo, Marcos R; Monteiro, Pedro L J; Surjus, Ricardo S; Martins, Aline C; Ramos, Alexandre F; Mourão, Gerson B; Carrijo, Luiz H D; Lopes, Gláucio; Rumpf, Rodolfo; Wiltbank, Milo C; Sartori, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the influence of feed intake on superovulatory response and embryo production of Nelore heifers. Pubertal heifers were kept in a feedlot and were submitted to the same diets, but with different levels of feed consumption: High (1.7 M; n = 20) or Low (0.7 M; n = 19) feed intake. Heifers in the 1.7 M treatment consumed 170% (2.6% of body weight [BW] in dry matter) and the 0.7 M heifers ate 70% (1.1% of BW in dry matter) of a maintenance diet. After 7 wk on these diets, heifers were treated with eight decreasing doses of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) given every 12 h, totaling 133 mg Folltropin (Folltropin-V; Bioniche Animal Health, Canada) per heifer. Seven d after AI, heifers had their uteri flushed and embryos were recovered and graded according to the International Embryo Technology Society standards. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS and results are presented as least-squares means ± SEM (P < 0.05). At the onset of the FSH treatment (Day 0 of the protocol), 1.7 M heifers had greater body condition score (BCS), BW and serum insulin concentrations than 0.7 M heifers (4.1 ± 0.1 vs. 3.0 ± 0.1; 462.5 ± 10.1 vs. 382.7 ± 10.4 kg; and 14.3 ± 1.7 vs. 3.5 ± 0.8 μIU/mL, respectively). The 0.7 M heifers had more follicles ≥6 mm at the time of the last FSH (Day 7; 47.9 ± 6.4 vs. 23.5 ± 4.3 follicles), related to a better follicle superstimulatory response to FSH. Similarly, 0.7 M heifers had more corpora lutea at the time of embryo collection (33.6 ± 1.4 vs. 15.7 ± 0.9) than the 1.7 M heifers, which resulted in greater number of recovered embryos and ova (9.9 ± 0.7 vs. 6.7 ± 0.6) and viable embryos (5.3 ± 0.5 vs. 3.8 ± 0.4), despite having similar proportions of viable embryos (∼62%). A negative correlation between circulating insulin and follicle superstimulatory response to FSH was observed (r = -0.68). Therefore, we conclude that high feed intake, for a

  8. Performance and carcass traits of finishing heifers fed crude glycerin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, G L; Shelor, M K; Drouillard, J S

    2009-02-01

    Crossbred heifers (n = 373; 421.6 kg +/- 28.9) were fed finishing diets containing 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, or 16% crude glycerin (DM basis). Diets consisted of steam-flaked corn with 6% alfalfa hay and 1.2% urea and provided 300 mg of monensin, 90 mg of tylosin, and 0.5 mg of melengestrol acetate per animal daily. Cattle were stratified by BW and allocated randomly, within strata, to concrete-surfaced feedlot pens each containing 6 to 7 heifers, with 9 pens per dietary treatment. Cattle were transitioned from the control diet to diets containing increasing proportions of glycerin over a period of 10 d. Cattle had ad libitum access to feed, and diets were delivered once daily throughout the 85-d trial period. As the concentration of glycerin increased, DMI decreased linearly (P glycerin had ADG of 1.19, 1.34, 1.29, 1.25, 1.17, and 1.03 kg, respectively (linear, P = 0.013; quadratic, P = 0.010). Feeding glycerin had a quadratic effect on G:F, and G:F was optimal when glycerin was fed at 2% of the diet (quadratic, P = 0.046). Glycerin increased the final BW by 12.7, 8.1, and 5.3 kg when fed at 2, 4, and 8% of the diet, respectively, but reduced the final BW by 1.9 and 14.3 kg when included at 12 and 16% of the diet (linear, P = 0.009; quadratic, P = 0.006). Similarly, HCW increased by 8.1, 5.1, and 3.3 kg when glycerin was fed at 2, 4, and 8% of the diet, respectively, but were 1.2 and 9.1 kg less than controls when glycerin was fed at 12 and 16%, respectively (linear, P = 0.009; quadratic, P = 0.006). Longissimus muscle area decreased linearly as glycerin concentrations increased (P glycerin resulted in linear decreases in subcutaneous fat over the 12th rib and marbling scores (P = 0.045). Glycerin tended to decrease the percentage of cattle grading USDA Choice (P = 0.084) and increase the percentage of cattle grading USDA Select. Adding glycerin to cattle-finishing diets improved BW gain and feed efficiency, particularly when added at concentrations of 8% or less on a DM

  9. Tactile stimulation of dairy heifers: effects on behavior and milk production after calving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. M. Néri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The positive management of primiparous heifers before calving through tactile stimulation may have beneficial effects on behavior during routine milking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of tactile stimulation in dairy heifers and its effects on behavior and milk production after calving. Ten primiparous Holstein heifers were used. Half the group received training with tactile stimulation of all body regions, while the other group did not receive stimulation (control group. The training period was divided into three phases: early, days 1 to 6 of training; intermediate: days 7 to 12, and final, days 13 to 23. During training, movement and displacement scores were obtained over a period of 5 minutes. Physiological parameters were also recorded [respiratory rate (FR and minimum eye temperature (ETmin measured with a thermal imaging camera]. After calving, the heifers were submitted to first milking when the evaluations were started for the first 10 days of milking (20 consecutive milkings. The behavior of the animals was evaluated by attributing a reactivity score of 1 (desirable behaviors or 2 (undesirable behaviors: entry into the pen, teat disinfection, milking one or two jets of milk for mastitis testing, attachment of teat cups, and removal of milk, as well as the amount of milk produced. Mean ETmin and FR decreased over the training period. A significant difference was observed for displacement score (P=0.019, with a reduction in displacement from the early to the final period (from 60.0% to 25.7%. During the attachment of teat cups, stimulated heifers were less reactive (P=0.002, characterized by a lower frequency of undesirable behaviors (12.0%, than unstimulated heifers (30.2%. The average milk yield during the first 60 days of lactation was higher for the group of stimulated heifers (Ln y=2.20–0.0102t+0.331lnt, R2=0.76 compared to unstimulated heifers (Ln y=1.54–0.0191x+0.578lnx, R2=0.79, with this difference being

  10. Fall-grown oat to extend the fall grazing season for replacement dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Brink, G E; Hoffman, P C; Esser, N M; Bertram, M G

    2014-03-01

    Our objective was to assess the pasture productivity and forage characteristics of 2 fall-grown oat (Avena sativa L.) cultivars, specifically for extending the grazing season and reducing reliance on harvested forages by replacement dairy heifers. A total of 160 gravid Holstein heifers (80 heifers/yr) were stratified by weight, and assigned to 1 of 10 identical research pens (8 heifers/pen). Initial body weights were 480 ± 43.5 kg in 2011 and 509 ± 39.4 kg in 2012. During both years of the trial, four 1.0-ha pasture replicates were seeded in August with Ogle oat (Schumitsch Seed Inc., Antigo, WI), and 4 separate, but similarly configured, pasture replicates were seeded with Forage Plus oat (Kratz Farms, Slinger, WI). Heifer groups were maintained as units, assigned to specific pastures, and then allowed to graze fall-oat pastures for 6h daily before returning to the barn, where they were offered a forage-based basal total mixed ration. Two heifer groups were retained in confinement (without grazing) as controls and offered the identical total mixed ration as pasture groups. During 2011, available forage mass increased with strong linear and quadratic effects for both cultivars, peaking at almost 9 Mg/ha on October 31. In contrast, forage mass was not affected by evaluation date in 2012, remaining ≤ 2,639 kg/ha across all dates because of droughty climatic conditions. During 2012, Ogle exhibited greater forage mass than Forage Plus across all sampling dates (2,678 vs. 1,856 kg/ha), largely because of its more rapid maturation rate and greater canopy height. Estimates of energy density for oat forage ranged from 59.6 to 69.1% during 2011, and ranged narrowly from 68.4 to 70.4% during 2012. For 2011, responses for both cultivars had strong quadratic character, in which the most energy-dense forages occurred in mid November, largely due to accumulation of water-soluble carbohydrates that reached maximum concentrations of 18.2 and 15.1% for Forage Plus and Ogle

  11. Salmonella in beef and produce from honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradiaga, Martha; Miller, Mark F; Thompson, Leslie; Pond, Ansen; Gragg, Sara E; Echeverry, Alejandro; Garcia, Lyda G; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M

    2015-03-01

    Salmonella continues to cause a considerable number of foodborne illnesses worldwide. The sources of outbreaks include contaminated meat and produce. The purpose of this study was to establish an initial investigation of the burden of Salmonella in produce and beef from Honduras by sampling retail markets and abattoirs. Retail produce samples (cantaloupes, cilantro, cucumbers, leafy greens, peppers, and tomatoes; n = 573) were purchased in three major cities of Honduras, and retail whole-muscle beef (n = 555) samples were also purchased in four major cities. Additionally, both hide and beef carcass (n = 141) samples were collected from two Honduran abattoirs. Whole-muscle beef samples were obtained using a sponge hydrated with buffered peptone water, and 10 ml of the buffered peptone water rinsate of each produce sample was collected with a dry sponge and placed in a bag to be transported back to the United States. Salmonella was detected using a commercially available, closeplatform PCR system, and positive samples were subjected to culture on selective media to obtain isolates. Overall, the prevalence of Salmonella-positive samples, based on PCR detection in Honduras (n = 555) retail beef was 10.1% (95% confidence interval = 7.8, 12.9), whereas 7.8% (n = 141) of beef carcass and hides samples were positive in both beef plants. The overall Salmonella prevalence for all produce samples (n = 573) collected was 2.1% (95% confidence interval = 1.2, 3.6). The most common serotypes identified in Honduras were Salmonella Typhimurium followed by Derby. These results provide an indication of Salmonella contamination of beef and produce in Honduras. Developing a Salmonella baseline for Latin America through an initial investigation like the one presented here contributes to a broader global understanding of the potential exposure through food, thus providing insight into the needs for control strategies.

  12. GnRH-agonist implants suppress reproductive function and affects ovarian LHR and FSHR expression in prepubertal female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, N S; Srisuwatanasagul, S; Swangchan-Uthai, T; Sirivaidyapong, S; Khalid, M

    2017-01-01

    Effect of a GnRH-agonist (deslorelin) was studied on reproductive function and ovarian luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) and follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) expression in prepubertal female cats that were either implanted with 4.7-mg deslorelin (implanted: n = 6) or not (controls: n = 18) or ovariohysterectomized at prepubertal age (prepubertal OVH: n = 6). Body weights, fecal estradiol, and sexual behavior of implanted and control cats were monitored for 48 weeks followed by collection of ovaries and uteri. Ovaries and uteri were collected from control cats at follicular, luteal, and inactive stage (n = 6/group) and from prepubertal OVH cats at prepubertal age. Ovaries and uteri were analyzed for anatomical/histological characteristics. Ovaries were also analyzed for LHR and FSHR expression. Statistical analysis showed higher (P ≤ 0.05) body weight in control than implanted cats only during 22nd to 26th weeks of the study. Estrus was observed in control cats only. Deslorelin reduced (P ≤ 0.05) ovarian weight and number of antral follicles but did not affect endometrial thickness and gland diameter. However, myometrial thickness of implanted cats was significantly lower than control cats at follicular and luteal stage. Ovarian LHR mRNA expression was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in implanted cats than control cats at follicular stage. FSHR mRNA and LHR protein expression did not differ among the three groups. FSHR protein expression was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in prepubertal OVH cats and was not affected by deslorelin. In conclusion, deslorelin suppresses reproductive function in prepubertal female cats for at least 48 weeks possibly through a change in the ovarian mRNA expression of LHR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Plasma Nesfatin-1 and Leptin in pubertal and non-pubertal Murrah buffalo heifers (Bubalus bubalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorakh Nath Prajapati

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Buffaloes mostly suffer from delayed puberty, anestrus, sub–estrus, summer infertility, prolonged inter-calving interval and postpartum uterine disorders. Nesfatin-1 and Leptin are directly or indirectly related with body weight (BW, feed parameters and regulation of puberty. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of Nesfatin-1 and Leptin in pubertal and non-pubertal Murrah buffalo heifers. The Murrah buffalo heifers (n=13 were randomly selected and divided into two groups; pubertal group (PG and non-pubertal group (NG. Heifers with plasma progesterone (P4 level of ≥1 ng/mL were classified as PG. Blood samples were collected at fortnight intervals for analysis of plasma Nesfatin-1, Leptin, P4, glucose and non-esterified fatty acids. Body weight, dry matter intake and feed conversion efficiency were recorded at fortnight intervals. The mean (±SEM plasma Nesfatin-1, Leptin, P4, BW and feed conversion efficiency (% were significantly (P<0.01 higher in PG as compared to NG. Dry matter intake by the heifers was also significantly (P<0.001 higher in PG than NG. Plasma metabolites (glucose and NEFA did not differ significantly between the groups. The findings of this study suggest that Nesfatin-1 and Leptin have indispensable role in the onset of puberty in buffalo heifers by affecting BW and feed parameters.

  14. Effect of diet with different energy content in growing Murrah buffalo heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Campanile

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between variations of weight and BCS was evaluated using growing buffalo heifers, fed diets with different energy level. 12 Murrah bred heifers (age: 790 days, LW: 400 kg, raised in Saint Paul (Brazil were equally divided in group H and L fed diets with 5.8 UFL/day and 3.6 UFL/day, respectively. At the end of treatment, groups showed significant differences in weight and values of BCS. In this trial each point of BCS, in Murrah heifers, seems to be equivalent to an increase and/or a loss of about 50 kg of live weight. During this trial the mean value of daily weight gain (DWG was significantly higher in group H (310 g. vs 0 g.; P<0.01. The heifers of group H required 5.4 UFL to increase the live weight, while group L showed a constant live weight in spite of the assumption of energy level of diet not sufficient to satisfy the requirements of weight maintenance. As it is known, buffalo heifers improves the efficiency of the diet utilization in case of deficiency and wastes energy when receiving diet with high energy content.

  15. Molecular Typing of Mastitis-Causing Staphylococcus aureus Isolated from Heifers and Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Rodrigues Pozzi Arcaro

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is among the main etiologic agents of bovine mastitis. A total of 83 isolates of S. aureus from mammary glands of primiparous heifers were collected in the prepartum, calving and during lactation. For lactating cows, a total of 27 isolates of S. aureus from mammary glands were collected during lactation. The samples were taken in two dairy farms located in Sao Paulo State, Brazil. The highest frequency of S. aureus isolation in heifers was at the end of lactation. Strains were typified through Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE and grouped according to patterns of restriction enzyme SmaI. PFGE generated seven clonal profiles that were grouped into three different lineages, with the LA lineage being predominant and identified in heifers, as well as in the cows from the two regions studied. It was concluded that the cows showed a significant source of dispersion of S. aureus. At the first lactation the heifers were infected by the same clonal profiles of S. aureus which were isolated from multiparous lactating cows. The heifers were infected during milking over the months of lactation.

  16. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Calf- and Yearling-Fed Beef Production Systems, With and Without the Use of Growth Promotants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasmus Okine

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A spring calving herd consisting of about 350 beef cows, 14–16 breeding bulls, 60 replacement heifers and 112 steers were used to compare the whole-farm GHG emissions among calf-fed vs. yearling-fed production systems with and without growth implants. Carbon footprint ranged from 11.63 to 13.22 kg CO2e per kg live weight (19.87–22.52 kg CO2e per kg carcass weight. Enteric CH4 was the largest source of GHG emissions (53–54%, followed by manure N2O (20–22%, cropping N2O (11%, energy use CO2 (9–9.5%, and manure CH4 (4–6%. Beef cow accounted for 77% and 58% of the GHG emissions in the calf-fed and yearling-fed. Feeders accounted for the second highest GHG emissions (15% calf-fed; 35–36% yearling-fed. Implants reduced the carbon footprint by 4.9–5.1% compared with hormone-free. Calf-fed reduced the carbon footprint by 6.3–7.5% compared with yearling-fed. When expressed as kg CO2e per kg carcass weight per year the carbon footprint of calf-fed production was 73.9–76.1% lower than yearling-fed production, and calf-fed implanted was 85% lower than hormone-free yearling-fed. Reducing GHG emissions from beef production may be accomplished by improving the feed efficiency of the cow herd, decreasing the days on low quality feeds, and reducing the age at harvest of youthful cattle.

