WorldWideScience

Sample records for prepsychosis social deficits

  1. Development of Social Functioning in Preschizophrenia Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbox, Sarah I.; Pogue-Geile, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with severe deficits in social functioning. Similar deficits may be present prior to psychosis onset, in childhood and adolescence. If so, then prepsychosis social deficits could provide clues to the development of pathological processes in preschizophrenia children and could potentially improve early identification of…

  2. Social communication deficits: specific associations with Social Anxiety Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Halls, Georgia; Cooper, Peter J.; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Background\\ud Social communication deficits are prevalent amongst children with anxiety disorders; however whether they are over-represented specifically among children with Social Anxiety Disorder has not been examined. This study set out to examine social communication deficits among children with Social Anxiety Disorder in comparison to children with other forms of anxiety disorder.\\ud \\ud Methods\\ud Parents of 404 children with a diagnosed anxiety disorder completed the Social Communicati...

  3. Social-Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier, Daniela; Kirsch, Peter

    Patients with schizophrenia not only suffer from prototypical psychotic symptoms such as delusions and hallucinations and from cognitive deficits, but also from tremendous deficits in social functioning. However, little is known about the interplay between the cognitive and the social-cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Our chapter gives an overview on behavioral, as well as functional imaging studies on social cognition in schizophrenia. Main findings on cognitive and motivational deficits in schizophrenia are reviewed and introduced within the context of the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. The reviewed findings suggest that disturbed "social brain" functioning in schizophrenia, depending on the specific context, can either lead to a neglect of the emotions and intentions of others or to the false attribution of these emotions and intentions in an emotionally neutral social content. We integrate these findings with the current knowledge about aberrant dopaminergic firing in schizophrenia by presenting a comprehensive model explaining core symptoms of the disorder. The main implication of the presented model is that neither cognitive-motivational, nor social-cognitive deficits alone cause schizophrenia symptoms, but that symptoms only emerge by the interplay of disturbed social brain functioning with aberrant dopaminergic firing.

  4. Social communication deficits: Specific associations with Social Anxiety Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halls, Georgia; Cooper, Peter J; Creswell, Cathy

    2015-02-01

    Social communication deficits are prevalent amongst children with anxiety disorders; however whether they are over-represented specifically among children with Social Anxiety Disorder has not been examined. This study set out to examine social communication deficits among children with Social Anxiety Disorder in comparison to children with other forms of anxiety disorder. Parents of 404 children with a diagnosed anxiety disorder completed the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ; Rutter, M., Bailey, A., Lord, C., 2003. The Social Communication Questionnaire - Manual. Western Psychological Services, Los Angeles, CA). Children with a diagnosis of Social Anxiety Disorder (n=262) and anxious children without Social Anxiety Disorder (n=142) were compared on SCQ total and subscale scores and the frequency of participants scoring above clinical cut-offs. Children with Social Anxiety Disorder scored significantly higher than anxious children without Social Anxiety Disorder on the SCQ total (t(352)=4.85, pcommunication (t(344)=3.62, pDisorder were three times more likely to score above clinical cut-offs. The participants were a relatively affluent group of predominantly non-minority status. The social communication difficulties measure relied on parental report which could be influenced by extraneous factors. Treatments for Social Anxiety Disorder may benefit from a specific focus on developing social communication skills. Future research using objective assessments of underlying social communication skills is required. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Pragmatic Deficits and Social Impairment in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staikova, Ekaterina; Gomes, Hilary; Tartter, Vivien; McCabe, Allyssa; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Impaired social functioning has been well documented in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Existing treatments for ADHD are effective for managing core symptoms, but have limited effectiveness at improving social skills, suggesting that social deficits in ADHD may not be directly related to core symptoms…

  6. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and social dysfunctioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, Judith S.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Mulligan, Aisling; Hartman, Catharina A.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with functional impairments in different areas of daily life. One such area is social functioning. The purpose of this paper is to critically review research on social dysfunctioning in children with ADHD. Children with ADHD often have co

  7. Social deficits in children with chronic tic disorders: phenomenology, clinical correlates and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Joseph F; Hanks, Camille; Lewin, Adam B; Storch, Eric A; Murphy, Tanya K

    2013-10-01

    Youth with chronic tic disorders (CTD) experience social problems that have been associated with functional impairment and a diminished quality of life. Previous examinations have attributed social difficulties to either tic severity or the symptom severity of coexisting conditions, but have not directly explored performance deficits in social functioning. This report examined the presence and characteristics of social deficits in youth with CTD and explored the relationship between social deficits, social problems, and quality of life. Ninety-nine youth (8-17years) and their parents completed a battery of assessments to determine diagnoses, tic severity, severity of coexisting conditions, social responsiveness, and quality of life. Parents reported that youth with CTD had increased social deficits, with 19% reported to have severe social deficits. The magnitude of social deficits was more strongly associated with inattention, hyperactivity, and oppositionality than with tic severity. Social deficits predicted internalizing and social problems, and quality of life above and beyond tic severity. Social deficits partially mediated the relationship between tic severity and social problems, as well as tic severity and quality of life. Findings suggest that youth with CTD have social deficits, which are greater in the presence of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder. These social deficits play an influential role in social problems and quality of life. Future research is needed to develop interventions to address social performance deficits among youth with CTD.

  8. Neurocognitive and social cognition deficits in patients with anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kułakowska, Dorota

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first part of the article the authors present a set of the actual concepts explaining problems of cognitive functions and social cognition currently observed in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN. It is possible; through the neuroimaging research, to get better understanding of the brain specifics in these individuals. Even though, the AN remains a disease with very complex and multifactorial etiology which remains a huge medical challenge. Currently, popular is the view that takes into consideration the integrating role of the insula and subcortical structures (such as hippocampus, amygdala, thalamus in the regulation of cognitive and emotional processes in people suffering from AN. There is still an open problem, however, of the selection of therapeutic interventions targeting these deficits. The second part of the article presents the attempt to describe deficits in neurocognitive and social cognition in people with AN occurring prior to illness, during and after the recovery. Particular attention has been paid to the most frequently described in the literature – neuro- cognitive deficits such as rigidity of thinking, weak central coherence, and deficits in social cognition, including mental processes of perception and expression of emotions, disorders of the theory of mind (ToM and empathy. The results of previous studies, their scarcity in Poland, do not give a satisfactory answer to the question whether the above mentioned disorders are a feature of endophenotype or condition in an episode of the disease. Research point to the more permanent nature, which may be more resistant to therapeutic modifications.

  9. Social skills deficits and their association with Internet addiction and activities in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wen-Jiun; Huang, Mei-Feng; Chang, Yu-Ping; Chen, Yu-Min; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims The aims of this study were to examine the association between social skills deficits and Internet addiction and activities in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as the moderators for this association. Methods A total of 300 adolescents, aged between 11 and 18 years, who had been diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their Internet addiction levels, social skills deficits, ADHD, parental characteristics, and comorbidities were assessed. The various Internet activities that the participants engaged in were also examined. Results The associations between social skills deficits and Internet addiction and activities and the moderators of these associations were examined using logistic regression analyses. Social skills deficits were significantly associated with an increased risk of Internet addiction after adjustment for the effects of other factors [odds ratio (OR) = 1.049, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.030-1.070]. Social skills deficits were also significantly associated with Internet gaming and watching movies. The maternal occupational socioeconomic levels of the participants moderated the association between social skills deficits and Internet addiction. Conclusions Social skills deficits should be considered targets in prevention and intervention programs for treating Internet addiction among adolescents with ADHD.

  10. Social Skills Deficits and Vocal Characteristics of Children with Social Phobia or Asperger's Disorder: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharfstein, Lindsay A.; Beidel, Deborah C.; Sims, Valerie K.; Finnell, Laura Rendon

    2011-01-01

    Social skills deficits are commonly reported among children with social phobia (SP) and children with Asperger's Disorder (AD); however, a lack of direct comparison makes it unclear whether these groups, both of which endorse the presence of social anxiety, have similar or unique skills deficits. In this investigation, the social behaviors of…

  11. Lack of neuropsychological deficits in generalized social phobia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott R Sutterby

    Full Text Available There are relatively few existing studies examining neuropsychological functioning in social phobia (SP, which collectively yield mixed results. Interpretation of results is further complicated by a number of methodological inconsistencies across studies, including the examination of neuropsychological domains in relative isolation from one another. The present study utilized a broader collection of neuropsychological tests to assess nine domains of functioning in 25 individuals diagnosed with generalized SP and 25 nonpsychiatric controls (NC. A mixed ANOVA revealed neither a significant group by domain interaction, nor a significant main effect of group. Furthermore, no significant group differences emerged between the SP and NC groups within each specific neuropsychological domain. These findings suggest that underlying neuropsychological deficits are not likely to account for the information processing biases observed in the empirical literature, and appear to be consistent with current theoretical models which argue for the specificity of these biases to social information.

  12. Emotion Perception or Social Cognitive Complexity: What Drives Face Processing Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Jennifer A; Creighton, Sarah E; Rutherford, M D

    2016-02-01

    Some, but not all, relevant studies have revealed face processing deficits among those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, deficits are revealed in face processing tasks that involve emotion perception. The current study examined whether either deficits in processing emotional expression or deficits in processing social cognitive complexity drive face processing deficits in ASD. We tested adults with and without ASD on a battery of face processing tasks that varied with respect to emotional expression processing and social cognitive complexity. Results revealed significant group differences on tasks involving emotional expression processing, but typical performance on a non-emotional but socially complex task. These results support an emotion processing rather than a social complexity explanation for face processing deficits in ASD.

  13. Deficit

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    UCL's former provost, Sir Derek Roberts, has been drafted in for a year to run the college. UCL is expected to have a 6 million pounds deficit this year and up to a 10 million pounds deficit next year. Sir Christopher Llewellyn-Smith took over at UCL nearly 4 years ago and decided then that the finanical situation was serious enough to warrant a reduction in the vast expansion policy undertaken by his predecessor (1 page).

  14. Effects of resocialization on post-weaning social isolation-induced abnormal aggression and social deficits in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulogdi, Aron; Tóth, Máté; Barsvári, Beáta; Biró, László; Mikics, Eva; Haller, József

    2014-01-01

    As previously shown, rats isolated from weaning develop abnormal social and aggressive behavior characterized by biting attacks targeting vulnerable body parts of opponents, reduced attack signaling, and increased defensive behavior despite increased attack counts. Here we studied whether this form of violent aggression could be reversed by resocialization in adulthood. During the first weak of resocialization, isolation-reared rats showed multiple social deficits including increased defensiveness and decreased huddling during sleep. Deficits were markedly attenuated in the second and third weeks. Despite improved social functioning in groups, isolated rats readily showed abnormal features of aggression in a resident-intruder test performed after the 3-week-long resocialization. Thus, post-weaning social isolation-induced deficits in prosocial behavior were eliminated by resocialization during adulthood, but abnormal aggression was resilient to this treatment. Findings are compared to those obtained in humans who suffered early social maltreatment, and who also show social deficits and dysfunctional aggression in adulthood.

  15. The Outcome of a Social Cognitive Training for Mainstream Adolescents with Social Communication Deficits in a Chinese Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kathy Y. S.; Crooke, Pamela J.; Lui, Aster L. Y.; Kan, Peggy P. K.; Mark, Yuen-mai; van Hasselt, Charles Andrew; Tong, Michael C. F.

    2016-01-01

    The use of cognitive-based strategies for improving social communication behaviours for individuals who have solid language and cognition is an important question. This study investigated the outcome of teaching Social Thinking®, a framework based in social-cognition, to Chinese adolescents with social communication deficits. Thirty-nine students…

  16. Social skills training for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children aged 5 to 18 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Skoog, Maria; Damm, Dorte

    2011-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children is associated with hyperactivity and impulsitivity, attention problems, and difficulties with social interactions. Pharmacological treatment may alleviate symptoms of ADHD but seldom solves difficulties with social interactions. Social...... skills training may benefit ADHD children in their social interactions. We examined the effects of social skills training on children's social competences, general behaviour, ADHD symptoms, and performance in school....

  17. Social isolation induces deficit of latent learning performance in mice: a putative animal model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouchi, Hirofumi; Ono, Kazuya; Murakami, Yukihisa; Matsumoto, Kinzo

    2013-02-01

    Social isolation of rodents (SI) elicits a variety of stress responses such as increased aggressiveness, hyper-locomotion, and reduced susceptibility to pentobarbital. To obtain a better understanding of the relevance of SI-induced behavioral abnormalities to psychiatric disorders, we examined the effect of SI on latent learning as an index of spatial attention, and discussed the availability of SI as an epigenetic model of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Except in specially stated cases, 4-week-old male mice were housed in a group or socially isolated for 3-70 days before experiments. The animals socially isolated for 1 week or more exhibited spatial attention deficit in the water-finding test. Re-socialized rearing for 5 weeks after 1-week SI failed to attenuate the spatial attention deficit. The effect of SI on spatial attention showed no gender difference or correlation with increased aggressive behavior. Moreover, SI had no effect on cognitive performance elucidated in a modified Y-maze or an object recognition test, but it significantly impaired contextual and conditional fear memory elucidated in the fear-conditioning test. Drugs used for ADHD therapy, methylphenidate (1-10 mg/kg, i.p.) and caffeine (0.5-1 mg/kg, i.p.), improved SI-induced latent learning deficit in a manner reversible with cholinergic but not dopaminergic antagonists. Considering the behavioral features of SI mice together with their susceptibility to ADHD drugs, the present findings suggest that SI provides an epigenetic animal model of ADHD and that central cholinergic systems play a role in the effect of methylphenidate on SI-induced spatial attention deficit.

  18. Neonatal exposure to sevoflurane induces abnormal social behaviors and deficits in fear conditioning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satomoto, Maiko; Satoh, Yasushi; Terui, Katsuo; Miyao, Hideki; Takishima, Kunio; Ito, Masataka; Imaki, Junko

    2009-03-01

    Neonatal exposure to anesthetics that block N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and/or hyperactivate gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor has been shown to cause neuronal degeneration in the developing brain, leading to functional deficits later in adulthood. The authors investigated whether exposure of neonatal mice to inhaled sevoflurane causes deficits in social behavior as well as learning disabilities. Six-day-old C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 3% sevoflurane for 6 h. Activated cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemical staining was used for detection of apoptosis. Cognitive functions were tested by pavlovian conditioned fear test. Social behavior was tested by social recognition and interaction tests. Neonatal exposure to sevoflurane significantly increased the number of apoptotic cells in the brain immediately after anesthesia. It caused persistent learning deficits later in adulthood as evidenced by decreased freezing response in both contextual and cued fear conditioning. The social recognition test demonstrated that mice with neonatal exposure to sevoflurane did not develop social memory. Furthermore, these mice showed decreased interactions with a social target compared with controls in the social interaction test, indicating a social interaction deficit. The authors did not attribute these abnormalities in social behavior to impairments of general interest in novelty or olfactory sensation, because they did not detect significant differences in the test for novel inanimate object interaction or for olfaction. This study shows that exposure of neonatal mice to inhaled sevoflurane could cause not only learning deficits but also abnormal social behaviors resembling autism spectrum disorder.

  19. Oxytocin, Dopamine, and the Amygdala: A Neurofunctional Model of Social Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenfeld, Andrew J.; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.; Jarskog, L Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    Until recently, the social cognitive impairment in schizophrenia has been underappreciated and remains essentially untreated. Deficits in emotional processing, social perception and knowledge, theory of mind, and attributional bias may contribute to functional social cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. The amygdala has been implicated as a key component of social cognitive circuitry in both animal and human studies. In addition, structural and functional studies of schizophrenia reproduci...

  20. Dyspraxia in Autism: Association with Motor, Social, and Communicative Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziuk, M. A.; Larson, J. C. Gidley; Apostu, A.; Mahone, E. M.; Denckla, M. B.; Mostofsky, S. H.

    2007-01-01

    Impaired performance of skilled gestures, referred to as dyspraxia, is consistently reported in children with autism; however, its neurological basis is not well understood. Basic motor skill deficits are also observed in children with autism and it is unclear whether dyspraxia observed in children with autism can be accounted for by problems with…

  1. Social Skills Deficits in Autism: A Study among Students with Austim Spectrum Disorder in Inclusive Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Kee Jiar; Teng, Kie Yin

    2015-01-01

    Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) who lack of social skills have been hindered from being included in IE classrooms. The purpose of this study was to identify the most frequently occurring social skills deficits area among students with ASD in IE classrooms so that the mainstream teachers will be ready and well prepared to cater to…

  2. [Integrating model of the social adaptation of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosello-Miranda, B; Berenguer-Forner, C; Baixauli-Fortea, I; Miranda-Casas, A

    2016-01-01

    Introduccion. Los niños con trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH) experimentan dificultades sociales que afectan a su funcionamiento personal y academico. Objetivo. Revisar los estudios que han abordado la influencia de las habilidades cognitivas y afectivas implicadas en su adaptacion social, desde la perspectiva de un modelo integrador que incluye el funcionamiento ejecutivo, las habilidades mentalistas y el lenguaje pragmatico. Desarrollo. Las investigaciones revisadas constatan una asociacion entre funcionamiento ejecutivo (memoria de trabajo, inhibicion, planificacion), habilidad pragmatica y rendimiento en tareas mentalistas, con la problematica social que experimentan las personas con TDAH. Conclusiones. Aunque la bibliografia respalda una relacion entre estos constructos, los deficits observados en la ejecucion de tareas de teoria de la mente o en el uso del lenguaje parecen responder mas bien a un deficit de caracter procedimental y no tanto a dificultades de indole conceptual.

  3. Brief Report: New Evidence for a Social-Specific Imagination Deficit in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Eycke, Kayla D.; Müller, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that children with autism have deficits in drawing imaginative content. However, these conclusions are largely based on tasks that require children to draw impossible persons, and performance on this task may be limited by social deficits. To determine the generality of the deficit in imagination in children with autism,…

  4. Cognitive deficits and social functioning in schizophrenia : A clinical perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beilen, Marije; Kiers, Henk A.L.; Bouma, A; van Zomeren, Ed H.; Withaar, Frederiec; Arends, J; van den Bosch, RJ

    2003-01-01

    Impaired social functioning is one of the diagnostic features of schizophrenia. Cognitive functioning is also often impaired in several domains. Meta-analysis has shown a predictive value of cognition for a variety of domains related to social functioning (Green, Kern, Braff, & Mintz, 2000). The sig

  5. Depressive symptoms from kindergarten to early school age: longitudinal associations with social skills deficits and peer victimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsaker Françoise D

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depressive symptoms in children are associated with social skills deficits and problems with peers. We propose a model which suggests different mechanisms for the impact of deficits in self-oriented social skills (assertiveness and social participation and other-oriented social skills (pro-social, cooperative and non-aggressive behaviors on children's depressive symptoms. We hypothesized that deficits in self-oriented social skills have a direct impact on children's depressive symptoms because these children have non-rewarding interactions with peers, whereas the impact of deficits in other-oriented social skills on depressive symptoms is mediated through negative reactions from peers such as peer victimization. Method 378 kindergarten children (163 girls participated at two assessments (Age at T1: M = 5.8, T2: M = 7.4. Teachers completed questionnaires on children's social skills at T1. Teacher reports on peer victimization and depressive symptoms were assessed at both assessment points. Results Our study partially confirmed the suggested conceptual model. Deficits in self-oriented social skills significantly predicted depressive symptoms, whereas deficits in other-oriented social skills were more strongly associated with peer victimization. Longitudinal associations between other-oriented social skills and depressive symptoms were mediated through peer victimization. Conclusion The study emphasizes the role of deficits in self-oriented social skills and peer victimization for the development of internalizing disorders.

  6. Social cognition and neurocognitive deficits in first-episode schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bliksted, Vibeke Fuglsang; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Weed, Ethan;

    2014-01-01

    -episode schizophrenia. Researchers have speculated about social cognitive subgroups since patients with schizophrenia appear to be a very heterogeneous group. METHODS: Patients with a recent diagnosis of first-episode schizophrenia were tested regarding theory of mind, social perception, neurocognition, IQ...... symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Complex aspects of social cognition explained 24% of the variance in the patient group. The other principal components consisted mainly of aspects of simple perception of theory of mind. Neurocognition and clinical symptoms only explained a minor proportion of the variance......, and clinical symptoms. RESULTS: Data from 36 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 36 one to one matched healthy controls were analysed. Principal component analysis in the patient group was used to examine the variance contributed by different aspects of social cognition, neurocognition, and clinical...

  7. DIFFERENTIAL PATTERNS OF PREMORBID SOCIAL AND ACADEMIC DETERIORATION IN DEFICIT AND NONDEFICIT SCHIZOPHRENIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Gregory P.; Allen, Daniel N.; Miski, Pinar; Buchanan, Robert W.; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Carpenter, William T.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies indicate that social dysfunction is associated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia during the chronic phase of illness. However, it is unclear whether social abnormalities exist during the premorbid phase in people who later develop schizophrenia with prominent negative symptoms, or whether social functioning becomes progressively worse in these individuals from childhood to late adolescence. The current study examined differences in academic and social premorbid functioning in people with schizophrenia meeting criteria for deficit (i.e., primary and enduring negative symptoms) (DS: n=74) and non-deficit forms of schizophrenia (ND: n=271). Premorbid social and academic functioning was assessed for childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence developmental periods on the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS). Results indicated that both DS and ND participants showed deterioration in social and academic functioning from childhood to late adolescence. However, while ND schizophrenia demonstrated greater deterioration of academic compared to social premorbid functioning from childhood to late adolescence, the DS group exhibited comparable deterioration across both premorbid domains, with more severe social deterioration than the ND group. Findings suggest that people with DS show poorer social premorbid adjustment than those with ND as early as childhood, and are particularly susceptible to accelerated deterioration as the onset of schizophrenia becomes imminent. Thus, poor premorbid social adjustment and significant social deterioration from childhood to adolescence may be a hallmark feature of people who later go on to develop prominent negative symptoms and a unique marker for the DS subtype of schizophrenia. PMID:22130110

  8. Differential patterns of premorbid social and academic deterioration in deficit and nondeficit schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Gregory P; Allen, Daniel N; Miski, Pinar; Buchanan, Robert W; Kirkpatrick, Brian; Carpenter, William T

    2012-03-01

    Numerous studies indicate that social dysfunction is associated with negative symptoms of schizophrenia during the chronic phase of illness. However, it is unclear whether social abnormalities exist during the premorbid phase in people who later develop schizophrenia with prominent negative symptoms, or whether social functioning becomes progressively worse in these individuals from childhood to late adolescence. The current study examined differences in academic and social premorbid functioning in people with schizophrenia meeting criteria for deficit (i.e., primary and enduring negative symptoms) (DS: n = 74) and non-deficit forms of schizophrenia (ND: n = 271). Premorbid social and academic functioning was assessed for childhood, early adolescence, and late adolescence developmental periods on the Premorbid Adjustment Scale (PAS). Results indicated that both DS and ND participants showed deterioration in social and academic functioning from childhood to late adolescence. However, while ND schizophrenia demonstrated greater deterioration of academic compared to social premorbid functioning from childhood to late adolescence, the DS group exhibited comparable deterioration across both premorbid domains, with more severe social deterioration than the ND group. Findings suggest that people with DS show poorer social premorbid adjustment than those with ND as early as childhood, and are particularly susceptible to accelerated deterioration as the onset of schizophrenia becomes imminent. Thus, poor premorbid social adjustment and significant social deterioration from childhood to adolescence may be a hallmark feature of people who later go on to develop prominent negative symptoms and a unique marker for the DS subtype of schizophrenia.

  9. Can Executive Functions Explain the Relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Social Adjustment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Pfiffner, Linda; McBurnett, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the ability of executive functions (EF) to account for the relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) status and social adjustment as indexed by parent and teacher report and by performance on a standardized observational "chat room" task. Children with the Combined subtype (ADHD-C; n = 23), the…

  10. The deficit of decent work as a global problem of social and labor segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy Kolot

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The overview of the current trends in social and labor segment globally and in the Ukrainian economy is provided. The crises in functioning of the social and labor segment as the forms of expression of the deficit of decent work were isolated. The reasons destabilizing the social and labor segment and limiting the development of the decent work institute are presented. The findings on the situation of self-employment and vulnerable employment worldwide are given. The modern transformations in employment through the lens of decent work are disclosed, with a focus on vulnerable employment. A correlation between inequality in income and a deficit of decent work is shown. The relationship and interaction between decent work and human values in terms of the new economy and postindustrial society development as a philosophical platform of the modern concept of decent work is proven. The aggravation of the crisis of values of the labor g life in the light of deficit of the decent work is explained. The conceptual foundations of the decent work are revealed. The author's vision of the decent work institute as an integrated political, economic, and social platform of sustainable development is reasoned. The criteria and components of the decent work are presented. The importance of inclusive labor markets to expand the scale of decent work is disclosed. The strategic landmarks of overcoming the deficit of decent work are delineated.

  11. Cognitive deficits and morphological cerebral changes in a random sample of social drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, H

    1985-01-01

    A random sample of 200 men and 200 women taken from the general population as well as subsamples of 31 male and 17 female excessive social drinkers were investigated with neuropsychological tests and computed tomography of the brain. Relatively high alcohol intake per drinking occasion did not give evidence of cognitive deficits or morphological cerebral changes. However, in males, mild cognitive deficits and morphological cerebral changes as a result of high recent alcohol intake, particularly during the 24-hr period prior to the investigation, were observed. When excluding acute effects of recent alcohol intake, mild cognitive deficits but not morphological cerebral changes that are apparently due to long-term excessive social drinking were observed in males. In females there was no association between the drinking variables and cognitive deficits or morphological cerebral changes, probably due to their less advanced drinking habits. It is suggested that future risk evaluations and estimations of safe alcohol intake should take into consideration the potential risk for brain damage due to excessive social drinking. However, it is premature to make any definite statements about safe alcohol intake and the risk for brain damage in social drinkers from the general population.

  12. Understanding How Social and Emotional Skill Deficits Contribute to School Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitted, Kathryn S.

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of children are entering kindergarten without the skills that enable them to be successful in an academic setting. However, it is not children's cognitive skills that concern educators; it is their social and emotional skill deficits that are most troublesome. This article discusses how family and community risk factors can…

  13. Segregation and the Underrepresentation of Blacks and Hispanics in Gifted Education: Social Inequality and Deficit Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Donna Y.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the underrepresentation of African American and Hispanic students in gifted education, proposing that social inequality, deficit thinking, and microaggressions contribute to the inequitable segregated programs. Underrepresentation trends are presented, along with methods for calculating underrepresentation and inequity.…

  14. Severity of Academic Achievement and Social Skills Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Elana L.; Karagiannakis, Anastasia; Toste, Jessica R.; Heath, Nancy L.; Konstantinopoulos, Effie

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the differences in the rated social skills of elementary-aged students at-risk for emotional/behavioural disorders (E/BD) based on severity of academic difficulties. Teachers nominated students at-risk for E/BD who were classified into four groups of academic difficulty based on the Wide Range Achievement Test-3. Students,…

  15. Developmental deficits in social perception in autism: the role of the amygdala and fusiform face area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Robert T

    2005-01-01

    Autism is a severe developmental disorder marked by a triad of deficits, including impairments in reciprocal social interaction, delays in early language and communication, and the presence of restrictive, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. In this review, it is argued that the search for the neurobiological bases of the autism spectrum disorders should focus on the social deficits, as they alone are specific to autism and they are likely to be most informative with respect to modeling the pathophysiology of the disorder. Many recent studies have documented the difficulties persons with an autism spectrum disorder have accurately perceiving facial identity and facial expressions. This behavioral literature on face perception abnormalities in autism is reviewed and integrated with the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature in this area, and a heuristic model of the pathophysiology of autism is presented. This model posits an early developmental failure in autism involving the amygdala, with a cascading influence on the development of cortical areas that mediate social perception in the visual domain, specifically the fusiform "face area" of the ventral temporal lobe. Moreover, there are now some provocative data to suggest that visual perceptual areas of the ventral temporal pathway are also involved in important ways in representations of the semantic attributes of people, social knowledge and social cognition. Social perception and social cognition are postulated as normally linked during development such that growth in social perceptual skills during childhood provides important scaffolding for social skill development. It is argued that the development of face perception and social cognitive skills are supported by the amygdala-fusiform system, and that deficits in this network are instrumental in causing autism.

  16. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Social Anxiety in İstanbul Heavy Metal Bar Patrons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özalp Ekinci

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We aimed to examine the heavy metal bar patrons in Istanbul by means of self-reported questionnaires for psychiatric disorder symptoms.Material and Methods: Seventy-one volunteers from 4 popular heavy metal bars were included to the study. The Beck Depression Inventory, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS, the Adult Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD Scale and the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST were administered to the participants. Results: One fourth of the participants (25.4% were under high risk for a depressive episode (BDI>17, 22 (32.3% reported significant social anxiety (LSAS>30, and 41 (57.7% showed moderate ADHD symptoms (Adult ADD/ADHD scale: 20-59. According to BDI score participants who were under the risk for depression showed higher scores in Adult ADD/ADHD scale scores than that of participants who were not under a risk for depression (p=0.001 for attention deficit; p=0.003 for hyperactivity; p=0.002 for impulsivity; p=0.001 for total score. In the study group, ADD/ADHD scale attention deficit score was positively correlated with the total fear, total avoidence and the total scores of LSAS (r=.359 p<0.01; r=.332 p<0.01; r=.358 p<0.01, respectively. Conclusion: Heavy metal bar patrons appear to be a particular social group with an increased risk of psychopathology.

  17. Physiological arousal, distress tolerance, and social problem-solving deficits among adolescent self-injurers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nock, Matthew K; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2008-02-01

    It has been suggested that people engage in nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) because they (a) experience heightened physiological arousal following stressful events and use NSSI to regulate experienced distress and (b) have deficits in their social problem-solving skills that interfere with the performance of more adaptive social responses. However, objective physiological and behavioral data supporting this model are lacking. The authors compared adolescent self-injurers (n = 62) with noninjurers (n = 30) and found that self-injurers showed higher physiological reactivity (skin conductance) during a distressing task, a poorer ability to tolerate this distress, and deficits in several social problem-solving abilities. These findings highlight the importance of attending to increased arousal, distress tolerance, and problem-solving skills in the assessment and treatment of NSSI.

  18. Association of Social Frailty With Both Cognitive and Physical Deficits Among Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Doi, Takehiko; Makizako, Hyuma; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Makino, Keitaro; Suzuki, Takao; Shimada, Hiroyuki

    2017-07-01

    Our objective was to investigate the association between social frailty and cognitive and physical function among older adults. This was a cross-sectional study. We examined community-dwelling adults in Japan. Participants comprised 4425 older Japanese people from the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology-Study of Geriatric Syndromes. Social frailty was defined by using responses to 5 questions (going out less frequently, rarely visiting friends, feeling unhelpful to friends or family, living alone, and not talking with someone every day). Participants showing none of these components were considered nonfrail; those showing 1 component were considered prefrail; and those showing 2 or more components were considered frail. To screen for cognitive deficits, we assessed memory, attention, executive function, and processing speed. Having 2 or more tests with age-adjusted scores of at least 1.5 standard deviations below the reference threshold was sufficient to be characterized as cognitively deficient. To screen for physical function deficits, we assessed walking speed (social frailty was the following: nonfrailty, 64.1% (N = 2835); social prefrailty, 24.8% (N = 1097); social frailty, 11.1% (N = 493; P for trend social frailty groups; physical function (gait speed and grip strength) also varied between social frailty groups (all Ps for trend social nonfrailty, social frailty was independently associated with each cognitive deficit (odds ratio = 1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.13-2.30) and deficits in physical function (odds ratio = 1.99, 95% confidence interval 1.57-2.52) after adjusting for covariates. This study revealed that social frailty is associated with both cognitive and physical function among Japanese older adults. And social frailty status was also negatively associated with physical function. Further studies are needed to elucidate if a casual association exists between social frailty and cognitive and physical function. Copyright

  19. Deficits in social perception in opioid maintenance patients, abstinent opioid users and non-opioid users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Skye; Darke, Shane; Kaye, Sharlene; Torok, Michelle

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to compare emotion perception and social inference in opioid maintenance patients with abstinent ex-users and non-heroin-using controls, and determine whether any deficits in could be accounted for by cognitive deficits and/or risk factors for brain damage. Case-control. Sydney, Australia. A total of 125 maintenance patients (MAIN), 50 abstinent opiate users (ABST) and 50 matched controls (CON). The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT) was used to measure emotion perception and social inference. Measures were also taken of executive function, working memory, information processing speed, verbal/non-verbal learning and psychological distress. After adjusting for age, sex, pre-morbid IQ and psychological distress, the MAIN group was impaired relative to CON (β = -0.19, P perception and relative to CON (β = -0.25, P social inference. In neither case did the CON and ABST groups differ. For both emotion perception (P social inference (P perception (β = -0.44, P social inference (β = -0.48, P perception and ability to make inferences about social situations. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Social inference deficits in temporal lobe epilepsy and lobectomy: risk factors and neural substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Melanie; St-Laurent, Marie; Barnett, Alexander; McAndrews, Mary Pat

    2015-05-01

    In temporal lobe epilepsy and lobectomy, deficits in emotion identification have been found consistently, but there is limited evidence for complex social inference skills such as theory of mind. Furthermore, risk factors and the specific neural underpinnings of these deficits in this population are unclear. We investigated these issues using a comprehensive range of social inference tasks (emotion identification and comprehension of sincere, deceitful and sarcastic social exchanges) in individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy or lobectomy (n = 87). We observed deficits across patient groups which were partly related to the presence of mesial temporal lobe sclerosis, early age of seizure onset and left lobectomy. A voxel-based morphometry analysis conducted in the pre-operative group confirmed the importance of the temporal lobe by showing a relationship between left hippocampal atrophy and overall social inference abilities, and between left anterior neocortex atrophy and sarcasm comprehension. These findings are in keeping with theoretical proposals that the hippocampus is critical for binding diverse elements in cognitive domains beyond canonical episodic memory operations, and that the anterior temporal cortex is a convergence zone of higher-order perceptual and emotional processes, and of stored representations. As impairments were frequent, we require further investigation of this behavioural domain and its impact on the lives of people with epilepsy.

  1. Pervasive social deficits, but normal parturition, in oxytocin receptor-deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayanagi, Yuki; Yoshida, Masahide; Bielsky, Isadora F.; Ross, Heather E.; Kawamata, Masaki; Onaka, Tatsushi; Yanagisawa, Teruyuki; Kimura, Tadashi; Matzuk, Martin M.; Young, Larry J.; Nishimori, Katsuhiko

    2005-01-01

    The oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and its ligand, oxytocin (OXT), regulate reproductive physiology (i.e., parturition and lactation) and sociosexual behaviors. To define the essential functions of OXTR, we generated mice with a null mutation in the Oxtr gene (Oxtr-/-) and compared them with OXT-deficient (Oxt-/-) mice. Oxtr-/- mice were viable and had no obvious deficits in fertility or reproductive behavior. Oxtr-/- dams exhibited normal parturition but demonstrated defects in lactation and maternal nurturing. Infant Oxtr-/- males emitted fewer ultrasonic vocalizations than wild-type littermates in response to social isolation. Adult Oxtr-/- males also showed deficits in social discrimination and elevated aggressive behavior. Ligand Oxt-/- males from Oxt-/- dams, but not from Oxt+/- dams, showed similar high levels of aggression. These data suggest a developmental role for the OXT/OXTR system in shaping adult aggressive behavior. Our studies demonstrate that OXTR plays a critical role in regulating several aspects of social behavior and may have important implications for developmental psychiatric disorders characterized by deficits in social behavior. PMID:16249339

  2. Deficits in theory of mind and social anxiety as independent paths to paranoid features in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaker, Paul H; Salvatore, Giampaolo; Grant, Megan L A; Procacci, Michele; Olesek, Kyle L; Buck, Kelly D; Nicolò, Giuseppe; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2010-12-01

    Research suggests paranoia among persons with schizophrenia may be the result of a number of different psychological processes including deficits in theory of mind (ToM) and social anxiety. To test this hypothesis, this study sought to determine whether a group of highly paranoid persons with and without a ToM deficit could be detected and whether the group with paranoia and better ToM might have high levels of social anxiety. To explore this, a cluster analysis was performed on a group of 102 adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders in a non-acute phase of illness on the basis of ratings of paranoid features using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and levels of ToM deficit using a factor score which summarized four different ToM assessments. Four groups were produced: High Paranoia/Poor ToM (n = 14); Low Paranoia/Good ToM (n = 22); Low Paranoia/Low Middle ToM (n=29); and High Paranoia/High Middle ToM (n = 23). Groups were then compared on self report of social anxiety. As predicted, the group with levels of high paranoid features and relatively better ToM performance had significantly higher levels of social anxiety than all other groups.

  3. Theory of mind deficits partly mediate impaired social decision-making in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liuqing; Li, Peifu; Mao, Haiying; Wang, Huiling; Shu, Chang; Bliksted, Vibeke; Zhou, Yuan

    2017-05-05

    Using paradigms from game theory, researchers have reported abnormal decision-making in social context in patients with schizophrenia. However, less is known about the underpinnings of the impairment. This study aimed to test whether theory of mind (ToM) deficits and/or neurocognitive dysfunctions mediate impaired social decision-making in patients with schizophrenia. We compared thirty-five patients with schizophrenia to thirty-eight matched healthy controls with regard to social decision-making using the mini Ultimatum Game (mini UG), a paradigm from game theory. Additionally, we assessed ToM using the Theory of Mind Picture Stories Task, a mental state attribution task, and assessed neurocognition using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia. Mediation analyses were performed on the data. In contrast to the behavioral pattern of healthy controls in the mini UG, the patients with schizophrenia significantly accepted more disadvantageous offers and rejected more advantageous offers, and showed reduced sensitivity to the fairness-related context changes in the mini UG. Impaired ToM and neurocognition were also found in the patients. Mediation analyses indicated that ToM but not neurocognition partially mediated the group differences on the disadvantageous and advantageous offers in the mini UG. Patients with schizophrenia exhibited impaired social decision-making. This impairment can be partly explained by their ToM deficits rather than neurocognitive deficits. However, the exact nature of the ToM deficits that mediate impaired social decision-making needs to be identified in future.

  4. Behavioral activation therapy for remediating persistent social deficits in medication-responsive chronic depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Gregory; Hellerstein, David J

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the use of behavioral activation therapy in patients with medication-responsive chronic depression who continue to experience social and occupational deficits. The classification of chronic depression includes a variety of disorders that are both common and debilitating and that frequently leave patients socially impaired even after remission of mood symptoms. Medication is often only partially effective in remedying these social impairments. As a result, other interventions, including forms of psychotherapy, may be justified as an adjunct to medication to improve residual social impairment. Behavioral activation therapy is one such treatment that may be especially appropriate for such individuals. The authors offer a brief description of behavioral activation therapy and examine how to adapt this therapy for use in patients with medication-responsive chronic depression. Preliminary evidence suggests that the therapy can be easily implemented with few modifications to improve social and occupational difficulties.

  5. Unlocking the Mystery of Social Deficits in Autism: Theory of Mind as Key

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacher, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) is key to the development of one's social skills. Without ToM, children (or adults) cannot understand or infer the thoughts, feelings, or intentions of others. A lack of ToM skills is considered by some to be a core deficit in autism. ToM affects all interpersonal interactions as well as academics, daily living, following…

  6. Can executive functions explain the relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and social adjustment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L; Mikami, Amori Yee; Pfiffner, Linda; McBurnett, Keith

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the ability of executive functions (EF) to account for the relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) status and social adjustment as indexed by parent and teacher report and by performance on a standardized observational "chat room" task. Children with the Combined subtype (ADHD-C; n = 23), the Primarily Inattentive Subtype (ADHD-I; n = 33), and non-ADHD controls (n = 36) participated. EF did not mediate the relationship between ADHD status and parent or teacher report of social adjustment. EF accounted for about 40-50% of the variance between ADHD status and the ability of children to detect subtle verbal cues as well as memory for the conversation in the chat room task, but did not mediate the relationship between ADHD and the number of prosocial, hostile, or on-topic statements that were made. Results are consistent with other recent reports, and suggest that the role of EF deficits in the production of social skill deficits in ADHD may not be as prominent as is typically assumed. The implications for the development of intervention programs designed to target core cognitive etiologic factors are discussed.

  7. Social Cognition Deficits and Associations with Drinking History in Alcoholic Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valmas, Mary M.; Ruiz, Susan Mosher; Gansler, David A.; Sawyer, Kayle S.; Oscar-Berman, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    . These findings extend into the social cognition domain, previous literature demonstrating the presence of cognitive deficits in alcoholism, their association with alcoholism severity, and variability by gender. Moreover, because impairments in social cognition can persist despite extended abstinence, they have important implications for relapse prevention. PMID:25581654

  8. The Utility of the Rorschach Coping Deficit Index as a Measure of Depression and Social Skills Deficits in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stredny, Rebecca; Ball, J.

    2005-01-01

    Little research has evaluated the validity of the Coping Deficit Index (CDI) of the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS). Because the CS Depression Index (DEPI) has frequently been found to yield false negatives, the CDI has been proposed as an alternative means of assessing social coping skills that may relate to depression. This study examined…

  9. Effects of a Social Skills Intervention on Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Peers with Shared Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radley, Keith C.; O'Handley, Roderick D.; Battaglia, Allison A.; Lum, John D. K.; Dadakhodjaeva, Komila; Ford, William B.; McHugh, Melissa B.

    2017-01-01

    The current study evaluated the effects of the "Superheroes Social Skills" program (Jenson et al. 2011) in promoting accurate demonstration of target social skills in training and generalization conditions in young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and peers with shared social deficits. Three preschool-age children with ASD…

  10. Intrinsic Visual-Motor Synchrony Correlates With Social Deficits in Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebel, Mary Beth; Eloyan, Ani; Nettles, Carrie A; Sweeney, Kristie L; Ament, Katarina; Ward, Rebecca E; Choe, Ann S; Barber, Anita D; Pekar, James J; Mostofsky, Stewart H

    2016-04-15

    Imitation, which is impaired in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and critically depends on the integration of visual input with motor output, likely impacts both motor and social skill acquisition in children with ASD; however, it is unclear what brain mechanisms contribute to this impairment. Children with ASD also exhibit what appears to be an ASD-specific bias against using visual feedback during motor learning. Does the temporal congruity of intrinsic activity, or functional connectivity, between motor and visual brain regions contribute to ASD-associated deficits in imitation, motor, and social skills? We acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans from 100 8- to 12-year-old children (50 ASD). Group independent component analysis was used to estimate functional connectivity between visual and motor systems. Brain-behavior relationships were assessed by regressing functional connectivity measures with social deficit severity, imitation, and gesture performance scores. We observed increased intrinsic asynchrony between visual and motor systems in children with ASD and replicated this finding in an independent sample from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange. Moreover, children with more out-of-sync intrinsic visual-motor activity displayed more severe autistic traits, while children with greater intrinsic visual-motor synchrony were better imitators. Our twice replicated findings confirm that visual-motor functional connectivity is disrupted in ASD. Furthermore, the observed temporal incongruity between visual and motor systems, which may reflect diminished integration of visual consequences with motor output, was predictive of the severity of social deficits and may contribute to impaired social-communicative skill development in children with ASD. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Complexin 1 knockout mice exhibit marked deficits in social behaviours but appear to be cognitively normal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, Cheney J G; Kyd, Rachel J; Morton, A Jennifer

    2007-10-01

    Complexins are presynaptic proteins that modulate neurotransmitter release. Abnormal expression of complexin 1 (Cplx1) is seen in several neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders in which disturbed social behaviour is commonplace. These include Parkinsons's disease, Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, major depressive illness and bipolar disorder. We wondered whether changes in Cplx1 expression contribute to the psychiatric components of the diseases in which Cplx1 is dysregulated. To investigate this, we examined the cognitive and social behaviours of complexin 1 knockout mice (Cplx1(-/-)) mice. Cplx1(-/-) mice have a profound ataxia that limits their ability to perform co-ordinated motor tasks. Nevertheless, when we taught juvenile Cplx1(-/-) mice to swim, they showed no evidence of cognitive impairment in the two-choice swim tank. In contrast, although olfactory discrimination in Cplx1(-/-) mice was normal, Cplx1(-/-) mice failed in the social transmission of food preference task, another cognitive paradigm. This was due to abnormal social interactions rather than cognitive impairments, increased anxiety or neophobia. When we tested social behaviour directly, Cplx1(-/-) mice failed to demonstrate a preference for social novelty. Further, in a resident-intruder paradigm, male Cplx1(-/-) mice failed to show the aggressive behaviour that is typical of wild-type males towards an intruder mouse. Together our results show that in addition to the severe motor and exploratory deficits already described, Cplx1(-/-) mice have pronounced deficits in social behaviours. Abnormalities in complexin 1 levels in the brain may therefore contribute to the psycho-social aspects of human diseases in which this protein is dysregulated.

  12. A Few Close Friends: The Pediatrician's Role in the Management of Social Skills Deficits in Adolescent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braddock, Barbara A; Twyman, Kimberly A; Garrity, Matthew R; Wang, Tracy; Neary, Meaghan K; Ezzelgot, Jamie; Heithaus, Jennifer L

    2015-10-01

    Pediatricians must recognize and respond to adolescents with social skills deficits because they are at heightened risk for mental health disorders, peer victimization, and social isolation. The aim of this project was to describe a group of adolescent children at the time of enrollment into social skills treatment. Ninety participants with neurodevelopmental weaknesses or disorders, to include high-functioning autism spectrum disorder, participated. Results showed that adolescents referred for social skills deficits had communication weaknesses and concerns in everyday social reciprocal behavior. They rarely hosted get-togethers with same-aged peers and were not often invited by same-aged peers to get-togethers. Twenty-nine percent of participants reported that they were victims of bullying, and more than half of participants reported clinically significant ostracism experiences. Results are discussed in terms of the pediatrician's role in the prevention, identification, and treatment of social skills deficits in light of recent research showing brain neuroplasticity extending into adolescence.

  13. Deficits in social cognition in first episode psychosis: A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Kristin M; Bartholomeusz, Cali F; Penn, David L

    2016-12-01

    Individuals with chronic schizophrenia (SCZ) consistently show impairments in social cognition (SC) that are associated with functional decline, and work suggests that similar associations exist in first-episode psychosis (FEP). The goal of the current article is to review and synthesize the current body of work examining SC in FEP. Secondary aims are to examine the relationship between SC and symptoms, and change in SC over time in FEP. Literature is reviewed from four key SC domains: emotion processing (EP), theory of mind (ToM), social perception (SP), and attributional style (AS). Targeted searches of PsycINFO and Google Scholar were conducted to identify relevant manuscripts. Data from 48 relevant studies (6 longitudinal) were reviewed and integrated. (1) FEP individuals show consistent deficits in SC compared to healthy controls, most consistently in EP (particularly, fear and sadness recognition) and ToM compared to SP and AS, (2) individuals with FEP and SCZ show comparable SC deficits, (3) some evidence indicates SC deficits in FEP are associated with negative and positive symptoms, and (4) SC appears to be stable over time in FEP. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Social cognition deficits and psychopathic traits in young people seeking mental health treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita van Zwieten

    Full Text Available Antisocial behaviours and psychopathic traits place an individual at risk for criminality, mental illness, substance dependence, and psychosocial dysfunction. Social cognition deficits appear to be associated with psychopathic traits and are believed to contribute to interpersonal dysfunction. Most research investigating the relationship of these traits with social cognition has been conducted either in children or adult forensic settings. We investigated whether psychopathic traits were associated with social cognition in 91 young people presenting for mental healthcare (aged between 15 and 25 years. Participants completed symptom severity measures, neuropsychological tests, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test of social cognition (RMET, and the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD to assess psychopathic personality traits. Correlation analyses showed poorer social cognition was associated with greater psychopathic traits (r = -.36, p = .01. Interestingly, social cognition performance predicted unique variance in concurrent psychopathic personality traits above gender, IQ sustained attention, and working memory performance. These findings suggest that social cognitive impairments are associated with psychopathic tendencies in young people presenting for community mental healthcare. Research is needed to establish the directionality of this relationship and to determine whether social cognition training is an effective treatment amongst young people with psychopathic tendencies.

  15. Hyperresponsiveness to social rewards in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herpertz-Dahlmann Beate

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current research suggests that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is associated with larger behavioral sensitivity to reinforcement contingencies. However, most studies have focused thus far on the enhancing effects of tangible rewards such as money, neglecting that social-emotional stimuli may also impact task performance in ADHD patients. Methods To determine whether non-social (monetary and social (positive facial expressions rewards differentially improve response inhibition accuracy in children and adolescents with ADHD, we applied an incentive go/no-go task with reward contingencies for successful inhibition and compared ADHD subjects with typically developing individuals. Results Both social and monetary contingencies improved inhibition accuracy in all participants. However, individuals with ADHD displayed a particularly higher profit from social reward than healthy controls, suggesting that cognitive control in ADHD patients can be specifically improved by social reinforcement. By contrast, self-rated motivation associated with task performance was significantly lower in ADHD patients. Conclusion Our findings provide evidence for hyperresponsiveness to social rewards in ADHD patients, which is accompanied by limited self-awareness. These data suggest that social reward procedures may be particularly useful in behavioral interventions in children with ADHD.

  16. Involvement of Neuroinflammation during Brain Development in Social Cognitive Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yutaka; Chiba, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    Development of social cognition, a unique and high-order function, depends on brain maturation from childhood to adulthood in humans. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia have similar social cognitive deficits, although age of onset in each disorder is different. Pathogenesis of these disorders is complex and contains several features, including genetic risk factors, environmental risk factors, and sites of abnormalities in the brain. Although several hypotheses have been postulated, they seem to be insufficient to explain how brain alterations associated with symptoms in these disorders develop at distinct developmental stages. Development of ASD appears to be related to cerebellar dysfunction and subsequent thalamic hyperactivation in early childhood. By contrast, schizophrenia seems to be triggered by thalamic hyperactivation in late adolescence, whereas hippocampal aberration has been possibly initiated in childhood. One of the possible culprits is metal homeostasis disturbances that can induce dysfunction of blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Thalamic hyperactivation is thought to be induced by microglia-mediated neuroinflammation and abnormalities of intracerebral environment. Consequently, it is likely that the thalamic hyperactivation triggers dysregulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for lower brain regions related to social cognition. In this review, we summarize the brain aberration in ASD and schizophrenia and provide a possible mechanism underlying social cognitive deficits in these disorders based on their distinct ages of onset. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  17. Cognition and the compassion deficit: the social psychology of helping behaviour in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, John

    2014-10-01

    This paper discusses compassion failure and compassion deficits in health care, using two major reports by Robert Francis in the UK as a point of reference. Francis enquired into events at the Mid Staffordshire Hospital between 2005 and 2009, events that unequivocally warrant the description 'appalling care'. These events prompted an intense national debate, along with proposals for significant changes in the regulation of nursing and nurse education. The circumstances are specific to the UK, but the issues are international. I suggest that social psychology provides numerous hints about the mechanisms that might have been involved at Mid Staffs and about the reasons why outsiders are blind to these mechanisms. However, there have been few references to social psychology in the post-Francis debate (the Francis Report itself makes no reference to it at all). It is an enormously valuable resource, and it has been overlooked. Drawing on the social psychology literature, I express scepticism about the idea that there was a compassion deficit among the Mid Staff nurses - the assumption that the appalling care had something to do with the character, attitudes, and values of nurses - and argue that the Francis Report's emphasis on a 'culture of compassion and caring in nurse recruitment, training and education' is misconceived. It was not a 'failure of compassion' that led to the events in Mid Staffs but an interlocking set of contextual factors that are known to affect social cognition. These factors cannot be corrected or compensated for by teaching ethics, empathy, and compassion to student nurses.

  18. Social preference deficits in juvenile zebrafish induced by early chronic exposure to sodium valproate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuyun Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Prenatal exposure to sodium valproate (VPA, a widely used anti-epileptic drug, is related to a series of dysfunctions, such as deficits in language and communication. Clinical and animal studies have indicated that the effects of VPA are related to the concentration and to the exposure window, while the neurobehavioral effects of VPA have received limited research attention. In the current study, to analyze the neurobehavioral effects of VPA, zebrafish at 24 hours post-fertilization (hpf were treated with early chronic exposure to 20 μM VPA for 7 hours per day for 6 days or with early acute exposure to 100 μM VPA for 7 hours. A battery of behavioral screenings was conducted at 1 month of age to investigate social preference, locomotor activity, anxiety and behavioral response to light change. A social preference deficit was only observed in animals with chronic VPA exposure. Acute VPA exposure induced a change in the locomotor activity, while chronic VPA exposure did not affect locomotor activity. Neither exposure procedure influenced anxiety or the behavioral response to light change. These results suggested that VPA has the potential to affect some behaviors in zebrafish, such as social behavior and the locomotor activity, and that the effects were closely related to the concentration and the exposure window. Additionally, social preference seemed to be independent from other simple behaviors.

