WorldWideScience

Sample records for preprocessing confusion matrices

  1. Confusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... suddenly or there are other symptoms, such as: Cold or clammy skin Dizziness or feeling faint Fast pulse Fever Headache Slow or rapid breathing Uncontrolled shivering Also call 911 if: Confusion has come on ...

  2. Confusing confusability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrfelt, Randi; Lindegaard, Martin; Bundesen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    The effect of letter confusability on reading has received increasing attention over the last decade. Confusability scores for individual letters, derived from older psychophysical studies, have been used to calculate summed confusability scores for whole words, and effects of this variable...... on normal and alexic reading have been reported. On this basis, letter confusability is now increasingly controlled for in stimulus selection. In this commentary, we try to clarify what letter confusability scores represent and discuss several problems with the way this variable has been treated...... in neuropsychological research. We conclude that it is premature to control for this variable when selecting stimuli in studies of reading and alexia. Although letter confusability may play a role in (impaired) reading, it remains to be determined how this measure should be calculated, and what effect it may have...

  3. Automated pre-processing and multivariate vibrational spectra analysis software for rapid results in clinical settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, T.; Kumar, P.; Fillipe, L.

    2018-02-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy, especially FTIR and Raman, has shown enormous potential in disease diagnosis, especially in cancers. Their potential for detecting varied pathological conditions are regularly reported. However, to prove their applicability in clinics, large multi-center multi-national studies need to be undertaken; and these will result in enormous amount of data. A parallel effort to develop analytical methods, including user-friendly software that can quickly pre-process data and subject them to required multivariate analysis is warranted in order to obtain results in real time. This study reports a MATLAB based script that can automatically import data, preprocess spectra— interpolation, derivatives, normalization, and then carry out Principal Component Analysis (PCA) followed by Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) of the first 10 PCs; all with a single click. The software has been verified on data obtained from cell lines, animal models, and in vivo patient datasets, and gives results comparable to Minitab 16 software. The software can be used to import variety of file extensions, asc, .txt., .xls, and many others. Options to ignore noisy data, plot all possible graphs with PCA factors 1 to 5, and save loading factors, confusion matrices and other parameters are also present. The software can provide results for a dataset of 300 spectra within 0.01 s. We believe that the software will be vital not only in clinical trials using vibrational spectroscopic data, but also to obtain rapid results when these tools get translated into clinics.

  4. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  5. Confusing the heterotic string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benett, D.L.; Mizrachi, L.

    1986-01-01

    A confusion mechanism is proposed as a global modification of the heterotic string model. It envolves a confusion hypersurface across which the two E 8 's of the heterotic string are permuted. A remarkable numerical coincidence is found which prevents an inconsistency in the model. The low energy limit of this theory (after compactification) is typically invariant under one E 8 only, thereby removing the shadow world from the original model. (orig.)

  6. Confusing the heterotic string

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benett, D.; Brene, N.; Mizrachi, Leah; Nielsen, H. B.

    1986-10-01

    A confusion mechanism is proposed as a global modification of the heterotic string model. It envolves a confusion hypersurface across which the two E 8's of the heterotic string are permuted. A remarkable numerical coincidence is found which prevents an inconsistency in the model. The low energy limit of this theory (after compactification) is typically invariant under one E 8 only, thereby removing the shadow world from the original model.

  7. Confusing the heterotic string

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benett, D.L.; Brene, N.; Nielsen, H.B.; Mizrachi, L.

    1986-10-02

    A confusion mechanism is proposed as a global modification of the heterotic string model. It envolves a confusion hypersurface across which the two E/sub 8/'s of the heterotic string are permuted. A remarkable numerical coincidence is found which prevents an inconsistency in the model. The low energy limit of this theory (after compactification) is typically invariant under one E/sub 8/ only, thereby removing the shadow world from the original model.

  8. (Con)fusing contours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, R.J. van; Wit, T.C.J. de; Koning, A.R.

    2005-01-01

    We have created patterns in which illusory Kanizsa squares are positioned on top of a background grid of bars. When the illusory contours and physical contours are misaligned, the resulting percept appears to be rather confusing (van Lier et al, 2004 Perception 33 Supplement, 77). Observers often

  9. Data preprocessing in data mining

    CERN Document Server

    García, Salvador; Herrera, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Data Preprocessing for Data Mining addresses one of the most important issues within the well-known Knowledge Discovery from Data process. Data directly taken from the source will likely have inconsistencies, errors or most importantly, it is not ready to be considered for a data mining process. Furthermore, the increasing amount of data in recent science, industry and business applications, calls to the requirement of more complex tools to analyze it. Thanks to data preprocessing, it is possible to convert the impossible into possible, adapting the data to fulfill the input demands of each data mining algorithm. Data preprocessing includes the data reduction techniques, which aim at reducing the complexity of the data, detecting or removing irrelevant and noisy elements from the data. This book is intended to review the tasks that fill the gap between the data acquisition from the source and the data mining process. A comprehensive look from a practical point of view, including basic concepts and surveying t...

  10. CONFUSION WITH TELEPHONE NUMBERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Telecom Service

    2002-01-01

    he area code is now required for all telephone calls within Switzerland. Unfortunately this is causing some confusion. CERN has received complaints that incoming calls intended for CERN mobile phones are being directed to private subscribers. This is caused by mistakenly dialing the WRONG code (e.g. 022) in front of the mobile number. In order to avoid these problems, please inform your correspondents that the correct numbers are: 079 201 XXXX from Switzerland; 0041 79 201 XXXX from other countries. Telecom Service

  11. CONFUSION WITH TELEPHONE NUMBERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Telecom Service

    2002-01-01

    The area code is now required for all telephone calls within Switzerland. Unfortunately this is causing some confusion. CERN has received complaints that incoming calls intended for CERN mobile phones are being directed to private subscribers. This is caused by mistakenly dialing the WRONG code (e.g. 022) in front of the mobile number. In order to avoid these problems, please inform your correspondents that the correct numbers are: 079 201 XXXX from Switzerland; 0041 79 201 XXXX from other countries. Telecom Service  

  12. Compact Circuit Preprocesses Accelerometer Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Compact electronic circuit transfers dc power to, and preprocesses ac output of, accelerometer and associated preamplifier. Incorporated into accelerometer case during initial fabrication or retrofit onto commercial accelerometer. Made of commercial integrated circuits and other conventional components; made smaller by use of micrologic and surface-mount technology.

  13. Effective Feature Preprocessing for Time Series Forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Junhua; Dong, Zhaoyang; Xu, Zhao

    2006-01-01

    Time series forecasting is an important area in data mining research. Feature preprocessing techniques have significant influence on forecasting accuracy, therefore are essential in a forecasting model. Although several feature preprocessing techniques have been applied in time series forecasting...... performance in time series forecasting. It is demonstrated in our experiment that, effective feature preprocessing can significantly enhance forecasting accuracy. This research can be a useful guidance for researchers on effectively selecting feature preprocessing techniques and integrating them with time...... series forecasting models....

  14. Formal matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Krylov, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    This monograph is a comprehensive account of formal matrices, examining homological properties of modules over formal matrix rings and summarising the interplay between Morita contexts and K theory. While various special types of formal matrix rings have been studied for a long time from several points of view and appear in various textbooks, for instance to examine equivalences of module categories and to illustrate rings with one-sided non-symmetric properties, this particular class of rings has, so far, not been treated systematically. Exploring formal matrix rings of order 2 and introducing the notion of the determinant of a formal matrix over a commutative ring, this monograph further covers the Grothendieck and Whitehead groups of rings. Graduate students and researchers interested in ring theory, module theory and operator algebras will find this book particularly valuable. Containing numerous examples, Formal Matrices is a largely self-contained and accessible introduction to the topic, assuming a sol...

  15. Averaging operations on matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-03

    Jul 3, 2014 ... Role of Positive Definite Matrices. • Diffusion Tensor Imaging: 3 × 3 pd matrices model water flow at each voxel of brain scan. • Elasticity: 6 × 6 pd matrices model stress tensors. • Machine Learning: n × n pd matrices occur as kernel matrices. Tanvi Jain. Averaging operations on matrices ...

  16. Retinal Image Preprocessing: Background and Noise Segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Akram

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Retinal images are used for the automated screening and diagnosis of diabetic retinopathy. The retinal image quality must be improved for the detection of features and abnormalities and for this purpose preprocessing of retinal images is vital. In this paper, we present a novel automated approach for preprocessing of colored retinal images. The proposed technique improves the quality of input retinal image by separating the background and noisy area from the overall image. It contains coarse segmentation and fine segmentation. Standard retinal images databases Diaretdb0, Diaretdb1, DRIVE and STARE are used to test the validation of our preprocessing technique. The experimental results show the validity of proposed preprocessing technique.

  17. Facilitating Watermark Insertion by Preprocessing Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt L. Miller

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available There are several watermarking applications that require the deployment of a very large number of watermark embedders. These applications often have severe budgetary constraints that limit the computation resources that are available. Under these circumstances, only simple embedding algorithms can be deployed, which have limited performance. In order to improve performance, we propose preprocessing the original media. It is envisaged that this preprocessing occurs during content creation and has no budgetary or computational constraints. Preprocessing combined with simple embedding creates a watermarked Work, the performance of which exceeds that of simple embedding alone. However, this performance improvement is obtained without any increase in the computational complexity of the embedder. Rather, the additional computational burden is shifted to the preprocessing stage. A simple example of this procedure is described and experimental results confirm our assertions.

  18. Predicting consonant recognition and confusions in normal-hearing listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaar, Johannes; Dau, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    , Kollmeier, and Kohlrausch [(1997). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 102, 2892–2905]. The model was evaluated based on the extensive consonant perception data set provided by Zaar and Dau [(2015). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 138, 1253–1267], which was obtained with normal-hearing listeners using 15 consonant-vowel combinations...... confusion groups. The large predictive power of the proposed model suggests that adaptive processes in the auditory preprocessing in combination with a cross-correlation based template-matching back end can account for some of the processes underlying consonant perception in normal-hearing listeners....... The proposed model may provide a valuable framework, e.g., for investigating the effects of hearing impairment and hearing-aid signal processing on phoneme recognition....

  19. Practical Secure Computation with Pre-Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakarias, Rasmus Winther

    Secure Multiparty Computation has been divided between protocols best suited for binary circuits and protocols best suited for arithmetic circuits. With their MiniMac protocol in [DZ13], Damgård and Zakarias take an important step towards bridging these worlds with an arithmetic protocol tuned...... space for pre-processing material than computing the non-linear parts online (depends on the quality of circuit of course). Surprisingly, even for our optimized AES-circuit this is not the case. We further improve the design of the pre-processing material and end up with only 10 megabyes of pre...... a protocol for small field arithmetic to do fast large integer multipli- cations. This is achieved by devising pre-processing material that allows the Toom-Cook multiplication algorithm to run between the parties with linear communication complexity. With this result computation on the CPU by the parties...

  20. Inverse m-matrices and ultrametric matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Dellacherie, Claude; San Martin, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The study of M-matrices, their inverses and discrete potential theory is now a well-established part of linear algebra and the theory of Markov chains. The main focus of this monograph is the so-called inverse M-matrix problem, which asks for a characterization of nonnegative matrices whose inverses are M-matrices. We present an answer in terms of discrete potential theory based on the Choquet-Deny Theorem. A distinguished subclass of inverse M-matrices is ultrametric matrices, which are important in applications such as taxonomy. Ultrametricity is revealed to be a relevant concept in linear algebra and discrete potential theory because of its relation with trees in graph theory and mean expected value matrices in probability theory. Remarkable properties of Hadamard functions and products for the class of inverse M-matrices are developed and probabilistic insights are provided throughout the monograph.

  1. The 1989 ENDF pre-processing codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.E.; McLaughlin, P.K.

    1989-12-01

    This document summarizes the 1989 version of the ENDF pre-processing codes which are required for processing evaluated nuclear data coded in the format ENDF-4, ENDF-5, or ENDF-6. The codes are available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, free of charge upon request. (author)

  2. Preprocessing Moist Lignocellulosic Biomass for Biorefinery Feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal Yancey; Christopher T. Wright; Craig Conner; J. Richard Hess

    2009-06-01

    Biomass preprocessing is one of the primary operations in the feedstock assembly system of a lignocellulosic biorefinery. Preprocessing is generally accomplished using industrial grinders to format biomass materials into a suitable biorefinery feedstock for conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Many factors affect machine efficiency and the physical characteristics of preprocessed biomass. For example, moisture content of the biomass as received from the point of production has a significant impact on overall system efficiency and can significantly affect the characteristics (particle size distribution, flowability, storability, etc.) of the size-reduced biomass. Many different grinder configurations are available on the market, each with advantages under specific conditions. Ultimately, the capacity and/or efficiency of the grinding process can be enhanced by selecting the grinder configuration that optimizes grinder performance based on moisture content and screen size. This paper discusses the relationships of biomass moisture with respect to preprocessing system performance and product physical characteristics and compares data obtained on corn stover, switchgrass, and wheat straw as model feedstocks during Vermeer HG 200 grinder testing. During the tests, grinder screen configuration and biomass moisture content were varied and tested to provide a better understanding of their relative impact on machine performance and the resulting feedstock physical characteristics and uniformity relative to each crop tested.

  3. Reliable RANSAC Using a Novel Preprocessing Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Geometric assumption and verification with RANSAC has become a crucial step for corresponding to local features due to its wide applications in biomedical feature analysis and vision computing. However, conventional RANSAC is very time-consuming due to redundant sampling times, especially dealing with the case of numerous matching pairs. This paper presents a novel preprocessing model to explore a reduced set with reliable correspondences from initial matching dataset. Both geometric model generation and verification are carried out on this reduced set, which leads to considerable speedups. Afterwards, this paper proposes a reliable RANSAC framework using preprocessing model, which was implemented and verified using Harris and SIFT features, respectively. Compared with traditional RANSAC, experimental results show that our method is more efficient.

  4. The 1996 ENDF pre-processing codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    The codes are named 'the Pre-processing' codes, because they are designed to pre-process ENDF/B data, for later, further processing for use in applications. This is a modular set of computer codes, each of which reads and writes evaluated nuclear data in the ENDF/B format. Each code performs one or more independent operations on the data, as described below. These codes are designed to be computer independent, and are presently operational on every type of computer from large mainframe computer to small personal computers, such as IBM-PC and Power MAC. The codes are available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, free of charge upon request. (author)

  5. Boosting reversible pushdown machines by preprocessing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Holger Bock; Kutrib, Martin; Malcher, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    languages, whereas for reversible pushdown automata the accepted family of languages lies strictly in between the reversible deterministic context-free languages and the real-time deterministic context-free languages. Moreover, it is shown that the computational power of both types of machines...... is not changed by allowing the preprocessing sequential transducer to work irreversibly. Finally, we examine the closure properties of the family of languages accepted by such machines....

  6. Chain of matrices, loop equations and topological recursion

    CERN Document Server

    Orantin, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Random matrices are used in fields as different as the study of multi-orthogonal polynomials or the enumeration of discrete surfaces. Both of them are based on the study of a matrix integral. However, this term can be confusing since the definition of a matrix integral in these two applications is not the same. These two definitions, perturbative and non-perturbative, are discussed in this chapter as well as their relation. The so-called loop equations satisfied by integrals over random matrices coupled in chain is discussed as well as their recursive solution in the perturbative case when the matrices are Hermitean.

  7. Introduction into Hierarchical Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2013-12-05

    Hierarchical matrices allow us to reduce computational storage and cost from cubic to almost linear. This technique can be applied for solving PDEs, integral equations, matrix equations and approximation of large covariance and precision matrices.

  8. Introduction into Hierarchical Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Hierarchical matrices allow us to reduce computational storage and cost from cubic to almost linear. This technique can be applied for solving PDEs, integral equations, matrix equations and approximation of large covariance and precision matrices.

  9. Core Knowledge Confusions among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm, Annika M.; Takada, Mikito; Lonnqvist, Jan-Erik; Verkasalo, Markku

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that university students hold several paranormal beliefs and that paranormal beliefs can be best explained with core knowledge confusions. The aim of this study was to explore to what extent university students confuse the core ontological attributes of lifeless material objects (e.g. a house, a stone), living…

  10. The confusion mechanism and the heterotic string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.L.; Mizrachi, L.; Nielsen, H.B.; Brene, N.

    1987-01-01

    The confusion mechanism introduced earlier in connection with the gauge glass model is here discussed in the context of field theories involving symmetry groups which have outer automorphisms. The heterotic string with an E 8 x E 8 symmetry may be influenced by confusion with the result that only one E 8 group survives and the shadow world disappears. (orig.)

  11. The confusion mechanism and the heterotic string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.L.; Nielsen, H.B.; Brene, N.; Mizrachi, L.

    1986-01-01

    The confusion mechanism introduced earlier in connection with the gauge glass model is here discussed in the context of field theories involving symmetry groups which have outer automorphisms. The heterotic string with an E 8 8xE 8 symmetry may be influence by confusion with the result that only one E 8 group survives and the shadow world disappears. (author)

  12. An Intelligent Clustering Based Methodology for Confusable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics ... The system assigns patients with severity levels in all the clusters. ... The system compares favorably with diagnosis arrived at by experienced physicians and also provides patients' level of severity in each confusable disease and the degree of confusability of ...

  13. A comparison of the effects of filtering and sensorineural hearing loss on patients of consonant confusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M D; Reed, C M; Bilger, R C

    1978-03-01

    It has been found that listeners with sensorineural hearing loss who show similar patterns of consonant confusions also tend to have similar audiometric profiles. The present study determined whether normal listeners, presented with filtered speech, would produce consonant confusions similar to those previously reported for the hearing-impaired listener. Consonant confusion matrices were obtained from eight normal-hearing subjects for four sets of CV and VC nonsense syllables presented under six high-pass and six-low pass filtering conditions. Patterns of consonant confusion for each condition were described using phonological features in sequential information analysis. Severe low-pass filtering produced consonant confusions comparable to those of listeners with high-frequency hearing loss. Severe high-pass filtering gave a result comparable to that of patients with flat or rising audiograms. And, mild filtering resulted in confusion patterns comparable to those of listeners with essentially normal hearing. An explanation in terms of the spectrum, the level of speech, and the configuration of this individual listener's audiogram is given.

  14. Fusion or confusion in obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Kieron; Aardema, Frederick

    2003-08-01

    Inferential confusion occurs when a person mistakes an imagined possibility for a real probability and might account for some types of thought-action and other fusions reported in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Inferential confusion could account for the ego-dystonic nature of obsessions and their recurrent nature, since the person acts "as if" an imagined aversive inference is probable and tries unsuccessfully to modify this imaginary probability in reality. The clinical implications of the inferential confusion model focus primarily on the role of the imagination in obsessive-compulsive disorder rather than on cognitive beliefs.

  15. Matrices and linear transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Charles G

    1990-01-01

    ""Comprehensive . . . an excellent introduction to the subject."" - Electronic Engineer's Design Magazine.This introductory textbook, aimed at sophomore- and junior-level undergraduates in mathematics, engineering, and the physical sciences, offers a smooth, in-depth treatment of linear algebra and matrix theory. The major objects of study are matrices over an arbitrary field. Contents include Matrices and Linear Systems; Vector Spaces; Determinants; Linear Transformations; Similarity: Part I and Part II; Polynomials and Polynomial Matrices; Matrix Analysis; and Numerical Methods. The first

  16. The 1992 ENDF Pre-processing codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    This document summarizes the 1992 version of the ENDF pre-processing codes which are required for processing evaluated nuclear data coded in the format ENDF-4, ENDF-5, or ENDF-6. Included are the codes CONVERT, MERGER, LINEAR, RECENT, SIGMA1, LEGEND, FIXUP, GROUPIE, DICTION, MIXER, VIRGIN, COMPLOT, EVALPLOT, RELABEL. Some of the functions of these codes are: to calculate cross-sections from resonance parameters; to calculate angular distributions, group average, mixtures of cross-sections, etc; to produce graphical plottings and data comparisons. The codes are designed to operate on virtually any type of computer including PC's. They are available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, free of charge upon request, on magnetic tape or a set of HD diskettes. (author)

  17. Evaluation of the confusion matrix method in the validation of an automated system for measuring feeding behaviour of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruuska, Salla; Hämäläinen, Wilhelmiina; Kajava, Sari; Mughal, Mikaela; Matilainen, Pekka; Mononen, Jaakko

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate empirically confusion matrices in device validation. We compared the confusion matrix method to linear regression and error indices in the validation of a device measuring feeding behaviour of dairy cattle. In addition, we studied how to extract additional information on classification errors with confusion probabilities. The data consisted of 12 h behaviour measurements from five dairy cows; feeding and other behaviour were detected simultaneously with a device and from video recordings. The resulting 216 000 pairs of classifications were used to construct confusion matrices and calculate performance measures. In addition, hourly durations of each behaviour were calculated and the accuracy of measurements was evaluated with linear regression and error indices. All three validation methods agreed when the behaviour was detected very accurately or inaccurately. Otherwise, in the intermediate cases, the confusion matrix method and error indices produced relatively concordant results, but the linear regression method often disagreed with them. Our study supports the use of confusion matrix analysis in validation since it is robust to any data distribution and type of relationship, it makes a stringent evaluation of validity, and it offers extra information on the type and sources of errors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of Preprocessing on Arabic Document Categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Ayedh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Preprocessing is one of the main components in a conventional document categorization (DC framework. This paper aims to highlight the effect of preprocessing tasks on the efficiency of the Arabic DC system. In this study, three classification techniques are used, namely, naive Bayes (NB, k-nearest neighbor (KNN, and support vector machine (SVM. Experimental analysis on Arabic datasets reveals that preprocessing techniques have a significant impact on the classification accuracy, especially with complicated morphological structure of the Arabic language. Choosing appropriate combinations of preprocessing tasks provides significant improvement on the accuracy of document categorization depending on the feature size and classification techniques. Findings of this study show that the SVM technique has outperformed the KNN and NB techniques. The SVM technique achieved 96.74% micro-F1 value by using the combination of normalization and stemming as preprocessing tasks.

  19. CSS Preprocessing: Tools and Automation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Queirós

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cascading Style Sheets (CSS is a W3C specification for a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language, more precisely, for styling Web documents. However, in the last few years, the landscape for CSS development has changed dramatically with the appearance of several languages and tools aiming to help developers build clean, modular and performance-aware CSS. These new approaches give developers mechanisms to preprocess CSS rules through the use of programming constructs, defined as CSS preprocessors, with the ultimate goal to bring those missing constructs to the CSS realm and to foster stylesheets structured programming. At the same time, a new set of tools appeared, defined as postprocessors, for extension and automation purposes covering a broad set of features ranging from identifying unused and duplicate code to applying vendor prefixes. With all these tools and techniques in hands, developers need to provide a consistent workflow to foster CSS modular coding. This paper aims to present an introductory survey on the CSS processors. The survey gathers information on a specific set of processors, categorizes them and compares their features regarding a set of predefined criteria such as: maturity, coverage and performance. Finally, we propose a basic set of best practices in order to setup a simple and pragmatic styling code workflow.