  17. Effects of grazing system on production and parasitism of dairy breed heifers and steers grazing wet marginal grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels; Thamsborg, S.M.; Andersen, Refsgaard;

    2006-01-01

    Production and endoparasitism of first grazing season Holstein heifers and steers were investigated over two grazing seasons. Studies were conducted on low-lying peaty soil. In year 2000, 40 animals were included in a 2x2 factorial, replicated experiment with two sexes (steers v. heifers) and two...

  18. Modulation of the metabolic response to an endotoxin challenge in Brahman heifers through OmniGen-AF supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the metabolic response of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183±5 kilograms) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton, TX, were separated into 2...

  19. OmniGen-AF supplementation modulated the physiological and acute phase responses of Brahman heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the physiological and acute phase responses (APR) of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183±5 kilograms) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton...

  20. Ultrasound body composition traits response to an endotoxin challenge in Brahman heifers supplemented with Omnigen-AF

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the body composition traits response of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183 ± 5 kg) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton, TX, were separat...

  1. Hair coat characteristics in Friesian heifers in the Netherlands and Kenya : experimental data and a review of literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udo, H.M.J.

    1978-01-01

    The export of about 2600 Friesian heifers to Kenya between 1971-1973 provided an opportunity of studying the adaptation problems experienced by these heifers. Within the framework of the NUFFIC (Netherlands Universities Foundation for International Cooperation) a research project entitled

  2. Effects of straw processing and pen stocking density on holstein dairy heifers: i) growth and sorting characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objectives were to evaluate effects of pen-stocking density (freestall housing) and straw processing on heifer growth performance and feedbunk sorting behaviors by Holstein dairy heifers. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of straw-processing (GOOD or POOR) and pen-stocking-density [100 (CONTROL), 12...

  3. The effect of yeast cell wall supplementation on the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred heifers to endotoxin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding yeast cell wall (YCW) products on the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred newly-received heifers to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Heifers (n=24; 218.9+/-2.4 kg) were obtained from commercial sale barns and tra...

  4. Yeast cell wall supplementation alters the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding yeast cell wall (YCW) products on the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred newly-received heifers to an endotoxin challenge. Heifers (n = 24; 219 ± 2.4 kg) were separated into treatment groups receiving a Control diet (n = 8), ...

  5. Dried citrus pulp modulates the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the effect of feeding dried citrus pulp (CP) pellets on the physiological and acute phase responses (APR) of newly-received crossbred heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Heifers (n=24; 218.3±2.4 kg) were obtained from commercial sale barns and transported...

  6. Effect of diet energy level and genomic residual feed intake on pre-bred dairy heifer feed intake and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency of pre-bred dairy heifers with different predicted genomic residual feed intakes as lactating cows (RFI), and offered diets with different energy levels. Pre-bred heifers (128, ages 4-9 months) were blocked by ...

  7. Export Marketing of Croatian Baby Beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Kolega

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Croatia has traditionally been the exporter of livestock and beef. In 1988 Croatia exported a record of 35,7 thousand tons of livestock, worth almost 60 million US $. During the period between 1981 and 1991, the export of beef and processed meat was somewhat smaller, about 12,8 thousand tons, 40 million US $ worth. The most important export destinations were Italy, with almost 90% of all volume and monetary value of export, and Greece. In March 1993 EU has banned the import of livestock and beef from Croatia, due to a scandal with infected cattle. In spite of the subsequent abolition of this ban, Croatian export never really recovered, so today the export of beef amounts to less than a thousand tons. Even though the conditions on the export markets and in the domestic cattle breeding industry have changed, we think that it is possible to achieve the export expansion of Croatian baby beef in the foreign market. This article describes the results of the research conducted on the Italian and Greek market. According to expert opinions and the results of our survey it is evident that, with a certain quality of the product, it would be possible to renew the export of Croatian baby beef to the target markets.

  8. DEMAND FOR BEEF IN THE PROVINCE OF YOGYAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistiya

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available RACT Protein consumption level of society in Yogyakarta Province has yet to meet the target, but the beef is a source of animal protein that is easily obtainable. Therefore, research on the analysis of demand for beef in this province needs to be done. Objective: (1 Determine the factors that affect the demand for beef in Yogyakarta. (2 Determine the own price elasticity and income elasticity of demand for beef in this province, and to know the cross-price elasticity of demand for beef to changes in the price of mutton, chicken, rice, and cooking oil. Metode: descriptive statistics, followed by inductive statistics , and hypothesis testing. The data used are primary and secondary data. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression with the value of t and F tests, and analysis of the coefficient of determination. Results: Taken together, the factors that affect the demand for beef in the province is the price of beef, mutton, chicken, rice, cooking oil, income, number of inhabitants. Individually, beef demand is influenced by the price of beef and income residents. Beef inelastic demand means that beef is the daily necessities that are affordable and easy to obtain population of Yogyakarta Province. The increase in income population does not add to demand for beef. Substitutes of beef in the province is goat and chicken, while the complementary goods are rice and cooking oil.

  9. European beef consumers' interest in a beef eating-quality guarantee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Van Wezemael, Lyn; de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra

    2010-01-01

    from this study indicate good opportunities for the development of a beef eating-quality guarantee system in Europe. As an increase in consumers' satisfaction with beef products could lead to higher consumption rates and industry profitability, the introduction of an eating-quality guarantee system can...

  10. Carbon Footprint of Beef Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Dyer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The carbon footprint of beef cattle is presented for Canada, The United States, The European Union, Australia and Brazil. The values ranged between 8 and 22 kg CO2e per kg of live weight (LW depending on the type of farming system, the location, the year, the type of management practices, the allocation, as well as the boundaries of the study. Substantial reductions have been observed for most of these countries in the last thirty years. For instance, in Canada the mean carbon footprint of beef cattle at the exit gate of the farm decreased from 18.2 kg CO2e per kg LW in 1981 to 9.5 kg CO2e per kg LW in 2006 mainly because of improved genetics, better diets, and more sustainable land management practices. Cattle production results in products other than meat, such as hides, offal and products for rendering plants; hence the environmental burden must be distributed between these useful products. In order to do this, the cattle carbon footprint needs to be reported in kg of CO2e per kg of product. For example, in Canada in 2006, on a mass basis, the carbon footprint of cattle by-products at the exit gate of the slaughterhouse was 12.9 kg CO2e per kg of product. Based on an economic allocation, the carbon footprints of meat (primal cuts, hide, offal and fat, bones and other products for rendering were 19.6, 12.3, 7 and 2 kg CO2e per kg of product, respectively.

  11. [The effect of Fenbion, an anthelmintic, on blood in heifers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pjescak, M; Kovác, S; Cernek, J

    1991-02-01

    The complex effects of the anthelminthic Fenbion (prepared on the basis of fenbendazole, Bioveta Nitra) were investigated; its effects on the blood picture were studied in heifers with the liveweight of 400 kg, until the sixth day after its single application at doses of 15 and 30 mg per kg liveweight. The haemoglobin (Hb) content decreased in keeping with the physiological standard. The haematocrit (Hk) value decreased below the reference standard from 0.31 and 0.32 l per l on days five and six to 0.28-0.29 l per l. The total leucocyte counts increased from 8.60-9.64 G per l to 10.54-11.0 G per 1. This means that on the first days after administration Fenbion has negative effects on erythropoiesis, and as a stressor it evokes defense reactions of the organism. Differential blood counting: leucocyte counts increased to 0.71-0.73 arb. u. on days three to four. The increase in lymphocyte counts in the blood after Fenbion administration is likely to be related to the cellular immunobiological defense reaction of the organism. The counts of segmented leucocytes decreased, the counts of eosinophils increased irregularly, those of basophils and monocytes were highly variable, and the counts of monocytes increased irregularly in a large span, or they decreased.

  12. Relationship between phenotype, carcass characteristics and the incidence of dark cutting in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, S; Basarab, J A; Dixon, W T; Bruce, H L

    2016-11-01

    Previous research has suggested that cattle predisposed to dark cutting can be identified from live animal or carcass characteristics. This hypothesis was tested using production and phenotype data from an existing data set collected from heifers (n=467) on study at three farms. Carcasses in the data set graded Canada AAA (n=136), AA (n=296), A (n=14), and B4 (dark cutting, n=21). Farm was identified as significant (P=0.0268) by CATMOD analysis and slaughter weight and carcass weight accounted for the variation in dark cutting frequency across the farms. Analysis of variance indicated that dark cutting heifers had reduced weight at weaning (Pcutting was decreased in heifers slaughtered at live weight greater than 550kg and in carcasses weighing greater than 325kg.

  13. Influence of selected quality factors of beef on the profile and the quantity of heterocyclic aromatic amines during processing at high temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szterk, Arkadiusz; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bożena

    2014-03-01

    New factors were identified impacting significantly on the formation of HAA during grilling. The number and profile of HAA in grilled beef depend on the fattening system (intensive and semi-intensive), and the effect of the animal's sex. The fewest HAAs were formed in rib steak from heifers from a semi-intensive fattening system. A significant effect of storage of meat in refrigerated conditions (5 to 15 days) was also demonstrated on the formation of HAA during grilling. The longer the raw meat was stored, the more HAA was formed during grilling. The quantity of HAA was strongly correlated with the content of free amino acids and a very strong correlation was found with an increasing content of free purine and pyrimidine bases and their nucleosides. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Oral supplementation of standardized extract of Withania somnifera protects against diabetes-induced testicular oxidative impairments in prepubertal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyathanahalli, Chandrashekara Nagaraj; Manjunath, Mallayya Jayawanth; Muralidhara

    2014-09-01

    Male reproductive dysfunctions and infertility are the common consequences of overt diabetes. Available evidence support oxidative stress to be the underlying mechanism for the manifestation of testicular complications during diabetes. In the present study, we assessed the attenuating effects of Withania somnifera root extract (WS) on diabetes-induced testicular oxidative disturbances in prepubertal rats. Four-week-old prepubertal rats were assigned into nondiabetic control, streptozotocin (STZ)-treated and STZ+WS supplemented (500 mg/kg b.w./d, oral, 15 days) groups. Experimental diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (90 mg/kg b.w). Terminally, all animals were killed, and markers of oxidative stress were determined in the testis cytosol and mitochondrial fraction. Severe hyperglycemia and regression in testis size were apparent in diabetic rats. A decline in antioxidant defenses with subsequent elevation in the generation of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation was discernible in testis cytosol and mitochondria of diabetic prepubertal rats, which was significantly reversed by WS. However, there was partial restoration of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase, and 3-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activities in testis of diabetic prepubertal rats administered with WS. Taken together, data accrued suggest the potential of WS to improve diabetes-induced testicular dysfunctions in prepubertal rats.

  15. Dietary PUFA Intervention Affects Fatty Acid- and Micronutrient Profiles of Beef and Related Beef Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Dannenberger

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the dietary impact of 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 on fatty acid- and micronutrient concentration of beef muscle and the extent of diet- and processing-induced changes of lipid- and micronutrient concentrations of beef products made thereof (German Corned beef (GCB, tea sausage spread (TSS, scalded sausage (SS. Beef and beef products were obtained from German Holstein bulls which either received a control diet consisting of maize silage and concentrate with soybean meal (41%, or an experimental diet of grass silage and concentrate plus rapeseed cake (12% and linseed oil (3%. The study revealed that upon an 18:3n-3 vs. 18:2n-6 intervention the amounts of 18:3n-3, EPA and Σn-3 LC-PUFA were significantly increased by 2.6, 2.3 and 1.7 fold, respectively. Experimental diet significantly increased β-carotene contents, and the γ-tocopherol contents were decreased. During beef processing, n-3 PUFA from beef were found to be product-specifically transferred into the corresponding beef products. 18:3n-3 and Σn-3 LC-PUFA contents were found to be 1.4 and 1.5 times higher in GCB from grass silage- than maize silage-fed bulls. The trace element contents in GCB (iron, copper, zinc, selenium were not affected by the diet; however γ-tocopherol contents were decreased by experimental diet. In conclusion, dietary n-3 PUFA were completely transferred into beef products unaffected by beef processing conditions.

  16. The profitability and production of a beef herd on transitional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The profitability and production of a beef herd on transitional Cymbopogon- Themeda ... emphasizes the need to optimize, rather than maximize, the rate of reproduction. ... Keywords: Beef cattle, cow herd production, extensive farming, lick ...

  17. Livestock Update : Beef-Horse-Poultry-Sheep-Swine

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Scott Patrick; McCann, Mark A.; Neil, Scott J.; Harmon, Deidre D.; Whittier, W. Dee

    2013-01-01

    Includes articles on August herd management, phosphorus supplementation of beef cattle, 2013 across-breed EPD table, Applied Reproduction in Beef Cattle event, sheep breeding season tips, and a sheep update.

  18. Pregnancy rates of beef cattle are not affected by Campylobacter fetus subsp. venerealis real-time PCR-positive breeding sires in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, J M; Heuer, C; Jackson, R; Hughes, P; Anderson, P; Kelly, K; Walker, G

    2014-09-01

    Campylobacter fetus subspecies venerealis (C. fetus venerealis) is the causal agent of bovine genital campylobacteriosis, a venereal disease that is asymptomatic in bulls but responsible for reproductive wastage in female cattle. In New Zealand, a commercial real-time PCR assay was introduced in 2007 to identify the DNA of this pathogen in preputial scrapings; however, concerns were raised about the specificity of the test following anecdotal reports of a high number of test-positive bulls with no apparent relationship to reproductive performance. The objective of this study, therefore, was to examine the association between real-time PCR assay results from beef breeding bulls and pregnancy rates in beef herds using these bulls. Veterinarians from four veterinary practices selected beef cattle herds with relatively high and low pregnancy rates between December 2008 and February 2009. Preputial scrapings were collected from bulls used for mating in those herds. Samples were tested using the real-time PCR assay under consideration. Bivariable and multivariable analyses were used to assess the relationship between pregnancy rates in each mob (15-month-old heifers, 27-month-old heifers and mixed-age cows) and the percentage of real-time PCR-positive bulls in each mob. Sixty-four (28.8%) of 222 bulls tested positive, 130 (58.6%) tested negative, and 28 (12.6%) returned an inconclusive result to the real-time PCR assay. The percentage of bulls testing real-time PCR-positive in these mobs was not associated with pregnancy rates (p=0.757) after controlling for mob, average body condition score of cows, cow to bull ratio, length of the mating period, and farm. Real-time PCR assay results were not associated with pregnancy rates, suggesting that the specificity of the real-time PCR assay was too low to be used to reliably detect C. fetus venerealis. This study adds to a growing body of evidence indicating that C. fetus venerealis strains are either absent from, or present at

  19. Luteolytic effectiveness of Preloban® or Croniben® products in holstein heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo José Ferreira Melo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of intramuscular injection of two different commercial products of cloprostenol (Preloban® or Croniprest® on luteal regression of Holstein heifers. On a random day of the estrous cycle, 36 heifers were synchronized with an estradiol-progestin-PG-estradiol treatment. Twelve days after withdrawal of progestin, heifers were randomly divided into 3 groups of 12 animals. Groups 1 and 2 received the equivalent of 150 µg of d-cloprostenol of Croniben® or Preloban® products, while group 3 received 2 ml of saline. Estrus was detected with the aid of the dispositive Estrotec® on the following five days, and heifers that expressed estrus were inseminated. Blood samples were collected daily during the periods of 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours after the injection of d-cloprostenol for measurement of plasma progesterone by radioimmunoassay. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by ultrasonography 40 days after insemination. The interval between the manifestation of estrus and the Croniben® or Preloban® injection was 68.4 ± 4.4 and 63.3 ± 4.6 hours, respectively (P>0.05. The distribution of estrus occurred in the period of 36 to 108 hours. With the exception of two heifers with incomplete luteolysis, all animals treated with d-cloprostenol showed complete luteolysis. The conception rate was 50.0% and 54.5% for Preloban® and Croniben® treatments, respectively (P > 0.05. We conclude that Preloban® and Croniben® products have similar effectiveness to induce luteolysis and and to synchronize the estrus of Holstein heifers. Thus, producer may choose any one of them without risk of compromising reproductive performance.