  19. Reduced Tract Integrity of the Model for Social Communication Is a Neural Substrate of Social Communication Deficits in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yu-Chun; Chen, Yu-Jen; Hsu, Yung-Chin; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with social communication deficits as one of the core symptoms. Recently, a five-level model for the social communication has been proposed in which white matter tracts corresponding to each level of the model are identified. Given that the model for social communication…

  20. [Oxytocin in the treatment of the social deficits associated to autism spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachafeiro-Espino, Carla; Vale-Martínez, Anna M

    2015-11-01

    Introduccion. La implicacion de la oxitocina en la conducta social de animales y humanos ha llevado a estudiar los efectos de su administracion en el comportamiento y cognicion social de pacientes con trastornos del espectro autista (TEA). Objetivos. Revisar la investigacion sobre el potencial terapeutico de la oxitocina en el tratamiento de los deficits sociales de la poblacion con TEA y discutir las probables direcciones futuras de los estudios en este campo. Desarrollo. Diversos trabajos han relacionado la oxitocina con la fisiopatologia de los TEA. La mayoria de los estudios que han administrado oxitocina, generalmente por via intranasal (24 UI), ha observado mejoras significativas en el rendimiento social, sin detectar efectos secundarios destacables. No obstante, existen datos contradictorios debido a la heterogeneidad de las variables analizadas por los diferentes estudios, al uso de muestras heterogeneas y pequeñas o a la diferente duracion de los tratamientos. Las limitaciones relacionadas con la falta de comprension de los mecanismos de accion de la oxitocina y la diversidad sintomatologica de los TEA dificultan el establecimiento de este peptido como tratamiento de los pacientes autistas. Estudios recientes destacan la conveniencia de explorar el efecto de la combinacion del tratamiento de oxitocina con programas conductuales de intervencion en habilidades sociales, asi como la potenciacion de la secrecion endogena de oxitocina. Conclusiones. Los efectos de la administracion de oxitocina resultan prometedores en relacion con el tratamiento de los deficits sociales en individuos con TEA. Estudios futuros deberian facilitar la comprension de las vias de accion de la oxitocina y el establecimiento de pautas optimas de tratamiento.

  1. The effect of a music therapy social skills training program on improving social competence in children and adolescents with social skills deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Lori F

    2011-01-01

    Three separate studies were conducted in school, residential and after-school care settings to test the effectiveness of a music therapy-based social skills intervention program on improving social competence in children and adolescents. A total of 45 children (n = 12; n = 13; n = 20) aged 6-17 years with social skills deficits participated in a group-based five session intervention program. The same curriculum, adapted to be age appropriate, was used at all 3 sites. Specific deficits within the social skills areas of peer relations and self-management skills were targeted. Active interventions like music performance, movement to music and improvisation were used. Cognitive-behavioral techniques like modeling, feedback, transfer training and problem solving were also incorporated. Data on social functioning were collected before, during, and after the music therapy intervention from participants, appropriate adult personnel and via behavioral observations. Results indicated that significant improvements in social functioning were found in (a) school participant pre and post self-ratings, (b) researcher pre and post ratings of school participants, (c) case manager's pre and post treatment ratings for the residential participants, (d) after-school care participants' pre and post self-ratings, and (e) behavioral observations at all three settings. Additional changes, although not significant, were noted in teacher ratings, residential participant self- and peer ratings, and after-school case manager ratings. Results from these studies suggest that the music therapy intervention was effective in improving social competence in children and adolescents with social deficits. More research is warranted to provide additional guidance about the use of music therapy interventions to improve social functioning.

  2. Base rates of social skills acquisition/performance deficits, strengths, and problem behaviors: an analysis of the Social Skills Improvement System--Rating Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresham, Frank M; Elliott, Stephen N; Kettler, Ryan J

    2010-12-01

    Base rate information is important in clinical assessment because one cannot know how unusual or typical a phenomenon is without first knowing its base rate in the population. This study empirically determined the base rates of social skills acquisition and performance deficits, social skills strengths, and problem behaviors using a nationally representative sample of children and adolescent ages 3-18 years. Using the national standardization sample of the Social Skills Improvement System--Rating Scales (N = 4,550) across 3 informants (teacher, parent, and student) and across 3 broad age groupings (3-5 years, 5-12 years, and 13-18 years), these base rates were computed. Results showed that the base rates for social skills acquisition deficits and problem behaviors are extremely low in the general population. Base rates for social skills performance deficits and social skills strengths were considerably higher, with students in the 5- to 12-year-old age group reporting fewer performance deficits and more social skills strengths than older children (13-18 years). Teachers and parents reported more performance deficits and fewer social skills strengths across all age groups than students in the 5- to 12-year-old age group. These results are discussed in terms of the utility of base rate information in clinical decision making.

  3. Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Social and School Adjustment: The Moderating Roles of Age and Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the associations between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social and school adjustment (academic performance, peer relationships, school social problems) and the moderating roles of children's age and maternal parenting (affection and overprotection) in these associations. The sample consisted of…

  4. Executive Function as a Mediator in the Link between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Social Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wan-Ling; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cognitive processes and mechanisms underlying the strong link between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social problems remain unclear. Limited knowledge also exists regarding a subgroup of youth with ADHD who do not have social problems. This study investigated the extent to which executive function (EF) mediated the…

  5. When the Social Mirror Breaks: Deficits in Automatic, but Not Voluntary, Mimicry of Emotional Facial Expressions in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Daniel N.; Reichmann-Decker, Aimee; Winkielman, Piotr; Wilbarger, Julia L.

    2006-01-01

    Humans, infants and adults alike, automatically mimic a variety of behaviors. Such mimicry facilitates social functioning, including establishment of interpersonal rapport and understanding of other minds. This fundamental social process may thus be impaired in disorders such as autism characterized by socio-emotional and communicative deficits.…

  6. Nonverbal Synchrony in Social Interactions of Patients with Schizophrenia Indicates Socio-Communicative Deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Zeno; Ramseyer, Fabian; Hoffmann, Holger; Tschacher, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Disordered interpersonal communication can be a serious problem in schizophrenia. Recent advances in computer-based measures allow reliable and objective quantification of nonverbal behavior. Research using these novel measures has shown that objective amounts of body and head movement in patients with schizophrenia during social interactions are closely related to the symptom profiles of these patients. In addition to and above mere amounts of movement, the degree of synchrony, or imitation, between patients and normal interactants may be indicative of core deficits underlying various problems in domains related to interpersonal communication, such as symptoms, social competence, and social functioning. Nonverbal synchrony was assessed objectively using Motion Energy Analysis (MEA) in 378 brief, videotaped role-play scenes involving 27 stabilized outpatients diagnosed with paranoid-type schizophrenia. Low nonverbal synchrony was indicative of symptoms, low social competence, impaired social functioning, and low self-evaluation of competence. These relationships remained largely significant when correcting for the amounts of patients' movement. When patients showed reduced imitation of their interactants' movements, negative symptoms were likely to be prominent. Conversely, positive symptoms were more prominent in patients when their interaction partners' imitation of their movements was reduced. Nonverbal synchrony can be an objective and sensitive indicator of the severity of patients' problems. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of nonverbal synchrony may provide novel insights into specific relationships between symptoms, cognition, and core communicative problems in schizophrenia.

  7. Nonverbal Synchrony in Social Interactions of Patients with Schizophrenia Indicates Socio-Communicative Deficits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeno Kupper

    Full Text Available Disordered interpersonal communication can be a serious problem in schizophrenia. Recent advances in computer-based measures allow reliable and objective quantification of nonverbal behavior. Research using these novel measures has shown that objective amounts of body and head movement in patients with schizophrenia during social interactions are closely related to the symptom profiles of these patients. In addition to and above mere amounts of movement, the degree of synchrony, or imitation, between patients and normal interactants may be indicative of core deficits underlying various problems in domains related to interpersonal communication, such as symptoms, social competence, and social functioning.Nonverbal synchrony was assessed objectively using Motion Energy Analysis (MEA in 378 brief, videotaped role-play scenes involving 27 stabilized outpatients diagnosed with paranoid-type schizophrenia.Low nonverbal synchrony was indicative of symptoms, low social competence, impaired social functioning, and low self-evaluation of competence. These relationships remained largely significant when correcting for the amounts of patients' movement. When patients showed reduced imitation of their interactants' movements, negative symptoms were likely to be prominent. Conversely, positive symptoms were more prominent in patients when their interaction partners' imitation of their movements was reduced.Nonverbal synchrony can be an objective and sensitive indicator of the severity of patients' problems. Furthermore, quantitative analysis of nonverbal synchrony may provide novel insights into specific relationships between symptoms, cognition, and core communicative problems in schizophrenia.

  8. Uncovering the social deficits in the autistic brain.A Source-Based Morphometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Grecucci

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that mainly affects social interaction and communication. Evidence from behavioral and functional MRI studies supports the hypothesis that dysfunctional mechanisms involving social brain structures play a major role in autistic symptomatology. However, the investigation of anatomical abnormalities in the brain of people with autism has led to inconsistent results. We investigated whether specific brain regions, known to display functional abnormalities in autism, may exhibit mutual and peculiar patterns of covariance in their grey-matter concentrations. We analyzed structural MRI images of 32 young men affected by autistic disorder (AD and 50 healthy controls. Controls were matched for sex, age, handedness. IQ scores were also monitored to avoid confounding. A multivariate Source-Based Morphometry (SBM was applied for the first time on AD and controls to detect maximally independent networks of gray matter. Group comparison revealed a gray-matter source that showed differences in AD compared to controls. This network includes broad temporal regions involved in social cognition and high-level visual processing, but also motor and executive areas of the frontal lobe. Notably, we found that gray matter differences, as reflected by SBM, significantly correlated with social and behavioral deficits displayed by AD individuals and encoded via the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule scores. These findings provide support for current hypotheses about the neural basis of atypical social and mental states information processing in autism.

  9. Autism-relevant social abnormalities and cognitive deficits in engrailed-2 knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Brielmaier

    Full Text Available ENGRAILED 2 (En2, a homeobox transcription factor, functions as a patterning gene in the early development and connectivity of rodent hindbrain and cerebellum, and regulates neurogenesis and development of monoaminergic pathways. To further understand the neurobiological functions of En2, we conducted neuroanatomical expression profiling of En2 wildtype mice. RTQPCR assays demonstrated that En2 is expressed in adult brain structures including the somatosensory cortex, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus and brainstem. Human genetic studies indicate that EN2 is associated with autism. To determine the consequences of En2 mutations on mouse behaviors, including outcomes potentially relevant to autism, we conducted comprehensive phenotyping of social, communication, repetitive, and cognitive behaviors. En2 null mutants exhibited robust deficits in reciprocal social interactions as juveniles and adults, and absence of sociability in adults, replicated in two independent cohorts. Fear conditioning and water maze learning were impaired in En2 null mutants. High immobility in the forced swim test, reduced prepulse inhibition, mild motor coordination impairments and reduced grip strength were detected in En2 null mutants. No genotype differences were found on measures of ultrasonic vocalizations in social contexts, and no stereotyped or repetitive behaviors were observed. Developmental milestones, general health, olfactory abilities, exploratory locomotor activity, anxiety-like behaviors and pain responses did not differ across genotypes, indicating that the behavioral abnormalities detected in En2 null mutants were not attributable to physical or procedural confounds. Our findings provide new insight into the role of En2 in complex behaviors and suggest that disturbances in En2 signaling may contribute to neuropsychiatric disorders marked by social and cognitive deficits, including autism spectrum disorders.

  10. Suppression of NMDA receptor function in mice prenatally exposed to valproic acid improves social deficits and repetitive behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaeseung eKang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Animals prenatally exposed to valproic acid (VPA, an antiepileptic agent, have been used as a model for autism spectrum disorders (ASDs. Previous studies have identified enhanced NMDA receptor (NMDAR function in the brain of VPA rats, and demonstrated that pharmacological suppression of NMDAR function normalizes social deficits in these animals. However, whether repetitive behavior, another key feature of ASDs, can be rescued by NMDAR inhibition remains unknown. We report here that memantine, an NMDAR antagonist, administered to VPA mice rescues both social deficits and repetitive behaviors such as self-grooming and jumping. These results suggest that suppression of elevated NMDAR function in VPA animals normalizes repetitive behaviors in addition to social deficits.

  11. Craving Facebook? Behavioral addiction to online social networking and its association with emotion regulation deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormes, Julia M; Kearns, Brianna; Timko, C Alix

    2014-12-01

    To assess disordered online social networking use via modified diagnostic criteria for substance dependence, and to examine its association with difficulties with emotion regulation and substance use. Cross-sectional survey study targeting undergraduate students. Associations between disordered online social networking use, internet addiction, deficits in emotion regulation and alcohol use problems were examined using univariate and multivariate analyses of covariance. A large University in the Northeastern United States. Undergraduate students (n = 253, 62.8% female, 60.9% white, age mean = 19.68, standard deviation = 2.85), largely representative of the target population. The response rate was 100%. Disordered online social networking use, determined via modified measures of alcohol abuse and dependence, including DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence, the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale and the Cut-down, Annoyed, Guilt, Eye-opener (CAGE) screen, along with the Young Internet Addiction Test, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II, White Bear Suppression Inventory and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Disordered online social networking use was present in 9.7% [n = 23; 95% confidence interval (5.9, 13.4)] of the sample surveyed, and significantly and positively associated with scores on the Young Internet Addiction Test (P addictive. Modified measures of substance abuse and dependence are suitable in assessing disordered online social networking use. Disordered online social networking use seems to arise as part of a cluster of symptoms of poor emotion regulation skills and heightened susceptibility to both substance and non-substance addiction. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Social skills training for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children aged 5 to 18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Skoog, Maria; Damm, Dorte; Thomsen, Per Hove; Simonsen, Erik; Gluud, Christian

    2011-12-07

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children is associated with hyperactivity and impulsitivity, attention problems, and difficulties with social interactions. Pharmacological treatment may alleviate symptoms of ADHD but seldom solves difficulties with social interactions. Social skills training may benefit ADHD children in their social interactions. We examined the effects of social skills training on children's social competences, general behaviour, ADHD symptoms, and performance in school. To assess the effects of social skills training in children and adolescents with ADHD. We searched the following electronic databases: CENTRAL (2011, Issue1), MEDLINE (1948 to March 2011), EMBASE (1980 to March 2011), ERIC (1966 to March 2011 ), AMED (1985 to June 2011), PsycINFO (1806 to March 2011), CINAHL (1980 to March 2011), and Sociological Abstracts (1952 to March 2011). We also searched the metaRegister of Controlled Trials on 15 October 2010. We did not apply any language or date restrictions to the searches. We searched online conference abstracts and contacted 176 experts in the field for possible information about unpublished or ongoing RCTs. Randomised trials investigating social skills training for children with ADHD as a stand alone treatment or as an adjunct to pharmacological treatment. We conducted the review according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Intervention. Two authors (OJS, MS) extracted data independently using an appropriate data collection form. We performed the analyses using Review Manager 5 software. We included 11 randomised trials described in 26 records (all full text articles) in the review. The trials included a total of 747 participants. All participants were between five and 12 years of age. No trials assessed adolescents. In 10 of the trials the participants suffered from different comorbidities.The duration of the interventions ranged from eight to 10 weeks (eight trials) up to two years. The types of

  13. Deficits in implicit attention to social signals in schizophrenia and high risk groups: behavioural evidence from a new illusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mascha van 't Wout

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An increasing body of evidence suggests that the apparent social impairments observed in schizophrenia may arise from deficits in social cognitive processing capacities. The ability to process basic social cues, such as gaze direction and biological motion, effortlessly and implicitly is thought to be a prerequisite for establishing successful social interactions and for construing a sense of "social intuition." However, studies that address the ability to effortlessly process basic social cues in schizophrenia are lacking. Because social cognitive processing deficits may be part of the genetic vulnerability for schizophrenia, we also investigated two groups that have been shown to be at increased risk of developing schizophrenia-spectrum pathology: first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients and men with Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY. RESULTS: We compared 28 patients with schizophrenia, 29 siblings of patients with schizophrenia, and 29 individuals with Klinefelter syndrome with 46 matched healthy control subjects on a new paradigm. This paradigm measures one's susceptibility for a bias in distance estimation between two agents that is induced by the implicit processing of gaze direction and biological motion conveyed by these agents. Compared to control subjects, patients with schizophrenia, as well as siblings of patients and Klinefelter men, showed a lack of influence of social cues on their distance judgments. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the insensitivity for social cues is a cognitive aspect of schizophrenia that may be seen as an endophenotype as it appears to be present both in relatives who are at increased genetic risk and in a genetic disorder at risk for schizophrenia-spectrum psychopathology. These social cue-processing deficits could contribute, in part, to the difficulties in higher order social cognitive tasks and, hence, to decreased social competence that has been observed in these groups.

  14. Development of a Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention Program to Treat Anxiety and Social Deficits in Teens with High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan W.; Albano, Anne Marie; Johnson, Cynthia R.; Kasari, Connie; Ollendick, Thomas; Klin, Ami; Oswald, Donald; Scahill, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety is a common co-occurring problem among young people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Characterized by deficits in social interaction, communication problems, and stereotyped behavior and restricted interests, this group of disorders is more prevalent than previously realized. When present, anxiety may compound the social deficits of…

  15. Home and School Environments as Determinant of Social Skills Deficit among Learners with Intellectual Disability in Lagos State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isawumi, Oyeyinka David; Oyundoyin, John Olusegun

    2016-01-01

    The study examined home and school environmental factors as determinant of social skills deficit among learners with intellectual disability in Lagos State, Nigeria. The study adopted survey research method using a sample size of fifty (50) pupils with intellectual disability who were purposively selected from five special primary schools in Lagos…

  16. Social Skills Development in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder through Participation in a Residential Summer Camp Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guettal, Zoe; Potter, Tom

    2000-01-01

    A study assessed social skills development in children aged 8-13 with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder after they attended a residential summer camp. Questionnaires returned by parents of 12 such campers reported increases in age-appropriate behavior, independence, self-esteem, connection with peers, and participation in group activities.…

  17. Oral treatment with Lactobacillus rhamnosus attenuates behavioural deficits and immune changes in chronic social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharwani, Aadil; Mian, M Firoz; Surette, Michael G; Bienenstock, John; Forsythe, Paul

    2017-01-11

    Stress-related disorders involve systemic alterations, including disruption of the intestinal microbial community. Given the putative connections between the microbiota, immunity, neural function, and behaviour, we investigated the potential for microbe-induced gut-to-brain signalling to modulate the impact of stress on host behaviour and immunoregulation. Male C57BL/6 mice treated orally over 28 days with either Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) ™ or vehicle were subjected to chronic social defeat and assessed for alterations in behaviour and immune cell phenotype. 16S rRNA sequencing and mass spectrometry were employed to analyse the faecal microbial community and metabolite profile. Treatment with JB-1 decreased stress-induced anxiety-like behaviour and prevented deficits in social interaction with conspecifics. However, JB-1 did not alter development of aggressor avoidance following social defeat. Microbial treatment attenuated stress-related activation of dendritic cells while increasing IL-10+ regulatory T cells. Furthermore, JB-1 modulated the effect of stress on faecal metabolites with neuroactive and immunomodulatory properties. Exposure to social defeat altered faecal microbial community composition and reduced species richness and diversity, none of which was prevented by JB-1. Stress-related microbiota disruptions persisted in vehicle-treated mice for 3 weeks following stressor cessation. These data demonstrate that despite the complexity of the gut microbiota, exposure to a single microbial strain can protect against certain stress-induced behaviours and systemic immune alterations without preventing dysbiosis. This work supports microbe-based interventions for stress-related disorders.

  18. Neural markers of social and monetary rewards in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Luz Gonzalez-Gadea; Mariano Sigman; Alexia Rattazzi; Claudio Lavin; Alvaro Rivera-Rei; Julian Marino; Facundo Manes; Agustin Ibanez

    2016-01-01

    Recent theories of decision making propose a shared value-related brain mechanism for encoding monetary and social rewards. We tested this model in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and control children. We monitored participants’ brain dynamics using high density-electroencephalography while they played a monetary and social reward tasks. Control children exhibited a feedback Error-Related Negativity (fERN) modulation ...

  19. Neural activation deficits in a mouse genetic model of NMDA receptor hypofunction in tests of social aggression and swim stress

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Gary E.; Inada, Ken; Farrington, Joseph S.; Koller, Beverly H.; Moy, Sheryl S.

    2009-01-01

    Mice with reduced expression of the NR1 subunit of the NMDA receptor (NR1 hypomorphic mice) display altered behavioral phenotypes that may relate to behavioral characteristics of schizophrenia. Altered phenotypes in the NR1 hypomorphs include marked deficits in species-typical behavioral interactions in tests of social aggression and social affiliation. To gain insight into neuroanatomical circuits disrupted by reduced NMDA receptor function, the present work compared regional brain activatio...

  20. Brain hyper-connectivity in children with autism and its links to social deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supekar, Kaustubh; Uddin, Lucina Q.; Khouzam, Amirah; Phillips, Jennifer; Gaillard, William D.; Kenworthy, Lauren E.; Yerys, Benjamin E.; Vaidya, Chandan J.; Menon, Vinod

    2013-01-01

    Summary Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting nearly 1 in 88 children, is thought to result from aberrant brain connectivity. Remarkably, there have been no systematic attempts to characterize whole-brain connectivity in children with ASD. Here, we use neuroimaging to show there are more instances of greater functional connectivity in the brains of children with ASD compared with typically developing children. Hyper-connectivity in ASD was observed at the whole-brain and subsystems level, across long- and short-range connections, and was associated with higher levels of fluctuations in regional brain signals. Brain hyper-connectivity predicted symptom severity in ASD such that children with greater functional connectivity exhibited more severe social deficits. We replicated these findings in two additional independent cohorts, demonstrating again that at earlier ages, the brain in ASD is largely functionally hyper-connected in ways that contribute to social dysfunction. Our findings provide novel insights into brain mechanisms underlying childhood autism. PMID:24210821

  1. Brain Hyperconnectivity in Children with Autism and its Links to Social Deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustubh Supekar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD, a neurodevelopmental disorder affecting nearly 1 in 88 children, is thought to result from aberrant brain connectivity. Remarkably, there have been no systematic attempts to characterize whole-brain connectivity in children with ASD. Here, we use neuroimaging to show that there are more instances of greater functional connectivity in the brains of children with ASD in comparison to those of typically developing children. Hyperconnectivity in ASD was observed at the whole-brain and subsystems levels, across long- and short-range connections, and was associated with higher levels of fluctuations in regional brain signals. Brain hyperconnectivity predicted symptom severity in ASD, such that children with greater functional connectivity exhibited more severe social deficits. We replicated these findings in two additional independent cohorts, demonstrating again that at earlier ages, the brain of children with ASD is largely functionally hyperconnected in ways that contribute to social dysfunction. Our findings provide unique insights into brain mechanisms underlying childhood autism.

  2. Oxytocin system social function impacts in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaz, Ayşe Burcu; Karkucak, Mutlu; Ayaz, Muhammed; Gokce, Sebla; Kayan, Esengul; Güler, Elif Erol; Güngen, Belma Doğan; Kuşcu, Tugba Didem; Ocakoğlu, Gökhan; Yakut, Tahsin

    2015-10-01

    To investigate relationships between the polymorphisms and social functioning of children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), according to the polymorphism of three oxytocin receptor (OXTR) genes (rs53576, rs13316193, and and rs2268493). A total of 198 children-studying in the same primary and secondary school and matched in terms of age and gender (99 ADHD, 99 control)-were included in this study. The Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version was administered to establish the clinical diagnosis. The Social Reciprocity Scale (SRS) was applied to evaluate social functioning. The total genomic DNA was isolated from buccal mucosa samples. No significant differences were determined between the ADHD and control groups in terms of rs2268493, rs13316193, and rs53576 genotype distribution (P = 0.078, P = 0.330, and P = 0.149, respectively). However, the control group T allele frequency in the OXTR Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) rs2268493 was significantly higher than the ADHD group (P = 0.024). Compared to the control group, the ADHD group had a higher score on the SRS scale (SRS total; Z = -21,135, P < 0.001). No significant difference existed in the SRS scale scores between the children with the T/T genotype and the C allele in the ADHD group (SRS total; Z = -0.543, P = 0.587). The allele distribution of the OXTR gene SNP rs2268493 was significantly different in the ADHD group, compared to the control group. This observation is important in understanding the underlying biological infrastructure in ADHD and developing treatment modalities.

  3. Analyzing Social Issues Related to Teaching about the Federal Budget, Federal Debt, and Budget Deficit in Fifty State High School Social Studies Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marri, Anand R.; Crocco, Margaret S.; Shuttleworth, Jay; Gaudelli, William; Grolnick, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This study of all fifty state, high school social studies curriculum standards found a lack of attention in the vast majority of state standards to the federal budget, federal debt, and budget deficit, topics of significant concern. These concepts are important to teaching about economics in the United States since they lie at the center of…

  4. Social cognition impairments after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: Associations with deficits in interpersonal behaviour, apathy, and impaired self-awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buunk, Anne M; Spikman, Jacoba M; Veenstra, Wencke S; van Laar, Peter Jan; Metzemaekers, Jan D M; van Dijk, J Marc C; Meiners, Linda C; Groen, Rob J M

    2017-08-01

    Behavioural disturbances are frequently found after aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (aSAH). Social cognition impairments have been suggested as a possible underlying mechanism for behavioural problems. Also, aSAH is likely to result in damage affecting frontal-subcortical circuits underlying social cognition. Therefore, we aimed to investigate social cognition after aSAH and its associations with behavioural problems (deficits in interpersonal behaviour, apathy, and impaired self-awareness) and focal as well as diffuse brain damage. 88 aSAH patients (in the subacute phase post-aSAH) and 60 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls participated. Tasks for emotion recognition, Theory of Mind (ToM), and empathy as well as questionnaires were used. Cortical infarctions in frontal and non-frontal areas on MRI, aneurysm circulation and aSAH-related events were taken into account. Compared to healthy controls, aSAH patients performed significantly worse on tasks for emotion recognition, ToM and empathy. Poor performance on ToM and emotion recognition was associated with proxy-ratings indicating impaired interpersonal behaviour and apathy and with indications of impaired self-awareness. No associations were found between deficits in social cognition and frontal or non-frontal cortical lesions on MRI. Also, aneurysm circulation and aSAH-related events such as hydrocephalus, vasospasm, and treatment method did not explain why and how social cognitive deficits did occur after aSAH. In conclusion, emotion recognition, ToM and empathy were clearly impaired in aSAH patients and these deficits were related to apathy and deficits in interpersonal behaviour as reported by proxies and to impaired self-awareness. This association strengthens the assumption of impaired social cognition as an underlying construct of behavioural problems after aSAH. Consequently, social cognition tests and proxy-ratings should be used in clinical practice, irrespective of lesion location on

  5. Haploinsufficiency of the autism-associated Shank3 gene leads to deficits in synaptic function, social interaction, and social communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bozdagi Ozlem

    2010-12-01

    , induced either with θ-burst pairing (TBP or high-frequency stimulation, was impaired in Shank3 heterozygous mice, with no significant change in long-term depression (LTD. In concordance with the LTP results, persistent expansion of spines was observed in control mice after TBP-induced LTP; however, only transient spine expansion was observed in Shank3 heterozygous mice. Male Shank3 heterozygotes displayed less social sniffing and emitted fewer ultrasonic vocalizations during interactions with estrus female mice, as compared to wild-type littermate controls. Conclusions We documented specific deficits in synaptic function and plasticity, along with reduced reciprocal social interactions in Shank3 heterozygous mice. Our results are consistent with altered synaptic development and function in Shank3 haploinsufficiency, highlighting the importance of Shank3 in synaptic function and supporting a link between deficits in synapse function and neurodevelopmental disorders. The reduced glutamatergic transmission that we observed in the Shank3 heterozygous mice represents an interesting therapeutic target in Shank3-haploinsufficiency syndromes.

  6. Differentiation between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder by the social communication questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenck, Christina; Freitag, Christine M

    2014-09-01

    The differentiation of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) poses a clinical challenge. In children, overlap of psychopathological and cognitive findings has been found for both disorders. In addition, some children suffer from both disorders. The Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) is a screening instrument for ASD symptoms which indicates the presence of ASD in a rapid and economic way. However, validity to differentiate ASD and ADHD as differential or comorbid diagnoses has not been studied. Here, the differential validity was compared in groups of children with ASD, ADHD, ASD + ADHD, and typically developing (TD) children and IQ > 70. ROC analyses indicated an excellent differentiation between ASD and TD with ROC-AUC = .941 and between ASD + ADHD with ROC-AUC = .993. The optimal cutoff was below the originally recommended one of 15. The differentiation between children with ASD with (ROC-AUC = .982) or without ADHD (ROC-AUC = .864) and ADHD alone also showed acceptable differential validity, and here, the optimal cutoff corresponded to the recommended. Taken together, the SCQ can be recommended as a screening instrument for a first differentiation between children with ASD and typically developing children as well as children with ADHD.

  7. Deficits of social-cognitive and social-perceptual aspects of theory of mind in remitted patients with schizophrenia: effect of residual symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Emre; Gökçen, Sezen; Kayahan, Bülent; Veznedaroglu, Baybars

    2008-02-01

    Although ToM deficit in schizophrenia is widely accepted, findings regarding remitted schizophrenia patients are contradictory. Because residual symptoms are present out of psychotic exacerbation periods, the differences between definition of remission may be important to interpret these findings. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between performance of 2 different aspects of theory of mind (ToM) and residual clinical symptoms and other cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Ninety-one stable outpatients with schizophrenia and 55 healthy controls were assessed with a neuropsychological battery. Both social-cognitive and social-perceptual aspects of ToM were impaired in schizophrenia, even in patients who were totally free of residual symptoms. Still, the results showed that ToM deficit is related to residual symptoms of schizophrenia. Social-cognitive ToM abilities seem to be related to both positive and negative symptoms. The ToM deficits of fully remitted patients without persistent negative symptoms may be secondary to a more general cognitive dysfunction in schizophrenia.

  8. Randomised social-skills training and parental training plus standard treatment versus standard treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder - the SOSTRA trial protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Pedersen, Jesper; Skoog, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are hyperactive and impulsive, cannot maintain attention, and have difficulties with social interactions. Medical treatment may alleviate symptoms of ADHD, but seldom solves difficulties with social interactions. Social-skills training...... may benefit ADHD children in their social interactions. We want to examine the effects of social-skills training on difficulties related to the children's ADHD symptoms and social interactions....

  9. Deficits of hot executive function in developmental coordination disorder: Sensitivity to positive social cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahimi-Golkhandan, S.; Steenbergen, B.; Piek, J.P.; Wilson, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research shows that children with motor coordination problems (or developmental coordination disorder – DCD) show deficits in not only cool executive function (EF), but also hot EF. We aimed to determine whether this deficit of hot EF is due to heightened sensitivity to rewarding stimuli, spe

  10. Deficits of hot executive function in developmental coordination disorder: Sensitivity to positive social cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahimi-Golkhandan, S.; Steenbergen, B.; Piek, J.P.; Wilson, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research shows that children with motor coordination problems (or developmental coordination disorder - DCD) show deficits in not only cool executive function (EF), but also hot EF. We aimed to determine whether this deficit of hot EF is due to heightened sensitivity to rewarding stimuli, spe

  11. Exercise reduces the symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and improves social behaviour, motor skills, strength and neuropsychological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Carolin Friederike; Sperlich, Billy; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2014-07-01

    This review summarises research studies on the impact and beneficial effects of different types of exercise on childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and provides recommendations for the scientific and therapeutic communities. Although the design and the exercise interventions featured in these studies varied considerably, all showed that exercise reduced the symptoms of ADHD and led to improvements in social behaviour, motor skills, strength and neuropsychological parameters. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder-Related Impulsivity and Cyberbullying in Social Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Marie; Fogler, Jason; Selkie, Ellen; Augustyn, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    Sarah is a 13-year-old eighth grader who was recently diagnosed for the first time with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-inattentive type, and the family elected to treat her with behavioral interventions to help her organization and attention. She had struggled with distractibility and disorganization since the fourth grade. At home, Sarah's mother described her as "spacey" and unable to complete the morning routine without constant supervision. Over time, her mother observed that it seemed as if Sarah had given up on school.As Sarah became an adolescent, her self-esteem suffered because of her academic struggles, and she placed increasing emphasis on her appearance, including focus on remaining thin and refusing to leave the house without makeup. It was in this context that Sarah recently posted photographs of herself in various stages of undress and/or drinking alcohol on Snapchat, a photograph-sharing application in which users can send "snaps"-photographs that disappear soon after opening. However, snap recipients can take a screenshot or photograph of the snap, thereby saving the image. For unknown reasons, Sarah's close female friend took screenshots of these provocative photographs and sent them to their classmates and Sarah's older brother.Sarah's family contacted the police and has been working with her school to address this incident. This experience resulted in significant family stress and distrust of Sarah. For example, her mother took away her cell phone and laptop and has "grounded her" for a month from all out of school activities.Sarah's family seeks guidance regarding teaching Sarah about using social media responsibly and preventing this from happening again. Sarah's mom comes to your urgent care session asking for help because she does not feel that Sarah has "learned her lesson." What would you do next?

  13. Attached to a diagnosis: the quandary of social deficits and reactive attachment disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Randall; Eisert, Debra; Schulz, Susan; Augustyn, Marilyn

    2012-01-01

    : Alex is a 9-year-old boy brought to you, his primary care provider, for a "fifth opinion." You have cared for Alex since he was adopted from a Romanian orphanage at 3 years of age. He has been physically healthy with normal growth parameters and no evidence of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alex has long-standing history of social difficulties, impulsivity, lying, controlling, manipulative behaviors, violent outbursts at home with subsequent lack of remorse, and excessive chatter. You referred Alex to an interdisciplinary child development clinic 2 years ago, where he was diagnosed with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). He was noted to have normal cognitive and language skills. Attachment therapy, stimulant therapy, and school accommodations for ADHD were recommended.Alex received some individual counseling with the school psychologist for a year after the first evaluation, with little improvement in core behaviors. The following year, Alex established care with a psychiatrist and a private counselor. The psychiatrist prescribed a succession of stimulants, each of which worked for only a short time and then had waning effect. The counselor worked with Alex and his parents on managing Alex's behavior, which the family reports has been somewhat helpful.Alex's parents express great frustration and sadness that parenting Alex has been such an ongoing struggle since he was adopted. They note that Alex is superficially friendly, chatty, and charming, with everyone he encounters, including strangers, but he never progresses past such superficial interaction, even with his adoptive parents. The parents express that they are deeply wounded that Alex is not more loving and is not more appreciative of the fact that they rescued him from the orphanage.His parents asked his pediatric clinician about Autism as they observe Alex's lack of real affection and social connection with parents or peers. They also note that Alex has

  14. Unilateral whisker clipping exacerbates ethanol-induced social and somatosensory behavioral deficits in a sex- and age-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellmann, Kristen A; Mooney, Sandra M

    2015-09-01

    Prenatal exposure to ethanol results in sensory deficits and altered social interactions in animal and clinical populations. Sensory stimuli serve as important cues and shape sensory development; developmental exposure to ethanol or sensory impoverishment can impair somatosensory development, but their combined effects on behavioral outcomes are unknown. We hypothesized 1) that chronic prenatal ethanol exposure would disrupt social interaction and somatosensory performance during adolescence, 2) that a mild sensory impoverishment (neonatal unilateral whisker clipping; WC) would have a mildly impairing to sub-threshold effect on these behavioral outcomes, and 3) that the effect of ethanol would be exacerbated by WC. Long-Evans dams were fed a liquid diet containing ethanol or pair-fed with a non-ethanol diet on gestational days (G) 6-G21. Chow-fed control animals were also included. One male and female pup per litter underwent WC on postnatal day (P)1, P3, and P5. Controls were unclipped. Offspring underwent social interaction on P28 or P42, and gap-crossing (GC) on P31 or P42. Ethanol-exposed pups played less and crossed shorter gaps than control pups regardless of age or sex. WC further exacerbated ethanol-induced play fighting and GC deficits in all males but only in 28-day-old females. WC alone reduced sniffing in all males and in younger females. Thus, prenatal ethanol exposure induced deficits in social interaction and somatosensory performance during adolescence. Sensory impoverishment exacerbates ethanol's effect in 28-day-old male and female animals and in 42-day-old males, suggesting sex- and age-dependent changes in outcomes in ethanol-exposed offspring. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A comparison of social cognitive profiles in children with autism spectrum disorders and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a matter of quantitative but not qualitative difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demopoulos, Carly; Hopkins, Joyce; Davis, Amy

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare social cognitive profiles of children and adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and ADHD. Participants diagnosed with an ASD (n = 137) were compared to participants with ADHD (n = 436) on tests of facial and vocal affect recognition, social judgment and problem-solving, and parent- and teacher-report of social functioning. Both groups performed significantly worse than the normative sample on all measures. Although the ASD group had more severe deficits, the pattern of deficits was surprisingly similar between groups, suggesting that social cognitive deficit patterns may be more similar in ASD and ADHD than previously thought. Thus, like those with ASDs, individuals with ADHD may also need to be routinely considered for treatments targeting social skills.

  16. Short-term social memory deficits in adult female mice exposed to tannery effluent and possible mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrela, Fernanda Neves; Rabelo, Letícia Martins; Vaz, Boniek Gontijo; de Oliveira Costa, Denys Ribeiro; Pereira, Igor; de Lima Rodrigues, Aline Sueli; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2017-10-01

    The accumulated organic residues in tannery-plant courtyards are an eating attraction to small rodents; however, the contact of these animals with these residues may change their social behavior. Thus, the aim of the present study is to investigate whether the exposure to tannery effluent (TE) can damage the social recognition memory of female Swiss mice, as well as to assess whether vitamin C supplementation could provide information about how TE constituents can damage these animals' memory. We have observed that resident females exposed to TE (without vitamin supplementation) did not explore the anogenital region, their body or chased intruding females for shorter time or with lower frequency during the retest session of the social recognition test, fact that indicates social recognition memory deficit in these animals. Such finding is reinforced by the confirmation that there was no change in the animals' olfactory function during the buried food test, or locomotor changes in females exposed to the pollutant. Since no behavioral change was observed in the females exposed to TE and treated with vitamin C (before or after the exposure), it is possible saying that these social cognitive impairments seem to be directly related to the imbalance between the cellular production of reactive oxygen species and the counteracting antioxidant mechanisms (oxidative stress) in female mice exposed to the pollutant (without vitamin supplementation). Therefore, the present study evidences that the direct contact with tannery effluent, even for a short period-of-time, may cause short-term social memory deficits in adult female Swiss mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. GABAB Receptor Agonist R-Baclofen Reverses Social Deficits and Reduces Repetitive Behavior in Two Mouse Models of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, J L; Pride, M C; Hayes, J E; Puhger, K R; Butler-Struben, H M; Baker, S; Crawley, J N

    2015-08-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnosed by two core behavioral criteria, unusual reciprocal social interactions and communication, and stereotyped, repetitive behaviors with restricted interests. Excitatory/inhibitory imbalance is a prominent hypothesis for the etiology of autism. The selective GABAB receptor agonist R-baclofen previously reversed social deficits and reduced repetitive behaviors in a mouse model of Fragile X syndrome, and Arbaclofen improved some clinical symptoms in some Fragile X and ASD patients. To evaluate R-baclofen in a broader range of mouse models of ASD, we tested both the R-baclofen enantiomer and the less potent S-baclofen enantiomer in two inbred strains of mice that display low sociability and/or high repetitive or stereotyped behaviors. R-baclofen treatment reversed social approach deficits in BTBR T+ Itpr3tf/J (BTBR), reduced repetitive self-grooming and high marble burying scores in BTBR, and reduced stereotyped jumping in C58/J (C58), at nonsedating doses. S-baclofen produced minimal effects at the same doses. These findings encourage investigations of R-baclofen in other preclinical model systems. Additional clinical studies may be warranted to further evaluate the hypothesis that the GABAB receptor represents a promising pharmacological target for treating appropriately stratified subsets of individuals with ASD.

  18. Short-term individual housing induced social deficits in female Mongolian gerbils: attenuation by chronic but not acute imipramine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, A R; Hagan, J J; Jones, D N C; Hendrie, C A

    2012-04-01

    Mongolian gerbils are highly sensitive to manipulations of their social environments. Housing females individually for short periods (in the order of 7-21 days) has been shown to produce robust and reliable impairments of their subsequent social behaviour. These effects are typified by a marked reduction in the social investigation of an unfamiliar male in a neutral arena and/or a marked increases in levels of freezing whilst and only whilst they are being socially investigated (Immobile in contact). These responses demonstrate housing induced impaired motivation to socially interact. These effects have also been shown to be sensitive to treatment with chronic (but not acute) administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) fluoxetine. It was therefore of interest to know if similar effects would be produced by treatment with the tricyclic antidepressant Imipramine. This mixed NA/5-HT reuptake inhibitor first developed in the 1950's is a commonly used standard in animal models of depression and remains in clinical use today. Female gerbils were individually housed for 7 days or maintained in single-sex groups of 4 for the same period. All animals were then randomly allocated to be administered with either 0, 10 or 20 mg/kg imipramine. Acute administration did not reverse the social impairments produced by the individual housing but did produce non-specific stimulant effects on locomotion in both housing conditions. These social impairments were however reduced after a further 14 days chronic treatment with 10 or 20 mg/kg imipramine and stimulant effects were no longer seen. Following chronic administration in group-housed animals locomotor stimulation was replaced with sedation, which resulted in a reduction in social behaviour. That is, opposite to the effect seen in Individual housed animals. It is therefore concluded that chronic treatment with imipramine serves to increase social behaviour but only in those animals with a pre-existing social

  19. Investigating the Relationship between Self-Injurious Behavior, Social Deficits, and Cooccurring Behaviors in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Waters

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research suggests that self-injurious behavior (SIB is related to social deficits and cooccurring problem behaviors in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder. A sample of 95 participants with ASD was assessed on presence and frequency of SIB (Behavior Problems Inventory, social deficits (the Matson Evaluation of Social Skills with Youngsters-II and cooccurring problem behaviors (ASD-Comorbidity-Child version. A model was created and tested to explain the relationship between these variables. Results showed that the model was acceptable in presenting the relationships between these variables. This information could be used to help predict which individuals are at risk of developing further cooccurring behavioral problems and determine risk markers for the development of social deficits.

  20. Theory of Mind deficits and social emotional functioning in preschoolers with specific language impairment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, C.T.W.M.; Koolen, S.

    2016-01-01

    Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI) often experience emotional and social difficulties. In general, problems in social emotional functioning can be cognitively explained in terms of Theory of Mind (ToM). In this mini-review, an overview is provided of studies on social-emotional functio

  1. Pervasive social deficits, but normal parturition, in oxytocin receptor-deficient mice

    OpenAIRE

    Takayanagi, Y.; Yoshida, M; Bielsky, IF; Ross, HE; Kawamata, M; Onaka, J; Yanagisawa, Teruyuki; Kimura, T.; Matzuk, MM; Young, LJ; Nishimori, K.

    2006-01-01

    The oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and its ligand, oxytocin (OXT), regulate reproductive physiology (i.e., parturition and lactation) and sociosexual behaviors. To define the essential functions of OXTR, we generated mice with a null mutation in the Oxtr gene (Oxtr-/-) and compared them with OXT-deficient (Oxt-/-) mice. Oxtr-/- mice were viable and had no obvious deficits in fertility or reproductive behavior. Oxtr-/- dams exhibited normal parturition but demonstrated defects in lactation and mater...

  2. Reprint of "Deficits of hot executive function in developmental coordination disorder: Sensitivity to positive social cues".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi-Golkhandan, Shahin; Steenbergen, Bert; Piek, Jan; Wilson, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Recent research shows that children with motor coordination problems (or developmental coordination disorder--DCD) show deficits in not only cool executive function (EF), but also hot EF. We aimed to determine whether this deficit of hot EF is due to heightened sensitivity to rewarding stimuli, specifically, or to a general deficit of cognitive control, like inhibition. Using two versions of a go/no-go task, one with neutral facial expressions and the other with happy and fearful faces, we compared 12 children with DCD with 28 typically-developing children, aged 7-12 years. Like earlier studies, children responded faster to happy faces. Both groups showed comparable accuracy in response to go targets, and also had similar commission errors, except when the no-go stimulus was a happy face. Importantly, the DCD group made significantly more commission errors to happy faces failing to suppress their response on more than half of the no-go trials. These results suggest a heightened sensitivity to emotionally significant distractors in DCD; this type of impulsivity may undermine self-regulation in DCD, with possible implications for adaptive function and emotional well-being. We argue that the interaction of cognitive control and emotion processing networks may be disrupted in DCD or delayed in development.

  3. Deficits of hot executive function in developmental coordination disorder: sensitivity to positive social cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi-Golkhandan, S; Steenbergen, B; Piek, J P; Wilson, P H

    2014-12-01

    Recent research shows that children with motor coordination problems (or developmental coordination disorder - DCD) show deficits in not only cool executive function (EF), but also hot EF. We aimed to determine whether this deficit of hot EF is due to heightened sensitivity to rewarding stimuli, specifically, or to a general deficit of cognitive control, like inhibition. Using two versions of a go/no-go task, one with neutral facial expressions and the other with happy and fearful faces, we compared 12 children with DCD with 28 typically-developing children, aged 7-12 years. Like earlier studies, children responded faster to happy faces. Both groups showed comparable accuracy in response to go targets, and also had similar commission errors, except when the no-go stimulus was a happy face. Importantly, the DCD group made significantly more commission errors to happy faces failing to suppress their response on more than half of the no-go trials. These results suggest a heightened sensitivity to emotionally significant distractors in DCD; this type of impulsivity may undermine self-regulation in DCD, with possible implications for adaptive function and emotional well-being. We argue that the interaction of cognitive control and emotion processing networks may be disrupted in DCD or delayed in development.

  4. [Social intelligence deficits in autistic children and adolescents--subjective theories of psychosocial health care professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krech, M; Probst, P

    1998-10-01

    The paper is concerned with personal theories of health care professionals about deficiencies in social intelligence of autistic persons. In the component-model of social intelligence means the ability of individuals or groups, to interact with each other in social situations. This contains social perception, social behavior as well as social conceptions and refers to emotional, cognitive and normative aspects. 33 interviewees, working as psychologists or teachers in kindergartens, schools or therapy institutions, are questioned by a half-standardized single interview concerning their beliefs about nonverbal social abilities, social perspective taking, and construction of a theory of mind in autistic persons. The major finding is: The impairments can be found in all aspects of social intelligence. Especially emotional handicaps, which are quoted by more than 80% of the interviewees, and low cognitive preconditions of mastering social stimuli, which are quoted by nearly all interviewees, are relevant. The subjective theories of the interviewees are in accordance to the models of parents as well as the models of the leading experts. The professional relationship to autistic persons and the practical experiences of the health care professionals lead to their specific personal theories of deficiencies in social intelligence of autistic people with wide consequences in respect to the professional contact with the autistic children and young adults.

  5. Event-related potential response to auditory social stimuli, parent-reported social communicative deficits and autism risk in school-aged children with congenital visual impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathelt, Joe; Dale, Naomi; de Haan, Michelle

    2017-07-19

    Communication with visual signals, like facial expression, is important in early social development, but the question if these signals are necessary for typical social development remains to be addressed. The potential impact on social development of being born with no or very low levels of vision is therefore of high theoretical and clinical interest. The current study investigated event-related potential responses to basic social stimuli in a rare group of school-aged children with congenital visual disorders of the anterior visual system (globe of the eye, retina, anterior optic nerve). Early-latency event-related potential responses showed no difference between the VI and control group, suggesting similar initial auditory processing. However, the mean amplitude over central and right frontal channels between 280 and 320ms was reduced in response to own-name stimuli, but not control stimuli, in children with VI suggesting differences in social processing. Children with VI also showed an increased rate of autistic-related behaviours, pragmatic language deficits, as well as peer relationship and emotional problems on standard parent questionnaires. These findings suggest that vision may be necessary for the typical development of social processing across modalities. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Comprehensive treatments for social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: A critical review and effect-size analysis of controlled studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Matthew M; Gagen, Emily; Rocha, Nuno B F; Machado, Sergio; Penn, David L

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia have targeted social cognitive deficits. A critical literature review and effect-size (ES) analysis was conducted to investigate the efficacy of comprehensive programs of social cognitive training in schizophrenia. Results revealed 16 controlled studies consisting of seven models of comprehensive treatment with only three of these treatment models investigated in more than one study. The effects of social cognitive training were reported in 11/15 studies that included facial affect recognition skills (ES=.84) and 10/13 studies that included theory-of-mind (ES=.70) as outcomes. Less than half (4/9) of studies that measured attributional style as an outcome reported effects of treatment, but effect sizes across studies were significant (ESs=.30-.52). The effect sizes for symptoms were modest, but, with the exception of positive symptoms, significant (ESs=.32-.40). The majority of trials were randomized (13/16), selected active control conditions (11/16) and included at least 30 participants (12/16). Concerns for this area of research include the absence of blinded outcome raters in more than 50% of trials and low rates of utilization of procedures for maintaining treatment fidelity. These findings provide preliminary support for the broader use of comprehensive social cognitive training procedures as a psychosocial intervention for schizophrenia.

  7. Use of the "Intervention Selection Profile-Social Skills" to Identify Social Skill Acquisition Deficits: A Preliminary Validation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgus, Stephen P.; von der Embse, Nathaniel P.; Scott, Katherine; Paxton, Sara

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to develop and initially validate the "Intervention Selection Profile-Social Skills" (ISP-SS), a novel brief social skills assessment method intended for use at Tier 2. Participants included 54 elementary school teachers and their 243 randomly selected students. Teachers rated students on two rating…

  8. Shifting the Blame in Higher Education--Social Inclusion and Deficit Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Sarah; Lysaght, Pauline; Roberts, Jen; Harwood, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    The principles of social inclusion have been embraced by institutions across the higher education sector but their translation into practice through pedagogy is not readily apparent. This paper examines perceptions of social inclusion and inclusive pedagogies held by academic staff at an Australian university. Of specific interest were the…

  9. Shifting the Blame in Higher Education--Social Inclusion and Deficit Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Sarah; Lysaght, Pauline; Roberts, Jen; Harwood, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    The principles of social inclusion have been embraced by institutions across the higher education sector but their translation into practice through pedagogy is not readily apparent. This paper examines perceptions of social inclusion and inclusive pedagogies held by academic staff at an Australian university. Of specific interest were the…

  10. Early communication deficits in the Shank1 knockout mouse model for autism spectrum disorder: Developmental aspects and effects of social context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungur, A Özge; Schwarting, Rainer K W; Wöhr, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Alterations in SHANK genes were repeatedly reported in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders diagnosed by persistent deficits in social communication/interaction across multiple contexts, with restricted/repetitive patterns of behavior. To date, diagnostic criteria for ASD are purely behaviorally defined and reliable biomarkers have still not been identified. The validity of mouse models for ASD therefore strongly relies on their behavioral phenotype. Here, we studied communication by means of isolation-induced pup ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) in the Shank1 mouse model for ASD by comparing Shank1(-/-) null mutant, Shank1(+/-) heterozygous, and Shank1(+/+) wildtype littermate controls. The first aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of Shank1 deletions on developmental aspects of communication in order to see whether ASD-related communication deficits are due to general impairment or delay in development. Second, we focused on social context effects on USV production. We show that Shank1(-/-) pups vocalized less and displayed a delay in the typical inverted U-shaped developmental USV emission pattern with USV rates peaking on postnatal day (PND) 9, resulting in a prominent genotype difference on PND6. Moreover, testing under social conditions revealed even more prominently genotype-dependent deficits regardless of the familiarity of the social context. As communication by definition serves a social function, introducing a social component to the typically nonsocial test environment could therefore help to reveal communication deficits in mouse models for ASD. Together, these results indicate that SHANK1 is involved in acoustic communication across species, with genetic alterations in SHANK1 resulting in social communication/interaction deficits. Autism Res 2016, 9: 696-709. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley

  11. Social cognitive and neurocognitive deficits in inpatients with unilateral thalamic lesions — pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkos E

    2015-04-01

    criteria was a minimum score of 23/30 in MMSE. Results: Compared with the healthy controls, patients revealed significantly lower scores in CVLT, GML-DR, and VFT. Furthermore, compared to healthy controls, patients showed significantly delayed recognition of “happiness” in EmoDiff40 and significantly worse performance on Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, revised version II. Neuropsychological assessment demonstrated some statistically significant deficits in learning and remembering both verbal and visual material, long-term information storing, problem solving, and executive functions such as verbal fluency. Conclusion: Patients at early stage of unilateral thalamic stroke showed both neurocognitive and social cognitive deficits. Further research is needed to increase understanding about diagnosis, early treatment, and prognosis of patients with thalamic lesions. Keywords: social cognitive deficits, neurocognitive deficits, thalamic stroke, posterior, inferolateral, paramedian

  12. Social interaction rescues memory deficit in an animal model of Alzheimer's disease by increasing BDNF-dependent hippocampal neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ya-Hsin; Hung, Hui-Chi; Chen, Shun-Hua; Gean, Po-Wu

    2014-12-03

    It has been recognized that the risk of cognitive decline during aging can be reduced if one maintains strong social connections, yet the neural events underlying this beneficial effect have not been rigorously studied. Here, we show that amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilin 1 (PS1) double-transgenic (APP/PS1) mice demonstrate improvement in memory after they are cohoused with wild-type mice. The improvement was associated with increased protein and mRNA levels of BDNF in the hippocampus. Concomitantly, the number of BrdU(+)/NeuN(+) cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was significantly elevated after cohousing. Methylazoxymethanol acetate, a cell proliferation blocker, markedly reduced BrdU(+) and BrdU/NeuN(+) cells and abolished the effect of social interaction. Selective ablation of mitotic neurons using diphtheria toxin (DT) and a retrovirus vector encoding DT receptor abolished the beneficial effect of cohousing. Knockdown of BDNF by shRNA transfection blocked, whereas overexpression of BDNF mimicked the memory-improving effect. A tropomyosin-related kinase B agonist, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, occluded the effect of social interaction. These results demonstrate that increased BDNF expression and neurogenesis in the hippocampus after cohousing underlie the reversal of memory deficit in APP/PS1 mice. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3416207-13$15.00/0.