  20. Confusion between Odds and Probability, a Pandemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, Lawrence V.; Mendez, Francis A.; Bastian, Nathaniel D.; Musal, R. Muzaffer

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript discusses the common confusion between the terms probability and odds. To emphasize the importance and responsibility of being meticulous in the dissemination of information and knowledge, this manuscript reveals five cases of sources of inaccurate statistical language imbedded in the dissemination of information to the general…

  1. Is It Kingdom or Domains? Confusion & Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, Will H.

    2004-01-01

    A confusion regarding the number of kingdoms that should be recognized and the inclusion of domains in the traditional kingdom-based classification found in the higher levels of classification of organisms is presented. Hence, it is important to keep in mind future modifications that may occur in the classification systems and to recognize…

  2. Realm of Matrices

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    harmonic analysis and complex analysis, in ... gebra describes not only the study of linear transforma- tions and .... special case of the Jordan canonical form of matrices. ..... Richard Bronson, Schaum's Outline Series Theory And Problems Of.

  3. Psychoanalytic peregrinations. III: Confusion of tongues, psychoanalyst as translator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessick, Richard D

    2002-01-01

    A variety of problems cause a confusion of tongues between the psychoanalyst and the patient. In this sense the psychoanalyst faces the same problems as the translator of a text from one language to another. Examples are given of confusion due cultural differences, confusion due translation differences among translators, confusion due translator prejudice or ignorance, confusion due ambiguous visual cues and images, and confusion due to an inherently ambiguous text. It is due to this unavoidable confusion that the humanistic sciences cannot in principle achieve the mathematical exactness of the natural sciences and should not be expected to do so or condemned because they do not.

  4. Gravity gradient preprocessing at the GOCE HPF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, J.; Rispens, S.; Gruber, T.; Schrama, E.; Visser, P.; Tscherning, C. C.; Veicherts, M.

    2009-04-01

    One of the products derived from the GOCE observations are the gravity gradients. These gravity gradients are provided in the Gradiometer Reference Frame (GRF) and are calibrated in-flight using satellite shaking and star sensor data. In order to use these gravity gradients for application in Earth sciences and gravity field analysis, additional pre-processing needs to be done, including corrections for temporal gravity field signals to isolate the static gravity field part, screening for outliers, calibration by comparison with existing external gravity field information and error assessment. The temporal gravity gradient corrections consist of tidal and non-tidal corrections. These are all generally below the gravity gradient error level, which is predicted to show a 1/f behaviour for low frequencies. In the outlier detection the 1/f error is compensated for by subtracting a local median from the data, while the data error is assessed using the median absolute deviation. The local median acts as a high-pass filter and it is robust as is the median absolute deviation. Three different methods have been implemented for the calibration of the gravity gradients. All three methods use a high-pass filter to compensate for the 1/f gravity gradient error. The baseline method uses state-of-the-art global gravity field models and the most accurate results are obtained if star sensor misalignments are estimated along with the calibration parameters. A second calibration method uses GOCE GPS data to estimate a low degree gravity field model as well as gravity gradient scale factors. Both methods allow to estimate gravity gradient scale factors down to the 10-3 level. The third calibration method uses high accurate terrestrial gravity data in selected regions to validate the gravity gradient scale factors, focussing on the measurement band. Gravity gradient scale factors may be estimated down to the 10-2 level with this method.

  5. A survey of visual preprocessing and shape representation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshausen, Bruno A.

    1988-01-01

    Many recent theories and methods proposed for visual preprocessing and shape representation are summarized. The survey brings together research from the fields of biology, psychology, computer science, electrical engineering, and most recently, neural networks. It was motivated by the need to preprocess images for a sparse distributed memory (SDM), but the techniques presented may also prove useful for applying other associative memories to visual pattern recognition. The material of this survey is divided into three sections: an overview of biological visual processing; methods of preprocessing (extracting parts of shape, texture, motion, and depth); and shape representation and recognition (form invariance, primitives and structural descriptions, and theories of attention).

  6. Impact of data transformation and preprocessing in supervised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of data transformation and preprocessing in supervised learning ... Nowadays, the ideas of integrating machine learning techniques in power system has ... The proposed algorithm used Python-based split train and k-fold model ...

  7. Preprocessing Algorithm for Deciphering Historical Inscriptions Using String Metric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorand Lehel Toth

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the improvements in the preprocessing part of the deciphering method (shortly preprocessing algorithm for historical inscriptions of unknown origin. Glyphs used in historical inscriptions changed through time; therefore, various versions of the same script may contain different glyphs for each grapheme. The purpose of the preprocessing algorithm is reducing the running time of the deciphering process by filtering out the less probable interpretations of the examined inscription. However, the first version of the preprocessing algorithm leads incorrect outcome or no result in the output in certain cases. Therefore, its improved version was developed to find the most similar words in the dictionary by relaying the search conditions more accurately, but still computationally effectively. Moreover, a sophisticated similarity metric used to determine the possible meaning of the unknown inscription is introduced. The results of the evaluations are also detailed.

  8. Preprocessing of emotional visual information in the human piriform cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Patrick; Bestgen, Anne-Kathrin; Lech, Robert K; Kuchinke, Lars; Suchan, Boris

    2017-08-23

    This study examines the processing of visual information by the olfactory system in humans. Recent data point to the processing of visual stimuli by the piriform cortex, a region mainly known as part of the primary olfactory cortex. Moreover, the piriform cortex generates predictive templates of olfactory stimuli to facilitate olfactory processing. This study fills the gap relating to the question whether this region is also capable of preprocessing emotional visual information. To gain insight into the preprocessing and transfer of emotional visual information into olfactory processing, we recorded hemodynamic responses during affective priming using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Odors of different valence (pleasant, neutral and unpleasant) were primed by images of emotional facial expressions (happy, neutral and disgust). Our findings are the first to demonstrate that the piriform cortex preprocesses emotional visual information prior to any olfactory stimulation and that the emotional connotation of this preprocessing is subsequently transferred and integrated into an extended olfactory network for olfactory processing.

  9. Applying the concept of consumer confusion to healthcare: development and validation of a patient confusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebele, Christoph; Tscheulin, Dieter K; Lindenmeier, Jörg; Drevs, Florian; Seemann, Ann-Kathrin

    2014-01-01

    As patient autonomy and consumer sovereignty increase, information provision is considered essential to decrease information asymmetries between healthcare service providers and patients. However, greater availability of third party information sources can have negative side effects. Patients can be confused by the nature, as well as the amount, of quality information when making choices among competing health care providers. Therefore, the present study explores how information may cause patient confusion and affect the behavioral intention to choose a health care provider. Based on a quota sample of German citizens (n = 198), the present study validates a model of patient confusion in the context of hospital choice. The study results reveal that perceived information overload, perceived similarity, and perceived ambiguity of health information impact the affective and cognitive components of patient confusion. Confused patients have a stronger inclination to hastily narrow down their set of possible decision alternatives. Finally, an empirical analysis reveals that the affective and cognitive components of patient confusion mediate perceived information overload, perceived similarity, and perceived ambiguity of information. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. Chemiluminescence in cryogenic matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotnik, S. V.; Kazakov, Valeri P.

    1989-04-01

    The literature data on chemiluminescence (CL) in cryogenic matrices have been classified and correlated for the first time. The role of studies on phosphorescence and CL at low temperatures in the development of cryochemistry is shown. The features of low-temperature CL in matrices of nitrogen and inert gases (fine structure of spectra, matrix effects) and the data on the mobility and reactivity of atoms and radicals at very low temperatures are examined. The trends in the development of studies on CL in cryogenic matrices, such as the search for systems involving polyatomic molecules and extending the forms of CL reactions, are followed. The reactions of active nitrogen with hydrocarbons that are accompanied by light emission and CL in the oxidation of carbenes at T >= 77 K are examined. The bibliography includes 112 references.

  11. Confusion noise from LISA capture sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barack, Leor; Cutler, Curt

    2004-01-01

    Captures of compact objects (COs) by massive black holes (MBHs) in galactic nuclei will be an important source for LISA, the proposed space-based gravitational wave (GW) detector. However, a large fraction of captures will not be individually resolvable - either because they are too distant, have unfavorable orientation, or have too many years to go before final plunge - and so will constitute a source of 'confusion noise', obscuring other types of sources. In this paper we estimate the shape and overall magnitude of the GW background energy spectrum generated by CO captures. This energy spectrum immediately translates to a spectral density S h capt (f) for the amplitude of capture-generated GWs registered by LISA. The overall magnitude of S h capt (f) is linear in the CO capture rates, which are rather uncertain; therefore we present results for a plausible range of rates. S h capt (f) includes the contributions from both resolvable and unresolvable captures, and thus represents an upper limit on the confusion noise level. We then estimate what fraction of S h capt (f) is due to unresolvable sources and hence constitutes confusion noise. We find that almost all of the contribution to S h capt (f) coming from white dwarf and neutron star captures, and at least ∼30% of the contribution from black hole captures, is from sources that cannot be individually resolved. Nevertheless, we show that the impact of capture confusion noise on the total LISA noise curve ranges from insignificant to modest, depending on the rates. Capture rates at the high end of estimated ranges would raise LISA's overall (effective) noise level [fS h eff (f)] 1/2 by at most a factor ∼2 in the frequency range 1-10 mHz, where LISA is most sensitive. While this slightly elevated noise level would somewhat decrease LISA's sensitivity to other classes of sources, we argue that, overall, this would be a pleasant problem for LISA to have: It would also imply that detection rates for CO captures

  12. Matrices in Engineering Problems

    CERN Document Server

    Tobias, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    This book is intended as an undergraduate text introducing matrix methods as they relate to engineering problems. It begins with the fundamentals of mathematics of matrices and determinants. Matrix inversion is discussed, with an introduction of the well known reduction methods. Equation sets are viewed as vector transformations, and the conditions of their solvability are explored. Orthogonal matrices are introduced with examples showing application to many problems requiring three dimensional thinking. The angular velocity matrix is shown to emerge from the differentiation of the 3-D orthogo

  13. Infinite matrices and sequence spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Richard G

    2014-01-01

    This clear and correct summation of basic results from a specialized field focuses on the behavior of infinite matrices in general, rather than on properties of special matrices. Three introductory chapters guide students to the manipulation of infinite matrices, covering definitions and preliminary ideas, reciprocals of infinite matrices, and linear equations involving infinite matrices.From the fourth chapter onward, the author treats the application of infinite matrices to the summability of divergent sequences and series from various points of view. Topics include consistency, mutual consi

  14. Confused or not Confused?: Disentangling Brain Activity from EEG Data Using Bidirectional LSTM Recurrent Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Zhaoheng; Yuksel, Ahmet Cem; Ni, Xiuyan; Mandel, Michael I; Xie, Lei

    2017-08-01

    Brain fog, also known as confusion, is one of the main reasons for low performance in the learning process or any kind of daily task that involves and requires thinking. Detecting confusion in a human's mind in real time is a challenging and important task that can be applied to online education, driver fatigue detection and so on. In this paper, we apply Bidirectional LSTM Recurrent Neural Networks to classify students' confusion in watching online course videos from EEG data. The results show that Bidirectional LSTM model achieves the state-of-the-art performance compared with other machine learning approaches, and shows strong robustness as evaluated by cross-validation. We can predict whether or not a student is confused in the accuracy of 73.3%. Furthermore, we find the most important feature to detecting the brain confusion is the gamma 1 wave of EEG signal. Our results suggest that machine learning is a potentially powerful tool to model and understand brain activity.

  15. Capture Matrices Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-01

    materials, the affinity ligand would need identification , as well as chemistries that graft the affinity ligand onto the surface of magnetic...ACTIVE CAPTURE MATRICES FOR THE DETECTION/ IDENTIFICATION OF PHARMACEUTICALS...6 As shown in Figure 2.3-1a, the spectra exhibit similar baselines and the spectral peaks lineup . Under these circumstances, the spectral

  16. Too Many Choices Confuse Patients With Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Hamdy MD

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Choices are often difficult to make by patients with Alzheimer Dementia. They often become acutely confused when faced with too many options because they are not able to retain in their working memory enough information about the various individual choices available. In this case study, we describe how an essentially simple benign task (choosing a dress to wear can rapidly escalate and result in a catastrophic outcome. We examine what went wrong in the patient/caregiver interaction and how that potentially catastrophic situation could have been avoided or defused.

  17. Evaluating the impact of image preprocessing on iris segmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. Valencia-Murillo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Segmentation is one of the most important stages in iris recognition systems. In this paper, image preprocessing algorithms are applied in order to evaluate their impact on successful iris segmentation. The preprocessing algorithms are based on histogram adjustment, Gaussian filters and suppression of specular reflections in human eye images. The segmentation method introduced by Masek is applied on 199 images acquired under unconstrained conditions, belonging to the CASIA-irisV3 database, before and after applying the preprocessing algorithms. Then, the impact of image preprocessing algorithms on the percentage of successful iris segmentation is evaluated by means of a visual inspection of images in order to determine if circumferences of iris and pupil were detected correctly. An increase from 59% to 73% in percentage of successful iris segmentation is obtained with an algorithm that combine elimination of specular reflections, followed by the implementation of a Gaussian filter having a 5x5 kernel. The results highlight the importance of a preprocessing stage as a previous step in order to improve the performance during the edge detection and iris segmentation processes.

  18. Effects of preprocessing method on TVOC emission of car mat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Jia, Li

    2013-02-01

    The effects of the mat preprocessing method on total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) emission of car mat are studied in this paper. An appropriate TVOC emission period for car mat is suggested. The emission factors for total volatile organic compounds from three kinds of new car mats are discussed. The car mats are preprocessed by washing, baking and ventilation. When car mats are preprocessed by washing, the TVOC emission for all samples tested are lower than that preprocessed in other methods. The TVOC emission is in stable situation for a minimum of 4 days. The TVOC emitted from some samples may exceed 2500μg/kg. But the TVOC emitted from washed Polyamide (PA) and wool mat is less than 2500μg/kg. The emission factors of total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) are experimentally investigated in the case of different preprocessing methods. The air temperature in environment chamber and the water temperature for washing are important factors influencing on emission of car mats.

  19. Introduction to matrices and vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Jacob T

    2001-01-01

    In this concise undergraduate text, the first three chapters present the basics of matrices - in later chapters the author shows how to use vectors and matrices to solve systems of linear equations. 1961 edition.

  20. Effect of microaerobic fermentation in preprocessing fibrous lignocellulosic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alattar, Manar Arica; Green, Terrence R; Henry, Jordan; Gulca, Vitalie; Tizazu, Mikias; Bergstrom, Robby; Popa, Radu

    2012-06-01

    Amending soil with organic matter is common in agricultural and logging practices. Such amendments have benefits to soil fertility and crop yields. These benefits may be increased if material is preprocessed before introduction into soil. We analyzed the efficiency of microaerobic fermentation (MF), also referred to as Bokashi, in preprocessing fibrous lignocellulosic (FLC) organic materials using varying produce amendments and leachate treatments. Adding produce amendments increased leachate production and fermentation rates and decreased the biological oxygen demand of the leachate. Continuously draining leachate without returning it to the fermentors led to acidification and decreased concentrations of polysaccharides (PS) in leachates. PS fragmentation and the production of soluble metabolites and gases stabilized in fermentors in about 2-4 weeks. About 2 % of the carbon content was lost as CO(2). PS degradation rates, upon introduction of processed materials into soil, were similar to unfermented FLC. Our results indicate that MF is insufficient for adequate preprocessing of FLC material.

  1. Real-time topic-aware influence maximization using preprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Lin, Tian; Yang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Influence maximization is the task of finding a set of seed nodes in a social network such that the influence spread of these seed nodes based on certain influence diffusion model is maximized. Topic-aware influence diffusion models have been recently proposed to address the issue that influence between a pair of users are often topic-dependent and information, ideas, innovations etc. being propagated in networks are typically mixtures of topics. In this paper, we focus on the topic-aware influence maximization task. In particular, we study preprocessing methods to avoid redoing influence maximization for each mixture from scratch. We explore two preprocessing algorithms with theoretical justifications. Our empirical results on data obtained in a couple of existing studies demonstrate that one of our algorithms stands out as a strong candidate providing microsecond online response time and competitive influence spread, with reasonable preprocessing effort.

  2. The confusion technique untangled: its theoretical rationale and preliminary classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, A

    1989-01-01

    This article examines the historical development of Milton H. Erickson's theoretical approach to hypnosis using confusion. Review of the literature suggests that the Confusion Technique, in principle, consists of a two-stage "confusion-restructuring" process. The article also attempts to categorize several examples of confusion suggestions by seven linguistic characteristics: (1) antonyms, (2) homonyms, (3) synonyms, (4) elaboration, (5) interruption, (6) echoing, and (7) uncommon words. The Confusion Technique is an important yet little studied strategy developed by Erickson. More work is urged to investigate its nature and properties.

  3. Graphs and matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Bapat, Ravindra B

    2014-01-01

    This new edition illustrates the power of linear algebra in the study of graphs. The emphasis on matrix techniques is greater than in other texts on algebraic graph theory. Important matrices associated with graphs (for example, incidence, adjacency and Laplacian matrices) are treated in detail. Presenting a useful overview of selected topics in algebraic graph theory, early chapters of the text focus on regular graphs, algebraic connectivity, the distance matrix of a tree, and its generalized version for arbitrary graphs, known as the resistance matrix. Coverage of later topics include Laplacian eigenvalues of threshold graphs, the positive definite completion problem and matrix games based on a graph. Such an extensive coverage of the subject area provides a welcome prompt for further exploration. The inclusion of exercises enables practical learning throughout the book. In the new edition, a new chapter is added on the line graph of a tree, while some results in Chapter 6 on Perron-Frobenius theory are reo...

  4. Hierarchical quark mass matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasin, A.

    1998-02-01

    I define a set of conditions that the most general hierarchical Yukawa mass matrices have to satisfy so that the leading rotations in the diagonalization matrix are a pair of (2,3) and (1,2) rotations. In addition to Fritzsch structures, examples of such hierarchical structures include also matrices with (1,3) elements of the same order or even much larger than the (1,2) elements. Such matrices can be obtained in the framework of a flavor theory. To leading order, the values of the angle in the (2,3) plane (s 23 ) and the angle in the (1,2) plane (s 12 ) do not depend on the order in which they are taken when diagonalizing. We find that any of the Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix parametrizations that consist of at least one (1,2) and one (2,3) rotation may be suitable. In the particular case when the s 13 diagonalization angles are sufficiently small compared to the product s 12 s 23 , two special CKM parametrizations emerge: the R 12 R 23 R 12 parametrization follows with s 23 taken before the s 12 rotation, and vice versa for the R 23 R 12 R 23 parametrization. (author)

  5. Micro-Analyzer: automatic preprocessing of Affymetrix microarray data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzi, Pietro Hiram; Cannataro, Mario

    2013-08-01

    A current trend in genomics is the investigation of the cell mechanism using different technologies, in order to explain the relationship among genes, molecular processes and diseases. For instance, the combined use of gene-expression arrays and genomic arrays has been demonstrated as an effective instrument in clinical practice. Consequently, in a single experiment different kind of microarrays may be used, resulting in the production of different types of binary data (images and textual raw data). The analysis of microarray data requires an initial preprocessing phase, that makes raw data suitable for use on existing analysis platforms, such as the TIGR M4 (TM4) Suite. An additional challenge to be faced by emerging data analysis platforms is the ability to treat in a combined way those different microarray formats coupled with clinical data. In fact, resulting integrated data may include both numerical and symbolic data (e.g. gene expression and SNPs regarding molecular data), as well as temporal data (e.g. the response to a drug, time to progression and survival rate), regarding clinical data. Raw data preprocessing is a crucial step in analysis but is often performed in a manual and error prone way using different software tools. Thus novel, platform independent, and possibly open source tools enabling the semi-automatic preprocessing and annotation of different microarray data are needed. The paper presents Micro-Analyzer (Microarray Analyzer), a cross-platform tool for the automatic normalization, summarization and annotation of Affymetrix gene expression and SNP binary data. It represents the evolution of the μ-CS tool, extending the preprocessing to SNP arrays that were not allowed in μ-CS. The Micro-Analyzer is provided as a Java standalone tool and enables users to read, preprocess and analyse binary microarray data (gene expression and SNPs) by invoking TM4 platform. It avoids: (i) the manual invocation of external tools (e.g. the Affymetrix Power

  6. Econometric models for predicting confusion crop ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umberger, D. E.; Proctor, M. H.; Clark, J. E.; Eisgruber, L. M.; Braschler, C. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Results for both the United States and Canada show that econometric models can provide estimates of confusion crop ratios that are more accurate than historical ratios. Whether these models can support the LACIE 90/90 accuracy criterion is uncertain. In the United States, experimenting with additional model formulations could provide improved methods models in some CRD's, particularly in winter wheat. Improved models may also be possible for the Canadian CD's. The more aggressive province/state models outperformed individual CD/CRD models. This result was expected partly because acreage statistics are based on sampling procedures, and the sampling precision declines from the province/state to the CD/CRD level. Declining sampling precision and the need to substitute province/state data for the CD/CRD data introduced measurement error into the CD/CRD models.

  7. Defensive medicine: No wonder policymakers are confused.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, Marshall B

    2016-01-01

    Discussions regarding defensive medical practice often result in proposals for public policy actions. Such proposals generally are premised on assumptions about defensive medicine, namely, that it (a) is driven by physicians' legal anxieties, (b) constitutes bad medical practice, (c) drives up health care costs, (d) varies depending on a jurisdiction's particular tort law climate, (e) depends on medical specialty and a physician's own prior experience as a malpractice defendant, and (f) is a rational response to actual legal risks confronting physicians. This article examines a sample of recent literature focusing on defensive medicine and finds that the messages conveyed vary widely, helping to explain the confusion experienced by many policymakers trying to improve the quality and affordability of health care.

  8. EBM, HTA, and CER: clearing the confusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, Bryan R; Drummond, Michael; Jönsson, Bengt; Neumann, Peter J; Schwartz, J Sanford; Siebert, Uwe; Sullivan, Sean D

    2010-06-01

    The terms evidence-based medicine (EBM), health technology assessment (HTA), comparative effectiveness research (CER), and other related terms lack clarity and so could lead to miscommunication, confusion, and poor decision making. The objective of this article is to clarify their definitions and the relationships among key terms and concepts. This article used the relevant methods and policy literature as well as the websites of organizations engaged in evidence-based activities to develop a framework to explain the relationships among the terms EBM, HTA, and CER. This article proposes an organizing framework and presents a graphic demonstrating the differences and relationships among these terms and concepts. More specific terminology and concepts are necessary for an informed and clear public policy debate. They are even more important to inform decision making at all levels and to engender more accountability by the organizations and individuals responsible for these decisions.