  20. Sustainability performance of soybean and beef chains in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashaei Kamali, F.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Performance of Soybean and Beef Chains in Latin America The objective of this thesis, was to analyze the sustainability performance of soybean and beef production chains in Latin America (LA). First identifying a set of sustainability issues of soybean and beef

  1. BEEF TALLOW AND EMULSIFIER IN GROWING-FINISHING PIG DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KASSIA M. SANTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two trials were aimed to evaluate beef tallow in diets with and without emulsifier on performance of pigs at growing-finishing phases. In the first trial, 15 barrows (22.03±0.62 kg were distributed among three treatments: reference diet; test diet 1 (5% beef tallow and test diet 2 (10% beef tallow. Beef tallow presented average value of 7130.97 kcal ME/kg. For the performance trail, 30 barrows (24.85±1.18 kg were distributed among five treatments: T1 - diet with soybean oil and 3230 kcal ME /kg; T2 - diet with beef tallow and 3230 kcal ME/kg; T3 - diet with beef tallow and 3080 kcal ME/kg; T4 - diet with beef tallow, 3080 kcal/kg and 0.1% emulsifier; T5 - diet with beef tallow, 2930 kcal ME/kg and 0.1% emulsifier. Feed conversion was worse in animals fed diet with 3080 kcal ME/kg containing beef tallow and with 2930 kcal ME/kg with beef tallow and emulsifier. For economic availability, animals fed diet with beef tallow and 3230 kcal ME/kg and those fed diet with 3080 kcal ME/kg containing beef tallow and emulsifier, did not differ from animals fed diet with soybean oil, which enables the reduction up to 150 kcal ME/kg be compensated by emulsifier addition.

  2. Impact of product familiarity on beef quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banovic, Marija; Fontes, Magda Aguiar; Barreira, Maria Madalena;

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the use of intrinsic and extrinsic cues in beef quality perception at the point of purchase and upon consumption by consumers with varying levels of familiarity with a particular beef product. High-familiarity consumers tend to use the color of the meat to assess beef quality,...

  3. 7 CFR 1260.315 - Qualified State Beef Councils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State Beef Councils. 1260.315 Section 1260... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Rules and Regulations § 1260.315 Qualified State Beef Councils. The following...

  4. 7 CFR 1260.181 - Qualified State beef councils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Qualified State beef councils. 1260.181 Section 1260... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEEF PROMOTION AND RESEARCH Beef Promotion and Research Order Assessments § 1260.181 Qualified State...

  5. Sustainability performance of soybean and beef chains in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashaei Kamali, F.

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Performance of Soybean and Beef Chains in Latin America The objective of this thesis, was to analyze the sustainability performance of soybean and beef production chains in Latin America (LA). First identifying a set of sustainability issues of soybean and beef produc

  6. A Case of Distal Vaginal Agenesis Presenting with Recurrent Urinary Tract Infection and Pyuria in a Prepubertal Girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dural, Ozlem; Ugurlucan, Funda Gungor; Yasa, Cenk; Bastu, Ercan; Eren, Hulya; Yuksel, Bahar; Celik, Serdal; Akhan, Suleyman Engin

    2017-02-01

    Isolated distal vaginal agenesis is a rare anomaly and mostly becomes symptomatic after menarche. We describe an unusual presentation of this anomaly in a prepubertal girl. An 11-year-old prepubertal girl presented with recurrent urinary tract infection, pyuria, and right-sided renal agenesis. The findings of perineal inspection, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging were consistent with a distal vaginal agenesis with pyometrocolpos. Discharging pyometrocolpos with dissection of the atretic portion and a pull-through vaginoplasty were performed. A cystoscopy showed no sign of a vesicovaginal or uterine fistula. This rare presentation of distal vaginal agenesis reminds us that congenital malformations of the female genital tract should be considered in patients with congenital anomalies of the urinary system and/or recurrent urinary tract infection, even during the prepubertal period. Copyright © 2016 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association of thyroid gland volume, serum insulin-like growth factor-I, and anthropometric variables in euthyroid prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, M.; Hegedus, L.; Feldt-Rasmussen, U.;

    2009-01-01

    . DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 859 prepubertal euthyroid Danish children aged 4-9 yr underwent a thorough clinical investigation, including anthropometrical measurements and determination of TSH, thyroid hormones, autoantibodies, urinary iodine excretion, and thyroid volume (TV) by ultrasound...... significantly associated with TV. Family history of thyroid disease and presence of incidental abnormal ultrasound findings were also positively associated with TV (P = 0.025 and 0.022, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort of prepubertal Danish children, the GH/IGF-I-axis was positively correlated......CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Few studies have focused on the interrelation between thyroid size, anthropometric variables, and IGF-I in adults, but such data are lacking for children. We have investigated thyroid gland volume and several hormonal and anthropometric variables in prepubertal children...

  8. Digestibility of diets with glycerin for Nellore heifers in feedlot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Xavier Manço

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research for not pollutants and renewable sources of energy, made the biodiesel is reused. But, its production generates the “Glycerin” (10% of biodiesel volume. This production is increasing and accumulating year by year, like other industrious by-products. With no law about discarding, scientists started to feed animals in different species with it. Rich in glycerol, it gives energy for animals and doesn't have other nutrients. It improves the alimentary conversion and does not change ruminal ambient or carcass production. For ruminants is used glycerin originated just from vegetables. This experiment aimed to discover what glycerin’s level can be used on diet. Made at the Unesp University of Campus of Jaboticabal, were used 24 heifers of Nellore in feedlot, weight of ± 265 kg in individuals stalls for 112 days. Were used three crossbreed cattle (Angus x Nellore castrated and cannulated, with ± 400 kg of weight for incubation. The “blond glycerin” used has 83% of glycerol. The proportion of Forage: Concentrate was 30:70. Corn silage was the forage. The concentrate was composed of: soy hulls, sunflower meal, urea and corn or corn more glycerin. All treatments had same percentages of protein and energy and were identified as “without glycerin” (G0, “with 10% of glycerin” (G10 and “20% of glycerin inclusion” (G20 in the dry matter of diet. Samples of food, leavings and excrements were collected. The collections of excrements were made at the superior part of them, without contact with the floor, at the moment of defecation for three consecutive days. Leavings and food were collected just before feeding. Bromatologics analyses were made according AOAC (1995, VAN SOEST and WINE (1967, HENDRIX (1993 and the digestion was made in autoclave (0,5 Kgf/cm2, 111ºC for 50 minutes, proceeding adapted of PELL and SCHOFIELD (1992. ADFi was used as indicator. Incubation was made according to CASALI et al. (2008 for 240 hours and

  9. Invited review: Mastitis in dairy heifers: nature of the disease, potential impact, prevention, and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vliegher, S; Fox, L K; Piepers, S; McDougall, S; Barkema, H W

    2012-03-01

    Heifer mastitis is a disease that potentially threatens production and udder health in the first and subsequent lactations. In general, coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the predominant cause of intramammary infection and subclinical mastitis in heifers around parturition, whereas Staphylococcus aureus and environmental pathogens cause a minority of the cases. Clinical heifer mastitis is typically caused by the major pathogens. The variation in proportions of causative pathogens between studies, herds, and countries is considerable. The magnitude of the effect of heifer mastitis on an individual animal is influenced by the form of mastitis (clinical versus subclinical), the virulence of the causative pathogen(s) (major versus minor pathogens), the time of onset of infection relative to calving, cure or persistence of the infection when milk production has started, and the host's immunity. Intramammary infection in early lactation caused by CNS does not generally have a negative effect on subsequent productivity. At the herd level, the impact will depend on the prevalence and incidence of the disease, the nature of the problem (clinical, subclinical, nonfunctional quarters), the causative pathogens involved (major versus minor pathogens), the ability of the animals to cope with the disease, and the response of the dairy manager to control the disease through management changes. Specific recommendations to prevent and control mastitis in late gestation in periparturient heifers are not part of the current National Mastitis Council mastitis and prevention program. Control and prevention is currently based on avoidance of inter-sucking among young stock, fly control, optimal nutrition, and implementation of hygiene control and comfort measures, especially around calving. More risk factors for subclinical and clinical heifer mastitis have been identified (e.g., season, location of herd, stage of pregnancy) although they do not lend themselves to the development

  10. 转基因奶牛与普通奶牛超数排卵效果的比较分析%Comparative Analysis of Superovulation Responses in Transgenic Dairy Heifers and Ordinary Dairy Heifers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玉林; 薛建华; 吕小青; 李艳华; 孙凤俊; 杨超; 戴蕴平; 王彦平; 赵凤茹; 丁方荣

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we compared the superovulation responses between transgenic dairy heifers and ordinary dairy heifers. Of the transgenic dairy heifers, 16 out of 20 responded to superovulation treatment. On average, the total number of embryos/ova and transferable embryos, unfertilized ova, degenerated embryos produced in transgenic dairy heifers were 6.15±4.43(mean±SEM) and 3.94±2.62, 1.50±2.19, 0.69±0.78, respectively. Of the ordinary dairy heifers, 17 out of 20 responded to superovulation treatment. On average, the total number of embryos/ova and transferable embryos, unfertilized ova, degenerated embryos produced in transgenic dairy heifers were 8.65±5.70 and 4.18±3.11, 1.47±1.12, 3.00±4.24, respectively. There was no signiifcant difference between transgenic dairy heifers and ordinary dairy heifers in the total number of embryos/ova and transferable embryos, unfertilized ova(P>0.05).There was a decrease in the number of degenerated embryos in transgenic dairy heifers(P0.05),转基因奶牛的退化胚胎数显著低于普通奶牛(P<0.05)。本试验结果说明转入改变乳成分的外源基因不影响奶牛的超数排卵效果。

  11. BeefTracker: Spatial Tracking and Geodatabase for Beef Herd Sustainability and Lifecycle Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltjen, J. W.; Stackhouse, J.; Forero, L.; Stackhouse-Lawson, K.

    2015-12-01

    We have developed a web-based mapping platform named "BeefTracker" to provide beef cattle ranchers a tool to determine how cattle production fits within sustainable ecosystems and to provide regional data to update beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial identification and mapping of pastures, herd data (class and number of animals) are input on a mobile device in the field with a graphical pasture interface, stored in the cloud, and linked via the web to a personal computer for inventory tracking and analysis. Pasture use calculated on an animal basis provides quantifiable data regarding carrying capacity and subsequent beef production to provide more accurate data inputs for beef sustainability lifecycle analysis. After initial testing by university range scientists and ranchers we have enhanced the BeefTracker application to work when cell service is unavailable and to improve automation for increased ease of use. Thus far experiences with BeefTracker have been largely positive, due to livestock producers' perception of the need for this type of software application and its intuitive interface. We are now in the process of education to increase its use throughout the U.S.

  12. Methods for early prediction of lactation flow in Holstein heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Gantner

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to define methods for early prediction (based on I. milk control record of lactation flow in Holstein heifers as well as to choose optimal one in terms of prediction fit and application simplicity. Total of 304,569 daily yield records automatically recorded on a 1,136 first lactation Holstein cows, from March 2003 till August 2008., were included in analysis. According to the test date, calving date, the age at first calving, lactation stage when I. milk control occurred and to the average milk yield in first 25th, T1 (and 25th-45th, T2 lactation days, measuring monthcalving month-age-production-time-period subgroups were formed. The parameters of analysed nonlinear and linear methods were estimated for each defined subgroup. As models evaluation measures,adjusted coefficient of determination, and average and standard deviation of error were used. Considering obtained results, in terms of total variance explanation (R2 adj, the nonlinear Wood’s method showed superiority above the linear ones (Wilmink’s, Ali-Schaeffer’s and Guo-Swalve’s method in both time-period subgroups (T1 - 97.5 % of explained variability; T2 - 98.1 % of explained variability. Regarding the evaluation measures based on prediction error amount (eavg±eSD, the lowest average error of daily milk yield prediction (less than 0.005 kg/day, as well as of lactation milk yield prediction (less than 50 kg/lactation (T1 time-period subgroup and less than 30 kg/lactation (T2 time-period subgroup; were determined when Wood’s nonlinear prediction method were applied. Obtained results indicate that estimated Wood’s regression parameters could be used in routine work for early prediction of Holstein heifer’s lactation flow.

  13. Progressive perineal urethroplasty for pelvic fracture urethral distraction defect in prepubertal children: The outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipin Chandra Pal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urethroplasty in pediatric patients is a challenging task. In this study, we have tried to assess the complexity and evaluate the outcome of progressive perineal anastomotic urethroplasty in prepubertal children. Materials and Methods: Retrospective data of all the prepubertal children who underwent progressive perineal urethroplasty between March 2009 and April 2014 were analyzed. Patients were evaluated with history, examination, essential laboratory investigations, retrograde urethrogram, and voiding cystourethrogram. Before subjecting the patients for definitive surgery, antegrade and retrograde endoscopic assessment was done. The surgery was performed by the transperineal route with the help of ×2.5 magnification. Patients were followed up with uroflowmetry for every 3 months in the 1 st year and for every 6 months in the subsequent years. Results: Mean age of the patients was 7.3 (range 5-11 years. Mean urethral distraction defect was 1.7 (range 1-2.5 cm. All the patients were successfully managed by the perineal approach. Crural separation was performed in all the patients while additional inferior pubectomy was required in six patients. Mean operating time was 298 (range 180-400 min. Mean blood loss was 174 (range 100-500 ml. One patient had the left calf hematoma in the immediate postoperative period. Seven out of nine (77.7% patients had successful urethroplasty. Two patients had failed urethroplasty who were successfully managed by redo-urethroplasty. Transient incontinence was observed in one patient. Erectile function could not be assessed in these patients. Conclusion: This study shows the feasibility of progressive perineal urethroplasty by the perineal route in prepubertal children. An endoscopic assessment should be performed before the definitive surgery. Use of loupe helps in performing better anastomosis and hence yielding a better result.

  14. Bacterial vaginosis in the context of lichen sclerosus in a prepubertal girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feito-Rodríguez, Marta; Noguera-Morel, Lucero; Casas-Rivero, José; García-Rodríguez, Julio; de Lucas-Laguna, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus cause most vulvovaginal infections seen in prepubertal girls. Bacterial vaginosis is a common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge in women of childbearing age but is rare in children. Data are insufficient to suggest that bacterial vaginosis is an exclusively sexually transmitted disease. We report a 10-year-old girl with no history or suspicion of sexual abuse who developed bacterial vaginosis in the context of a lichen sclerosus being treated with tacrolimus ointment. Secondary bacterial infection in lichen sclerosus is uncommon. We speculate that the immunosuppressive effect of topical tacrolimus could have triggered the infection.

  15. Genital Involvement In Pre-Pubertal Pediatric Population: A Rare Aspect of Crohn’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qurratul Ann Warsi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Crohn’s disease is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, characterized by chronic intestinal inflammation that causes the loss of immune tolerance leading to bizarre inflammatory signals and disruption of mucosal barriers. Environmental triggers and interaction of genetic determinants also play an indispensible role. In this case report, we present a pre-pubertal girl with intermittent and refractory genital swelling. We emphasize that Crohn’s disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of recurrent, non-tender, erythematous and edematous lesions of the genital area. We conclude with future directions for diagnosing and managing vulvar Crohn’s disease in pediatric population.

  16. Serum inhibin A and inhibin B in healthy prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent girls and adult women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, A; Juul, A A; Andersson, A M

    2000-01-01

    of inhibin A, inhibin B, FSH, LH and estradiol in a cross-sectional study of 403 healthy schoolgirls (aged 6 -20 yr) in relation to age and stage of puberty and in 181 healthy nonpregnant women (aged 20-32 yr) in relation to stage of the menstrual cycle. In addition, inhibin A and inhibin B were measured...... daily throughout the menstrual cycle in 10 healthy adult women. Levels of inhibin B are low or undetectable in prepubertal girls (median, 26.5 pg/mL; 95% prediction interval,...