  13. Prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in schoolchildren in Athens, Greece. Association of ADHD subtypes with social and academic impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skounti, M; Giannoukas, S; Dimitriou, E; Nikolopoulou, S; Linardakis, E; Philalithis, A

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and social and academic impairment in 6- to 11-year-old children residents of Athens, Greece. We screened 603 elementary schoolchildren following grades first to sixth. A two-stage screening process was employed including a standardized ADHD test for teachers and the Teacher Report Form (TRF). Among the 603 children, 36 (6.0%) met the study criteria for ADHD. The estimated prevalence was 8% for boys and 3.8% for girls. The most prevalent subtype of ADHD was the combined type (3.8%), followed by the ADHD inattentive (1.7%) and the ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type (0.5%). The ADHD-combined type was strongly associated with clinical impairment in both areas of functioning (academic and social), where the ADHD inattentive subtype was found to be strongly associated with academic problems. The ADHD hyperactive-impulsive type was the less prevalent and the less impaired subtype in this study. None of the 36 children had been previously diagnosed as having ADHD or other primary disorder. In conclusion, the prevalence of ADHD among schoolchildren in Athens and the risk factors were found to be comparable to those reported in other countries worldwide. Additionally, impairment in social and academic functioning was strongly associated with the subtypes of the disorder.

  14. Advancing paternal age is associated with deficits in social and exploratory behaviors in the offspring: a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca G Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence from epidemiological research has demonstrated an association between advanced paternal age and risk for several psychiatric disorders including autism, schizophrenia and early-onset bipolar disorder. In order to establish causality, this study used an animal model to investigate the effects of advanced paternal age on behavioural deficits in the offspring. METHODS: C57BL/6J offspring (n = 12 per group were bred from fathers of two different ages, 2 months (young and 10 months (old, and mothers aged 2 months (n = 6 breeding pairs per group. Social and exploratory behaviors were examined in the offspring. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The offspring of older fathers were found to engage in significantly less social (p = 0.02 and exploratory (p = 0.02 behaviors than the offspring of younger fathers. There were no significant differences in measures of motor activity. CONCLUSIONS: Given the well-controlled nature of this study, this provides the strongest evidence for deleterious effects of advancing paternal age on social and exploratory behavior. De-novo chromosomal changes and/or inherited epigenetic changes are the most plausible explanatory factors.

  15. Assessing schizophrenia-relevant cognitive and social deficits in mice: a selection of mouse behavioral tasks and potential therapeutic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wen-Sung; Chang, Chia-Yuan; Wong, Wan-Rong; Pei, Ju-Chun; Chen, Ya-Shan; Hung, Wei-Li

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders are generally diagnosed based on a collection of symptoms defined by a combination of an individual's feelings, perceptions, and behaviors. Many of these disorders are characterized by specific cognitive and social deficits. Although it is nearly impossible to recapitulate the full phenotypic spectrum of schizophrenia in mice, mouse models play an indispensable role in understanding the pathogenesis of this disorder and the development of new therapeutics. Genetic mouse models of schizophrenia and mouse behavioral tests provide a feasible approach for elucidating causal relationships between susceptibility gene(s) and schizophrenia-related symptoms. There has been a proliferation of studies characterizing basic behavioral phenotypes in mice. Since there is no way to completely model human psychiatric symptoms in mice, the major role of behavioral tests is to provide insights into underlying affected circuitry and pathophysiology. Given that the recovery of cognitive and social abilities significantly benefits functional outcomes, there has been an increasing interest in characterizing cognitive and social functions in mutant mice; however, these functions are not easy to measure. In this review, a selection of conventional behavioral tasks was briefly described and three specific behavioral tasks aimed at characterizing social communication, attentional function, and choice behavior in mice were highlighted. The choice of specific behavioral tasks during experimental planning should take into consideration a variety of factors, including their validity, reliability, sensitivity, utility, and specificity. Based upon the hypothetical hypofunction of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-mediated signaling pathways in the involvement of cognitive and social impairments in schizophrenia, three NMDAR-related compounds/drugs, D-serine, sarcosine, and D-cycloserine, are discussed as an example.

  16. Treatment effects of combining social skill training and parent training in Taiwanese children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Hsin; Chung, Chao-Ying; Ou, Hsing-Yi; Tzang, Ruu-Fen; Huang, Kuo-Yang; Liu, Hui-Ching; Sun, Fang-Ju; Chen, Shu-Chin; Pan, Yi-Ju; Liu, Shen-Ing

    2015-03-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often have problems in social interactions. We investigated the social and behavioral effects of providing both social skill training and parent training to school-aged children with ADHD in Taiwan. Seven consecutive 8-week behavioral-based social skill training (SST) group sessions were held for 48 children with ADHD; parallel 8-week parent group sessions were provided simultaneously. Fifty-five children with ADHD were recruited as a control group. All children took medication as prescribed by their doctors. The effects were assessed using the teacher and parent version of the Chinese version of Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale (SNAP-IV), the Chinese version of the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL-C), child and teacher version of the modified Social Skill Rating System (SSRS-C and SSRS-T), at baseline, post-treatment, and 4 months from baseline. The doses of methylphenidate and drug compliance were controlled during the analysis. The mixed-effects model demonstrated the main effect of group sessions on the Oppositional subscale of SNAP-P, the Anxious/Depressed subscale of CBCL-C, the Self Control subscale of SSRS-C, and the Active Participation subscale of SSRS-T, all in favor of the experimental group. However, the improvement on the Oppositional subscale of SNAP-P and the Self Control subscale of SSRS-C were noted only between baseline and post-treatment period and were not sustained at the end of the follow-up period. Our study demonstrated that children with ADHD could benefit from this low intensity psychosocial program, although some improvements were not maintained at follow-up assessment. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Online social communication patterns among emerging adult women with histories of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E; Ahmad, Shaikh I; Samuels, Andrea Stier; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2015-08-01

    Little is known about adult women with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); however, available evidence suggests that they experience social impairment. Online social networking websites such as Facebook have become endemic outlets through which emerging adults communicate with peers. No study has examined the peer interactions of emerging adults with childhood histories of ADHD in this developmentally relevant online domain. Participants in the current study were an ethnically diverse sample of 228 women, 140 of whom met diagnostic criteria for ADHD in childhood and 88 who composed a matched comparison sample. These women were assessed at 3 time points spanning 10 years (mean age = 9.6 at Wave 1, 14.1 at Wave 2, 19.6 at Wave 3). After statistical control of demographic covariates and comorbidities, childhood ADHD diagnosis predicted, by emerging adulthood, a greater stated preference for online social communication and a greater tendency to have used online methods to interact with strangers. A childhood diagnosis of ADHD also predicted observations of fewer Facebook friends and less closeness and support from Facebook friends in emerging adulthood. These associations were mediated by a composite of face-to-face peer relationship impairment during childhood and adolescence. Intriguingly, women with persistent diagnoses of ADHD from childhood to emerging adulthood differed from women with consistent comparison status in their online social communication; women with intermittent diagnoses of ADHD had scores intermediate between the other 2 groups. Results are discussed within the context of understanding the social relationships of women with childhood histories of ADHD. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Online Social Communication Patterns among Young Adult Women with Histories of Childhood Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Szwedo, David E.; Ahmad, Shaikh I.; Samuels, Andrea Stier; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about adult women with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), however available evidence suggests that they experience social impairment. Online social networking websites such as Facebook have become endemic outlets through which emerging adults communicate with peers. No study has examined the peer interactions of emerging adults with childhood histories of ADHD in this developmentally relevant online domain. Participants in the current study were an ethnically diverse sample of 228 women, 140 of whom met diagnostic criteria for ADHD in childhood and 88 who composed a matched comparison sample. These women were assessed at three time points spanning 10 years (mean age = 9.6 at Wave 1, 14.1 at Wave 2, 19.6 at Wave 3). After statistical control of demographic covariates and comorbidites, childhood ADHD diagnosis predicted, by emerging adulthood, a greater stated preference for online social communication and a greater tendency to have used online methods to interact with strangers. A childhood diagnosis of ADHD also predicted observations of fewer Facebook friends and less closeness and support from Facebook friends in emerging adulthood. These associations were mediated by a composite of face-to-face peer relationship impairment during childhood and adolescence. Intriguingly, women with persistent diagnoses of ADHD from childhood to emerging adulthood differed from women with consistent comparison status in their online social communication; women with intermittent diagnoses of ADHD had scores intermediate between the other two groups. Results are discussed within the context of understanding the social relationships of women with childhood histories of ADHD. PMID:25894439

  19. A follow-up study of academic functioning and social adjustment in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Garg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD persists in a majority of adolescents. It has been reported that ADHD patients have poor social functioning and risk for developing co-morbid psychiatric illnesses. Aims: To determine the retention of diagnosis of ADHD and to assess social adjustment, academic functioning and co-morbidities at follow-up. Design: Retrospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: ADHD patients of 5-14 years of age who came to the out-patient department from 2005 to 2008 were contacted telephonically. Fifty one patients could be contacted. Parents of patients were interviewed using Vanderbilt ADHD Diagnostic Parent Rating Scale for diagnosing ADHD and co-morbidities. Social Adjustment Inventory for Children and Adolescent was administered for assessing their academic and social functioning. Chi square test, Mann-Whitney Test, Kruskal-Wallis Test, and Pearson′s product moment correlations were used for statistical analysis. Results: At current assessment, out of 51 patients, 38 were still fulfilling diagnosis of ADHD. Of these, 21 were of inattention type, 3 were hyperactive, and 14 were of combined type. Social functioning and academic functioning were significantly better in those who currently did not fulfill the criteria for ADHD ( N=13. Twelve patients developed features of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD/conduct disorder (CD at follow-up. Conclusions: ADHD persists in the majority of adolescents. Decline with age is seen more in hyperactive/impulsive symptoms than inattentive symptoms. Several adolescents also develop features of ODD/CD in addition to poorer functioning. Continuation of treatment is crucial to prevent such consequences.

  20. Theory of Mind deficits and social emotional functioning in preschoolers with Specific Language Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constance Vissers

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI often experience emotional and social difficulties. In general, problems in social emotional functioning can be cognitively explained in terms of Theory of Mind (ToM. In this mini-review, an overview is provided of studies on social-emotional functioning and ToM in preschoolers (average age from 2.3 to 6.2 years with SLI. It is concluded that, similar to school-aged children with SLI, preschoolers with SLI have several social-emotional problems and that both cognitive and affective aspects of ToM are impaired in those children. Based hereon, three possible causal models for the interrelation between language, ToM and social emotional functioning are put forward. It is proposed that future research on the construct and measurement of early ToM, social emotional functioning and language development in preschoolers with SLI is needed to achieve early detection, tailored treatment, and ultimately insight into the pathogenesis of SLI.

  1. Social problem-solving in high-functioning schizophrenia: specific deficits in sending skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaskinn, Anja; Sundet, Kjetil; Hultman, Christina M; Friis, Svein; Andreassen, Ole A

    2009-02-28

    This study examined social problem-solving performance in high-functioning schizophrenia (n=26) and its relation to neurocognition. Ten healthy controls were used as a comparison group. Social problem-solving was assessed with the Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (AIPSS) method. The schizophrenia group was outperformed by healthy controls on all AIPSS measures, reaching statistical significance for sending skills. Exploration of the internal relationship between different aspects of social problem-solving showed that identification of an interpersonal problem (a receiving skill) was not correlated with formulating solutions to the problem (processing skills) or successfully role-playing solutions (interpersonal sending skills). Non-verbal performance in the role-play (an interpersonal sending skill) was not significantly correlated with identification of an interpersonal problem or the generation of solutions. This suggests a dissociation of social problem-solving processes. Social problem-solving was significantly associated with psychomotor speed, verbal learning, semantic fluency and cognitive flexibility. Clinical implications are that remediation of social problem-solving skills should focus on role-playing (nonverbal) interpersonal behaviors, rather than on verbally analyzing an interpersonal problem and clarifying alternative solutions.

  2. Tracking social motivation systems deficits: the affective neuroscience view of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Arnaud; Chevallier, Coralie; Robel, Laurence; Barry, Caroline; Maria, Anne-Solène; Pouga, Lydia; Philippe, Anne; Pinabel, François; Berthoz, Sylvie

    2015-10-01

    Abnormal functioning of primary brain systems that express and modulate basic emotional drives are increasingly considered to underlie mental disorders including autism spectrum disorders. We hypothesized that ASD are characterized by disruptions in the primary systems involved in the motivation for social bonding. Twenty adults with ASD were compared to 20 neurotypical participants on the basis of self-reports and clinical assessments, including the Social Anhedonia Scale (SAS) and the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS). ASD diagnosis was related to SAS, as well as to positive (PLAYFULNESS) and negative (FEAR) ANPS-traits. In the overall sample, levels of autistic traits (AQ) were related to SAS and PLAYFULNESS. We argue that PLAYFULNESS could be at the root of social bonding impairments in ASD.

  3. Relative contribution of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and tic severity to social and behavioral problems in tic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, PJ; Steenhuis, MP; Troost, PW; Korf, J; Kallenberg, CGM; Minderaa, RB

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate social and behavioral problems related to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessions and compulsions, and tic severity in children with a tic disorder. Parents of 58 children with a tic disorder with and without different forms of ADHD comple

  4. Relative contribution of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and tic severity to social and behavioral problems in tic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, PJ; Steenhuis, MP; Troost, PW; Korf, J; Kallenberg, CGM; Minderaa, RB

    The aim of this study was to investigate social and behavioral problems related to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessions and compulsions, and tic severity in children with a tic disorder. Parents of 58 children with a tic disorder with and without different forms of ADHD

  5. Relative contribution of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and tic severity to social and behavioral problems in tic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, PJ; Steenhuis, MP; Troost, PW; Korf, J; Kallenberg, CGM; Minderaa, RB

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate social and behavioral problems related to attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessions and compulsions, and tic severity in children with a tic disorder. Parents of 58 children with a tic disorder with and without different forms of ADHD comple

  6. Tracking Social Motivation Systems Deficits: The Affective Neuroscience View of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Arnaud; Chevallier, Coralie; Robel, Laurence; Barry, Caroline; Maria, Anne-Solène; Pouga, Lydia; Philippe, Anne; Pinabel, François; Berthoz, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal functioning of primary brain systems that express and modulate basic emotional drives are increasingly considered to underlie mental disorders including autism spectrum disorders. We hypothesized that ASD are characterized by disruptions in the primary systems involved in the motivation for social bonding. Twenty adults with ASD were…

  7. Social behaviour following severe traumatic brain injury: contribution of emotion perception deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, Melissa E; Younan, Shameran Slewa; Lah, Suncica

    2013-01-01

    This theoretically driven study aimed to determine contribution of emotional perception impairments to social behaviour following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Adults with severe TBI (n = 24) participated. Emotion perception predictors included: (i) appraisal: Montreal Set of Facial Displays of Emotion, The Adapted Story Task, (ii) affective state: Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21), Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) and (iii) regulation: Delis Kaplan Executive Function System - Colour Word Interference and Word Fluency. Social behavioural outcomes were (i) interpersonal: Key Behaviors Change Inventory (KBCI) - Interpersonal Difficulties and (ii) communication: KBCI - Communication Problems. Social behaviours correlated with affective state, but not appraisal or regulation. Simultaneous regression analyses revealed significant independent contributions of affective state: (i) the IRI Perspective Taking to the KBCI Interpersonal Difficulties and (ii) the DASS-21 (composite) and IRI Perspective Taking to the KBCI Communication Problems. The models explained 52% and 72% of the variance of the KBCI Interpersonal Difficulties and Communication Problems respectively. This study provides evidence that impairments in certain aspects of emotion perception: affective state [empathy (perspective taking) and mood], but not appraisal and regulation, contribute to social behaviour difficulties in patients with severe TBI, which has important implications for rehabilitation.

  8. Context-Inappropriate Anger, Emotion Knowledge Deficits, and Negative Social Experiences in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Robin L.; Miller, Alison L.; Seifer, Ronald; Heinze, Justin E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined contextually inappropriate (CI) anger in relation to emotion recognition and situation knowledge, negative social experiences, and externalizing behavior among low-income 4-year-olds attending Head Start (n = 134). Approximately 23% showed anger when presented with positive/neutral slides and videos (valence-incongruent CI…

  9. Social skills differences among attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder types in a chat room assessment task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Amori Yee; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia L; Pfiffner, Linda J; McBurnett, Keith; Hangai, Dana

    2007-08-01

    This study assessed social skills in 116 children aged 7-12 with ADHD-Combined Type (ADHD-C; n=33), ADHD-Inattentive Type (ADHD-I; n=45), and comparison children (n=38), with consideration of the role sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms play in distinguishing profiles. Social skills were assessed using a novel computerized chat room task, in which participants were encouraged to join a conversation and type messages to interact with four computer-simulated peers. Every participant received the identical stimulus from the simulated peers, but was free to respond to it in his or her own unique way. Relative to comparison children, children with ADHD-C made off-topic and hostile responses; children with ADHD-I made off-topic responses, few responses and showed poor memory for the conversation. ADHD subtype differences remained after statistical control of IQ, reading achievement, typing skill, and comorbid disruptive behavior disorders. SCT symptoms, most prevalent among children with ADHD-I, predicted a distinct pattern of social withdrawal and lower hostility. Parent and teacher ratings and in-vivo observations of social skills correlate with this new measure.

  10. Nasal Oxytocin for Social Deficits in Childhood Autism: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadds, Mark R.; MacDonald, Elayne; Cauchi, Avril; Williams, Katrina; Levy, Florence; Brennan, John

    2014-01-01

    The last two decades have witnessed a surge in research investigating the application of oxytocin as a method of enhancing social behaviour in humans. Preliminary evidence suggests oxytocin may have potential as an intervention for autism. We evaluated a 5-day "live-in" intervention using a double-blind randomized control trial. 38 male…

  11. Context-Inappropriate Anger, Emotion Knowledge Deficits, and Negative Social Experiences in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Robin L.; Miller, Alison L.; Seifer, Ronald; Heinze, Justin E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined contextually inappropriate (CI) anger in relation to emotion recognition and situation knowledge, negative social experiences, and externalizing behavior among low-income 4-year-olds attending Head Start (n = 134). Approximately 23% showed anger when presented with positive/neutral slides and videos (valence-incongruent CI…

  12. Assessing social-cognitive deficits in schizophrenia with the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eack, Shaun M; Greeno, Catherine G; Pogue-Geile, Michael F; Newhill, Christina E; Hogarty, Gerard E; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2010-03-01

    The emotion management subscale of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) has recently been recommended by the National Institute of Mental Health Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia committee as the sole measure of social cognition for trials of cognitive enhancement in schizophrenia, yet the psychometric properties of this subscale and the larger instrument in schizophrenia patients have not been thoroughly examined. This research presents a psychometric investigation of the MSCEIT in a sample of 64 early course outpatients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective, or schizophreniform disorder. Results demonstrated that the MSCEIT possesses adequate internal consistency reliability among its branch and total scales and that patients' branch and overall test performance was significantly below normative levels. Estimates of discriminant and concurrent validity indicated that the MSCEIT diverged from measures of neurocognitive functioning and psychopathology, but was only modestly related with objective measures of functional outcome. Convergent validity estimates suggested that, contrary to expectations, the MSCEIT did not correlate with a behavioral measure of social cognition. Finally, exploratory factor analyses suggested the possibility of a shift in the latent structure of emotional intelligence in schizophrenia, compared with studies with healthy individuals. These findings support the use of the MSCEIT as a reliable and potentially valid method of assessing the emotional components of social cognition in schizophrenia, but also point to a need for additional measurement development efforts to assess broader social-cognitive domains that may exhibit stronger relations with functional outcome. Further investigation is warranted to examine the instrument's latent factor structure and convergence with other measures of social cognition.

  13. The simulating social mind: the role of the mirror neuron system and simulation in the social and communicative deficits of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberman, Lindsay M; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2007-03-01

    The mechanism by which humans perceive others differs greatly from how humans perceive inanimate objects. Unlike inanimate objects, humans have the distinct property of being "like me" in the eyes of the observer. This allows us to use the same systems that process knowledge about self-performed actions, self-conceived thoughts, and self-experienced emotions to understand actions, thoughts, and emotions in others. The authors propose that internal simulation mechanisms, such as the mirror neuron system, are necessary for normal development of recognition, imitation, theory of mind, empathy, and language. Additionally, the authors suggest that dysfunctional simulation mechanisms may underlie the social and communicative deficits seen in individuals with autism spectrum disorders.

  14. Assessing Social-Cognitive Deficits in Schizophrenia With the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test

    OpenAIRE

    Eack, Shaun M.; Greeno, Catherine G.; Pogue-Geile, Michael F.; Newhill, Christina E.; Hogarty, Gerard E.; Matcheri S Keshavan

    2008-01-01

    The emotion management subscale of the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) has recently been recommended by the National Institute of Mental Health Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia committee as the sole measure of social cognition for trials of cognitive enhancement in schizophrenia, yet the psychometric properties of this subscale and the larger instrument in schizophrenia patients have not been thoroughly examined. This research ...

  15. Acute prenatal exposure to ethanol on gestational day 12 elicits opposing deficits in social behaviors and anxiety-like behaviors in Sprague Dawley rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Marvin R.; Mooney, Sandra M.; Varlinskaya, Elena I.

    2016-01-01

    Our previous research has shown that in Long Evans rats acute prenatal exposure to a high dose of ethanol on gestational day (G) 12 produces social deficits in male offspring and elicits substantial decreases in social preference relative to controls, in late adolescents and adults regardless of sex. In order to generalize the observed detrimental effects of ethanol exposure on G12, pregnant female Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to ethanol or saline and their offspring were assessed in a modified social interaction (SI) test as early adolescents, late adolescents, or young adults. Anxiety-like behavior was also assessed in adults using the elevated plus maze (EPM) or the light/dark box (LDB) test. Age- and sex-dependent social alterations were evident in ethanol-exposed animals. Ethanol-exposed males showed deficits in social investigation at all ages and age-dependent alterations in social preference. Play fighting was not affected in males. In contrast, ethanol-exposed early adolescent females showed no changes in social interactions, whereas older females demonstrated social deficits and social indifference. In adulthood, anxiety-like behavior was decreased in males and females prenatally exposed to ethanol in the EPM, but not the LDB. These findings suggest that social alterations associated with acute exposure to ethanol on G12 are not strain-specific, although they are more pronounced in Long Evans males and Sprague Dawley females. Furthermore, given that anxiety-like behaviors were attenuated in a test-specific manner, this study indicates that early ethanol exposure can have differential effects on different forms of anxiety. PMID:27154534

  16. Early Cognitive/Social Deficits and Late Motor Phenotype in Conditional Wild-Type TDP-43 Transgenic Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Julio A.; Silva, Pablo R.; Igaz, Lionel M.

    2016-01-01

    Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are two neurodegenerative diseases associated to mislocalization and aggregation of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43). To investigate in depth the behavioral phenotype associated with this proteinopathy, we used as a model transgenic (Tg) mice conditionally overexpressing human wild-type TDP 43 protein (hTDP-43-WT) in forebrain neurons. We previously characterized these mice at the neuropathological level and found progressive neurodegeneration and other features that evoke human TDP-43 proteinopathies of the FTD/ALS spectrum. In the present study we analyzed the behavior of mice at multiple domains, including motor, social and cognitive performance. Our results indicate that young hTDP-43-WT Tg mice (1 month after post-weaning transgene induction) present a normal motor phenotype compared to control littermates, as assessed by accelerated rotarod performance, spontaneous locomotor activity in the open field test and a mild degree of spasticity shown by a clasping phenotype. Analysis of social and cognitive behavior showed a rapid installment of deficits in social interaction, working memory (Y-maze test) and recognition memory (novel object recognition test) in the absence of overt motor abnormalities. To investigate if the motor phenotype worsen with age, we analyzed the behavior of mice after long-term (up to 12 months) transgene induction. Our results reveal a decreased performance on the rotarod test and in the hanging wire test, indicating a motor phenotype that was absent in younger mice. In addition, long-term hTDP-43-WT expression led to hyperlocomotion in the open field test. In sum, these results demonstrate a time-dependent emergence of a motor phenotype in older hTDP-43-WT Tg mice, recapitulating aspects of clinical FTD presentations with motor involvement in human patients, and providing a complementary animal model for studying TDP-43 proteinopathies. PMID:28066234

  17. Early cognitive/social deficits and late motor phenotype in conditional wild-type TDP-43 transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Armando Alfieri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS are two neurodegenerative diseases associated to mislocalization and aggregation of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43. To investigate in depth the behavioral phenotype associated with this proteinopathy, we used as a model transgenic mice conditionally overexpressing human wild-type TDP 43 protein (hTDP-43-WT in forebrain neurons. We previously characterized these mice at the neuropathological level and found progressive neurodegeneration and other features that evoke human TDP-43 proteinopathies of the FTD/ALS spectrum. In the present study we analyzed the behavior of mice at multiple domains, including motor, social and cognitive performance. Our results indicate that young hTDP-43-WT transgenic mice (1 month after post-weaning transgene induction present a normal motor phenotype compared to control littermates, as assessed by accelerated rotarod performance, spontaneous locomotor activity in the open field test and a mild degree of spasticity shown by a clasping phenotype. Analysis of social and cognitive behavior showed a rapid installment of deficits in social interaction, working memory (Y-maze test and recognition memory (novel object recognition test in the absence of overt motor abnormalities. To investigate if the motor phenotype worsen with age, we analyzed the behavior of mice after long-term (up to 12 months transgene induction. Our results reveal a decreased performance on the rotarod test and in the hanging wire test, indicating a motor phenotype that was absent in younger mice. In addition, long-term hTDP-43-WT expression led to hyperlocomotion in the open field test. In sum, these results demonstrate a time-dependent emergence of a motor phenotype in older hTDP-43-WT transgenic mice, recapitulating aspects of clinical FTD presentations with motor involvement in human patients, and providing a complementary animal model for studying TDP-43 proteinopathies.

  18. Failure to capitalize on sharing good news with romantic partners: Exploring positivity deficits of socially anxious people with self-reports, partner-reports, and behavioral observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B; Ferssizidis, Patty; Farmer, Antonina S; Adams, Leah M; McKnight, Patrick E

    2013-10-01

    Extending prior work on social anxiety and positivity deficits, we examined whether individual differences in social anxiety alter the ability to share and respond to the good news of romantic partners (i.e., capitalization support) and how this influences romantic relationship satisfaction and commitment. In this study of 174 heterosexual couples (average age of 21.5 with 58.3% identifying as Caucasian), greater social anxiety was associated with the provision and receipt of less supportive responses to shared positive events as measured by trait questionnaires, partner reports, and behavioral observations in the laboratory. In longitudinal analyses, individuals in romantic relationships with socially anxious partners who experienced inadequate capitalization support were more likely to terminate their relationship and report a decline in relationship quality six months later. As evidence of construct specificity, social anxiety effects were independent of depressive symptoms. Taken together, social anxiety influenced a person's ability to receive and provide support for shared positive events; these deficits had adverse romantic consequences. Researchers and clinicians may better understand social anxiety by exploring a wider range of interpersonal contexts and positive constructs. The addition of capitalization support to the social anxiety literature offers new insights into interpersonal approaches and treatments.

  19. Failure to capitalize on sharing good news with romantic partners: Exploring positivity deficits of socially anxious people with self-reports, partner-reports, and behavioral observations☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B.; Ferssizidis, Patty; Farmer, Antonina S.; Adams, Leah M.; McKnight, Patrick E.

    2013-01-01

    Extending prior work on social anxiety and positivity deficits, we examined whether individual differences in social anxiety alter the ability to share and respond to the good news of romantic partners (i.e., capitalization support) and how this influences romantic relationship satisfaction and commitment. In this study of 174 heterosexual couples (average age of 21.5 with 58.3% identifying as Caucasian), greater social anxiety was associated with the provision and receipt of less supportive responses to shared positive events as measured by trait questionnaires, partner reports, and behavioral observations in the laboratory. In longitudinal analyses, individuals in romantic relationships with socially anxious partners who experienced inadequate capitalization support were more likely to terminate their relationship and report a decline in relationship quality six months later. As evidence of construct specificity, social anxiety effects were independent of depressive symptoms. Taken together, social anxiety influenced a person's ability to receive and provide support for shared positive events; these deficits had adverse romantic consequences. Researchers and clinicians may better understand social anxiety by exploring a wider range of interpersonal contexts and positive constructs. The addition of capitalization support to the social anxiety literature offers new insights into interpersonal approaches and treatments. PMID:23916635

  20. Resveratrol prevents social deficits in animal model of autism induced by valproic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambini-Junior, Victorio; Zanatta, Geancarlo; Della Flora Nunes, Gustavo; Mueller de Melo, Gabriela; Michels, Marcus; Fontes-Dutra, Mellanie; Nogueira Freire, Valder; Riesgo, Rudimar; Gottfried, Carmem

    2014-11-07

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) involve a complex interplay of both genetic and environmental risk factors, such as prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA). Considering the neuroprotective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol (RSV), we investigated the influence of prenatal RSV treatment on social behaviors of a rodent model of autism induced by prenatal exposure to VPA. In the three-chambered apparatus test, the VPA group showed a reduced place preference conditioned by conspecific and no preference between exploring a wire-cage or a rat enclosed inside a wire cage, revealing sociability impairments. Prenatal administration of RSV prevented the VPA-induced social impairments evaluated in this study. A bioinformatics analysis was used to discard possible molecular interactions between VPA and RSV during administration. The interaction energy between RSV and VPA is weak and highly unstable, suggesting cellular effects instead of a single chemical process. In summary, the present study highlights a promising experimental strategy to evaluate new molecular targets possibly involved in the etiology of autism and developmental alterations implicated in neural and behavioral impairments in ASD.

  1. The Risk Society and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a critical social research analysis concerning the development and social impact of the ADHD diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a research study that used a critical social research methodology to review the increase in use of the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and conceptualized the phenomenon within a theoretical framework based upon Beck's (1992, 1999) periodization of social change, the Risk Society. The study was qualitative in nature. Data were drawn from a wide range of sources including legitimating hearings, reports and studies, texts and seminal documents, field observations in schools and classrooms, and electronic discussion/bulletin board, and in-depth interviews with parents and teachers. The analysis used a critical framework to locate specific instances of claim and counter-claim and to set the historical context for understanding the "modern biological" method of intervention with children considered by parents and teachers as having ADHD. The findings of the study are structured in the context of risks. Further research will inform whether the risks become threats. Through exposure of silences, myths, contradictions and power relationships that create risks surrounding the ADHD phenomenon, it is hoped that discourse concerning the hegemonic medical model of ADHD in research and in the wider community will be further critically examined.

  2. Developmental trajectories of aggression, prosocial behavior, and social-cognitive problem solving in emerging adolescents with clinically elevated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Michael J; Larsen, Ross; Sarver, Dustin E; Tolan, Patrick H

    2015-11-01

    Middle school is a critical yet understudied period of social behavioral risks and opportunities that may be particularly difficult for emerging adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) given their childhood social difficulties. Relatively few ADHD studies have examined social behavior and social-cognitive problem solving beyond the elementary years, or examined aspects of positive (prosocial) behavior. The current study examined how middle school students with clinically elevated ADHD symptoms differ from their non-ADHD peers on baseline (6th grade) and age-related changes in prosocial and aggressive behavior, and the extent to which social-cognitive problem solving strategies mediate these relations. Emerging adolescents with (n = 178) and without (n = 3,806) clinically elevated, teacher-reported ADHD-combined symptoms were compared longitudinally across 6th through 8th grades using parallel process latent growth curve modeling, accounting for student demographic characteristics, oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, deviant peer association, school climate, and parental monitoring. Sixth graders with elevated ADHD symptoms engaged in somewhat fewer prosocial behaviors (d = -0.44) and more aggressive behavior (d = 0.20) relative to their peers. These small social behavioral deficits decreased but were not normalized across the middle school years. Contrary to hypotheses, social-cognitive problem solving was not impaired in the ADHD group after accounting for co-occurring ODD symptoms and did not mediate the association between ADHD and social behavior during the middle school years. ADHD and social-cognitive problem solving contributed independently to social behavior, both in 6th grade and across the middle school years; the influence of social-cognitive problem solving on social behavior was highly similar for the ADHD and non-ADHD groups.

  3. Neurosteroids reduce social isolation-induced behavioral deficits: a proposed link with neurosteroid-mediated upregulation of BDNF expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Schüler Nin

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacological action of SSRI antidepressants may include a normalization of the decreased brain levels of neurosteroids such as that of the progesterone metabolite allopregnanolone and that of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, which are decreased in patients with depression and PTSD. Allopregnanolone and BDNF decrease in these patients is associated with behavioral symptom severity. Antidepressant treatment upregulates both allopregnanolone levels and the expression of BDNF in a manner that significantly correlates with improved symptomatology, which suggests that neurosteroid biosynthesis and BDNF expression may be interrelated. Preclinical studies using the socially isolated mouse as an animal model of behavioral deficits that resemble some of the symptoms observed in PTSD patients have shown that fluoxetine and derivatives improve anxiety-like behavior, fear responses, and aggressive behavior by elevating the corticolimbic levels of allopregnanolone and BDNF mRNA expression. These actions appeared to be independent and more selective from the action of these drugs on 5-HT reuptake inhibition.Hence, this review addresses the hypothesis that in PTSD or depressed patients brain allopregnanolone levels and BDNF expression upregulation may be part of the mechanisms involved in the beneficial actions of antidepressants or other selective brain steroidogenic stimulant (SBSS molecules.

  4. Cytogenetic Effects of Chronic Methylphenidate Treatment and Chronic Social Stress in Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel-Schneider, S; Spiegel, S; Renner, T; Romanos, M; Reif, A; Reichert, S; Heupel, J; Schnetzler, L; Stopper, H; Jacob, C

    2016-07-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is widely used to treat childhood and adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, there are still safety concerns about side effects in long-term treatment. The aim of this study was to assess cytogenetic effects of chronic MPH treatment in adult ADHD and to find out if chronic social stress is attenuated by medication and to investigate whether chronic psychosocial stress leads to mutagenic effects by itself. Lymphocytes for micronucleus assay and saliva samples for cortisol measurement were collected from adult ADHD patients and healthy controls. Stress exposure of the last 3 months was assessed by TICS (Trier Inventory for Chronic Stress). We could not detect an influence of MPH treatment on cytogenetic markers. ADHD patients displayed significantly higher chronic stress levels measured by TICS compared to healthy controls which were influenced by duration of MPH treatment. ADHD patients also showed significantly lower basal cortisol levels. We could corroborate that there are neither cytogenetic effects of chronic stress nor of chronic MPH intake even after several years of treatment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. GFAP expression and social deficits in transgenic mice overexpressing human sAPPα

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Antoinette R; Hou, Huayan; Song, Min; Obregon, Demian F; Portis, Samantha; Barger, Steven; Shytle, Doug; Stock, Saundra; Mori, Takashi; Sanberg, Paul G; Murphy, Tanya; Tan, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Autistic individuals display impaired social interactions and language, and restricted, stereotyped behaviors. Elevated levels of secreted amyloid precursor protein-alpha (sAPPα), the product of α-secretase cleavage of APP, are found in the plasma of some individuals with autism. The sAPPα protein is neurotrophic and neuroprotective and recently showed a correlation to glial differentiation in human neural stem cells (NSCs) via the IL-6 pathway. Considering evidence of gliosis in postmortem autistic brains, we hypothesized that subsets of patients with autism would exhibit elevations in CNS sAPPα and mice generated to mimic this observation would display markers suggestive of gliosis and autism-like behavior. Elevations in sAPPα levels were observed in brains of autistic patients compared to controls. Transgenic mice engineered to overexpress human sAPPα (TgsAPPα mice) displayed hypoactivity, impaired sociability, increased brain glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression, and altered Notch1 and IL-6 levels. NSCs isolated from TgsAPPα mice, and those derived from wild-type mice treated with sAPPα, displayed suppressed β-tubulin III and elevated GFAP expression. These results suggest that elevations in brain sAPPα levels are observed in subsets of individuals with autism and TgsAPPα mice display signs suggestive of gliosis and behavioral impairment. PMID:23840007

  6. Randomised social-skills training and parental training plus standard treatment versus standard treatment of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder - The SOSTRA trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomsen Per

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD are hyperactive and impulsive, cannot maintain attention, and have difficulties with social interactions. Medical treatment may alleviate symptoms of ADHD, but seldom solves difficulties with social interactions. Social-skills training may benefit ADHD children in their social interactions. We want to examine the effects of social-skills training on difficulties related to the children's ADHD symptoms and social interactions. Methods/Design The design is randomised two-armed, parallel group, assessor-blinded trial. Children aged 8-12 years with a diagnosis of ADHD are randomised to social-skills training and parental training plus standard treatment versus standard treatment alone. A sample size calculation estimated that at least 52 children must be included to show a 4-point difference in the primary outcome on the Conners 3rd Edition subscale for 'hyperactivity-impulsivity' between the intervention group and the control group. The outcomes will be assessed 3 and 6 months after randomisation. The primary outcome measure is ADHD symptoms. The secondary outcome is social skills. Tertiary outcomes include the relationship between social skills and symptoms of ADHD, the ability to form attachment, and parents' ADHD symptoms. Discussion We hope that the results from this trial will show that the social-skills training together with medication may have a greater general effect on ADHD symptoms and social and emotional competencies than medication alone. Trial registration ClinicalTrials (NCT: NCT00937469

  7. Support for a link between the local processing bias and social deficits in autism: an investigation of embedded figures test performance in non-clinical individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell-Smith, Suzanna N; Maybery, Murray T; Bayliss, Donna M; Sng, Adelln A H

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this investigation was to explore the degree to which specific subsets of autistic-like traits relate to performance on the Embedded Figures Test (Witkin et al. in A manual for the embedded figures test. Consulting Psychologists Press, Palo Alto, CA, 1971). In the first group-based investigation with this focus, students were selected for their extreme scores (either high or low) on each of the 'Social Skills' and 'Details/Patterns' factors of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (Baron-Cohen et al. in J Austim Dev Disord 31:5-17, 2001). The resulting 2 × 2 factorial design permitted examination of the degree to which the social and non-social autistic-like traits separately relate to EFT performance. Surprisingly, in two studies, superior EFT performance was found to relate only to greater social difficulty, suggesting that the local processing bias in autism may be linked specifically to the social deficits.

  8. Interactive contributions of self-regulation deficits and social motivation to psychopathology: Unraveling divergent pathways to aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    RUDOLPH, KAREN D.; Troop-Gordon, Wendy; Llewellyn, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Poor self-regulation has been implicated as a significant risk factor for the development of multiple forms of psychopathology. This research examined the proposition that self-regulation deficits differentially predict aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms, depending on children’s social approach versus avoidance motivation. A prospective, multiple-informant approach was used to test this hypothesis in 419 children (M age = 8.92, SD = 0.36). Parents rated children’s inhibitory control....

  9. The Online Dissemination of Nature–Health Concepts: Lessons from Sentiment Analysis of Social Media Relating to “Nature-Deficit Disorder”

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Evidence continues to grow supporting the idea that restorative environments, green exercise, and nature-based activities positively impact human health. Nature-deficit disorder, a journalistic term proposed to describe the ill effects of people’s alienation from nature, is not yet formally recognized as a medical diagnosis. However, over the past decade, the phrase has been enthusiastically taken up by some segments of the lay public. Social media, such as Twitter, with its opportunities to ...

  10. Social cognitive deficits and biases in maltreated adolescents in U.K. out-of-home care: Relation to disinhibited attachment disorder and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Catherine L; Green, Jonathan M

    2016-02-01

    Children entering out-of-home (OoH) care have often experienced multiple forms of maltreatment and are at risk of psychiatric disorder and poor long-term outcome. Recent evidence shows high rates of disinhibited attachment disorder (DAD) among maltreated adolescents in U.K. OoH care (Kay & Green, 2013). This study aimed to further understand the mechanisms of outcome in this group through investigation of social cognitive functioning. Patterns of theory of mind (ToM) and social information processing were assessed alongside DAD behavior and psychopathology in 63 adolescents in U.K. OoH care (mean age = 176 months, SD = 22; 48% male; 89% White British) and 69 low-risk comparison adolescents (mean age = 171 months, SD = 17; 46% male; 87% White British). Compared to low risk, OoH adolescents showed a hostile attribution bias and ToM deficit, but this was confounded by language ability. ToM was associated with reduced hostile attribution and responding biases and increased social competence, which was further associated with lower levels of externalizing psychopathology. There was no association between social cognition and core features of DAD. Social cognitive deficits and biases may play a role in the high rates of externalizing psychopathology and relationship functioning difficulties in maltreated samples. Future research should assess alternative cognitive mechanisms for DAD.

  11. Extended-release Methylphenidate Treatment and Outcomes in Comorbid Social Anxiety Disorder and Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: 2 Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyuncu, Ahmet; Çelebi, Fahri; Ertekin, Erhan; Kahn, David A

    2015-05-01

    Social anxiety disorder is frequently comorbid with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, treatment recommendations are not clear in the presence of such comorbidity. A few studies in the literature have reported improvement in symptoms of both disorders with treatment specific for ADHD (ie, stimulants and atomoxetine). In this report, we present cases of 2 adults with social anxiety disorder and ADHD who were treated with methylphenidate monotherapy. Both cases responded well in terms of not only their ADHD symptoms but also the social anxiety disorder symptoms. Methylphenidate was well tolerated with no significant side effects. More studies are needed to better establish the potential of ADHD medications to be effective for comorbid social anxiety disorder symptoms.

  12. Study on the social maturity, self-perception, and associated factors, including motor coordination, of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Fumiko; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2005-01-01

    This study was designed to identify characteristics of social maturity and self-perception in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to elucidate associated factors, including motor coordination. The subjects were 15 children (14 boys and 1 girl, in elementary school grades 3 to 6). Their characteristics were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC), the Japanese version of the Social Maturity Scale-R (S-M scale), and Harter's Self Perception Profile for Children (SPPC). The results of the study suggested that most of the subjects had some degree of motor problem and delay of social maturity. They also suggested an association between social maturity and static-dynamic balance, which was one of the indices of motor coordination.

  13. The Online Dissemination of Nature–Health Concepts: Lessons from Sentiment Analysis of Social Media Relating to “Nature-Deficit Disorder”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, Marco; Taylor, Tim; Göker, Ayse; Isaacs, John; Warber, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Evidence continues to grow supporting the idea that restorative environments, green exercise, and nature-based activities positively impact human health. Nature-deficit disorder, a journalistic term proposed to describe the ill effects of people’s alienation from nature, is not yet formally recognized as a medical diagnosis. However, over the past decade, the phrase has been enthusiastically taken up by some segments of the lay public. Social media, such as Twitter, with its opportunities to gather “big data” related to public opinions, offers a medium for exploring the discourse and dissemination around nature-deficit disorder and other nature–health concepts. In this paper, we report our experience of collecting more than 175,000 tweets, applying sentiment analysis to measure positive, neutral or negative feelings, and preliminarily mapping the impact on dissemination. Sentiment analysis is currently used to investigate the repercussions of events in social networks, scrutinize opinions about products and services, and understand various aspects of the communication in Web-based communities. Based on a comparison of nature-deficit-disorder “hashtags” and more generic nature hashtags, we make recommendations for the better dissemination of public health messages through changes to the framing of messages. We show the potential of Twitter to aid in better understanding the impact of the natural environment on human health and wellbeing. PMID:26797628

  14. The Online Dissemination of Nature-Health Concepts: Lessons from Sentiment Analysis of Social Media Relating to "Nature-Deficit Disorder".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, Marco; Taylor, Tim; Göker, Ayse; Isaacs, John; Warber, Sara

    2016-01-19

    Evidence continues to grow supporting the idea that restorative environments, green exercise, and nature-based activities positively impact human health. Nature-deficit disorder, a journalistic term proposed to describe the ill effects of people's alienation from nature, is not yet formally recognized as a medical diagnosis. However, over the past decade, the phrase has been enthusiastically taken up by some segments of the lay public. Social media, such as Twitter, with its opportunities to gather "big data" related to public opinions, offers a medium for exploring the discourse and dissemination around nature-deficit disorder and other nature-health concepts. In this paper, we report our experience of collecting more than 175,000 tweets, applying sentiment analysis to measure positive, neutral or negative feelings, and preliminarily mapping the impact on dissemination. Sentiment analysis is currently used to investigate the repercussions of events in social networks, scrutinize opinions about products and services, and understand various aspects of the communication in Web-based communities. Based on a comparison of nature-deficit-disorder "hashtags" and more generic nature hashtags, we make recommendations for the better dissemination of public health messages through changes to the framing of messages. We show the potential of Twitter to aid in better understanding the impact of the natural environment on human health and wellbeing.

  15. The impact of anxiety, seizure severity, executive dysfunction, subjectively perceived psychological deficits, and depression on social function in patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampf, Christina; Walter, Uwe; Rösche, Johannes

    2016-04-01

    The impact of anxiety, seizure severity, executive dysfunction, subjectively perceived psychological deficits, and depression on social function in patients with epilepsy (PWE) was analyzed. A brief cognitive screening test (EpiTrack) and an estimation of the last 6 months' cumulative seizure severity (Chalfont seizure severity scale) were performed, and questionnaires on subjectively perceived cognitive deficits (c.I.-Skala), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, STAIX1 and STAIX2), depression (Self Rating Depression Scale, SDS), and social function (Soziale Aktivität Selbstbeurteilungsskala, SASS) were completed. Forty PWE (aged 41.8 years, SD 16; 24 female, 16 male) were analyzed. Thirty-eight point 5 percent had a score signifying depression in the SDS; 20% had a pathological result in at least one of the anxiety scores. The ANOVA revealed that only anxiety as a trait symptom (STAIX2) had a significant influence on social function apart from the other factors (panxiety impair the social function of patients with epilepsy apart from depression, cognitive function, and seizure severity. They should be taken into account in the treatment of patients with epilepsy.

  16. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Well-Being: Is Social Impairment an Issue for College Students with ADHD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the psychological well-being of college students with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) was analyzed. A survey was administered to a convenience sample of undergraduates aged 18-25 at a Southern university (N = 317). Well-being was measured using Ryff's (1989) 6 likert scales of psychological well-being. Students with…

  17. Assessment of Social Competence of Boys with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Problematic Peer Entry, Host Responses, and Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronk, Marla J.; Hund, Alycia M.; Landau, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Anecdotally and empirically, there is clear evidence that children with the Combined subtype of Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) experience disturbed peer relations, yet the field has not clearly established the origin of these difficulties. This is the first known investigation to examine the role of peer entry as a means to…

  18. New evidence in theory of mind deficits in subjects with chronic schizophrenia and first episode: correlation with symptoms, neurocognition and social function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Monica; Pollice, Rocco; Pacitti, Francesca; Pino, Maria Chiara; Mariano, Melania; Tripaldi, Simona; Casacchia, Massimo; Roncone, Rita

    2012-01-01

    Currently substantial evidence exists about Theory of Mind (ToM) impairment in subjects affected by chronic and first episode schizophrenia. In particular, in order to enhance the validity of our construct, we used in this study classical false beliefs tasks and advanced theory of mind tasks, together with the application of structural equation model, in order to ex-amine whether we are using ToM tasks with good psychometric properties. The main goal of the present study was to examine ToM deficits in a large sample including subjects suffering from chronic schizophrenia, first episode of schizophrenia and nor-mal controls, by observing in the same task the relationship with symptomatological gravity, neurocognition and social function.Materials and methods. A sample of 178 patients with chronic schizophrenia, a sample of 49 subjects with a first episode of psychosis and 484 healthy controls participated to this study. Measures of social cognition included task of false belief and advanced theory of mind task. No significant differences were found on ToM tasks between subjects affected by chronic and first episode schizophrenia. Social cognition showed in both groups a strong correlation with negative symptoms and social function, but did not evidence any relationship with neurocognition. CONCLUSION; ToM deficits exist in subjects suffering from chronic and first episode schizophrenia. These impairments do not seem to be a consequence of illness condition, they are likely to be state-independent and appear to be the most important cognitive mediator of social functioning in both groups.

  19. Association of comorbid anxiety with social functioning in school-age children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Steve S; Falk, Avital E; Aguirre, Vincent P

    2012-05-15

    Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently comorbid with disruptive behavior disorders, less is known about ADHD and comorbid anxiety. To improve understanding about the association of anxiety and social functioning, we studied 223 6 to 9 year-old ethnically diverse boys and girls (M=7.4 years) with and without ADHD. According to parents, children with ADHD and anxiety (n=46) and ADHD only (n=71) were consistently less socially competent than comparison children (i.e., no anxiety and ADHD: n=80) and children with anxiety only (n=26), who did not differ from one another. A similar pattern emerged for teacher ratings where youth with ADHD only and ADHD with anxiety exhibited the most social problems, but they did not differ from each other. These data suggest that comorbid anxiety does not exacerbate social dysfunction among 6 to 9 year-old children with ADHD. We consider findings within a developmental psychopathology framework to further understand social development in children with ADHD and anxiety.

  20. On the relationships between DSM-5 dysfunctional personality traits and social cognition deficits: A study in a sample of consecutively admitted Italian psychotherapy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea; Somma, Antonella; Krueger, Robert F; Markon, Kristian E; Borroni, Serena

    2017-05-11

    This study aims at testing the hypothesis that the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fifth edition (DSM-5) alternative model of personality disorder (AMPD) traits may be significantly associated with deficits on 2 different social cognition tasks, namely, the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test and the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition, in a sample of consecutively admitted inpatients and outpatients. The sample was composed of 181 consecutively admitted participants (57.5% women; mean age = 38.58 years). Correlation coefficients and partial correlation coefficients were computed in order to assess the associations among social cognition tasks, DSM-5 AMPD traits, and dimensionally assessed DSM-5 Section II personality disorders. Specific maladaptive traits listed in the DSM-5 AMPD were significantly associated with Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test scores and Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition scores, even when the effect of selected DSM-5 Section II personality disorders was controlled for. Our results support the relevance of studying social cognitive functioning in subjects suffering from personality disorders. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Social Cognition Impairments in Relation to General Cognitive Deficits, Injury Severity, and Prefrontal Lesions in Traumatic Brain Injury Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spikman, Jacoba M.; Timmerman, Marieke E.; Milders, Maarten V.; Veenstra, Wencke S.; van der Naalt, Joukje

    2012-01-01

    Impairments in social behavior are frequently found in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients and are associated with an unfavorable outcome with regard to return to work and social reintegration. Neuropsychological tests measuring aspects of social cognition are thought to be sens

  2. Neonatal intrahippocampal injection of lipopolysaccharide induces deficits in social behavior and prepulse inhibition and microglial activation in rats: Implication for a new schizophrenia animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Furong; Zhang, Lulu; Ding, Yu-qiang; Zhao, Jingping; Zheng, Yingjun

    2014-05-01

    Several lines of evidence have suggested that the dysregulation of immune system is involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Microglia are the resident macrophage of the brain and the major player in innate immunity in the brain. We hypothesized that microglia activation may be closely associated with the neuropathology of schizophrenia. Neonatal intrahippocampal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an activator of microglia, was performed in rats at postnatal day 7 (PD7), and they were separately treated with saline or minocycline for consecutive 3days. Behavioral changes (locomotor activity, social interaction and prepulse inhibition) were examined in adulthood, and the number of microglia was assessed using immunohistochemistry at PD9, PD21 and PD67. The adult rats in LPS-injected group showed obvious behavioral alterations (deficits in social behavior and prepulse inhibition) and a persistently dramatic increase of number of activated microglial cells in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex and thalamus compared to those in saline-injected group. Interestingly, pretreatment with minocycline could significantly rescue the behavioral deficits and prevent microglia activation. Our results suggest that neonatal intrahippocampal LPS injection may serve as a potential schizophrenia animal model, and inhibition of microglia activation may be a potential treatment strategy for schizophrenia.