  9. Origins Space Telescope: Breaking the Confusion Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Edward L.; Origins Space Telescope Science and Technology Definition Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies of NASA Headquarters for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s.OST will have a background-limited sensitivity for a background 27,000 times lower than the Herschel background caused by thermal emission from Herschel's warm telescope. For continuum observations the confusion limit in a diffraction-limited survey can be reached in very short integration times at longer far-infrared wavelengths. But the confusion limit can be pierced for both the nearest and the farthest objects to be observed by OST. For outer the Solar System the targets' motion across the sky will provide a clear signature in surveys repeated after an interval of days to months. This will provide a size-frequency distribution of TNOs that is not biased toward high albedo objects.For the distant Universe the first galaxies and the first metals will provide a third dimension of spectral information that can be measured with a long-slit, medium resolution spectrograph. This will allow 3Dmapping to measure source densities as a function of redshift. The continuum shape associated with sourcesat different redshifts can be derived from correlation analyses of these 3D maps.Fairly large sky areas can be scanned by moving the spacecraft at a constant angular rate perpendicular to the orientation of the long slit of the spectrograph, avoiding the high overhead of step-and-stare surveying with a large space observatory.We welcome you to contact the Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) with your science needs and ideas by emailing us at ost_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu

  10. Pre-processing for Triangulation of Probabilistic Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodlaender, H.L.; Koster, A.M.C.A.; Eijkhof, F. van den; Gaag, L.C. van der

    2001-01-01

    The currently most efficient algorithm for inference with a probabilistic network builds upon a triangulation of a networks graph. In this paper, we show that pre-processing can help in finding good triangulations for probabilistic networks, that is, triangulations with a minimal maximum

  11. Orthogonal feature selection method. [For preprocessing of man spectral data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalski, B R [Univ. of Washington, Seattle; Bender, C F

    1976-01-01

    A new method of preprocessing spectral data for extraction of molecular structural information is desired. This SELECT method generates orthogonal features that are important for classification purposes and that also retain their identity to the original measurements. A brief introduction to chemical pattern recognition is presented. A brief description of the method and an application to mass spectral data analysis follow. (BLM)

  12. Image preprocessing study on KPCA-based face recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuan; Li, Dehua

    2015-12-01

    Face recognition as an important biometric identification method, with its friendly, natural, convenient advantages, has obtained more and more attention. This paper intends to research a face recognition system including face detection, feature extraction and face recognition, mainly through researching on related theory and the key technology of various preprocessing methods in face detection process, using KPCA method, focuses on the different recognition results in different preprocessing methods. In this paper, we choose YCbCr color space for skin segmentation and choose integral projection for face location. We use erosion and dilation of the opening and closing operation and illumination compensation method to preprocess face images, and then use the face recognition method based on kernel principal component analysis method for analysis and research, and the experiments were carried out using the typical face database. The algorithms experiment on MATLAB platform. Experimental results show that integration of the kernel method based on PCA algorithm under certain conditions make the extracted features represent the original image information better for using nonlinear feature extraction method, which can obtain higher recognition rate. In the image preprocessing stage, we found that images under various operations may appear different results, so as to obtain different recognition rate in recognition stage. At the same time, in the process of the kernel principal component analysis, the value of the power of the polynomial function can affect the recognition result.

  13. An Effective Measured Data Preprocessing Method in Electrical Impedance Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenglong Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As an advanced process detection technology, electrical impedance tomography (EIT has widely been paid attention to and studied in the industrial fields. But the EIT techniques are greatly limited to the low spatial resolutions. This problem may result from the incorrect preprocessing of measuring data and lack of general criterion to evaluate different preprocessing processes. In this paper, an EIT data preprocessing method is proposed by all rooting measured data and evaluated by two constructed indexes based on all rooted EIT measured data. By finding the optimums of the two indexes, the proposed method can be applied to improve the EIT imaging spatial resolutions. In terms of a theoretical model, the optimal rooting times of the two indexes range in [0.23, 0.33] and in [0.22, 0.35], respectively. Moreover, these factors that affect the correctness of the proposed method are generally analyzed. The measuring data preprocessing is necessary and helpful for any imaging process. Thus, the proposed method can be generally and widely used in any imaging process. Experimental results validate the two proposed indexes.

  14. Lectures on matrices

    CERN Document Server

    M Wedderburn, J H

    1934-01-01

    It is the organization and presentation of the material, however, which make the peculiar appeal of the book. This is no mere compendium of results-the subject has been completely reworked and the proofs recast with the skill and elegance which come only from years of devotion. -Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society The very clear and simple presentation gives the reader easy access to the more difficult parts of the theory. -Jahrbuch über die Fortschritte der Mathematik In 1937, the theory of matrices was seventy-five years old. However, many results had only recently evolved from sp

  15. Matrices and linear algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Hans

    1989-01-01

    Linear algebra is one of the central disciplines in mathematics. A student of pure mathematics must know linear algebra if he is to continue with modern algebra or functional analysis. Much of the mathematics now taught to engineers and physicists requires it.This well-known and highly regarded text makes the subject accessible to undergraduates with little mathematical experience. Written mainly for students in physics, engineering, economics, and other fields outside mathematics, the book gives the theory of matrices and applications to systems of linear equations, as well as many related t

  16. Intermittency and random matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokoloff, Dmitry; Illarionov, E. A.

    2015-08-01

    A spectacular phenomenon of intermittency, i.e. a progressive growth of higher statistical moments of a physical field excited by an instability in a random medium, attracted the attention of Zeldovich in the last years of his life. At that time, the mathematical aspects underlying the physical description of this phenomenon were still under development and relations between various findings in the field remained obscure. Contemporary results from the theory of the product of independent random matrices (the Furstenberg theory) allowed the elaboration of the phenomenon of intermittency in a systematic way. We consider applications of the Furstenberg theory to some problems in cosmology and dynamo theory.

  17. Dimension from covariance matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, T L; Byers, J M

    2017-02-01

    We describe a method to estimate embedding dimension from a time series. This method includes an estimate of the probability that the dimension estimate is valid. Such validity estimates are not common in algorithms for calculating the properties of dynamical systems. The algorithm described here compares the eigenvalues of covariance matrices created from an embedded signal to the eigenvalues for a covariance matrix of a Gaussian random process with the same dimension and number of points. A statistical test gives the probability that the eigenvalues for the embedded signal did not come from the Gaussian random process.

  18. Confusion deepens over N.S. Mutsu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The problem regarding the nuclear ship Mutsu has developed into a major political issue, and has been thrown into confusion, since a group in the ruling Liberal Democratic Party decided that the nuclear ship should be out of commission, and the construction of the new home port should be suspended. The commercial operation of nuclear ships is not expected soon, and the government plan to spend 60 billion to 100 billion yen for the construction of the new home port is questioned. The group to consider the nuclear ship urged the government to make serious effort to resume the experiment of the Mutsu as soon as possible, and the Nuclear Ship Council of the AEC considered the construction of the new home port as unavoidable, and emphasized the importance of nuclear ship development. This seemed to end the argument, but the above decision was made. Five major papers are also divided over the question of the Mutsu. Local people demand the government to observe the five-party agreement on the construction of the new home port at Sekinehama. Four top executives of the Liberal Democratic Party made a four-point decision, but it was so ambiguous that it may be interpreted in various ways. This decision threatens the existence of the AEC as the highest organ on the atomic energy policy of Japan. The role as an experimental nuclear ship should be fulfiled anyway. (Kako, I.)

  19. Complex Wedge-Shaped Matrices: A Generalization of Jacobi Matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hnětynková, Iveta; Plešinger, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 487, 15 December (2015), s. 203-219 ISSN 0024-3795 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-06684S Keywords : eigenvalues * eigenvector * wedge-shaped matrices * generalized Jacobi matrices * band (or block) Krylov subspace methods Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.965, year: 2015

  20. Research on pre-processing of QR Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haixing; Xia, Haojie; Dong, Ning

    2013-10-01

    QR code encodes many kinds of information because of its advantages: large storage capacity, high reliability, full arrange of utter-high-speed reading, small printing size and high-efficient representation of Chinese characters, etc. In order to obtain the clearer binarization image from complex background, and improve the recognition rate of QR code, this paper researches on pre-processing methods of QR code (Quick Response Code), and shows algorithms and results of image pre-processing for QR code recognition. Improve the conventional method by changing the Souvola's adaptive text recognition method. Additionally, introduce the QR code Extraction which adapts to different image size, flexible image correction approach, and improve the efficiency and accuracy of QR code image processing.

  1. Linguistic Preprocessing and Tagging for Problem Report Trend Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beil, Robert J.; Malin, Jane T.

    2012-01-01

    Mr. Robert Beil, Systems Engineer at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) develop a prototype tool suite that combines complementary software technology used at Johnson Space Center (JSC) and KSC for problem report preprocessing and semantic tag extraction, to improve input to data mining and trend analysis. This document contains the outcome of the assessment and the Findings, Observations and NESC Recommendations.

  2. Learning and Generalisation in Neural Networks with Local Preprocessing

    OpenAIRE

    Kutsia, Merab

    2007-01-01

    We study learning and generalisation ability of a specific two-layer feed-forward neural network and compare its properties to that of a simple perceptron. The input patterns are mapped nonlinearly onto a hidden layer, much larger than the input layer, and this mapping is either fixed or may result from an unsupervised learning process. Such preprocessing of initially uncorrelated random patterns results in the correlated patterns in the hidden layer. The hidden-to-output mapping of the net...

  3. Summary of ENDF/B pre-processing codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.E.

    1981-12-01

    This document contains the summary documentation for the ENDF/B pre-processing codes: LINEAR, RECENT, SIGMA1, GROUPIE, EVALPLOT, MERGER, DICTION, CONVERT. This summary documentation is merely a copy of the comment cards that appear at the beginning of each programme; these comment cards always reflect the latest status of input options, etc. For the latest published documentation on the methods used in these codes see UCRL-50400, Vol.17 parts A-E, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (1979)

  4. Generalisations of Fisher Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Heavens

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Fisher matrices play an important role in experimental design and in data analysis. Their primary role is to make predictions for the inference of model parameters—both their errors and covariances. In this short review, I outline a number of extensions to the simple Fisher matrix formalism, covering a number of recent developments in the field. These are: (a situations where the data (in the form of ( x , y pairs have errors in both x and y; (b modifications to parameter inference in the presence of systematic errors, or through fixing the values of some model parameters; (c Derivative Approximation for LIkelihoods (DALI - higher-order expansions of the likelihood surface, going beyond the Gaussian shape approximation; (d extensions of the Fisher-like formalism, to treat model selection problems with Bayesian evidence.

  5. Random volumes from matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuma, Masafumi; Sugishita, Sotaro; Umeda, Naoya [Department of Physics, Kyoto University,Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2015-07-17

    We propose a class of models which generate three-dimensional random volumes, where each configuration consists of triangles glued together along multiple hinges. The models have matrices as the dynamical variables and are characterized by semisimple associative algebras A. Although most of the diagrams represent configurations which are not manifolds, we show that the set of possible diagrams can be drastically reduced such that only (and all of the) three-dimensional manifolds with tetrahedral decompositions appear, by introducing a color structure and taking an appropriate large N limit. We examine the analytic properties when A is a matrix ring or a group ring, and show that the models with matrix ring have a novel strong-weak duality which interchanges the roles of triangles and hinges. We also give a brief comment on the relationship of our models with the colored tensor models.

  6. Pre-processing by data augmentation for improved ellipse fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Belchamber, Erika R; Miklavcic, Stanley J

    2018-01-01

    Ellipse fitting is a highly researched and mature topic. Surprisingly, however, no existing method has thus far considered the data point eccentricity in its ellipse fitting procedure. Here, we introduce the concept of eccentricity of a data point, in analogy with the idea of ellipse eccentricity. We then show empirically that, irrespective of ellipse fitting method used, the root mean square error (RMSE) of a fit increases with the eccentricity of the data point set. The main contribution of the paper is based on the hypothesis that if the data point set were pre-processed to strategically add additional data points in regions of high eccentricity, then the quality of a fit could be improved. Conditional validity of this hypothesis is demonstrated mathematically using a model scenario. Based on this confirmation we propose an algorithm that pre-processes the data so that data points with high eccentricity are replicated. The improvement of ellipse fitting is then demonstrated empirically in real-world application of 3D reconstruction of a plant root system for phenotypic analysis. The degree of improvement for different underlying ellipse fitting methods as a function of data noise level is also analysed. We show that almost every method tested, irrespective of whether it minimizes algebraic error or geometric error, shows improvement in the fit following data augmentation using the proposed pre-processing algorithm.

  7. A Stereo Music Preprocessing Scheme for Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyens, Wim; van Dijk, Bas; Wouters, Jan; Moonen, Marc

    2015-10-01

    Listening to music is still one of the more challenging aspects of using a cochlear implant (CI) for most users. Simple musical structures, a clear rhythm/beat, and lyrics that are easy to follow are among the top factors contributing to music appreciation for CI users. Modifying the audio mix of complex music potentially improves music enjoyment in CI users. A stereo music preprocessing scheme is described in which vocals, drums, and bass are emphasized based on the representation of the harmonic and the percussive components in the input spectrogram, combined with the spatial allocation of instruments in typical stereo recordings. The scheme is assessed with postlingually deafened CI subjects (N = 7) using pop/rock music excerpts with different complexity levels. The scheme is capable of modifying relative instrument level settings, with the aim of improving music appreciation in CI users, and allows individual preference adjustments. The assessment with CI subjects confirms the preference for more emphasis on vocals, drums, and bass as offered by the preprocessing scheme, especially for songs with higher complexity. The stereo music preprocessing scheme has the potential to improve music enjoyment in CI users by modifying the audio mix in widespread (stereo) music recordings. Since music enjoyment in CI users is generally poor, this scheme can assist the music listening experience of CI users as a training or rehabilitation tool.

  8. Optimization of miRNA-seq data preprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Shirley; Tsao, Ming-Sound; McPherson, John D

    2015-11-01

    The past two decades of microRNA (miRNA) research has solidified the role of these small non-coding RNAs as key regulators of many biological processes and promising biomarkers for disease. The concurrent development in high-throughput profiling technology has further advanced our understanding of the impact of their dysregulation on a global scale. Currently, next-generation sequencing is the platform of choice for the discovery and quantification of miRNAs. Despite this, there is no clear consensus on how the data should be preprocessed before conducting downstream analyses. Often overlooked, data preprocessing is an essential step in data analysis: the presence of unreliable features and noise can affect the conclusions drawn from downstream analyses. Using a spike-in dilution study, we evaluated the effects of several general-purpose aligners (BWA, Bowtie, Bowtie 2 and Novoalign), and normalization methods (counts-per-million, total count scaling, upper quartile scaling, Trimmed Mean of M, DESeq, linear regression, cyclic loess and quantile) with respect to the final miRNA count data distribution, variance, bias and accuracy of differential expression analysis. We make practical recommendations on the optimal preprocessing methods for the extraction and interpretation of miRNA count data from small RNA-sequencing experiments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. "G.P.S Matrices" programme: A method to improve the mastery level of social science students in matrices operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ken Voon

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this action research was to increase the mastery level of Form Five Social Science students in Tawau II National Secondary School in the operations of addition, subtraction and multiplication of matrices in Mathematics. A total of 30 students were involved. Preliminary findings through the analysis of pre-test results and questionnaire had identified the main problem faced in which the students felt confused with the application of principles of the operations of matrices when performing these operations. Therefore, an action research was conducted using an intervention programme called "G.P.S Matrices" to overcome the problem. This programme was divided into three phases. 'Gift of Matrices' phase aimed at forming matrix teaching aids. The second and third phases were 'Positioning the Elements of Matrices' and 'Strenghtening the Concept of Matrices'. These two phases were aimed at increasing the level of understanding and memory of the students towards the principles of matrix operations. Besides, this third phase was also aimed at creating an interesting learning environment. A comparison between the results of pre-test and post-test had shown a remarkable improvement in students' performances after implementing the programme. In addition, the analysis of interview findings also indicated a positive feedback on the changes in students' attitude, particularly in the aspect of students' understanding level. Moreover, the level of students' memory also increased following the use of the concrete matrix teaching aids created in phase one. Besides, teachers felt encouraging when conducive learning environment was created through students' presentation activity held in third phase. Furthermore, students were voluntarily involved in these student-centred activities. In conclusion, this research findings showed an increase in the mastery level of students in these three matrix operations and thus the objective of the research had been achieved.

  10. NOMENCLATURAL CONFUSION OF SOME SPECIES OF ANDROGRAPHIS WALL

    OpenAIRE

    Balu, S.; Alagesaboopathi, C.

    1995-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata Nees, Andrographis alata Nees and Andrographis lineate Nees. (Acanthaceae) are important medicinal plants useful in the treatment of various human ailments. Nomenclatural confusion prevails with regards to these medicinal plants in India medical literature and vernacular nomenclature. This nomenclatural confusion has been clarified in the present paper.

  11. RTI: Court and Case Law--Confusion by Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daves, David P.; Walker, David W.

    2012-01-01

    Professional confusion, as well as case law confusion, exists concerning the fidelity and integrity of response to intervention (RTI) as a defensible procedure for identifying children as having a specific learning disability (SLD) under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Division is generated because of conflicting mandates…

  12. VanderLaan Circulant Type Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulant matrices have become a satisfactory tools in control methods for modern complex systems. In the paper, VanderLaan circulant type matrices are presented, which include VanderLaan circulant, left circulant, and g-circulant matrices. The nonsingularity of these special matrices is discussed by the surprising properties of VanderLaan numbers. The exact determinants of VanderLaan circulant type matrices are given by structuring transformation matrices, determinants of well-known tridiagonal matrices, and tridiagonal-like matrices. The explicit inverse matrices of these special matrices are obtained by structuring transformation matrices, inverses of known tridiagonal matrices, and quasi-tridiagonal matrices. Three kinds of norms and lower bound for the spread of VanderLaan circulant and left circulant matrix are given separately. And we gain the spectral norm of VanderLaan g-circulant matrix.

  13. Diagonalization of the mass matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    It is possible to make 20 types of 3x3 mass matrices which are hermitian. We have obtained unitary matrices which could diagonalize each mass matrix. Since the three elements of mass matrix can be expressed in terms of the three eigenvalues, msub(i), we can also express the unitary matrix in terms of msub(i). (Author)

  14. Enhancing Understanding of Transformation Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Jonathan; Childrey, Maria

    2012-01-01

    With the Common Core State Standards' emphasis on transformations, teachers need a variety of approaches to increase student understanding. Teaching matrix transformations by focusing on row vectors gives students tools to create matrices to perform transformations. This empowerment opens many doors: Students are able to create the matrices for…

  15. Hierarchical matrices algorithms and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Hackbusch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    This self-contained monograph presents matrix algorithms and their analysis. The new technique enables not only the solution of linear systems but also the approximation of matrix functions, e.g., the matrix exponential. Other applications include the solution of matrix equations, e.g., the Lyapunov or Riccati equation. The required mathematical background can be found in the appendix. The numerical treatment of fully populated large-scale matrices is usually rather costly. However, the technique of hierarchical matrices makes it possible to store matrices and to perform matrix operations approximately with almost linear cost and a controllable degree of approximation error. For important classes of matrices, the computational cost increases only logarithmically with the approximation error. The operations provided include the matrix inversion and LU decomposition. Since large-scale linear algebra problems are standard in scientific computing, the subject of hierarchical matrices is of interest to scientists ...

  16. Intrinsic character of Stokes matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Jean-François; Rousseau, Christiane

    2017-02-01

    Two germs of linear analytic differential systems x k + 1Y‧ = A (x) Y with a non-resonant irregular singularity are analytically equivalent if and only if they have the same eigenvalues and equivalent collections of Stokes matrices. The Stokes matrices are the transition matrices between sectors on which the system is analytically equivalent to its formal normal form. Each sector contains exactly one separating ray for each pair of eigenvalues. A rotation in S allows supposing that R+ lies in the intersection of two sectors. Reordering of the coordinates of Y allows ordering the real parts of the eigenvalues, thus yielding triangular Stokes matrices. However, the choice of the rotation in x is not canonical. In this paper we establish how the collection of Stokes matrices depends on this rotation, and hence on a chosen order of the projection of the eigenvalues on a line through the origin.

  17. The Likelihood of Confusion in the United State Ninth Circuit and the doctrine of Confusable Marks in the Andean Tribunal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Cabrera Perdomo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analysis the most important cases within the jurisdiction of California regarding the trademark infringement and its prerogative of the likelihood of confusion. Finally, it compares the conclusion with the confusable marks theory within the Andean community’s recent cases solving the issue.

  18. Comparison of multivariate preprocessing techniques as applied to electronic tongue based pattern classification for black tea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palit, Mousumi; Tudu, Bipan; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Dutta, Ankur; Dutta, Pallab Kumar; Jana, Arun; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib; Chatterjee, Anutosh

    2010-01-01

    In an electronic tongue, preprocessing on raw data precedes pattern analysis and choice of the appropriate preprocessing technique is crucial for the performance of the pattern classifier. While attempting to classify different grades of black tea using a voltammetric electronic tongue, different preprocessing techniques have been explored and a comparison of their performances is presented in this paper. The preprocessing techniques are compared first by a quantitative measurement of separability followed by principle component analysis; and then two different supervised pattern recognition models based on neural networks are used to evaluate the performance of the preprocessing techniques.

  19. Special matrices of mathematical physics stochastic, circulant and Bell matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Aldrovandi, R

    2001-01-01

    This book expounds three special kinds of matrices that are of physical interest, centering on physical examples. Stochastic matrices describe dynamical systems of many different types, involving (or not) phenomena like transience, dissipation, ergodicity, nonequilibrium, and hypersensitivity to initial conditions. The main characteristic is growth by agglomeration, as in glass formation. Circulants are the building blocks of elementary Fourier analysis and provide a natural gateway to quantum mechanics and noncommutative geometry. Bell polynomials offer closed expressions for many formulas co

  20. Parallel pipeline algorithm of real time star map preprocessing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-yong; Qin, Tian-mu; Liu, Jia-qi; Li, Zhi-feng; Li, Jian-hua

    2016-03-01

    To improve the preprocessing speed of star map and reduce the resource consumption of embedded system of star tracker, a parallel pipeline real-time preprocessing algorithm is presented. The two characteristics, the mean and the noise standard deviation of the background gray of a star map, are firstly obtained dynamically by the means that the intervene of the star image itself to the background is removed in advance. The criterion on whether or not the following noise filtering is needed is established, then the extraction threshold value is assigned according to the level of background noise, so that the centroiding accuracy is guaranteed. In the processing algorithm, as low as two lines of pixel data are buffered, and only 100 shift registers are used to record the connected domain label, by which the problems of resources wasting and connected domain overflow are solved. The simulating results show that the necessary data of the selected bright stars could be immediately accessed in a delay time as short as 10us after the pipeline processing of a 496×496 star map in 50Mb/s is finished, and the needed memory and registers resource total less than 80kb. To verify the accuracy performance of the algorithm proposed, different levels of background noise are added to the processed ideal star map, and the statistic centroiding error is smaller than 1/23 pixel under the condition that the signal to noise ratio is greater than 1. The parallel pipeline algorithm of real time star map preprocessing helps to increase the data output speed and the anti-dynamic performance of star tracker.

  1. Contour extraction of echocardiographic images based on pre-processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, Zinah Rajab; Rahmat, Rahmita Wirza; Abdullah, Lili Nurliyana [Department of Multimedia, Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, Department of Computer and Communication Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering University Putra Malaysia 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Zamrin, D M [Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, National University of Malaysia, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Saripan, M Iqbal

    2011-02-15

    In this work we present a technique to extract the heart contours from noisy echocardiograph images. Our technique is based on improving the image before applying contours detection to reduce heavy noise and get better image quality. To perform that, we combine many pre-processing techniques (filtering, morphological operations, and contrast adjustment) to avoid unclear edges and enhance low contrast of echocardiograph images, after implementing these techniques we can get legible detection for heart boundaries and valves movement by traditional edge detection methods.