  17. [Disruption of latent inhibition in adult rats after prepubertal dopamine terminals lesions in the ventral hippocampus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loskutova, L V; Kostiunina, N V; Red'kina, A V

    2010-05-01

    Wistar rats were submitted to bilateral ventral hippocampal injection of 6-hydroxydopamine on 32nd day after birth. Latent inhibition was measured in passive or active avoidance tasks when the rats received 20 and 100 pre-exposures of conditioned stimulus. Prepubertal and adult lesioned rats showed a deficit in the latent inhibition but not in the capacity to avoidance learning in presence of the conditioned stimulus novelty. Possible mechanism of the involvement of hippocampal dopaminergic terminals in attention inhibition to irrelevant information is considered.

  18. Influence of prepartum pirlimycin hydrochloride or penicillin-novobiocin therapy on mastitis in heifers during early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, S P; Gillespie, B E; Ivey, S J; Lewis, M J; Johnson, D L; Lamar, K C; Moorehead, H; Dowlen, H H; Chester, S T; Hallberg, J W

    2004-06-01

    A study was conducted in 2 dairy research herds to determine whether prepartum therapy of heifer mammary glands with penicillin-novobiocin or pirlimycin hydrochloride was effective for reducing the percentage of heifers and mammary quarters infected with mastitis pathogens during early lactation. Almost 96% of Jersey heifers (67 of 70) and 71.3% of quarters (199 of 279) were infected 14 d before expected calving. Of the quarters infected at 14 d before expected parturition, 75% (54 of 72) were uninfected following treatment with penicillin-novobiocin; 87% (61 of 70) were uninfected following treatment with pirlimycin, and 56% (32 of 57) were uninfected in the untreated negative control group. The majority of intramammary infections in Jersey heifers were due to coagulase-negative staphylococci (61%), Streptococcus species, primarily Streptococcus uberis (19%), and Staphylococcus aureus (8%). Almost 73% of Holstein heifers (40 of 55) and 34.3% of mammary quarters (73 of 213) were infected 14 d before expected calving. Of the quarters infected at 14 d before expected parturition, 76% (19 of 25) were uninfected following treatment with penicillin-novobiocin; 59% (17 of 29) were uninfected following treatment with pirlimycin, and 26% (5 of 19) were uninfected in the untreated negative control group. The majority of intramammary infections in Holstein heifers were due to coagulase-negative staphylococci (44%) and Staph. aureus (30%). In both herds, the bacteriological cure rate was significantly higher in heifer mammary glands treated with penicillin-novobiocin or pirlimycin hydrochloride than in untreated controls. Prepartum therapy of heifer mammary glands with penicillin-novobiocin or pirlimycin hydrochloride significantly reduced the percentage of heifers and quarters infected with mastitis pathogens during early lactation.

  19. Crisp Fried Beef Rolls(Xiangsu Niuroujuan)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    300 grams ground beef 350 grams bread crumbs 2 eggs1 gram MSG2 grams salt10 grams (1 tbsp) cooking wine5 grams chopped spring onion5 grams chopped ginger10 grams (1 tbsp) cornslarch300 grams (3/5 cup) cooking oilMix ground beef with salt, MSG, cooking wine. chopped spring onion and ginger, and 5 grams of cornslarch. Beat eggs in a bowl.Make ground beef into three rolls, about 5 cm in diameter and 15 cm long. Place on a plate and steam until cooked. Coat the rolls in beaten egg and then in breadcrumbs.Heat oil in a wok. fry the rolls until brown. Cut the meat rolls into 3-cm sections, arrange on a plate, and serve.

  20. Risk Factors Influencing Conception Rate in Holstein Heifers before Artificial Insemination or Embryo Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yusuf

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to show the risk factors affecting the conception rate in Holstein heifers after synchronization of estrus. A total of 275 Holstein heifers housed in a free barn were used for the experiment. The herd was visited regularly at four week intervals for synchronization of estrus using Heatsynch and CIDR-Heatsynch protocols. A group of four to 14 animals, depending on the availability, were referred to the experiment at each visit. Estrus induction rates in the two protocols were 93.9% and 94.9%, respectively. There was no difference in the conception rate between the two protocols. Conception rate after artificial insemination (AI or embryo transfer (ET were 46.3% and 51.4%, respectively. The risk factors affecting conception rate in heifers were daily weight gain (odds ratio [OR]= 4.673; P= 0.036 and body condition score (BCS (OR= 3.642; P= 0.018. Furthermore, estrus synchronization protocol (OR= 1.774; P= 0.083 and the absence of corpus luteum (CL at the initiation of treatment (OR= 0.512; P= 0.061 had a tendency to affect the conception rate, while age (OR= 0.715; P= 0.008 was a protective factor to conception rate.  In conclusion, positive daily weight gain before AI or ET, higher BCS, younger age, and the presence of CL at the initiation of estrus synchronization in dairy heifers increased the likelihood to conceive.

  1. Qualitative characteristics of meat from confined crossbred heifers fed with lipid sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Fiorentini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lipids have been used in ruminant feed to replace high amounts of grain for increasing the diet energy density, performance and meat quality. This study evaluated the qualitative characteristics of meat from feedlot heifers fed with sources of lipid supplements. Twenty-one crossbred heifers (1/4Nelore × 1/4Santa Gertrudis × 1/2Braunvieh were used. Each heifer received 60 % forage with a base of corn silage and 40 % concentrate, resulting in 5.8 % lipid content in the total diet. The following sources of lipids were used: soybeans, protected fat and soybean oil. There were no differences on physical characteristics of meat samples from heifers fed with the lipid sources. Soybeans increased the concentration of linoleic acid, content of polyunsaturated fatty acid and activity of the Δ9-desaturase C16 enzyme in the Longissimus muscle. The use of soybean oil in the diet increased the oleic acid, monounsaturated fatty acid, total cis- and trans-fatty acids (C18:0 and the activity of the Δ9-desaturase C16 enzyme in the subcutaneous fat. Diets with soybean grain had greater deposition of linoleic and linolenic acids than diets with fat protected and greater presence of these essential fatty acids are associated to a better composition and meat quality.

  2. Infestation by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in heifers from different genetics groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Marini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of the infestation of ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus in 59 heifers of three genetic groups was run: Nellore, Guzerá and ½ Angus x ½ Nellore, belonging to the roster APTA Regional Andradina / SP. Every 28 days held the count of ticks, where the left side of the animal, with evaluation of only engorged females with more than 4.5 mm in the period from June 2007 to May 2008. The genetic group (P 0.05. The count of ticks was higher in the rainy season (4.32 ± 5.20 in comparison with the dry season (3.74 ± 5.54. Despite the higher counts of ticks during the experimental period, in heifers ½ Angus x ½ Nellore, this genetic group obtained the highest average daily weight gain (0.57 kg/day. Heifers and bulls Nellore and Guzerá were not statistically different in relation to daily weight gain, with averages of 0.37 and 0.40kg/day, respectively. ½ Angus heifers genetic group cattle have a higher infestation by ticks.

  3. Effect of increased systemic concentrations of urea nitrogen in crossbred heifers on in vitro fertilization (IVF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated levels of dietary N and hence systemic concentrations of urea-N have been shown to have a deleterious effect on reproductive processes. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding pubertal crossbred heifers diets with moderate (M-N; 64.8% corn silage, 30.0% alfalfa h...

  4. The Reference Intervals of Hair Trace Element Content in Hereford Cows and Heifers (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnikov, Sergey A; Zavyalov, Oleg A; Frolov, Alexey N; Bolodurina, Irina P; Kalashnikov, Valery V; Grabeklis, Andrei R; Tinkov, Alexey A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2017-03-17

    The objective of the present study was to assess hair trace element content in Hereford heifers and cows (Bos taurus) living in South Ural region and calculate the site-specific reference intervals. Hair trace element content in 150 cows and heifers farmed in the Southern Urals of Russia was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. Dietary trace element content corresponded to the adequate values as estimated by recommendations of USSR State Agriculture Committee and U.S. National Research Council. Comparative analysis demonstrated that heifers are characterized by significantly higher hair Se (3-fold), Hg (4-fold), and Sn (46%) content, whereas cows had significantly higher levels of hair Co (56%), I (33%), Si (2-fold), V (27%), B (55%), Cd (19%), Pb (47%), and Sr (23%). At the same time, no significant group difference in hair Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Zn, As, and Ni was detected between Hereford cows and heifers. The reference intervals and 90% confidence intervals for the lower and upper limits were calculated in agreement with the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standard Guidelines.

  5. Effects of straw processing and pen stocking density on holstein dairy heifers: ii) behavior and hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of pen-stocking density and straw processing on the daily behavior traits and hygiene of Holstein dairy heifers housed in a freestall system are not understood. Our objective was to evaluate these factors in a trial with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of straw-processing (GOOD or POOR) an...

  6. Zilpaterol hydrochloride affects cellular muscle metabolism and lipid components of ten different muscles in feedlot heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study determined if zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) altered muscle metabolism and lipid components of ten muscles. Crossbred heifers were either supplemented with ZH (n = 9) or not (Control; n = 10). Muscle tissue was collected (adductor femoris, biceps femoris, gluteus medius, infraspinatus, lat...

  7. Effects of flooring and restricted freestall access on behavior and claw health of dairy heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouweltjes, W.; Werf, van der J.T.N.; Frankena, K.; Leeuwen, van J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Claw health, locomotion, feed intake, milk yield, body weight, activity, and lying and standing behavior of dairy heifers were monitored in a single dairy herd during the first 3 mo after calving. During the first 8 wk after calving, 2 treatments were applied: restricted freestall access by closing

  8. Effect of Aegle marmelos and Murraya koenigii in treatment of delayed pubertal buffaloes heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan M. Baitule

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aims to study the estrus induction, ovulation, and conception rate of delayed puberty in buffaloes heifers by feeding a herbal plants Aegle marmelos (bael/bili/bhel leaf and Murraya koenigii (Curry leaf. Materials and Methods: Totally, 24 buffalo heifers with delayed puberty were selected for the present study and divided randomly in four equal groups (n=6. Before experiment, all animals were dewormed with albendazole at 10 mg/kg body weight to prevent them from the stress of parasitism. In the present experiment, four group taken and Group I (n=6 treated with A. marmelos, Group II (n=6 treated with M. koenigii, Group III (n=6 treated with mixture of A. marmelos and M. koenigii and fed for 9 days. Group IV (n=6 considered as control and fed with concentrate only. The blood samples were collected from all the animals on day 0 (before treatment, 4, 9 (during treatment, on the day of estrus and day 8 after the onset of estrus. The 10 ml blood was collected from the jugular vein of all the experimental animals for estimation of serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and progesterone (P4. The estrus response, ovulation, conception rate along with serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and progesterone level were determined by the standard protocol. Results: From Group III 4 heifers, from Group II 3 heifers, and from Group I and IV (Control 2 heifers each, exhibited the estrus. The estrus response was recorded as 33.33%, 50.00%, 75.00%, and 33.33% in Group I, Group II, Group III, and Group IV, respectively. In treatment Group III, serum calcium found significantly more (p<0.05 on day 8 post-estrus as compared to other groups at a similar interval. Inorganic phosphorus and progesterone show no significant difference between groups. The ovulation and conception rates are comparatively better in Group III (75% buffalo heifers than other groups. Conclusion: Herbal supplementation of A. marmelos and M. koenigii in combination, as well as M

  9. Cell mediated immune responses in the placenta following challenge of vaccinated pregnant heifers with Neospora caninum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Y P; Cantón, G; Regidor-Cerrillo, J; Chianini, F; Morrell, E; Lischinsky, L; Ortega-Mora, L M; Innes, E A; Odeón, A; Campero, C M; Moore, D P

    2015-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to investigate and correlate the cell-mediated immune response and pathological changes at the maternal-fetal interface of Neospora-challenged pregnant cattle previously immunized with live and inactivated experimental vaccines. Pregnant heifers naïve to Neospora caninum were divided in 5 groups of 4 animals, each one immunized before mating: Group A heifers were intravenously (iv) immunized with 6.25 × 10(7) live tachyzoites of the NC-6 strain; group B heifers were immunized twice subcutaneously (sc) 3 weeks apart with native antigen extract of the NC-6 strain formulated with ISCOMs; group C heifers were sc immunized twice 3 weeks apart with three recombinant proteins (rNcSAG1, rNcHSP20, rNcGRA7) of the NC-1 strain formulated with ISCOMs; group D heifers were sc injected with sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and group E heifers received sc ISCOM-matrix (ISCOMs without antigen). All groups were iv-challenged with 4.7 × 10(7) NC-1 tachyzoites at 70 days of gestation. Heifers were culled at day 104 of gestation and placentomes were examined to evaluate lesions and local cellular immune responses using histopathology, immunohistochemistry and real time-PCR. Immunohistochemistry was performed using bovine leucocyte specific antibodies. Cytokine expression and levels (IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-α) were measured using real-time reverse transcription-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Minimal inflammation was observed in group A placentomes; while placentomes from group B, C, D and E had moderate to severe infiltration with CD3(+), CD4(+), γδ-T cells, CD8(+) cells and macrophages being more numerous in groups B and E placentomes, when compared with groups C and D (P<0.001). Cytokine levels were significantly increased in the caruncles of animals of groups B and C in comparison with the other animal groups (P < 0.001). The results from this study showed that the strongest cellular immune responses were observed in the

  10. Artificial insemination field data on the use of sexed and conventional semen in nulliparous Holstein heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, A A; House, J K; Thomson, P C

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated conception rates and other reproductive outcomes achieved with artificial insemination (AI) of nulliparous Holstein heifers using sexed and conventional semen in a commercial Australian dairy herd in central western New South Wales from January 2004 to April 2009. Retrospective data from on-farm records of 9,870 inseminations of 4,456 heifers were analyzed using several mixed models to assess the effect of temperature and humidity surrounding breeding, insemination sire, artificial insemination technician, service number, and heifer weight and age at breeding on reproductive traits (conception rates, sex ratios, gestation length, and abortion and stillbirth rates). Semen was used from 15 sexed sires and 41 unsexed sires. Sexed semen was primarily used at first and second service. Empirical conception rates of 31.6 and 39.6% were achieved for sexed and unsexed semen respectively, whereas model-based predictions were lower, at 21.3 and 32.1%. Conception rates were significantly affected by insemination sire, sex-sorting, heifer age at breeding, temperature and humidity surrounding breeding, service number, and AI technician. Sexed semen yielded 86% heifers, compared with 48% for conventional semen. Significant predictors of calf sex included semen sexing, gestation length, and insemination sire. Twinning rate was high, at 3.6% for both semen types, and gestation length and heifer weight at breeding were significant predictors of twinning. Abortion rates for sexed and unsexed conceptions were similar at 6.1 and 6.5%, respectively, and were affected by heifer age at breeding. Stillbirth rate was affected by calf sex, twinning, gestation length, and AI technician; semen sorting, age at breeding, and temperature and humidity were marginally significant predictors. No abnormalities were observed in the development of offspring, except for a marginally higher stillbirth rate for sexed calves, a finding that needs further investigation. Many

  11. Expected net present value of pure and mixed sexed semen artificial insemination strategies in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olynk, N J; Wolf, C A

    2007-05-01

    Sexed semen has been a long-anticipated tool for dairy farmers to obtain more heifer calves, but challenges exist for integrating sexed semen into commercial dairy farm reproduction programs. The decreased conception rates (CR) experienced with sexed semen make virgin heifers better suited for insemination with sexed semen than lactating dairy cows. This research sought to identify when various sexed semen breeding strategies provided higher expected net present value (NPV) than conventional artificial insemination (AI) breeding schemes, indicating which breeding scheme is advisable under various scenarios. Budgets were developed to calculate the expected NPV of various AI breeding strategies incorporating conventional (non-sexed) and sexed semen. In the base budgets, heifer and bull calf values were held constant at $500 and $110, respectively. The percentage of heifers expected to be born after breeding with conventional and sexed semen used was 49.2 and 90%, respectively. Breeding costs per AI were held constant at $15.00 per AI for conventional semen and $45.00 per AI for sexed semen of approximately the same genetic value. Conventional semen CR of 58 and 65% were used, and an AI submission rate was set at 100%. Breeding strategies with sexed semen were assessed for breakeven heifer calf values and sexed semen costs to obtain a NPV equal to that achieved with conventional semen. Breakeven heifer calf values for pure sexed semen strategies with a constant 58 and 65% base CR in which sexed semen achieved 53% of the base CR are $732.11 and $664.26, respectively. Breakeven sexed semen costs per AI of $17.16 and $22.39, compared with $45.00 per AI, were obtained to obtain a NPV equal to that obtained with pure conventional semen for base CR of 58 and 65%, respectively. The strategy employing purely sexed semen, with base CR of both 58 and 65%, yielded a lower NPV than purely conventional semen in all but the best-case scenario in which sexed semen provides 90% of