  3. Interactive contributions of self-regulation deficits and social motivation to psychopathology: Unraveling divergent pathways to aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    RUDOLPH, KAREN D.; TROOP-GORDON, WENDY; LLEWELLYN, NICOLE

    2015-01-01

    Poor self-regulation has been implicated as a significant risk factor for the development of multiple forms of psychopathology. This research examined the proposition that self-regulation deficits differentially predict aggressive behavior and depressive symptoms, depending on children’s social approach versus avoidance motivation. A prospective, multiple-informant approach was used to test this hypothesis in 419 children (M age = 8.92, SD = 0.36). Parents rated children’s inhibitory control. Children completed measures of social approach–avoidance motivation and depressive symptoms. Teachers rated children’s aggressive behavior. As anticipated, poor inhibitory control predicted aggressive behavior in boys with high but not low approach motivation and low but not high avoidance motivation, whereas poor inhibitory control predicted depressive symptoms in girls with high but not low avoidance motivation. This research supports several complementary theoretical models of psychopathology and provides insight into the differential contributions of poor self-regulation to maladaptive developmental outcomes. The findings suggest the need for targeted intervention programs that consider heterogeneity among children with self-regulatory deficits. PMID:23627953

  4. Effects of early-life abuse differ across development: infant social behavior deficits are followed by adolescent depressive-like behaviors mediated by the amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineki, Charlis; Cortés, Millie Rincón; Belnoue, Laure; Sullivan, Regina M

    2012-05-30

    Abuse during early life, especially from the caregiver, increases vulnerability to develop later-life psychopathologies such as depression. Although signs of depression are typically not expressed until later life, signs of dysfunctional social behavior have been found earlier. How infant abuse alters the trajectory of brain development to produce pathways to pathology is not completely understood. Here we address this question using two different but complementary rat models of early-life abuse from postnatal day 8 (P8) to P12: a naturalistic paradigm, where the mother is provided with insufficient bedding for nest building; and a more controlled paradigm, where infants undergo olfactory classical conditioning. Amygdala neural assessment (c-Fos), as well as social behavior and forced swim tests were performed at preweaning (P20) and adolescence (P45). Our results show that both models of early-life abuse induce deficits in social behavior, even during the preweaning period; however, depressive-like behaviors were observed only during adolescence. Adolescent depressive-like behavior corresponds with an increase in amygdala neural activity in response to forced swim test. A causal relationship between the amygdala and depressive-like behavior was suggested through amygdala temporary deactivation (muscimol infusions), which rescued the depressive-like behavior in the forced swim test. Our results indicate that social behavior deficits in infancy could serve as an early marker for later psychopathology. Moreover, the implication of the amygdala in the ontogeny of depressive-like behaviors in infant abused animals is an important step toward understanding the underlying mechanisms of later-life mental disease associated with early-life abuse.

  5. Facial expression in patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia in response to emotional stimuli: a partially shared cognitive and social deficit of the two disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bersani G

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Bersani,1 Elisa Polli,1 Giuseppe Valeriani,1 Daiana Zullo,1 Claudia Melcore,1 Enrico Capra,2 Adele Quartini,1 Pietropaolo Marino,1 Amedeo Minichino,2 Laura Bernabei,2 Maddalena Robiony,1 Francesco Saverio Bersani,1,2 Damien Liberati1 1Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy; 2Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy Introduction: It has recently been highlighted that patients affected by schizophrenia (SCZ and those affected by bipolar disorder (BD undergo gradual chronic worsening of cognitive and social functioning. The objective of the current study was to evaluate and compare (using the Facial Action Coding System [FACS] the way by which patients with the two disorders experience and display emotions in relation to specific emotional stimuli. Materials and methods: Forty-five individuals participated in the study: 15 SCZ patients, 15 BD patients, and 15 healthy controls. All participants watched emotion-eliciting video clips while their facial activity was videotaped. The congruent/incongruent feeling of emotions and the facial expression in reaction to emotions were evaluated. Results: SCZ and BD patients presented similar incongruent emotive feelings and facial expressions (significantly worse than healthy participants; SCZ patients expressed the emotion of disgust significantly less appropriately than BD patients. Discussion: BD and SCZ patients seem to present a similar relevant impairment in both experiencing and displaying emotions; this impairment may be seen as a behavioral indicator of the deficit of social cognition present in both the disorders. As the disgust emotion is mainly elaborated in the insular cortex, the incongruent expression of disgust of SCZ patients can be interpreted as a further evidence of a functional deficit of the insular cortex in this disease. Specific remediation training could be used to improve

  6. “I Know that You Know that I Know”: Neural Substrates Associated with Social Cognition Deficits in DM1 Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Laura; Cercignani, Mara; Bruschini, Michela; Cipolotti, Lisa; Mancini, Matteo; Silvestri, Gabriella; Petrucci, Antonio; Bucci, Elisabetta; Antonini, Giovanni; Licchelli, Loretta; Spanò, Barbara; Giacanelli, Manlio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Meola, Giovanni; Bozzali, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type-1 (DM1) is a genetic multi-systemic disorder involving several organs including the brain. Despite the heterogeneity of this condition, some patients with non-congenital DM1 can present with minimal cognitive impairment on formal testing but with severe difficulties in daily-living activities including social interactions. One explanation for this paradoxical mismatch can be found in patients’ dysfunctional social cognition, which can be assessed in the framework of the Theory of Mind (ToM). We hypothesize here that specific disease driven abnormalities in DM1 brains may result in ToM impairments. We recruited 20 DM1 patients who underwent the “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” and the ToM-story tests. These patients, together with 18 healthy controls, also underwent resting-state functional MRI. A composite Theory of Mind score was computed for all recruited patients and correlated with their brain functional connectivity. This analysis provided the patients’ “Theory of Mind-network”, which was compared, for its topological properties, with that of healthy controls. We found that DM1 patients showed deficits in both tests assessing ToM. These deficits were associated with specific patterns of abnormal connectivity between the left inferior temporal and fronto-cerebellar nodes in DM1 brains. The results confirm the previous suggestions of ToM dysfunctions in patients with DM1 and support the hypothesis that difficulties in social interactions and personal relationships are a direct consequence of brain abnormalities, and not a reaction symptom. This is relevant not only for a better pathophysiological comprehension of DM1, but also for non-pharmacological interventions to improve clinical aspects and impact on patients’ success in life. PMID:27258100

  7. Building Empathy through Identification and Expression of Emotions: A Review of Interactive Tools for Children with Social Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Angelina S.; Monk, Jessica D.; Booker, Kimberly Wilson

    2011-01-01

    This article is a review of available interactive aids designed to enhance the identification and expression of feelings in children. These skills are part of the overall development of empathy. The development of empathy, in turn, is crucial for social competence, social relatedness, and prosocial behavior. Improving these skills is likely to…

  8. Social Deficits in Male Children and Adolescents with Sex Chromosome Aneuploidy: A Comparison of XXY, XYY, and XXYY Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Lisa; Tartaglia, Nicole; Roeltgen, David; Ross, Judith

    2012-01-01

    We compare social skills in three groups of males with sex chromosome aneuploidies (SCAs) using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Participants included males with XXY (N = 102, M = 10.08 years), XYY (N = 40, M = 9.93 years), and XXYY (N = 32, M = 11.57 years). XXY had lower (better) SRS scores compared to XYY and XXYY. Scores were not…

  9. Building Empathy through Identification and Expression of Emotions: A Review of Interactive Tools for Children with Social Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Angelina S.; Monk, Jessica D.; Booker, Kimberly Wilson

    2011-01-01

    This article is a review of available interactive aids designed to enhance the identification and expression of feelings in children. These skills are part of the overall development of empathy. The development of empathy, in turn, is crucial for social competence, social relatedness, and prosocial behavior. Improving these skills is likely to…

  10. Neuropsychological Functioning in Subgroups of Children with and without Social Perception Deficits and/or Hyperactivity-Impulsivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Vickie; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to ascertain whether there are differences among groups of children based on their social perception skills in visual perception and fluid reasoning to assist in more effective intervention planning. Method: A total of 80 children were grouped on the basis of their performance on a social perception measure…

  11. Manufacturing Growth with Social Deficits. Environmental and Labour Issues in the High Tech Industry of Penang, Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    2001-01-01

    . The fifth part contains three sections, as the issue of social impact on workers is dealt with in terms of employment conditions, environmental problems and occupational health and safety problems. The social impact on production workers concerns conditions at work, the household economy, and resources...

  12. The emergence of age-dependent social cognitive deficits after generalized insult to the developing brain: a longitudinal prospective analysis using susceptibility-weighted imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Nicholas P; Catroppa, Cathy; Cooper, Janine M; Beare, Richard; Ditchfield, Michael; Coleman, Lee; Silk, Timothy; Crossley, Louise; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Anderson, Vicki A

    2015-05-01

    Childhood and adolescence are critical periods for maturation of neurobiological processes that underlie complex social and emotional behavior including Theory of Mind (ToM). While structural correlates of ToM are well described in adults, less is known about the anatomical regions subsuming these skills in the developing brain or the impact of cerebral insult on the acquisition and establishment of high-level social cognitive skills. This study aimed to examine the differential influence of age-at-insult and brain pathology on ToM in a sample of children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Children and adolescents with TBI (n = 112) were categorized according to timing of brain insult: (i) middle childhood (5-9 years; n = 41); (ii) late childhood (10-11 years; n = 39); and (iii) adolescence (12-15 years; n = 32) and group-matched for age, gender, and socioeconomic status to a typically developing (TD) control group (n = 43). Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging including a susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) sequence 2-8 weeks postinjury and were assessed on a battery of ToM tasks at 6- and 24-months after injury. Results showed that for adolescents with TBI, social cognitive dysfunction at 6- and 24-months postinjury was associated with diffuse neuropathology and a greater number of lesions detected using SWI. In the late childhood TBI group, we found a time-dependent emergence of social cognitive impairment, linked to diffuse neuropathology. The middle childhood TBI group demonstrated performance unrelated to SWI pathology and comparable to TD controls. Findings indicate that the full extent of social cognitive deficits may not be realized until the associated skills reach maturity. Evidence for brain structure-function relationships suggests that the integrity of an anatomically distributed network of brain regions and their connections is necessary for the acquisition and establishment of high-level social

  13. Emotional Processing, Recognition, Empathy and Evoked Facial Expression in Eating Disorders: An Experimental Study to Map Deficits in Social Cognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cardi, Valentina; Corfield, Freya; Leppanen, Jenni; Rhind, Charlotte; Deriziotis, Stephanie; Hadjimichalis, Alexandra; Hibbs, Rebecca; Micali, Nadia; Treasure, Janet

    2015-01-01

    .... The aim of this study is to examine distinct processes of social-cognition in this patient group, including attentional processing and recognition, empathic reaction and evoked facial expression...

  14. Examining the Genetic and Environmental Associations between Autistic Social and Communication Deficits and Psychopathic Callous-Unemotional Traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth O'Nions

    Full Text Available Difficulties in appropriate social interaction are characteristic of both children with autism spectrum disorders and children with callous-unemotional traits (who are at risk of developing psychopathy. Extant experimental studies suggest that the nature of atypical social cognition that characterises these two profiles is not identical. However, 'empathizing' difficulties have been hypothesised for both groups, raising questions about the degree of aetiological separation between social impairments that characterize each disorder. This study explored the relative contribution of independent vs. shared aetiological influences to social and communication impairments associated with autistic traits and callous-unemotional traits, indexed by parent-report in a population-based cohort of twins.Participants were over 5,000 twin pairs from a UK cohort (the Twins Early Development Study; TEDS, assessed for callous-unemotional traits at 7 years and autistic social and communication impairments at 8 years. Multivariate model-fitting was used to explore the relative contribution of independent vs. overlapping genetic/environmental influences on these traits.Both social and communication impairments and callous-unemotional traits were highly heritable, although the genetic and environmental influences accounting for individual differences on each domain were predominantly independent.Extant evidence from experimental and neuro-imaging studies has suggested that, despite some superficially overlapping behaviours, the social difficulties seen in children with autism spectrum disorders and callous-unemotional traits are largely distinct. The current study is the first to demonstrate considerable aetiological independence of the social interaction difficulties seen in children with autism spectrum disorders and those with callous-unemotional traits.

  15. Chronic metals ingestion by prairie voles produces sex-specific deficits in social behavior: an animal model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, J Thomas; Hood, Amber N; Chen, Yue; Cobb, George P; Wallace, David R

    2010-11-12

    We examined the effects of chronic metals ingestion on social behavior in the normally highly social prairie vole to test the hypothesis that metals may interact with central dopamine systems to produce the social withdrawal characteristic of autism. Relative to water-treated controls, 10 weeks of chronic ingestion of either Hg(++) or Cd(++) via drinking water significantly reduced social contact by male voles when they were given a choice between isolation or contact with an unfamiliar same-sex conspecific. The effects of metals ingestion were specific to males: no effects of metals exposure were seen in females. Metals ingestion did not alter behavior of males allowed to choose between isolation or their familiar cage-mates, rather than strangers. We also examined the possibility that metals ingestion affects central dopamine functioning by testing the voles' locomotor responses to peripheral administration of amphetamine. As with the social behavior, we found a sex-specific effect of metals on amphetamine responses. Males that consumed Hg(++) did not increase their locomotor activity in response to amphetamine, whereas similarly treated females and males that ingested only water significantly increased their locomotor activities. Thus, an ecologically relevant stimulus, metals ingestion, produced two of the hallmark characteristics of autism - social avoidance and a male-oriented bias. These results suggest that metals exposure may contribute to the development of autism, possibly by interacting with central dopamine function, and support the use of prairie voles as a model organism in which to study autism.

  16. Association Between Parenting Style and Social Outcomes in Children with and Without Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An 18-Month Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhide, Sampada; Sciberras, Emma; Anderson, Vicki; Hazell, Philip; Nicholson, Jan M

    In a community-based sample of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 179) and non-ADHD controls (n = 212), this longitudinal study explored changes in parenting style over time; and whether parenting style prospectively predicts child functional outcomes. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis was assessed using the Conners ADHD index and Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children IV. Children (70.3% boys) were assessed at baseline (mean age: 7.3 yr) and after 18 months (mean age: 8.9 yr) using a range of parent- and teacher-reported measures of child socioemotional and academic functioning. Parenting style was assessed through parent-reported measures of warmth, consistency, and anger. At 18-month follow-up, there was a small significant decline in parenting warmth and parenting anger, and an increase in parenting consistency across groups. In the ADHD group, parenting warmth at baseline was positively related to 18-month prosocial behavior and responsibility by parent report, whereas parenting consistency predicted these child outcomes by teacher report. Parenting anger was positively associated with peer problems and negatively associated with prosocial behavior, self-control, and responsibility by parent report. Associations were similar for non-ADHD controls and all associations held after adjusting for a range of family, child, and parent factors. After additional adjustment of baseline levels of child functioning, parenting warmth and consistency continued to be associated with 18-month child outcomes. Parenting style was unrelated to emotional problems and academic competence over time. Parenting style is independently related to aspects of future social outcomes of children with ADHD. Results hold implications for parenting interventions aimed at managing ADHD-related social impairments over time.

  17. Migrants and the language of instruction: Is the EU policy deficit driving new innovations in social inclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Joe

    2017-08-01

    Language learning has long been seen as an important tool for achieving European Union (EU) targets for social inclusion. However, "mainstream" policy instruments like the Action Plan on Promoting Language Learning and Linguistic Diversity and the European Charter for Minority Languages have been undermined in recent years by the effects of the global financial crisis, which has contributed to the widespread decimation of welfare budgets in many EU member states. This has been accompanied by the increasing influence of a "neo-liberal" discourse in welfare and social service policies and practices, leading to the delegation of responsibility for service provision from central, regional and local government to commercial enterprises, civil society and, ultimately, to citizens themselves. At the same time, the gaps in service provision that have resulted from this "financial crisis" have opened up new opportunities for social innovators. New kinds of organisations are beginning to develop and apply new approaches using language learning to deliver innovative services aimed, for example, at supporting the integration of immigrants in society. Using case study analysis, this paper explores how these new approaches have developed, what kinds of innovation are being delivered and the contribution these social innovations are making to broader EU social inclusion objectives.

  18. Migrants and the language of instruction: Is the EU policy deficit driving new innovations in social inclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Joe

    2017-04-01

    Language learning has long been seen as an important tool for achieving European Union (EU) targets for social inclusion. However, "mainstream" policy instruments like the Action Plan on Promoting Language Learning and Linguistic Diversity and the European Charter for Minority Languages have been undermined in recent years by the effects of the global financial crisis, which has contributed to the widespread decimation of welfare budgets in many EU member states. This has been accompanied by the increasing influence of a "neo-liberal" discourse in welfare and social service policies and practices, leading to the delegation of responsibility for service provision from central, regional and local government to commercial enterprises, civil society and, ultimately, to citizens themselves. At the same time, the gaps in service provision that have resulted from this "financial crisis" have opened up new opportunities for social innovators. New kinds of organisations are beginning to develop and apply new approaches using language learning to deliver innovative services aimed, for example, at supporting the integration of immigrants in society. Using case study analysis, this paper explores how these new approaches have developed, what kinds of innovation are being delivered and the contribution these social innovations are making to broader EU social inclusion objectives.

  19. The Size of Fiscal Deficit Expected to Be Limited within Social Tolerance%财政赤字规模应把握社会承受力限度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾志立

    2014-01-01

    Debt financing and bank overdrafting are the two methods to balance fiscal deficit, and they can be used at the same time. Debt financing should be under the premise of the current fiscal revenue. Bank overdrafting will bring about inflation if it is beyond the social tolerance. Therefore, the social tolerance of fiscal deficit should be paid attention. Nationally speaking, the size of fiscal deficit is expected to be limited within social tolerance---a certain bank overdrafting should be based on a certain social spare currency fund. The fiscal deficit is expected to be balanced by positive methods.%平衡财政赤字有举债和银行透支两个途径,二者可兼用。举债要视当期财政收入状况为前提,银行透支超越社会承受力一定限度将致发通胀。因此,必须关注财政赤字规模的社会承受力。从全国看,财政赤字规模---一定限量银行透支应以一定限量社会闲置货币资金的存在---社会承受力为依托。财政赤字宜用积极手段平衡。

  20. An Examination of the Relationship between Communication and Socialization Deficits in Children with Autism and PDD-NOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattier, Megan A.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2012-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are characterized by pervasive impairments in repetitive behaviors or interests, communication, and socialization. As the onset of these features occurs at a very young age, early detection is of the utmost importance. In an attempt to better clarify the behavioral presentation of communication and socialization…

  1. Social instability stress in adolescent male rats alters hippocampal neurogenesis and produces deficits in spatial location memory in adulthood.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCormick, C.M.; Thomas, C.M.G.; Sheridan, C.S.; Nixon, F.; Flynn, J.A.; Mathews, I.Z.

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing development of the hippocampus in adolescence may be vulnerable to stressors. The effects of social instability stress (SS) in adolescence (daily 1 h isolation and change of cage partner postnatal days 30-45) on cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus (DG) in adolescence (on days 33 and

  2. Migrants and the Language of Instruction: Is the EU Policy Deficit Driving New Innovations in Social Inclusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Joe

    2017-01-01

    Language learning has long been seen as an important tool for achieving European Union (EU) targets for social inclusion. However, "mainstream" policy instruments like the "Action Plan on Promoting Language Learning and Linguistic Diversity" and the "European Charter for Minority Languages" have been undermined in…

  3. [Evolutionary issues in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); from risk factors to comorbidity and social and academic impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Javier; Loro, Mercedes; Jiménez, Belén; García Campos, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood disorders and at least one-third to one-half will continue through adolescence and adulthood. Moreover it is important the high comorbidity not only in children, but in adolescents and adults. Therefore ADHD becomes especially important when we observe it as a risk factor for the development of another psychopathology that add more complexity to the diagnosis of children and adolescents and also adults, and confers an evolutionary risk throughout the lifetime of the person who suffers from it. A correlational study with a sample of 378 patients diagnosed with ADHD in the childhood between 1988 and 2000 who had initiated treatment after been diagnosed was carried out. 88 patients were evaluated years after (2006) with ages between 18 and 33 years old. 85% of the patients in this study had had combined treatment. The data found in this study show lower comorbidity than other published studies (36.4%), as well as a lower persistence of the complete diagnosis of ADHD in the adulthood (15%). This is a treated population; the results may lead to a possible protector role of the early treatment of ADHD.

  4. Enhancement of social novelty discrimination by positive allosteric modulators at metabotropic glutamate 5 receptors: adolescent administration prevents adult-onset deficits induced by neonatal treatment with phencyclidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Nicholas E; Morisot, Nadège; Girardon, Sylvie; Millan, Mark J; Loiseau, Florence

    2013-02-01

    Metabotropic glutamate-5 receptors (mGluR5), which physically and functionally interact with N-methyl-D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptors, likewise control cognitive processes and have been proposed as targets for novel classes of antipsychotic agent. Since social cognition is impaired in schizophrenia and disrupted by NMDA receptor antagonists like dizocilpine, we evaluated its potential modulation by mGluR5. Acute administration (0.63-40 mg/kg) of the mGluR5 positive allosteric modulators (PAMs), 3-cyano-N-(1,3-diphenyl-1H-pyrazol-5-yl)benzamide (CDPPB) and ADX47273, reversed a delay-induced impairment in social novelty discrimination (SND) in adult rats. The action of CDPPB was blocked by the mGluR5 antagonist, 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (2.5-10 mg/kg), and was also expressed upon microinjection into frontal cortex (0.63-10 μg/side), but not striatum. Supporting an interrelationship between mGluR5 and NMDA receptors, enhancement of SND by CDPPB was blocked by dizocilpine (0.08 mg/kg) while, reciprocally, dizocilpine-induced impairment in SND was attenuated by CDPPB (10 mg/kg). The SND deficit elicited by post-natal administration of phencyclidine (10 mg/kg, days 7-11) was reversed by CDPPB or ADX47273 in adults at week 8. This phencyclidine-induced impairment in cognition emerged in adult rats from week 7 on, and chronic, pre-symptomatic treatment of adolescent rats with CDPPB over weeks 5-6 (10 mg/kg per day) prevented the appearance of SND deficits in adults until at least week 13. In conclusion, as evaluated by a SND procedure, mGluR5 PAMs promote social cognition via actions expressed in interaction with NMDA receptors and exerted in frontal cortex. MGluR5 PAMs not only reverse but also (when given during adolescence) prevent the emergence of cognitive impairment associated with a developmental model of schizophrenia.

  5. Academic and Social Functioning Associated with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Latent Class Analyses of Trajectories from Kindergarten to Fifth Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPaul, George J; Morgan, Paul L; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M; Maczuga, Steve

    2016-10-01

    Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are known to exhibit significantly lower academic and social functioning than other children. Yet the field currently lacks knowledge about specific impairment trajectories experienced by children with ADHD, which may constrain early screening and intervention effectiveness. Data were analyzed from a nationally representative U.S. cohort in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (ECLS-K) for 590 children (72.7 % male) whose parents reported a formal diagnosis of ADHD. Children's math, reading, and interpersonal skills were assessed at 5 time points between kindergarten and fifth grade. Growth mixture model analyses indicated 4 latent trajectory classes for reading, 8 classes for math, and 4 classes for interpersonal skills. Membership in reading and math trajectory classes was strongly related; overlaps with interpersonal skills classes were weaker. Trajectory class membership was correlated with demographic characteristics and behavioral functioning. Children with ADHD display substantial heterogeneity in their reading, math, and interpersonal growth trajectories, with some groups of children especially likely to display relatively severe levels of academic and social impairment over time. Early screening and intervention to address impairment, particularly reading difficulties, among kindergarten students with ADHD is warranted.

  6. Anhedonia in prolonged schizophrenia spectrum patients with relatively lower vs. higher levels of depression disorders: associations with deficits in social cognition and metacognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Kelly D; McLeod, Hamish J; Gumley, Andrew; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Buck, Benjamin E; Minor, Kyle S; James, Alison V; Lysaker, Paul H

    2014-10-01

    This study has sought to explore whether there are at least two subtypes of anhedonia in schizophrenia: one closely linked with depression and another that occurs in the absence of depression which is related to a general paucity of internal experience. Participants were 163 adults with schizophrenia who completed assessments of depression, anhedonia, executive functioning, positive and negative symptoms, social cognition and metacognition. A cluster analysis based on participants' depression and anhedonia symptom scores produced three groups: High Depression/High Anhedonia (n=52), Low Depression/Low Anhedonia (n=52), and Low Depression/High Anhedonia (n=59). An ANCOVA and post hoc comparisons controlling for positive and negative symptoms found that the Low Depression/High Anhedonia group had poorer metacognition and social cognition than other groups. These findings point to the possibility of a subtype of anhedonia in schizophrenia, one occurring in the relative lesser levels of depression, and tied to deficits in the ability to think about oneself and others.

  7. Do communication and social interaction skills differ across youth diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or dual diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salley, Brenda; Gabrielli, Joy; Smith, Catherine M; Braun, Matthew

    2015-12-01

    Given the well-documented symptom overlap between Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), careful evaluation of potential differentiation and overlap is critical for accurate diagnostic decisions. Although research has considered the use of symptom checklists and parent/teacher report questionnaires for symptom differentiation, standardized observational methods, typically utilized in the context of ASD evaluation, have received less attention. The present study examined the continuum of communication and social interaction impairment for youth diagnosed with ASD and ADHD, as indexed by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS). Participants were 209 youth ages 3 to 18 years with ASD, ADHD, Dual Diagnosis (ASD+ADHD) or No Diagnosis. Differences across diagnostic groups were observed for mean communication and social interaction total scores on the ADOS, with the highest scores (i.e., greater impairment) observed for the ASD group and lowest scores for the ADHD and No Diagnosis groups. Results provide the first evidence for use of the ADOS for distinguishing youth who have ADHD alone versus ASD alone or co-occurring ASD+ADHD. Findings are discussed in light of implications for clinical practice and future research.

  8. Manufacturing Growth with Social Deficits. Environmental and Labour Issues in the High Tech Industry of Penang, Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangel, Arne

    2001-01-01

    of the paper. Not surprisingly, priorities in government policies and inadequate efforts of monitoring reflect the asymmetrical power relations. However, major foreign owned subsidiaries do perform systems of self-regulation, either on their own initiative or as instructed by their corporate headquarter...... capacity makes it difficult to escape production segments, in which labour cost remains a key parameter. Thus, the competitive position of Malaysia is unstable and may erode. In the third part, the pattern of interests of the major stakeholders: authorities, corporate managers, workers, trade unions....... The fifth part contains three sections, as the issue of social impact on workers is dealt with in terms of employment conditions, environmental problems and occupational health and safety problems. The social impact on production workers concerns conditions at work, the household economy, and resources...

  9. Impaired hippocampal neuroligin-2 function by chronic stress or synthetic peptide treatment is linked to social deficits and increased aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooij, Michael A; Fantin, Martina; Kraev, Igor; Korshunova, Irina; Grosse, Jocelyn; Zanoletti, Olivia; Guirado, Ramon; Garcia-Mompó, Clara; Nacher, Juan; Stewart, Michael G; Berezin, Vladimir; Sandi, Carmen

    2014-04-01

    Neuroligins (NLGNs) are cell adhesion molecules that are important for proper synaptic formation and functioning, and are critical regulators of the balance between neural excitation/inhibition (E/I). Mutations in NLGNs have been linked to psychiatric disorders in humans involving social dysfunction and are related to similar abnormalities in animal models. Chronic stress increases the likelihood for affective disorders and has been shown to induce changes in neural structure and function in different brain regions, with the hippocampus being highly vulnerable to stress. Previous studies have shown evidence of chronic stress-induced changes in the neural E/I balance in the hippocampus. Therefore, we hypothesized that chronic restraint stress would lead to reduced hippocampal NLGN-2 levels, in association with alterations in social behavior. We found that rats submitted to chronic restraint stress in adulthood display reduced sociability and increased aggression. This occurs along with a reduction of NLGN-2, but not NLGN-1 expression (as shown with western blot, immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy analyses), throughout the hippocampus and detectable in different layers of the CA1, CA3, and DG subfields. Furthermore, using synthetic peptides that comprise sequences in either NLGN-1 (neurolide-1) or NLGN-2 (neurolide-2) involved in the interaction with their presynaptic partner neurexin (NRXN)-1, intra-hippocampal administration of neurolide-2 led also to reduced sociability and increased aggression. These results highlight hippocampal NLGN-2 as a key molecular substrate regulating social behaviors and underscore NLGNs as promising targets for the development of novel drugs for the treatment of dysfunctional social behaviors.

  10. The Protective Effects of Areca catechu Extract on Cognition and Social Interaction Deficits in a Cuprizone-Induced Demyelination Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abulimiti Adilijiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a serious psychiatric illness with an unclear cause. One theory is that demyelination of white matter is one of the main pathological factors involved in the development of schizophrenia. The current study evaluated the protective effects of Areca catechu nut extract (ANE on a cuprizone-induced demyelination mouse model. Two doses of ANE (1% and 2% were administered orally in the diet for 8 weeks. Animals subjected to demyelination showed impaired spatial memory and less social activity. In addition, mice subjected to demyelination displayed significant myelin damage in cortex and demonstrated a higher expression of NG2 and PDGFRα and AMPK activation. ANE treatment not only significantly enhanced cognitive ability and social activity, but also protected myelin against cuprizone toxicity by promoting oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC differentiation. In addition, ANE treatment demonstrated significant dephosphorylation of AMPKα, indicating a regulatory role for ANE in schizophrenia. This study showed that ANE treatment may enhance cognitive ability and social activity by facilitating OPC differentiation and protecting against myelin damage in cortex. Results also suggest the AMPK signaling pathway may be involved in this process.

  11. Glutamate carboxypeptidase II and folate deficiencies result in reciprocal protection against cognitive and social deficits in mice: implications for neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaevitz, Laura R; Picker, Jonathan D; Rana, Jasmine; Kolodny, Nancy H; Shane, Barry; Berger-Sweeney, Joanne E; Coyle, Joseph T

    2012-06-01

    Interactions between genetic and environmental risk factors underlie a number of neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia (SZ) and autism (AD). Due to the complexity and multitude of the genetic and environmental factors attributed to these disorders, recent research strategies focus on elucidating the common molecular pathways through which these multiple risk factors may function. In this study, we examine the combined effects of a haplo-insufficiency of glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) and dietary folic acid deficiency. In addition to serving as a neuropeptidase, GCPII catalyzes the absorption of folate. GCPII and folate depletion interact within the one-carbon metabolic pathway and/or of modulate the glutamatergic system. Four groups of mice were tested: wild-type, GCPII hypomorphs, and wild-types and GCPII hypomorphs both fed a folate deficient diet. Due to sex differences in the prevalence of SZ and AD, both male and female mice were assessed on a number of behavioral tasks including locomotor activity, rotorod, social interaction, prepulse inhibition, and spatial memory. Wild-type mice of both sexes fed a folic acid deficient diet showed motor coordination impairments and cognitive deficits, while social interactions were decreased only in males. GCPII mutant mice of both sexes also exhibited reduced social propensities. In contrast, all folate-depleted GCPII hypomorphs performed similarly to untreated wild-type mice, suggesting that reduced GCPII expression and folate deficiency are mutually protective. Analyses of folate and neurometabolite levels associated with glutamatergic function suggest several potential mechanisms through which GCPII and folate may be interacting to create this protective effect.

  12. Cognitive Deficits in the Pathogenesis of Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, M.

    1983-01-01

    Reports empirical findings indicating that autistic children have a basic cognitive deficit that is not a secondary consequence of social withdrawal. The precise nature of the deficit is discussed, as are studies of autistic children's general intelligence, language abnormalities, and social impairments. (RH)

  13. Impaired Hippocampal Neuroligin-2 Function by Chronic Stress or Synthetic Peptide Treatment is Linked to Social Deficits and Increased Aggression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Kooij, Michael A; Fantin, Martina; Kraev, Igor

    2014-01-01

    and are related to similar abnormalities in animal models. Chronic stress increases the likelihood for affective disorders and has been shown to induce changes in neural structure and function in different brain regions, with the hippocampus being highly vulnerable to stress. Previous studies have shown evidence...... of chronic stress-induced changes in the neural E/I balance in the hippocampus. Therefore, we hypothesized that chronic restraint stress would lead to reduced hippocampal NLGN-2 levels, in association with alterations in social behavior. We found that rats submitted to chronic restraint stress in adulthood...

  14. Cerebrolysin prevents deficits in social behavior, repetitive conduct, and synaptic inhibition in a rat model of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas-Olguin, Roberto; Roychowdhury, Swagata; Banerjee, Anwesha; Garcia-Oscos, Francisco; Esquivel-Rendon, Eric; Bringas, María Elena; Kilgard, Michael P; Flores, Gonzalo; Atzori, Marco

    2017-06-13

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a syndrome of diverse neuropsychiatric diseases of growing incidence characterized by repetitive conduct and impaired social behavior and communication for which effective pharmacological treatment is still unavailable. While the mechanisms and etiology of ASD are still unknown, a consensus is emerging about the synaptic nature of the syndrome, suggesting a possible avenue for pharmacological treatment with synaptogenic compounds. The peptidic mixture cerebrolysin (CBL) has been successfully used during the last three decades in the treatment of stroke and neurodegenerative disease. Animal experiments indicate that at least one possible mechanism of action of CBL is through neuroprotection and/or synaptogenesis. In the present study, we tested the effect of CBL treatment (daily injection of 2.5 mL/Kg i.p. during 15 days) on a rat model of ASD. This was based on the offspring (43 male and 51 female pups) of a pregnant female rat injected with valproic acid (VPA, 600 mg/Kg) at the embryonic day 12.5, which previous work has shown to display extensive behavioral, as well as synaptic impairment. Comparison between saline vs. CBL-injected VPA animals shows that CBL treatment improves behavioral as well as synaptic impairments, measured by behavioral performance (social interaction, Y-maze, plus-maze), maximal response of inhibitory γ-amino butyric acid type A receptor (GABAA R)-mediated synaptic currents, as well as their kinetic properties and adrenergic and muscarinic modulation. We speculate that CBL might be a viable and effective candidate for pharmacological treatment or co-treatment of ASD patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Social instability stress in adolescent male rats alters hippocampal neurogenesis and produces deficits in spatial location memory in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Cheryl M; Thomas, Catherine M; Sheridan, Cheryl S; Nixon, Feather; Flynn, Jennifer A; Mathews, Iva Z

    2012-06-01

    The ongoing development of the hippocampus in adolescence may be vulnerable to stressors. The effects of social instability stress (SS) in adolescence (daily 1 h isolation and change of cage partner postnatal days 30-45) on cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus (DG) in adolescence (on days 33 and 46, experiment 1) and in adulthood (experiment 2) was examined in Long Evans male rats and compared to nonstressed controls (CTL). Additionally, in experiment 2, a separate group of SS and CTL rats was tested on either a spatial (hippocampal-dependent) or nonspatial (nonhippocampal dependent) version of an object memory test and also were used to investigate hippocampal expression of markers of synaptic plasticity. No memory impairment was evident until the SS rats were adults, and the impairment was only on the spatial test. SS rats initially (postnatal day 33) had increased cell proliferation based on counts of Ki67 immunoreactive (ir) cells and greater survival of immature neurons based on counts of doublecortin ir cells on day 46 and in adulthood, irrespective of behavioral testing. Counts of microglia in the DG did not differ by stress group, but behavioral testing was associated with reduced microglia counts compared to nontested rats. As adults, SS and CTL rats did not differ in hippocampal expression of synaptophysin, but compared to CTL rats, SS rats had higher expression of basal calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CamKII), and lower expression of the phosphorylated CamKII subunit threonine 286, signaling molecules related to synaptic plasticity. The results are contrasted with those from previous reports of chronic stress in adult rats, and we conclude that adolescent stress alters the ongoing development of the hippocampus leading to impaired spatial memory in adulthood, highlighting the heightened vulnerability to stressors in adolescence.

  16. Executive function deficits and social-behavioral abnormality in mice exposed to a low dose of dioxin in utero and via lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Endo

    Full Text Available An increasing prevalence of mental health problems has been partly ascribed to abnormal brain development that is induced upon exposure to environmental chemicals. However, it has been extremely difficult to detect and assess such causality particularly at low exposure levels. To address this question, we here investigated higher brain function in mice exposed to dioxin in utero and via lactation by using our recently developed automated behavioral flexibility test and immunohistochemistry of neuronal activation markers Arc, at the 14 brain areas. Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were given orally a low dose of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD at a dose of either 0, 0.6 or 3.0 µg/kg on gestation day 12.5. When the pups reached adulthood, they were group-housed in IntelliCage to assess their behavior. As a result, the offspring born to dams exposed to 0.6 µg TCDD/kg were shown to have behavioral inflexibility, compulsive repetitive behavior, and dramatically lowered competitive dominance. In these mice, immunohistochemistry of Arc exhibited the signs of hypoactivation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC and hyperactivation of the amygdala. Intriguingly, mice exposed to 3.0 µg/kg were hardly affected in both the behavioral and neuronal activation indices, indicating that the robust, non-monotonic dose-response relationship. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that perinatal exposure to a low dose of TCDD in mice develops executive function deficits and social behavioral abnormality accompanied with the signs of imbalanced mPFC-amygdala activation.

  17. Single episode of mild murine malaria induces neuroinflammation, alters microglial profile, impairs adult neurogenesis, and causes deficits in social and anxiety-like behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Suman K; Tillu, Rucha; Sood, Ankit; Patgaonkar, Mandar; Nanavaty, Ishira N; Sengupta, Arjun; Sharma, Shobhona; Vaidya, Vidita A; Pathak, Sulabha

    2014-11-01

    Cerebral malaria is associated with cerebrovascular damage and neurological sequelae. However, the neurological consequences of uncomplicated malaria, the most prevalent form of the disease, remain uninvestigated. Here, using a mild malaria model, we show that a single Plasmodium chabaudi adami infection in adult mice induces neuroinflammation, neurogenic, and behavioral changes in the absence of a blood-brain barrier breach. Using cytokine arrays we show that the infection induces differential serum and brain cytokine profiles, both at peak parasitemia and 15days post-parasite clearance. At the peak of infection, along with the serum, the brain also exhibited a definitive pro-inflammatory cytokine profile, and gene expression analysis revealed that pro-inflammatory cytokines were also produced locally in the hippocampus, an adult neurogenic niche. Hippocampal microglia numbers were enhanced, and we noted a shift to an activated profile at this time point, accompanied by a striking redistribution of the microglia to the subgranular zone adjacent to hippocampal neuronal progenitors. In the hippocampus, a distinct decline in progenitor turnover and survival was observed at peak parasitemia, accompanied by a shift from neuronal to glial fate specification. Studies in transgenic Nestin-GFP reporter mice demonstrated a decline in the Nestin-GFP(+)/GFAP(+) quiescent neural stem cell pool at peak parasitemia. Although these cellular changes reverted to normal 15days post-parasite clearance, specific brain cytokines continued to exhibit dysregulation. Behavioral analysis revealed selective deficits in social and anxiety-like behaviors, with no change observed in locomotor, cognitive, and depression-like behaviors, with a return to baseline at recovery. Collectively, these findings indicate that even a single episode of mild malaria results in alterations of the brain cytokine profile, causes specific behavioral dysfunction, is accompanied by hippocampal microglial

  18. Beyond the knowledge deficit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janus Staffan; Holm, Lotte; Frewer, Lynn

    2003-01-01

    The paper reviews psychological and social scientific research on lay attitudes to food risks. Many experts (scientists, food producers and public health advisors) regard public unease about food risks as excessive. This expert-lay discrepancy is often attributed to a 'knowledge deficit' among lay...... people. However, much research in psychology and sociology suggests that lay risk assessments are complex, situationally sensitive expressions of personal value systems. The paper is organised around four themes: risk perception, the communication of risk, lay handling of risk, and public trust...... in institutions and experts. It suggests that an interdisciplinary, contextualised and psychologically sound approach to the study of risk is needed....

  19. Inclusão social de um paciente com déficit intelectual moderado por meio de repertório verbal Social inclusion of a patient with moderate intellectual deficit by verbal repertoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Francisca Cecato

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A inclusão social pode ser compreendida com estímulos e treinamentos para promover o máximo de autonomia e independência aos portadores de deficiência no cotidiano em que vivem. O objetivo da pesquisa foi observar e identificar comportamentos verbais inadequados em um indivíduo deficiente intelectual moderado e instalar comportamentos verbais que favoreçam sua inclusão. O estudo foi conduzido em uma instituição de excepcionais, localizada na cidade de Vinhedo-SP, e uma participante com deficiência intelectual moderada participou da pesquisa. Os resultados mostraram que os comportamentos verbais adequados aumentaram depois das intervenções. Pode-se concluir que a psicologia comportamental foi importante para a modificação do comportamento e por treinar os repertórios verbais do individuo nas atividades de vida diária.Social inclusion can be understood with stimulus and training to promote autonomy and independence for people with disabilities in daily life. The objectives of this research was to observe and identify inappropriate verbal behaviors in a patient with moderate intellectual deficient ant to install verbal behaviors that promote the inclusion. The study was conducted in an exceptional institution, in Vinhedo, São Paulo, and one subject with moderate intellectual deficits participated the research. The outcomes showed that verbal behaviors increased after appropriate interventions. It can be concluded that the behavioral psychology was important for behavior modification and training the patient verbal repertoire to daily living activities.

  20. PRAGMATIC DEFICITS OF ASPERGER SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmy Arizatul Humaira’

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Human being is social creature who needs other people to interact with. One of the ways to interact with others is communication with language. However, communication could be a complicated problem for those who were born with developmental disorder called Asperger Syndrome (AS. The communication challenge of Asperger’s is the difficulty using language appropriately for social purposes or known as pragmatic deficits. Many excellent books about autism are published whereas knowledge on pragmatic deficits are still very limited. Thus, it is expected to be a beneficial reference to understand the pragmatic deficits and to create strategies for them to communicate effectively. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring the kinds of pragmatic deficits of an individual with AS. The verbal language profiles of autism purposed by MacDonald (2004 is used to analyzed the data in depth. The descriptive qualitative method is applied to develop a comprehensive understanding about the AS case in Temple Grandin movie.The finding shows that all of the five types of communication deficits are appearing and the dominant of which is unresponsive.

  1. Understanding the Psycho-Social and Cultural Factors That Influence the Experience of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Chinese American College Students: A Systems Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Edmund Wong Din-Mond

    2012-01-01

    A review of the extant research literature reveals limited data on college students with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Even less information is known in regards to minority populations living with ADHD, specifically Asian American college student. This research project was focused on Chinese American college students with ADHD.…

  2. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Madhuri

    2015-03-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common behavioral disorder in children. It is characterized by motor hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention inappropriate for the age. Approximately 5-10 % of school age children are diagnosed to have ADHD. The affected children show significant impairment in social behavior and academic performance. The DSM-5 criteria are useful in diagnosing three subtypes of ADHD based on presence of symptoms described in 3 domains viz ., inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Co-morbidities like specific learning disability, anxiety disorder, oppositional defiant disorder are commonly associated with ADHD.Education of parents and teachers, behavioral therapy and medication are main components of management. Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine are effective in controlling symptoms of ADHD in most children. Research studies estimated that 30-60 % of children continue to show symptoms of ADHD in adulthood. The general practitioner can play an important role in early diagnosis, appropriate assessment and guiding parents for management of children with ADHD.

  3. Attention deficit in children: a multiprofessional approach

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is the most common behavior disorder in children characterized by attention deficit, overactivity and impulsivity, which may persist into adolescence and adulthood. It is often complicated with multiple comorbid disorders which when undiagnosed or untreated significantly affects the children on aspects like academic skills, peer relationship, social life and difficulty in leading productive lives. This report presents a case of 12 year old male ...

  4. Does Gender Influence Core Deficits in ASD? An Investigation into Social-Communication and Play of Girls and Boys with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; Shire, Stephanie; Gulsrud, Amanda; Chang, Ya-Chih; Ishijima, Eric; Lawton, Kathy; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Due to the predominance of boys diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), girls are rarely studied independently. Research specifically focusing on play and social-communication in girls with ASD is extremely varied. We were interested in whether girls with ASD demonstrated equivalent social-communication and play skills in early childhood…

  5. Does Gender Influence Core Deficits in ASD? An Investigation into Social-Communication and Play of Girls and Boys with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Clare; Shire, Stephanie; Gulsrud, Amanda; Chang, Ya-Chih; Ishijima, Eric; Lawton, Kathy; Kasari, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Due to the predominance of boys diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), girls are rarely studied independently. Research specifically focusing on play and social-communication in girls with ASD is extremely varied. We were interested in whether girls with ASD demonstrated equivalent social-communication and play skills in early childhood…

  6. Social Network Analysis Reveals the Negative Effects of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD Symptoms on Friend-Based Student Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Won Kim

    Full Text Available Social network analysis has emerged as a promising tool in modern social psychology. This method can be used to examine friend-based social relationships in terms of network theory, with nodes representing individual students and ties representing relationships between students (e.g., friendships and kinships. Using social network analysis, we investigated whether greater severity of ADHD symptoms is correlated with weaker peer relationships among elementary school students.A total of 562 sixth-graders from two elementary schools (300 males provided the names of their best friends (maximum 10 names. Their teachers rated each student's ADHD symptoms using an ADHD rating scale.The results showed that 10.2% of the students were at high risk for ADHD. Significant group differences were observed between the high-risk students and other students in two of the three network parameters (degree, centrality and closeness used to assess friendship quality, with the high-risk group showing significantly lower values of degree and closeness compared to the other students. Moreover, negative correlations were found between the ADHD rating and two social network analysis parameters.Our findings suggest that the severity of ADHD symptoms is strongly correlated with the quality of social and interpersonal relationships in students with ADHD symptoms.

  7. Being deluded after being excluded? How emotion regulation deficits in paranoia-prone individuals affect state paranoia during experimentally induced social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Stefan; Kesting, Marie-Luise; Lincoln, Tania M

    2012-06-01

    Emotion regulation (ER) has become a relevant construct to understanding paranoia. While the ER strategy called expressive suppression (e.g., poker face) may foster state paranoia by increasing arousal, another strategy called reappraisal (e.g., changing the perspective on situations) may reduce negative emotions and state paranoia when adaptively used. However, if reappraisal fails, this could increase paranoia. The aim of this study was to test the proposed effects of the ER strategies on state paranoia in the socially stressful situation of being excluded in paranoia-prone individuals. We conducted an experimental online study with N=116 participants who were randomized to a social inclusion or an exclusion condition using a virtual Cyberball ball-tossing game. They completed questionnaires on paranoia proneness and habitual ER strategies. Before and after the Cyberball task, participants rated their level of state paranoia. The impact of habitual ER strategies, paranoia proneness, and social stress on changes in state paranoia was investigated using linear regression analysis. The three-way interaction of social stress, paranoia proneness, and habitual reappraisal use significantly predicted state paranoia, t(114)=2.62, p=0.010. The decomposition of the interaction term revealed that in the social stress condition, the impact of reappraisal on state paranoia was moderated by the level paranoia proneness. Specifically, in high paranoia-prone individuals the use of reappraisal predicted higher state paranoia. The findings regarding habitual use of suppression were not significant. Although reappraisal is generally considered a functional strategy, its use in distressing social situations seems to be impaired in persons with higher paranoia proneness. A working model of emotion dysregulation in delusions is presented and possible implications for cognitive therapy of psychosis are discussed.

  8. A trial of d-cycloserine to treat the social deficit in older adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbano, Maria; Okwara, Leonore; Manser, Paul; Hartmann, Kathrin; Deutsch, Stephen I

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are difficult for older adolescents and young adults as impaired social communication affects the transition to adult life. d-Cycloserine, a partial glycine agonist at the N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor, was tested in a double-blind randomized trial in 20 older adolescents and young adults with autism spectrum disorders using two dosing strategies (50 mg daily versus 50 mg weekly) for 8 weeks with a 2-week follow-up after discontinuation. d-Cycloserine caused statistically and clinically significant improvement with no differentiation between dosing strategies on the Social Responsiveness Scale and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist before and after d-cycloserine administration.

  9. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunill, Ruth; Castells, Xavier

    2015-04-20

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common childhood psychiatric disorders and can persist into the adulthood. ADHD has important social, academic and occupational consequences. ADHD diagnosis is based on the fulfillment of several clinical criteria, which can vary depending on the diagnostic system used. The clinical presentation can show great between-patient variability and it has been related to a dysfunction in the fronto-striatal and meso-limbic circuits. Recent investigations support a model in which multiple genetic and environmental factors interact to create a neurobiological susceptibility to develop the disorder. However, no clear causal association has yet been identified. Although multimodal treatment including both pharmacological and psychosocial interventions is usually recommended, no convincing evidence exists to support this recommendation. Pharmacological treatment has fundamentally shown to improve ADHD symptoms in the short term, while efficacy data for psychosocial interventions are scarce and inconsistent. Yet, drug treatment is increasingly popular and the last 2 decades have witnessed a sharp increase in the prescription of anti-ADHD medications coinciding with the marketing of new drugs to treat ADHD.

  10. Amelioration of social isolation-triggered onset of early Alzheimer's disease-related cognitive deficit by N-acetylcysteine in a transgenic mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ya-Hsin; Kuo, Jinn-Rung; Chen, Shun-Hua; Gean, Po-Wu

    2012-03-01

    Epidemiological study reveals that socially isolated persons have increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whether this risk arises from an oxidative stress is unclear. Here we show that N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an anti-oxidant, is capable of preventing social isolation-induced accelerated impairment of contextual fear memory and rundown of hippocampal LTP in 3-month old APP/PS1 mice. Increased hippocampal levels of γ-secretase activity, Aβ-40 and Aβ-42 seen in the isolated APP/PS1 mice were reduced by chronic treatment of NAC. In addition, social isolation-induced increase in calpain activity and p25/p35 ratio concomitant with decrease in membrane-associated p35 and p35/Cdk5 activity was normalized by NAC. NAC pretreatment also reversed isolation-induced decrease in GluR1 Ser831 phosphorylation, surface expression of AMPARs and p35-GluR1-CaMKII interactions. These results suggest that NAC decreases γ-secretase activity resulting in the attenuation of Aβ production, calpain activity and conversion of p35 to p25 which stabilized p35-GluR1-CaMKII interactions and restored GluR1 and GluR2 surface expression. Our results indicate that NAC is effective in mouse models of AD and has translation potential for the human disorder. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Dealing With a Deficit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN XINZHEN

    2010-01-01

    @@ For the first time since April 2004,China experienced a monthly trade deficit as imports surpassed exports.Statistics released by the General Administration of Customs on April 10 showed China's export and import volume reached $112.11billion and $119.35 billion in March,respectively,leading to a trade deficit of $7.24 billion.