  2. Contour extraction of echocardiographic images based on pre-processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, Zinah Rajab; Rahmat, Rahmita Wirza; Abdullah, Lili Nurliyana; Zamrin, D M; Saripan, M Iqbal

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present a technique to extract the heart contours from noisy echocardiograph images. Our technique is based on improving the image before applying contours detection to reduce heavy noise and get better image quality. To perform that, we combine many pre-processing techniques (filtering, morphological operations, and contrast adjustment) to avoid unclear edges and enhance low contrast of echocardiograph images, after implementing these techniques we can get legible detection for heart boundaries and valves movement by traditional edge detection methods.

  3. Parallel preprocessing in a nuclear data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichot, G.; Auriol, E.; Lemarchand, G.; Millaud, J.

    1977-01-01

    The appearance of microprocessors and large memory chips has somewhat modified the spectrum of tools usable by the data acquisition system designer. This is particular true in the nuclear research field where the data flow has been continuously growing as a consequence of the increasing capabilities of new detectors. This paper deals with the insertion, between a data acquisition system and a computer, of a preprocessing structure based on microprocessors and large capacity high speed memories. The results shows a significant improvement on several aspects in the operation of the system with returns paying back the investments in 18 months

  4. The invariant theory of matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Concini, Corrado De

    2017-01-01

    This book gives a unified, complete, and self-contained exposition of the main algebraic theorems of invariant theory for matrices in a characteristic free approach. More precisely, it contains the description of polynomial functions in several variables on the set of m\\times m matrices with coefficients in an infinite field or even the ring of integers, invariant under simultaneous conjugation. Following Hermann Weyl's classical approach, the ring of invariants is described by formulating and proving the first fundamental theorem that describes a set of generators in the ring of invariants, and the second fundamental theorem that describes relations between these generators. The authors study both the case of matrices over a field of characteristic 0 and the case of matrices over a field of positive characteristic. While the case of characteristic 0 can be treated following a classical approach, the case of positive characteristic (developed by Donkin and Zubkov) is much harder. A presentation of this case...

  5. Number of generations related to coupling constants by confusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.L.; Nielsen, H.B.

    1987-01-01

    In the context of random dynamics, the mechanism of confusion is used to obtain a relation between the number of generations and standard model coupling constants. Preliminary results predict the existence of four generations. (orig.)

  6. Quantum matrices in two dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewen, H.; Ogievetsky, O.; Wess, J.

    1991-01-01

    Quantum matrices in two-dimensions, admitting left and right quantum spaces, are classified: they fall into two families, the 2-parametric family GL p,q (2) and a 1-parametric family GL α J (2). Phenomena previously found for GL p,q (2) hold in this general situation: (a) powers of quantum matrices are again quantum and (b) entries of the logarithm of a two-dimensional quantum matrix form a Lie algebra. (orig.)

  7. Right word making sense of the words that confuse

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    'Affect' or 'effect'? 'Right', 'write' or 'rite'? English can certainly be a confusing language, whether you're a native speaker or learning it as a second language. 'The Right Word' is the essential reference to help people master its subtleties and avoid making mistakes. Divided into three sections, it first examines homophones - those tricky words that sound the same but are spelled differently - then looks at words that often confuse before providing a list of commonly misspelled words.

  8. Manin matrices and Talalaev's formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chervov, A; Falqui, G

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study properties of Lax and transfer matrices associated with quantum integrable systems. Our point of view stems from the fact that their elements satisfy special commutation properties, considered by Yu I Manin some 20 years ago at the beginning of quantum group theory. These are the commutation properties of matrix elements of linear homomorphisms between polynomial rings; more explicitly these read: (1) elements of the same column commute; (2) commutators of the cross terms are equal: [M ij , M kl ] [M kj , M il ] (e.g. [M 11 , M 22 ] = [M 21 , M 12 ]). The main aim of this paper is twofold: on the one hand we observe and prove that such matrices (which we call Manin matrices in short) behave almost as well as matrices with commutative elements. Namely, the theorems of linear algebra (e.g., a natural definition of the determinant, the Cayley-Hamilton theorem, the Newton identities and so on and so forth) have a straightforward counterpart in the case of Manin matrices. On the other hand, we remark that such matrices are somewhat ubiquitous in the theory of quantum integrability. For instance, Manin matrices (and their q-analogs) include matrices satisfying the Yang-Baxter relation 'RTT=TTR' and the so-called Cartier-Foata matrices. Also, they enter Talalaev's remarkable formulae: det(∂ z -L gaudin (z)), det(1-e -∂z T Yangian (z)) for the 'quantum spectral curve', and appear in the separation of variables problem and Capelli identities. We show that theorems of linear algebra, after being established for such matrices, have various applications to quantum integrable systems and Lie algebras, e.g. in the construction of new generators in Z(U crit (gl-hat n )) (and, in general, in the construction of quantum conservation laws), in the Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equation, and in the problem of Wick ordering. We propose, in the appendix, a construction of quantum separated variables for the XXX-Heisenberg system

  9. On reflectionless equi-transmitting matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kurasov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflectionless equi-transmitting unitary matrices are studied in connection to matching conditions in quantum graphs. All possible such matrices of size 6 are described explicitly. It is shown that such matrices form 30 six-parameter families intersected along 12 five-parameter families closely connected to conference matrices.

  10. Spectra of sparse random matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, Reimer

    2008-01-01

    We compute the spectral density for ensembles of sparse symmetric random matrices using replica. Our formulation of the replica-symmetric ansatz shares the symmetries of that suggested in a seminal paper by Rodgers and Bray (symmetry with respect to permutation of replica and rotation symmetry in the space of replica), but uses a different representation in terms of superpositions of Gaussians. It gives rise to a pair of integral equations which can be solved by a stochastic population-dynamics algorithm. Remarkably our representation allows us to identify pure-point contributions to the spectral density related to the existence of normalizable eigenstates. Our approach is not restricted to matrices defined on graphs with Poissonian degree distribution. Matrices defined on regular random graphs or on scale-free graphs, are easily handled. We also look at matrices with row constraints such as discrete graph Laplacians. Our approach naturally allows us to unfold the total density of states into contributions coming from vertices of different local coordinations and an example of such an unfolding is presented. Our results are well corroborated by numerical diagonalization studies of large finite random matrices

  11. Pre-Processing and Modeling Tools for Bigdata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashem Hadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Modeling tools and operators help the user / developer to identify the processing field on the top of the sequence and to send into the computing module only the data related to the requested result. The remaining data is not relevant and it will slow down the processing. The biggest challenge nowadays is to get high quality processing results with a reduced computing time and costs. To do so, we must review the processing sequence, by adding several modeling tools. The existing processing models do not take in consideration this aspect and focus on getting high calculation performances which will increase the computing time and costs. In this paper we provide a study of the main modeling tools for BigData and a new model based on pre-processing.

  12. Preprocessing in a Tiered Sensor Network for Habitat Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbiao Wang

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate task decomposition and collaboration in a two-tiered sensor network for habitat monitoring. The system recognizes and localizes a specified type of birdcalls. The system has a few powerful macronodes in the first tier, and many less powerful micronodes in the second tier. Each macronode combines data collected by multiple micronodes for target classification and localization. We describe two types of lightweight preprocessing which significantly reduce data transmission from micronodes to macronodes. Micronodes classify events according to their cross-zero rates and discard irrelevant events. Data about events of interest is reduced and compressed before being transmitted to macronodes for target localization. Preliminary experiments illustrate the effectiveness of event filtering and data reduction at micronodes.

  13. Textural Analysis of Fatique Crack Surfaces: Image Pre-processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Lauschmann

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available For the fatique crack history reconstitution, new methods of quantitative microfractography are beeing developed based on the image processing and textural analysis. SEM magnifications between micro- and macrofractography are used. Two image pre-processing operatins were suggested and proved to prepare the crack surface images for analytical treatment: 1. Normalization is used to transform the image to a stationary form. Compared to the generally used equalization, it conserves the shape of brightness distribution and saves the character of the texture. 2. Binarization is used to transform the grayscale image to a system of thick fibres. An objective criterion for the threshold brightness value was found as that resulting into the maximum number of objects. Both methods were succesfully applied together with the following textural analysis.

  14. Piecewise Polynomial Aggregation as Preprocessing for Data Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobronets, B. S.; Popova, O. A.

    2018-05-01

    Data aggregation issues for numerical modeling are reviewed in the present study. The authors discuss data aggregation procedures as preprocessing for subsequent numerical modeling. To calculate the data aggregation, the authors propose using numerical probabilistic analysis (NPA). An important feature of this study is how the authors represent the aggregated data. The study shows that the offered approach to data aggregation can be interpreted as the frequency distribution of a variable. To study its properties, the density function is used. For this purpose, the authors propose using the piecewise polynomial models. A suitable example of such approach is the spline. The authors show that their approach to data aggregation allows reducing the level of data uncertainty and significantly increasing the efficiency of numerical calculations. To demonstrate the degree of the correspondence of the proposed methods to reality, the authors developed a theoretical framework and considered numerical examples devoted to time series aggregation.

  15. Pre-processing of input files for the AZTRAN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas E, S.; Ibarra, G.

    2017-09-01

    The AZTRAN code began to be developed in the Nuclear Engineering Department of the Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas (ESFM) of the Instituto Politecnico Nacional (IPN) with the purpose of numerically solving various models arising from the physics and engineering of nuclear reactors. The code is still under development and is part of the AZTLAN platform: Development of a Mexican platform for the analysis and design of nuclear reactors. Due to the complexity to generate an input file for the code, a script based on D language is developed, with the purpose of making its elaboration easier, based on a new input file format which includes specific cards, which have been divided into two blocks, mandatory cards and optional cards, including a pre-processing of the input file to identify possible errors within it, as well as an image generator for the specific problem based on the python interpreter. (Author)

  16. Statistics in experimental design, preprocessing, and analysis of proteomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput experiments in proteomics, such as 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS), yield usually high-dimensional data sets of expression values for hundreds or thousands of proteins which are, however, observed on only a relatively small number of biological samples. Statistical methods for the planning and analysis of experiments are important to avoid false conclusions and to receive tenable results. In this chapter, the most frequent experimental designs for proteomics experiments are illustrated. In particular, focus is put on studies for the detection of differentially regulated proteins. Furthermore, issues of sample size planning, statistical analysis of expression levels as well as methods for data preprocessing are covered.

  17. Digital soil mapping: strategy for data pre-processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre ten Caten

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The region of greatest variability on soil maps is along the edge of their polygons, causing disagreement among pedologists about the appropriate description of soil classes at these locations. The objective of this work was to propose a strategy for data pre-processing applied to digital soil mapping (DSM. Soil polygons on a training map were shrunk by 100 and 160 m. This strategy prevented the use of covariates located near the edge of the soil classes for the Decision Tree (DT models. Three DT models derived from eight predictive covariates, related to relief and organism factors sampled on the original polygons of a soil map and on polygons shrunk by 100 and 160 m were used to predict soil classes. The DT model derived from observations 160 m away from the edge of the polygons on the original map is less complex and has a better predictive performance.

  18. Predator confusion is sufficient to evolve swarming behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Randal S; Hintze, Arend; Dyer, Fred C; Knoester, David B; Adami, Christoph

    2013-08-06

    Swarming behaviours in animals have been extensively studied owing to their implications for the evolution of cooperation, social cognition and predator-prey dynamics. An important goal of these studies is discerning which evolutionary pressures favour the formation of swarms. One hypothesis is that swarms arise because the presence of multiple moving prey in swarms causes confusion for attacking predators, but it remains unclear how important this selective force is. Using an evolutionary model of a predator-prey system, we show that predator confusion provides a sufficient selection pressure to evolve swarming behaviour in prey. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the evolutionary effect of predator confusion on prey could in turn exert pressure on the structure of the predator's visual field, favouring the frontally oriented, high-resolution visual systems commonly observed in predators that feed on swarming animals. Finally, we provide evidence that when prey evolve swarming in response to predator confusion, there is a change in the shape of the functional response curve describing the predator's consumption rate as prey density increases. Thus, we show that a relatively simple perceptual constraint--predator confusion--could have pervasive evolutionary effects on prey behaviour, predator sensory mechanisms and the ecological interactions between predators and prey.

  19. Free probability and random matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Mingo, James A

    2017-01-01

    This volume opens the world of free probability to a wide variety of readers. From its roots in the theory of operator algebras, free probability has intertwined with non-crossing partitions, random matrices, applications in wireless communications, representation theory of large groups, quantum groups, the invariant subspace problem, large deviations, subfactors, and beyond. This book puts a special emphasis on the relation of free probability to random matrices, but also touches upon the operator algebraic, combinatorial, and analytic aspects of the theory. The book serves as a combination textbook/research monograph, with self-contained chapters, exercises scattered throughout the text, and coverage of important ongoing progress of the theory. It will appeal to graduate students and all mathematicians interested in random matrices and free probability from the point of view of operator algebras, combinatorics, analytic functions, or applications in engineering and statistical physics.

  20. Chequered surfaces and complex matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, T.R.; Southampton Univ.

    1991-01-01

    We investigate a large-N matrix model involving general complex matrices. It can be reinterpreted as a model of two hermitian matrices with specific couplings, and as a model of positive definite hermitian matrices. Large-N perturbation theory generates dynamical triangulations in which the triangles can be chequered (i.e. coloured so that neighbours are opposite colours). On a sphere there is a simple relation between such triangulations and those generated by the single hermitian matrix model. For the torus (and a quartic potential) we solve the counting problem for the number of triangulations that cannot be quechered. The critical physics of chequered triangulations is the same as that of the hermitian matrix model. We show this explicitly by solving non-perturbatively pure two-dimensional ''chequered'' gravity. The interpretative framework given here applies to a number of other generalisations of the hermitian matrix model. (orig.)

  1. Loop diagrams without γ matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeon, D.G.C.; Rebhan, A.

    1993-01-01

    By using a quantum-mechanical path integral to compute matrix elements of the form left-angle x|exp(-iHt)|y right-angle, radiative corrections in quantum-field theory can be evaluated without encountering loop-momentum integrals. In this paper we demonstrate how Dirac γ matrices that occur in the proper-time ''Hamiltonian'' H lead to the introduction of a quantum-mechanical path integral corresponding to a superparticle analogous to one proposed recently by Fradkin and Gitman. Direct evaluation of this path integral circumvents many of the usual algebraic manipulations of γ matrices in the computation of quantum-field-theoretical Green's functions involving fermions

  2. Immanant Conversion on Symmetric Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purificação Coelho M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Letr Σn(C denote the space of all n χ n symmetric matrices over the complex field C. The main objective of this paper is to prove that the maps Φ : Σn(C -> Σn (C satisfying for any fixed irre- ducible characters X, X' -SC the condition dx(A +aB = dχ·(Φ(Α + αΦ(Β for all matrices A,В ε Σ„(С and all scalars a ε C are automatically linear and bijective. As a corollary of the above result we characterize all such maps Φ acting on ΣИ(С.

  3. On families of anticommuting matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubeš, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 493, March 15 (2016), s. 494-507 ISSN 0024-3795 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : anticommuting matrices * sum-of-squares formulas Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0024379515007296

  4. On families of anticommuting matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubeš, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 493, March 15 (2016), s. 494-507 ISSN 0024-3795 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 339691 - FEALORA Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : anticommuting matrices * sum -of-squares formulas Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.973, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0024379515007296

  5. A New Indicator for Optimal Preprocessing and Wavelengths Selection of Near-Infrared Spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibsted, E.; Boelens, H.F.M.; Westerhuis, J.A.; Witte, D.T.; Smilde, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    Preprocessing of near-infrared spectra to remove unwanted, i.e., non-related spectral variation and selection of informative wavelengths is considered to be a crucial step prior to the construction of a quantitative calibration model. The standard methodology when comparing various preprocessing

  6. New indicator for optimal preprocessing and wavelength selection of near-infrared spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skibsted, E. T. S.; Boelens, H. F. M.; Westerhuis, J. A.; Witte, D. T.; Smilde, A. K.

    2004-01-01

    Preprocessing of near-infrared spectra to remove unwanted, i.e., non-related spectral variation and selection of informative wavelengths is considered to be a crucial step prior to the construction of a quantitative calibration model. The standard methodology when comparing various preprocessing

  7. Ensemble preprocessing of near-infrared (NIR) spectra for multivariate calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lu; Zhou Yanping; Tang Lijuan; Wu Hailong; Jiang Jianhui; Shen Guoli; Yu Ruqin

    2008-01-01

    Preprocessing of raw near-infrared (NIR) spectral data is indispensable in multivariate calibration when the measured spectra are subject to significant noises, baselines and other undesirable factors. However, due to the lack of sufficient prior information and an incomplete knowledge of the raw data, NIR spectra preprocessing in multivariate calibration is still trial and error. How to select a proper method depends largely on both the nature of the data and the expertise and experience of the practitioners. This might limit the applications of multivariate calibration in many fields, where researchers are not very familiar with the characteristics of many preprocessing methods unique in chemometrics and have difficulties to select the most suitable methods. Another problem is many preprocessing methods, when used alone, might degrade the data in certain aspects or lose some useful information while improving certain qualities of the data. In order to tackle these problems, this paper proposes a new concept of data preprocessing, ensemble preprocessing method, where partial least squares (PLSs) models built on differently preprocessed data are combined by Monte Carlo cross validation (MCCV) stacked regression. Little or no prior information of the data and expertise are required. Moreover, fusion of complementary information obtained by different preprocessing methods often leads to a more stable and accurate calibration model. The investigation of two real data sets has demonstrated the advantages of the proposed method

  8. Fuzzy cluster means algorithm for the diagnosis of confusable disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... end platform while Microsoft Access was used as the database application. The system gives a measure of each disease within a set of confusable disease. The proposed system had a classification accuracy of 60%. Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, expert system Fuzzy cluster – means Algorithm, physician, Diagnosis ...

  9. RTI Confusion in the Case Law and the Legal Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2011-01-01

    This article expresses the position that the current legal commentary and cases do not sufficiently differentiate response to intervention (RTI) from the various forms of general education interventions that preceded it, thus compounding confusion in professional practice as to legally defensible procedures for identifying children as having a…

  10. Oromo Oral Pun (Miliqqee): Confusion with Oromo Idiom (Jechama ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nature of the study was of a qualitative and quantitative type and the data were analysed by describing the existing qualities of the puns on theoretical basis. The tools used were content analysis, questionnaire and interview. The result shows that idiomatic meanings have been used as puns, was confusion of puns with ...

  11. The Role of Response Confusion in Proactive Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Richard F.; Thomas, Heather

    1975-01-01

    In two experiments using the Brown-Peterson memory paradigm, instructions to guess had small effects on recall, but sizeable effects on incidence of prior list intrustion. However, results indicate that proactive interference is primarily the result of inability to generate correct items, rather than confusion between present and previous items.…

  12. Investigating Confusion Between Perceptions of Relationship Education and Couples Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon K. Burr

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although relationship education (RE and couples therapy (CT have similar goals in helping build and sustain healthy couple and family relationships, there remains confusion between the focus and structure of the two services. Literature on the marketing of family programs indicates that the awareness level of the target audience should dictate marketing and recruitment messages. Lack of awareness regarding RE and confusion over the difference between RE and CT most likely affects the decision to attend. In order to inform RE recruitment and marketing approaches, this study investigated overall perceptions of RE, RE awareness, and confusion regarding the difference between RE and CT in a sample of 1,977 individuals. Differences in perceptions were also explored by relationship satisfaction and gender. Results showed a fairly high lack of awareness of RE and confusion between RE and CT. Results also showed that respondents in more satisfying relationships see RE less positively, and men see RE less positively than women. Implications for practitioners and researchers are presented.

  13. A girl with headache, confusion and green urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hufschmidt, Andreas; Krisch, Alexandra; Peschen, I

    2009-07-01

    The case of a 17-year-old girl with a history of headache, blurred vision, confusion, ataxia and syncope is presented. On admission, she had already recovered except for a slurring of speech. Her urine was found to be green. Screening for illegal drugs was negative, but gas chromatography with subsequent mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) revealed an extremely high concentration of flupirtine.

  14. Proper comparison among methods using a confusion matrix

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Salmon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available -1 IGARSS 2015, Milan, Italy, 26-31 July 2015 Proper comparison among methods using a confusion matrix 1,2 B.P. Salmon, 2,3 W. Kleynhans, 2,3 C.P. Schwegmann and 1J.C. Olivier 1School of Engineering and ICT, University of Tasmania, Australia 2...

  15. The Reign of Confusion: ABC and the "Crisis in Iran."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmerton, Patricia R.

    A study examined reports broadcast by ABC News between November 8, 1979 and December 7, 1979 in its series entitled "Crisis in Iran: America Held Hostage." Transcripts of approximately 50% of actual broadcasts were subjected to rhetorical critical analysis, from which the finding emerged that confusion was the predominant characteristic…

  16. Confusion in the Periodic Table of the Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernelius, W. C.; Powell, W. H.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses long (expanded), short (condensed), and pyramidal periodic table formats and documents events leading to a periodic table in which subgroups (families) are designated with the letters A and B, suggesting that this format is confusing for those consulting the table. (JN)

  17. Visualization of Confusion Matrix for Non-Expert Users (Poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M.A.L. Beauxis-Aussalet (Emmanuelle); L. Hardman (Lynda)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractMachine Learning techniques can automatically extract information from a variety of multimedia sources, e.g., image, text, sound, video. But it produces imperfect results since the multimedia content can be misinterpreted. Machine Learning errors are commonly measured using confusion

  18. Software for Preprocessing Data from Rocket-Engine Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chiu-Fu

    2004-01-01

    Three computer programs have been written to preprocess digitized outputs of sensors during rocket-engine tests at Stennis Space Center (SSC). The programs apply exclusively to the SSC E test-stand complex and utilize the SSC file format. The programs are the following: Engineering Units Generator (EUGEN) converts sensor-output-measurement data to engineering units. The inputs to EUGEN are raw binary test-data files, which include the voltage data, a list identifying the data channels, and time codes. EUGEN effects conversion by use of a file that contains calibration coefficients for each channel. QUICKLOOK enables immediate viewing of a few selected channels of data, in contradistinction to viewing only after post-test processing (which can take 30 minutes to several hours depending on the number of channels and other test parameters) of data from all channels. QUICKLOOK converts the selected data into a form in which they can be plotted in engineering units by use of Winplot (a free graphing program written by Rick Paris). EUPLOT provides a quick means for looking at data files generated by EUGEN without the necessity of relying on the PV-WAVE based plotting software.

  19. Zseq: An Approach for Preprocessing Next-Generation Sequencing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhateeb, Abedalrhman; Rueda, Luis

    2017-08-01

    Next-generation sequencing technology generates a huge number of reads (short sequences), which contain a vast amount of genomic data. The sequencing process, however, comes with artifacts. Preprocessing of sequences is mandatory for further downstream analysis. We present Zseq, a linear method that identifies the most informative genomic sequences and reduces the number of biased sequences, sequence duplications, and ambiguous nucleotides. Zseq finds the complexity of the sequences by counting the number of unique k-mers in each sequence as its corresponding score and also takes into the account other factors such as ambiguous nucleotides or high GC-content percentage in k-mers. Based on a z-score threshold, Zseq sweeps through the sequences again and filters those with a z-score less than the user-defined threshold. Zseq algorithm is able to provide a better mapping rate; it reduces the number of ambiguous bases significantly in comparison with other methods. Evaluation of the filtered reads has been conducted by aligning the reads and assembling the transcripts using the reference genome as well as de novo assembly. The assembled transcripts show a better discriminative ability to separate cancer and normal samples in comparison with another state-of-the-art method. Moreover, de novo assembled transcripts from the reads filtered by Zseq have longer genomic sequences than other tested methods. Estimating the threshold of the cutoff point is introduced using labeling rules with optimistic results.