  12. Quantitative distribution of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli on beef carcasses and raw beef at retail establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Chávez, L; Cabrera-Diaz, E; Pérez-Montaño, J A; Garay-Martínez, L E; Varela-Hernández, J J; Castillo, A; Lucia, L; Ávila-Novoa, M G; Cardona-López, M A; Gutiérrez-González, P; Martínez-Gonzáles, N E

    2015-10-01

    Salmonella is a foodborne pathogen that commonly inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of a healthy feedlot cattle and can be transferred to the carcass surface during hide removal and evisceration procedures. Numerous investigations on Salmonella prevalence throughout different stages of the beef chain have been conducted. In contrast, limited studies are available on quantitative determinations of Salmonella at different steps in raw meat production. Quantitative data, particularly for pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella are important for quantitative risk assessment. Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli populations were enumerated on beef carcass samples collected at abattoirs and also in beef chunks and ground beef samples collected from butcher's shops at retail in Jalisco State, Mexico. Sponge samples from beef carcass sides (n=142) were collected immediately after final water wash and before chilling at three non-federally inspected abattoirs following USDA-FSIS sampling protocols. Beef chunks (n=84) and ground beef (n=65) samples were obtained from 86 butcher's shops. Salmonella enumeration was conducted by the Most Probable Number method and E. coli counts were determined using Petrifilm plates. Salmonella was isolated from 18% of beef carcasses, 39% of beef chunks and 71% of ground beef samples. Salmonella mean counts were 1.3±0.9 Log MPN/300 cm(2) on beef carcasses, 1.9±0.9 and 2.3±1.1 Log MPN/25 g in beef chunks and ground beef samples, respectively. Twenty-six Salmonella serotypes and 11 serogroups were identified among 432 isolates recovered. Salmonella typhimurium (14%), Salmonella sinstorf (12%) and S. Group E1 monophasic (10%) were the most frequent. Escherichia coli was present on 97, 84 and 100% of beef carcasses, beef chunks and ground beef samples, respectively. Escherichia coli mean counts were 3.2±0.7 Log CFU/300 cm(2), 3.9±1.1 and 4.5±1.2 Log CFU/25 g on beef carcasses, beef chunks and ground beef, respectively. Salmonella prevalence

  13. Net greenhouse gas emissions from manure management using anaerobic digestion technology in a beef cattle feedlot in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Junior, Ciniro, E-mail: cinirojr@hotmail.com [University of São Paulo, Center of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, Laboratory of Biogeochemistry, Avenida Centenário, 303, Piracicaba, SP 13416-000 (Brazil); Cerri, Carlos E.P., E-mail: cepcerri@usp.br [University of São Paulo, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture, Department of Soil Science, Avenida Pádua Dias, 11, Piracicaba, SP 13418-900 (Brazil); Pires, Alexandre V., E-mail: pires.1@usp.br [University of São Paulo, “Luiz de Queiroz” College of Agriculture, Department of Animal Science, Avenida Pádua Dias, 11, Piracicaba, SP 13418-900 (Brazil); Cerri, Carlos C., E-mail: cerri@cena.usp.br [University of São Paulo, Center of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, Laboratory of Biogeochemistry, Avenida Centenário, 303, Piracicaba, SP 13416-000 (Brazil)

    2015-02-01

    As part of an agreement during the COP15, the Brazilian government is fostering several activities intended to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. One of them is the adoption of anaerobic digester (AD) for treating animal manure. Due to a lack of information, we developed a case study in order to evaluate the effect of such initiative for beef cattle feedlots. We considered the net GHG emissions (CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O) from the manure generated from 140 beef heifers confined for 90 days in the scope “housing to field application” by including field measurements, literature values, and the offset generated by the AD system through the replacement of conventional sources of nitrogen (N) fertilizer and electricity, respectively. Results showed that direct GHG emissions accounted for 0.14 ± 0.06 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO{sub 2}eq) per kg of animal live weight gain (lwg), with ∼ 80% originating from field application, suggesting that this emission does not differ from the conventional manure management (without AD) typically done in Brazil (0.19 ± 0.07 kg of CO{sub 2}eq per kg lwg{sup −1}). However, 2.4 MWh and 658.0 kg of N-manure were estimated to be generated as a consequence of the AD utilization, potentially offsetting 0.13 ± 0.01 kg of CO{sub 2}eq kg lwg{sup −1} or 95% (± 45%) of total direct emissions from the manure management. Although, by replacing fossil fuel sources, i.e. diesel oil, this offset could be increased to 169% (± 47%). In summary, the AD has the potential to significantly mitigate GHG emissions from manure management in beef cattle feedlots, but the effect is indirect and highly dependent on the source to be replaced. In spite of the promising results, more and continuous field measurements for decreasing uncertainties and improving assumptions are required. Identifying shortcomings would be useful not only for the effectiveness of the Brazilian government, but also for worldwide plans in mitigating GHG emissions

  14. EFFECT OF GnRH AND PHOSPHORUS IN DELAYED PUBERTAL SURTI BUFFALO HEIFERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.B. Dhamsaniya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted on eighteen delayed pubertal Surti buffalo heifers, divided into three equal groups (6 in each to evaluate the efficacy of GnRH alone and in combination of phosphorus. The buffalo heifers in Group-I and Group-II were treated with Buserelin acetate (5 ml, IM. Buffalo heifers in Group-II also received additional injection of Toldimphos sodium (10 ml, IM at 3 day interval for 4 times, while buffalo heifers in Group-III served as control. The percentage of induced estrus was highest (83.33% in each treated groups as compared to control group (50%. The mean estrus induction intervals were significantly (P<0.05 shorter in Group-I (20.20 ± 2.18 days and Group-II (18.80 ± 2.32 days as compared to control group (30.24 ± 0.81 days. The conception rate at induced estrus was highest in Group-II (50% followed by Group-I (33.33%. The plasma progesterone levels being significantly lowest on the day of estrus (less than 0.5 ng/ml as compared to pre-treatment days in all groups. The mean total protein and triglycerides levels were differed significantly between the groups on the day of estrus and being significantly higher in Group-II as compared to Group-I and III on that day. A significantly higher level of cholesterol in both treatment groups as compared to the control group during different intervals and also being higher on the day of estrus as compared to pre-treatment days. The mean plasma glucose levels were differed nonsignificantly between and within the treatment and control groups. It is concluded that estrus can be successfully induced in delayed pubertal heifers with the use of GnRH alone and in combination with phosphorus.

  15. Metabolic and reproductive parameters in prepubertal gilts after omega-3 supplementation in the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, F; Cheuiche, Z M G; Rizzoto, G; Santos, M Q; Schuch, M S; Flach, M J; Gasperin, B G; Bianchi, I; Lucia, T

    2016-07-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids may benefit reproductive performance of female swine. This study evaluated metabolic and reproductive parameters of prepubertal finishing gilts fed with fish oil as a natural source of omega-3 fatty acids (6.88g/d) (n=12) over a period of 45 d. Gilts in the control group were fed soybean oil (n=13). Body weight and backfat were determined at 15-d intervals. Serum levels of leptin, IGF-1, insulin, cholesterol and triglycerides were measured at the beginning (D0) and at the end of the period (D45). Immunolabeling intensity for leptin and its receptor (ObRb) was assessed in oocytes of preantral follicles. Gilts fed omega-3 presented slightly heavier uteri (P=0.09) than control gilts, but there was no effect on body weight and backfat (P>0.05). Cholesterol serum levels tended to be lower at D45 for omega-3 supplemented gilts than for controls (P=0.06). Triglycerides and IGF-1 serum levels were lower at D45 than at D0 for control gilts (P0.05), but were greater at D45 than at D0 in both treatments (POmega-3 supplementation was associated with reduced serum cholesterol level and more intense staining for leptin in oocytes of prepubertal gilts, which suggests some involvement on triggering puberty.

  16. Profile of oxidant and antioxidant activity in prepubertal children related to age, gender, exercise, and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente-Cantarero, Francisco Jesus; Gil-Campos, Mercedes; Benitez-Sillero, Juan de Dios; Muñoz-Villanueva, Maria Carmen; Tasset, Inmaculada; Pérez-Navero, Juan Luis

    2013-04-01

    Tissue damage resulting from oxidative stress induced by a pathological condition might have more serious consequences in children than in adults. Researchers have not yet identified particular markers - alone or in combination with others - of oxidative stress, or their role in pediatric diseases. The aim of this study was to identify gender-based biomarkers for measuring oxidative stress. Oxidative biomarkers were studied in 138 healthy Spanish children (85 boys, 53 girls) 7 to 12 years of age, at the prepubertal (Tanner I) stage, independent of body mass index (BMI), age, fitness (measured by 20-m shuttle run test), and physical activity (measured by participation in an after-school exercise program). The oxidative biomarkers measured were lipid peroxidation products, total nitrites, protein carbonyls, and oxidized glutathione (GSSG). The antioxidant biomarkers measured were total glutathione (TG), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase activity. In the study population, height, weight, waist circumference, and BMI were lower in girls than in boys. For oxidative biomarkers, boys had higher levels of protein carbonyl than girls (p fitness, and physical activity. In conclusion, prepubertal girls had higher oxidative stress than boys, in addition to higher levels of SOD, independent of age, BMI, fitness, and physical activity.

  17. Ganglionic adrenergic action modulates ovarian steroids and nitric oxide in prepubertal rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Silvia Marcela; Casais, Marilina; Sosa, Zulema; Rastrilla, Ana María

    2006-08-01

    Both peripheral innervation and nitric oxide (NO) participate in ovarian steroidogenesis. The purpose of this work was to analyse the ganglionic adrenergic influence on the ovarian release of steroids and NO and the possible steroids/NO relationship. The experiments were carried out in the ex vivo coeliac ganglion-superior ovarian nerve (SON)-ovary system of prepubertal rats. The coeliac ganglion-SON-ovary system was incubated in Krebs Ringer-bicarbonate buffer in presence of adrenergic agents in the ganglionic compartment. The accumulation of progesterone, androstenedione, oestradiol and NO in the ovarian incubation liquid was measured. Norepinephrine in coeliac ganglion inhibited the liberation of progesterone and increased androstenedione, oestradiol and NO in ovary. The addition of alpha and beta adrenergic antagonists also showed different responses in the liberation of the substances mentioned before, which, from a physiological point of view, reveals the presence of adrenergic receptors in coeliac ganglion. In relation to propranolol, it does not revert the effect of noradrenaline on the liberation of progesterone, which leads us to think that it might also have a "per se" effect on the ganglion, responsible for the ovarian response observed for progesterone. Finally, we can conclude that the ganglionic adrenergic action via SON participates on the regulation of the prepubertal ovary in one of two ways: either increasing the NO, a gaseous neurotransmitter with cytostatic characteristics, to favour the immature follicles to remain dormant or increasing the liberation of androstenedione and oestradiol, the steroids necessary for the beginning of the near first estral cycle.

  18. Genome-Wide Expression in Visceral Adipose Tissue from Obese Prepubertal Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción M. Aguilera

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Characterization of the genes expressed in adipose tissue (AT is key to understanding the pathogenesis of obesity and to developing treatments for this condition. Our objective was to compare the gene expression in visceral AT (VAT between obese and normal-weight prepubertal children. A total of fifteen obese and sixteen normal-weight children undergoing abdominal elective surgery were selected. RNA was extracted from VAT biopsies. Microarray experiments were independently performed for each sample (six obese and five normal-weight samples. Validation by quantitative PCR (qPCR was performed on an additional 10 obese and 10 normal-weight VAT samples. Of 1276 differentially expressed genes (p < 0.05, 245 were more than two-fold higher in obese children than in normal-weight children. As validated by qPCR, expression was upregulated in genes involved in lipid and amino acid metabolism (CES1, NPRR3 and BHMT2, oxidative stress and extracellular matrix regulation (TNMD and NQO1, adipogenesis (CRYAB and AFF1 and inflammation (ANXA1; by contrast, only CALCRL gene expression was confirmed to be downregulated. In conclusion, this study in prepubertal children demonstrates the up- and down-regulation of genes that encode molecules that were previously proposed to influence the pathogenesis of adulthood obesity, as well as previously unreported dysregulated genes that may be candidate genes in the aetiology of obesity.

  19. Transportation decreases the pulse frequency of growth hormone in the blood of prepubertal male calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadokawa, Hiroya; Noguchi, Koutarou; Hajiri, Yuuki; Takeshita, Kazuhisa; Fujii, Youichi

    2013-01-01

    Both the mean concentration and the pulse pattern of growth hormone (GH) in the blood are important for the metabolism and body growth of calves. Transportation is reported to decrease blood GH concentrations in prepubertal male calves. However, the effect of transportation on GH pulsatility remains unknown. Because transportation is important in moving these calves from calf-production farms to markets or fattening farms, we tested whether transportation decreases their GH pulse frequency. Five calves were subjected to transportation by trucking (transport group), while five were left in their shed (non-transport group). Both groups were subsequently subjected to frequent blood sampling at 15-min intervals for 5 h. In the transport group, the cortisol concentrations increased in the first hour (P transport group. During the 5-hour study period, the transport group displayed a similar mean GH concentration relative to the non-transport group, but displayed a delayed first GH pulse, and a lower number of GH pulses than the non-transport group (P transportation is suggested to decrease GH pulse frequency under abnormal cortisol states, presumably suppressing metabolism and body growth in prepubertal male calves.

  20. Changes in body composition and growth pattern after adenotonsillectomy in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koycu, Alper; Aydin, Erdinc; Tulgar Kinik, Sibel

    2016-02-01

    Adenotonsillar hypertrophy and chronic tonsillitis are associated with growth interruption during childhood, while adenotonsillectomy has been associated with growth improvement and increased body mass index (BMI). However, no reported study has investigated the effect of adenotonsillectomy on the proportion of body muscle and fat mass. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effect of adenoidectomy and adenotonsillectomy on body muscle and fat composition in prepubertal children. Thirty prepubertal children (22 boys, 8 girls; 3-9 years of age) were followed up for 6 months after adenoidectomy or adenotonsillectomy. Twenty-eight age-matched healthy children (12 boys, 16 girls) were followed for the same period, as controls. Data on dietary habits and physical activity were obtained from parent-completed questionnaires at baseline and 6 months. Height and weight z-scores, the amount and percentage of body fat and muscle mass, BMI z-scores, relative BMI and basal metabolic rate were evaluated before and 6 months after surgery with bioelectrical impedance analysis. After 6 months, body muscle mass and basal metabolic rate scores were significantly higher than at baseline in both groups (P0.05). The number of overweight and obese children did not change significantly in either group (Pchildren. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Vegetable and Fruit Intakes Are Associated with hs-CRP Levels in Pre-Pubertal Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Pilar; de Dios, Olaya; Jois, Asha; Gavela-Pérez, Teresa; Gorgojo, Lydia; Martín-Moreno, José M; Soriano-Guillen, Leandro; Garcés, Carmen

    2017-03-02

    The influence of diet on inflammation in children remains unclear. We aimed to analyze the influence of diet on high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in a pre-pubertal population free of other influences that may affect hs-CRP levels. We determined hs-CRP levels in 571 six- to eight-year-old children using an hs-CRP ELISA kit. Information on food and nutrient intake was obtained through a food-frequency questionnaire. Overall dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI). We found that girls in the highest tertile of hs-CRP levels had a higher intake of saturated fatty acid, and lower intakes of fiber and vitamin E and a lower HEI score when compared to those in tertiles 1 and 2. We also observed a significant decrease in fruit and vegetable intakes by hs-CRP tertile. Factor analysis showed that a dietary pattern that was loaded most strongly with vegetable, fruit, fiber and vitamin A and E intakes correlated negatively (-0.132, p hs-CRP. No such association was found in boys. In conclusion, our data show that girls with a poorer quality diet show higher hs-CRP levels already at a pre-pubertal age.