  12. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Kathi; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of

  13. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Kathi; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of t

  14. Effects of low birth weight, maternal smoking in pregnancy and social class on the phenotypic manifestation of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and associated antisocial behaviour: investigation in a clinical sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Bree Marianne BM

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a genetically influenced condition although indicators of environmental risk including maternal smoking during pregnancy, low birth weight and low social class have also been found to be associated with the disorder. ADHD is a phenotypically heterogeneous disorder in terms of the predominant symptom types (inattention, hyperactive-impulsivity, their severity and comorbidity, notably Conduct Disorder. It is possible that these different clinical manifestations of the disorder may arise because of the differing effects of the environmental indicators of environmental risk. We set out to test this hypothesis. Methods In a sample of 356 children diagnosed with ADHD, we sought to investigate possible effects of three indicators of environmental risk – maternal smoking during pregnancy, birth weight and social class – on comorbid Conduct Disorder, conduct disorder symptoms and inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptom severity. Results Multiple regression analysis revealed that, after controlling for significant covariates, greater hyperactive-impulsive symptom severity was significantly associated with maternal smoking during pregnancy (r2 = 0.02, Beta = 0.11, t = 1.96, p = 0.05 and social class (r2 = 0.02, Beta = 0.12, t = 2.19, p = 0.03 whilst none of the environmental risk indicators significantly predicted number of inattentive symptoms. Conduct Disorder symptoms were positively predicted by maternal smoking in pregnancy (r2 = 0.04, Beta = 0.18, t = 3.34, p = 0.001 whilst both maternal smoking during pregnancy and social class significantly predicted a diagnosis of Conduct Disorder (OR = 3.14, 95% CI: 1.54, 6.41, Wald = 9.95, p = 0.002 and (OR = 1.95 95% CI: 1.18, 3.23 Wald = 6.78, p = 0.009 respectively. Conclusion These findings suggest that indicators of environmental risk, in this instance maternal smoking in pregnancy and environmental adversity indexed by lower

  15. Development of a Scale of Social Function Deficit Due to Mental Disorders%精神障碍患者社会功能缺损评定量表的初步编制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学武; 胡拾妮; 高欢; 李毅; 黄志彪; 吴冬凌; 王轶; 邓先华; 高北陵

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To develop a scale for the social function deficit due to mental disorders (SSFD-MD). Methods:The rating scale theoretical framework and item content of social function deficit due to mental disorders were established through reviews of literature, interviews with patients and their families and expert evaluation. And after item discrimination the scale was formed. More than 1,000 cases with mental disorders and mental disability, 50 normal subjects and 50 patients with physical disabilities were tested by the scale. Results: ①The scores of the group of mental disorder of the five subscales of “self care”, “family life”, “understanding exchange”, “interpersonal relation”, “social participation” and total score were significant higher than those of the other two groups(P<0.01 ). ②Different disease scores ranked from high to low as follows: organic mental disorders, schizophrenia, paranoid disorder, mood disorder with psychotic symptoms,mood disorders without psychotic symptoms, personality disorders, and neurotic disorders. There were significant differences among groups(P<0.01 ). ③The compliance rate of the grades evaluated by SSFD-MD and evaluated by experts with GAF was 87%. These two methods of assessment showed no significant difference. Conclusion: The test results of SSFD-MD are in line with the general clinical rules of mental illnesses and their impact on social functions; and SSFD-MD can reflect social function impairment in patients with mental disorders.%目的:初步编制精神障碍患者的社会功能缺损评定量表.方法:通过文献复习、患者及其家属访谈、专家评议等过程,建立精神障碍患者社会功能评定量表的理论构架和条目内容,再进行项目区分度分析,形成正式量表后,对实施精神残疾鉴定的1000余例精神障碍患者及50例正常人与50例躯体残疾人进行测试.结果:①精神障碍组"自我照料"、"家庭生活"、"理解交

  16. Primary empathy deficits in frontotemporal dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra eBaez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Loss of empathy is an early central symptom and diagnostic criterion of the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD. Although changes in empathy are evident and strongly affect the social functioning of bvFTD patients, few studies have directly investigated this issue by means of experimental paradigms. The current study assessed multiple components of empathy (affective, cognitive and moral in bvFTD patients. We also explored whether the loss of empathy constitutes a primary deficit of bvFTD or whether it is explained by impairments in executive functions (EF or other social cognition domains. Thirty-seven bvFTD patients with early/mild stages of the disease and 30 healthy control participants were assessed with a task that involves the perception of intentional and accidental harm. Participants were also evaluated on emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM, social norms knowledge and several EF domains. BvFTD patients presented deficits in affective, cognitive and moral aspects of empathy. However, empathic concern was the only aspect primarily affected in bvFTD that was neither related nor explained by deficits in EF or other social cognition domains. Deficits in the cognitive and moral aspects of empathy seem to depend on EF, emotion recognition and ToM. Our findings highlight the importance of using tasks depicting real-life social scenarios because of their greater sensitivity in the assessment of bvFTD. Moreover, our results contribute to the understanding of primary and intrinsic empathy deficits of bvFTD and have important theoretical and clinical implications.

  17. Primary empathy deficits in frontotemporal dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baez, Sandra; Manes, Facundo; Huepe, David; Torralva, Teresa; Fiorentino, Natalia; Richter, Fabian; Huepe-Artigas, Daniela; Ferrari, Jesica; Montañes, Patricia; Reyes, Pablo; Matallana, Diana; Vigliecca, Nora S.; Decety, Jean; Ibanez, Agustin

    2014-01-01

    Loss of empathy is an early central symptom and diagnostic criterion of the behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD). Although changes in empathy are evident and strongly affect the social functioning of bvFTD patients, few studies have directly investigated this issue by means of experimental paradigms. The current study assessed multiple components of empathy (affective, cognitive and moral) in bvFTD patients. We also explored whether the loss of empathy constitutes a primary deficit of bvFTD or whether it is explained by impairments in executive functions (EF) or other social cognition domains. Thirty-seven bvFTD patients with early/mild stages of the disease and 30 healthy control participants were assessed with a task that involves the perception of intentional and accidental harm. Participants were also evaluated on emotion recognition, theory of mind (ToM), social norms knowledge and several EF domains. BvFTD patients presented deficits in affective, cognitive and moral aspects of empathy. However, empathic concern was the only aspect primarily affected in bvFTD that was neither related nor explained by deficits in EF or other social cognition domains. Deficits in the cognitive and moral aspects of empathy seem to depend on EF, emotion recognition and ToM. Our findings highlight the importance of using tasks depicting real-life social scenarios because of their greater sensitivity in the assessment of bvFTD. Moreover, our results contribute to the understanding of primary and intrinsic empathy deficits of bvFTD and have important theoretical and clinical implications. PMID:25346685

  18. Deficit of the budget: essence, reasons and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashko, Andriy Ivanovych

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of deficit of the state budget in the conditionsof forming the socially directed market economy. The economic essence and the basic factors ofexistence of negative balance of the budget have been interpreted and identified. The conditions ofthe use of deficit of the state budget as the instrument of influence on economic processes have beendetermined.The purpose lies in principles of forming the deficit of budget and developingrecommendations in relation to the increasing management efficiency.The basic task of the scientific article is to investigate the economic essence and identify theprincipal reasons for deficit of budget.

  19. Social cognition and social judgment in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Robyn Langdon; Michael H Connors; Emily Connaughton

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia typically involves poor social functioning. This may be due, in part, to deficits in theory-of-mind, the cognitive ability to reason flexibly about the mental states of others. Patients also have deficits in social knowledge. It is currently unclear how these two impairments interrelate in schizophrenia. To address this issue, 43 patients with schizophrenia and 25 healthy controls completed two theory-of-mind tests and a novel test of social judgment. This latter measure require...

  20. Social cognition and social judgment in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Robyn Langdon; Connors, Michael H.; Emily Connaughton

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia typically involves poor social functioning. This may be due, in part, to deficits in theory-of-mind, the cognitive ability to reason flexibly about the mental states of others. Patients also have deficits in social knowledge. It is currently unclear how these two impairments interrelate in schizophrenia. To address this issue, 43 patients with schizophrenia and 25 healthy controls completed two theory-of-mind tests and a novel test of social judgment. This latter measure require...

  1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If so, your child may have attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Nearly everyone shows some of these ... children. The main features of ADHD are Inattention Hyperactivity Impulsivity No one knows exactly what causes ADHD. ...

  2. Understanding Attention Deficit Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Orlando; And Others

    This booklet provides basic information regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), in their separate modalities, with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Explanations are offered concerning short attention span, impulsive behavior, hyperactivity, and beginning new activities before completing the previous one. Theories…

  3. Disentangling deficits in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, E.M.; Overtoom, C.C.; Kooij, J.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verbaten, M.N.; Kenemans, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    CONTEXT: A lack of inhibitory control has been suggested to be the core deficit in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), especially in adults. This means that a primary deficit in inhibition mediates a cascade of secondary deficits in other executive functions, such as attention. Impaired

  4. 注意缺陷多动障碍儿童的智力结构及社会适应行为特点%Intelligence and social adaptive ability development of the children with attention-deficit hyperkinetic disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永红; 王青红; 孙秀芳

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperkinetic disorders(ADHD) may seriously impair learning ability in children.In recent years,there have been quite a few researches on intelligence development and social adaptive ability in ADHD children,but the results are controversial. OBJECTIVE:To explore the characteristics of intelligence and social adaptive ability in children with ADHD. DESIGN:A case-controlled study based on the diagnosis. METHODS:Forty-eight ADHD children(ADHD group) and forty-eight healthy children(control group) were enrolled in the study.Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children(WISC) and Social Adaptive Behavior Scale were used to evaluate intelligence and social adaptive ability for the comparison of intelligence and adaptive behavior characteristics between the ADHD and healthy children. RESULTS:For children with ADHD, verbal intelligence quotient (101.23± 7.45) was significantly higher than performance intelligence quotient(89.72± 8.00)(t=2.241,P< 0.05).Verbal intelligence quotient, performance intelligence quotient and total intelligence quotient were significantly lower in the ADHD group(101.23± 7.45 ,89.72± 8.00 and 94.12± 10.28,respectively) than in the control group(105.46± 8.70, 102.85± 9.36 and 104.20± 8.57,respectively)(t=2.360,2.547,2.012,P< 0.05).Concentration factor and acquired knowledge scores (16.10± 3.86 and 25.47± 5.01,respectively ) in the ADHD group were significantly lower than those in the control group(20.00± 3.94 and 29.33± 4.46, respectively) (t=2.764,3.223,P< 0.01).In the aspect of social adaptive abilities,independence factor and cognition factor scores (61.20± 6.14 and 56.80± 5.86,respectively) were significantly higher in the ADHD group than in the control group( 51.66± 5.47 and 48.24± 4.98, respectively) (t=2.560,2.589,P< 0.05 ).Social control factor scores(40.32± 6.22) were significantly lower in the ADHD group than in the control group(57.86± 6.03)(t=2.412,P< 0.05). CONCLUSION:Intelligence and social

  5. social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Falero Cirigliano

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo parte de considerar al neoliberalismo y su cristalización en América Latina como un patrón de poder regional, esto es, un formato específico de acumulación dentro de la reproducción polarizante centro-periferia. Desde este ángulo, se aborda la expansión y naturalización de prácticas sociales mercantilizadas a partir de dos ejes: el de la construcción ideológica y su relación con la política económica, y el de la subjetividad social. Finalmente, se examinan dos escenarios potenciales en la coyuntura actual: el de un neoliberalismo con "rostro humano" o, alternativamente, el de ampliación de grietas sociales hacia la conformación de otro patrón de poder.

  6. Treatment Programs for Students With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analysis Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mihandoost, Zeinab

    2015-01-01

    Context: The aim of this study was to determine the experimental evidence of treatment/intervention programs for deficits in social skills, attention, and behavioral disorder in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Evidence Acquisition: Meta-analysis procedures were employed to investigate whether children and adolescents with ADHD exhibit deficits in attention and social skills. A total of 17 empirical research studies published between 2000 and 2013...

  7. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Anna K Mueller; Fuermaier, Anselm B. M.; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    2012-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of the empirical research in the field of ADHD with regard to stigma was performed. The findings of investigations in this field were clustered in different categories, including stigma in children wit...

  8. Social cognition and social judgment in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Langdon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia typically involves poor social functioning. This may be due, in part, to deficits in theory-of-mind, the cognitive ability to reason flexibly about the mental states of others. Patients also have deficits in social knowledge. It is currently unclear how these two impairments interrelate in schizophrenia. To address this issue, 43 patients with schizophrenia and 25 healthy controls completed two theory-of-mind tests and a novel test of social judgment. This latter measure required participants to judge whether various social behaviors were normal or reasonable in the context in which the behaviors occurred. Whereas patients demonstrated clear deficits in theory-of-mind, they performed similarly to controls when judging socially appropriate behaviors and violations of social norms. Patients, however, were less likely than controls to judge social behavior as reasonable when the behavior was impolite but understandable if the characters’ thoughts were taken into account. This latter difficulty correlated with patients’ performance deficits on the theory-of-mind tasks. Overall, findings suggest that basic social knowledge is intact in schizophrenia, though judgments of social behavior are affected by patients’ theory-of-mind deficits.

  9. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001551.htm Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused ...

  10. Neurofibromatozis and Attention Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ERYILMAZ et al.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type VI, a disease characterized by the presence of café-au-lait spots withoutthe presence of neurofibromas typically present in neurofibromatosis, as well as cognitivefunction and speech problems, often shows neurological involvement. We describe a case of a14-year-old child who has speech problems and isolated cafè-au-lait macules. We performedan IQ test on him and he scored 70 points. His problems started when he was approximately 5years old (school age. He was diagnosed with attention deficit disorder syndrome withouthyperactivity after neuropsychiatric investigation. We reported this case to improve recognitionof NF VI in children who have cognitive function problems.

  11. 焦虑对注意力缺陷/多动障碍儿童社会功能的影响%Effects of anxiety on social functions of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李朝英; 张晓辉; 李少华; 姬静璐; 袁博; 王玉

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of anxiety on the social functions in children with attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) .Methods A total of 137 children with ADHD wasdividedintogroupsofA(withoutanxietymanifestation),B(withoneanxietymanifestation)andC (with two or more anxiety manifestations) .The quality of life(QOL) ,activities of daily life(ADL) , behavior ability and peer rating problems ,parents’ mental health status were evaluated and compared among three groups .Results QOL score was lower in group C than that in groups of A and B (P<0 .05) ,but the scores of ADL and behavior ability were higher in group C than those in groups of A and B(P<0 .05) .Covariance analysis showed that the age and parents’ mental health status had a positive effect on QOL and ADL ,the age had a positive effect on behavior ability ,the parents’ mental health status had a positive effect on peer rating problems ,and the age had a negative effect on peer rating problems .Conclusion The QOL ,ADL and behavior ability are poorer in ADHD children with severe anxiety disorders(two or more anxiety manifestations) .%目的:探讨焦虑对注意力缺陷/多动障碍(ADHD)患儿社会功能的影响。方法按儿童焦虑性情绪障碍筛查表评分,137例ADHD患儿中,表现为无焦虑者80例(A组)、仅1种焦虑者24例(B组)和≥2种焦虑者33例(C组)。对患儿的生活质量(QOL )、日常生活能力(ADL )、行为能力、同伴问题和患儿父母心理健康状态进行评估和比较。结果 C组 QOL 评分低于 A、B组,而ADL和行为能力评分高于A、B组(P<0.05)。协方差分析结果:年龄、父母心理健康状态与QOL和ADL呈正向影响。年龄对行为能力呈正向影响。父母心理健康状态对同伴问题呈正向影响。年龄跟同伴问题呈负向影响。结论伴有≥2种焦虑的ADHD患儿的QOL、ADL和行为能力均较差。

  12. The reliability and validity analysis on the scale of social function deficit due to mental disorders%精神障碍患者社会功能缺损评定量表的信效度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李毅; 胡拾妮; 高欢; 黄志彪; 吴冬凌; 李学武; 王轶; 邓先华; 高北陵

    2011-01-01

    目的 检测精神障碍患者社会功能缺损评定量表(SSFD-MD)的信度和效度.方法 对1003例精神残疾鉴定患者施测,其中100例患者相隔1个月进行重测,并由2名熟悉SSFD-MD评分细则的评定人背对背测评.对其中300例同时实测社会功能缺陷筛选量表(SDSS)、住院精神病人社会功能评定量表(SSPI)、精神功能大体评定昔表(GAF)、简明精神病评定量表(BPRS)、世界卫生组织残疾评定量表Ⅱ(WHO-DASⅡ)、成人智残评定量表(ARSMD)及锥体外系副反应量表(RSESE).结果 ①信度:全量表总分及各分量表的Cronbach's α系数均大于0.90;各分量表及总分重测一致性在0.67~0.83之间;评分者信度在0.87~0.97之间.②效度:各分量表间的相关系数在0.46~0.74之间,各分量表与总分的相关系数在0.73~0.87之间,均具有显著性(P<0.01);经方差最大化正交旋转后全量表提取5个主成分,累计解释的总变异为82.25%.SSFD-MD与SDSS、SSPI及GAF呈高度相关,分别为0.71,0.72和0.78;与BPRS、WHO-DASⅡ及成人智残评定量表呈中度相关,r分别为0.62,0.50与0.46;与锥体外系副反应量表(RSE-SE)呈低度相关(0.22),均差异具有显著性(P<0.01).结论 SSFD-MD编制符合心理测量学的基本要求,具有良好的信度和效度.%Objective To test the reliability and validity of the rating scale of social function deficit due to mental disorders (SSFD-MD). Methods 1003 cases with mental disability evaluation were tested by SSFDMD. At sametime, 100 cases of 1003 cases were test-retested and back to back tested by two examiners. 300 cases of 1003 cases also were tested by social disability screening schedule( SDSS),scale of social function for psychosis inpatients(SSPI),global assessment function(GAF) ,the brief psychiatric rating scale(BPRS) ,WH0 disability assessment scale Ⅱ (WHO-DASⅡ ), adult rating scale of mentally disabled ( ARSMD) and rating scale for extrapyramidal side effects (RSESE

  13. Comparison of motor deficits in autism spectrum disorder and developmental coordination disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is an umbrella term for disorders involving deficits in social interaction, stereotyped behaviours and communication dificulties. A growing area of research has recently focused on motor deficits in ASD, which have been noted in clinical observations and diagnostic criteria since autism was first described. However, motor deficits have traditionally carried little weight in the diagnostic procedure. Until recent changes to diagnostic criteria (Diagnostic and Sta...

  14. Differences and Deficits in Psychological Research in Historical Perspective: A Commentary on the Special Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This commentary traces discussions of psychological differences and deficits from the mid-1950s to the current day, positioning the disciplinary discussions in the social-historical context in which they took place. The challenges of assessing diagnoses of deficit and the potential harms that result when misdiagnosis is implemented as social…

  15. Dyscalculia and Attention Deficit Subtypes

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The association of specific academic deficits with attention deficit disorder (ADD) subtypes was determined in 20 students (ages 8-12) with ADD with hyperactivity (ADD/H) compared to 20 with ADD without hyperactivity (ADD/noH), at the Department of Educational Psychology, University of Texas at Austin, TX.

  16. School Experiences of Adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Judith; Daniels, Lesley

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative study of the school experiences of adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the context of quantitative research on teacher attitudes and practices, adolescent self-appraisals, and social and family relationships. Twelve adolescents with ADHD participated in in-depth, semistructured…

  17. Faking attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2011-08-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common malady in the general population, with up to 8.1 percent of adults meeting criteria for this syndrome. In the college setting, the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may offer specific academic advantages. Once the diagnosis is assigned, the prescription of stimulant medication may provide additional secondary gains through misuse and/or diversion. For example, these drugs may be used by college consumers to increase alertness, energy, academic performance, and athletic performance. Stimulants may also decrease psychological distress, alleviate restlessness and weight concerns, and be used for recreational purposes. According to the findings of five studies, the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder can be believably faked, particularly when assessed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom checklists. Thus, the faking of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a realistic concern in both psychiatric and primary care settings.

  18. Pragmatic communication deficits in children with epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, Mark; Geurts, Hilde; Jennekens-Schinkel, Aag

    2010-01-01

    Background: Various psychiatric and neurological disorders including epilepsy have been associated with language deficits. Pragmatic language deficits, however, have seldom been the focus of earlier studies in children with epilepsy. Moreover, it is unknown whether these pragmatic deficits are relat

  19. Premorbid cognitive deficits in young relatives of schizophrenia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matcheri S Keshavan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia are thought to be stable trait markers that predate the illness and manifest in relatives of patients. Adolescence is the age of maximum vulnerability to the onset of schizophrenia and may be an opportune “window” to observe neurocognitive impairments close to but prior to the onset of psychosis. We reviewed the extant studies assessing neurocognitive deficits in young relatives at high risk (HR for schizophrenia and their relation to brain structural alterations. We also provide some additional data pertaining to the relation of these deficits to psychopathology and brain structural alterations from the Pittsburgh Risk Evaluation Program (PREP. Cognitive deficits are noted in the HR population, which are more severe in first-degree relatives compared to second-degree relatives and primarily involve psychomotor speed, memory, attention, reasoning, and social-cognition. Reduced general intelligence is also noted, although its relationship to these specific domains is underexplored. Premorbid cognitive deficits may be related to brain structural and functional abnormalities, underlining the neurobiological basis of this illness. Cognitive impairments might predict later emergence of psychopathology in at-risk subjects and may be targets of early remediation and preventive strategies. Although evidence for neurocognitive deficits in young relatives abounds, further studies on their structural underpinnings and on their candidate status as endophenotypes are needed.

  20. Theory of mind impairments in patients with deficit schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csukly, Gábor; Polgár, Patrícia; Tombor, László; Benkovits, Judit; Réthelyi, János

    2014-02-01

    The deficit syndrome, a subgroup within schizophrenia, is characterized by enduring, idiopathic negative symptoms. Theory of mind (ToM), a domain of social cognition, is the ability of attributing mental states to ourselves and other people. ToM impairments have not been investigated earlier in deficit schizophrenia. The aim of the present study was to examine ToM differences between patients with deficit (SZ-D) and non-deficit schizophrenia (SZ-ND). Gender differences were also investigated, and based on the literature a better ToM performance was expected in female patients. The participants were 28 patients with SZ-ND, 30 patients with SZ-D, and 29 healthy control volunteers. The "Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test" was used to asses ToM deficits. Control subjects outperformed both patient groups, while there were no significant differences between the two schizophrenia subgroups. In female subjects, both controls and patients with SZ-ND performed significantly better than the SZ-D subgroup. In male subjects, controls performed significantly better than both patient groups. The "diminished emotional range" and the "curbing of interest" items of the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome showed significant negative relationship with the ToM score. Our main finding is that female subjects with SZ-ND performed significantly better than female subjects with SZ-D. © 2014.

  1. Autism: cognitive deficit or cognitive style?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happé

    1999-06-01

    Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by impaired social and communicative development, and restricted interests and activities. This article will argue that we can discover more about developmental disorders such as autism through demonstrations of task success than through examples of task failure. Even in exploring and explaining what people with autism find difficult, such as social interaction, demonstration of competence on contrasting tasks has been crucial to defining the nature of the specific deficit. Deficit accounts of autism cannot explain, however, the assets seen in this disorder; for example, savant skills in maths, music and drawing, and islets of ability in visuospatial tests and rote memory. An alternative account, reviewed here, suggests that autism is characterized by a cognitive style biased towards local rather than global information processing - termed 'weak central coherence'. Evidence that weak coherence might also characterize the relatives of people with autism, and form part of the extended phenotype of this largely genetic disorder, is discussed. This review concludes by considering some outstanding questions concerning the specific cognitive mechanism for coherence and the neural basis of individual differences in this aspect of information processing.

  2. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    This detailed booklet describes the symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatments, with information on getting help and coping. Interventions described herein are psychotherapy, behavior therapy, social skills training, support groups, and parenting skills training. Some simple behavioral interventions are suggested because children with ADHD may…

  3. Spatial but not verbal cognitive deficits at age 3 years in persistently antisocial individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Adrian; Yaralian, Pauline S; Reynolds, Chandra; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have repeatedly shown verbal intelligence deficits in adolescent antisocial individuals, but it is not known whether these deficits are in place prior to kindergarten or, alternatively, whether they are acquired throughout childhood. This study assesses whether cognitive deficits occur as early as age 3 years and whether they are specific to persistently antisocial individuals. Verbal and spatial abilities were assessed at ages 3 and 11 years in 330 male and female children, while antisocial behavior was assessed at ages 8 and 17 years. Persistently antisocial individuals (N = 47) had spatial deficits in the absence of verbal deficits at age 3 years compared to comparisons (N = 133), and also spatial and verbal deficits at age 11 years. Age 3 spatial deficits were independent of social adversity, early hyperactivity, poor test motivation, poor test comprehension, and social discomfort during testing, and they were found in females as well as males. Findings suggest that early spatial deficits contribute to persistent antisocial behavior whereas verbal deficits are developmentally acquired. An early-starter model is proposed whereby early spatial impairments interfere with early bonding and attachment, reflect disrupted right hemisphere affect regulation and expression, and predispose to later persistent antisocial behavior.

  4. Social inappropriateness, executive control, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Julie D; von Hippel, William; Baynes, Kate

    2009-03-01

    Age-related deficits in executive control might lead to socially inappropriate behavior if they compromise the ability to withhold inappropriate responses. Consistent with this possibility, older adults in the current study showed greater social inappropriateness than younger adults--as rated by their peers--and this effect was mediated by deficits in executive control as well as deficits in general cognitive ability. Older adults also responded with greater social inappropriateness to a provocative event in the laboratory, but this effect was unrelated to executive functioning or general cognitive ability. These findings suggest that changes in both social and cognitive factors are important in understanding age-related changes in social behavior.

  5. Faking Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common malady in the general population, with up to 8.1 percent of adults meeting criteria for this syndrome. In the college setting, the diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder may offer specific academic advantages. Once the diagnosis is assigned, the prescription of stimulant medication may provide additional secondary gains through misuse and/or diversion. For example, these drugs may be used by college consumers to increase aler...

  6. Visuospatial deficits of dyslexic children

    OpenAIRE

    Lipowska, Małgorzata; Czaplewska, Ewa; Wysocka, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background The visuospatial deficit is recognized as typical for dyslexia only in some definitions. However problems with visuospatial orientation may manifest themselves as difficulties with letter identification or the memorizing and recalling of sign sequences, something frequently experienced by dyslexics. Material/Methods The experimental group consisted of 62 children with developmental dyslexia. The control group consisted of 67 pupils with no diagnosed deficits, matched to the...

  7. Déficit en Habilidades Sociales en Niños con Trastorno por Déficit de Atención-Hiperactividad, Evaluados con la Escala basc/ Social Skills Deficits in Children Diagnosed With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Evaluated With the BASC Escale/ Déficit em Habilidades Sociais em Crianças com Transtorno por Déficit de Atenção-Hiperatividade, Avaliados com a Escala BASC

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Se analizaron las Habilidades Sociales (HS) de 159 niños de ambos sexos, escolarizados, con Trastorno por Déficit de Atención-Hiperactividad (TDAH), entre los 6 y los 11 años de edad. La valoración de las HS se realizó con la escala Behavioral Assessment System for Children para padres y maestros. Los resultados mostraron que los niños con TDAH presentan puntajes más bajos en las dimensiones de habilidades sociales como escuchar, esperar turnos, reconocer señales sociales y tener capacidad de...

  8. Prefrontal glucose deficits in murderers lacking psychosocial deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, A; Phil, D; Stoddard, J; Bihrle, S; Buchsbaum, M

    1998-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that links between autonomic nervous system functioning and violence are strongest in those who come from benign home backgrounds, but there appears to be no similar research using brain-imaging measures of central nervous system functioning. It was hypothesized that murderers who had no early psychosocial deprivation (e.g., no childhood abuse, family neglect) would demonstrate lower prefrontal glucose metabolism than murderers with early psychosocial deprivation and a group of normal controls. Murderers from a previous study, which showed prefrontal deficits in murderers, were assessed for psychosocial deprivation and divided into those with and without deprivation. Murderers without any clear psychosocial deficits were significantly lower on prefrontal glucose metabolism than murderers with psychosocial deficits and controls. These results suggest that murderers lacking psychosocial deficits are characterized by prefrontal deficits. It is argued that among violent offenders without deprived home backgrounds, the "social push" to violence is minimized, and consequently, brain abnormalities provide a relatively stronger predisposition to violence in this group.

  9. Déficit en Habilidades Sociales en Niños con Trastorno por Déficit de Atención-Hiperactividad, Evaluados con la Escala basc/ Social Skills Deficits in Children Diagnosed With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Evaluated With the BASC Escale/ Déficit em Habilidades Sociais em Crianças com Transtorno por Déficit de Atenção-Hiperatividade, Avaliados com a Escala BASC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Puentes Rozo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron las Habilidades Sociales (HS de 159 niños de ambos sexos, escolarizados, con Trastorno por Déficit de Atención-Hiperactividad (TDAH, entre los 6 y los 11 años de edad. La valoración de las HS se realizó con la escala Behavioral Assessment System for Children para padres y maestros. Los resultados mostraron que los niños con TDAH presentan puntajes más bajos en las dimensiones de habilidades sociales como escuchar, esperar turnos, reconocer señales sociales y tener capacidad de adaptabilidad. Sin embargo, en compañerismo, los participantes con TDAH combinado poseen habilidades semejantes a los no afectados. Esto replantea lo encontrado en la mayoría de los estudios en donde únicamente se evidencian deficiencias.

  10. Attention Deficits, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Curtis K.; Dube, William V.; McIlvane, William J.

    2008-01-01

    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its earlier nosologic classifications have been extensively investigated since the 1960s, with PubMed listings alone exceeding 13,000 entries. Strides have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in individuals with intellectual function in the normal range, as described in companion…

  11. Visual Search Deficits Are Independent of Magnocellular Deficits in Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Craig M.; Conlon, Elizabeth G.; Dyck, Murray

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the theory that visual magnocellular deficits seen in groups with dyslexia are linked to reading via the mechanisms of visual attention. Visual attention was measured with a serial search task and magnocellular function with a coherent motion task. A large group of children with dyslexia (n = 70) had slower…

  12. The Role of Cognitive Factors in Childhood Social Anxiety: Social Threat Thoughts and Social Skills Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Niekerk, Rianne E; Klein, Anke M; Allart-van Dam, Esther; Hudson, Jennifer L; Rinck, Mike; Hutschemaekers, Giel J M; Becker, Eni S

    2017-01-01

    Models of cognitive processing in anxiety disorders state that socially anxious children display several distorted cognitive processes that maintain their anxiety. The present study investigated the role of social threat thoughts and social skills perception in relation to childhood trait and state social anxiety. In total, 141 children varying in their levels of social anxiety performed a short speech task in front of a camera and filled out self-reports about their trait social anxiety, state anxiety, social skills perception and social threat thoughts. Results showed that social threat thoughts mediated the relationship between trait social anxiety and state anxiety after the speech task, even when controlling for baseline state anxiety. Furthermore, we found that children with higher trait anxiety and more social threat thoughts had a lower perception of their social skills, but did not display a social skills deficit. These results provide evidence for the applicability of the cognitive social anxiety model to children.

  13. Humor recognition and appreciation deficits in early psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    吳愷晴; Ng, Hoi-ching, Iris

    2013-01-01

    Humor recognition and appreciation are important aspects to enhance psychological well-being and enrich social relationships and interactions. The present study hypothesized that first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients with adult onset in the Chinese society have deficits in humor recognition and appreciation compared with healthy controls. It also predicted FEP patients with a diminished ability in recalling humorous stimuli. Moreover, this study sought to explore the potential associations o...

  14. Differential Diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder by Means of Inhibitory Control and "Theory of Mind"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhler, Eva; Bachmann, Christian; Goyert, Hannah; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Kamp-Becker, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) are both associated with deficits in executive control and with problems in social contexts. This study analyses the variables inhibitory control and theory of mind (ToM), including a developmental aspect in the case of the latter, to differentiate between the…

  15. Neonatal handling induces deficits in infant mother preference and adult partner preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raineki, Charlis; Lutz, Maiara Lenise; Sebben, Vanise; Ribeiro, Rosane Aparecida; Lucion, Aldo Bolten

    2013-07-01

    Neonatal handling is an experimental procedure used to understand how early-life adversity can negatively affect neurobehavioral development and place animals on a pathway to pathology. Decreased preference for the maternal odor during infancy is one of many behavioral deficits induced by neonatal handling. Here, we hypothesize that deficits in maternal odor preference may interfere with partner preference in the adult. To test this hypothesis, we assessed infant maternal odor preference and adult partner preference in different reproductive stages in both male and female rats that received neonatal handling. Our results indicate that only neonatally handled females present deficits in maternal odor preference during infancy, but both male and females present deficits in adult partner preference. However, sexual experience was effective in rescuing partner preference deficits in males. These results indicate that, considering infant and adult social interactions, females are more susceptible to the effects of neonatal handling than males. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Right Temporoparietal Gray Matter Predicts Accuracy of Social Perception in the Autism Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Nicole; Schultz, Johannes; Milne, Elizabeth; Schunke, Odette; Schöttle, Daniel; Münchau, Alexander; Siegel, Markus; Vogeley, Kai; Engel, Andreas K.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show hallmark deficits in social perception. These difficulties might also reflect fundamental deficits in integrating visual signals. We contrasted predictions of a social perception and a spatial-temporal integration deficit account. Participants with ASD and matched controls performed two…

  17. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-10

    This podcast discusses Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, the most common behavioral disorder in children. Learn about symptoms, risk factors, and treatment.  Created: 4/10/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/7/2014.

  18. Social cognition in patients with schizophrenia spectrum and bipolar disorders with and without psychotic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George C. Nitzburg

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: MSCEIT deficits were found in SSD but not BD− or BD+, suggesting that social cognition may represent an underlying difference between SSD and BD. However, variance in MSCEIT performance among BD patients may also suggest latent BD subgroups characterized by social-cognitive deficits. Findings can help inform future investigations into how social cognition and social brain development differ between SSD and BD.

  19. Social Stories to Increase Verbal Initiation in Children with Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley-Hochdorfer, Kathleen; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Elinoff, Mahri J.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders experience pervasive social and communication skill deficits. One of the most popular treatment recommendations to address these deficits is the use of social stories. Although social stories are beneficial at reducing many disruptive behaviors, empirical evidence for their use to increase social and…

  20. Social skills and social phobia: an investigation of DSM-IV subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidel, Deborah C; Rao, Patricia A; Scharfstein, Lindsay; Wong, Nina; Alfano, Candice A

    2010-10-01

    Social phobia is characterized as pervasive social timidity in social settings. Although much is known about this disorder, aspects of its clinical presentation remain unexplored, in particular characteristics that distinguish the generalized and non-generalized subtypes. For example, it remains unclear whether patients with the non-generalized subtype display social skills deficits in social interactions, and if so, are these deficits clinically, as well as statistically, significant? In this study, adults with either the non-generalized (NGSP; n=60) or generalized (GSP; n=119) subtype of social phobia and adults with no psychological disorder (n=200) completed an extensive behavioral assessment of social skill and social anxiety. As expected, adults with NGSP and GSP reported equal distress and displayed similar rates of avoidance during an Impromptu Speech Task when compared to adults with no disorder. In contrast, the three groups were distinctly different when interacting with another person in various social situations. Adults with NGSP displayed social skill deficits when compared to individuals with no disorder, but they had fewer deficits than the GSP subtype. However, the identified skill deficits were clinically as well as statistically significant only for the GSP subtype. The results are discussed in terms of the contribution of skill deficits to the conceptualization and treatment of social phobia.

  1. Adult Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Overview Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental health disorder that ... combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty paying attention, hyperactivity and impulsive behavior. Adult ADHD can lead ...

  2. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... visits Number of visits to physician offices with attention deficit disorder as the primary diagnosis: 10.9 ...

  3. Characteristics of children of younger school age with attention deficit disorder and hyperactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Abshilava E.

    2016-01-01

    The article considers different approaches to the definition of the syndrome of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder: hyperkinetic syndrome, hyperkinetic disorders, minimal brain dysfunction. Examines the principal causes and the main symptoms of ADHD: clinical manifestations of attention deficit in children, prenatal pathology, complications, psycho–social reasons. A scheme of the integrated multi–level therapeutic and remedial assistance to children with ADHD: first level — metaboli...

  4. Vom "Deficit Accounting" zum "Generational Accounting ": Eine Anwendung für die Schweiz

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The stance of fiscal policy is commonly assessed by the size of the annual budget deficit and public debt. Both indices fail, however, to correctly reflect the long run financial burden of government programs such as social security. An alternative to "deficit accounting" is "generational accounting" which in particular reveals the intergenerational distribution effect of government legislation. The present paper applies generational accounting on the pay-as-you-go financed part of old age pe...

  5. Theory of Mind Deficit versus Faulty Procedural Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ángel Romero-Munguía

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have impairments in social interaction, communicative capacity, and behavioral flexibility (core triad). Three major cognitive theories (theory of mind deficit, weak central coherence, and executive dysfunction) seem to explain many of these impairments. Currently, however, the empathizing-systemizing (a newer version of the theory of mind deficit account) and mnesic imbalance theories are the only ones that attempt to explain all these core tr...

  6. Pragmatic Communication Deficits in Children with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeders, Mark; Geurts, Hilde; Jennekens-Schinkel, Aag

    2010-01-01

    Background: Various psychiatric and neurological disorders including epilepsy have been associated with language deficits. Pragmatic language deficits, however, have seldom been the focus of earlier studies in children with epilepsy. Moreover, it is unknown whether these pragmatic deficits are related to general intellectual functioning. Both…

  7. Pragmatic Communication Deficits in Children with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeders, Mark; Geurts, Hilde; Jennekens-Schinkel, Aag

    2010-01-01

    Background: Various psychiatric and neurological disorders including epilepsy have been associated with language deficits. Pragmatic language deficits, however, have seldom been the focus of earlier studies in children with epilepsy. Moreover, it is unknown whether these pragmatic deficits are related to general intellectual functioning. Both…

  8. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER. A CLINICAL LECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a serious problem to pediatric neurologists. The prevalence of ADHD in developed countries ranges from 1 to 20 %. ADHD is characterized by a triad of symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes it as F90 and it is the most common conduct disorder in children. The etiology of ADHD remains disсutable to the present day; there are a few basic concepts of the origin of this disorder. Its manifestations may be a reason for family conflicts, poor peer relationships, social and school maladjustment, learning problems, lower academic performance, accidents and injuries, smoking, psychoactive substance abuse (toxicomania, narcomania, delinquencies, deviant social behavior, thus having a negative impact on all spheres of a patient’s life. The manifestations of ADHD may continue in adulthood, resulting in work and family life problems, low self-evaluation, alcohol and psychoactive substance abuse, and other unfavorable consequences. The authors describe the etiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic principles (diagnostic scales and tests, differential diagnosis (by setting out a large group of different diseases, the manifestations of which can mimic ADHD, treatment, and prognosis of the disorder. Within its therapeutic correction framework, the authors present the definition and general principles of Montessori therapy, including recommendations for parents and relatives to deal with children with ADHD. 

  9. Motivational deficits in early schizophrenia: prevalent, persistent, and key determinants of functional outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fervaha, Gagan; Foussias, George; Agid, Ofer; Remington, Gary

    2015-08-01

    Negative symptoms, in particular motivational deficits, are reported as impediments to functional recovery in patients with schizophrenia. This study examined the prevalence of motivational deficits in patients early in the illness, and the impact these deficits have on community functioning. Patients with schizophrenia between the ages of 18 and 35years, and within 5years of initiating antipsychotic treatment were included in the present investigation (N=166). The impact of motivation and cognition on concurrent and longitudinal functioning was evaluated. Motivational impairments were found in more than 75% of participants, and were not associated with receipt of social support. These deficits served as the most robust and reliable predictor of functional outcome, while neurocognition demonstrated significantly weaker associations with outcome. When considered together, motivational deficits demonstrated a reliable link with concurrent and longitudinal functioning, with cognition not offering any independent predictive value. Moreover, motivation was found to mediate the relationship between cognition and outcome. Changes in motivation were linked to changes in functioning; however, this was not the case for changes in cognitive performance. Motivation emerged as a significant predictor of functioning even after selected demographic and clinical characteristics (e.g., positive symptoms) were accounted for. These data indicate that motivational deficits are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia, even in the early stages of the illness, and these deficits stand as one of the most robust barriers to people with schizophrenia achieving functional recovery. Greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying these deficits is critical to effective treatment innovation.

  10. Neuro-cognition and social cognition elements of social functioning and social quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Arnon-Ribenfeld, Nitzan; Kravetz, Shlomo; Roe, David

    2017-09-06

    Previous studies have shown that deficits in social cognition mediate the association between neuro-cognition and functional outcome. Based on these findings, the current study presents an examination of the mediating role of social cognition and includes two different outcomes: social functioning assessed by objective observer and social quality of life assessed by subjective self-report. Instruments measuring different aspects of social cognition, cognitive ability, social functioning and social quality of life were administered to 131 participants who had a diagnosis of a serious mental illness. Results showed that emotion recognition and attributional bias were significant mediators such that cognitive assessment was positively related to both, which in turn, were negatively related to SQoL. While one interpretation of the data suggests that deficits in emotion recognition may serve as a possible defense mechanism, future studies should re-assess this idea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Deficit Model and the Forgotten Moral Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Ahteensuu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper was presented at the first meeting of the NSU study group “Conceptions of ethical and social values in post-secular society: Towards a new ethical imagination in a cosmopolitan world society”, held on January 28-30, 2011 at Copenhagen Business School. The deficit model explains the general public’s negative attitudes towards science and/or certain scientific applications with the public’s scientific ignorance. The deficit model is commonly criticized for oversimplifying the connection between scientific knowledge and attitudes. Other relevant factors – such as ideology, social identity, trust, culture, and worldviews – should be taken into consideration to a greater extent. We argue that explanations based on the proposed factors sometimes implicitly reintroduce the deficit model type of thinking. The strength of the factors is that they broaden the explanations to concern moral issues. We analyse two central argument types of GMO discussion, and show the central role of moral values in them. Thus, as long as arguments are seen to affect the attitudes of the general public, the role of moral values should be made explicit in the explanations concerning their attitudes.

  12. Social Constructivism and Teaching of Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishabh Kumar Mishra

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of prevailing pedagogic practices of social science at school level in India. It has been sketched with the help of social science teachers’ interviews. The analysis of teachers’ interview revealed that the teaching of social science is a reflection of teacher’s own biases and beliefs; dominated by deficit model of thinking and learning. Against this backdrop the paper tries to address the question do we have any alternative of ‘deficit model’ of teaching learning? If yes, what is it? How it can be designed and executed? In the present descriptive study the researcher adopts the theoretical underpinnings of Socio-cultural approach to learning and tries to design and execute constructivist pedagogic setting for teaching social science. It emerges from the analysis of these constructivists pedagogic settings that it helps to develop and sustain a culture of inquiry in the classroom where the strong interface between students’ everyday knowledge and school knowledge take place. The paper establishes the argument that for moving deficit model of teaching-learning, knowledge should be viewed as co-constructed, negotiated and situated entity, knower should have agency and the voice in process of knowing and the process learning should be dialogic.

  13. Social cognition in patients at ultra-high risk for psychosis: What is the relation to social skills and functioning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise B. Glenthøj

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Significant impairments in social cognition and social skills were found in UHR patients. The patients' social cognitive function was associated with overall functioning and social skills. Negative symptoms appear to play an important role for functioning. Research is needed to investigate how the relations between social cognition, social skills and functioning develop from the UHR state to the stage of manifest illness. Research into how deficits in social cognition and social skills can be ameliorated in UHR patients is warranted.

  14. Neuronal correlates of affective theory of mind in schizophrenia out-patients: evidence for a baseline deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mier, D; Sauer, C; Lis, S; Esslinger, C; Wilhelm, J; Gallhofer, B; Kirsch, P

    2010-10-01

    Schizophrenia out-patients have deficits in affective theory of mind (ToM) but also on more basal levels of social cognition, such as the processing of neutral and emotional expressions. These deficits are associated with changes in brain activation in the amygdala and the superior temporal sulcus (STS). However, until now there have been no studies that examined these different levels of social cognition and their neurobiological underpinnings in patients within one design. Sixteen medicated schizophrenia out-patients and 16 matched healthy controls were studied with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during a social cognition task that allows the investigation of affective ToM (aToM), emotion recognition and the processing of neutral facial expressions. Patients showed a deficit in emotion recognition and a more prominent deficit in aToM. The performance in aToM and in emotion recognition was correlated in the control group but not in the schizophrenia group. Region-of-interest analysis of functional brain imaging data revealed no difference between groups during aToM, but a hyperactivation in the schizophrenia group in the left amygdala and right STS during emotion recognition and the processing of neutral facial expressions. The results indicate that schizophrenia out-patients have deficits at several levels of social cognition and provide the first evidence that deficits on higher-order social cognitive processes in schizophrenia may be traced back to an aberrant processing of faces per se.

  15. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio de Almeida Bolognani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study, stated as Previous Notation, is to demonstrate that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Pathology presents a differentiated condition in carriers where a significant percentage, close to 60%, present a higher level of zinc elimination by kidneys. In this study, a direct relation of Zinc Mettalicum pathogenetic symptoms, this disturbance and the elimination of this element which participates in neurotransmission process were identified, and the relation with elements from regular diet, which can act as zinc chelating agents would be involved in the evolution of this disturbance, justifying the issue of individual susceptibility, essential in homeopathic investigation

  16. Enhancing Social Competence in the Music Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Lori

    2009-01-01

    Strong social skills are vital for successful functioning in life. Social skills can affect academic success, peer relationships, family relationships, employment, and extracurricular and leisure activities. Children and adolescents who display academic, social, and behavioral deficits are at risk for both short-term and long-term negative social…

  17. Impact of executive function deficits and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on academic outcomes in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C; Doyle, Alysa E; Seidman, Larry J; Wilens, Timothy E; Ferrero, Frances; Morgan, Christie L; Faraone, Stephen V

    2004-10-01

    The association between executive function deficits (EFDs) and functional outcomes were examined among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were children and adolescents with (n = 259) and without (n = 222) ADHD, as ascertained from pediatric and psychiatric clinics. The authors defined EFD as at least 2 executive function measures impaired. Significantly more children and adolescents with ADHD had EFDs than did control participants. ADHD with EFDs was associated with an increased risk for grade retention and a decrease in academic achievement relative to (a) ADHD alone, (b) controlled socioeconomic status, (c) learning disabilities, and (d) IQ. No differences were noted in social functioning or psychiatric comorbidity. Children and adolescents with ADHD and EFDs were found to be at high risk for significant impairments in academic functioning. These results support screening children with ADHD for EFDs to prevent academic failure.

  18. Face recognition deficits in autism spectrum disorders are both domain specific and process specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigelt, Sarah; Koldewyn, Kami; Kanwisher, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Although many studies have reported face identity recognition deficits in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), two fundamental question remains: 1) Is this deficit "process specific" for face memory in particular, or does it extend to perceptual discrimination of faces as well? And 2) Is the deficit "domain specific" for faces, or is it found more generally for other social or even nonsocial stimuli? The answers to these questions are important both for understanding the nature of autism and its developmental etiology, and for understanding the functional architecture of face processing in the typical brain. Here we show that children with ASD are impaired (compared to age and IQ-matched typical children) in face memory, but not face perception, demonstrating process specificity. Further, we find no deficit for either memory or perception of places or cars, indicating domain specificity. Importantly, we further showed deficits in both the perception and memory of bodies, suggesting that the relevant domain of deficit may be social rather than specifically facial. These results provide a more precise characterization of the cognitive phenotype of autism and further indicate a functional dissociation between face memory and face perception.

  19. Attentional control mediates the relationship between social anhedonia and social impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Magdalen Tully

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Social anhedonia, a traitlike disinterest in social contact and diminished capacity to experience pleasure from social interactions, is consistently associated with social impairments in both healthy and clinical populations. However, the mechanisms underlying the relationship between social anhedonia and social impairment are poorly understood. Attentional control, selecting and focusing on relevant information and inhibiting irrelevant, may be one such mechanism. We examined individual differences in social anhedonia, attentional control, and social impairment in 108 healthy adults. High social anhedonia related to low attentional control and high social impairment. Moreover, attentional control mediated the relationship between social anhedonia and social impairment, establishing attentional control as one mechanism underlying aberrations in the fundamental human need for social contact. Although both attentional deficits and social impairment have been separately noted in social anhedonia, the relationship between social anhedonia, attentional control and social impairment in this non-clinical sample reflects a novel contribution.

  20. The Social Motivation Theory of Autism

    OpenAIRE

    Chevallier, C.; Kohls, G.; Troiani, V; Brodkin, E.S.; Schultz, R. T.

    2012-01-01

    The idea that social motivation deficits play a central role in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has recently gained increased interest. This constitutes a shift in autism research, which has traditionally focused more intensely on cognitive impairments, such as Theory of Mind deficits or executive dysfunction, while granting comparatively less attention to motivational factors. This review delineates the concept of social motivation and capitalizes on recent findings in several research areas...

  1. [Prevention in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, J; Martin, M; Alcindor, P; Perez-Templado, J

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that begins at an early age and can be present until adulthood. Subjects with ADHD not only have symptoms such as inattention, impulsivity or hyperactivity but also have their social and emotional areas affected. In addition, they have an associated increased risk for presenting comorbilities with other psychiatric disorders, overshadowing the development. Considering ADHD as a evolutionary risk factor, prevention should be considered as a primary goal. Most preventive actions on ADHD have been focused on tertiary prevention. The present review aims to study the factors involved in the development of ADHD in order to form a prevention model beyond tertiary prevention. This research focuses on models of primary prevention (early detection of disease) and secondary prevention (to prevent or delay the disease), trying to incorporate them into daily practice. This study reviews risk factors that affect ADHD. Through actions aimed to pursue an early detection, development of the disorder could be improved, and by identifying population at risk, efforts could be concentrated on developing a true primary prevention (perinatal period and early childhood) that eventually could contribute to reduce the incidence of ADHD.

  2. [A survey on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiviger, S; Caci, H

    2014-10-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder described in international classifications and thought to affect about 5% of school-aged children and 3% of adults in the general population. In France, most clinicians are not formally trained in assessing and treating ADHD, leading to underdiagnosis of the disorder. ADHD impacts all the aspects of these children's daily life (school performance, family and social life) and later their adult life. We invited all the private-practice pediatricians in the east of the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region (southeast France) to participate in a survey: 57 out of 81 accepted. The results show that their knowledge on ADHD could be improved, and that their a priori conception of the etiology of the disorder (neurodevelopmental syndrome versus societal syndrome) guides their clinical approach. We recommend pediatricians be trained to improve screening, diagnosis, and ADHD treatment monitoring in children. This recommendation might also apply to general practitioners for children and parents/adults.

  3. The Determinants of Public Deficit Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This paper empirically analyzes the political, institutional and economic sources of public deficit volatility. Using the system-GMM estimator for linear dynamic panel data models and a sample of 125 countries analyzed from 1980 to 2006, we show that higher public deficit volatility is typically associated with higher levels of political instability and less democracy. In addition, public deficit volatility tends to be magnified for small countries, in the outcome of hyper-inflation episodes ...

  4. Adolescent Loneliness and Social Skills : Agreement and Discrepancies Between Self-, Meta-, and Peer-Evaluations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodder, G. M. A.; Goossens, L.; Scholte, R. H. J.; Engels, R. C. M. E.; Verhagen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Lonely adolescents report that they have poor social skills, but it is unknown whether this is due to an accurate perception of a social skills deficit, or a biased negative perception. This is an important distinction, as actual social skills deficits require different treatments than biased negati

  5. Brief Report: Altered Social Behavior in Isolation-Reared "Fmr1" Knockout Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzer, Andrew M.; Roth, Alexandra K.; Nawrocki, Lauren; Wrenn, Craige C.; Valdovinos, Maria G.

    2013-01-01

    Social behavior abnormalities in Fragile X syndrome (FXS) are characterized by social withdrawal, anxiety, and deficits in social cognition. To assess these deficits, a model of FXS, the "Fmr1" knockout mouse ("Fmr1" KO), has been utilized. This mouse model has a null mutation in the fragile X mental retardation 1 gene ("Fmr1") and displays…

  6. Literature-Based Social Skills Instruction: A Strategy for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Womack, Sue A.; Marchant, Michelle; Borders, Deah

    2011-01-01

    Social skill deficits and learning disabilities often coexist. Academic work is negatively impacted by students' lack of social skills. Remediation of these deficits in pull-out programs has not generally resulted in transfer to real-world settings. Embedding social skills instruction within literature during a read-aloud session taught in the…

  7. Measuring Social Communication Behaviors as a Treatment Endpoint in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostou, Evdokia; Jones, Nancy; Huerta, Marisela; Halladay, Alycia K.; Wang, Paul; Scahill, Lawrence; Horrigan, Joseph P.; Kasari, Connie; Lord, Cathy; Choi, Dennis; Sullivan, Katherine; Dawson, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Social communication impairments are a core deficit in autism spectrum disorder. Social communication deficit is also an early indicator of autism spectrum disorder and a factor in long-term outcomes. Thus, this symptom domain represents a critical treatment target. Identifying reliable and valid outcome measures for social communication across a…

  8. Institutional social engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prijić-Samaržija Snježana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available I am referring to social engagement as a value-based choice to actively intervene in social reality in order to modify existing collective identities and social practices with the goal of realizing the public good. The very term ‘engagement’, necessarily involves the starting awareness of a social deficit or flaw and presupposes a critical attitude towards social reality. In this article, I will attempt to provide arguments in favour of the thesis about the possibility (and, later, necessity of institutional engagement, critical action and even institutional protest, basing this view on the thesis that institutions are fundamentally collective or social agents whose actions must be guided by ethical and epistemic virtues.