  20. Road Sign Recognition with Fuzzy Adaptive Pre-Processing Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Chuan; Wang, Ming-Shi

    2012-01-01

    A road sign recognition system based on adaptive image pre-processing models using two fuzzy inference schemes has been proposed. The first fuzzy inference scheme is to check the changes of the light illumination and rich red color of a frame image by the checking areas. The other is to check the variance of vehicle's speed and angle of steering wheel to select an adaptive size and position of the detection area. The Adaboost classifier was employed to detect the road sign candidates from an image and the support vector machine technique was employed to recognize the content of the road sign candidates. The prohibitory and warning road traffic signs are the processing targets in this research. The detection rate in the detection phase is 97.42%. In the recognition phase, the recognition rate is 93.04%. The total accuracy rate of the system is 92.47%. For video sequences, the best accuracy rate is 90.54%, and the average accuracy rate is 80.17%. The average computing time is 51.86 milliseconds per frame. The proposed system can not only overcome low illumination and rich red color around the road sign problems but also offer high detection rates and high computing performance. PMID:22778650

  1. Neural Online Filtering Based on Preprocessed Calorimeter Data

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, R C; The ATLAS collaboration; Simas Filho, E F; De Seixas, J M

    2009-01-01

    Among LHC detectors, ATLAS aims at coping with such high event rate by designing a three-level online triggering system. The first level trigger output will be ~75 kHz. This level will mark the regions where relevant events were found. The second level will validate LVL1 decision by looking only at the approved data using full granularity. At the level two output, the event rate will be reduced to ~2 kHz. Finally, the third level will look at full event information and a rate of ~200 Hz events is expected to be approved, and stored in persistent media for further offline analysis. Many interesting events decay into electrons, which have to be identified from the huge background noise (jets). This work proposes a high-efficient LVL2 electron / jet discrimination system based on neural networks fed from preprocessed calorimeter information. The feature extraction part of the proposed system performs a ring structure of data description. A set of concentric rings centered at the highest energy cell is generated ...

  2. Data preprocessing methods for robust Fourier ptychographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Pan, An; Lei, Ming; Yao, Baoli

    2017-12-01

    Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) is a recently developed computational imaging technique that achieves gigapixel images with both high resolution and large field-of-view. In the current FPM experimental setup, the dark-field images with high-angle illuminations are easily overwhelmed by stray lights and background noises due to the low signal-to-noise ratio, thus significantly degrading the achievable resolution of the FPM approach. We provide an overall and systematic data preprocessing scheme to enhance the FPM's performance, which involves sampling analysis, underexposed/overexposed treatments, background noises suppression, and stray lights elimination. It is demonstrated experimentally with both US Air Force (USAF) 1951 resolution target and biological samples that the benefit of the noise removal by these methods far outweighs the defect of the accompanying signal loss, as part of the lost signals can be compensated by the improved consistencies among the captured raw images. In addition, the reported nonparametric scheme could be further cooperated with the existing state-of-the-art algorithms with a great flexibility, facilitating a stronger noise-robust capability of the FPM approach in various applications.

  3. Arabic text preprocessing for the natural language processing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awajan, A.

    2007-01-01

    A new approach for processing vowelized and unvowelized Arabic texts in order to prepare them for Natural Language Processing (NLP) purposes is described. The developed approach is rule-based and made up of four phases: text tokenization, word light stemming, word's morphological analysis and text annotation. The first phase preprocesses the input text in order to isolate the words and represent them in a formal way. The second phase applies a light stemmer in order to extract the stem of each word by eliminating the prefixes and suffixes. The third phase is a rule-based morphological analyzer that determines the root and the morphological pattern for each extracted stem. The last phase produces an annotated text where each word is tagged with its morphological attributes. The preprocessor presented in this paper is capable of dealing with vowelized and unvowelized words, and provides the input words along with relevant linguistics information needed by different applications. It is designed to be used with different NLP applications such as machine translation text summarization, text correction, information retrieval and automatic vowelization of Arabic Text. (author)

  4. ASAP: an environment for automated preprocessing of sequencing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torstenson Eric S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Next-generation sequencing (NGS has yielded an unprecedented amount of data for genetics research. It is a daunting task to process the data from raw sequence reads to variant calls and manually processing this data can significantly delay downstream analysis and increase the possibility for human error. The research community has produced tools to properly prepare sequence data for analysis and established guidelines on how to apply those tools to achieve the best results, however, existing pipeline programs to automate the process through its entirety are either inaccessible to investigators, or web-based and require a certain amount of administrative expertise to set up. Findings Advanced Sequence Automated Pipeline (ASAP was developed to provide a framework for automating the translation of sequencing data into annotated variant calls with the goal of minimizing user involvement without the need for dedicated hardware or administrative rights. ASAP works both on computer clusters and on standalone machines with minimal human involvement and maintains high data integrity, while allowing complete control over the configuration of its component programs. It offers an easy-to-use interface for submitting and tracking jobs as well as resuming failed jobs. It also provides tools for quality checking and for dividing jobs into pieces for maximum throughput. Conclusions ASAP provides an environment for building an automated pipeline for NGS data preprocessing. This environment is flexible for use and future development. It is freely available at http://biostat.mc.vanderbilt.edu/ASAP.

  5. ASAP: an environment for automated preprocessing of sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torstenson, Eric S; Li, Bingshan; Li, Chun

    2013-01-04

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has yielded an unprecedented amount of data for genetics research. It is a daunting task to process the data from raw sequence reads to variant calls and manually processing this data can significantly delay downstream analysis and increase the possibility for human error. The research community has produced tools to properly prepare sequence data for analysis and established guidelines on how to apply those tools to achieve the best results, however, existing pipeline programs to automate the process through its entirety are either inaccessible to investigators, or web-based and require a certain amount of administrative expertise to set up. Advanced Sequence Automated Pipeline (ASAP) was developed to provide a framework for automating the translation of sequencing data into annotated variant calls with the goal of minimizing user involvement without the need for dedicated hardware or administrative rights. ASAP works both on computer clusters and on standalone machines with minimal human involvement and maintains high data integrity, while allowing complete control over the configuration of its component programs. It offers an easy-to-use interface for submitting and tracking jobs as well as resuming failed jobs. It also provides tools for quality checking and for dividing jobs into pieces for maximum throughput. ASAP provides an environment for building an automated pipeline for NGS data preprocessing. This environment is flexible for use and future development. It is freely available at http://biostat.mc.vanderbilt.edu/ASAP.

  6. ASAP: an environment for automated preprocessing of sequencing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has yielded an unprecedented amount of data for genetics research. It is a daunting task to process the data from raw sequence reads to variant calls and manually processing this data can significantly delay downstream analysis and increase the possibility for human error. The research community has produced tools to properly prepare sequence data for analysis and established guidelines on how to apply those tools to achieve the best results, however, existing pipeline programs to automate the process through its entirety are either inaccessible to investigators, or web-based and require a certain amount of administrative expertise to set up. Findings Advanced Sequence Automated Pipeline (ASAP) was developed to provide a framework for automating the translation of sequencing data into annotated variant calls with the goal of minimizing user involvement without the need for dedicated hardware or administrative rights. ASAP works both on computer clusters and on standalone machines with minimal human involvement and maintains high data integrity, while allowing complete control over the configuration of its component programs. It offers an easy-to-use interface for submitting and tracking jobs as well as resuming failed jobs. It also provides tools for quality checking and for dividing jobs into pieces for maximum throughput. Conclusions ASAP provides an environment for building an automated pipeline for NGS data preprocessing. This environment is flexible for use and future development. It is freely available at http://biostat.mc.vanderbilt.edu/ASAP. PMID:23289815

  7. The modified Gauss diagonalization of polynomial matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeed, K.

    1982-10-01

    The Gauss algorithm for diagonalization of constant matrices is modified for application to polynomial matrices. Due to this modification the diagonal elements become pure polynomials rather than rational functions. (author)

  8. Double stochastic matrices in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louck, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    The general set of doubly stochastic matrices of order n corresponding to ordinary nonrelativistic quantum mechanical transition probability matrices is given. Lande's discussion of the nonquantal origin of such matrices is noted. Several concrete examples are presented for elementary and composite angular momentum systems with the focus on the unitary symmetry associated with such systems in the spirit of the recent work of Bohr and Ulfbeck. Birkhoff's theorem on doubly stochastic matrices of order n is reformulated in a geometrical language suitable for application to the subset of quantum mechanical doubly stochastic matrices. Specifically, it is shown that the set of points on the unit sphere in cartesian n'-space is subjective with the set of doubly stochastic matrices of order n. The question is raised, but not answered, as to what is the subset of points of this unit sphere that correspond to the quantum mechanical transition probability matrices, and what is the symmetry group of this subset of matrices

  9. Virial expansion for almost diagonal random matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yevtushenko, Oleg; Kravtsov, Vladimir E.

    2003-08-01

    Energy level statistics of Hermitian random matrices hat H with Gaussian independent random entries Higeqj is studied for a generic ensemble of almost diagonal random matrices with langle|Hii|2rangle ~ 1 and langle|Hi\

  10. Phenomenological mass matrices with a democratic warp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppe, A.

    2018-01-01

    Taking into account all available data on the mass sector, we obtain unitary rotation matrices that diagonalize the quark matrices by using a specific parametrization of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix. In this way, we find mass matrices for the up- and down-quark sectors of a specific, symmetric form, with traces of a democratic texture.

  11. S-matrices and integrability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombardelli, Diego

    2016-01-01

    In these notes we review the S-matrix theory in (1+1)-dimensional integrable models, focusing mainly on the relativistic case. Once the main definitions and physical properties are introduced, we discuss the factorization of scattering processes due to integrability. We then focus on the analytic properties of the two-particle scattering amplitude and illustrate the derivation of the S-matrices for all the possible bound states using the so-called bootstrap principle. General algebraic structures underlying the S-matrix theory and its relation with the form factors axioms are briefly mentioned. Finally, we discuss the S-matrices of sine-Gordon and SU (2), SU (3) chiral Gross–Neveu models. (topical review)

  12. Synthesised standards in natural matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, D.G.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of securing the most reliable standards for the accurate analysis of radionuclides is discussed in the paper and in the comment on the paper. It is contended in the paper that the best standards can be created by quantitative addition of accurately known spiking solutions into carefully selected natural matrices. On the other hand it is argued that many natural materials can be successfully standardized for numerous trace constituents. Both points of view are supported with examples. (U.K.)

  13. On-Board, Real-Time Preprocessing System for Optical Remote-Sensing Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Baogui; Shi, Hao; Zhuang, Yin; Chen, He; Chen, Liang

    2018-04-25

    With the development of remote-sensing technology, optical remote-sensing imagery processing has played an important role in many application fields, such as geological exploration and natural disaster prevention. However, relative radiation correction and geometric correction are key steps in preprocessing because raw image data without preprocessing will cause poor performance during application. Traditionally, remote-sensing data are downlinked to the ground station, preprocessed, and distributed to users. This process generates long delays, which is a major bottleneck in real-time applications for remote-sensing data. Therefore, on-board, real-time image preprocessing is greatly desired. In this paper, a real-time processing architecture for on-board imagery preprocessing is proposed. First, a hierarchical optimization and mapping method is proposed to realize the preprocessing algorithm in a hardware structure, which can effectively reduce the computation burden of on-board processing. Second, a co-processing system using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and a digital signal processor (DSP; altogether, FPGA-DSP) based on optimization is designed to realize real-time preprocessing. The experimental results demonstrate the potential application of our system to an on-board processor, for which resources and power consumption are limited.

  14. On-Board, Real-Time Preprocessing System for Optical Remote-Sensing Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Baogui; Zhuang, Yin; Chen, He; Chen, Liang

    2018-01-01

    With the development of remote-sensing technology, optical remote-sensing imagery processing has played an important role in many application fields, such as geological exploration and natural disaster prevention. However, relative radiation correction and geometric correction are key steps in preprocessing because raw image data without preprocessing will cause poor performance during application. Traditionally, remote-sensing data are downlinked to the ground station, preprocessed, and distributed to users. This process generates long delays, which is a major bottleneck in real-time applications for remote-sensing data. Therefore, on-board, real-time image preprocessing is greatly desired. In this paper, a real-time processing architecture for on-board imagery preprocessing is proposed. First, a hierarchical optimization and mapping method is proposed to realize the preprocessing algorithm in a hardware structure, which can effectively reduce the computation burden of on-board processing. Second, a co-processing system using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) and a digital signal processor (DSP; altogether, FPGA-DSP) based on optimization is designed to realize real-time preprocessing. The experimental results demonstrate the potential application of our system to an on-board processor, for which resources and power consumption are limited. PMID:29693585

  15. Switched Flip-Flop based Preprocessing Circuit for ISFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Kollár

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a preprocessing circuit for ISFETs (Ion-sensitive field-effecttransistors to measure hydrogen-ion concentration in electrolyte is presented. A modifiedflip-flop is the main part of the circuit. The modification consists in replacing the standardtransistors by ISFETs and periodically switching the supply voltage on and off.Concentration of hydrogen ions to be measured discontinues the flip-flop value symmetry,which means that by switching the supply voltage on the flip-flop goes to one of two stablestates, ‘one’ or ‘zero’. The recovery of the value symmetry can be achieved by changing abalanced voltage, which is incorporated to the flip-flop, to bring the flip-flop to a 50%position (probability of ‘one’ equals to probability of ‘zero’. Thus, the balanced voltagereflects the measured concentration of hydrogen ions. Its magnitude is set automatically byusing a feedback circuit whose input is connected to the flip-flop output. The preprocessingcircuit, as the whole, is the well-known δ modulator in which the switched flip-flop servesas a comparator and a sampling circuit. The advantages of this approach in comparison tothose of standard approaches are discussed. Finally, theoretical results are verified bysimulations with TSPICE and a good agreement is reported.

  16. Automated Pre-processing for NMR Assignments with Reduced Tedium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-05-11

    An important rate-limiting step in the reasonance asignment process is accurate identification of resonance peaks in MNR spectra. NMR spectra are noisy. Hence, automatic peak-picking programs must navigate between the Scylla of reliable but incomplete picking, and the Charybdis of noisy but complete picking. Each of these extremes complicates the assignment process: incomplete peak-picking results in the loss of essential connectivities, while noisy picking conceals the true connectivities under a combinatiorial explosion of false positives. Intermediate processing can simplify the assignment process by preferentially removing false peaks from noisy peak lists. This is accomplished by requiring consensus between multiple NMR experiments, exploiting a priori information about NMR spectra, and drawing on empirical statistical distributions of chemical shift extracted from the BioMagResBank. Experienced NMR practitioners currently apply many of these techniques "by hand", which is tedious, and may appear arbitrary to the novice. To increase efficiency, we have created a systematic and automated approach to this process, known as APART. Automated pre-processing has three main advantages: reduced tedium, standardization, and pedagogy. In the hands of experienced spectroscopists, the main advantage is reduced tedium (a rapid increase in the ratio of true peaks to false peaks with minimal effort). When a project is passed from hand to hand, the main advantage is standardization. APART automatically documents the peak filtering process by archiving its original recommendations, the accompanying justifications, and whether a user accepted or overrode a given filtering recommendation. In the hands of a novice, this tool can reduce the stumbling block of learning to differentiate between real peaks and noise, by providing real-time examples of how such decisions are made.

  17. DECISION LEVEL FUSION OF ORTHOPHOTO AND LIDAR DATA USING CONFUSION MATRIX INFORMATION FOR LNAD COVER CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Daneshtalab

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Automatic urban objects extraction from airborne remote sensing data is essential to process and efficiently interpret the vast amount of airborne imagery and Lidar data available today. The aim of this study is to propose a new approach for the integration of high-resolution aerial imagery and Lidar data to improve the accuracy of classification in the city complications. In the proposed method, first, the classification of each data is separately performed using Support Vector Machine algorithm. In this case, extracted Normalized Digital Surface Model (nDSM and pulse intensity are used in classification of LiDAR data, and three spectral visible bands (Red, Green, Blue are considered as feature vector for the orthoimage classification. Moreover, combining the extracted features of the image and Lidar data another classification is also performed using all the features. The outputs of these classifications are integrated in a decision level fusion system according to the their confusion matrices to find the final classification result. The proposed method was evaluated using an urban area of Zeebruges, Belgium. The obtained results represented several advantages of image fusion with respect to a single shot dataset. With the capabilities of the proposed decision level fusion method, most of the object extraction difficulties and uncertainty were decreased and, the overall accuracy and the kappa values were improved 7% and 10%, respectively.

  18. De-confusing the THOG problem: the Pythagorean solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griggs, R A; Koenig, C S; Alea, N L

    2001-08-01

    Sources of facilitation for Needham and Amado's (1995) Pythagoras version of Wason's THOG problem were systematically examined in three experiments with 174 participants. Although both the narrative structure and figural notation used in the Pythagoras problem independently led to significant facilitation (40-50% correct), pairing hypothesis generation with either factor or pairing the two factors together was found to be necessary to obtain substantial facilitation (> 50% correct). Needham and Amado's original finding for the complete Pythagoras problem was also replicated. These results are discussed in terms of the "confusion theory" explanation for performance on the standard THOG problem. The possible role of labelling as a de-confusing factor in other versions of the THOG problem and the implications of the present findings for human reasoning are also considered.

  19. The Serbian idea in an era of confused historical consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrović Milovan M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper, represents a hypothetical consideration of the phenomenology of the Serbian national idea, within the traumatic circumstances of the breakup of the Yugoslav state at the end of the 20th century, when the Serbian national issue was reopened in an exceptionally unfavorable geopolitical context for the Serbian people. The author specifically analyzes the ideological and political factors behind the Serbian confusion with the theoretical framework of Agnes Heller's critical interpreta...

  20. Predator confusion is sufficient to evolve swarming behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Randal S.; Hintze, Arend; Dyer, Fred C.; Knoester, David B.; Adami, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Swarming behaviours in animals have been extensively studied owing to their implications for the evolution of cooperation, social cognition and predator–prey dynamics. An important goal of these studies is discerning which evolutionary pressures favour the formation of swarms. One hypothesis is that swarms arise because the presence of multiple moving prey in swarms causes confusion for attacking predators, but it remains unclear how important this selective force is. Using an evolutionary mo...

  1. Predator confusion is sufficient to evolve swarming behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, Randal S.; Hintze, Arend; Dyer, Fred C.; Knoester, David B.; Adami, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Swarming behaviors in animals have been extensively studied due to their implications for the evolution of cooperation, social cognition, and predator-prey dynamics. An important goal of these studies is discerning which evolutionary pressures favor the formation of swarms. One hypothesis is that swarms arise because the presence of multiple moving prey in swarms causes confusion for attacking predators, but it remains unclear how important this selective force is. Using an evolutionary model...

  2. A Study on Mode Confusions in Adaptive Cruise Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Dae Ryong; Yang, Ji Hyun; Lee, Sang Hun [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Recent development in science and technology has enabled vehicles to be equipped with advanced autonomous functions. ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) are examples of such advanced autonomous systems added. Advanced systems have several operational modes and it has been observed that drivers could be unaware of the mode they are in during vehicle operation, which can be a contributing factor of traffic accidents. In this study, possible mode confusions in a simulated environment when vehicles are equipped with an adaptive cruise control system were investigated. The mental model of the system was designed and verified using the formal analysis method. Then, the user interface was designed on the basis of those of the current cruise control systems. A set of human-in-loop experiments was conducted to observe possible mode confusions and redesign the user interface to reduce them. In conclusion, the clarity and transparency of the user interface was proved to be as important as the correctness and compactness of the mental model when reducing mode confusions.

  3. A Study on Mode Confusions in Adaptive Cruise Control Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Dae Ryong; Yang, Ji Hyun; Lee, Sang Hun

    2015-01-01

    Recent development in science and technology has enabled vehicles to be equipped with advanced autonomous functions. ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) are examples of such advanced autonomous systems added. Advanced systems have several operational modes and it has been observed that drivers could be unaware of the mode they are in during vehicle operation, which can be a contributing factor of traffic accidents. In this study, possible mode confusions in a simulated environment when vehicles are equipped with an adaptive cruise control system were investigated. The mental model of the system was designed and verified using the formal analysis method. Then, the user interface was designed on the basis of those of the current cruise control systems. A set of human-in-loop experiments was conducted to observe possible mode confusions and redesign the user interface to reduce them. In conclusion, the clarity and transparency of the user interface was proved to be as important as the correctness and compactness of the mental model when reducing mode confusions

  4. Dazzle camouflage, target tracking, and the confusion effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Benedict G; Cuthill, Innes C; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E

    2016-01-01

    The influence of coloration on the ecology and evolution of moving animals in groups is poorly understood. Animals in groups benefit from the "confusion effect," where predator attack success is reduced with increasing group size or density. This is thought to be due to a sensory bottleneck: an increase in the difficulty of tracking one object among many. Motion dazzle camouflage has been hypothesized to disrupt accurate perception of the trajectory or speed of an object or animal. The current study investigates the suggestion that dazzle camouflage may enhance the confusion effect. Utilizing a computer game style experiment with human predators, we found that when moving in groups, targets with stripes parallel to the targets' direction of motion interact with the confusion effect to a greater degree, and are harder to track, than those with more conventional background matching patterns. The findings represent empirical evidence that some high-contrast patterns may benefit animals in groups. The results also highlight the possibility that orientation and turning may be more relevant in the mechanisms of dazzle camouflage than previously recognized.

  5. Perceptual Confusions Among Consonants, Revisited: Cross-Spectral Integration of Phonetic-Feature Information and Consonant Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Ulrich; Greenberg, Steven

    2012-01-01

    The perceptual basis of consonant recognition was experimentally investigated through a study of how information associated with phonetic features (Voicing, Manner, and Place of Articulation) combines across the acoustic-frequency spectrum. The speech signals, 11 Danish consonants embedded...... in Consonant + Vowel + Liquid syllables, were partitioned into 3/4-octave bands (“slits”) centered at 750 Hz, 1500 Hz, and 3000 Hz, and presented individually and in two- or three-slit combinations. The amount of information transmitted (IT) was calculated from consonant- confusion matrices for each feature...... the bands are essentially independent in terms of decoding this feature. Because consonant recognition and Place decoding are highly correlated (correlation coefficient r2 = 0.99), these results imply that the auditory processes underlying consonant recognition are not strictly linear. This may account...

  6. Sparse Matrices in Frame Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob; Krahmer, Felix; Kutyniok, Gitta

    2014-01-01

    Frame theory is closely intertwined with signal processing through a canon of methodologies for the analysis of signals using (redundant) linear measurements. The canonical dual frame associated with a frame provides a means for reconstruction by a least squares approach, but other dual frames...... yield alternative reconstruction procedures. The novel paradigm of sparsity has recently entered the area of frame theory in various ways. Of those different sparsity perspectives, we will focus on the situations where frames and (not necessarily canonical) dual frames can be written as sparse matrices...