  2. Tonic control of kisspeptin release in prepubertal monkeys: implications to the mechanism of puberty onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurian, Joseph R; Keen, Kim L; Guerriero, Kathryn A; Terasawa, Ei

    2012-07-01

    Previously we have shown that a reduction in γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) inhibition is critical for the mechanism initiating puberty onset because chronic infusion of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist, bicuculline, significantly increased GnRH release and accelerated the timing of menarche and first ovulation in female rhesus monkeys. Because previous studies in our laboratory indicate that in prepubertal female monkeys, kisspeptin release in the medial basal hypothalamus is low, whereas kisspeptin-10 can stimulate GnRH release, we hypothesized that a low level of kisspeptin release prior to puberty onset is due to tonic GABA inhibition. To test this hypothesis we examined the effects of bicuculline infusion on kisspeptin release using a microdialysis method. We found that bicuculline at 1 μM dramatically stimulates kisspeptin release in the medial basal hypothalamus of prepubertal monkeys but had little effect on kisspeptin release in midpubertal monkeys. We further examined whether bicuculline-induced GnRH release is blocked by the presence of the kisspeptin antagonist, peptide 234. We found that inhibition of kisspeptin signaling blocked the bicuculline-induced stimulation of GnRH release, suggesting that kisspeptin neurons may relay inhibitory GABA signals to GnRH neurons. This implies that a reduction in tonic GABA inhibition of GnRH release is, at least in part, mediated through kisspeptin neurons.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of flunixin in mature heifers following multiple intravenous administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroszewski, J; Jedziniak, P; Markiewicz, W; Grabowski, T; Chrostowska, M; Szprengier-Juszkiewicz, T

    2008-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of flunixin meglumine was determined after its multiple (altogether 4 doses at 24-hours intervals) intravenous administration at a dose of 2.2 mg/kg body weight in six mature clinically healthy heifers. Plasma flunixin and its metabolite 5-hydroxyflunixin concentrations were analyzed with high-pressure liquid chromatography using an assay with a lower limit detection of 0.03 microg/ml for both substances. Plasma concentrations versus time curves were described by a two compartment open model. Mean plasma flunixin concentrations were similar on day 1 and 4, and than rapidly decreased (within 2 hours) from initial concentrations higher than 10 microg/ml to the concentrations lower than 1 microg/ml. The distribution phase of flunixin was short (t0.5 alpha = 0.29 +/- 0.16 and 0.18 +/- 0.04 on day 1 and 4, respectively) and the elimination phase was more prolonged (t0.5 beta = 3.30 +/- 0.60 and 3.26 +/- 0.22 on day 1 and 4, respectively). The mean residence time of flunixin was similar on day 1 (1.83 +/- 0.83) and 4 (1.88 +/- 0.46), and for 5-hydroxyflunixin this parameter was insignificantly (P > 0.05) higher on day 1 (5.49 +/- 2.22) as compared to that found on day 4 (3.99 +/- 2.17). The clearance of flunixin was similar on both examined days (0.23 +/- 0.12 on day 1 and 0.31 +/- 0.15 on day 4), and for 5-hydroxyflunixin was insignificantly (P > 0.05) lower on day 1 (2.37 +/- 1.21) as compared to that determined on day 4 (3.23 +/- 1.06). Our data indicate that multiple administration of flunixin did not alter significantly the parent drug and its metabolite concentrations in plasma, however may cause some small changes in pharmacokinetic parameters.

  4. Effect of induced ruminal acidosis on blood variables in heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Ruminal acidosis is responsible for the onset of different pathologies in dairy and feedlot cattle, but there are major difficulties in the diagnosis. This study modelled the data obtained from various blood variables to identify those that could indicate the severity of ruminal acidosis. Six heifers were fed three experimental rations throughout three periods. The diets were characterised by different starch levels: high starch (HS), medium starch (MS) and low starch, as the control diet (CT). Ruminal pH values were continuously measured using wireless sensors and compared with pH measurements obtained by rumenocentesis. Blood samples were analysed for complete blood count, biochemical profile, venous blood gas, blood lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-binding proteins (LBP). Results The regression coefficient comparing the ruminal pH values, obtained using the two methods, was 0.56 (P = 0.040). Feeding the CT, MS and HS led to differences in the time spent below the 5.8, 5.5 and 5.0 pH thresholds and in several variables, including dry matter intake (7.7 vs. 6.9 vs. 5.1 kg/d; P = 0.002), ruminal nadir pH (5.69 vs. 5.47 vs. 5.44; P = 0.042), mean ruminal pH (6.50 vs. 6.34 vs. 6.31; P = 0.012), haemoglobin level (11.1 vs. 10.9 vs. 11.4 g/dL; P = 0.010), platelet count (506 vs. 481 vs. 601; P = 0.008), HCO3- (31.8 vs. 31.3 vs. 30.6 mmol/L; P = 0.071) and LBP (5.9 vs. 9.5 vs. 10.5 μg/mL; P acidosis, subacute ruminal acidosis and acute ruminal acidosis) using haemoglobin, mean platelet volume, β-hydroxybutyrate, glucose and reduced haemoglobin. Conclusions Although additional studies are necessary to confirm the reliability of these discriminant functions, the use of plasma variables in a multifactorial model appeared to be useful for the evaluation of ruminal acidosis severity. PMID:23647881

  5. Alternative BSE risk assessment methodology for beef and beef offal imported into Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Yasuhiro; Horiuchi, Motohiro; Ishiguro, Naotaka; Kadohira, Mutsuyo; Kai, Satoshi; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Nagata, Chisato; Onodera, Takashi; Sata, Tetsutaro; Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Masahito; Yamamoto, Shigeki

    2012-08-01

    The Food Safety Commission (FSC) of Japan, established in July 2003, has its own initiative to conduct risk assessments on food stuffs known as "self-tasking assessment". Within this framework, the FSC decided to conduct a risk assessment of beef and beef offal imported into Japan from countries with no previous BSE reports; thus, a methodology was formed to suit to this purpose. This methodology was partly based on the previous assessments of Japanese domestic beef and beef imported from U.S.A./Canada, but some modifications were made. Other organizations' assessment methods, such as those used for BSE status assessment in live cattle by the OIE and EFSA's GBR, were also consulted. In this review, the authors introduce this alternative methodology, which reflects (1) the risk of live cattle in the assessed country including temporal risks of BSE invasion and domestic propagation, with the assessment results verified by surveillance data, and (2) the risk of beef and beef offal consisting of cumulative BSE risk by types of slaughtering and meat production processes implemented and the status of mechanically recovered meat production. Other possible influencing factors such as atypical BSE cases were also reviewed. The key characteristic of the current assessment is a combination of the time-sequential risk level of live cattle and qualitative risk level of meat production at present in an assessed country.

  6. Controlled Study of Encopresis and Enuresis in Children with a Prepubertal and Early Adolescent Bipolar-I Disorder Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klages, Tricia; Geller, Barbara; Tillman, Rebecca; Bolhofner, Kristine; Zimerman, Betsy

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of encopresis/enuresis, relationship between maternal hostility and encopresis, parent-child concordance of reporting encopresis/enuresis, and familial aggregation of enuresis in subjects with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar-I disorder phenotype (PEA-BP), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder…

  7. Controlled Study of Encopresis and Enuresis in Children with a Prepubertal and Early Adolescent Bipolar-I Disorder Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klages, Tricia; Geller, Barbara; Tillman, Rebecca; Bolhofner, Kristine; Zimerman, Betsy

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence of encopresis/enuresis, relationship between maternal hostility and encopresis, parent-child concordance of reporting encopresis/enuresis, and familial aggregation of enuresis in subjects with a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar-I disorder phenotype (PEA-BP), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder…

  8. Association of thyroid gland volume, serum insulin-like growth factor-I, and anthropometric variables in euthyroid prepubertal children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Malene; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Few studies have focused on the interrelation between thyroid size, anthropometric variables, and IGF-I in adults, but such data are lacking for children. We have investigated thyroid gland volume and several hormonal and anthropometric variables in prepubertal children...

  9. Effects of Feeding Encapsulated Nitrate to Beef Cattle on Ammonia and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Their Manure in a Short-Term Manure Storage System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chanhee; Araujo, Rafael C; Koenig, Karen M; Hile, Michael L; Fabian-Wheeler, Eileen E; Beauchemin, Karen A

    2016-11-01

    A study was conducted to investigate effects of feeding encapsulated nitrate (EN) to beef cattle on ammonia (NH) and greenhouse gas emissions from their manure. Eight beef heifers were randomly assigned to diets containing 0 (control), 1, 2, or 3% EN (55% forage dry matter; EN replaced encapsulated urea in the control diet and therefore all diets were iso-nitrogenous) in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. Urine and feces collected from individual animals were reconstituted into manure and incubated over 156 h using a steady-state flux chamber system to monitor NH, methane (CH), carbon dioxide (CO), and nitrous oxide (NO) emissions. Urinary, fecal, and manure nitrate (NO)-N concentration linearly increased ( feeding EN, and urinary urea concentration tended to be lower ( = 0.078) for EN versus Control. The hourly emissions of NH, CO, and NO (mg head h) were not affected, although NH emission rates tended to be lower ( = 0.070) for EN compared with Control at 0 to 12 h. Cumulative NH, CO, and NO emissions over 156 h were not affected, but CH emissions were less (4.5 vs. 7.4 g head; = 0.027) for EN compared with Control. In conclusion, although NH emissions were initially lower for EN manures, total NH emitted over 156 h was not affected. Dietary EN lowered CH emissions from manure, and, despite greater NO concentrations in EN manure, NO emissions were not affected in this short-term incubation.

  10. Phenotypic and genetic relationships of residual feed intake measures and their component traits with fatty acid composition in subcutaneous adipose of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F; Ekine-Dzivenu, C; Vinsky, M; Basarab, J A; Aalhus, J L; Dugan, M E R; Li, C

    2017-07-01

    Feed efficiency is of particular interest to the beef industry because feed is the largest variable cost in production and fatty acid composition is emerging as an important trait, both economically and socially, due to the potential implications of dietary fatty acids on human health. Quantifying correlations between feed efficiency and fatty acid composition will contribute to construction of optimal multiple-trait selection indexes to maximize beef production profitability. In the present study, we estimated phenotypic and genetic correlations of feed efficiency measures including residual feed intake (RFI), RFI adjusted for final ultrasound backfat thickness (RFIf); their component traits ADG, DMI, and metabolic BW; and final ultrasound backfat thickness measured at the end of feedlot test with 25 major fatty acids in the subcutaneous adipose tissues of 1,366 finishing steers and heifers using bivariate animal models. The phenotypic correlations of RFI and RFIf with the 25 individual and grouped fatty acid traits were generally low (feed efficiency, feed intake, and growth are important in the breeding objective.

  11. Illinois Occupational Skill Standards. Beef Production Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois Occupational Skill Standards and Credentialing Council, Carbondale.

    This document, which is intended as a guide for workforce preparation program providers, details the Illinois occupational skill standards for programs preparing students for employment in occupations in the beef production cluster. The document begins with a brief overview of the Illinois perspective on occupational skill standards and…

  12. Reactive N emissions from beef cattle feedlots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Large amounts of nitrogen (N) are fed to meet the nutritional needs of beef cattle in feedlots. However, only from 10 to 15% of fed N is retained in animals. Most N is excreted. Chemical and biological processes transform manure N into ammonia, nitrous oxide and nitrate. These reactive forms of ...

  13. Enhance beef cattle improvement by embryo biotechnologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, B; Zan, L

    2012-10-01

    Embryo biotechnology has become one of the prominent high businesses worldwide. This technology has evolved through three major changes, that is, traditional embryo transfer (in vivo embryo production by donor superovulation), in vitro embryo production by ovum pick up with in vitro fertilization and notably current cloning technique by somatic cell nuclear transfer and transgenic animal production. Embryo biotechnology has widely been used in dairy and beef cattle industry and commercial bovine embryo transfer has become a large international business. Currently, many developed biotechnologies during the period from early oocyte stage to pre-implantation embryos can be used to create new animal breeds and accelerate genetic progression. Based on recent advances in embryo biotechnologies and authors current studies, this review will focus on a description of the application of this technology to beef cattle improvement and discuss how to use this technology to accelerate beef cattle breeding and production. The main topics of this presentation include the following: (i) how to increase calf production numbers from gametes including sperm and oocyte; (ii) multiple ovulation and embryo transfer breeding schemes; (iii) in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasm sperm injection in bovine; (iv) pronuclear development and transgenic animals; (v) sex selection from sperm and embryos; (vi) cloning and androgenesis; (vii) blastocyst development and embryonic stem cells; (viii) preservation of beef cattle genetic resources; and (ix) conclusions. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  14. Distinct physicochemical characteristics of different beef from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-04-11

    Apr 11, 2011 ... The essential amino acid (EAA) content were ranked in the descending order of ST >. SV ≥ LD ... corn grit, 1.97% cotton cake, 2.3% vitamin and mineral supplement ..... effects of lactic acid on Qin-chuan beef at different ages.

  15. European consumers' acceptance of beef processing technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2010-01-01

    adults (19-60 years old) participated in eight focus groups in Spain, France, Germany and the UK. Results suggested a relationship between acceptance of new beef products, technology familiarity and perceived risks related to its application. Excessive manipulation and fear of moving away from 'natural...

  16. Radionuclides in milk of dairy heifers raised on forages harvested from phosphatic clay soils on reclaimed mined land

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staples, C.R.; Umana, R.; Hayen, M.J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [and others

    1994-07-01

    Alfalfa (AR; Medicago sativa L.) and corn (CSR; Zea mays L.) were grown in phosphatic clay soils on phosphate-mined reclaimed land in central Florida. Corn (CSC) also was grown on unmined land and served as a control forage. Upon harvesting, plants were chopped and ensiled. Concentrations of {sup 226}Ra averaged 2.44, 0.26 and 0.15; {sup 210}Pb averaged 1.04, 0.63, and 0.52; and {sup 210}Po averaged 1.59, 0.59, and 1.26 Bq kg{sup -1} DM for AR, CSR, and CSC, respectively. These forages were fed separately to Holstein dairy replacement heifers (Bos taurus) (n=15 per forage) from approximately 9 to 25 mo of age. Heifers gave birth to calves at approximately 24 mo of age. Samples of milk were collected on d 1, 15, and 30 of lactation and analyzed for radionuclides. Averaged across sampling days, heifers fed AR had greater milk concentrations of {sup 226}Ra compared with those fed CSR (0.27 vs. 0.22 Bq kg{sup -1} DM; P < 0.10), which, in turn, had greater milk concentrations compared with heifers fed CSC (0.22 vs. 0.13 Bq kg{sup -1} DM; P < 0.05). Heifers fed AR also had greater milk concentrations of {sup 210}Po compared with heifers fed CSR (0.58 vs. 0.30 Bq kg{sup -1} DM; P < 0.10), but values of CSR-fed heifers were not different from CSC-fed heifers (0.45 Bq kg{sup -1} DM). Lead-210 was greater in milk from heifers fed CSR compared with those fed AR or CSC (1.38 vs. 0.94 and 0.92 Bq kg{sup -1} DM; P < 0.13), respectively. Plasma S and Cu concentrations suggested subclinical molybdenosis in heifers fed AR. However, all heifers grew at an acceptable rate, conceived normally, had normal gestation periods, gave high quality colostrum at calving, and produced similar amounts of milk. 17 refs., 9 tabs.