  9. Social cognition in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinković Dragan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with schizophrenia display alterations in social cognition, as well as in the realm of neurocognition. It is still unclear to what extent these two cognitive domains represent two separate dimensions or different expressions of a unified deficit. Tasks used to assess social cognition subcomponents cover basic social cognition, such as mentalisation, data collection and making conclusions, source monitoring and characteristics of life-styles. The variety of findings of various studies is probably related to the fact that most studies considered social cognition as one-dimensional construct represented, for example, by unique measurements of emotional recognition. Research results dealing with social cognition suggest that the impairment of social cognition is the characteristic feature of schizophrenia and have important implications for the development, course and outcome of this disorder.

  10. Effects of ethanol on social avoidance induced by chronic social defeat stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favoretto, Cristiane A; Macedo, Giovana C; Quadros, Isabel M H

    2017-01-01

    In rodents, chronic social defeat stress promotes deficits in social interest and social interaction. We further explored these antisocial effects by comparing the consequences of two different defeat stress protocols (episodic vs. continuous stress) in a social investigation test. We expected that continuous, but not episodic, stress would induce social deficits in this model. Furthermore, we tested whether a potentially anxiolytic dose of ethanol reverses social deficits induced by defeat stress. Male Swiss mice were exposed to a 10-day social defeat protocol, using daily confrontations with an aggressive resident mouse. Episodic stress consisted of brief defeat episodes, after which the defeated mouse was returned to its home cage, until the next defeat 24 h later (n = 7-11/group). For continuous stress, similar defeat episodes were followed by cohabitation with the aggressive resident for 24 h, separated by a perforated divider, until the following defeat (n = 8-14/group). Eight days after stress termination, defeated and control mice were assessed in a social investigation test, after treatment with ethanol (1.0 g/kg, i.p.) or 0.9% saline. Considering the time spent investigating a social target, mice exposed to episodic or continuous social stress showed less social investigation than controls (p stress or ethanol. Thus, a history of social defeat stress, whether episodic or continuous, promotes deficits in social investigation that were not reversed by acute treatment with ethanol.

  11. A Multiple Deficit Model of Reading Disability and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Searching for Shared Cognitive Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Lauren M.; Pennington, Bruce F.; Shanahan, Michelle A.; Santerre-Lemmon, Laura E.; Barnard, Holly D.; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study tests a multiple cognitive deficit model of reading disability (RD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and their comorbidity. Methods: A structural equation model (SEM) of multiple cognitive risk factors and symptom outcome variables was constructed. The model included phonological awareness as a unique…

  12. Attentional deficits in patients with persisting postconcussive complaints: a general deficit or specific component deficit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Raymond C K

    2002-12-01

    This study aimed to examine attentional performance in patients with persisting postconcussive complaints, using a multi-componential perspective. Comparisons of attentional performances of 92 patients with postconcussive complaints and 86 normal controls were conducted using tests of sustained attention (Sustained Attention to Response Task; Digit Backward Span), selective attention (Stroop Word-Color Test; Color Trails Test), divided attention (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test; Symbol Digit Modalities Test), and attentional control processing (Six Elements Test; Tower of Hanoi). Questionnaires on daily life inattentive behaviour were also administered to all participants and their significant others. A MANOVA indicated that patients with persisting postconcussive complaints demonstrated a general deficit in attentional performance as compared with their normal controls, F(18, 145) = 7.939, p = .005. These patterns still persisted when measures of emotional disturbance were controlled, F(18, 143) = 5.159, p = .005. Moreover, for sustained attention and selective attention, we were able to statistically control for speed and the differences remained. Future research should be conducted to better control the potential confound of speed for all the attentional components in order to differentiate any specific component deficits in these patients.

  13. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... among the children in both programs and their social skills improved after one year. The PE program focused on teaching parenting skills in a group setting. The MCI included parent education classes as ...

  14. Pragmatic language and theory of mind deficits in people with schizophrenia and their relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Monica; Di Michele, Vittorio; Pollice, Rocco; Casacchia, Massimo; Roncone, Rita

    2008-01-01

    Deficits in theory of mind have frequently been observed in people affected by illnesses characterized by disrupted social behaviour like autism and psychoses. In schizophrenia, a pragmatic deficit in expressive language can also be observed. The present study was designed in order to assess the suitability of theory of mind and pragmatic conversation abilities as possible cognitive endophenotypes of schizophrenia. First- and second-order false belief tasks and pragmatic deficits in expressive language were examined in 38 patients with schizophrenia, in 34 non-psychotic relatives and in 44 healthy controls. An extensive clinical and neuropsychological assessment was also conducted. Schizophrenic people and their first-degree relatives performedworse than the normal control subjects in false belief and pragmatic conversation tasks. General cognitive ability and neuropsychological measures of executive functions were not related to social cognition tasks. Theory of mind disorders and failing to understand the gricean conversational maxims are associated with schizophrenia liability. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. Timing deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) : Evidence from neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noreika, Valdas; Falter, Christine M.; Rubia, Katya

    Relatively recently, neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies have indicated that individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have deficits in a range of timing functions and their underlying neural networks. Despite this evidence, timing deficits in ADHD are still somewhat

  16. Timing deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) : Evidence from neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noreika, Valdas; Falter, Christine M.; Rubia, Katya

    2013-01-01

    Relatively recently, neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies have indicated that individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have deficits in a range of timing functions and their underlying neural networks. Despite this evidence, timing deficits in ADHD are still somewhat n

  17. Poor Reading: A Deficit in Skill-Automatization or a Phonological Deficit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Heinz; Mayringer, Heinz; Landerl, Karin.

    1998-01-01

    Examines whether the characteristic reading speed impairment of German dyslexic children resulted from a general skill-automatization deficit or a phonological deficit. Tests a dyslexic and nondyslexic group of boys in grade 2. Concludes that difficulties in learning to read are due phonological deficit and not a general skill-automatization…

  18. Kognitive deficit ved skizofreni og andre psykoser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagerlund, Birgitte; Glenthøj, Birte Y

    2008-01-01

    and there is considerable incentive to develop treatments that can improve these deficits. The current brief review summarizes the relevance of cognitive deficits for the pathogenesis and prognosis of psychotic disorders, and identifies pertinent issues within the research field Udgivelsesdato: 2008/11/10...

  19. Cooperative Learning and Social Stories: Effective Social Skills Strategies for Reading Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gut, Dianne M.; Safran, Stephen P.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests that few teachers understand the debilitating effect that social skill deficits have on a child's daily life. Notes that instructional strategies such as cooperative learning groups and social stories can help children improve their social behavior. Encourages all educators not only to emphasize academics, but also to seize any…

  20. Liberal Bias Mediates Emotion Recognition Deficits in Frontal Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Brandy L.; Ueda, Keita; Sakata, Daisuke; Plamondon, Andre; Murai, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    It is well-known that patients having sustained frontal-lobe traumatic brain injury (TBI) are severely impaired on tests of emotion recognition. Indeed, these patients have significant difficulty recognizing facial expressions of emotion, and such deficits are often associated with decreased social functioning and poor quality of life. As of yet,…

  1. A Cueing Procedure To Control Impulsivity in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posavac, Heidi D.; Sheridan, Susan M.; Posavac, Steven S.

    1999-01-01

    Tests the efficacy of a cueing procedure for improving the impulse regulation of four boys with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) during social skills training. Behavioral data suggested that all subjects demonstrated positive changes in impulse regulation. Likewise, the treatment effects appeared to have produced positive effects on…

  2. Study of Anxiety in Parents and Children with Attention Deficit with Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jose Juan Castro; Bermúdez, M. Olga Escandell; Sevilla, M. del Sol Fortea; Hernán-Pérez, Alejandra Sanjuán

    2015-01-01

    The identification of factors that influence attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will help to develop intervention strategies for the personal and social adjustment of these individuals. The goal of the study is to assess the perception of anxiety in a group of children and adolescents with ADHD and the anxiety that their parents…

  3. The Budget Deficit--The "Crisis" of the 80's. Series on Public Issues No. 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhut, Melvin L.; Smithson, Charles W.

    In this booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues of the day, an analogy is drawn between the dire predictions once made about the energy crisis and those now being made about a budget crisis. Concerns about the deficit have centered on inflation, interest rates, and growth of the economy.…

  4. The Budget Deficit--The "Crisis" of the 80's. Series on Public Issues No. 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhut, Melvin L.; Smithson, Charles W.

    In this booklet, one of a series intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues of the day, an analogy is drawn between the dire predictions once made about the energy crisis and those now being made about a budget crisis. Concerns about the deficit have centered on inflation, interest rates, and growth of the economy.…

  5. Students Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Collaborative Strategies for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillingford-Butler, M. Ann; Theodore, Lea

    2013-01-01

    The school setting can be a difficult place for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The core symptoms of ADHD, which include inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity, make meeting the curriculum demands of the classroom challenging. That ADHD negatively impacts not only academic performance but also social and…

  6. Swimming and Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactive Disorder: A Winning Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dail, Teresa; Smith, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of swimming for children with disabilities include improved motor skills, physical fitness, executive brain function and improved social skills. Swimming can also be an activity that provides a positive environment for children suffering from attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). This article provides an overview of ADHD and…

  7. Swimming and Children with Attention-Deficit Hyperactive Disorder: A Winning Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dail, Teresa; Smith, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of swimming for children with disabilities include improved motor skills, physical fitness, executive brain function and improved social skills. Swimming can also be an activity that provides a positive environment for children suffering from attention-deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD). This article provides an overview of ADHD and…

  8. Cultural Basis of Social "Deficits" in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perepa, Prithvi

    2014-01-01

    There is very little research that specifically looks at how autism spectrum disorders are perceived in various communities. This qualitative research was conducted with parents who had children on the autistic spectrum belonging to four different ethnic communities (White British, Somali, West African and South Asian--63 in total) and living in…

  9. Long-term prognosis in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannuzza, S; Klein, R G

    2000-07-01

    The authors have traced the developmental course of ADHD from childhood to adulthood, showing that it is a bumpy road for many. In early and middle adolescence, relative deficits are seen in academic and social functioning, ADHD symptoms remain problematic in two thirds to three quarters of these children, and antisocial behaviors, in some cases amounting to CD, are common. Many of these same difficulties persist into the late teenage years. Deficits continue to be observed in academic and social domains (compared with controls, probands exhibit lower grades, more courses failed, worse performance on standardized tests, have fewer friends, and are rated less adequate in psychosocial adjustment). About two fifths continue to experience ADHD symptoms to a clinically significant degree. One quarter to one third have a diagnosed antisocial disorder, and two thirds of these individuals are arrested. Also, drug abuse is observed in a significant minority of these youths. Importantly, the greatest risk factor for the development of antisocial behavior and substance abuse by the late teenage years is the maintenance of ADD symptoms. When evaluated in their mid-twenties, dysfunctions are apparent in these same areas. Compared with controls, probands complete less schooling, hold lower-ranking occupations, and continue to suffer from poor self-esteem and social skills deficits. In addition, significantly more probands than controls exhibit an antisocial personality and, perhaps, a substance use disorder in adulthood. Furthermore, many do not outgrow all facets of their childhood syndrome. These relative deficits, however, do not tell the whole story of the ADHD child's adult fate. Indeed, nearly all probands were gainfully employed. Furthermore, some had achieved a higher-level education (e.g., completed Master's degree, enrolled in medical school) and occupation (e.g., accountant, stock broker). In addition, a full two thirds of these children showed no evidence of any

  10. Actual motor performance and self-perceived motor competence in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder compared with healthy siblings and peers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliers, E.A.; Hoog, M.L.A. de; Franke, B.; Faraone, S.V.; Lambregts-Rommelse, N.N.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: : Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently experience comorbid motor problems, developmental coordination disorder. Also, children with ADHD are said to overestimate their abilities in the cognitive and social domain, the so-called "Positive Illusory Bias."

  11. Actual motor performance and self-perceived motor competence in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder compared with healthy siblings and peers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliers, E.A.; Hoog, M.L.A. de; Franke, B.; Faraone, S.V.; Lambregts-Rommelse, N.N.J.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: : Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently experience comorbid motor problems, developmental coordination disorder. Also, children with ADHD are said to overestimate their abilities in the cognitive and social domain, the so-called "Positive Illusory Bias."

  12. CORRELATION ANALYSIS BETWEEN THE PUBLIC DEBT AND THE BUDGET DEFICIT AND GDP IN ROMANIA COMPARED TO SWEDEN

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The modality in which the state manages the public debt has always represented and will continue to represent a subject of real importance, and the discussions regarding the level of budget deficit, the indebtedness degree and its implications on the social wellness are representing a big actuality at national level as also at European Union level. In this paper is presented a comparative analysis between Romania and Sweden in what regards the dependence between public debt and budget deficit...

  13. Self-concept in children with attention deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljusberg, Anna-Lena; Brodin, Jane

    2007-09-01

    This study focuses on the BASTA project (basic skills, social interaction and training of the working memory), which studied children with attention deficits and hyperactive behaviour attending remedial classes in regular schools. The project is interdisciplinary, with research teams from both social science and medicine. Our study is both qualitative and quantitative with a socio-cultural approach, and focuses on the pupil's social interaction, self-concept and the classroom climate. This article reports on the results of the study on self-concept. Our supposition was that the pupil's self-concept should change when they improved their skills in reading, writing and mathematics, but this was not the case. The results showed the dominating pattern to be that the differences between data from the BASTA project and comparison data from a similar study on academic self-concept, social self-concept, personal self-concept and global self-concept are small to nonexistent. Our results indicate that the children studied report higher degrees of self-concept than were warranted and that entering remedial classes was often linked to previous academic failures, social failures or both.

  14. A specific deficit of imitation in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Hannah J; McIntosh, Rob D; Williams, Justin H G

    2013-12-01

    Imitation is a potentially crucial aspect of social cognitive development. Although deficits in imitation ability have been widely demonstrated in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the specificity and significance of the findings is unclear, due largely to methodological limitations. We developed a novel assessment of imitation ability, using objective movement parameters (path length and action duration) derived from a touch-sensitive tablet laptop during drawing actions on an identical tablet. By direct comparison of the kinematics of a model's actions with those of the participant who observed them, measures of imitation accuracy were obtained. By replaying the end-point of the movement as a spot on the screen, imitation accuracy was compared against a "ghost control" condition, with no human actor but only the end-point of the movement seen [object movement reenactment (OMR)]. Hence, demands of the control task were closely matched to the experimental task with respect to motor, memory, and attentional abilities. Adolescents with ASD showed poorer accuracy for copying object size and action duration on both the imitation and OMR tasks, but were significantly more impaired for imitation of object size. Our results provide evidence that some of the imitation deficit in ASD is specific to a self-other mapping problem, and cannot be explained by general factors such as memory, spatial reasoning, motor control, or attention, nor related to the social demands of the testing situation.

  15. Predicting Social and Communicative Ability in School-Age Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study of the Social Attribution Task, Multiple Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger-Caplan, Rebecca; Saulnier, Celine; Jones, Warren; Klin, Ami

    2016-01-01

    The Social Attribution Task, Multiple Choice is introduced as a measure of implicit social cognitive ability in children, addressing a key challenge in quantification of social cognitive function in autism spectrum disorder, whereby individuals can often be successful in explicit social scenarios, despite marked social adaptive deficits. The…

  16. Postural control deficits identify lingering post-concussion neurological deficits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas A. Buckley; Jessie R. Oldham; Jaclyn B. Caccese

    2016-01-01

    Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury, incidence rates have reached epidemic levels and impaired postural control is a cardinal symptom. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the linear and non-linear assessments of post-concussion postural control. The current acute evaluation for concussion utilizes the subjective balance error scoring system (BESS) to assess postural control. While the sensitivity of the overall test battery is high, the sensitivity of the BESS is unacceptably low and, with repeat administration, is unable to accurately identify recovery. Sophisticated measures of postural control, utilizing traditional linear assessments, have identified impairments in postural control well beyond BESS recovery. Both assessments of quiet stance and gait have identified lingering impairments for at least 1 month post-concussion. Recently, the application of non-linear metrics to concussion recovery have begun to receive limited attention with the most commonly utilized metric being approximate entropy (ApEn). ApEn, most commonly in the medial-lateral plane, has successfully identified impaired postural control in the acute post-concussion timeframe even when linear assessments of instrumented measures are equivalent to healthy pre-injury values;unfortunately these studies have not gone beyond the acute phase of recovery. One study has identified lingering deficits in postural control, utilizing Shannon and Renyi entropy metrics, which persist at least through clinical recovery and return to participation. Finally, limited evidence from two studies suggest that individuals with a previous history of a single concussion, even months or years prior, may display altered ApEn metrics. Overall, non-linear metrics provide a fertile area for future study to further the understanding of postural control impairments acutely post-concussion and address the current challenge of sensitive identification of recovery.

  17. Deconstruyendo el modelo deficitario de la apropiación social de la ciencia y la tecnología en Colombia: el caso de la cartilla "Las Maticas de mi Huerta" Desconstruindo o modelo de déficit na apropriação social da ciência e tecnologia na Colômbia: o caso da cartilha " Las Maticas de mi Huerta" Deconstructing the deficit model of social appropriation of science and technology in Colombia: the case of the handbook "Las Maticas de mi Huerta"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Lozano-Borda

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Los estudios sobre política y actividades de apropiación social de ciencia y tecnología (ASCyT en Colombia han evidenciado la presencia de un modelo deficitario de relación entre el conocimiento científico y el público. Este modelo, que está presente en diversidad de actividades edu-comunicativas, se caracteriza por describir dinámicas de comunicación unidireccional y vertical de la ciencia hacia sus públicos. Estos estudios se han quedado cortos en identificar cuáles son las condiciones de producción que sostienen dicho modelo. Analizando el caso de una cartilla educativa, este artículo busca profundizar en la comprensión de aquello que define la ASCyT en Colombia como una práctica deficitaria. Lo anterior se logró desde un análisis de contenido etnográfico de este material educativo que permitió identificar una serie de dispositivos de lenguaje y gráficos que pueden a futuro servir de guía reflexiva para el diseño de otros materiales edu-comunicativos para la ASCyT.Estudos sobre políticas e atividades de apropriação social da ciência e tecnologia (ASCT na Colômbia têm mostrado a presença de um modelo de déficit de relação entre o conhecimento científico e o público. Este modelo, que está presente em diversas atividades educacionais e comunicativas, se caracteriza por estabelecer uma dinâmica de comunicação unidirecional e vertical da ciência para seus públicos. Contudo, estes estudos não têm identificado quais são as condições que sustentam este modelo de produção. Analisando o caso de uma cartilha educativa, este artigo procura aprofundar a compreensão sobre o que define a prática da ASCT na Colômbia como deficitária. Isto foi realizado a partir de uma análise de conteúdo etnográfico do material, a partir do qual foi possível identificar uma série de dispositivos de linguagem e de diagramação que no futuro podem servir como guia reflexiva para o desenho de novos materiais

  18. Desorden Deficitario de la Atencion. Segunda Edicion. NICHCY Briefing Paper [and] El Desorden Deficitario de la Atencion: Una Bibliografia de Materiales en Ingles y Espanol (Attention Deficit Disorder. Second Edition. NICHCY Briefing Paper [and] Attention Deficit Disorder: A Bibliography of Materials in English and Spanish).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Mary

    This briefing paper uses a question-and-answer format to provide basic information about children with attention deficit disorder (ADD). Questions address the following concerns: nature and incidence of ADD; causes of ADD; signs of ADD (impulsivity, hyperactivity, disorganization, social skill deficits); the diagnostic ADD assessment; how to…

  19. Social Cognition, Social Skill, and the Broad Autism Phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Noah J.; Nowlin, Rachel B.; Pinkham, Amy E.

    2013-01-01

    Social-cognitive deficits differentiate parents with the "broad autism phenotype" from non-broad autism phenotype parents more robustly than other neuropsychological features of autism, suggesting that this domain may be particularly informative for identifying genetic and brain processes associated with the phenotype. The current study…

  20. The course of social cognitive and metacognitive ability in depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladegaard, Nicolai; Videbech, Poul; Lysaker, Paul H;

    2015-01-01

    of matched healthy controls were assessed in multiple domains of social cognition including theory of mind, social perception, and metacognition. Additionally, a comprehensive neurocognitive (non-social) test battery was utilized. Following baseline assessment, patients were enrolled in an outpatient......OBJECTIVES: Research has suggested that patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) experience deficits in the related domains of social cognition and metacognition. Most research has focused on detecting deficits among persons who are acutely symptomatic. Thus, little is known about...... whether these deficits persist after symptoms have remitted. As a first, this study investigated social cognitive and metacognitive deficits in patients with MDD in the acute and remitted state. DESIGN: Longitudinal case-control. METHODS: Forty-four drug-naïve depressed patients and an equal number...

  1. Social Insecurity

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2010-01-01

    No, this is not the title of the latest horror film to appear on our screens, only a reflection of the very tense situation in which we find our two social mainstays: the health insurance scheme and pension fund. If both are in deficit today, this is not due to a lack of timely warning. For several years, the Member States have been asked to make decisions. However, with the exception of a few small measures, they continually delay the moment when they will truly have to face up to their obligations. We remind you that CERN is not only our employer, but also our State. When we join the Organization, we leave our national systems. CERN Council has supreme power to decide on the level of our salaries and of our social security. As far as the latter is concerned, the fact that the share of contributions is fixed at 1/3 for the staff and 2/3 for the Organization has often been the reason for much procrastination by Council. This waiting game could soon be over though, as this year will see the conclusions of t...

  2. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Life Satisfaction in a Representative Adolescent and Adult Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, Timo; Koglin, Ute; Schmidt, Sören; Petermann, Franz; Brähler, Elmar

    2017-09-01

    Although it is well documented that attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with reduced life satisfaction, the mechanisms that might explain this co-occurrence are unclear. We examined the correlation of ADHD symptoms with life satisfaction and whether this association is mediated by (lacking) social support and depressive symptoms. Self-reported ADHD symptoms, life satisfaction, social support, and depressive symptoms were assessed in a representative, predominantly adult sample from the general population (14-91 years, N = 2517). Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms correlated negatively with life satisfaction (r = -0.41, p life satisfaction. Counteracting problems with social relationships and treating depressive symptoms may help to increase life satisfaction in adults with ADHD symptoms.

  3. Social functioning in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupferberg, Aleksandra; Bicks, Lucy; Hasler, Gregor

    2016-10-01

    Depression is associated with social risk factors, social impairments and poor social functioning. This paper gives an overview of these social aspects using the NIMH Research and Domain Criteria 'Systems for Social Processes' as a framework. In particular, it describes the bio-psycho-social interplay regarding impaired affiliation and attachment (social anhedonia, hyper-sensitivity to social rejection, competition avoidance, increased altruistic punishment), impaired social communication (impaired emotion recognition, diminished cooperativeness), impaired social perception (reduced empathy, theory-of-mind deficits) and their impact on social networks and the use of social media. It describes these dysfunctional social processes at the behavioural, neuroanatomical, neurochemical and genetic levels, and with respect to animal models of social stress. We discuss the diagnostic specificity of these social deficit constructs for depression and in relation to depression severity. Since social factors are importantly involved in the pathogenesis and the consequences of depression, such research will likely contribute to better diagnostic assessments and concepts, treatments and preventative strategies both at the diagnostic and transdiagnostic level.

  4. DETERMINANTS OF CURRENT ACCOUNT DEFICIT AND ECONOMY POLICIES PRACTICES FOR CURRENT ACCOUNT DEFICIT IN TURKISH ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veysel Karagol

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In last years with the impact of rapid globalization and financiallisation current account deficit became a major problem for Turkish economy. Hence, many studies have been conducted foreseeing for policy recommendations and precautions against the current deficit. In this study, by considering determinants of current account deficit and implemented policies, it is intended to provide policy recommendations for closing the deficit. As part of this goal, the determinants of current account deficit and impacts of the determinantsa re discussed. Also, by mentioning monetary and fiscal policies during the period 2003-2015 overall assessment of the policies and a set of policiy recommendations for the next periods were presented. The most important result achieved by the study is applying discussed structural reforms in able to have quick progress in dealing with the current account deficit would have a great effect.

  5. Neuropsychological deficits associated with uraemic encephalopathy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (ESRD) often present with impaired cognitive functions, little information exists concerning ... during conditions of time-pressure); (i/) deficit in attentional processes .... behaviour is functional or psychoneurological in origin), which could have ...

  6. Did goethe describe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazza, Sara; Scaglione, Cesa; Poppi, Massimo; Rizzo, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    As early as 1846, the typical symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were described by Heinrich Hoffmann (1809-1894). However, in Goethe's masterpiece Faust (1832), the character of Euphorion strongly suggests ADHD diagnosis.

  7. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Intervention: Strategies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Intervention: Strategies & Counselling Tips for Primary School Teachers. ... to equip them to enable them give care and support to ADHD pupils in the learning process and make referral when necessary.

  8. Deficits and Growth from Romania's Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Andrei MOLDOVAN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last eight years Romania has encountereda significant growth of the GDP. However,the economy does not seem capable to value thisgrowth by balancing the budget and reducing thecurrent account deficit, problems that are persistentduring the last period.In 2008 the Romanian economy had thehighest level of budget deficit since the 90’s. Thereis an important debate between the economistson this issue and we have to see if there is anyreason to worry, having in mind the current globalfinancial crisis.This paper tries to analyze the problemsof budgetary deficit, current account deficit andeconomic growth. We will take a look on last periodstatistics and on specific literature, see how thosevariables evolved over time and in different casesand we will try to identify possible connectionsbetween them.

  9. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Limor eLukov; Naama eFriedmann; Lilach eShalev; Lilach eKhentov-Kraus; Nir eShalev; Rakefet eLorber; Revital eGuggenheim

    2015-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on o...

  10. Neuropsychological deficits in patients with Lyme borreliosis

    OpenAIRE

    Katja Pruša

    2001-01-01

    Slovenia is an endemic area for Lyme borreliosis, a disease that affects many organic systems. Decline in cognitive abilities and emotional changes can appear in acute and chronic stage of the disease beside somatic difficulties. Early antibiotic therapy is of great importance in recovery. Attention and concentration deficits, memory deficits, impaired executive functioning, depression and other symptoms reduce work efficiency and life quality of people with Lyme borreliosis. Neuropsychologic...

  11. Deficits in voice and multisensory processing in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles, Juliette; Strelnikov, Kuzma; Carine, Mantoulan; Denise, Thuilleaux; Laurier, Virginie; Molinas, Catherine; Tauber, Maïthé; Barone, Pascal

    2016-05-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare neurodevelopmental and genetic disorder that is characterized by various expression of endocrine, cognitive and behavioral problems, among which a true obsession for food and a deficit of satiety that leads to hyperphagia and severe obesity. Neuropsychological studies have reported that PWS display altered social interactions with a specific weakness in interpreting social information and in responding to them, a symptom closed to that observed in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Based on the hypothesis that atypical multisensory integration such as face and voice interactions would contribute in PWS to social impairment we investigate the abilities of PWS to process communication signals including the human voice. Patients with PWS recruited from the national reference center for PWS performed a simple detection task of stimuli presented in an uni-o or bimodal condition, as well as a voice discrimination task. Compared to control typically developing (TD) individuals, PWS present a specific deficit in discriminating human voices from environmental sounds. Further, PWS present a much lower multisensory benefits with an absence of violation of the race model indicating that multisensory information do not converge and interact prior to the initiation of the behavioral response. All the deficits observed in PWS were stronger for the subgroup of patients suffering from Uniparental Disomy, a population known to be more sensitive to ASD. Altogether, our study suggests that the deficits in social behavior observed in PWS derive at least partly from an impairment in deciphering the social information carried by voice signals, face signals, and the combination of both. In addition, our work is in agreement with the brain imaging studies revealing an alteration in PWS of the "social brain network" including the STS region involved in processing human voices.

  12. Orbitofrontal cortex abnormality and deficit schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanahara, Nobuhisa; Sekine, Yoshimoto; Haraguchi, Tadashi; Uchida, Yoshitaka; Hashimoto, Kenji; Shimizu, Eiji; Iyo, Masaomi

    2013-02-01

    Deficit syndrome, which is characterized by primary and enduring negative symptoms, is a homogeneous subtype within schizophrenia. Negative symptoms in schizophrenia are currently considered to be closely linked with frontal lobe impairment. However, the etiology in the frontal lobe of people with deficit syndrome is not fully understood. We measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in 33 patients with deficit syndrome, 40 patients with nondeficit syndrome, and 45 healthy controls, and we compared groups using the voxel-wise method. Schizophrenia combined group, the deficit syndrome and the nondeficit syndrome presented hypoperfusion in mainly the medial and lateral prefrontal cortices. The deficit syndrome group showed a significant decrease in rCBF in the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) compared to the nondeficit group. These results demonstrated that at-rest hypofrontality was a common feature within the disease group and suggested that the OFC might play an important role in the development of severe negative symptoms in people with deficit syndrome.

  13. Neurofunctional correlates of theory of mind deficits in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosia, M; Riccaboni, R; Poletti, S

    2012-01-01

    Theory of Mind, the ability to understand the potential mental states and intentions of others, represents a relevant aspect of social cognition, with high impact on the capacity to interact within the social world. This very human ability has been one of the focuses of neuroscience research in the past decades and data from neuroimaging studies allowed to identify a Theory of Mind network and to formulate a neurobiological model. Concurrent neuropsychiatric studies showed that Theory of Mind is differently impaired in several conditions, among these, in schizophrenia, a disease characterized by functional and social disability. This paper addresses the issue of neurofunctional correlates of Theory of Mind deficits in schizophrenia, reviewing functional imaging studies of the past ten years comparing schizophrenia patients to healthy controls. Several differences in hemodynamic response between patients and controls were observed in the areas known to be critically involved in social cognition, such as the medial prefrontal cortex, temporal cortex surrounding superior temporal sulcus and temporo-parietal junction and cingulate cortex. Results are promising, however they are still heterogeneous. The reported variability could depend on factors related to the construct of Theory of Mind itself, technical aspects and psychopathological/physiopathological mechanisms and needs to be further addressed by future studies.

  14. Sensory processing, neurocognition, and social cognition in schizophrenia: Towards a cohesive cognitive model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, J.S. de; Gelder, B.B. de; Hodiamont, P.P.G.

    2013-01-01

    Schizophrenia research has identified deficits in neurocognition, social cognition, and sensory processing. Because a cohesive model of "disturbed cognitive machinery" is currently lacking, we built a conceptual model to integrate neurocognition, social cognition, and sensory processing. In a cross-

  15. Research Review: Social Motivation and Oxytocin in Autism--Implications for Joint Attention Development and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavropoulos, Katherine K. M.; Carver, Leslie J.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Scope: The social motivation hypothesis (SMH) suggests that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are less intrinsically rewarded by social stimuli than their neurotypical peers. This difference in social motivation has been posited as a factor contributing to social deficits in ASD. Social motivation is thought to…

  16. Executive functioning in boys with ADHD: primarily an inhibition deficit?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, A.P.J.; Oosterlaan, J.; Geurts, H.M.; Morein-Zamir, S.; Meiran, N.; Vlasveld, L.; Sergeant, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    This study was aimed at: (1) testing whether boys with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) demonstrate a deficit in response inhibition and deficits in other executive functions (EF), or alternatively, demonstrate a deficit in only response inhibition; (2) investigating which role associ

  17. Public participation and rural management of Brazilian waters: an alternative to the deficit model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Luís Piolli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge deficit model with regard to the public has been severely criticized in the sociology of the public perception of science. However, when dealing with public decisions regarding scientific matters, political and scientific institutions insist on defending the deficit model. The idea that only certified experts, or those with vast experience, should have the right to participate in decisions can bring about problems for the future of democracies. Through a type of "topography of ideas", in which some concepts from the social studies of science are used in order to think about these problems, and through the case study of public participation in the elaboration of the proposal of discounts in the fees charged for rural water use in Brazil, we will try to point out an alternative to the deficit model. This alternative includes a "minimum comprehension" of the scientific matters involved in the decision on the part of the participants, using criteria judged by the public itself.

  18. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in the Light of the Epigenetic Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuch, Viviane; Utsumi, Daniel Augusto; Costa, Thaís Virgínia Moura Machado; Kulikowski, Leslie Domenici; Muszkat, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a definite behavioral pattern that might lead to performance problems in the social, educational, or work environments. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, the symptoms of ADHD were restricted to those associated with cognitive (attention deficit) and behavioral (hyperactivity/impulsivity) deficits, while deficient emotional self-regulation, a relevant source of morbidity, was left out. The etiology of it is complex, as its exact causes have not yet been fully elucidated. ADHD seems to arise from a combination of various genetic and environmental factors that alter the developing brain, resulting in structural and functional abnormalities. The aim of this paper was to review epigenetics and ADHD focused on how multidimensional mechanisms influence the behavioral phenotype. PMID:26441687

  19. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in the light of the epigenetic paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane eSchuch

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a highly prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a definite behavioral pattern that might lead to performance problems in the social, educational or work environments. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-V, the symptoms of ADHD were restricted to those associated with cognitive (attention deficit and behavioral (hyperactivity/impulsivity deficits, while deficient emotional self-regulation (DESR, a relevant source of morbidity, was left out. The etiology of it is complex, as its exact causes have not yet been fully elucidated. ADHD seems to arise from a combination of various genetic and environmental factors that alter the developing brain, resulting in structural and functional abnormalities. The aim of this paper was to review epigenetics and ADHD focused on how multidimensional mechanisms influence the behavioral phenotype.

  20. Analysis of Budget deficit in Romania during 2000-2013

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, over time, the years of economic crisis were defined by significant increases in the levels of budget deficits. Discussions on sizing budget deficits, financing, especially the volume of public debt became more intense, both politically and academically. The impact of budget deficit on economic growth is a common theme found in the economic policies adopted. The present paper aims to analyze the evolution of budget deficit and the structural budget deficit in Romania during 2000-20...

  1. Subtle deficits of cognitive theory of mind in unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christiane; Neuhaus, Kathrin; Lehmann, Anja; Krüger, Katja; Dziobek, Isabel; Heekeren, Hauke R; Heinz, Andreas; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2012-04-01

    Alterations of theory of mind (ToM) and empathy were implicated in the formation of psychotic experiences, and deficits in psychosocial functioning of schizophrenia patients. Inspired by concepts of neurocognitive endophenotypes, the existence of a distinct, potentially neurobiologically based social-cognitive vulnerability marker for schizophrenia is a matter of ongoing debate. The fact that previous research on social-cognitive deficits in individuals at risk yielded contradictory results may partly be due to an insufficient differentiation between qualitative aspects of ToM. Thirty-four unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients (21 parents, 8 siblings, 5 children; f/m: 30/4; mean age: 48.1 ± 12.7 years) and 34 controls subjects (f/m: 25/9; mean age: 45.9 ± 10.9 years) completed the 'Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition'-a video-based ToM test-and an empathy questionnaire (Interpersonal Reactivity Index, IRI). Outcome parameters comprised (1) 'cognitive' versus 'emotional' ToM, (2) error counts representing 'undermentalizing' versus 'overmentalizing', (3) empathic abilities and (4) non-social neurocognition. MANCOVA showed impairments in cognitive but not emotional ToM in the relatives' group, when age, gender and neurocognition were controlled for. Relatives showed elevated error counts for 'undermentalizing' but not for 'overmentalizing'. No alterations were detected in self-rated dimensions of empathy. Of all measures of ToM and empathy, only the IRI subscale 'fantasy' was associated with measures of psychotic risk, i.e. a history of subclinical delusional ideation. The present study confirmed subtle deficits in cognitive, but not emotional ToM in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients, which were not explained by global cognitive deficits. Findings corroborate the assumption of distinct social-cognitive abilities as an intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia.

  2. Multiple Deficits in ADHD: Executive Dysfunction, Delay Aversion, Reaction Time Variability, and Emotional Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjowall, Douglas; Roth, Linda; Lindqvist, Sofia; Thorell, Lisa B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The notion that ADHD constitutes a heterogeneous disorder is well accepted. However, this study contributes with new important knowledge by examining independent effects of a large range of neuropsychological deficits. In addition, the study investigated whether deficits in emotional functioning constitute a dissociable component of…

  3. Story Comprehension and Academic Deficits in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: What Is the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthiaume, Kristen S.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the reliable findings that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have both attentional and academic difficulties, it is assumed that the attentional deficit contributes to the academic problems. In this article, existing support for a link between the attentional and academic difficulties experienced by children…

  4. Oculomotor Performance Identifies Underlying Cognitive Deficits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loe, Irene M.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Yasui, Enami; Luna, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    The evaluation of the cognitive control in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder through the use of oculomotor tests reveal that this group showed susceptibility to peripheral distractors and deficits in response inhibition. All subjects were found to have intact sensorimotor function and working memory.

  5. Readings on Attention Deficit Disorder or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. ERIC Mini-Bib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Barbara, Comp.

    This annotated bibliography identifies 17 readings, 3 videotapes, and 8 children's books concerned with attention deficit disorder or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Items include guides for parents, teachers, and students; analyses of issues in the field; practical teaching guides; investigations into etiology; and resource guides.…

  6. Theory of Mind Deficit versus Faulty Procedural Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Munguía, Miguel Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have impairments in social interaction, communicative capacity, and behavioral flexibility (core triad). Three major cognitive theories (theory of mind deficit, weak central coherence, and executive dysfunction) seem to explain many of these impairments. Currently, however, the empathizing-systemizing (a newer version of the theory of mind deficit account) and mnesic imbalance theories are the only ones that attempt to explain all these core triadic symptoms of ASD On the other hand, theory of mind deficit in empathizing-systemizing theory is the most influential account for ASD, but its counterpart in the mnesic imbalance theory, faulty procedural memory, seems to occur earlier in development; consequently, this might be a better solution to the problem of the etiology of ASD, if it truly meets the precedence criterion. Hence, in the present paper I review the reasoning in favor of the theory of mind deficit but with a new interpretation based on the mnesic imbalance theory, which posits that faulty procedural memory causes deficits in several cognitive skills, resulting in poor performance in theory of mind tasks.

  7. Theory of Mind Deficit versus Faulty Procedural Memory in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Romero-Munguía

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD have impairments in social interaction, communicative capacity, and behavioral flexibility (core triad. Three major cognitive theories (theory of mind deficit, weak central coherence, and executive dysfunction seem to explain many of these impairments. Currently, however, the empathizing-systemizing (a newer version of the theory of mind deficit account and mnesic imbalance theories are the only ones that attempt to explain all these core triadic symptoms of ASD On the other hand, theory of mind deficit in empathizing-systemizing theory is the most influential account for ASD, but its counterpart in the mnesic imbalance theory, faulty procedural memory, seems to occur earlier in development; consequently, this might be a better solution to the problem of the etiology of ASD, if it truly meets the precedence criterion. Hence, in the present paper I review the reasoning in favor of the theory of mind deficit but with a new interpretation based on the mnesic imbalance theory, which posits that faulty procedural memory causes deficits in several cognitive skills, resulting in poor performance in theory of mind tasks.

  8. Corporations and Citizenship Arenas in the Age of Social Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moon, Jeremy; Whelan, Glen; Grant, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the importance of social media in the corporate social responsibility (CSR) literature. This deficit is redressed in the present paper through utilizing the notion of ‘citizenship arenas’ to identify three dynamics in social media-augmented corporate–society rela...

  9. Selective amotivation deficits following chronic psychosocial stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai Cabal, Alejandro; Ioanas, Horea-Ioan; Seifritz, Erich; Saab, Bechara J

    2017-01-15

    Amotivation is a major symptom of several psychiatric disorders. However, which specific motivations are most affected in various illnesses is not well understood. In major depressive disorder (MDD), anecdotal evidence suggests the motivation to explore may be especially affected, but direct evidence from either patients or animal models is lacking. To investigate the potential for, and nature of, exploratory drive deficits in MDD, we subjected mice to a chronic social defeat (CSD) manipulation that gives rise to a MDD-like behavioural ensemble, and performed a behavioural battery to examine bodyweight homeostasis, ambulation, anxiety, exploratory behaviour motivated by either novelty or fear, and short-term memory. Consistent with previous reports, we found a disruption of bodyweight homeostasis and reduced ambulation following CSD treatment, but we found no evidence for anxiogenic effects or impairments in short-term memory. Surprisingly, we also observed profoundly delayed and diminished exploration of novel, safe space following CSD, while exploration motivated by fear remained intact. These results extend our knowledge of the behavioural phenotypes in mice resulting from CSD by homing in on specific motivational drives. In MDD patients, reduced exploration could compound disease symptomatology by preventing engagement in what could be rewarding exploration experiences, and targeting deficits in the motivation to explore may represent a novel avenue for treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Test Differences in Diagnosing Reading Comprehension Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Janice M.; Meenan, Chelsea E.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the implications of test differences for defining and diagnosing comprehension deficits using reading comprehension tests. We had 995 children complete the Gray Oral Reading Test-3, the Qualitative Reading Inventory-3, the Woodcock-Johnson Passage Comprehension-3, and the Peabody Individual Achievement Test, and compared which children were identified by each test as being in the lowest 10%. Although a child who performs so poorly might be expected to do poorly on all tests, we found that the average overlap between tests in diagnosing comprehension difficulties was only 43%. Consistency in diagnosis was greater for younger children, when comprehension deficits are due to weaker decoding skills, than for older children. Inconsistencies between tests were just as evident when identifying the top performers. The different children identified as having a comprehension deficit by each test were compared on four profile variables - word decoding skill, IQ, ADHD symptoms, and working memory skill – to understand the nature of the different deficits assessed by each test. Theoretical and practical implications of these test differences in defining and diagnosing comprehension deficits are discussed. PMID:22442251

  11. Remediation of attention deficits in head injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nag S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Head injury is associated with psychological sequelae which impair the patient′s psychosocial functioning. Information processing, attention and memory deficits are seen in head injuries of all severity. We attempted to improve deficits of focused, sustained and divided attention. The principle of overlapping sources of attention resource pools was utilised in devising the remediation programme. Tasks used simple inexpensive materials. Four head injured young adult males with post concussion syndrome underwent the retraining program for one month. The patients had deficits of focused, sustained and divided attention parallel processing, serial processing, visual scanning, verbal learning and memory and working memory. After the retraining programme the deficits of attention improved in the four patients. Serial processing improved in two patients. Parallel processing and neuropsychological deficits did not improve in any patient. The symptom intensity reduced markedly and behavioural functioning improved in three of the four patients. The results supported an association between improving attention and reduction of symptom intensity. Attention remediation shows promise as a cost effective, time efficient and simple technique to improve the psychological and psychosocial functioning of the head injured patient.

  12. Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Social Phobia KidsHealth > For Teens > Social Phobia Print A A ... anxiety condition called social phobia. What Is Social Phobia? Social phobia (also called social anxiety ) is a ...

  13. Environmental enrichment improves cognitive deficits in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR): relevance for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamplona, Fabrício A; Pandolfo, Pablo; Savoldi, Robson; Prediger, Rui Daniel S; Takahashi, Reinaldo N

    2009-10-01

    The interaction between genes and environment seems to be relevant for the development of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), one of the most prevalent childhood psychiatric diseases. The occurrence of ADHD is typically associated with poor academic performance, probably reflecting learning difficulties and/or cognitive impulsiveness. The inbred Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) strain has often been considered as an animal model of ADHD, since they 'naturally' display the main ADHD symptomatology. Although pharmacological agents improve SHR's cognitive deficits, little is known about the involvement of environmental factors in SHR disabilities and to what extent 'protective' non-pharmacological factors may be considered as strategy for ADHD prevention. Here we investigated whether the rearing environment during neurodevelopment may counteract later cognitive deficits presented by adult SHR. Wistar (WIS) rats were also used to investigate whether the putative effects of environmental enrichment depend on a specific genetic background. The animals were reared in enriched environment (EE) or standard environment (SE) from the post-natal day 21 until 3 months of age (adulthood) and tested for cognitive and non-cognitive phenotypes. EE improved SHR's performance in open field habituation, water maze spatial reference, social and object recognition tasks, while non-cognitive traits, such as nociception and hypertension, were not affected by EE. Response of WIS rats was generally not affected by the present EE. These results show that the general low cognitive performance presented by SHR rats strongly depends on the rearing environment and they may suggest modifications of the familial environment as a putative preventive strategy to cope with ADHD.

  14. Characterization of cognitive deficits in mice with an alternating hemiplegia-linked mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirshenbaum, Greer S; Dachtler, James; Roder, John C; Clapcote, Steven J

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive impairment is a prominent feature in a range of different movement disorders. Children with Alternating Hemiplegia of Childhood are prone to developmental delay, with deficits in cognitive functioning becoming progressively more evident as they grow older. Heterozygous mutations of the ATP1A3 gene, encoding the Na+,K+-ATPase α3 subunit, have been identified as the primary cause of Alternating Hemiplegia. Heterozygous Myshkin mice have an amino acid change (I810N) in Na+,K+-ATPase α3 that is also found in Alternating Hemiplegia. To investigate whether Myshkin mice exhibit learning and memory deficits resembling the cognitive impairments of patients with Alternating Hemiplegia, we subjected them to a range of behavioral tests that interrogate various cognitive domains. Myshkin mice showed impairments in spatial memory, spatial habituation, locomotor habituation, object recognition, social recognition, and trace fear conditioning, as well as in the visible platform version of the Morris water maze. Increasing the duration of training ameliorated the deficit in social recognition but not in spatial habituation. The deficits of Myshkin mice in all of the learning and memory tests used are consistent with the cognitive impairment of the vast majority of AHC patients. These mice could thus help advance our understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms influencing cognitive impairment in patients with ATP1A3-related disorders.

  15. Psychobiology of social support: the social dimension of stress buffering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditzen, Beate; Heinrichs, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Social integration and social support have a substantial influence on individual health and longevity, an effect assumed to be mediated through reduced stress reactivity in support recipients. However, considerable variability in individual responses to social support has been documented, suggesting that the beneficial effect of social support interacts with early experiences, genetically influenced differences in biological systems mediating social behavior, personality traits, and psychopathology. Here we outline the historical background of social support research, including epidemiological studies, laboratory studies, and field studies on the subject of social support and health, with regard to different psychobiological effector systems. Most recent research has focused on brain mechanisms which link social integration or social support with reduced neural threat responses. As numerous mental disorders are associated with considerable social impairment, understanding the potentially underlying mechanisms of neural plasticity in relation to social support, stress buffering and health in these disorders can help tailor new diagnostic and treatment strategies. Thus, theories of socially-driven emotional learning and memory, as presented in this review, might eventually lead to psychobiology-based treatment concepts for mental disorders involving social deficits.

  16. Brief exposure to methamphetamine (METH) and phencyclidine (PCP) during late development leads to long-term learning deficits in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ilsun M; Minamoto, Takehiro; Odell, Joseph R; Mayhorn, Joseph; White, Wesley

    2009-04-17

    Exposure to methamphetamine (METH) and phencyclidine (PCP) during early development is thought to produce later behavioral deficits. We postulated that exposure to METH and PCP during later development would produce similar behavioral deficits, particularly learning deficits in adulthood. Wistar rats were treated with METH (9 mg/kg), PCP (9 mg/kg), or saline during later development, postnatal days (PD) 50-51, and subsequent behavioral changes were examined including: locomotor activity during the acute drug state (PD 50-51) and the post-drug phase (PD 50-80); social interaction on PD 54-80; and spatial discrimination and reversal in adulthood (after PD 90). METH and PCP differentially affected locomotion during the acute state, but not during the post-drug phase. METH decreased social interaction throughout tests two weeks after drug treatment, whereas PCP decreased social interaction only during the first 8 min of tests. Neither METH nor PCP impaired initial acquisition of spatial discrimination. However, reversal was significantly impaired by PCP, whereas METH produced a mild deficit, compared to controls. Our data provide evidence that exposure to PCP and METH during later development lead to enduring cognitive deficits in adulthood. Selective impairment of reversal may reflect neurological damage in the prefrontal cortex due to early exposure to drugs.

  17. An evaluation of social skills in children with and without prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, C; Becker, M; McLennan, J; Urichuk, L; Andrew, G

    2011-09-01

    The goal of this study was to examine social skills deficits among children with and without prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) who were both referred to a respite programme. Thirty-seven children with PAE and 23 non-exposed children (aged 3 to 8 years) were evaluated on the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS) by their caregivers and respite workers. As compared with the non-exposed children, those with PAE showed more deficits on caregiver ratings of responsibility, hyperactivity, internalizing problems and overall social skills, as well as respite worker ratings of hyperactivity. The social skills among the PAE group were not related to home placement variables. Among both groups, caregivers rated social skills lower than respite workers, and among the PAE group, girls tended to display more social skills deficits than boys. The SSRS is useful in identifying unique social skills deficits among children with PAE. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Living with symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Merete Bender; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich; Larsen, Palle

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) relates to four dimensions of behavior: inattentiveness, restlessness, impulsiveness and hyperactivity. Symptoms affect multiple areas of daily life such as academic performance and social functioning. Despite the negative effects of ADHD...... daily life with ADHD are personal strategies such as reminders and performing tasks within a given structure. Others close to them can assist by coaching, reminding them of appointments and so on. Superiors can assist by structuring the work tasks and setting up clear rules and limits for the tasks...... see them as persons who have a problem and not as problem persons, emphasize strategies adults themselves can apply such as structuring everyday tasks and informing them about positive effects and possible side effects of medication. Policy-makers could launch campaigns targeted at employers...

  19. Internet Addiction and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Aviv; Yaacov, Yafa; Manning, Michal; Danon, Pinhas; Weizman, Abraham

    2015-12-01

    Use of the internet and videogames by children and adolescents has risen dramatically over the last decade. Increasing evidence of internet and videogame addiction among children is causing concern due to its harmful physical, emotional and social consequences. There is also emerging evidence for an association between computer and videogame addiction and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To investigate the relationship between ADHD and internet addiction. We compared 50 male schoolchildren, mean age 13 years, diagnosed with ADHD to 50 male schoolchildren without ADHD on measures of internet addiction, internet use and sleep patterns. Children with ADHD had higher scores on the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), used the internet for longer hours, and went to sleep later than those without ADHD. These findings indicate an association of ADHD, sleep disorders and internet/videogame addiction.

  20. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a practical scale for pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktem, F; Semerci, Z B

    1998-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common disturbance causing school failure and social problems. Early diagnosis and intervention allow ADHD children to adjust and succeed at school and in daily life. To identify these patients, we designed a practical questionnaire for parents. When tested on children with ADHD (n = 100), children with psychiatric problems (n = 35), and on age- and sex-mached control children (n = 100), this scale was found to be highly useful in distinguishing these three groups from each other, especially after the identification and elimination of items with lower specificity. The use of the Hacettepe ADHD scale is recommended for pediatricians, general practitioners and teachers to allow earlier diagnosis of this condition.

  1. Adaptive will: the evolution of attention deficit disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakoff, A

    2000-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of attention-deficit disorder among American school children was a source of significant controversy in the 1990s. This paper looks at the social and historical contexts in which ADD evolved in order to understand its emergence as a coherent and widespread entity. Changes in expert models of child behavior interacted with the formation of new identities around disability to shape a milieu in which the disorder could thrive. The pattern of affect control, of what must and what must not be restrained, regulated, and transformed, is certainly not the same in this stage as in the preceding one of court aristocracy. In keeping with its different interdependencies, bourgeois society applies stronger restrictions to certain impulses, while in the case of others aristocratic restrictions are simply continued and transformed to suit the changed situation (Elias, 1994, p. 125). Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Handwriting performance in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Marie Brossard; Majnemer, Annette; Shevell, Michael; Snider, Laurie

    2008-04-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common neurobehavioral condition of childhood. Consequences are multifaceted and include activity limitations in daily-living skills, academic challenges, diminished socialization skills, and motor difficulties. Poor handwriting performance is an example of an affected life skill that has been anecdotally observed by educators and clinicians for this population and can negatively impact academic performance and self-esteem. To guide health and educational service delivery needs, the authors reviewed the evidence in the literature on handwriting difficulties in children with ADHD. Existing evidence would suggest that children with ADHD have impaired handwriting performance, characterized by illegible written material and/or inappropriate speed of execution compared to children without ADHD. Studies with larger sample sizes using standardized measures of handwriting performance are needed to evaluate the prevalence of the problem and to better understand the nature of handwriting difficulties and their impact in this population.