  7. The Inverse of Banded Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    indexed entries all zeros. In this paper, generalizing a method of Mallik (1999) [5], we give the LU factorization and the inverse of the matrix Br,n (if it...r ≤ i ≤ r, 1 ≤ j ≤ r, with the remaining un-indexed entries all zeros. In this paper generalizing a method of Mallik (1999) [5...matrices and applications to piecewise cubic approximation, J. Comput. Appl. Math. 8 (4) (1982) 285–288. [5] R.K. Mallik , The inverse of a lower

  8. Fusion algebra and fusing matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yihong; Li Miao; Yu Ming.

    1989-09-01

    We show that the Wilson line operators in topological field theories form a fusion algebra. In general, the fusion algebra is a relation among the fusing (F) matrices. In the case of the SU(2) WZW model, some special F matrix elements are found in this way, and the remaining F matrix elements are then determined up to a sign. In addition, the S(j) modular transformation of the one point blocks on the torus is worked out. Our results are found to agree with those obtained from the quantum group method. (author). 24 refs

  9. Transfer matrices for multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baquero, R.

    1988-08-01

    We consider four of the transfer matrices defined to deal with multilayer structures. We deduce algorithms to calculate them numerically, in a simple and neat way. We illustrate their application to semi-infinite systems using SGFM formulae. These algorithms are of fast convergence and allow a calculation of bulk-, surface- and inner-layers band structure in good agreement with much more sophisticated calculations. Supermatrices, interfaces and multilayer structures can be calculated in this way with a small computational effort. (author). 10 refs

  10. Orthogonal polynomials and random matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Deift, Percy

    2000-01-01

    This volume expands on a set of lectures held at the Courant Institute on Riemann-Hilbert problems, orthogonal polynomials, and random matrix theory. The goal of the course was to prove universality for a variety of statistical quantities arising in the theory of random matrix models. The central question was the following: Why do very general ensembles of random n {\\times} n matrices exhibit universal behavior as n {\\rightarrow} {\\infty}? The main ingredient in the proof is the steepest descent method for oscillatory Riemann-Hilbert problems.

  11. Thinning: A Preprocessing Technique for an OCR System for the Brahmi Script

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Anasuya Devi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the methodology employed for preprocessing the archaeological images. We present the various algorithms used in the low level processing stage of image analysis for Optical Character Recognition System for Brahmi Script. The image preprocessing technique covered in this paper include Thinning method. We also try to analyze the results obtained by the pixel-level processing algorithms.

  12. An Automated, Adaptive Framework for Optimizing Preprocessing Pipelines in Task-Based Functional MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan W Churchill

    Full Text Available BOLD fMRI is sensitive to blood-oxygenation changes correlated with brain function; however, it is limited by relatively weak signal and significant noise confounds. Many preprocessing algorithms have been developed to control noise and improve signal detection in fMRI. Although the chosen set of preprocessing and analysis steps (the "pipeline" significantly affects signal detection, pipelines are rarely quantitatively validated in the neuroimaging literature, due to complex preprocessing interactions. This paper outlines and validates an adaptive resampling framework for evaluating and optimizing preprocessing choices by optimizing data-driven metrics of task prediction and spatial reproducibility. Compared to standard "fixed" preprocessing pipelines, this optimization approach significantly improves independent validation measures of within-subject test-retest, and between-subject activation overlap, and behavioural prediction accuracy. We demonstrate that preprocessing choices function as implicit model regularizers, and that improvements due to pipeline optimization generalize across a range of simple to complex experimental tasks and analysis models. Results are shown for brief scanning sessions (<3 minutes each, demonstrating that with pipeline optimization, it is possible to obtain reliable results and brain-behaviour correlations in relatively small datasets.

  13. Comparison of pre-processing methods for multiplex bead-based immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Tanja K; Schillert, Arne; Ziegler, Andreas; Lüking, Angelika; Zucht, Hans-Dieter; Schulz-Knappe, Peter

    2016-08-11

    High throughput protein expression studies can be performed using bead-based protein immunoassays, such as the Luminex® xMAP® technology. Technical variability is inherent to these experiments and may lead to systematic bias and reduced power. To reduce technical variability, data pre-processing is performed. However, no recommendations exist for the pre-processing of Luminex® xMAP® data. We compared 37 different data pre-processing combinations of transformation and normalization methods in 42 samples on 384 analytes obtained from a multiplex immunoassay based on the Luminex® xMAP® technology. We evaluated the performance of each pre-processing approach with 6 different performance criteria. Three performance criteria were plots. All plots were evaluated by 15 independent and blinded readers. Four different combinations of transformation and normalization methods performed well as pre-processing procedure for this bead-based protein immunoassay. The following combinations of transformation and normalization were suitable for pre-processing Luminex® xMAP® data in this study: weighted Box-Cox followed by quantile or robust spline normalization (rsn), asinh transformation followed by loess normalization and Box-Cox followed by rsn.

  14. Hypercyclic Abelian Semigroups of Matrices on Cn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayadi, Adlene; Marzougui, Habib

    2010-07-01

    We give a complete characterization of existence of dense orbit for any abelian semigroup of matrices on C n . For finitely generated semigroups, this characterization is explicit and is used to determine the minimal number of matrices in normal form over C which forms a hypercyclic abelian semigroup on C n . In particular, we show that no abelian semigroup generated by n matrices on C n can be hypercyclic. (author)

  15. A Formal Methods Approach to the Analysis of Mode Confusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Miller, Steven P.; Potts, James N.; Carreno, Victor A.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the new NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) is to reduce the civil aviation fatal accident rate by 80% in ten years and 90% in twenty years. This program is being driven by the accident data with a focus on the most recent history. Pilot error is the most commonly cited cause for fatal accidents (up to 70%) and obviously must be given major consideration in this program. While the greatest source of pilot error is the loss of situation awareness , mode confusion is increasingly becoming a major contributor as well. The January 30, 1995 issue of Aviation Week lists 184 incidents and accidents involving mode awareness including the Bangalore A320 crash 2/14/90, the Strasbourg A320 crash 1/20/92, the Mulhouse-Habsheim A320 crash 6/26/88, and the Toulouse A330 crash 6/30/94. These incidents and accidents reveal that pilots sometimes become confused about what the cockpit automation is doing. Consequently, human factors research is an obvious investment area. However, even a cursory look at the accident data reveals that the mode confusion problem is much deeper than just training deficiencies and a lack of human-oriented design. This is readily acknowledged by human factors experts. It seems that further progress in human factors must come through a deeper scrutiny of the internals of the automation. It is in this arena that formal methods can contribute. Formal methods refers to the use of techniques from logic and discrete mathematics in the specification, design, and verification of computer systems, both hardware and software. The fundamental goal of formal methods is to capture requirements, designs and implementations in a mathematically based model that can be analyzed in a rigorous manner. Research in formal methods is aimed at automating this analysis as much as possible. By capturing the internal behavior of a flight deck in a rigorous and detailed formal model, the dark corners of a design can be analyzed. This paper will explore how formal

  16. Subdural Empyema Presenting with Seizure, Confusion, and Focal Weakness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Bruner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available While sinusitis is a common ailment, intracranial suppurative complications of sinusitis are rare and difficult to diagnose and treat. The morbidity and mortality of intracranial complications of sinusitis have decreased significantly since the advent of antibiotics, but diseases such as subdural empyemas and intracranial abscesses still occur, and they require prompt diagnosis, treatment, and often surgical drainage to prevent death or long-term neurologic sequelae. We present a case of an immunocompetent adolescent male with a subdural empyema who presented with seizures,confusion, and focal arm weakness after a bout of sinusitis.

  17. Subdural Empyema Presenting with Seizure, Confusion, and Focal Weakness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, David I.; Littlejohn, Lanny; Pritchard, Amy

    2012-01-01

    While sinusitis is a common ailment, intracranial suppurative complications of sinusitis are rare and difficult to diagnose and treat. The morbidity and mortality of intracranial complications of sinusitis have decreased significantly since the advent of antibiotics, but diseases such as subdural empyemas and intracranial abscesses still occur, and they require prompt diagnosis, treatment, and often surgical drainage to prevent death or long-term neurologic sequelae. We present a case of an immunocompetent adolescent male with a subdural empyema who presented with seizures, confusion, and focal arm weakness after a bout of sinusitis. PMID:23358438

  18. Lambda-matrices and vibrating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lancaster, Peter; Stark, M; Kahane, J P

    1966-01-01

    Lambda-Matrices and Vibrating Systems presents aspects and solutions to problems concerned with linear vibrating systems with a finite degrees of freedom and the theory of matrices. The book discusses some parts of the theory of matrices that will account for the solutions of the problems. The text starts with an outline of matrix theory, and some theorems are proved. The Jordan canonical form is also applied to understand the structure of square matrices. Classical theorems are discussed further by applying the Jordan canonical form, the Rayleigh quotient, and simple matrix pencils with late

  19. LOBBYING OPPORTUNITIES, CONFUSIONS AND MISREPRESENTATIONS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Vass

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Lobby activities are often likened to the misuse of authority and bad practices. Such parallels generate problems that easily spiral down into crises and conflicts, and the symbiosis of politics and business turns into an ambiguous platform. Why should we look into the core of the suspicions regarding the intertwining and overlapping interests of political and business communities? The answer: because in Romania public interest is often defined in a private or personal framework, whereas private interests are defined in markedly public terms. Confusion sets us clearly apart from the effective Israeli, American, British, Czech, Polish or Magyar lobbyists. The same confusion has a damaging effect: we are unable to efficiently handle institutional relations and public-private relations, be they national or international, that is, European. To what extent is the politics-business relationship deemed appropriate in US and EU? Which are its constraints, prerequisites and possible sanctions? These are the questions which accompany our dilemmas that we clarify in this paper. We conclude with proposals on what can be done in promoting efficiently the Romanian private interests within the European institutions.

  20. Countering Climate Confusion in the Classroom: New Methods and Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaffrey, M.; Berbeco, M.; Reid, A. H.

    2014-12-01

    Politicians and ideologues blocking climate education through legislative manipulation. Free marketeers promoting the teaching of doubt and controversy to head off regulation. Education standards and curricula that skim over, omit, or misrepresent the causes, effects, risks and possible responses to climate change. Teachers who unknowingly foster confusion by presenting "both sides" of a phony scientific controversy. All of these contribute to dramatic differences in the quality and quantity of climate education received by U.S. students. Most U.S. adults and teens fail basic quizzes on energy and climate basics, in large part, because climate science has never been fully accepted as a vital component of a 21st-century science education. Often skipped or skimmed over, human contributions to climate change are sometimes taught as controversy or through debate, perpetuating a climate of confusion in many classrooms. This paper will review recent history of opposition to climate science education, and explore initial findings from a new survey of science teachers on whether, where and how climate change is being taught. It will highlight emerging effective pedagogical practices identified in McCaffrey's Climate Smart & Energy Wise, including the role of new initiatives such as the Next Generation Science Standards and Green Schools, and detail efforts of the Science League of America in countering denial and doubt so that educators can teach consistently and confidently about climate change.

  1. Delusional Confusion of Dreaming and Reality in Narcolepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamsley, Erin; Donjacour, Claire E.H.M.; Scammell, Thomas E.; Lammers, Gert Jan; Stickgold, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: We investigated a generally unappreciated feature of the sleep disorder narcolepsy, in which patients mistake the memory of a dream for a real experience and form sustained delusions about significant events. Design: We interviewed patients with narcolepsy and healthy controls to establish the prevalence of this complaint and identify its predictors. Setting: Academic medical centers in Boston, Massachusetts and Leiden, The Netherlands. Participants: Patients (n = 46) with a diagnosis of narcolepsy with cataplexy, and age-matched healthy healthy controls (n = 41). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: “Dream delusions” were surprisingly common in narcolepsy and were often striking in their severity. As opposed to fleeting hypnagogic and hypnopompic hallucinations of the sleep/wake transition, dream delusions were false memories induced by the experience of a vivid dream, which led to false beliefs that could persist for days or weeks. Conclusions: The delusional confusion of dreamed events with reality is a prominent feature of narcolepsy, and suggests the possibility of source memory deficits in this disorder that have not yet been fully characterized. Citation: Wamsley E; Donjacour CE; Scammell TE; Lammers GJ; Stickgold R. Delusional confusion of dreaming and reality in narcolepsy. SLEEP 2014;37(2):419-422. PMID:24501437

  2. Visual hallucinations in schizophrenia: confusion between imagination and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brébion, Gildas; Ohlsen, Ruth I; Pilowsky, Lyn S; David, Anthony S

    2008-05-01

    An association between hallucinations and reality-monitoring deficit has been repeatedly observed in patients with schizophrenia. Most data concern auditory/verbal hallucinations. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between visual hallucinations and a specific type of reality-monitoring deficit, namely confusion between imagined and perceived pictures. Forty-one patients with schizophrenia and 43 healthy control participants completed a reality-monitoring task. Thirty-two items were presented either as written words or as pictures. After the presentation phase, participants had to recognize the target words and pictures among distractors, and then remember their mode of presentation. All groups of participants recognized the pictures better than the words, except the patients with visual hallucinations, who presented the opposite pattern. The participants with visual hallucinations made more misattributions to pictures than did the others, and higher ratings of visual hallucinations were correlated with increased tendency to remember words as pictures. No association with auditory hallucinations was revealed. Our data suggest that visual hallucinations are associated with confusion between visual mental images and perception.

  3. Pathological rate matrices: from primates to pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Rob

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Continuous-time Markov models allow flexible, parametrically succinct descriptions of sequence divergence. Non-reversible forms of these models are more biologically realistic but are challenging to develop. The instantaneous rate matrices defined for these models are typically transformed into substitution probability matrices using a matrix exponentiation algorithm that employs eigendecomposition, but this algorithm has characteristic vulnerabilities that lead to significant errors when a rate matrix possesses certain 'pathological' properties. Here we tested whether pathological rate matrices exist in nature, and consider the suitability of different algorithms to their computation. Results We used concatenated protein coding gene alignments from microbial genomes, primate genomes and independent intron alignments from primate genomes. The Taylor series expansion and eigendecomposition matrix exponentiation algorithms were compared to the less widely employed, but more robust, Padé with scaling and squaring algorithm for nucleotide, dinucleotide, codon and trinucleotide rate matrices. Pathological dinucleotide and trinucleotide matrices were evident in the microbial data set, affecting the eigendecomposition and Taylor algorithms respectively. Even using a conservative estimate of matrix error (occurrence of an invalid probability, both Taylor and eigendecomposition algorithms exhibited substantial error rates: ~100% of all exonic trinucleotide matrices were pathological to the Taylor algorithm while ~10% of codon positions 1 and 2 dinucleotide matrices and intronic trinucleotide matrices, and ~30% of codon matrices were pathological to eigendecomposition. The majority of Taylor algorithm errors derived from occurrence of multiple unobserved states. A small number of negative probabilities were detected from the Pad�� algorithm on trinucleotide matrices that were attributable to machine precision. Although the Pad

  4. Quantum Hilbert matrices and orthogonal polynomials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Ellegaard; Berg, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Using the notion of quantum integers associated with a complex number q≠0 , we define the quantum Hilbert matrix and various extensions. They are Hankel matrices corresponding to certain little q -Jacobi polynomials when |q|<1 , and for the special value they are closely related to Hankel matrice...

  5. The construction of factorized S-matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, D.V.

    1981-01-01

    We study the relationships between factorized S-matrices given as representations of the Zamolodchikov algebra and exactly solvable models constructed using the Baxter method. Several new examples of symmetric and non-symmetric factorized S-matrices are proposed. (orig.)

  6. Skew-adjacency matrices of graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavers, M.; Cioaba, S.M.; Fallat, S.; Gregory, D.A.; Haemers, W.H.; Kirkland, S.J.; McDonald, J.J.; Tsatsomeros, M.

    2012-01-01

    The spectra of the skew-adjacency matrices of a graph are considered as a possible way to distinguish adjacency cospectral graphs. This leads to the following topics: graphs whose skew-adjacency matrices are all cospectral; relations between the matchings polynomial of a graph and the characteristic

  7. On Investigating GMRES Convergence using Unitary Matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Duintjer Tebbens, Jurjen; Meurant, G.; Sadok, H.; Strakoš, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 450, 1 June (2014), s. 83-107 ISSN 0024-3795 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) M100301201; GA MŠk(CZ) LL1202 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : GMRES convergence * unitary matrices * unitary spectra * normal matrices * Krylov residual subspace * Schur parameters Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.939, year: 2014

  8. Effect of packaging on physicochemical characteristics of irradiated pre-processed chicken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xiujie; Zhang Dongjie; Zhang Dequan; Li Shurong; Gao Meixu; Wang Zhidong

    2011-01-01

    To explore the effect of modified atmosphere packaging and antioxidants on the physicochemical characteristics of irradiated pre-processed chicken, the pre-processed chicken was added antioxidants first, and then packaged in common, vacuum and gas respectively, and finally irradiated at 5 kGy dosage. All samples was stored at 4 ℃. The pH, TBA, TVB-N and color deviation were evaluated after 0, 3, 7, 10, 14, 18 and 21 d of storage. The results showed that pH value of pre-processed chicken with antioxidants and vacuum packaged increased with the storage time but not significantly among different treatments. The TBA value was also increased but not significantly (P > 0.05), which indicated that vacuum package inhibited the lipid oxidation. TVB-N value increased with storage time, TVB-N value of vacuum package samples reached 14.29 mg/100 g at 21 d storage, which did not exceeded the reference indexes of fresh meat. a * value of the pre-processed chicken of vacuum package and non-oxygen package samples increased significantly during storage (P > 0.05), and chicken color kept bright red after 21 d storage with vacuum package It is concluded that vacuum packaging of irradiated pre-processed chicken is effective on ensuring its physical and chemical properties during storage. (authors)

  9. Examination of Speed Contribution of Parallelization for Several Fingerprint Pre-Processing Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GORGUNOGLU, S.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In analysis of minutiae based fingerprint systems, fingerprints needs to be pre-processed. The pre-processing is carried out to enhance the quality of the fingerprint and to obtain more accurate minutiae points. Reducing the pre-processing time is important for identification and verification in real time systems and especially for databases holding large fingerprints information. Parallel processing and parallel CPU computing can be considered as distribution of processes over multi core processor. This is done by using parallel programming techniques. Reducing the execution time is the main objective in parallel processing. In this study, pre-processing of minutiae based fingerprint system is implemented by parallel processing on multi core computers using OpenMP and on graphics processor using CUDA to improve execution time. The execution times and speedup ratios are compared with the one that of single core processor. The results show that by using parallel processing, execution time is substantially improved. The improvement ratios obtained for different pre-processing algorithms allowed us to make suggestions on the more suitable approaches for parallelization.

  10. Exact Inverse Matrices of Fermat and Mersenne Circulant Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanpeng Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The well known circulant matrices are applied to solve networked systems. In this paper, circulant and left circulant matrices with the Fermat and Mersenne numbers are considered. The nonsingularity of these special matrices is discussed. Meanwhile, the exact determinants and inverse matrices of these special matrices are presented.

  11. Confusion and Agitation after a Recent Kidney Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Magdi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A 51-year-old man, who received a living related transplant from his wife and anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG as induction therapy, developed delayed graft function after transplantation. One day after he received an i.v. dose of ganciclovir, the patient developed hallucinations, confusion and agitation, which worsened the following day. CT-scan of the brain and cerebrospinal fluid were unremarkable. Ganciclovir-induced encepha-lopathy was considered the most likely reason for the patient′s neurological condition, since he recovered completely a few days after discontinuation of this drug. Since anti-CMV prophylactic treatment is now widely used after transplantation, a high index of suspicion is required to diagnose ganciclovir (or acyclovir induced neurotoxicity.

  12. Metallic iron for water treatment: leaving the valley of confusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makota, Susanne; Nde-Tchoupe, Arnaud I.; Mwakabona, Hezron T.; Tepong-Tsindé, Raoul; Noubactep, Chicgoua; Nassi, Achille; Njau, Karoli N.

    2017-12-01

    Researchers on metallic iron (Fe0) for environmental remediation and water treatment are walking in a valley of confusion for 25 years. This valley is characterized by the propagation of different beliefs that have resulted from a partial analysis of the Fe0/H2O system as (1) a reductive chemical reaction was considered an electrochemical one and (2) the mass balance of iron has not been really addressed. The partial analysis in turn has been undermining the scientific method while discouraging any real critical argumentation. This communication re-establishes the complex nature of the Fe0/H2O system while recalling that, finally, proper system analysis and chemical thermodynamics are the most confident ways to solve any conflicting situation in Fe0 environmental remediation.

  13. Persistent Confusions about Hypothesis Testing in the Social Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Thron

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes common confusions involving basic concepts in statistical hypothesis testing. One-third of the social science statistics textbooks examined in the study contained false statements about significance level and/or p-value. We infer that a large proportion of social scientists are being miseducated about these concepts. We analyze the causes of these persistent misunderstandings, and conclude that the conventional terminology is prone to abuse because it does not clearly represent the conditional nature of probabilities and events involved. We argue that modifications in terminology, as well as the explicit introduction of conditional probability concepts and notation into the statistics curriculum in the social sciences, are necessary to prevent the persistence of these errors.

  14. High levels of confusion for cholesterol awareness campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Danika V

    2008-09-15

    Earlier this year, two industry-sponsored advertising campaigns for cholesterol awareness that target the general public were launched in Australia. These campaigns aimed to alert the public to the risks associated with having high cholesterol and encouraged cholesterol testing for wider groups than those specified by the National Heart Foundation. General practitioners should be aware of the potential for the two campaigns to confuse the general public as to who should be tested, and where. The campaign sponsors (Unilever Australasia and Pfizer) each have the potential to benefit by increased market share for their products, and increased profits. These disease awareness campaigns are examples of what is increasingly being termed "condition branding" by pharmaceutical marketing experts.

  15. Comparative performance evaluation of transform coding in image pre-processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Vignesh V.; NB, Harikrishnan; Narayanan, Gayathri; CK, Niveditha

    2017-07-01

    We are in the midst of a communication transmute which drives the development as largely as dissemination of pioneering communication systems with ever-increasing fidelity and resolution. Distinguishable researches have been appreciative in image processing techniques crazed by a growing thirst for faster and easier encoding, storage and transmission of visual information. In this paper, the researchers intend to throw light on many techniques which could be worn at the transmitter-end in order to ease the transmission and reconstruction of the images. The researchers investigate the performance of different image transform coding schemes used in pre-processing, their comparison, and effectiveness, the necessary and sufficient conditions, properties and complexity in implementation. Whimsical by prior advancements in image processing techniques, the researchers compare various contemporary image pre-processing frameworks- Compressed Sensing, Singular Value Decomposition, Integer Wavelet Transform on performance. The paper exposes the potential of Integer Wavelet transform to be an efficient pre-processing scheme.

  16. Performance of Pre-processing Schemes with Imperfect Channel State Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Skovgaard; Kyritsi, Persa; De Carvalho, Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    Pre-processing techniques have several benefits when the CSI is perfect. In this work we investigate three linear pre-processing filters, assuming imperfect CSI caused by noise degradation and channel temporal variation. Results indicate, that the LMMSE filter achieves the lowest BER and the high......Pre-processing techniques have several benefits when the CSI is perfect. In this work we investigate three linear pre-processing filters, assuming imperfect CSI caused by noise degradation and channel temporal variation. Results indicate, that the LMMSE filter achieves the lowest BER...... and the highest SINR when the CSI is perfect, whereas the simple matched filter may be a good choice when the CSI is imperfect. Additionally the results give insight into the inherent trade-off between robustness against CSI imperfections and spatial focusing ability....