  17. A portable detection instrument based on DSP for beef marbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tong; Peng, Yankun

    2014-05-01

    Beef marbling is one of the most important indices to assess beef quality. Beef marbling is graded by the measurement of the fat distribution density in the rib-eye region. However quality grades of beef in most of the beef slaughtering houses and businesses depend on trainees using their visual senses or comparing the beef slice to the Chinese standard sample cards. Manual grading demands not only great labor but it also lacks objectivity and accuracy. Aiming at the necessity of beef slaughtering houses and businesses, a beef marbling detection instrument was designed. The instrument employs Charge-coupled Device (CCD) imaging techniques, digital image processing, Digital Signal Processor (DSP) control and processing techniques and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) screen display techniques. The TMS320DM642 digital signal processor of Texas Instruments (TI) is the core that combines high-speed data processing capabilities and real-time processing features. All processes such as image acquisition, data transmission, image processing algorithms and display were implemented on this instrument for a quick, efficient, and non-invasive detection of beef marbling. Structure of the system, working principle, hardware and software are introduced in detail. The device is compact and easy to transport. The instrument can determine the grade of beef marbling reliably and correctly.

  18. A fenbendazole oral drench in addition to an ivermectin pour-on reduces parasite burden and improves feedlot and carcass performance of finishing heifers compared with endectocides alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, C D; Hutcheson, J P; Nichols, W T

    2006-08-01

    Two studies utilizing 1,862 yearling heifers were conducted to determine the effects of a fenbendazole oral drench in addition to an ivermectin pour-on (SG+IVPO), compared with an ivermectin pour-on (IVPO) or a doramectin injectable (DMX) alone, on parasite burden, feedlot performance, and carcass merit of feedlot cattle. In the first study, heifers receiving the SG+IVPO had fewer (P = 0.02) cattle retreated for disease and 73% fewer (P = 0.06) worm eggs per fecal sample 98 d after treatment than heifers treated with IVPO. Heifers treated with SG+IVPO consumed more DM, had greater ADG, were heavier at slaughter, and had heavier carcasses than IVPO-treated heifers (P fenbendazole oral drench and an ivermectin pour-on reduced parasite burden and increased feed intake, ADG, and carcass weight in feedlot heifers compared with treatment with an endectocide alone.

  19. Beef Species Symposium: an assessment of the 1996 Beef NRC: metabolizable protein supply and demand and effectiveness of model performance prediction of beef females within extensive grazing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, R C; Caton, J S; Löest, C A; Petersen, M K; Roberts, A J

    2014-07-01

    Interannual variation of forage quantity and quality driven by precipitation events influence beef livestock production systems within the Southern and Northern Plains and Pacific West, which combined represent 60% (approximately 17.5 million) of the total beef cows in the United States. The beef cattle requirements published by the NRC are an important tool and excellent resource for both professionals and producers to use when implementing feeding practices and nutritional programs within the various production systems. The objectives of this paper include evaluation of the 1996 Beef NRC model in terms of effectiveness in predicting extensive range beef cow performance within arid and semiarid environments using available data sets, identifying model inefficiencies that could be refined to improve the precision of predicting protein supply and demand for range beef cows, and last, providing recommendations for future areas of research. An important addition to the current Beef NRC model would be to allow users to provide region-specific forage characteristics and the ability to describe supplement composition, amount, and delivery frequency. Beef NRC models would then need to be modified to account for the N recycling that occurs throughout a supplementation interval and the impact that this would have on microbial efficiency and microbial protein supply. The Beef NRC should also consider the role of ruminal and postruminal supply and demand of specific limiting AA. Additional considerations should include the partitioning effects of nitrogenous compounds under different physiological production stages (e.g., lactation, pregnancy, and periods of BW loss). The intent of information provided is to aid revision of the Beef NRC by providing supporting material for changes and identifying gaps in existing scientific literature where future research is needed to enhance the predictive precision and application of the Beef NRC models.

  20. A DECISION SUPPORT AID FOR BEEF CATTLE INVESTMENT USING EXPERT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence L. Falconer; Long, Charles R.; McGrann, James M.

    1996-01-01

    The beef cattle investment decision provides an excellent opportunity to increase the economic efficiency of beef cattle production. The investment questions that face beef cattle producers are of interest to beef cattle producers, educators, and financial institutions involved in lending to beef cattle producing firms. This study develops a decision support aid utilizing expert system technology to assist beef cattle producers in making well-founded investment decisions with respect to the f...

  1. Antral follicles population in heifers and cows of Nelore and Girolando breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Sábio de Oliveira Junior

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate ovarian antral follicle populations (OAFP of Nelore and Girolando breed heifers (12–18 months old and cows (24–60 months old. Animals were assigned to four groups: (1 Nelore cows (n = 18, (2 Girolando cows (n = 20, (3 Nelore heifers (n = 7, and (4 Girolando heifers (n = 7. Cows were treated to synchronize follicular wave emergence by implantation of an intravaginal device containing 1.9 g of progesterone, as well as intramuscular administration of 2 mg of estradiol benzoate and 25 mg of dinoprost. This synchronization treatment was administered at a random day of the estrous cycle of each cow, designated D0. Intravaginal devices were removed on D7, and on D11, OAFP counts were performed by transvaginal ovarian ultrasound. For each cow, all follicles ?3 mm in diameter were counted in both ovaries and counts were performed three times at 35-day intervals. Counts were also obtained from heifers, but these animals were not treated for synchronization of follicular wave emergence. Analysis of variance (ANOVA with Tukey’s test and Pearson’s correlation test were used to compare mean OAFPs between counts as well as mean OAFPs between breed and age groups. No differences were observed in mean OAFPs between Nelore and Girolando cows (30.9 vs. 26.7, respectively; P > 0.05 or heifers (16.2 vs. 18.1, respectively; P > 0.05. However, within each breed, there were differences in mean OAFPs between heifers and cows (for Nelore cattle: 16.2 and 30.9, respectively; for Girolando cattle: 18.1 and 26.7, respectively; both P < 0.05. In conclusion, OAFPs were similar between Nelore and Girolando breeds and were influenced by age. Furthermore, we observed a high correlation for individual animals between the mean numbers of follicles counted in both ovaries and total number of follicles counted in either the right or left ovary, indicating that the evaluation of a single ovary is sufficient to estimate the OAFP of an

  2. Variability in residual feed intake and nutrient utilization in Murrah buffalo heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negesse, Tegene; Datt, Chander; Kundu, S S

    2016-12-01

    A feeding trial with 18 Murrah buffalo heifers (238 ± 63 kg; 1.7 ± 0.4 years old) was conducted for 57 days, and feed intake and body weight were recorded followed by 7 days of urine and feces collection. Heifers were grouped into low (RFI-I) and high (RFI-II) feed efficiency groups by regressing DMI (g head(-1) day(-1)) on BWG (g head(-1) day(-1)) and mid-test MBW (kg). RFI-II heifers had slightly higher DMI (g head(-1) day(-1) and expressed per unit of BW, %BW, MBW, mid-test BW, and mid-test MBW) and all associated nutrient intakes, BWG, feed efficiency traits (FCR, CPCR), digestibility of nutrients, and retentions of crude protein and fat over RFI-I heifers. The corresponding intake values (kg head(-1) day(-1)) for RFI-I versus RFI-II were the following: DMI (6.73 ± 0.56 vs 6.51 ± 0.50), CPI (0.99 ± 0.008 vs 0.97 ± 0.07), DOMI (5.06 ± 0.47 vs 5.11 ± 0.42), and TDNI (4.95 ± 0.47 vs 5.00 ± 0.42). BWG (669 ± 52 vs 776 ± 47 g head(-1) day(-1)), feed efficiency traits (FCR: 10.32 ± 1.16 vs 8.77 ± 1.04 and CPCR: 1.52 ± 0.17 vs 1.30 ± 0.16), N balance (38 ± 9 vs 45 ± 8 g N head(-1) day(-1)), and protein and fat retentions (239 ± 57 vs 282 ± 51 g CP head(-1) day(-1) and 430 ± 6 vs 494 ± 59 g fat head(-1) day(-1)) of RFI-I were less than RFI-II heifers, respectively. Based on the predicted RFI values, RFI-II buffalo heifers could be selected for feed efficiency.

  3. A Higher Prevalence Rate of Campylobacter in Retail Beef Livers Compared to Other Beef and Pork Meat Cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohamed, Aneesa; Fakhr, Mohamed K.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in retail beef, beef livers, and pork meats purchased from the Tulsa (OK, USA) area and to further characterize the isolates obtained through antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 97 chilled retail beef (50 beef livers and 47 other cuts), and 100 pork samples were collected. The prevalence of Campylobacter in beef livers was 39/50 (78%), while no Campylobacter was isolated from the other beef cuts. The prevalence in pork samples was 2/100 (2%). A total of 108 Campylobacter isolates (102 beef livers isolates and six pork isolates) were subjected to antimicrobial resistance profiling against sixteen different antimicrobials that belong to eight different antibiotic classes. Of the six pork Campylobacter coli isolates, four showed resistance to all antimicrobials tested. Among the beef liver isolates, the highest antibiotic resistances were to tetracyclines and β-lactams, while the lowest resistances were to macrolides, aminoglycosides, lincosamides, and phenicols. Resistances to the fluoroquinolone, macrolide, aminoglycoside, tetracycline, β-lactam, lincosamide, and phenicol antibiotic classes were significantly higher in Campylobacter coli than Campylobacter jejuni isolates. Multidrug Resistance (MDR) among the 102 Campylobacter (33 Campylobacter jejuni and 69 Campylobacter coli) beef liver isolates was significantly higher in Campylobacter coli (62%) than Campylobacter jejuni (39%). The high prevalence of Campylobacter in retail beef livers and their antimicrobial resistance raise concern about the safety of these retail products. PMID:23698698

  4. Gonadal function is associated with cardiometabolic health in pre-pubertal boys with Klinefelter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S; Lahlou, N; Bardsley, M; Temple, M-C; Kowal, K; Pyle, L; Zeitler, P; Ross, J

    2016-11-01

    The most common sex chromosome aneuploidy, Klinefelter syndrome (KS), is associated with primary gonadal failure and increased morbidity and mortality from cardiometabolic disorders in adulthood. Children with KS also have a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) features. To assess the relationship of gonadal and cardiometabolic function in children with KS, we evaluated serum hormones [gonadotropins, inhibin B (INHB), anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), total testosterone (TT)], and features of MetS (waist circumference, fasting lipid panel, fasting blood glucose (FBG), and blood pressure) in 93 pre-pubertal boys with KS age 4-12 years (mean 7.7 ± 2.5 years). The cohort was grouped by age and tanner stage, and biomarkers were compared to normal ranges. A total of 80% of this pre-pubertal cohort had ≥1 feature of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and 11% had ≥3 features of MetS. Risk of MetS was independent of age and body mass index. Sertoli cell dysfunction was common with 18% having an INHB below the normal range. A low INHB was associated with higher FBG, triglycerides, LDL, and lower HDL (p < 0.05). An INHB <50 ng/dL yielded a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 79% for having ≥3 features of MetS. INHB and AMH positively correlated with each other (p < 0.001), and high AMH was protective of MetS. TT was below the lower limit of normal in 49% of subjects, with mean values significantly lower than expected (3.3 ng/dL vs. 4.9 ng/dL, p < 0.0001), however, no convincing relationship between TT and MetS was seen. In conclusion, gonadal and cardiometabolic dysfunction are prevalent in pre-pubertal boys with KS. Although the relationship of testosterone deficiency and MetS is well-known, this study is the first to report an association between impaired Sertoli cell function and cardiometabolic risk.

  5. Impact of the FITKids physical activity intervention on adiposity in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naiman A; Raine, Lauren B; Drollette, Eric S; Scudder, Mark R; Pontifex, Matthew B; Castelli, Darla M; Donovan, Sharon M; Evans, Ellen M; Hillman, Charles H

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the effect of a 9-month physical activity intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity among prepubertal children. Prepubertal children (8- to 9-year-olds, N = 220, 103 girls) were randomly assigned to a 9-month physical activity intervention or a control group. The intervention provided 70 minutes (5 days/week) of moderate to vigorous physical activity. Maximum oxygen consumption (Vo2max percentile) and dual-energy radiograph absorptiometry measured cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity, respectively. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed to assess baseline and follow-up cardiorespiratory fitness, percentage fat mass (%FM), percentage central fat mass (%CFM), and estimated visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area. The intervention group increased in cardiorespiratory fitness (5.4th percentile; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8 to 8.9) and decreased in %FM (-0.7%; 95% CI, -1.1 to -0.4) and %CFM (-1.3%; 95% CI, -1.9 to -0.7). Reductions in %FM were evident for both nonoverweight (-0.62%; 95% CI, -1.07 to -0.17) and overweight or obese (-0.86%; 95% CI,-1.46 to -0.25) intervention participants. Conversely, the control group displayed no change in cardiorespiratory fitness while exhibiting increases in %FM (0.4%; 95% CI, 0.1 to 0.7), %CFM (0.6; 95% CI, 0.1 to 1.1), and VAT area (3.0 cm(2); 95% CI, 1.6 to 4.4). Nonoverweight control participants increased in %FM (0.52%; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.91), and their overweight and obese counterparts increased in VAT (4.76 cm(2); 95% CI, 1.90 to 7.63). The physical activity intervention improved cardiorespiratory fitness, reduced %FM, and prevented accumulation of %CFM among prepubertal children with varying adiposity levels. These findings provide support for daily physical activity recommendations to prevent excess fat mass accumulation in childhood.

  6. Reliability of treadmill measures and criteria to determine VO2max in prepubertal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Colon, R; Hunter, G R; Mayo, M S; Aldridge, R A; Goran, M I; Weinsier, R L

    2000-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the reliability of measuring treadmill exercise economy (VO2submax) and the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in prepubertal girls tested twice, 6 wk apart. We also wanted to examine the percentage of young girls who were able to reach the criteria for achieving VO2max and to describe methods that would allow a high proportion of young children to achieve criteria for reaching a true VO2max. We studied 61 normal-weight, prepubertal girls with a mean (+/- SD) age 7.3+/-1.3 yr (range 4.8 to 10.3 yr). VO2submax was determined while walking for 4 min at 2.5 mph with 0% grade. VO2max was measured during a progressive, all-out, continuous treadmill test using standardized procedures and criteria. Heart rate (HR) was measured using a Polar monitor. Respiratory rate (RR), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), ventilation (V), and VO2 were measured using a Sensormedics metabolic monitor. There were no significant differences between visits I and 2 in mean HR, RR, RER, V, VO2submax (421 vs 422 mL x min(-1), respectively), and VO2max (1036 vs 1049 mL x min(-1), respectively). Intra-individual coefficients of variation (CV) between visits 1 and 2 for submaximal tests were: HR = 5.1%, RR = 12.4%, RER = 7.2%, V = 12.5%, and VO2 = 12.4%. Intra-individual CVs for the maximum tests were: HRmax = 2.1%, RRmax = 10.8%, RERmax = 5.3%, Vmax = 11.7%, and VO2max = 7.5%. A high proportion of the girls reached criteria for VO2max [RER> 1.00, HR>85% of age predicted maximum, and plateauing of VO2max] in both visits: 99% reached one of three criteria, 92% reached two of three criteria, and 70% reached all three criteria. Twenty girls [mean age 7.2+/-1.2 yr] reached at least two criteria in both visits, whereas 32 girls [mean (+/- SD) age 8.6+/-1.0 yr] reached three criteria in both visits. Exercise measurements using treadmill testing were reliable in healthy, normal-weight, prepubertal girls. Older girls when compared to the younger girls were able

  7. 青春期前痤疮的研究进展%Prepubertal acne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琪; 张国毅; 尹跃平

    2015-01-01

    青春期前痤疮是儿童期痤疮的一种,多发生于7岁以后青春期体征出现以前,表现为以粉刺样损害为主的皮损.其发病主要与青春期发育初期肾上腺功能初现引起的雄激素分泌增高有关,痤疮丙酸杆菌感染及高雄激素血症在痤疮发病中也有重要作用.青春期前痤疮的严重程度影响青春期痤疮的发展,在诊疗时需仔细询问病史及家族史.并做相应的实验室检查以排除其他疾病影响引起高雄激素血症性痤疮.在治疗时根据患儿年龄、皮损数量选择合适的治疗方法,治疗方案尽量简单.%Prepubertal acne,a kind of childhood acne,usually occurs from 7 years of age to the emergence of puberty signs in children.Comedo-like lesions are the main presentation of prepubertal acne.Its pathogenesis is mainly associated with increased secretion of androgen caused by adrenarche in early puberty.Furthermore,Propionibacterium acne infection and hyperandrogenism also play important roles in the occurrence of acne.The severity of prepubertal acne can affect the development of acne,thus careful inquiry of medical history and family history is suggested for the diagnosis and treatment of acne.Also,relevant laboratory examinations are needed to exclude hyperandrogenism-associated acne caused by other diseases.Therapeutic strategies should be selected according to patients' age and the number of skin lesions,and be as simple as possible.