  3. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and adverse health outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigg, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is defined by extreme levels of inattention–disorganization and/or hyperactivity–impulsivity. In DSM-IV, the diagnostic criteria required impairment in social, academic, or occupational functioning. With DSM-5 publication imminent in 2013, further evaluation of impairment in ADHD is timely. This article reviews the current state of knowledge on health-related impairments of ADHD, including smoking, drug abuse, accidental injury, sleep, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and suicidal behavior. It concludes by suggesting the need for new avenues of research on mechanisms of association and the potential for ADHD to be an early warning sign for secondary prevention of some poor health outcomes. PMID:23298633

  4. Neuropsychological deficits in patients with Lyme borreliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Pruša

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Slovenia is an endemic area for Lyme borreliosis, a disease that affects many organic systems. Decline in cognitive abilities and emotional changes can appear in acute and chronic stage of the disease beside somatic difficulties. Early antibiotic therapy is of great importance in recovery. Attention and concentration deficits, memory deficits, impaired executive functioning, depression and other symptoms reduce work efficiency and life quality of people with Lyme borreliosis. Neuropsychological deficits can be explained with central nervous system impairment and partly also with reactive psychological factors. On account of symptomatic complexity, broad differential diagnostic and unreliable diagnostic technology neuropsychological evaluation can help to correctly diagnose and accurately treat this disease, and thus to enable appropriate cognitive rehabilitation and psychotherapeutic assistance.

  5. Social Networking Web Sites: Teaching Appropriate Social Competence to Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Joseph J.

    2010-01-01

    The Internet has opened a variety of different avenues for people to interact with each other. As new digital environments are developed, new sets of social skills are needed to appropriately interact. Students with emotional and behavioral disorders often have deficits in social competence and require specialized training in specific social…

  6. Social skill and social cognition in adolescents at genetic risk for psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibson, C.M.; Penn, D.L.; Prinstein, M.J.; Perkins, D.O.; Belger, A.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescents at genetic high risk (GHR) for schizophrenia have shown social skill impairments and there is some evidence to suggest they have Theory of Mind (ToM) deficits; however no research has used a standardized, performance-based behavioral measure to assess social functioning in this

  7. Timing deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): evidence from neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreika, Valdas; Falter, Christine M; Rubia, Katya

    2013-01-01

    Relatively recently, neurocognitive and neuroimaging studies have indicated that individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may have deficits in a range of timing functions and their underlying neural networks. Despite this evidence, timing deficits in ADHD are still somewhat neglected in the literature and mostly omitted from reviews on ADHD. There is therefore a lack of integrative reviews on the up-to-date evidence on neurocognitive and neurofunctional deficits of timing in ADHD and their significance with respect to other behavioural and cognitive deficits. The present review provides a synthetic overview of the evidence for neurocognitive and neurofunctional deficits in ADHD in timing functions, and integrates this evidence with the cognitive neuroscience literature of the neural substrates of timing. The review demonstrates that ADHD patients are consistently impaired in three major timing domains, in motor timing, perceptual timing and temporal foresight, comprising several timeframes spanning milliseconds, seconds, minutes and longer intervals up to years. The most consistent impairments in ADHD are found in sensorimotor synchronisation, duration discrimination, reproduction and delay discounting. These neurocognitive findings of timing deficits in ADHD are furthermore supported by functional neuroimaging studies that show dysfunctions in the key inferior fronto-striato-cerebellar and fronto-parietal networks that mediate the timing functions. Although there is evidence that these timing functions are inter-correlated with other executive functions that are well established to be impaired in the disorder, in particular working memory, attention, and to a lesser degree inhibitory control, the key timing deficits appear to survive when these functions are controlled for, suggesting independent cognitive deficits in the temporal domain. There is furthermore strong evidence for an association between timing deficits and behavioural

  8. Video Modeling and the Expression of Social Communication and Behavior Skills in Preschool and Elementary School Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutty, Seema

    2012-01-01

    Recent times have seen an increasing prevalence and incidence of children with ASD in school settings. Social, cognitive, and language process deficits directly impact the ability of children with ASD to effectively functioning within the complex social setting of schools. In particular, deficits are noted in the areas of social communication and…

  9. Video Modeling and the Expression of Social Communication and Behavior Skills in Preschool and Elementary School Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutty, Seema

    2012-01-01

    Recent times have seen an increasing prevalence and incidence of children with ASD in school settings. Social, cognitive, and language process deficits directly impact the ability of children with ASD to effectively functioning within the complex social setting of schools. In particular, deficits are noted in the areas of social communication and…

  10. Congenital prosopagnosia: multistage anatomical and functional deficits in face processing circuitry

    OpenAIRE

    Dinkelacker, V; Grüter, M.; Klaver, P; Grüter, T.; Specht, Karsten; Weis, S.; Kennerknecht, I.; Elger, C. E.; Fernandez, G.

    2010-01-01

    Face recognition is a primary social skill which depends on a distributed neural network. A pronounced face recognition deficit in the absence of any lesion is seen in congenital prosopagnosia. This study investigating 24 congenital prosopagnosic subjects and 25 control subjects aims at elucidating its neural basis with fMRI and voxel-based morphometry. We found a comprehensive behavioral pattern, an impairment in visual recognition for faces and buildings that spared long-term memory for fac...

  11. Consequences of the Budget Deficit in the Current Crisis in Romania. Implications on the Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Molănescu, Gabriela; Mirela Ionela ACELEANU

    2011-01-01

    In the current economic activity conditions, in which the need of financial resources is usually higher than the existing funds, the elaborations of budgets at any level is one of the primary issues, particularly as regards the principle of budgetary balance.     Approaches regarding sizing budgets deficits, means of financing and particularly sizing public debt get a series of touches of precise nature for different economies. Actual economic, financial, social...

  12. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Focused Overview for Children’s Environmental Health Researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, Andréa; Eubig, Paul A.; Schantz, Susan L

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most frequently diagnosed childhood neurobehavioral disorder. Much research has been done to identify genetic, environmental, and social risk factors for ADHD; however, we are still far from fully understanding its etiology. In this review we provide an overview of diagnostic criteria for ADHD and what is known about its biological basis. We also review the neuropsychological functions that are affected in ADHD. The goal is to ...

  13. Rehabilitation of socially withdrawn preschool children through mixed-age and same-age socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furman, W; Rahe, D F; Hartup, W W

    1979-12-01

    24 socially withdrawn preschool children were located through classroom observations and assigned to 3 conditions: (a) socialization with a younger child during 10 play sessions, (b) socialization with an age mate during a similar series of sessions, and (c) no treatment. The socialization sessions, particularly those with a younger partner, were found to increase the sociability of the withdrawn children in their classrooms. Significant increases occurred mainly in the rate with which positive social reinforcement was emitted. Generally, the results support a leadership deficit theory of social isolation. Possible mechanisms responsible for the observed changes are discussed.

  14. Prepsychotic treatment for schizophrenia: preventive medicine, social control, or drug marketing strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosden, R

    1999-01-01

    The definition of schizophrenia is currently being extended to include a "prepsychotic" phase. Prepsychosis detection and intervention programs have already been established in Australia. These are intended to identify people "at-risk" for schizophrenia and treat them to prevent their transition into psychosis. However, analysis of leading research in this field shows high levels of arbitrariness in the selection of diagnostic indicators and a lack of convincing evidence about the efficacy of treatments. The favored prophylactic treatment is atypical neuroleptic medication, and sponsorship of research is providing manufacturers of these drugs with a ubiquitous presence in the field. Many risks are associated with atypical neuroleptics and adverse reactions include psychosis. Taken together these factors suggest that prepsychotic intervention may be more concerned with expanding the market for atypical neuroleptics than with preventing schizophrenia.

  15. An Integrative, Cognitive-Behavioral, Systemic Approach to Working with Students Diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillingford, Margaret Ann; Lambie, Glenn W.; Walter, Sara Meghan

    2007-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent diagnostic disorder for many students, which correlates with negative academic, social, and personal consequences. This article presents an integrative, cognitive-behavioral, systemic approach that offers behaviorally based interventions for professional school counselors to support…

  16. Theory of mind and verbal working memory deficits in parents of autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokcen, Sezen; Bora, Emre; Erermis, Serpil; Kesikci, Hande; Aydin, Cahide

    2009-03-31

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential values of executive function and social cognition deficits as endophenotypes of autism. While theory of mind (ToM) is generally accepted as a unitary concept, some have suggested that ToM may be separated into two components (mental state reasoning and decoding). In this study, both aspects of ToM and verbal working memory abilities were investigated with relatively demanding tasks. The authors used a neurocognitive battery to compare the executive function and social cognition skills of 76 parents of autistic probands with 41 parents of healthy children. Both groups were matched for IQ, age and gender. Index parents had verbal working memory deficits. They had also low performance on a mental state reasoning task. Index parents had difficulties in reasoning about others' emotions. In contrast to findings in the control group, low performance of mental state reasoning ability was not associated with working memory deficit in index parents. Social cognition and working memory impairments may represent potential endophenotypes, related to an underlying vulnerability for autistic spectrum disorders.

  17. Attentional-shaping as a means to improve emotion perception deficits in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Dennis R; Tosheva, Aneta; Penn, David L; Basso, Michael R; Wanner, Jill L; Laib, Kristen

    2008-10-01

    Inability to recognize emotional expressions of others (emotion perception) is one of the most common impairments observed among individuals with schizophrenia. Such deficits presumably contribute much to the social dysfunction characteristic of schizophrenia. This study examined the efficacy of a novel attentional-shaping intervention to improve emotion perception abilities. Sixty participants with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to one of three intervention conditions: 1) attentional-shaping, 2) contingent monetary reinforcement, or 3) repeated practice. Participants completed the Face Emotion Identification Test (FEIT) at pre-test, intervention, post-test, and one week follow-up. Participants also completed the Bell-Lysaker Emotion Recognition Test (BLERT) and the Social Behavior Scale at pre-test and follow-up to measure generalization. The results showed that the attentional-shaping condition had significantly higher scores on the FEIT at intervention, post-test, and follow-up compared to monetary reinforcement and repeated practice. Improvement was also found on the BLERT and a trend was found for improved social behaviors at one-week follow-up. Results will be discussed in terms of face scanning and attentional deficits present in schizophrenia and potential uses of this intervention in the remediation of emotion perception deficits.

  18. Park power deficit due to atmospheric stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Barthelmie, Rebecca; Ott, Søren

    The purpose of this paper is to present a power deficit analysis based on offshore wind farm measurements with respect to the atmospheric stability classification. The result is used to validate wind farm prediction models under different inflow and atmospheric stability conditions...

  19. Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically…

  20. Working together in a deficit logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Noomi Christine Linde

    2016-01-01

    and with parents in home–school communication. It is argued that in a society with increased focus on parental responsibility the teachers and principals draw on a deficit logic when dealing with Somali diaspora parents and children which consequently leads to teachers either transmitting their expertise...

  1. Supply Deficit of m-Aminophenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zaijun

    2007-01-01

    @@ Supply deficit in the domestic market China's capacity to produce maminophenol was 2.3 thousand t/a and the actual output was around 1.8 thousand tons in 2006. Most producers use the nitrobenzene sulfonation alkali-fusion process developed by Shenyang Research Institute of Chemical Industry.

  2. Detection of feigned attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tucha, Lara; Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Koerts, Janneke; Groen, Yvonne; Thome, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there is an increasing awareness that individuals may purposely feign or exaggerate symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to gain external incentives, including access to stimulant drugs or special academic accommodations. There are vast consequences of undetec

  3. Frequency of Cognitive Deficits in Neurofibromatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The frequency and severity of specific cognitive deficits in 81 children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1, ages 8 to 16 years, compared to 49 unaffected sibling controls, were assessed in a study at the University of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.

  4. Linguistic coding deficits in foreign language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R; Ganschow, L; Pohlman, J

    1989-01-01

    As increasing numbers of colleges and universities require a foreign language for graduation in at least one of their degree programs, reports of students with difficulties in learning a second language are multiplying. Until recently, little research has been conducted to identify the nature of this problem. Recent attempts by the authors have focused upon subtle but ongoing language difficulties in these individuals as the source of their struggle to learn a foreign language. The present paper attempts to expand upon this concept by outlining a theoretical framework based upon a linguistic coding model that hypothesizes deficits in the processing of phonological, syntactic, and/or semantic information. Traditional psychoeducational assessment batteries of standardized intelligence and achievement tests generally are not sensitive to these linguistic coding deficits unless closely analyzed or, more often, used in conjunction with a more comprehensive language assessment battery. Students who have been waived from a foreign language requirement and their proposed type(s) of linguistic coding deficits are profiled. Tentative conclusions about the nature of these foreign language learning deficits are presented along with specific suggestions for tests to be used in psychoeducational evaluations.

  5. Color Vision Deficits and Literacy Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Sandra Rollins

    1994-01-01

    Shows that color blindness, whether partial or total, inhibits literacy acquisition. Offers a case study of a third grader with impaired color vision. Presents a review of literature on the topic. Notes that people with color vision deficits are often unaware of the handicap. (RS)

  6. RAN and Double-Deficit Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Virginia S.

    2013-01-01

    Lervag and Hulme’s neuro-developmental theory and Wolf and Bowers’s double-deficit hypothesis were examined in this longitudinal study. A total of 130 children were tested in preschool and followed through fifth grade, when 84 remained in the study. During preschool and kindergarten the participants were given tests of end-sound discrimination…

  7. Rethinking a Right Hemisphere Deficit in ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, T. Sigi; Loo, Sandra K.; Zaidel, Eran; Hanada, Grant; Macion, James; Smalley, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Early observations from lesion studies suggested right hemisphere (RH) dysfunction in ADHD. However, a strictly right-lateralized deficit has not been well supported. An alternatively view suggests increased R greater than L asymmetry of brain function and abnormal interhemispheric interaction. If true, RH pathology in ADHD should…

  8. Exploring Dyslexics' Phonological Deficit II: Phonological Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szenkovits, Gayaneh; Darma, Quynliaan; Darcy, Isabelle; Ramus, Franck

    2016-01-01

    Language learners have to acquire the phonological grammar of their native language, and different levels of representations on which the grammar operates. Developmental dyslexia is associated with a phonological deficit, which is commonly assumed to stem from degraded phonological representations. The present study investigates one aspect of the…

  9. Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically…

  10. Heterogeneity of Developmental Dyscalculia: Cases with Different Deficit Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Träff, Ulf; Olsson, Linda; Östergren, Rickard; Skagerlund, Kenny

    2016-01-01

    Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) has long been thought to be a monolithic learning disorder that can be attributed to a specific neurocognitive dysfunction. However, recent research has increasingly recognized the heterogeneity of DD, where DD can be differentiated into subtypes in which the underlying cognitive deficits and neural dysfunctions may differ. The aim was to further understand the heterogeneity of developmental dyscalculia (DD) from a cognitive psychological perspective. Utilizing four children (8-9 year-old) we administered a comprehensive cognitive test battery that shed light on the cognitive-behavioral profile of each child. The children were compared against norm groups of aged-matched peers. Performance was then contrasted against predominant hypotheses of DD, which would also give insight into candidate neurocognitive correlates. Despite showing similar mathematical deficits, these children showed remarkable interindividual variability regarding cognitive profile and deficits. Two cases were consistent with the approximate number system deficit account and also the general magnitude-processing deficit account. These cases showed indications of having domain-general deficits as well. One case had an access deficit in combination with a general cognitive deficit. One case suffered from general cognitive deficits only. The results showed that DD cannot be attributed to a single explanatory factor. These findings support a multiple deficits account of DD and suggest that some cases have multiple deficits, whereas other cases have a single deficit. We discuss a previously proposed distinction between primary DD and secondary DD, and suggest hypotheses of dysfunctional neurocognitive correlates responsible for the displayed deficits.

  11. Elementary neurocognitive function, facial affect recognition and social-skills in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Melissa B; Kurtz, Matthew M

    2009-05-01

    Social-skill deficits are pervasive in schizophrenia and negatively impact many key aspects of functioning. Prior studies have found that measures of elementary neurocognition and social cognition are related to social-skills. In the present study we selected a range of neurocognitive measures and examined their relationship with identification of happy and sad faces and performance-based social-skills. Fifty-three patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder participated. Results revealed that: 1) visual vigilance, problem-solving and affect recognition were related to social-skill; 2) links between problem-solving and social-skill, but not visual vigilance and social-skill, remained significant when estimates of verbal intelligence were controlled; 3) affect recognition deficits explained unique variance in social-skill after neurocognitive variables were controlled; and 4) affect recognition deficits partially mediated the relationship of visual vigilance and social-skill. These results support the conclusion that facial affect recognition deficits are a crucial domain of impairment in schizophrenia that both contribute unique variance to social-skill deficits and may also mediate the relationship between some aspects of neurocognition and social-skill. These findings may help guide the development and refinement of cognitive and social-cognitive remediation methods for social-skill impairment.

  12. 西酞普兰对成年孤养大鼠认知功能及皮层tau蛋白磷酸化的影响%Citalopram attenuates tau hyperphosphorylation of cortex and memory deficits in social isolation-reared rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    公卫刚; 任庆国

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of citalopram on tau phosphorylation and memory defi-cits induced by social isolation (SI) in adult rats.Methods Sixty Sprague-Dawley adult rats (8 months) were grouped or isolation reared for six-weeks.Following the initial two-week period of rearing, citalopram ( 10 mg/kg,i.p.) was administered for 4 weeks.Novel object recognition test,Western blot and ELISA were used to detect recognitive function,the levels of tau and GSK-3βprotein,and melatonin level respectively. Results In the novel object recognition test,compared with the citalopram group(0.71±0.05) and housed group(0.73±0.13),discrimination ratio(0.48±0.15) in SI group was significant decreased (P<0.05).Tau hyperphosphorylation at Tau-1 ((0.88±0.11)),Ser396 (3.94±0.74) episodes were found and almost re-versed by citalopram at Tau-1 (1.56±0.17),Ser396 (2.31±0.24) episodes in SI group.Compared with GH group,the total level of GSK-3β(1.12±0.09) was significantly increased,while the level of Ser9-phosphoryl-ated GSK-3β(inactive form) (0.47±0.11) was significantly decreased in the SI group,both of which were reversed by citalopram (GSK-3β(0.87±0.08) and Ser9-phosphorylated GSK-3β(0.80±0.07)).The me-latonin level was decreased in SI group ((359.54±18.80)pg/ml),and citalopram could partly restore the level of melatonin (418.15±18.72)pg/ml, P<0.05).Conclusion The results demonstrate that citalopram increases the level of melatonin which negatively regulates GSK-3βand attenuates tau hyperphosphorylation and memory deficits induced by SI in adult rats.%目的:探讨经典抗抑郁药物西酞普兰对孤养导致的认知损害的改善作用与内在机制。方法60只8月龄的成年SD大鼠随机分组,分别予以群养(4只/笼)和孤养(1只/笼)6周。从孤养的第3周开始,孤养大鼠被随机分为孤养+西酞普兰组(西酞普兰10 mg/kg腹腔内注射)和孤养组(等量生理盐水腹腔内注射)。持续4周后

  13. In science communication, why does the idea of a public deficit always return? How do the shifting information flows in healthcare affect the deficit model of science communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Henry

    2016-05-01

    The healthcare field contains a multitude of opportunities for science communication. Given the many stakeholders dancing together in a multidirectional tango of communication, we need to ask how much does the deficit model apply to the health field? History dictates that healthcare professionals are the holders of all knowledge, and the patients and other stakeholders are the ones that need the scientific information communicated to them. This essay argues otherwise, in part due to the rise of shared decision-making and patients and other stakeholders acting as partners in healthcare. The traditional deficit model in health held that: (1) doctors were experts and patients were consumers, (2) it is impossible for the public to grasp the many disciplines of knowledge in medicine, (3) if experts have trouble keeping up with medical research then the public surely can't keep up, and (4) it is safer for healthcare professionals to communicate to the public using a deficit model. However, with the rise of partnerships with patients in healthcare decision-making, the deficit model might be weakening. Examples of public participation in healthcare decision-making include: (1) crowd-sourcing public participation in systematic reviews, (2) public participation in health policy, (3) public collaboration in health research, and (4) health consumer groups acting as producers of health information. With the challenges to the deficit model in science communication in health, caution is needed with the increasing role of technology and social media, and how these may affect the legitimacy of healthcare information flows away from the healthcare professional.

  14. Robotic identification of kinesthetic deficits after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Jennifer A; Herter, Troy M; Scott, Stephen H; Dukelow, Sean P

    2013-12-01

    Kinesthesia, the sense of body motion, is essential to proper control and execution of movement. Despite its importance for activities of daily living, no current clinical measures can objectively measure kinesthetic deficits. The goal of this study was to use robotic technology to quantify prevalence and severity of kinesthetic deficits of the upper limb poststroke. Seventy-four neurologically intact subjects and 113 subjects with stroke (62 left-affected, 51 right-affected) performed a robot-based kinesthetic matching task with vision occluded. The robot moved the most affected arm at a preset speed, direction, and magnitude. Subjects were instructed to mirror-match the movement with their opposite arm (active arm). A large number of subjects with stroke were significantly impaired on measures of kinesthesia. We observed impairments in ability to match movement direction (69% and 49% impaired for left- and right-affected subjects, respectively) and movement magnitude (42% and 31%). We observed impairments to match movement speed (32% and 27%) and increased response latencies (48% and 20%). Movement direction errors and response latencies were related to clinical measures of function, motor recovery, and dexterity. Using a robotic approach, we found that 61% of acute stroke survivors (n=69) had kinesthetic deficits. Additionally, these deficits were highly related to existing clinical measures, suggesting the importance of kinesthesia in day-to-day function. Our methods allow for more sensitive, accurate, and objective identification of kinesthetic deficits after stroke. With this information, we can better inform clinical treatment strategies to improve poststroke rehabilitative care and outcomes.

  15. Strategies for implementing evidence-based psychosocial interventions for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiraldi, Ricardo B; Mautone, Jennifer A; Power, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    An extensive amount of research has demonstrated the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for children with ADHD. Historically, the research has focused on interventions targeting problems in the home or school setting, but more recent research has highlighted the importance of family – school partnerships and conjoint approaches to intervention involving family and school. Effective approaches to psychosocial intervention consist of strategies to address performance deficits, promote adaptive behavior, and improve children’s self-control and academic and social skills. Considerable evidence exists to indicate that combined approaches are more effective in reducing ADHD symptoms and related academic and social impairments than separate treatments.

  16. Oculomotor Anomalies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence for Deficits in Response Preparation and Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Lasker, Adrian G.; Zee, David; Denckla, Martha B.

    2009-01-01

    Girls, but not boys, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have significantly longer visually guided saccades latencies. It is found that sex differences in children with ADHD extend beyond symptom presentation to the development of oculomotor control.

  17. Oculomotor Anomalies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence for Deficits in Response Preparation and Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Lasker, Adrian G.; Zee, David; Denckla, Martha B.

    2009-01-01

    Girls, but not boys, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have significantly longer visually guided saccades latencies. It is found that sex differences in children with ADHD extend beyond symptom presentation to the development of oculomotor control.

  18. Social-Skills and Parental Training plus Standard Treatment versus Standard Treatment for Children with ADHD - The Randomised SOSTRA Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storebø, Ole Jakob; Gluud, Christian; Winkel, Per

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effects of social-skills training and parental training programme for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).......To investigate the effects of social-skills training and parental training programme for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)....

  19. Self-Management of Social Initiations by Kindergarten Students with Disabilities in the General Education Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Brooke M.; Gast, David L.; Luscre, Deanna

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of a self-management intervention on social interaction behaviors was evaluated for students with disabilities and social deficits. Four students enrolled in a general education kindergarten classroom were taught to self-monitor social initiations during nonstructured social time via a digital wrist counter. The number of social…

  20. An Examination of Social Skills Instruction in the Context of Small-Group Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Melissa A.; Fenty, Nicole; Scott, Terrance M.; Park, Kristy Lee

    2011-01-01

    Students who are socially competent are more likely to experience school success than those who are not. Students with social deficits experience frequent failures with both peers and adults and often require explicit social skills instruction. Because social skills instruction programs taught in isolation rarely result in successful skill…

  1. The Assessment of Social Functioning in Individuals with Mental Retardation: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielecki, Joanne; Swender, Stephen L.

    2004-01-01

    Social skills deficits and excesses are a defining aspect of mental retardation (MR). Research indicates that there is an established relationship between social skills and maladaptive behaviors. A number of studies demonstrate that the social competence of individuals with MR and comorbid psychopathology can be enhanced with social skills…

  2. The Social Skills and Attachment to Dogs of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Gretchen K.

    2015-01-01

    Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have deficits in social skills, and interaction with service dogs has been associated with increased social skills for children with ASD. In this telephone survey of 70 parents of children with ASD, children owning dogs had greater Mean scores for social skills, using the Social Skills Improvement…

  3. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Note: Javascript is disabled ... claims to understand diagnosis and treatment patterns for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). On this page you ...

  4. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and TSC What is ADHD? Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder. It is ...

  5. Cognitive deficits in the remitted state of unipolar depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Jacob; Knorr, Ulla; Hasselbalch, Steen Gregers

    2012-01-01

    Patients with unipolar depressive disorder may present with cognitive deficits in the remitted state, and the aim of the present study was to investigate whether cognitive deficits within specific cognitive domains are present....

  6. The utility of math difficulties, internalized psychopathology, and visual-spatial deficits to identify children with the nonverbal learning disability syndrome: evidence for a visualspatial disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Bonny J

    2004-06-01

    This study examined the criteria currently employed to identify children with the nonverbal learning disability syndrome (NVLD). The most widely accepted definition of NVLD relies on deficits in visual-spatial-organizational, tactile-perceptual, psychomotor, and nonverbal problem-solving skills. These deficits are believed to coexist with strengths in rote verbal learning, phoneme-grapheme matching, verbal output, and verbal classification. The combination of these assets and deficits has been hypothesized to lead to psychosocial and academic problems, including difficulties with mathematics and increased rates of psychopathology. This study compared performance of three groups of children: those with NVLD, those with verbal learning disabilities (VLD), and controls. The results show that the criteria currently employed to identify children with NVLD may not adequately differentiate them. In contrast to previous findings, the study reveals that children with NVLD can demonstrate good math abilities when performing certain types of math tasks, especially those that draw on their robust verbal skills. Also in contrast to most previous findings, in this study children with NVLD (and normal controls) demonstrated lower rates of psychopathology than children with VLD. Finally, for children with NVLD it appears that their visual-perceptual deficits may include a primary deficit in locating objects in space. Based in part on the findings of this study, it may be helpful for diagnostic and treatment purposes to reserve the term Nonverbal Learning Disability for children whose visual-spatial deficits are primary and severe enough to affect academic performance in subjects such as written mathematics. Given the integral nature of social relations in children's lives, a separate category (e.g., social processing disorder) could be created for children whose social skills deficits are primary and impair their social interactions. A broader nonverbal learning model or syndrome

  7. "Foreign and Public Deficits in Greece: In Search of Causality"

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses the trajectories of the Greek public deficit and sovereign debt over the last three decades and its connection to the political and economic environment of the same period. We pay special attention to the causality between the public and the foreign deficit. We argue that from 1980 to 1995 causality ran from the public deficit to the foreign deficit, but that due to the European monetary unification process and the adoption of the common currency, causality has reversed si...

  8. Wind turbine wakes; power deficit in clusters and wind farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Barthelmie, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to present recent power deficit analysis based on wind farm measurements. The power deficit is used to validate wind farm prediction models for different inflow conditions......The purpose of this presentation is to present recent power deficit analysis based on wind farm measurements. The power deficit is used to validate wind farm prediction models for different inflow conditions...

  9. Critical energy deficit and mortality in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Carolina Siqueira-Paese

    Full Text Available Objective: We investigate the influence of caloric and protein deficit on mortality and length of hospital stay of critically ill patients. Methods: A cohort prospective study including 100 consecutive patients in a tertiary intensive care unit (ICU receiving enteral or parenteral nutrition. The daily caloric and protein deficit were collected each day for a maximum of 30 days. Energy deficits were divided into critical caloric deficit (≥ 480 kcal/day and non-critical caloric deficit (≤ 480 kcal/day; and in critical protein deficit (≥ 20 g/day and non-critical protein deficit (≤ 20 g/day. The findings were correlated with hospital stay and mortality. Results: The mortality rate was 33%. Overall, the patients received 65.4% and 67.7% of the caloric and protein needs. Critical caloric deficit was found in 72% of cases and critical protein deficit in 70% of them. There was a significant correlation between length of stay and accumulated caloric deficit (R = 0.37; p < 0.001 and protein deficit (R = 0.28; p < 0.001. The survival analysis showed that mortality was greater in patients with both critical caloric (p < 0.001 and critical protein deficits (p < 0.01. The Cox regression analysis showed that critical protein deficit was associated with higher mortality (HR 0.25, 95% CI 0.07-0.93, p = 0.03. Conclusions: The incidence of caloric and protein deficit in the ICU is high. Both caloric and protein deficits increase the length of hospital stay, and protein deficit greater than 20 g/day is an independent factor for mortality in critical care unit.

  10. Social Anxiety Disorder (Social Phobia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social anxiety disorder (social phobia) Overview It's normal to feel nervous in some social situations. For example, going on ... of butterflies in your stomach. But in social anxiety disorder, also called social phobia, everyday interactions cause ...

  11. Word Processing in Dyslexics: An Automatic Decoding Deficit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Regina; Van Der Leu, Aryan

    1993-01-01

    Compares dyslexic children with normal readers on measures of phonological decoding and automatic word processing. Finds that dyslexics have a deficit in automatic phonological decoding skills. Discusses results within the framework of the phonological deficit and the automatization deficit hypotheses. (RS)

  12. Preterm Infant Hippocampal Volumes Correlate with Later Working Memory Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Miriam H.; Thompson, Deanne K.; Howard, Kelly; Doyle, Lex W.; Egan, Gary F.; Inder, Terrie E.; Anderson, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Children born preterm exhibit working memory deficits. These deficits may be associated with structural brain changes observed in the neonatal period. In this study, the relationship between neonatal regional brain volumes and working memory deficits at age 2 years were investigated, with a particular interest in the dorsolateral prefrontal…

  13. Preterm Infant Hippocampal Volumes Correlate with Later Working Memory Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Miriam H.; Thompson, Deanne K.; Howard, Kelly; Doyle, Lex W.; Egan, Gary F.; Inder, Terrie E.; Anderson, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Children born preterm exhibit working memory deficits. These deficits may be associated with structural brain changes observed in the neonatal period. In this study, the relationship between neonatal regional brain volumes and working memory deficits at age 2 years were investigated, with a particular interest in the dorsolateral prefrontal…

  14. Human brain lesion-deficit inference remapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Yee-Haur; Husain, Masud; Rees, Geraint; Nachev, Parashkev

    2014-09-01

    Our knowledge of the anatomical organization of the human brain in health and disease draws heavily on the study of patients with focal brain lesions. Historically the first method of mapping brain function, it is still potentially the most powerful, establishing the necessity of any putative neural substrate for a given function or deficit. Great inferential power, however, carries a crucial vulnerability: without stronger alternatives any consistent error cannot be easily detected. A hitherto unexamined source of such error is the structure of the high-dimensional distribution of patterns of focal damage, especially in ischaemic injury-the commonest aetiology in lesion-deficit studies-where the anatomy is naturally shaped by the architecture of the vascular tree. This distribution is so complex that analysis of lesion data sets of conventional size cannot illuminate its structure, leaving us in the dark about the presence or absence of such error. To examine this crucial question we assembled the largest known set of focal brain lesions (n = 581), derived from unselected patients with acute ischaemic injury (mean age = 62.3 years, standard deviation = 17.8, male:female ratio = 0.547), visualized with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and processed with validated automated lesion segmentation routines. High-dimensional analysis of this data revealed a hidden bias within the multivariate patterns of damage that will consistently distort lesion-deficit maps, displacing inferred critical regions from their true locations, in a manner opaque to replication. Quantifying the size of this mislocalization demonstrates that past lesion-deficit relationships estimated with conventional inferential methodology are likely to be significantly displaced, by a magnitude dependent on the unknown underlying lesion-deficit relationship itself. Past studies therefore cannot be retrospectively corrected, except by new knowledge that would render them redundant

  15. Social cognition in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thammanard Charernboon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Impairments in social cognitions in schizophrenia are increasingly reported in the last decade but only a few studies have come from Asia. The objective of the study was to evaluated emotion perception, theory of mind and social knowledge in people with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. Participants were 36 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia and 36 normal controls with comparable age and level of education. We administered general neurocognition test (the Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination, emotion perception (the Faces Test, theory of mind (the Eyes Test and social knowledge (the Situational Features Recognition Test; SFRT. Schizophrenia patients displayed obvious impairment in all three social cognition domains i.e. the Faces Test [13.7 (2.9 vs 15.7 (1.9, P=0.001], the Eyes Test [18.9 (4.4 vs 23.5 (4.4, P<0.001] and SFRT [0.85 (0.09 vs 0.9 (0.05, P=0.002]. The performances on three social cognition tests did not correlate with positive symptoms. Only the Faces Test seemed to be related to negative symptoms. The results demonstrated that there are deficits of social cognitions in schizophrenia even in a clinically stable population.

  16. My belief or yours? Differential theory of mind deficits in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bouc, Raphaël; Lenfant, Pierre; Delbeuck, Xavier; Ravasi, Laura; Lebert, Florence; Semah, Franck; Pasquier, Florence

    2012-10-01

    Theory of mind reasoning-the ability to understand someone else's mental states, such as beliefs, intentions and desires-is crucial in social interaction. It has been suggested that a theory of mind deficit may account for some of the abnormalities in interpersonal behaviour that characterize patients affected by behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. However, there are conflicting reports as to whether understanding someone else's mind is a key difference between behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and other neurodegenerative conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. Literature data on the relationship between theory of mind abilities and executive functions are also contradictory. These disparities may be due to underestimation of the fractionation within theory of mind components. A recent theoretical framework suggests that taking someone else's mental perspective requires two distinct processes: inferring someone else's belief and inhibiting one's own belief, with involvement of the temporoparietal and right frontal cortices, respectively. Therefore, we performed a neuropsychological and neuroimaging study to investigate the hypothesis whereby distinct cognitive deficits could impair theory of mind reasoning in patients with Alzheimer's disease and patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia. We used a three-option false belief task to assess theory of mind components in 11 patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, 12 patients with Alzheimer's disease and 20 healthy elderly control subjects. The patients with behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia and those with Alzheimer's disease were matched for age, gender, education and global cognitive impairment. [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography imaging was used to investigate neural correlates of theory of mind reasoning deficits. Performance in the three-option false belief task revealed differential impairments in the components of theory of mind

  17. More Pronounced Deficits in Facial Emotion Recognition for Schizophrenia than Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goghari, Vina M; Sponheim, Scott R

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are typically separated in diagnostic systems. Behavioural, cognitive, and brain abnormalities associated with each disorder nonetheless overlap. We evaluated the diagnostic specificity of facial emotion recognition deficits in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder to determine whether select aspects of emotion recognition differed for the two disorders. The investigation used an experimental task that included the same facial images in an emotion recognition condition and an age recognition condition (to control for processes associated with general face recognition) in 27 schizophrenia patients, 16 bipolar I patients, and 30 controls. Schizophrenia and bipolar patients exhibited both shared and distinct aspects of facial emotion recognition deficits. Schizophrenia patients had deficits in recognizing angry facial expressions compared to healthy controls and bipolar patients. Compared to control participants, both schizophrenia and bipolar patients were more likely to mislabel facial expressions of anger as fear. Given that schizophrenia patients exhibited a deficit in emotion recognition for angry faces, which did not appear due to generalized perceptual and cognitive dysfunction, improving recognition of threat-related expression may be an important intervention target to improve social functioning in schizophrenia. PMID:23218816

  18. Are visual impairments responsible for emotion decoding deficits in alcohol-dependence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien eD'Hondt

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Emotional visual perception deficits constitute a major problem in alcohol-dependence. Indeed, the ability to assess the affective content of external cues is a key adaptive function, as it allows on the one hand the processing of potentially threatening or advantageous stimuli, and on the other hand the establishment of appropriate social interactions (by enabling rapid decoding of the affective state of others from their facial expressions. While such deficits have been classically considered as reflecting a genuine emotion decoding impairment in alcohol-dependence, converging evidence suggests that underlying visual deficits might play a role in emotional alterations. This hypothesis appears to be relevant especially as data from healthy populations indicate that a coarse but fast analysis of visual inputs would allow emotional processing to arise from early stages of perception. After reviewing those findings and the associated models, the present paper underlines data showing that rapid interactions between emotion and vision could be impaired in alcohol-dependence and provides new research avenues that may ultimately offer a better understanding of the roots of emotional deficits in this pathological state.

  19. Social opdrift - social arv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnæs, Morten; Gabrielsen, G.; Nørrung, Per

    "Social opdrift - social arv" stiller på flere måder spørgsmål ved begrebet social arv. Bogen konkluderer blandt andet, at langt de fleste børn, der opvokser i en socialt belastet familie, bliver velfungerende voksne. Professionelle, der møder socialt belastede familier, har derfor et stort ansvar....... Naturligvis skal der tages hånd om udsatte børn, men det kræver samtidig stor opmærksomhed at sørge for, at fokuseringen på den sociale arv ikke tager overhånd, så det bliver en selvopfyldende profeti."Social opdrift - social" arv viser, hvordan forskningsresultater er blevet fremlagt på en måde, som har...... medvirket til at skabe en skæv opfattelse af, at forældrenes problemer er hovedårsag til børns sociale problemer. I selvstændige analyser vises, hvordan data, der normalt bruges som "bevis" for den sociale arvs betydning, tydeligt illustrerer, at det er en undtagelse, at børn får sociale problemer af samme...

  20. Intrinsic motivation as a mediator between metacognition deficits and impaired functioning in psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Lauren; Firmin, Ruth L; Vohs, Jenifer L; Buck, Kelly D; Rand, Kevin L; Lysaker, Paul H

    2016-09-01

    Poor functioning has long been observed in individuals with psychosis. Recent studies have identified metacognition - one's ability to form complex ideas about oneself and others and to use that information to respond to psychological and social challenges-as being an important determinant of functioning. However, the exact process by which deficits in metacognition lead to impaired functioning remains unclear. This study first examined whether low intrinsic motivation, or the tendency to pursue novel experiences and to engage in self-improvement, mediates the relationship between deficits in metacognition and impaired functioning. We then examined whether intrinsic motivation significantly mediated the relationship when controlling for age, education, symptoms, executive functioning, and social cognition. Mediation models were examined in a cross-sectional data set. One hundred and seventy-five individuals with a psychotic disorder completed interview-based measures of metacognition, intrinsic motivation, symptoms, and functioning and performance-based measures of executive functioning and social cognition. Analyses revealed that intrinsic motivation mediated the relationship between metacognition deficits and impaired functioning (95% CI of indirect effect [0.12-0.43]), even after controlling for the aforesaid variables (95% CI of indirect effect [0.04-0.29]). Results suggest that intrinsic motivation may be a mechanism that underlies the link between deficits in metacognition and impaired functioning and indicate that metacognition and intrinsic motivation may be important treatment targets to improve functioning in individuals with psychosis. The findings of this study suggest that deficits in metacognition may indirectly lead to impaired functioning through their effect on intrinsic motivation in individuals with psychosis. Psychological treatments that target deficits in both metacognition and intrinsic motivation may help to alleviate impaired functioning in

  1. Working and strategic memory deficits in schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M.; Gabrieli, J. D.; Stebbins, G. T.; Sullivan, E. V.

    1998-01-01

    Working memory and its contribution to performance on strategic memory tests in schizophrenia were studied. Patients (n = 18) and control participants (n = 15), all men, received tests of immediate memory (forward digit span), working memory (listening, computation, and backward digit span), and long-term strategic (free recall, temporal order, and self-ordered pointing) and nonstrategic (recognition) memory. Schizophrenia patients performed worse on all tests. Education, verbal intelligence, and immediate memory capacity did not account for deficits in working memory in schizophrenia patients. Reduced working memory capacity accounted for group differences in strategic memory but not in recognition memory. Working memory impairment may be central to the profile of impaired cognitive performance in schizophrenia and is consistent with hypothesized frontal lobe dysfunction associated with this disease. Additional medial-temporal dysfunction may account for the recognition memory deficit.

  2. Soccer heading frequency predicts neuropsychological deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witol, Adrienne D; Webbe, Frank M

    2003-05-01

    This study investigated the presence of neuropsychological deficits associated with hitting the ball with one's head (heading) during soccer play. A neuro-cognitive test battery was administered to 60 male soccer players, high school, amateur and professional level, and 12 nonplaying control participants. The effects of currently reported heading behavior as well as that of estimated lifetime heading experience on neuropsychological test performance were examined. Players with the highest lifetime estimates of heading had poorer scores on scales measuring attention, concentration, cognitive flexibility and general intellectual functioning. Players' current level of heading was less predictive of neuro-cognitive level. Comparison of individual scores to age-appropriate norms revealed higher probabilities of clinical levels of impairment in players who reported greater lifetime frequencies of heading. Because of the worldwide popularity of the game, continued research is needed to assess the interaction between heading and soccer experience in the development of neuropsychological deficits associated with soccer play.

  3. Jealousy delirium associated with memory deficits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orazio Zanetti

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disorder manifested by cognitive and memory deterioration, progressive impairment of activities of daily living, and a variety of neuropsychiatric symptoms and behavioural disturbances. A correct and early diagnosis not only allows prompt treatment but can also give the person with Alzheimer’s and his family more time to arm themselves with knowledge about this type of dementia and the best way to live with the disease. The role of Family Physician is very important in early diagnosis: dementia may be suspected if memory deficits are exhibited during the medical history and physical examination. Information from the patient’s family members, friends and caregivers may also point to signs of dementia. We report a case of a 75-years-old man who was suffering from cognitive deficits and behavioural problems: the first disease symptom was a strong feeling of jealousy towards his wife.

  4. Traumatic knee extension deficit (the locked knee)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmark, I C; Neergaard, K; Krogsgaard, M R

    2007-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the validity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arthroscopy in knees with acute, traumatic extension deficit (the "locked knee"), and evaluated whether arthroscopy of knees with no mechanical pathology could be avoided by MRI evaluation. The study consisted...... of 50 patients who had an acute, traumatic extension deficit of the knee. All patients were submitted to MRI prior to arthroscopy. Following MRI and surgery, standardized forms were filled out, attempting to objectify the findings. The orthopaedic surgeon was not aware of the MRI result prior to surgery......, the following results were calculated for the overall appearance of a lesion able to cause locking: Positive predictive value = 0.85, negative predictive value = 0.77, sensitivity = 0.95, specificity = 0.53. Two knees were erroneously evaluated with no mechanical locking at MRI (one bucket-handle lesion and one...

  5. The social-cognitive basis of personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herpertz, Sabine C; Bertsch, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The review summarizes recent results on abnormalities in social cognition in patients with personality disorders that predispose them to develop dysfunctional interaction with others. The review starts with more basic social cognition processes, such as emotion recognition and reactions to social exclusion that are followed by more complex processes such as cognitive and affective empathy. The deficits in social cognition depend on the particular function that is investigated and is strongly associated with characteristic symptoms of particular personality disorders. Thus, patients with borderline personality disorder are hypersensitive for social threat, they show deficits in cognitive empathy and high emotion contagion, that is, they share emotions of others without properly discriminating between one's own feelings and those of others. Psychopaths are characterized by deficiency in facial fear recognition and emotional empathy similar to patients with narcissistic personality disorder. Studies on social cognition in cluster A and C personality disorders are sparse. Research indicates deficits in social cognition in patients with personality disorders, but more research is needed to investigate social cognition in cluster A and C personality disorders and to compare deficits in social cognitive functions across personality disorders.

  6. Common Cognitive Deficits in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism: Working Memory and Visual-Motor Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Julia A.; Decker, Scott L.; Allen, Ryan A.; Roberts, Alycia M.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in working memory (WM) are characteristic features of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism. However, few studies have investigated cognitive deficits using a wide range of cognitive measures. We compared children with ADHD ("n" = 49) and autism ("n" = 33) with a demographically matched…

  7. Impact of organizational socialization towards employees' social adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratković-Njegovan Biljana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the importance of organizational socialization as a process of gaining knowledge on the organizational success of employees' social adaptation and encouraging their social competence. Organizational socialization as a scientific discipline as well as practically oriented adjustment activity towards employees' working environment has developed methodology and tactics of socio-cognitive, behavioural and motivational encouragement of employees to the acceptance of organizational culture. It is assumed that in the process of organizational socialization, in addition to professional and organizational adaptation, the focus is on the development of employees' social competences. Although within the evaluated performance appraisal of social competence is only estimated, and also neglected in the overall assessment of employees' work performance, organizational climate for good social skills is of great importance due to the fact that enhanced social and interpersonal communication and interaction can increase operating synergies and contribute to better business results. Although social skills are an important element of human capital, they are still insufficiently recognized as a form of intangible resources that participate in the long-term value creation. The deficit in this area can lead to the problems in performance of human relations at the workplace.

  8. Adult forebrain NMDA receptors gate social motivation and social memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Stephanie; Tsien, Joe Z

    2017-02-01

    Motivation to engage in social interaction is critical to ensure normal social behaviors, whereas dysregulation in social motivation can contribute to psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia, autism, social anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). While dopamine is well known to regulate motivation, its downstream targets are poorly understood. Given the fact that the dopamine 1 (D1) receptors are often physically coupled with the NMDA receptors, we hypothesize that the NMDA receptor activity in the adult forebrain principal neurons are crucial not only for learning and memory, but also for the proper gating of social motivation. Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining sociability and social memory in inducible forebrain-specific NR1 knockout mice. These mice are ideal for exploring the role of the NR1 subunit in social behavior because the NR1 subunit can be selectively knocked out after the critical developmental period, in which NR1 is required for normal development. We found that the inducible deletion of the NMDA receptors prior to behavioral assays impaired, not only object and social recognition memory tests, but also resulted in profound deficits in social motivation. Mice with ablated NR1 subunits in the forebrain demonstrated significant decreases in sociability compared to their wild type counterparts. These results suggest that in addition to its crucial role in learning and memory, the NMDA receptors in the adult forebrain principal neurons gate social motivation, independent of neuronal development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in prison inmates

    OpenAIRE

    Ginsberg, Ylva

    2012-01-01

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an inherited developmental disorder with early onset, chronically persisting in the vast majority of cases. ADHD is associated with pervasive cognitive, emotional and functional impairments, as well as an increased rate of coexisting disorders. ADHD in the presence of early disruptive behaviours increase the risk for later delinquency. ADHD is estimated to be present in about 25-45% of adult prison inmates, thus 10-times increased...

  10. Sporadic hemiplegic migraine with permanent neurological deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwedt, Todd J; Zhou, Jiying; Dodick, David W

    2014-01-01

    By definition, the neurologic impairments of hemiplegic migraine are reversible. However, a few cases of permanent neurologic deficits associated with hemiplegic migraine have been reported. Herein, we present the case of a patient with permanent impairments because of hemiplegic migraine despite normalization of associated brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities. Cases like these suggest the need to consider aggressive prophylactic therapy for patients with recurrent hemiplegic migraine attacks.

  11. [Treatment of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purper-Ouakil, Diane

    2006-02-28

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a chronic and invalidating condition, whose negative consequences on psychosocial functioning calls for efficacious treatment plans. Several treatments have been proven to be effective: some parent and children treatment programs, psychostimulants, atomoxetine. Most of these therapeutic options are not easily available to patients and families (psychoeducational programs are rarely used in France). Primary care professionals can help families to access valid information, discuss treatment plans and monitor treatment.

  12. Pollination deficits in UK apple orchards

    OpenAIRE

    Garratt, M.P.D.; Truslove, C.L.; Coston, D. J.; Evans, R. L.; Moss, E. D.; Dodson, C.; Jenner, N.; Biesmeijer, J.C.; Potts, S. G.

    2013-01-01

    Apple production in the UK is worth over £100 million per annum and this production is heavily dependent on insect pollination. Despite its importance, it is not clear which insect pollinators carry out the majority of this pollination. Furthermore, it is unknown whether current UK apple production, in terms of both yield and quality, suffers pollination deficits and whether production value could be increased through effective management of pollination services. The present study set out to ...

  13. Sensorimotor gating deficits in multiple system atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Biernat, Heidi Bryde; Nikolic, Miki

    2014-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the auditory blink reflex is a measure of sensorimotor gating, which reflects an organism's ability to filter out irrelevant sensory information. PPI has never been studied in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA), although sensorimotor deficits are frequently...... associated with synucleinopathies. We investigated whether alterations in PPI were more pronounced in MSA compared with Parkinson's disease (PD), idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) and healthy controls....

  14. Vision Deficits in Adults with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Silverman, Wayne; Gordon, James; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Oley, Nancy; Abramov, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Background In individuals with Down syndrome virtually all structures of the eye have some abnormality which likely diminishes vision. We examined basic vision functions in adults with Down syndrome. Materials and Methods Participants completed a battery of psychophysical tests which probed a comprehensive array of visual functions. The performance of adults with Down syndrome was compared to younger and older adults without intellectual disability. Results Adults with Down syndrome had significant vision deficits; reduced sensitivity across spatial frequencies and temporal modulation rates, reduced stereopsis, impaired vernier acuity, and anomalies in colour discrimination. The pattern of deficits observed was similar to those seen by researchers examining adults with Alzheimer’s disease. Conclusions Our findings suggest that a common mechanism may be responsible for the pattern of deficits observed, possibly the presence of Alzheimer’s disease neuropathology in the visual association cortex. We also showed that individuals with mild to moderate intellectual disability are capable of participating in studies employing state-of-the-art psychophysical procedures. This has wider implications in terms of their ability to participate in research that use similar techniques. PMID:23784802

  15. Narrative discourse deficits in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menaged, Anna; Olm, Christopher; McMillan, Corey T.; Boller, Ashley; Irwin, David J.; McCluskey, Leo; Elman, Lauren; Grossman, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We examined narrative discourse in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to assess the role of executive functioning in support of language and the neuroanatomical basis for such support. Methods: We analyzed a semistructured speech sample in 26 patients with ALS and 19 healthy seniors for narrative discourse features of coherence. Regression analyses related a measure of discourse coherence (“local connectedness”) to gray matter atrophy and reduced white matter fractional anisotropy. Results: Patients with ALS were impaired relative to controls on measures of discourse adequacy, including local connectedness and maintenance of the theme. These discourse measures were related to measures of executive functioning but not to motor functioning. Regressions related local connectedness to gray matter atrophy in ventral and dorsal prefrontal regions and to reduced fractional anisotropy in white matter tracts mediating projections between prefrontal regions. Conclusion: Patients with ALS exhibit deficits in their ability to organize narrative discourse. These deficits appear to be related in part to executive limitations. Consistent with the hypothesis that ALS is a multisystem disorder, this deficit is related to disease in prefrontal regions. PMID:24991038

  16. Medical Comorbidities in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irem Yalug

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the most common developmental disorders of childhood with a reported world-wide prevalence of 8 to 12 %. In studies conducted in our country the prevalence rates in community were reported to vary between 8.6 to 8.1 % while clinical prevalence rates were reported to vary between 8.6 to 29.44 %. Fifty to eighty percent of cases were reported to continue into adolescence while thirty to fifty percent may continue into adulthood. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is known to accompany subtle physical anomalies, allergic and neurologic disorders, obesity and eating disorders, traumatic injuries, risky sexual behavior, sleep disorders, substance and alcohol use, axis I and II disorders, occupational, legal and academic problems and increased treatment expenditures. Though the effects of this disorder continue throughout life, create burdens to the society along with its treatment as well as disabling the affected patients through their lives, and receive increasing attention in recent years, reviews focusing on problems associated with it are lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to summarize the results of previous studies conducted about medical comorbidities in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  17. Word Learning Deficits in Children With Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, Mary; Hogan, Tiffany; Green, Samuel; Gray, Shelley; Cabbage, Kathryn; Cowan, Nelson

    2017-04-14

    The purpose of this study is to investigate word learning in children with dyslexia to ascertain their strengths and weaknesses during the configuration stage of word learning. Children with typical development (N = 116) and dyslexia (N = 68) participated in computer-based word learning games that assessed word learning in 4 sets of games that manipulated phonological or visuospatial demands. All children were monolingual English-speaking 2nd graders without oral language impairment. The word learning games measured children's ability to link novel names with novel objects, to make decisions about the accuracy of those names and objects, to recognize the semantic features of the objects, and to produce the names of the novel words. Accuracy data were analyzed using analyses of covariance with nonverbal intelligence scores as a covariate. Word learning deficits were evident for children with dyslexia across every type of manipulation and on 3 of 5 tasks, but not for every combination of task/manipulation. Deficits were more common when task demands taxed phonology. Visuospatial manipulations led to both disadvantages and advantages for children with dyslexia. Children with dyslexia evidence spoken word learning deficits, but their performance is highly dependent on manipulations and task demand, suggesting a processing trade-off between visuospatial and phonological demands.