  17. Psychiatric diagnoses are not mental processes: Wittgenstein on conceptual confusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenman, Stephen; Nasti, Julian

    2012-11-01

    Empirical explanation and treatment repeatedly fail for psychiatric diagnoses. Diagnosis is mired in conceptual confusion that is illuminated by Ludwig Wittgenstein's later critique of philosophy (Philosophical Investigations). This paper examines conceptual confusions in the foundation of psychiatric diagnosis from some of Wittgenstein's important critical viewpoints. Diagnostic terms are words whose meanings are given by usages not definitions. Diagnoses, by Wittgenstein's analogy with 'games', have various and evolving usages that are connected by family relationships, and no essence or core phenomenon connects them. Their usages will change according to the demands and contexts in which they are employed. Diagnoses, like many psychological terms, such as 'reading' or 'understanding', are concepts that refer not to fixed behavioural or mental states but to complex apprehensions of the relationship of a variety of behavioural phenomena with the world. A diagnosis is a sort of concept that cannot be located in or explained by a mental process. A diagnosis is an exercise in language and its usage changes according to the context and the needs it addresses. Diagnoses have important uses but they are irreducibly heterogeneous and cannot be identified with or connected to particular mental processes or even with a unity of phenomena that can be addressed empirically. This makes understandable not only the repeated failure of empirical science to replicate or illuminate genetic, neurophysiologic, psychic or social processes underlying diagnoses but also the emptiness of a succession of explanatory theories and treatment effects that cannot be repeated or stubbornly regress to the mean. Attempts to fix the meanings of diagnoses to allow empirical explanation will and should fail as there is no foundation on which a fixed meaning can be built and it can only be done at the cost of the relevance and usefulness of diagnosis.

  18. [Iron Man: Between Confusion of Identity and Addiction to Technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapellon, Sébastien; Houssier, Florian

    The fascination surrounding a successful artwork is linked to the fact it faces the viewer to unknown aspects of his/her own psychic life. The same applies to the comics Iron Man. Behind the armour is hiding a man caught up in the traumatic incidences of life. The hero demonstrates a psychic weakness which, despite being deep, is, however, showing universal aspects.The analysis of his misfortunes reveals a narcissistic disorder. The article intends to set out the identity confusion the Marvel's protagonist is trapped in while highlighting the addictive troublesome linking him to his high-tech armour. This article also seeks to attest the fact the symbiosis between Tony Stark and Iron Man is anticipating the evolution of our behaviour with regard to new technologies.To this end, the authors are recalling the episodes of the series. Through the analysis of the confrontational dialogue the hero is maintaining with his iron armour, they explore how the internal experiment related to the sense of identity disorder is figured out. Thus, going through the key moments of the saga, the authors raise the ambiguity of his hero. The metapsychological analysis of the actions undertaken by Iron Man reflects a little-known facet of his personality, revealing a character more tormented than he really looks. However, the point is not to "treat" a fictional man, but to observe how he can help us to understand the internal behaviour of our patients, and also our own.The Faustian drama this comic leads to is hence understood as a living testimony of our own psychic conflicts. Furthermore, the analysis gives rise to a questioning as to the risk of identity confusion the technological progress can create at a time when the Human is more and more depending on the machines he creates himself.

  19. Community Detection for Correlation Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mel MacMahon

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A challenging problem in the study of complex systems is that of resolving, without prior information, the emergent, mesoscopic organization determined by groups of units whose dynamical activity is more strongly correlated internally than with the rest of the system. The existing techniques to filter correlations are not explicitly oriented towards identifying such modules and can suffer from an unavoidable information loss. A promising alternative is that of employing community detection techniques developed in network theory. Unfortunately, this approach has focused predominantly on replacing network data with correlation matrices, a procedure that we show to be intrinsically biased because of its inconsistency with the null hypotheses underlying the existing algorithms. Here, we introduce, via a consistent redefinition of null models based on random matrix theory, the appropriate correlation-based counterparts of the most popular community detection techniques. Our methods can filter out both unit-specific noise and system-wide dependencies, and the resulting communities are internally correlated and mutually anticorrelated. We also implement multiresolution and multifrequency approaches revealing hierarchically nested subcommunities with “hard” cores and “soft” peripheries. We apply our techniques to several financial time series and identify mesoscopic groups of stocks which are irreducible to a standard, sectorial taxonomy; detect “soft stocks” that alternate between communities; and discuss implications for portfolio optimization and risk management.

  20. Community Detection for Correlation Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahon, Mel; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2015-04-01

    A challenging problem in the study of complex systems is that of resolving, without prior information, the emergent, mesoscopic organization determined by groups of units whose dynamical activity is more strongly correlated internally than with the rest of the system. The existing techniques to filter correlations are not explicitly oriented towards identifying such modules and can suffer from an unavoidable information loss. A promising alternative is that of employing community detection techniques developed in network theory. Unfortunately, this approach has focused predominantly on replacing network data with correlation matrices, a procedure that we show to be intrinsically biased because of its inconsistency with the null hypotheses underlying the existing algorithms. Here, we introduce, via a consistent redefinition of null models based on random matrix theory, the appropriate correlation-based counterparts of the most popular community detection techniques. Our methods can filter out both unit-specific noise and system-wide dependencies, and the resulting communities are internally correlated and mutually anticorrelated. We also implement multiresolution and multifrequency approaches revealing hierarchically nested subcommunities with "hard" cores and "soft" peripheries. We apply our techniques to several financial time series and identify mesoscopic groups of stocks which are irreducible to a standard, sectorial taxonomy; detect "soft stocks" that alternate between communities; and discuss implications for portfolio optimization and risk management.

  1. Comparison of classification algorithms for various methods of preprocessing radar images of the MSTAR base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodinov, A. A.; Myasnikov, V. V.

    2018-04-01

    The present work is devoted to comparing the accuracy of the known qualification algorithms in the task of recognizing local objects on radar images for various image preprocessing methods. Preprocessing involves speckle noise filtering and normalization of the object orientation in the image by the method of image moments and by a method based on the Hough transform. In comparison, the following classification algorithms are used: Decision tree; Support vector machine, AdaBoost, Random forest. The principal component analysis is used to reduce the dimension. The research is carried out on the objects from the base of radar images MSTAR. The paper presents the results of the conducted studies.

  2. The Antitriangular Factorization of Saddle Point Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, J.

    2014-01-01

    Mastronardi and Van Dooren [SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl., 34 (2013), pp. 173-196] recently introduced the block antitriangular ("Batman") decomposition for symmetric indefinite matrices. Here we show the simplification of this factorization for saddle point matrices and demonstrate how it represents the common nullspace method. We show that rank-1 updates to the saddle point matrix can be easily incorporated into the factorization and give bounds on the eigenvalues of matrices important in saddle point theory. We show the relation of this factorization to constraint preconditioning and how it transforms but preserves the structure of block diagonal and block triangular preconditioners. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  3. Polynomial sequences generated by infinite Hessenberg matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verde-Star Luis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that an infinite lower Hessenberg matrix generates polynomial sequences that correspond to the rows of infinite lower triangular invertible matrices. Orthogonal polynomial sequences are obtained when the Hessenberg matrix is tridiagonal. We study properties of the polynomial sequences and their corresponding matrices which are related to recurrence relations, companion matrices, matrix similarity, construction algorithms, and generating functions. When the Hessenberg matrix is also Toeplitz the polynomial sequences turn out to be of interpolatory type and we obtain additional results. For example, we show that every nonderogative finite square matrix is similar to a unique Toeplitz-Hessenberg matrix.

  4. Synchronous correlation matrices and Connes’ embedding conjecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykema, Kenneth J., E-mail: kdykema@math.tamu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Texas A& M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3368 (United States); Paulsen, Vern, E-mail: vern@math.uh.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    In the work of Paulsen et al. [J. Funct. Anal. (in press); preprint arXiv:1407.6918], the concept of synchronous quantum correlation matrices was introduced and these were shown to correspond to traces on certain C*-algebras. In particular, synchronous correlation matrices arose in their study of various versions of quantum chromatic numbers of graphs and other quantum versions of graph theoretic parameters. In this paper, we develop these ideas further, focusing on the relations between synchronous correlation matrices and microstates. We prove that Connes’ embedding conjecture is equivalent to the equality of two families of synchronous quantum correlation matrices. We prove that if Connes’ embedding conjecture has a positive answer, then the tracial rank and projective rank are equal for every graph. We then apply these results to more general non-local games.

  5. Discrete canonical transforms that are Hadamard matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, John J; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo

    2011-01-01

    The group Sp(2,R) of symplectic linear canonical transformations has an integral kernel which has quadratic and linear phases, and which is realized by the geometric paraxial optical model. The discrete counterpart of this model is a finite Hamiltonian system that acts on N-point signals through N x N matrices whose elements also have a constant absolute value, although they do not form a representation of that group. Those matrices that are also unitary are Hadamard matrices. We investigate the manifolds of these N x N matrices under the Sp(2,R) equivalence imposed by the model, and find them to be on two-sided cosets. By means of an algorithm we determine representatives that lead to collections of mutually unbiased bases.

  6. ESTIMATION OF FUNCTIONALS OF SPARSE COVARIANCE MATRICES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianqing; Rigollet, Philippe; Wang, Weichen

    High-dimensional statistical tests often ignore correlations to gain simplicity and stability leading to null distributions that depend on functionals of correlation matrices such as their Frobenius norm and other ℓ r norms. Motivated by the computation of critical values of such tests, we investigate the difficulty of estimation the functionals of sparse correlation matrices. Specifically, we show that simple plug-in procedures based on thresholded estimators of correlation matrices are sparsity-adaptive and minimax optimal over a large class of correlation matrices. Akin to previous results on functional estimation, the minimax rates exhibit an elbow phenomenon. Our results are further illustrated in simulated data as well as an empirical study of data arising in financial econometrics.

  7. The Antitriangular Factorization of Saddle Point Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, J.; Wathen, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Mastronardi and Van Dooren [SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl., 34 (2013), pp. 173-196] recently introduced the block antitriangular ("Batman") decomposition for symmetric indefinite matrices. Here we show the simplification of this factorization for saddle

  8. A Real-Time Embedded System for Stereo Vision Preprocessing Using an FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær-Nielsen, Anders; Jensen, Lars Baunegaard With; Sørensen, Anders Stengaard

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a low level vision processing node for use in existing IEEE 1394 camera setups is presented. The processing node is a small embedded system, that utilizes an FPGA to perform stereo vision preprocessing at rates limited by the bandwidth of IEEE 1394a (400Mbit). The system is used...

  9. Poisson pre-processing of nonstationary photonic signals: Signals with equality between mean and variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poplová, Michaela; Sovka, Pavel; Cifra, Michal

    2017-01-01

    Photonic signals are broadly exploited in communication and sensing and they typically exhibit Poisson-like statistics. In a common scenario where the intensity of the photonic signals is low and one needs to remove a nonstationary trend of the signals for any further analysis, one faces an obstacle: due to the dependence between the mean and variance typical for a Poisson-like process, information about the trend remains in the variance even after the trend has been subtracted, possibly yielding artifactual results in further analyses. Commonly available detrending or normalizing methods cannot cope with this issue. To alleviate this issue we developed a suitable pre-processing method for the signals that originate from a Poisson-like process. In this paper, a Poisson pre-processing method for nonstationary time series with Poisson distribution is developed and tested on computer-generated model data and experimental data of chemiluminescence from human neutrophils and mung seeds. The presented method transforms a nonstationary Poisson signal into a stationary signal with a Poisson distribution while preserving the type of photocount distribution and phase-space structure of the signal. The importance of the suggested pre-processing method is shown in Fano factor and Hurst exponent analysis of both computer-generated model signals and experimental photonic signals. It is demonstrated that our pre-processing method is superior to standard detrending-based methods whenever further signal analysis is sensitive to variance of the signal.

  10. Scene matching based on non-linear pre-processing on reference image and sensed image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Sheng; Zhang Tianxu; Sang Nong

    2005-01-01

    To solve the heterogeneous image scene matching problem, a non-linear pre-processing method for the original images before intensity-based correlation is proposed. The result shows that the proper matching probability is raised greatly. Especially for the low S/N image pairs, the effect is more remarkable.

  11. Data pre-processing: a case study in predicting student's retention in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dataset with features that are ready for data mining task. The study also proposed a process model and suggestions, which can be applied to support more comprehensible tools for educational domain who is the end user. Subsequently, the data pre-processing become more efficient for predicting student's retention in ...

  12. Summary of ENDF/B Pre-Processing Codes June 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, D.E.

    1983-06-01

    This is the summary documentation for the 1983 version of the ENDF/B Pre-Processing Codes LINEAR, RECENT, SIGMA1, GROUPIE, EVALPLOT, MERGER, DICTION, COMPLOT, CONVERT. This summary documentation is merely a copy of the comment cards that appear at the beginning of each programme; these comment cards always reflect the latest status of input options, etc

  13. Evaluation of Microarray Preprocessing Algorithms Based on Concordance with RT-PCR in Clinical Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kasper Lage; Szallasi, Zoltan Imre; Eklund, Aron Charles

    2009-01-01

    evaluated consistency using the Pearson correlation between measurements obtained on the two platforms. Also, we introduce the log-ratio discrepancy as a more relevant measure of discordance between gene expression platforms. Of nine preprocessing algorithms tested, PLIER+16 produced expression values...

  14. Pre-processing data using wavelet transform and PCA based on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abazar Solgi

    2017-07-14

    Jul 14, 2017 ... Pre-processing data using wavelet transform and PCA based on support vector regression and gene expression programming for river flow simulation. Abazar Solgi1,*, Amir Pourhaghi1, Ramin Bahmani2 and Heidar Zarei3. 1. Department of Water Resources Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of ...

  15. Preprocessing for Optimization of Probabilistic-Logic Models for Sequence Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Lassen, Ole Torp

    2009-01-01

    and approximation are needed. The first steps are taken towards a methodology for optimizing such models by approximations using auxiliary models for preprocessing or splitting them into submodels. Evaluation of such approximating models is challenging as authoritative test data may be sparse. On the other hand...

  16. Flux Jacobian Matrices For Equilibrium Real Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokur, Marcel

    1990-01-01

    Improved formulation includes generalized Roe average and extension to three dimensions. Flux Jacobian matrices derived for use in numerical solutions of conservation-law differential equations of inviscid flows of ideal gases extended to real gases. Real-gas formulation of these matrices retains simplifying assumptions of thermodynamic and chemical equilibrium, but adds effects of vibrational excitation, dissociation, and ionization of gas molecules via general equation of state.

  17. Supercritical fluid extraction behaviour of polymer matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujatha, K.; Kumar, R.; Sivaraman, N.; Srinivasan, T.G.; Vasudeva Rao, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Organic compounds present in polymeric matrices such as neoprene, surgical gloves and PVC were co-extracted during the removal of uranium using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) technique. Hence SFE studies of these matrices were carried out to establish the extracted species using HPLC, IR and mass spectrometry techniques. The initial study indicated that uranium present in the extract could be purified from the co-extracted organic species. (author)

  18. Coherence, competence, and confusion in narratives of middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Lissa; Shustorovich, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Middle childhood is a pivotal time in character development during which enduring internal structures are formed. Fiction can offer insights into the cognitive and affective shifts of this developmental phase and how they are transformed in adulthood. While the success of beloved books for latency age children lies in the solutions they offer to the conflict between the pull toward independence and the pull back to the safety of childhood, the enduring stories for adults about children in their middle years can be seen as works of mourning for the relationship with the parents and the childhood self, but more importantly as attempts to transform their experience of middle childhood through the retrospective creation of a coherence that was initially absent. Thematic and structural elements distinguish two groups of stories for adults: the first appears to solve the conflicts of this period by importing adult knowledge and perspective into the narrative of childhood; the second describes the unconscious disorganizing aspects of this period, thereby offering readers a chance to reorganize their own memories, to make a coherent whole out of the fragmented, the confusing, and the unresolved.

  19. [Asymmetric confusability effect in recognition memory of cats pictures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, M; Hakoda, Y

    1999-06-01

    Performance superiority of the addition of features in the stimuli over the deletion on recognition (asymmetric confusability effect) has been shown in previous studies (Pezdek, Maki, Valencia-Laver, Whetstone, Stoeckert, & Dougherty, 1988; Ando & Hakoda, 1998). We investigated the same effect by using a familiar living thing (cat) as a stimulus. Ten subjects were given a recognition task using pictures of cats with feature changes (additions, deletions, or no change). Results showed that the picture with deletions were easier to recognize than those with additions, which was opposite to the previous studies. Then, we examined the possibility that performance superiority of the deletions over the additions was mediated by the factor of impression. Another group of 18 subjects was asked to rate the impression scales consisting of a "typicality-reality factor", a "stability-balance factor", and a "grotesque-disgust factor". Results showed that there was a significant difference in impression ratings for each factor between the additions and the deletions, and that impression ratings predicted recognition performance well. It was concluded that performance superiority of the deletions over the additions was mediated by the factor of impression.

  20. Brand name confusion: Subjective and objective measures of orthographic similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Jennifer S; McFarlane, Kimberley A; Kelly, Sarah J; Humphreys, Michael S; Weatherall, Kimberlee; Burrell, Robert G

    2017-09-01

    Determining brand name similarity is vital in areas of trademark registration and brand confusion. Students rated the orthographic (spelling) similarity of word pairs (Experiments 1, 2, and 4) and brand name pairs (Experiment 5). Similarity ratings were consistently higher when words shared beginnings rather than endings, whereas shared pronunciation of the stressed vowel had small and less consistent effects on ratings. In Experiment 3 a behavioral task confirmed the similarity of shared beginnings in lexical processing. Specifically, in a task requiring participants to decide whether 2 words presented in the clear (a probe and a later target) were the same or different, a masked prime word preceding the target shortened response latencies if it shared its initial 3 letters with the target. The ratings of students for word and brand name pairs were strongly predicted by metrics of orthographic similarity from the visual word identification literature based on the number of shared letters and their relative positions. The results indicate a potential use for orthographic metrics in brand name registration and trademark law. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. PRP in OA knee - update, current confusions and future options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Mandeep S; Patel, Sandeep; John, Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    Positive results have been uniformly observed by various researchers for platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in early osteoarthritis (OA) knee in the past few years. PRP has clearly demonstrated its supremacy in comparison to hyaluronic acid (HA) and placebo in various clinical trials and is undoubtedly the best option available for symptomatic treatment in early OA. The release of growth factors from PRP occurs immediately and lasts for around three weeks and the clinical effect tends to wane down by the end of the year. Prolonged and sustained release of growth factors from platelets could possibly help in much better biological healing and sustained clinical effects. PRP in combination with biocompatible carriers could be one way of achieving this. Gelatin hydrogel PRP and chitosan PRP seem to be promising based on early in vitro studies and animal studies. PRP in combination with hyaluronic acid also seems to be additive. This article intends to discuss the present status of the PRP, confusions surrounding its use, upcoming trends and ideas for improvising PRP for use early OA knees based on available evidence. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  2. [Confused Germanic blasphemy. Jacob Moleschott and materialistic medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Liguori, Girolamo

    2005-01-01

    Starting from the reading of a recent biography of the Dutch materialistic physiologist Jacopo Moleschott (1822-1893), this article proposes a brief survey of the impact, especially in Italy, of the materialistic paradigm, not only in the field of medicine and of the natural sciences, but also in that of philosophy and of literature. From the rejection and ferocious criticisms of the Jesuits, such as Padre Previti, to the harsh ironies of Tommaseo--who, in reference to the academic lessons of Moleschott, spoke of "confused Germanic blasphemy"--, the survey proceeds to a recognition of the role and influence of Moleschott's perspective in the field of medicine, in that of science, and especially in the philosophical and epistemological debate on the relation between the experimental sciences and philosophy. The survey then proceeds to touch on the classical controversy over the Chemische Briefe of Liebig (1844), the dispute with Bufalini on the new way of thinking about the relation between physiology and pathology, and the influence exerted by the Dutch physiologist on Salvatore Tommasi. The article in the end broadens to include a rapid analysis of Moleschott's contribution to the field of literature, as well as to the more complicated debate on the natural sciences and materialism, which still today presents, beyond the outdated models of positivistic scientism, well-grounded themes of interest, if not of validity.

  3. A antropologia numa era de confusão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maybury-Lewis David

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A Antropologia sempre procurou entender a natureza humana e as variedades da cultura humana. Esta tarefa ambiciosa enfrentou constantemente dificuldades teóricas e metodológicas. A teoria da evolução social foi apresentada como sendo preconceituosa e baseada em poucas evidências, inclusive com uma inferência racista em uma época de dominação européia. Os antídotos - rigoroso trabalho de campo inspirado no funcionalismo, estruturalismo ou culturalismo - eram também vistos como contaminados por hierarquias de uma ordem mundial colonialista. A atenção pós-moderna a este "orientalismo" em um mundo pós-colonial produziu textos no sentido de atentar os antropólogos para estas questões, o que acarretou um declínio na produção e no entendimento antropológico. Esta conferência considera estes dilemas, os correntes debates sobre "cultura" e "sobrevivência cultural" e como antropólogos deveriam proceder nesta nova era de confusão, produzida pela globalização e pelo aparecimento do Estado-nação.

  4. Investigating source confusion in PMN J1603-4904

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauß, F.; Kreter, M.; Müller, C.; Markowitz, A.; Böck, M.; Burnett, T.; Dauser, T.; Kadler, M.; Kreikenbohm, A.; Ojha, R.; Wilms, J.

    2018-02-01

    PMN J1603-4904 is a likely member of the rare class of γ-ray emitting young radio galaxies. Only one other source, PKS 1718-649, has been confirmed so far. These objects, which may transition into larger radio galaxies, are a stepping stone to understanding AGN evolution. It is not completely clear how these young galaxies, seen edge-on, can produce high-energy γ rays. PMN J1603-4904 has been detected by TANAMI Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) observations and has been followed-up with multiwavelength observations. A Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Large Area Telescope (Fermi-LAT) γ-ray source has been associated with this young galaxy in the LAT catalogs. We have obtained Chandra observations of the source to consider the possibility of source confusion due to the relatively large positional uncertainty of Fermi-LAT. The goal was to investigate the possibility of other X-ray bright sources in the vicinity of PMN J1603-4904 that could be counterparts to the γ-ray emission. With Chandra/ACIS, we find no other sources in the uncertainty ellipse of Fermi-LAT data, which includes an improved localization analysis of eight years of data. We further study the X-ray fluxes and spectra. We conclude that PMN J1603-4904 is indeed the second confirmed γ-ray bright young radio galaxy.