  8. Lactose intolerance: lack of evidence for short stature or vitamin D deficiency in prepubertal children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithya Setty-Shah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The health consequences of lactose intolerance (LI are unclear. AIMS: To investigate the effects of LI on stature and vitamin D status. HYPOTHESES: LI subjects will have similar heights and vitamin D status as controls. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Prepubertal children of ages 3-12 years with LI (n=38, age 8.61 ± 3.08y, male/female 19/19 were compared to healthy, age- and gender-matched controls (n=49, age 7.95±2.64, male/female 28/21. INCLUSION CRITERIA: prepubertal status (boys: testicular volume <3cc; girls: Tanner 1 breasts, diagnosis of LI by hydrogen breath test, and no history of calcium or vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] <50 nmol/L. Gender-adjusted midparental target height (MPTH z-score was calculated using NCHS data for 18 year-old adults. Data were expressed as mean ± SD. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in 25(OHD between the LI and non-LI subjects (60.1±21.1, vs. 65.4 ± 26.1 nmol/L, p = 0.29. Upon stratification into normal weight (BMI <85(th percentile vs. overweight/obese (BMI ≥85(th percentile, the normal weight controls had significantly higher 25(OHD level than both the normal weight LI children (78.3 ± 32.6 vs. 62.9 ± 23.2, p = 0.025, and the overweight/obese LI children (78.3±32.6 vs. 55.3±16.5, p = 0.004. Secondly, there was no overall difference in height z-score between the LI children and controls. The normal weight LI patients had similar height as normal controls (-0.46 ± 0.89 vs. -0.71 ± 1.67, p = 0.53, while the overweight/obese LI group was taller than the normal weight controls (0.36 ± 1.41 vs. -0.71 ± 1.67, p = 0.049, and of similar height as the overweight/obese controls (0.36 ± 1.41 vs. 0.87 ± 1.45, p = 0.28. MPTH z-score was similar between the groups. CONCLUSION: Short stature and vitamin D deficiency are not features of LI in prepubertal children.

  9. Betamethasone cream for the treatment of pre-pubertal labial adhesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jeremy B; Sorensen, Carsten M; Wisner, Benjamin P; Furness, Peter D; Passamaneck, Michelle; Koyle, Martin A

    2006-12-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of 0.05% betamethasone cream for the treatment of pre-pubertal labial adhesions. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 19 children with labial adhesions who were treated with betamethasone cream from 6/2001 to 3/2003. Children were treated with 1 to 3 courses of twice-daily 0.05% betamethasone cream for 4 to 6 weeks. Successful lysis of adhesions was assessed by clinical exam or parental phone contact and outcomes were defined as: (1) success--complete separation of labia, (2) partial success--greater than 75% separation, (3) progression to surgical lysis, and (4) lost to follow-up. Nineteen patients with an average age of 58 months (range 12 to 132 months) were treated. Four of the 19 patients had never been treated previously and 1 had been treated previously with surgical lysis of adhesions only. Fourteen of the 19 patients had been previously treated with conjugated estrogen (Premarin) cream. Two of these fourteen patients had also undergone surgical lysis of adhesions. Severity of adhesions ranged from 33% to 99% labial closure. Betamethasone cream was successful in treating 13/19 (68%) pre-pubertal labial adhesions. Eleven (85%) of these 13 patients had complete resolution of labial adhesions with 1 course of treatment, 1 (7.5%) had resolution with 2 courses of treatment and 1 (7.5%) had resolution with 3 courses of treatment. One patient had a partial success with 3 courses of betamethasone cream. Two (11%) patients underwent surgical lysis of adhesion after 1 and 2 courses of betamethasone cream respectively. Three (16%) patients were lost to follow-up. Average follow-up was 7 months (range 1-24 months). No adverse outcomes or untoward effects were noted in any of the patients treated. Betamethasone 0.05% cream appears to be a safe and effective treatment of pre-pubertal labial adhesions as primary therapy or in patients that have failed previous therapies and it may avoid the undesirable side effects of breast budding and

  10. Prevalence, characterization, and genotypic analysis of Escherichia coli O157:H7/NM from selected beef exporting abattoirs of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masana, M O; Leotta, G A; Del Castillo, L L; D'Astek, B A; Palladino, P M; Galli, L; Vilacoba, E; Carbonari, C; Rodríguez, H R; Rivas, M

    2010-04-01

    In Argentina, Escherichia coli O157:H7/NM (STEC O157) is the prevalent serotype associated with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), which is endemic in the country with more than 400 cases per year. In order to estimate the prevalence and characteristics of STEC O157 in beef cattle at slaughter, a survey of 1,622 fecal and carcass samples was conducted in nine beef exporting abattoirs from November 2006 to April 2008. A total of 54 samples were found positive for STEC O157, with an average prevalence of 4.1% in fecal content and 2.6% in carcasses. Calves and heifers presented higher percentages of prevalence in feces, 10.5 and 8.5%, respectively. All STEC O157 isolates harbored stx(2) (Shiga toxin 2), eae (intimin), ehxA (enterohemolysin), and fliC(H7) (H7 flagellin) genes, while stx(1) (Shiga toxin 1) was present in 16.7% of the strains. The prevalent (56%) stx genotype identified was stx(2) combined with variant stx(2c (vh-a)), the combination of which is also prevalent (>90%) in STEC O157 post-enteric HUS cases in Argentina. The clonal relatedness of STEC O157 strains was established by phage typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The 54 STEC isolates were categorized into 12 different phage types and in 29 XbaI-PFGE patterns distributed in 27 different lots. STEC O157 strains isolated from 5 of 21 carcasses were identical by PFGE (100% similarity) to strains of the fecal content of the same or a contiguous bovine in the lot. Five phage type-PFGE-stx profiles of 10 strains isolated in this study matched with the profiles of the strains recovered from 18 of 122 HUS cases that occurred in the same period.

  11. Cooking and palatability traits of beef longissimus steaks cooked with a belt grill or an open hearth electric broiler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M

    1998-11-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare the effects of belt grill and Open Hearth electric broiler cookery on palatability and cooking traits of longissimus steaks. The longissimus thoracis from carcasses of grain-fed steers or heifers was used. Duplicate measurements were made for Warner-Bratzler shear force at 3 and at 14 d after slaughter (n = 180) and trained sensory evaluation at 14 d after slaughter (n = 91) using both cooking methods. Belt grill-cooked samples had lower (P<.01) percentage of cooking losses (21.5 vs 25.8%) and higher (P<.01) shear force values (4.6 vs 4.3 kg) than electric broiler-cooked samples. Repeatability of duplicate measurements was higher for cooking losses (.58 vs .23) and shear force values (.85 vs .64) for belt grill than for electric broiler cooked samples. Belt grilled steaks had lower (P<.01) cooking losses (20.2 vs 29.8%); higher (P<.01) tenderness (7.0 vs 6.7) and juiciness (6.0 vs 5.1); and lower (P<.02) connective tissue amount (7.7 vs 7.8), beef flavor intensity (5.0 vs 5.1), and off-flavor (3.2 vs 3.3) ratings than steaks cooked with the electric broiler. Belt grill cooking increased the repeatability of duplicate sensory measurements for tenderness (.87 vs .71), connective tissue amount (.66 vs .30), and juiciness (.51 vs .08) ratings, and cooking losses (.63 vs .18) compared with cooking with the electric broiler. Belt grill cooking increased the precision for measurements of cooking, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and palatability traits of beef longissimus thoracis.

  12. Sexually dimorphic stress and innate immunological responses of pre-pubertal Brahman cattle following an intravenous endotoxin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to characterize potential sexually dimorphic immunological responses following endotoxin challenge. Six female (heifers) and five male (bulls) Brahman calves (267 ± 11.5 days of age) were challenged with 0.25 microgram of LPS/kg body weight. Following administration of endoto...

  13. European consumer response to packaging technologies for improved beef safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim

    2011-09-01

    Beef packaging can influence consumer perceptions of beef. Although consumer perceptions and acceptance are considered to be among the most limiting factors in the application of new technologies, there is a lack of knowledge about the acceptability to consumers of beef packaging systems aimed at improved safety. This paper explores European consumers' acceptance levels of different beef packaging technologies. An online consumer survey was conducted in five European countries (n=2520). Acceptance levels among the sample ranged between 23% for packaging releasing preservative additives up to 73% for vacuum packaging. Factor analysis revealed that familiar packaging technologies were clearly preferred over non-familiar technologies. Four consumer segments were identified: the negative (31% of the sample), cautious (30%), conservative (17%) and enthusiast (22%) consumers, which were profiled based on their attitudes and beef consumption behaviour. Differences between consumer acceptance levels should be taken into account while optimising beef packaging and communicating its benefits.

  14. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF BEEF MARINATED WITH GARLIC JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurwantoro

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the effect of marination, performed by soaking of beef in garlic juice, on microbiological and physical properties. The study was committed to a completely randomized design, with 5 treatments, i.e.: T0 (unmarinated beef, as a control, T1, T2, T3, and T4 that beef were marinated in garlic juice for 5, 10, 15, and 20 minutes, respectively, at room temperature (25⁰C. Each treatment consisted of 4 replications. Examination upon experimental parameters was conducted after marinated (and control beef was stored for 8 hours at room temperature. Total bacteria, total coliform and water holding capacity of beef were significantly (P0.05 by the treatments. As a conclusion, marination of beef with garlic juice could reduce total bacteria, total coliform, and water holding capacity, but could not reduce cooking loss.

  15. Genome-wide association and genomic prediction of breeding values for fatty acid composition in subcutaneous adipose and longissimus lumborum muscle of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liuhong; Ekine-Dzivenu, Chinyere; Vinsky, Michael; Basarab, John; Aalhus, Jennifer; Dugan, Mike E R; Fitzsimmons, Carolyn; Stothard, Paul; Li, Changxi

    2015-11-21

    Identification of genetic variants that are associated with fatty acid composition in beef will enhance our understanding of host genetic influence on the trait and also allow for more effective improvement of beef fatty acid profiles through genomic selection and marker-assisted diet management. In this study, 81 and 83 fatty acid traits were measured in subcutaneous adipose (SQ) and longissimus lumborum muscle (LL), respectively, from 1366 purebred and crossbred beef steers and heifers that were genotyped on the Illumina BovineSNP50 Beadchip. The objective was to conduct genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for the fatty acid traits and to evaluate the accuracy of genomic prediction for fatty acid composition using genomic best linear unbiased prediction (GBLUP) and Bayesian methods. In total, 302 and 360 significant SNPs spanning all autosomal chromosomes were identified to be associated with fatty acid composition in SQ and LL tissues, respectively. Proportions of total genetic variance explained by individual significant SNPs ranged from 0.03 to 11.06% in SQ, and from 0.005 to 24.28% in the LL muscle. Markers with relatively large effects were located near fatty acid synthase (FASN), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), and thyroid hormone responsive (THRSP) genes. For the majority of the fatty acid traits studied, the accuracy of genomic prediction was relatively low ( = 0.50) were achieved for 10:0, 12:0, 14:0, 15:0, 16:0, 9c-14:1, 12c-16:1, 13c-18:1, and health index (HI) in LL, and for 12:0, 14:0, 15:0, 10 t,12c-18:2, and 11 t,13c + 11c,13 t-18:2 in SQ. The Bayesian method performed similarly as GBLUP for most of the traits but substantially better for traits that were affected by SNPs of large effects as identified by GWAS. Fatty acid composition in beef is influenced by a few host genes with major effects and many genes of smaller effects. With the current training population size and marker density, genomic prediction has the potential to predict

  16. Do attachment representations predict depression and anxiety in psychiatrically hospitalized prepubertal children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Geoff; Stroh, Martha; Valdez, Adina

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-six prepubertal inpatients were videotaped completing five stories thematically related to attachment experiences and classified by their attachment representations. Children also completed the Children's Depression Inventory and Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents-Revised. Mothers completed demographic questionnaires. Percentage of secure (B) attachment was only about one tenth of the normative percentage, anxious-ambivalent (C) attachment was between two and three times the normative percentage, and disorganized (D) attachment was almost twice the normative percentage. Both D attachment and the total number of disorganized story responses were associated with negative self-esteem and clinical-range depression. Anxious-avoidant (A) attachment decreased the likelihood, while C and D attachment increased the likelihood, of separation anxiety disorder. Clinical intervention needs to focus on the meaning of parental relationships represented in the child's mind, specifically the negative self-esteem and separation anxiety associated with the lack of felt security provided by the parents.

  17. Generalized aggressive periodontitis in prepubertal age: description and comparison of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Piergallini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive periodontitis is a rare form of periodontal disease and it can involve both the deciduous dentition and the permanent one. It causes a rapid loss of periodontal attachment. The paper aims to describe two cases of severe generalized prepubertal periodontitis: the first child doesn’t suffer from neither systemic diseases nor alteration of functionality of polymorphonuclear and periodontal disease involved both his deciduous dentition and the first permanent molars. The second child had a deficiency of functionality of polymorphonuclear but periodontal disease involved only primary dentition thanks to his immediate improvement of home dental hygiene. This comparison shows the importance of early diagnosis and especially of optimal dental oral hygiene. Infant healthcare professionals, as pediatric dentists and pediatricians, should have the necessary knowledge for early and correct diagnosis and clinical management of disease.

  18. Prepubertal exposure to cow's milk reduces susceptibility to carcinogen-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Khan, Galam; Davis, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Cow's milk contains high levels of estrogens, progesterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), all of which are associated with breast cancer. We investigated whether prepubertal milk exposure affects mammary gland development and carcinogenesis in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were given either...... whole milk or tap water to drink from postnatal day (PND) 14 to PND 35, and thereafter normal tap water. Mammary tumorigenesis was induced by administering 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene on PND 50. Milk exposure increased circulating E2 levels on PND 25 by 10-fold (p vaginal...... or apoptosis were seen. IGF-1 mRNA levels were reduced on PND 50 in the mammary glands of rats exposed to milk at puberty. Our results suggest that drinking milk before puberty reduces later risk of developing mammary cancer in rats. This might be mediated by a reduction in the number of TEBs and lower...

  19. The value of positive Oct3/4 and D2-40 immunohistochemical expression in prediction of germ cell neoplasia in prepubertal boys with cryptorchidism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clasen-Linde, Erik; Kvist, Kolja; Cortes, Dina;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN) is a precursor to testicular germ cell cancer. Adult germ cell cancer immunohistochemical markers fail to detect ITGCN in prepubertal boys with congenital cryptorchidism, because positive immunohistochemistry is commonly seen below 18 months old...

  20. The effect of Bovine Growth Hormone on Growth, Carcass Composition and Meat Quality of Dairy Heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Sejrsen, Kristen; Foldager, John

    1993-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the effects of bovine growth hormone (bGH) on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of dairy heifers. Nine monozygotic twin pairs of Friesian or Red Danish cattle were used, and pair-fed diet consisting of grass silage, barley and soybean meal. Within each pair......, one animal was given daily subcutaneous injections of 20 IU of pituitary-derived bGH (15-20 mg), while the other animal was injected with saline (excipient). Treatments started at 179±2 kg body weight and lasted for 15.6 weeks. At slaughter, carcass composition and meat quality were analyzed. b...... fat by 13% (P meat quality assessed by objective as well as subjective methods was unaffected by bGH treatment. In summary, bGH treatment of dairy heifers around puberty stimulated growth and reduced carcass fattening...