  18. Pollination deficits in UK apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Paul Douglas Garratt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Apple production in the UK is worth over £100 million per annum and this production is heavily dependent on insect pollination. Despite its importance, it is not clear which insect pollinators carry out the majority of this pollination. Furthermore, it is unknown whether current UK apple production, in terms of both yield and quality, suffers pollination deficits and whether production value could be increased through effective management of pollination services. The present study set out to address some of these unknowns and showed that solitary bee activity is high in orchards and that they could be making a valuable contribution to pollination. Furthermore, fruit set and apple seed number were found to be suffering potential pollination deficits although these were not reflected in apple quality. Deficits could be addressed through orchard management practices to improve the abundance and diversity of wild pollinators. Such practices include provision of additional floral resources and nesting habitats as well as preservation of semi-natural areas. The cost effectiveness of such strategies would need to be understood taking into account the potential gains to the apple industry.

  19. Pollination deficits in UK apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Potts

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Apple production in the UK is worth over £100 million per annum and this production is heavily dependent on insect pollination. Despite its importance, it is not clear which insect pollinators carry out the majority of this pollination. Furthermore, it is unknown whether current UK apple production, in terms of both yield and quality, suffers pollination deficits and whether production value could be increased through effective management of pollination services. The present study set out to address some of these unknowns and showed that solitary bee activity is high in orchards and that they could be making a valuable contribution to pollination. Furthermore, fruit set and apple seed number were found to be suffering potential pollination deficits although these were not reflected in apple quality. Deficits could be addressed through orchard management practices to improve the abundance and diversity of wild pollinators. Such practices include provision of additional floral resources and nesting habitats as well as preservation of semi-natural areas. The cost effectiveness of such strategies would need to be understood taking into account the potential gains to the apple industry.

  20. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition ameliorates deficits in motivational drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinowich Keri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apathy is frequently observed in numerous neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, as well as neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Apathy is defined as a lack of motivation characterized by diminished goal-oriented behavior and self-initiated activity. This study evaluated a chronic restraint stress (CRS protocol in modeling apathetic behavior, and determined whether administration of an anticholinesterase had utility in attenuating CRS-induced phenotypes. Methods We assessed behavior as well as regional neuronal activity patterns using FosB immunohistochemistry after exposure to CRS for 6 h/d for a minimum of 21 d. Based on our FosB findings and recent clinical trials, we administered an anticholinesterase to evaluate attenuation of CRS-induced phenotypes. Results CRS resulted in behaviors that reflect motivational loss and diminished emotional responsiveness. CRS-exposed mice showed differences in FosB accumulation, including changes in the cholinergic basal forebrain system. Facilitating cholinergic signaling ameliorated CRS-induced deficits in initiation and motivational drive and rescued immediate early gene activation in the medial septum and nucleus accumbens. Conclusions Some CRS protocols may be useful for studying deficits in motivation and apathetic behavior. Amelioration of CRS-induced behaviors with an anticholinesterase supports a role for the cholinergic system in remediation of deficits in motivational drive.

  1. Cognitive deficits in patients with brain tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Chao; BAO Wei-min; YANG Bo-jie; XIE Rong; CAO Xiao-yun; LUAN Shi-hai; MAO Ying

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss the present status and progress of clinical research on the cognitive effects caused by different types of brain tumors and common treatments.Data sources The data used in this review were mainly from PubMed articles published in English from 1990 to Febuary 2012.Research terms were "cognitive deficits" or "cognitive dysfunction".Study selection Articals including any information about brain tumor related cognitive deficits were selected.Results It is widely accepted that brain tumors and related treatments can impair cognitive function across manydomains,and can impact on patients' quality of life.Tumor localization,lateralization,surgery,drugs,radiotherapy and chemotherapy are all thought to be important factors in this process.However,some conflicting findings regarding brain tumor-related cognitive deficits have been reported.It can be difficult to determine the mechanism of these treatments,such as chemotherapy,antibiotics,antiepileptics,and steroids.Future research is needed to clarify these potential treatment effects.Conclusions Cognitive function is important for patients with brain tumor.Much more focus has been paid on this field.It should be regarded as an important prognostic index for the patients with brain tumor,and neuropsychological tests should be used in regular examinations.

  2. Consequences of the Budget Deficit in the Current Crisis in Romania. Implications on the Labor Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela MOLĂNESCU

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic activity conditions, in which the need of financial resources is usually higher than the existing funds, the elaborations of budgets at any level is one of the primary issues, particularly as regards the principle of budgetary balance. Approaches regarding sizing budgets deficits, means of financing and particularly sizing public debt get a series of touches of precise nature for different economies. Actual economic, financial, social and administrative conditions put up a series of problems which impose an extremely serious approach of the potential adverse impact by sizing of budget deficits and public debt over the real possibilities of noninflationary financing. In Romania, in the highly complex framework in which the economic activity takes place, in the attempt to show the place held by the budget deficit, a special role is assigned to determine the share of public financial deficit in the consolidated budget revenue and expenditure. Currently, knowledge and concern for reducing the budget deficit are still of great importance, especially as Romania is facing great difficulties in economic development. Amid deepening structural crisis phenomena, increasing budget deficits financed over a non-inflationary limits comes as an additional factor that contributes to imbalances of the economy. In addition, where budgetary expenditures are targeted to satisfy, primary, the redistribution function and to state subsidies, because of the lack of a real multiplier coefficient, the state budget deficit worsens. Influences such as introducing economic disturbance in the mechanisms which cause them to increase budget deficits can be summarized and grouped into two broad categories: economic influences and psychological influences. Regarding economic influences, we can say that they act strongly and strictly determined by how meanings used to cover budget deficit. The modalities used are subject to an analysis by direct or indirect

  3. Prefrontal cortex and social cognition in mouse and man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy King Bicks

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Social cognition is a complex process that requires the integration of a wide variety of behaviors, including salience, reward-seeking, motivation, knowledge of self and others, and flexibly adjusting behavior in social groups. Not surprisingly, social cognition represents a sensitive domain commonly disrupted in the pathology of a variety of psychiatric disorders including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD and Schizophrenia (SCZ. Here, we discuss convergent research from animal models to human disease that implicates the prefrontal cortex (PFC as a key regulator in social cognition, suggesting that disruptions in prefrontal microcircuitry play an essential role in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders with shared social deficits. We take a translational perspective of social cognition, and review three key behaviors that are essential to normal social processing in rodents and humans, including social motivation, social recognition, and dominance hierarchy. A shared prefrontal circuitry may underlie these behaviors. Social cognition deficits in animal models of neurodevelopmental disorders like ASD and SCZ have been linked to an altered balance of excitation and inhibition (E/I ratio within the cortex generally, and PFC specifically. A clear picture of the mechanisms by which altered E/I ratio in the PFC might lead to disruptions of social cognition across a variety of behaviors is not well understood. Future studies should explore how disrupted developmental trajectory of prefrontal microcircuitry could lead to altered E/I balance and subsequent deficits in the social domain

  4. Why We Don't Collaborate in Response to Climate Change: The Knowledge Deficit, Co-Production, and the Future of the IPCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, B. R.; Overpeck, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    Scientific knowledge production is based on recognizing and filling knowledge deficits or 'gaps' in understanding, but for climate adaptation and mitigation, the applicability of this approach is questionable. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) mandate is an example of this type of 'gap filling,' in which the elimination of uncertainties is presumed to enable rational decision making for individuals and rational governance for societies. Presumed knowledge deficits, though, are unsuited to controversial problems with social, cultural, and economic dimensions; likewise, communication to educate is an ineffective means of inciting behavioural change. An alternative is needed, particularly given the economic, social, and political scale that action on climate change requires. We review the 'deficit-education framing' and show how it maintains a wedge between those affected and those whose knowledge is required. We then review co-production to show how natural and social scientists, as well as the IPCC, might more effectively proceed.

  5. Methods for Influencing Social Policy: The Role of Social Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinn, Marybeth

    2016-12-01

    Research methods in community psychology have grown more diverse since the Swampscott conference, but rigorous social experiments maintain a place among the multiplicity of methods that can promote community psychology values. They are particularly influential in policy circles. Two examples of social experiments to end homelessness for different populations illustrate their role. Both studies show that offering extremely poor and disenfranchised people autonomy and the resources they seek works better than "helping" them to overcome deficits in ways designed by well-meaning service providers. Experiments are neither the first nor the last method community psychologists should employ, but are a critical part of the field's armamentarium for systems change.

  6. Metacognition deficits as a risk factor for prospective motivation deficits in schizophrenia spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, Lauren; Firmin, Ruth L; Minor, Kyle S; Vohs, Jenifer L; Buck, Benjamin; Buck, Kelly D; Lysaker, Paul H

    2016-11-30

    Although motivation deficits are key determinants of functional outcomes, little is known about factors that contribute to prospective motivation in people with schizophrenia. One candidate factor is metacognition, or the ability to form complex representations about oneself, others, and the world. This study aimed to assess whether metacognition deficits were a significant predictor of reduced prospective motivation, after controlling for the effects of baseline motivation, anticipatory pleasure, and antipsychotic medication dose. Fifty-one participants with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder completed measures of metacognition and anticipatory pleasure at baseline; participants also completed a measure of motivation at baseline and six months after the initial assessment. Baseline antipsychotic dose was obtained from medical charts. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that lower levels of baseline metacognition significantly predicted reduced levels of motivation assessed six months later, after controlling for baseline levels of motivation, anticipatory pleasure, and antipsychotic dose. Higher baseline antipsychotic dose was also a significant predictor of reduced six month motivation. Results suggest that metacognition deficits and higher antipsychotic dose may be risk factors for the development of motivation deficits in schizophrenia. Implications include utilizing interventions to improve metacognition in conjunction with evaluating and possibly lowering antipsychotic dose for people struggling with motivation deficits. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stimulants improve theory of mind in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maoz, Hagai; Tsviban, Lior; Gvirts, Hila Z; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Levkovitz, Yechiel; Watemberg, Nathan; Bloch, Yuval

    2014-03-01

    Impairments in 'theory of mind' (ToM) were linked to social cognition and reciprocal relationships deficits in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Twenty-four children with ADHD (13 with inattentive type and 11 with combined type, mean age 10.2 years) completed the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI), a self-reported empathy questionnaire. All children performed the 'faux pas' task and a computerized ToM task in two different sessions either with or without administration of methylphenidate (MPH). Administration of MPH was associated with an improvement in cognitive and affective ToM. Children with ADHD-combined type had significantly lower scores in total IRI and the fantasy scale compared to children with ADHD-inattentive type. We conclude that deficits in empathy and ToM may play an important role in the impairments in social cognition and peer relationship in children with ADHD, especially children a hyperactive component. Stimulants may improve ToM and empathic functions. Future studies including larger samples and additional cognitive tasks are warranted in order to generalize these results and to identify possible underlying mechanisms for improvement in ToM following the administration of MPH.

  8. Anomalous Self-Experiences and positive symptoms are independently associated with emotion processing deficits in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, David C; Klaunig, Mallory J; Trask, Christi L; Neis, Aaron M

    2016-10-01

    Social-cognitive models posit a role of Anomalous Self-Experiences (ASEs), disturbances in the subjective experience of the self, in the development and maintenance of psychosis. Theorists have suggested that ASEs may underlie the social-cognitive deficits that are common in people with schizophrenia. Positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and ASEs may interfere with the ability to perceive, use, understand, and manage emotions. In the current study, 45 people with schizophrenia and 28 healthy controls completed the Inventory of Psychotic-Like Anomalous Self-Experiences (IPASE), the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), and were rated on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Participants with schizophrenia had higher IPASE scores and lower MSCEIT scores than the comparison group. In a series of simultaneous regressions, ASEs, but not positive or negative symptoms, were associated with Total MSCEIT scores and the Using Emotions branch score. In contrast, positive symptoms, but not ASEs or negative symptoms were associated with Perceiving and Managing Emotions branches. Both ASEs and positive symptoms independently contributed to Emotional Experiencing scores. The severity of negative symptoms was not associated with deficits in any MSCEIT scores. These results suggest unique roles for ASEs and positive symptoms in emotion processing deficits in people with schizophrenia.

  9. Deficits in parvalbumin and calbindin immunoreactive cells in the hippocampus of isolation reared rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, M K; Powell, S B; Swerdlow, N R; Geyer, M A; Reynolds, G P

    2007-07-01

    Post-mortem studies have provided evidence for abnormalities of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic system in schizophrenia. The calcium-binding proteins (CBPs), parvalbumin (PV), calbindin (CB) and calretinin (CR) can be used as markers for specific subpopulations of GABAergic neurons in the brain. Isolation rearing of rats is a non-pharmacological, non-lesion manipulation that leads to deficits in prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex (PPI) and other behavioural and neurochemical alterations reminiscent of schizophrenia. Female rats were reared in social housing (groups of three) or singly for 11 weeks post weaning and PPI was measured. Brains were removed and hippocampal CBP- containing neurons determined following immunocytochemical staining. Compared to socially housed rats, isolated rats exhibited PPI deficits and reductions in PV and CB-immunoreactive cells in the hippocampus, with no significant change in CR. These findings demonstrate selective abnormalities of sub-populations of GABAergic interneurons in the hippocampus of isolation reared rats, which resemble the neuronal deficits seen in this region in schizophrenia.

  10. [Comorbidity of autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit with hyperactivity. A review study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenguer-Forner, Carmen; Miranda-Casas, Ana; Pastor-Cerezuela, Gema; Roselló-Miranda, Rocío

    2015-02-25

    Introduccion. La elevada presencia de trastorno por deficit de atencion/hiperactividad (TDAH) en el trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) ha sido reconocida en el Manual diagnostico y estadistico de los trastornos mentales, quinta edicion, permitiendo el diagnostico de ambos trastornos. Objetivo. Revisar las investigaciones publicadas entre 2010 y 2014 sobre las caracteristicas cognitivas y sociales de la coocurrencia del TEA y el TDAH. Desarrollo. La revision de los 33 estudios identificados evidencia una prevalencia de sintomas de TDAH en niños con TEA del 33-37%. La condicion comorbida presenta mas deficit en el control inhibitorio, la atencion y la memoria de trabajo. Asimismo, en cognicion social, la sintomatologia del TDAH incrementa las dificultades en los casos de TEA. Ademas, el perfil clinico de TEA + TDAH muestra mayor gravedad que el de TDAH o TEA puros, y el retraso en el lenguaje y la intensidad/frecuencia de rabietas son sintomas que ayudan a la identificacion en edades tempranas. Conclusiones. Los hallazgos sugieren una superposicion 'aditiva', y el TEA + TDAH comparte algunos deficits de ambos trastornos, lo cual tiene implicaciones para la evaluacion y el diseño de tratamientos efectivos.

  11. Oxytocin improves behavioral and electrophysiological deficits in a novel Shank3-deficient rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harony-Nicolas, Hala; Kay, Maya; du Hoffmann, Johann; Klein, Matthew E; Bozdagi-Gunal, Ozlem; Riad, Mohammed; Daskalakis, Nikolaos P; Sonar, Sankalp; Castillo, Pablo E; Hof, Patrick R; Shapiro, Matthew L; Baxter, Mark G; Wagner, Shlomo; Buxbaum, Joseph D

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in the synaptic gene SHANK3 lead to a neurodevelopmental disorder known as Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS). PMS is a relatively common monogenic and highly penetrant cause of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and intellectual disability (ID), and frequently presents with attention deficits. The underlying neurobiology of PMS is not fully known and pharmacological treatments for core symptoms do not exist. Here, we report the production and characterization of a Shank3-deficient rat model of PMS, with a genetic alteration similar to a human SHANK3 mutation. We show that Shank3-deficient rats exhibit impaired long-term social recognition memory and attention, and reduced synaptic plasticity in the hippocampal-medial prefrontal cortex pathway. These deficits were attenuated with oxytocin treatment. The effect of oxytocin on reversing non-social attention deficits is a particularly novel finding, and the results implicate an oxytocinergic contribution in this genetically defined subtype of ASD and ID, suggesting an individualized therapeutic approach for PMS. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18904.001 PMID:28139198

  12. The effects of social evaluation and looming threat on self-attentional biases and social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haikal, Muhammad; Hong, Ryan Y

    2010-04-01

    This paper examines how two proposed cognitive vulnerabilities of social anxiety, the fear of negative evaluation, and looming cognitive style may combine with socially demanding situations in predicting social anxiety symptoms and performance deficits. Fifty-two individuals previously identified as possessing these two cognitive vulnerabilities were randomly assigned to conditions in a 2 (high versus low social evaluation)x2 (high versus low temporal looming) experimental design. Significant interaction effects were found for: (a) residual change in anxiety symptoms from baseline level, and (b) performance on a speech task. Specifically, cognitively at-risk individuals exhibited the most increase in anxiety and the most performance deficits in the condition where social evaluation and temporal looming were high. In addition, a mediational effect of illusion of transparency (a form of self-attentional bias) between situational demands and residual change in anxiety was found. Implications arising from these results are discussed.

  13. African Americans and Network Disadvantage: Enhancing Social Capital through Participation on Social Networking Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Taana Smith

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the participation of African Americans on social networking sites (SNS, and evaluates the degree to which African Americans engage in activities in the online environment to mitigate social capital deficits. Prior literature suggests that compared with whites, African Americans have less social capital that can enhance their socio-economic mobility. As such, my research question is: do African Americans enhance their social capital through their participation on SNS? I use nationally representative data collected from the Pew Internet and American Life Project to explore the research question. The results suggest that the online environment is potentially a space in which African Americans can lessen social capital deficits.

  14. The social motivation theory of autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevallier, Coralie; Kohls, Gregor; Troiani, Vanessa; Brodkin, Edward S; Schultz, Robert T

    2012-04-01

    The idea that social motivation deficits play a central role in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) has recently gained increased interest. This constitutes a shift in autism research, which has traditionally focused more intensely on cognitive impairments, such as theory-of-mind deficits or executive dysfunction, and has granted comparatively less attention to motivational factors. This review delineates the concept of social motivation and capitalizes on recent findings in several research areas to provide an integrated account of social motivation at the behavioral, biological and evolutionary levels. We conclude that ASD can be construed as an extreme case of diminished social motivation and, as such, provides a powerful model to understand humans' intrinsic drive to seek acceptance and avoid rejection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Factor Structure of Social Cognition in Schizophrenia: Is Empathy Preserved?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Corbera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Social cognitive impairments are core features of schizophrenia and are closely associated with poor functional outcome. This study sought to identify specific aspects of social cognition and their relationships to measures of social function, quality of life, and neurocognition. Principal component analysis was performed using social cognitive measures in patients with schizophrenia and healthy matched controls and revealed three factors: Interpersonal Discomfort, Basic Social Cognition, and Empathy. Patients had higher scores on Interpersonal Discomfort and lower scores on Basic Social Cognition than controls, but the two groups were the same on Empathy. Lower social performance was significantly correlated with poor Basic Social Cognition in patients and with high Interpersonal Discomfort in controls. While neurocognition was significantly associated with Basic Social Cognition in both groups, it was not associated with Empathy. Social cognitive interventions should emphasize improving basic social cognitive processing deficits, managing Interpersonal Discomfort, and utilizing preserved capacity for empathy as a potential strength in social interactions.

  16. Social capital

    OpenAIRE

    Landhäußer, Sandra; Ziegler, Holger

    2003-01-01

    This paper surveys research on social capital. We explore the concepts that motivate the social capital literature, efforts to formally model social capital using economic theory, the econometrics of social capital, and empirical studies of the role of social capital in various socioeconomic outcomes. While our focus is primarily on the place of social capital in economics, we do consider its broader social science context. We argue that while the social capital literature has produced many i...

  17. Social anxiety and its effects on performance and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahan, E; Conger, A J

    1998-01-01

    This study examined whether the socially anxious show deficits in performance on a social task as well as how their anxiety and competence relate to judgments they make about themselves and others. Ratings from a panel of judges were used to compare men of high and low social anxiety on their performances in a simulated job interview. Participants also viewed videotapes of themselves and others and rated responses for content, fluency, nonverbal, and global competence. Contradicting predictions of a performance deficit model, high levels of social anxiety had no detrimental effect on participants' performance or on their ability to judge their own performance. In contrast, observer-rated competence was related to a number of significant effects for social judgment tasks. Implications for treatment of social anxiety and research on social anxiety are discussed.

  18. Psychometric Testing Methods for Children's Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Wilkins, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    Social skill excesses and deficits have garnered considerable attention from researchers and clinicians over the last three decades. This trend is undoubtedly due to the central role these problems play in psychopathology and the general adjustment of children of all ages. Not surprisingly, these concerns and attention to such problems have also…

  19. SPECIFIC SKILLS AND SOCIAL COMPETENCE IN SCHIZOPHRENIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    APPELO, MT; WOONINGS, FMJ; VANNIEUWENHUIZEN, CJ; EMMELKAMP, PMG; SLOOFF, CJ; LOUWERENS, JW

    1992-01-01

    Generalization of skills is a major problem in social skills training for schizophrenic patients. Assessment of skills is mostly not based on objective indices of specific skill deficits. The results of this study show that global competence of schizophrenics can be differentiated from specific comp

  20. Motor Timing Deficits in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelaznik, Howard N.; Vaughn, Aaron J.; Green, John T.; Smith, Alan L.; Hoza, Betsy; Linnea, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) are thought to have fundamental deficits in the allocation of attention for information processing. Furthermore, it is believed that these children possess a fundamental difficulty in motoric timing, an assertion that has been explored recently in adults and children. In the present study we extend this recent work by fully exploring the classic Wing and Kristofferson (1973) analysis of timing with typically developing children (n = 24) and children with ADHD (n = 27). We provide clear evidence that not only do children with ADHD have an overall timing deficit, they also time less consistently when using a similar strategy to typically developing children. The use of the Wing and Kristofferson approach to timing, we argue, will result in the discovery of robust ADHD-related timing differences across a variety of situations. PMID:21852012

  1. Executive and attentional contributions to Theory of Mind deficit in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Mousty, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle; Capiau, Tatiana; Drabs, Virginie; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with attentional and executive problems, but also with socioemotional difficulties possibly associated with deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM). Socioemotional problems in ADHD are associated with more negative prognoses, notably interpersonal, educational problems, and an increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders that emphasize the need to clarify the nature of their ToM deficits. In this study, we hypothesized that ToM dysfunction in children with ADHD is largely attributable to their attentional and/or executive deficits. Thirty-one children with ADHD (8-12 years, IQ > 85) and 31 typically developing (TD) children were assessed using executive functions (inhibition, planning, and flexibility) and attentional tasks, as well as two advanced ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas) involving different levels of executive control. Children with ADHD performed more poorly than TD children in attentional, executive function, and ToM tasks. Linear regression analyses conducted in the ADHD group indicated that inhibition scores predicted performance on the "Faux Pas" task the best, while attention scores were the best for predicting performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. When controlled for inhibition and attentional variables, ToM performance in children with ADHD was actually similar to TD children. Contrarily, controlling for ToM scores did not normalize performance for inhibition and attentional tasks in children with ADHD. This unidirectional relationship suggests that deficits in the EF and attentional domains are responsible for ToM deficits in ADHD, which therefore may contribute to their socioemotional difficulties.

  2. Brief Report: Attention Effect on a Measure of Social Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Jodene Goldenring; Semrud-Clikeman, Margaret; Butcher, Brianne; Walkowiak, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    A measure of social perception (CASP) was used to assess differences in social perception among typically developing children, children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD), and children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Significant between-group differences were found in recognition of emotions in video, with children…

  3. Social Approach and Emotion Recognition in Fragile X Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Tracey A.; Porter, Melanie A.; Langdon, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is emerging that individuals with Fragile X syndrome (FXS) display emotion recognition deficits, which may contribute to their significant social difficulties. The current study investigated the emotion recognition abilities, and social approachability judgments, of FXS individuals when processing emotional stimuli. Relative to…

  4. Neural Correlates of Machiavellian Strategies in a Social Dilemma Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereczkei, Tamas; Deak, Anita; Papp, Peter; Perlaki, Gabor; Orsi, Gergely

    2013-01-01

    In spite of having deficits in various areas of social cognition, especially in mindreading, Machiavellian individuals are typically very successful in different tasks, including solving social dilemmas. We assume that a profound examination of neural structures associated with decision-making processes is needed to learn more about…

  5. Social Competence in Children of Alcoholic Parents over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussong, Andrea M.; Zucker, Robert A.; Wong, Maria M.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Puttler, Leon I.

    2005-01-01

    In the current study, the authors tested the hypothesis that children of alcoholic parents (COAs) show deficits in social competence that begin in early childhood and escalate through middle adolescence. Teachers, parents, and children reported on the social competence of COAs and matched controls in a community sample assessed from ages 6 to 15.…

  6. Differentiating High-Functioning Autism and Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Katherine E.; Cruess, Dean G.

    2012-01-01

    Both high-functioning autism (HFA) and social phobia (SP) involve profound social interaction deficits. Although these disorders share some similar symptoms, they are conceptualized as distinct. Because both HFA and SP are defined behaviorally, the degree of overlap between the two disorders may result in misinterpretation of symptoms. However,…

  7. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children – Role of Behaviour Therapy and Parent Training Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beena Johnson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a common behavioural disorder of childhood. It is a major public health problem. Children with ADHD have significant impairment in sustaining attention and this in turn will have negative impact on the academic performance and social-emotional development of the child. Most of the children present to child guidance clinic between the ages of 5-10 years. But ADHD can be problematic in pre-school age group and can continue into the adolescence. ADHD in childhood is a developmental precursor of later antisocial disorder. Hence early behavioural interventions are necessary in the management of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Parent training programmes are interventions aimed at training parents in techniques which enable them to manage children's challenging behaviour.

  8. Public participation and rural management of Brazilian waters: an alternative to the deficit model (Portuguese original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Luís Piolli

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge deficit model with regard to the public has been severely criticized in the sociology of the public perception of science. However, when dealing with public decisions regarding scientific matters, political and scientific institutions insist on defending the deficit model. The idea that only certified experts, or those with vast experience, should have the right to participate in decisions can bring about problems for the future of democracies. Through a type of "topography of ideas", in which some concepts from the social studies of science are used in order to think about these problems, and through the case study of public participation in the elaboration of the proposal of discounts in the fees charged for rural water use in Brazil, we will try to point out an alternative to the deficit model. This alternative includes a "minimum comprehension" of the scientific matters involved in the decision on the part of the participants, using criteria judged by the public itself.

  9. Detecting subtle facial emotion recognition deficits in high-functioning Autism using dynamic stimuli of varying intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law Smith, Miriam J; Montagne, Barbara; Perrett, David I; Gill, Michael; Gallagher, Louise

    2010-07-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterised by social and communication impairment, yet evidence for deficits in the ability to recognise facial expressions of basic emotions is conflicting. Many studies reporting no deficits have used stimuli that may be too simple (with associated ceiling effects), for example, 100% 'full-blown' expressions. In order to investigate subtle deficits in facial emotion recognition, 21 adolescent males with high-functioning Austism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and 16 age and IQ matched typically developing control males completed a new sensitive test of facial emotion recognition which uses dynamic stimuli of varying intensities of expressions of the six basic emotions (Emotion Recognition Test; Montagne et al., 2007). Participants with ASD were found to be less accurate at processing the basic emotional expressions of disgust, anger and surprise; disgust recognition was most impaired--at 100% intensity and lower levels, whereas recognition of surprise and anger were intact at 100% but impaired at lower levels of intensity.

  10. Social Stories[TM] to Improve Social Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkhaneh, Mohammad; Clark, Brenda; Ospina, Maria B.; Seida, Jennifer C.; Smith, Veronica; Hartling, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Over the past 20 years a variety of treatments have been developed to remediate deficits associated with autism. Since the early 1990s, Social Stories[TM] have been suggested to positively affect the social development of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Despite much research, there remains uncertainty regarding the effectiveness of…

  11. The Combined Use of Video Modeling and Social Stories in Teaching Social Skills for Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Seray Olçay

    2016-01-01

    There are many studies in the literature in which individuals with intellectual disabilities exhibit social skills deficits and which show the need for teaching these skills systematically. This study aims to investigate the effects of an intervention package of consisting computer-presented video modeling and Social Stories on individuals with…

  12. The Relation Between Social Experience and Perspective Taking: Assessing Deictic Relational Responding Skills in Social Anxiety Using Relational Frame Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, A.; Janssen, G.T.L.; Kaarsemaker, M.; Mey, H.R.A. De

    2013-01-01

    Objective: One of the abilities involved in social cognition is perspective taking. According to Relational Frame Theory (RFT), perspective taking skills are based on the derivation of relations of perspective, and are learned and practiced in social interactions. Pronounced deficits in the

  13. Social Ontology and Social Cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Presti, Patrizio

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show that there is a reciprocal dependency relationship between social cognition and social ontology. It is argued that, on the one hand, the existence conditions of socially meaningful objects and of social groups are about subjects’ social cognitive processes and interactive patterns and, on the other hand, social cognitive processes and interactive patterns are modulated by socially meaningful objects and social groups. I proceed from a historically informed dis...

  14. Neurocognitive impairment in the deficit subtype of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fervaha, Gagan; Agid, Ofer; Foussias, George; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Remington, Gary

    2016-08-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by numerous diverse signs and symptoms. Individuals with prominent, persistent, and idiopathic negative symptoms are thought to encompass a distinct subtype of schizophrenia. Previous work, including studies involving neuropsychological evaluations, has supported this position. The present study sought to further examine whether deficit patients are cognitively distinct from non-deficit patients with schizophrenia. A comprehensive neurocognitive battery including tests of verbal memory, vigilance, processing speed, reasoning, and working memory was administered to 657 patients with schizophrenia. Of these, 144 (22 %) patients were classified as deficit patients using a proxy identification method based on severity, persistence over time, and possible secondary sources (e.g., depression) of negative symptoms. Deficit patients with schizophrenia performed worse on all tests of cognition relative to non-deficit patients. These patients were characterized by a generalized cognitive impairment on the order of about 0.4 standard deviations below that of non-deficit patients. However, when comparing deficit patients to non-deficit patients who also present with negative symptoms, albeit not enduring or primary, no group differences in cognitive performance were found. Furthermore, a discriminant function analysis classifying patients into deficit/non-deficit groups based on cognitive scores demonstrated only 62.3 % accuracy, meaning over one-third of individuals were misclassified. The deficit subtype of schizophrenia is not markedly distinct from non-deficit schizophrenia in terms of neurocognitive performance. While deficit patients tend to have poorer performance on cognitive tests, the magnitude of this effect is relatively modest, translating to over 70 % overlap in scores between groups.

  15. Widespread auditory deficits in tune deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer L; Zalewski, Christopher; Brewer, Carmen; Lucker, Jay; Drayna, Dennis

    2009-02-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate auditory function in individuals with deficits in musical pitch perception. We hypothesized that such individuals have deficits in nonspeech areas of auditory processing. We screened 865 randomly selected individuals to identify those who scored poorly on the Distorted Tunes test (DTT), a measure of musical pitch recognition ability. Those who scored poorly were given a comprehensive audiologic examination, and those with hearing loss or other confounding audiologic factors were excluded from further testing. Thirty-five individuals with tune deafness constituted the experimental group. Thirty-four individuals with normal hearing and normal DTT scores, matched for age, gender, handedness, and education, and without overt or reported psychiatric disorders made up the normal control group. Individual and group performance for pure-tone frequency discrimination at 1000 Hz was determined by measuring the difference limen for frequency (DLF). Auditory processing abilities were assessed using tests of pitch pattern recognition, duration pattern recognition, and auditory gap detection. In addition, we evaluated both attention and short- and long-term memory as variables that might influence performance on our experimental measures. Differences between groups were evaluated statistically using Wilcoxon nonparametric tests and t-tests as appropriate. The DLF at 1000 Hz in the group with tune deafness was significantly larger than that of the normal control group. However, approximately one-third of participants with tune deafness had DLFs within the range of performance observed in the control group. Many individuals with tune deafness also displayed a high degree of variability in their intertrial frequency discrimination performance that could not be explained by deficits in memory or attention. Pitch and duration pattern discrimination and auditory gap-detection ability were significantly poorer in the group with tune deafness

  16. Independence of hot and cold executive function deficits in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Laird Zimmerman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD display diverse deficits in social, cognitive and behavioral functioning. To date, there has been mixed findings on the profile of executive function deficits for high-functioning adults (IQ >70 with ASD. A conceptual distinction is commonly made between cold and hot executive functions. Cold executive functions refer to mechanistic higher-order cognitive operations (e.g., working memory, whereas hot executive functions entail cognitive abilities supported by emotional awareness and social perception (e.g., social cognition. This study aimed to determine the independence of deficits in hot and cold executive functions for high-functioning adults with ASD. Forty-two adults with ASD (64% male, aged 18-66 years and 40 age and gender matched controls were administered The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT; emotion recognition and social inference, Letter Number Sequencing (working memory and Hayling Sentence Completion Test (response initiation and suppression. Between-group analyses identified that the ASD group performed significantly worse than matched controls on all measures of cold and hot executive functions (d = .54-1.5. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that the ASD sample performed more poorly on emotion recognition and social inference tasks than matched controls after controlling for cold executive functions and employment status. The findings also indicated that the ability to recognise emotions and make social inferences was supported by working memory and response initiation and suppression processes. Overall, this study supports the distinction between hot and cold executive function impairments for adults with ASD. Moreover, it advances understanding of higher-order impairments underlying social interaction difficulties for this population which, in turn, may assist with diagnosis and inform intervention programs.

  17. Social cognition and revictimization risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePrince, Anne P

    2005-01-01

    The ability to accurately detect violations in social contracts likely helps people to avoid or to withdraw from relationships in which they are at risk of being cheated or harmed. Betrayal trauma theory argues that detecting violations of social contracts may be counter-productive to survival under certain conditions, such as when a victim is dependent on a perpetrator. When dependent on a perpetrator (as in the case of child abuse perpetrated by a caregiver), the victim may be better able to preserve the necessary attachment with the caregiver by remaining unaware of the abuse. Thus, the victim may develop a compromised capacity to detect violations of social contracts in the caregiving relationship. Over time, the victim may develop more generalized problems detecting violations in social exchange rules; in turn, generalized problems in detecting violations of social contracts may increase risk for later victimization. Participants in the current study were asked to detect violations in three types of conditional (if-then) rules: abstract, social contract (rules involving a social exchange), and precautionary (rules involving safety). Young adults who reported experiences of revictimization made more errors on social contract and precautionary problems than a no revictimization group; group performance did not differ for abstract problems, suggesting these findings are not explained by general deficits in conditional reasoning. Pathological dissociation significantly predicted errors on social contract and precautionary problems.

  18. Epidemiologia social Social epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Barradas Barata

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata da emergência da epidemiologia social concomitantemente ao surgimento da epidemiologia como disciplina científica, destacando as condições teóricas e epistemológicas desse aparecimento. Em seguida são enfocadas as razões para o declínio dessa abordagem, assim como para seu ressurgimento na década de 60, no século XX. São apresentadas as diferentes correntes teóricas atualmente vigentes na epidemiologia social, destacando as características gerais e as limitações de cada uma delas. Especial atenção é dada às seguintes formulações: a eco-epidemiologia proposta por Mervin Susser, a teoria do capital social, a perspectiva do curso de vida, a teoria da produção social da doença e a teoria ecosocial elaborada por Nancy Krieger. O panorama traçado pretende demonstrar a vitalidade dessa abordagem, bem como indicar a diversidade de aspectos em seu interior. Para finalizar são apontados alguns dilemas e desafios.This paper reviews the latest trends in social epidemiology. It analyzes the emergence of epidemiology as a scientific discipline in the nineteenth century focusing on the main characteristics of the episteme of the period. This paper also analyzes the decline of the social approach in the beginning of the twentieth century and the resurgence of social interest in the sixties. The multiple approaches of social epidemiology currently adopted are commented. The study also emphasizes Susser's proposal of ecoepidemiology, describing its characteristics and pointing out limitations. Next, there is a discussion of the social capital theory and its potentialities for epidemiological studies. The life course perspective is also analyzed, mentioning its psychological and material versions. Latin America's social production of the health and disease process is presented along with an overview of Nancy Krieger's social ecoepidemiology. Finally, some dilemmas and challenges for the future are presented.

  19. Exploring social cognition in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Frederiksen, Julie Elisabeth Nordgaard

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare social cognition between groups of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to replicate two previous studies using tests of social cognition that may be particularly sensitive to social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Thirty......-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 11 “imaginary conversation (i.e., theory of mind)” items, 10 “psychological understanding” items, and 10 “practical understanding” items. Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting...... nonsignificant. When intelligence and global cognitive functioning is taken into account, schizophrenia patients and healthy controls perform similarly on social cognitive tests. © 2016 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg...

  20. Exploring social cognition in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, R.; Mortensen, E. L.; Nordgaard, J.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare social cognition between groups of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and healthy controls and to replicate two previous studies using tests of social cognition that may be particularly sensitive to social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Thirty......-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 11 “imaginary conversation (i.e., theory of mind)” items, 10 “psychological understanding” items, and 10 “practical understanding” items. Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting...... nonsignificant. When intelligence and global cognitive functioning is taken into account, schizophrenia patients and healthy controls perform similarly on social cognitive tests....

  1. Borrowing to Save: A Critique of Recent Proposals to Partially Privatize Social Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattalo, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Concern over Social Security's forecasted long-run deficit is occurring at a time when the program has a short-term surplus. One proposed strategy to address this forecasted deficit is to allow the investment of a portion of payroll taxes into private savings accounts (PSAs). The author analyzes recent proposals for PSAs and concludes that PSAs…

  2. Social Status and Self-Esteem: Children with ADHD and Their Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jennifer; Buggey, Tom

    This study compared the social status and self-esteem of 8 third grade children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 2 children with attention deficit disorder (ADD) alone, and 26 children without the disorders, in light of hypothesized effects of perceived negative feedback received by these children from peers. The children nominated…

  3. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, S.

    2013-01-01

    The proposed revision of the diagnostic criteria in DSM-5 for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will not fundamentally change the concept of ADHD. This is mainly due to the fact that, DSM-5 will retain the exact DSM-IV wording of all 18 symptoms, but will add new examples that make...... will most likely increase the prevalence of ADHD, especially in adults and adolescents, but maybe also in children. The added examples will also result in necessary revisions and new validations of rating scales and diagnostic interviews. This review will examine each of the proposed DSM-5 changes...

  4. Atypical outcome in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, K; Freidson, S

    1990-07-01

    This report describes the course of psychiatric illness in two boys. Both presented with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in midchildhood; after puberty, one boy developed a schizophrenic illness while the other boy developed a major affective illness. Although the major ADHD outcome studies have found no link between the childhood occurrence of ADHD and psychosis in adulthood, occasionally such a link may exist. The theoretical and practical implications of this finding are discussed. It should be noted, however, that such outcome is highly atypical and very rare.

  5. Working together in a deficit logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthiesen, Noomi Christine Linde

    2016-01-01

    and with parents in home–school communication. It is argued that in a society with increased focus on parental responsibility the teachers and principals draw on a deficit logic when dealing with Somali diaspora parents and children which consequently leads to teachers either transmitting their expertise......Drawing on discursive psychology this article examines the understandings teachers and principals in Danish Public Schools have regarding Somali diaspora parenting practices. Furthermore, the article investigates what these understandings mean in interaction with children in the classrooms...

  6. WATER MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES UNDER DEFICIT IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Capra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Deficit irrigation (DI is an optimization strategy whereby net returns are maximized by reducing the amount of irrigation water; crops are deliberated allowed to sustain some degree of water deficit and yield reduction. Although the DI strategy dates back to the 1970s, this technique is not usually adopted as a practical alternative to full irrigation by either academics or practitioners. Furthermore, there is a certain amount of confusion regarding its concept. In fact, a review of recent literature dealing with DI has shown that only a few papers use the concept of DI in its complete sense (e.g. both the agronomic and economic aspects. A number of papers only deal with the physiological and agronomical aspects of DI or concern techniques such as Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI and Partial Root Drying (PRD. The paper includes two main parts: i a review of the principal water management strategies under deficit conditions (e.g. conventional DI, RDI and PRD; and ii a description of a recent experimental research conducted by the authors in Sicily (Italy that integrates agronomic, engineering and economic aspects of DI at farm level. Most of the literature reviewed here showed, in general, quite positive effects from DI application, mostly evidenced when the economics of DI is included in the research approach. With regard to the agronomic effects, total fresh mass and total production is generally reduced under DI, whereas the effects on dry matter and product quality are positive, mainly in crops for which excessive soil water availability can cause significant reductions in fruit size, colour or composition (grapes, tomatoes, mangos, etc.. The experimental trial on a lettuce crop in Sicily, during 2005 and 2006, shows that the highest mean marketable yield of lettuce (55.3 t ha-1 in 2005 and 51.9 t ha-1 in 2006 was recorded in plots which received 100% of ET0-PM (reference evapotranspiration by the Penman- Monteith method applied water. In

  7. Metacognitive and social cognition approaches to understanding the impact of schizophrenia on social quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Avidan-Msika, Moran; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal; Kravetz, Shlomo; Rozencwaig, Silvio; Shalev, Hadar; Lysaker, Paul H

    2015-02-01

    While some studies view metacognition and social cognition as representing the same phenomenon, others suggest that they represent distinctive sets of abilities that are related to different outcomes. The current study used a cross-sectional design that includes samples of persons with schizophrenia (N=39) and healthy individuals (N=60) to further explore the distinction between social cognition and metacognition and their associations with social quality of life. The Face Emotion Identification Task (FEIT), Faux-Pas Task, Indiana Psychiatric Illness Interview (IPII), Metacognition Assessment Scale - Abbreviated (MAS-A), and Social Quality of Life Scale were administrated to all participants. Correlations, t-tests and regressions were conducted. Results showed that persons with schizophrenia performed more poorly on all measures than healthy controls. Social cognition and metacognition measures were related for the combined total sample, but only a few associations were found among both sub-samples. A diagnosis of schizophrenia and metacognitive capacity, but not social cognition, predicted social quality of life. Self-reflectivity had a negative relationship to social quality of life while understanding of others' minds had a positive relation to social quality of life. The current study provides evidence that many with schizophrenia experience deficits in both social cognition and metacognition and that those deficits may be distinct and have different kinds of relationships with social quality of life. Clinical implications include the need to emphasize narrative aspects of psychotherapy in order to promote metacognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Trigeminal neurosensory deficit and patient reported outcome measures: the effect on quality of life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiu Yan Leung

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of persistent neurosensory disturbance of the lingual nerve (LN or inferior alveolar nerve (IAN on general health and oral health- related quality of life (QoL. METHODS: The study design was a case-control study. Patients with persistent neurosensory deficit of LN or IAN after lower third molar surgery (for 12 months or more were the study group. The control group was an age and gender matched sample of patients who had dental extractions or lower third molar surgeries without trigeminal neurosensory deficit. The outcome variables were the general health and oral health-related QoL. General health-related QoL was assessed using the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 and oral health-related QoL using the 14-item Short Form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14. Differences in SF-36 scores and OHIP-14 scores between the groups were compared. RESULTS: Forty-eight subjects (24 cases and 24 controls were recruited. When compared to the control group, patients with neurosensory deficits had poorer Mental-Health Component Scores (MCS (p = 0.005, General Health (p = 0.023, Vitality (p = 0.048, Social Functioning (p = 0.003, Role-emotion (p = 0.008 and Mental Health (p = 0.022. The OHIP-14 scores were also significantly worse in this patients with neurosensory deficits compared with the control group (p = 0.002. When compared within the study group, older patient with neurosensory deficit was found to correlate with worse Physical Health Component Scores (PCS (p = 0.02 and OHIP-14 scores (p = 0.02, while more severe visualized analog scaling rating of numbness was correlated with a worse PCS (p = 0.034. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with persistent LN or IAN deficit after lower third molar surgery have poorer health-related QoL and poorer oral health-related QoL than those without such deficits.

  9. Theory of mind, emotion recognition and social perception in individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis: Findings from the NAPLS-2 cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariapaola Barbato

    2015-09-01

    Theory of mind and social perception are impaired in individuals at CHR for psychosis. Age and IQ seem to play an important role in the arising of deficits in facial affect recognition. Future studies should examine the stability of social cognition deficits over time and their role, if any, in the development of psychosis.

  10. Social Cognitive Training in Adolescents with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Feasibility and Preliminary Effects of the Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashi, V.; Harrell, W.; Eack, S.; Sanders, C.; McConkie-Rosell, A.; Keshavan, M. S.; Bonner, M. J.; Schoch, K.; Hooper, S. R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) often have deficits in social cognition and social skills that contribute to poor adaptive functioning. These deficits may be of relevance to the later occurrence of serious psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia. Yet, there are no evidence-based interventions to improve…

  11. Social Cognitive Training in Adolescents with Chromosome 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome: Feasibility and Preliminary Effects of the Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashi, V.; Harrell, W.; Eack, S.; Sanders, C.; McConkie-Rosell, A.; Keshavan, M. S.; Bonner, M. J.; Schoch, K.; Hooper, S. R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children with chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) often have deficits in social cognition and social skills that contribute to poor adaptive functioning. These deficits may be of relevance to the later occurrence of serious psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia. Yet, there are no evidence-based interventions to improve…

  12. Teaching social skills to people with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, M J; Harris, S L

    2001-10-01

    The treatment of social skills deficits remains one of the most challenging areas in meeting the needs of people with autism. Difficulties in understanding social stimuli, in initiating and responding to social bids, and in appreciating the affect that is intrinsic to social interactions can be baffling for people with autism. Researchers and practitioners of applied behavior analysis have tried a variety of strategies for teaching social skills. This article examines a range of useful procedures for teaching social skills to people with autism, including skills that are adult mediated, peer mediated, and child-with-autism mediated. The authors also consider the potential of classwide interventions in inclusive settings, pivotal response training, and the use of scripts to teach social initiations.

  13. Social networks in borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Allan; Pilkonis, Paul A; McCarty, Christopher

    2007-08-01

    The interpersonal dysfunction that characterizes borderline personality disorder (BPD) has generally been studied using broad global measures, leading to a lack of precision. We report on a novel methodology using social network analysis (SNA) to quantify interactions with others in the patient's social world. We assessed the social networks of 22 clinical patients, diagnosed with either BPD (N = 11) or no personality disorder (No PD; N = 11). The social networks of patients with BPD contained a greater number of former romantic partners, and a greater number of relationships that had been terminated. Mixed model analyses found that the No PD group reported higher levels of positive relationships (e.g., trust, social support) with more central members of their social networks, whereas the BPD group did not discriminate among members of their networks. Results suggest deficits in social cognition for positive relations, but not for negative relations such as interpersonal conflict.

  14. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder blame game: a study on the positioning of professionals, teachers and parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigerio, Alessandra; Montali, Lorenzo; Fine, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder is currently the most debated childhood psychiatric diagnosis. Given the circulation of competing perspectives about the 'real' causes of children's behaviour and the 'best' way to treat them, we aim to analyse the interactions of the central social actors' discourses about attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children within the Italian context. Adopting a multi-method approach, we focus on the polyphonic chorus of voices surrounding the child, studying the discourses of mental health professionals, teachers and parents. These actors are representative of three contexts that are deeply engaged with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: medical institutions, schools and families. Our theoretical and methodological approach integrates positioning theory, the Bakhtinian notion of dialogical thinking and discourse analysis to study stakeholders' reflexive and interactive positioning in terms of the attribution of rights, duties, responsibilities and power issues. The results show that mutual blame is a constitutive element of relational dynamics among the key adults surrounding attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder children. We argue that these conflicting relationships are not merely related to the debate regarding the validity of the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosis. Rather, the mutual blame centres on questions of compliance, recognition of authority and morality. Through the blame game, adults negotiate their own and others' subjectivity in ways that simultaneously (re)produce power relationships and resistance efforts.

  15. Working memory deficit in children with mathematical difficulties: a general or specific deficit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Ulf; Lyxell, Björn

    2007-03-01

    This study examined whether children with mathematical difficulties (MDs) or comorbid mathematical and reading difficulties have a working memory deficit and whether the hypothesized working memory deficit includes the whole working memory system or only specific components. In the study, 31 10-year-olds with MDs and 37 10-year-olds with both mathematical and reading difficulties were compared with 47 age-matched and 50 younger controls (9-year-olds) on a number of working memory tasks. Compared with the age-matched controls, both groups of children with MDs performed worse on tasks tapping the central executive (e.g., visual matrix span) and the phonological loop (e.g., word span). More important, the MD group performed worse than the younger controls on the counting span task, whereas the group with comorbid mathematical and reading difficulties performed worse on the counting span task and the visual matrix span task. These findings provide support for the assumption that children with MDs have a working memory deficit. More specifically, children with MDs have a central executive deficit connected to concurrent processing and storage of numerical and visual information.

  16. Sleep Restores Daytime Deficits in Procedural Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Molzow, Ina; Munz, Manuel; Wilhelm, Ines; Muller, Kathrin; Freytag, Damaris; Wiesner, Christian D.; Baving, Lioba

    2011-01-01

    Sleep supports the consolidation of declarative and procedural memory. While prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity supports the consolidation of declarative memory during sleep, opposite effects of PFC activity are reported with respect to the consolidation of procedural memory during sleep. Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…

  17. Restraint and Cancellation: Multiple Inhibition Deficits in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachar, Russell; Logan, Gordon D.; Robaey, Philippe; Chen, Shirley; Ickowicz, Abel; Barr, Cathy

    2007-01-01

    We used variations of the stop signal task to study two components of motor response inhibition--the ability to withhold a strong response tendency (restraint) and the ability to cancel an ongoing action (cancellation)--in children with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and in non-ADHD controls of similar age (ages…

  18. Sleep Restores Daytime Deficits in Procedural Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Molzow, Ina; Munz, Manuel; Wilhelm, Ines; Muller, Kathrin; Freytag, Damaris; Wiesner, Christian D.; Baving, Lioba

    2011-01-01

    Sleep supports the consolidation of declarative and procedural memory. While prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity supports the consolidation of declarative memory during sleep, opposite effects of PFC activity are reported with respect to the consolidation of procedural memory during sleep. Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…

  19. Are auditory and visual processing deficits related to developmental dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K; Papadopoulos, Timothy C; Zarouna, Elena; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if children with dyslexia learning to read a consistent orthography (Greek) experience auditory and visual processing deficits and if these deficits are associated with phonological awareness, rapid naming speed and orthographic processing. We administered measures of general cognitive ability, phonological awareness, orthographic processing, short-term memory, rapid automatized naming, auditory and visual processing, and reading fluency to 21 Grade 6 children with dyslexia, 21 chronological age-matched controls and 20 Grade 3 reading age-matched controls. The results indicated that the children with dyslexia did not experience auditory processing deficits, but about half of them showed visual processing deficits. Both orthographic processing and rapid automatized naming deficits were associated with dyslexia in our sample, but it is less clear that they were associated with visual processing deficits.

  20. Budget Deficit and Macroeconomics Fundamentals: The case of Azerbaijan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahnim Farajova

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the emergence of rising budget deficit is the main reason forcing economists to investigate the reasons for changes in fiscal balances. The purpose of the paper is to investigate the relationship between budget deficit and macroeconomic fundamentals using data from Azerbaijan. The empirical analysis applies ARDL Cointegration methodology in conjunction with Granger causality tests to provide evidence for both the long and short run dynamics between the variables involved in the analysis. Using the Error Correction specification, there was found evidence of long-run causality running from current account, real interest rate, GDP, inflation and exchange rate to budget deficit. There was also found evidence of short-run Granger causal effects running from current account and real interest rate towards budget deficit and a rather weak causal effect from inflation to budget deficit. However, there is no short – run causality running from interest rate to budget deficit.