  5. Triple confusion: An interesting case of proteinuria in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guru, Pramod K; Ramaeker, Devon M; Jeybalan, Arundhathi; Shah, Nirav A; Bastacky, Sheldon; Liang, Kelly V

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy-related renal diseases are unique and need special attention, both for diagnosis and management. The major confounding factors for diagnosis are the physiological multiorgan changes that occur throughout the gestational period. Proper diagnosis of the renal disease is also important, given the impact of varied management options both on the maternal and fetal health. A young middle-aged female with a long-standing history of diabetes presented to the hospital with worsening proteinuria in her second trimester of pregnancy. Clinical history, examinations, and laboratory analysis did not give any clues for diagnosis of a specific disease entity. This led us to take the risk of renal biopsy for a tissue diagnosis. The odds of renal biopsy favored the management decision in her case, thereby avoiding the confusions prior to biopsy. The pathological diagnosis is a surprise though not a unique entity on its own (minimal change disease in pregnancy). The case illustrates the disparity of clinical presentations and the pathology in patients, and the importance of renal biopsy in pregnant patients in particular.

  6. [The Confusion Assessment Method: Transcultural adaptation of a French version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, V; Belmin, J; Blain, H; Bonin-Guillaume, S; Goldsmith, L; Guerin, O; Kergoat, M-J; Landais, P; Mahmoudi, R; Morais, J A; Rataboul, P; Saber, A; Sirvain, S; Wolfklein, G; de Wazieres, B

    2018-04-03

    The Confusion Assessment Method (CAM) is a validated key tool in clinical practice and research programs to diagnose delirium and assess its severity. There is no validated French version of the CAM training manual and coding guide (Inouye SK). The aim of this study was to establish a consensual French version of the CAM and its manual. Cross-cultural adaptation to achieve equivalence between the original version and a French adapted version of the CAM manual. A rigorous process was conducted including control of cultural adequacy of the tool's components, double forward and back translations, reconciliation, expert committee review (including bilingual translators with different nationalities, a linguist, highly qualified clinicians, methodologists) and pretesting. A consensual French version of the CAM was achieved. Implementation of the CAM French version in daily clinical practice will enable optimal diagnosis of delirium diagnosis and enhance communication between health professionals in French speaking countries. Validity and psychometric properties are being tested in a French multicenter cohort, opening up new perspectives for improved quality of care and research programs in French speaking countries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Contrast, contours and the confusion effect in dazzle camouflage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Benedict G; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Cuthill, Innes C

    2016-07-01

    'Motion dazzle camouflage' is the name for the putative effects of highly conspicuous, often repetitive or complex, patterns on parameters important in prey capture, such as the perception of speed, direction and identity. Research into motion dazzle camouflage is increasing our understanding of the interactions between visual tracking, the confusion effect and defensive coloration. However, there is a paucity of research into the effects of contrast on motion dazzle camouflage: is maximal contrast a prerequisite for effectiveness? If not, this has important implications for our recognition of the phenotype and understanding of the function and mechanisms of potential motion dazzle camouflage patterns. Here we tested human participants' ability to track one moving target among many identical distractors with surface patterns designed to test the influence of these factors. In line with previous evidence, we found that targets with stripes parallel to the object direction of motion were hardest to track. However, reduction in contrast did not significantly influence this result. This finding may bring into question the utility of current definitions of motion dazzle camouflage, and means that some animal patterns, such as aposematic or mimetic stripes, may have previously unrecognized multiple functions.

  8. Cases in which ancestral maximum likelihood will be confusingly misleading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelman, Tomer; Chor, Benny

    2017-05-07

    Ancestral maximum likelihood (AML) is a phylogenetic tree reconstruction criteria that "lies between" maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML). ML has long been known to be statistically consistent. On the other hand, Felsenstein (1978) showed that MP is statistically inconsistent, and even positively misleading: There are cases where the parsimony criteria, applied to data generated according to one tree topology, will be optimized on a different tree topology. The question of weather AML is statistically consistent or not has been open for a long time. Mossel et al. (2009) have shown that AML can "shrink" short tree edges, resulting in a star tree with no internal resolution, which yields a better AML score than the original (resolved) model. This result implies that AML is statistically inconsistent, but not that it is positively misleading, because the star tree is compatible with any other topology. We show that AML is confusingly misleading: For some simple, four taxa (resolved) tree, the ancestral likelihood optimization criteria is maximized on an incorrect (resolved) tree topology, as well as on a star tree (both with specific edge lengths), while the tree with the original, correct topology, has strictly lower ancestral likelihood. Interestingly, the two short edges in the incorrect, resolved tree topology are of length zero, and are not adjacent, so this resolved tree is in fact a simple path. While for MP, the underlying phenomenon can be described as long edge attraction, it turns out that here we have long edge repulsion. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Data preprocessing methods of FT-NIR spectral data for the classification cooking oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruah, Mas Ezatul Nadia Mohd; Rasaruddin, Nor Fazila; Fong, Sim Siong; Jaafar, Mohd Zuli

    2014-12-01

    This recent work describes the data pre-processing method of FT-NIR spectroscopy datasets of cooking oil and its quality parameters with chemometrics method. Pre-processing of near-infrared (NIR) spectral data has become an integral part of chemometrics modelling. Hence, this work is dedicated to investigate the utility and effectiveness of pre-processing algorithms namely row scaling, column scaling and single scaling process with Standard Normal Variate (SNV). The combinations of these scaling methods have impact on exploratory analysis and classification via Principle Component Analysis plot (PCA). The samples were divided into palm oil and non-palm cooking oil. The classification model was build using FT-NIR cooking oil spectra datasets in absorbance mode at the range of 4000cm-1-14000cm-1. Savitzky Golay derivative was applied before developing the classification model. Then, the data was separated into two sets which were training set and test set by using Duplex method. The number of each class was kept equal to 2/3 of the class that has the minimum number of sample. Then, the sample was employed t-statistic as variable selection method in order to select which variable is significant towards the classification models. The evaluation of data pre-processing were looking at value of modified silhouette width (mSW), PCA and also Percentage Correctly Classified (%CC). The results show that different data processing strategies resulting to substantial amount of model performances quality. The effects of several data pre-processing i.e. row scaling, column standardisation and single scaling process with Standard Normal Variate indicated by mSW and %CC. At two PCs model, all five classifier gave high %CC except Quadratic Distance Analysis.

  10. Value of Distributed Preprocessing of Biomass Feedstocks to a Bioenergy Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christopher T Wright

    2006-07-01

    Biomass preprocessing is one of the primary operations in the feedstock assembly system and the front-end of a biorefinery. Its purpose is to chop, grind, or otherwise format the biomass into a suitable feedstock for conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Many variables such as equipment cost and efficiency, and feedstock moisture content, particle size, bulk density, compressibility, and flowability affect the location and implementation of this unit operation. Previous conceptual designs show this operation to be located at the front-end of the biorefinery. However, data are presented that show distributed preprocessing at the field-side or in a fixed preprocessing facility can provide significant cost benefits by producing a higher value feedstock with improved handling, transporting, and merchandising potential. In addition, data supporting the preferential deconstruction of feedstock materials due to their bio-composite structure identifies the potential for significant improvements in equipment efficiencies and compositional quality upgrades. Theses data are collected from full-scale low and high capacity hammermill grinders with various screen sizes. Multiple feedstock varieties with a range of moisture values were used in the preprocessing tests. The comparative values of the different grinding configurations, feedstock varieties, and moisture levels are assessed through post-grinding analysis of the different particle fractions separated with a medium-scale forage particle separator and a Rototap separator. The results show that distributed preprocessing produces a material that has bulk flowable properties and fractionation benefits that can improve the ease of transporting, handling and conveying the material to the biorefinery and improve the biochemical and thermochemical conversion processes.

  11. Relative effects of statistical preprocessing and postprocessing on a regional hydrological ensemble prediction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjib; Siddique, Ridwan; Reed, Seann; Ahnert, Peter; Mendoza, Pablo; Mejia, Alfonso

    2018-03-01

    The relative roles of statistical weather preprocessing and streamflow postprocessing in hydrological ensemble forecasting at short- to medium-range forecast lead times (day 1-7) are investigated. For this purpose, a regional hydrologic ensemble prediction system (RHEPS) is developed and implemented. The RHEPS is comprised of the following components: (i) hydrometeorological observations (multisensor precipitation estimates, gridded surface temperature, and gauged streamflow); (ii) weather ensemble forecasts (precipitation and near-surface temperature) from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction 11-member Global Ensemble Forecast System Reforecast version 2 (GEFSRv2); (iii) NOAA's Hydrology Laboratory-Research Distributed Hydrologic Model (HL-RDHM); (iv) heteroscedastic censored logistic regression (HCLR) as the statistical preprocessor; (v) two statistical postprocessors, an autoregressive model with a single exogenous variable (ARX(1,1)) and quantile regression (QR); and (vi) a comprehensive verification strategy. To implement the RHEPS, 1 to 7 days weather forecasts from the GEFSRv2 are used to force HL-RDHM and generate raw ensemble streamflow forecasts. Forecasting experiments are conducted in four nested basins in the US Middle Atlantic region, ranging in size from 381 to 12 362 km2. Results show that the HCLR preprocessed ensemble precipitation forecasts have greater skill than the raw forecasts. These improvements are more noticeable in the warm season at the longer lead times (> 3 days). Both postprocessors, ARX(1,1) and QR, show gains in skill relative to the raw ensemble streamflow forecasts, particularly in the cool season, but QR outperforms ARX(1,1). The scenarios that implement preprocessing and postprocessing separately tend to perform similarly, although the postprocessing-alone scenario is often more effective. The scenario involving both preprocessing and postprocessing consistently outperforms the other scenarios. In some cases

  12. Reproducible cancer biomarker discovery in SELDI-TOF MS using different pre-processing algorithms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfeng Zou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There has been much interest in differentiating diseased and normal samples using biomarkers derived from mass spectrometry (MS studies. However, biomarker identification for specific diseases has been hindered by irreproducibility. Specifically, a peak profile extracted from a dataset for biomarker identification depends on a data pre-processing algorithm. Until now, no widely accepted agreement has been reached. RESULTS: In this paper, we investigated the consistency of biomarker identification using differentially expressed (DE peaks from peak profiles produced by three widely used average spectrum-dependent pre-processing algorithms based on SELDI-TOF MS data for prostate and breast cancers. Our results revealed two important factors that affect the consistency of DE peak identification using different algorithms. One factor is that some DE peaks selected from one peak profile were not detected as peaks in other profiles, and the second factor is that the statistical power of identifying DE peaks in large peak profiles with many peaks may be low due to the large scale of the tests and small number of samples. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the DE peak detection power in large profiles could be improved by the stratified false discovery rate (FDR control approach and that the reproducibility of DE peak detection could thereby be increased. CONCLUSIONS: Comparing and evaluating pre-processing algorithms in terms of reproducibility can elucidate the relationship among different algorithms and also help in selecting a pre-processing algorithm. The DE peaks selected from small peak profiles with few peaks for a dataset tend to be reproducibly detected in large peak profiles, which suggests that a suitable pre-processing algorithm should be able to produce peaks sufficient for identifying useful and reproducible biomarkers.

  13. Protein matrices for wound dressings =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Andreia Joana Costa

    Fibrous proteins such as silk fibroin (SF), keratin (K) and elastin (EL) are able to mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) that allows their recognition under physiological conditions. The impressive mechanical properties, the environmental stability, in combination with their biocompatibility and control of morphology, provide an important basis to use these proteins in biomedical applications like protein-based wound dressings. Along time the concept of wound dressings has changed from the traditional dressings such as honey or natural fibres, used just to protect the wound from external factors, to the interactive dressings of the present. Wounds can be classified in acute that heal in the expected time frame, and chronic, which fail to heal because the orderly sequence of events is disrupted at one or more stages of the healing process. Moreover, chronic wound exudates contain high levels of tissue destructive proteolytic enzymes such as human neutrophil elastase (HNE) that need to be controlled for a proper healing. The aim of this work is to exploit the self-assemble properties of silk fibroin, keratin and elastin for the development of new protein materials to be used as wound dressings: i) evaluation of the blending effect on the physical and chemical properties of the materials; ii) development of materials with different morphologies; iii) assessment of the cytocompatibility of the protein matrices; iv) ultimately, study the ability of the developed protein matrices as wound dressings through the use of human chronic wound exudate; v) use of innovative short peptide sequences that allow to target the control of high levels of HNE found on chronic wounds. Chapter III reports the preparation of silk fibroin/keratin (SF/K) blend films by solvent casting evaporation. Two solvent systems, aqueous and acidic, were used for the preparation of films from fibroin and keratin extracted from the respective silk and wool fibres. The effect of solvent system used was

  14. MERSENNE AND HADAMARD MATRICES CALCULATION BY SCARPIS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Balonin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper deals with the problem of basic generalizations of Hadamard matrices associated with maximum determinant matrices or not optimal by determinant matrices with orthogonal columns (weighing matrices, Mersenne and Euler matrices, ets.; calculation methods for the quasi-orthogonal local maximum determinant Mersenne matrices are not studied enough sufficiently. The goal of this paper is to develop the theory of Mersenne and Hadamard matrices on the base of generalized Scarpis method research. Methods. Extreme solutions are found in general by minimization of maximum for absolute values of the elements of studied matrices followed by their subsequent classification according to the quantity of levels and their values depending on orders. Less universal but more effective methods are based on structural invariants of quasi-orthogonal matrices (Silvester, Paley, Scarpis methods, ets.. Results. Generalizations of Hadamard and Belevitch matrices as a family of quasi-orthogonal matrices of odd orders are observed; they include, in particular, two-level Mersenne matrices. Definitions of section and layer on the set of generalized matrices are proposed. Calculation algorithms for matrices of adjacent layers and sections by matrices of lower orders are described. Approximation examples of the Belevitch matrix structures up to 22-nd critical order by Mersenne matrix of the third order are given. New formulation of the modified Scarpis method to approximate Hadamard matrices of high orders by lower order Mersenne matrices is proposed. Williamson method is described by example of one modular level matrices approximation by matrices with a small number of levels. Practical relevance. The efficiency of developing direction for the band-pass filters creation is justified. Algorithms for Mersenne matrices design by Scarpis method are used in developing software of the research program complex. Mersenne filters are based on the suboptimal by

  15. A Brief Historical Introduction to Matrices and Their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the ancient origin of matrices, and the system of linear equations. Included are algebraic properties of matrices, determinants, linear transformations, and Cramer's Rule for solving the system of algebraic equations. Special attention is given to some special matrices, including matrices in graph theory and electrical…

  16. The Legal Dimension of RTI--Confusion Confirmed: A Response to Walker and Daves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2012-01-01

    In this issue of "Learning Disability Quarterly" (LDQ), Professors Daves and Walker reply to my earlier LDQ article on confusion in the cases and commentary about the legal dimension of RTI. In this brief rejoinder, I show that their reply confirms rather than resolves the confusion in their original commentary in 2010. This persistent…

  17. Inside Out: Detecting Learners' Confusion to Improve Interactive Digital Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguel, Amaël; Lockyer, Lori; Lipp, Ottmar V.; Lodge, Jason M.; Kennedy, Gregor

    2017-01-01

    Confusion is an emotion that is likely to occur while learning complex information. This emotion can be beneficial to learners in that it can foster engagement, leading to deeper understanding. However, if learners fail to resolve confusion, its effect can be detrimental to learning. Such detrimental learning experiences are particularly…

  18. The Lost Lamb: A Literature Review on the Confusion of College Students in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jianmei; Han, Fubin

    2010-01-01

    With the development of mass higher education in China, confusion--a contradictory state between college students' awareness of employment, learning, morality, and their own behavior and societal requirements--is proving a ubiquitous problem among college students. His confusion has garnered much social attention. In this paper, the origins of…

  19. Exploring the Effect of Student Confusion in Massive Open Online Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Diyi; Kraut, Robert E.; Rose, Carolyn P.

    2016-01-01

    Although thousands of students enroll in Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) for learning and self-improvement, many get confused, harming learning and increasing dropout rates. In this paper, we quantify these effects in two large MOOCs. We first describe how we automatically estimate students' confusion by looking at their clicking behavior on…

  20. Annual Percentage Rate and Annual Effective Rate: Resolving Confusion in Intermediate Accounting Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicknair, David; Wright, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of confusion in intermediate accounting textbooks regarding the annual percentage rate (APR) and annual effective rate (AER) is presented. The APR and AER are briefly discussed in the context of a note payable and correct formulas for computing each is provided. Representative examples of the types of confusion that we found is presented…

  1. Bayesian Nonparametric Clustering for Positive Definite Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherian, Anoop; Morellas, Vassilios; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos

    2016-05-01

    Symmetric Positive Definite (SPD) matrices emerge as data descriptors in several applications of computer vision such as object tracking, texture recognition, and diffusion tensor imaging. Clustering these data matrices forms an integral part of these applications, for which soft-clustering algorithms (K-Means, expectation maximization, etc.) are generally used. As is well-known, these algorithms need the number of clusters to be specified, which is difficult when the dataset scales. To address this issue, we resort to the classical nonparametric Bayesian framework by modeling the data as a mixture model using the Dirichlet process (DP) prior. Since these matrices do not conform to the Euclidean geometry, rather belongs to a curved Riemannian manifold,existing DP models cannot be directly applied. Thus, in this paper, we propose a novel DP mixture model framework for SPD matrices. Using the log-determinant divergence as the underlying dissimilarity measure to compare these matrices, and further using the connection between this measure and the Wishart distribution, we derive a novel DPM model based on the Wishart-Inverse-Wishart conjugate pair. We apply this model to several applications in computer vision. Our experiments demonstrate that our model is scalable to the dataset size and at the same time achieves superior accuracy compared to several state-of-the-art parametric and nonparametric clustering algorithms.

  2. Input data preprocessing method for exchange rate forecasting via neural network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antić Dragan S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a method for neural network input parameters selection and preprocessing. The purpose of this network is to forecast foreign exchange rates using artificial intelligence. Two data sets are formed for two different economic systems. Each system is represented by six categories with 70 economic parameters which are used in the analysis. Reduction of these parameters within each category was performed by using the principal component analysis method. Component interdependencies are established and relations between them are formed. Newly formed relations were used to create input vectors of a neural network. The multilayer feed forward neural network is formed and trained using batch training. Finally, simulation results are presented and it is concluded that input data preparation method is an effective way for preprocessing neural network data. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br.TR 35005, br. III 43007 i br. III 44006

  3. Parallel finite elements with domain decomposition and its pre-processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, A.; Yagawa, G.; Hamada, S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a parallel finite element analysis using a domain decomposition method, and the pre-processing for the parallel calculation. Computer simulations are about to replace experiments in various fields, and the scale of model to be simulated tends to be extremely large. On the other hand, computational environment has drastically changed in these years. Especially, parallel processing on massively parallel computers or computer networks is considered to be promising techniques. In order to achieve high efficiency on such parallel computation environment, large granularity of tasks, a well-balanced workload distribution are key issues. It is also important to reduce the cost of pre-processing in such parallel FEM. From the point of view, the authors developed the domain decomposition FEM with the automatic and dynamic task-allocation mechanism and the automatic mesh generation/domain subdivision system for it. (author)

  4. Protein from preprocessed waste activated sludge as a nutritional supplement in chicken feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirwa, Evans M N; Lebitso, Moses T

    2014-01-01

    Five groups of broiler chickens were raised on feed containing varying substitutions of single cell protein from preprocessed waste activated sludge (pWAS) in varying compositions of 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0 pWAS: fishmeal by mass. Forty chickens per batch were evaluated for growth rate, mortality rate, and feed conversion efficiency (ηє). The initial mass gain rate, mortality rate, initial and operational cost analyses showed that protein from pWAS could successfully replace the commercial feed supplements with a significant cost saving without adversely affecting the health of the birds. The chickens raised on preprocessed WAS weighed 19% more than those raised on fishmeal protein supplement over a 45 day test period. Growing chickens on pWAS translated into a 46% cost saving due to the fast growth rate and minimal death losses before maturity.

  5. Application of preprocessing filtering on Decision Tree C4.5 and rough set theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Joseph C. C.; Lin, Tsau Y.

    2001-03-01

    This paper compares two artificial intelligence methods: the Decision Tree C4.5 and Rough Set Theory on the stock market data. The Decision Tree C4.5 is reviewed with the Rough Set Theory. An enhanced window application is developed to facilitate the pre-processing filtering by introducing the feature (attribute) transformations, which allows users to input formulas and create new attributes. Also, the application produces three varieties of data set with delaying, averaging, and summation. The results prove the improvement of pre-processing by applying feature (attribute) transformations on Decision Tree C4.5. Moreover, the comparison between Decision Tree C4.5 and Rough Set Theory is based on the clarity, automation, accuracy, dimensionality, raw data, and speed, which is supported by the rules sets generated by both algorithms on three different sets of data.

  6. Acoustic Biometric System Based on Preprocessing Techniques and Linear Support Vector Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Val, Lara; Izquierdo-Fuente, Alberto; Villacorta, Juan J; Raboso, Mariano

    2015-06-17

    Drawing on the results of an acoustic biometric system based on a MSE classifier, a new biometric system has been implemented. This new system preprocesses acoustic images, extracts several parameters and finally classifies them, based on Support Vector Machine (SVM). The preprocessing techniques used are spatial filtering, segmentation-based on a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to separate the person from the background, masking-to reduce the dimensions of images-and binarization-to reduce the size of each image. An analysis of classification error and a study of the sensitivity of the error versus the computational burden of each implemented algorithm are presented. This allows the selection of the most relevant algorithms, according to the benefits required by the system. A significant improvement of the biometric system has been achieved by reducing the classification error, the computational burden and the storage requirements.

  7. Random matrices and random difference equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uppuluri, V.R.R.

    1975-01-01

    Mathematical models leading to products of random matrices and random difference equations are discussed. A one-compartment model with random behavior is introduced, and it is shown how the average concentration in the discrete time model converges to the exponential function. This is of relevance to understanding how radioactivity gets trapped in bone structure in blood--bone systems. The ideas are then generalized to two-compartment models and mammillary systems, where products of random matrices appear in a natural way. The appearance of products of random matrices in applications in demography and control theory is considered. Then random sequences motivated from the following problems are studied: constant pulsing and random decay models, random pulsing and constant decay models, and random pulsing and random decay models

  8. Quantum Entanglement and Reduced Density Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwanto, Agus; Sukamto, Heru; Yuwana, Lila

    2018-05-01

    We investigate entanglement and separability criteria of multipartite (n-partite) state by examining ranks of its reduced density matrices. Firstly, we construct the general formula to determine the criterion. A rank of origin density matrix always equals one, meanwhile ranks of reduced matrices have various ranks. Next, separability and entanglement criterion of multipartite is determined by calculating ranks of reduced density matrices. In this article we diversify multipartite state criteria into completely entangled state, completely separable state, and compound state, i.e. sub-entangled state and sub-entangledseparable state. Furthermore, we also shorten the calculation proposed by the previous research to determine separability of multipartite state and expand the methods to be able to differ multipartite state based on criteria above.

  9. Forecasting Covariance Matrices: A Mixed Frequency Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halbleib, Roxana; Voev, Valeri

    This paper proposes a new method for forecasting covariance matrices of financial returns. The model mixes volatility forecasts from a dynamic model of daily realized volatilities estimated with high-frequency data with correlation forecasts based on daily data. This new approach allows for flexi......This paper proposes a new method for forecasting covariance matrices of financial returns. The model mixes volatility forecasts from a dynamic model of daily realized volatilities estimated with high-frequency data with correlation forecasts based on daily data. This new approach allows...... for flexible dependence patterns for volatilities and correlations, and can be applied to covariance matrices of large dimensions. The separate modeling of volatility and correlation forecasts considerably reduces the estimation and measurement error implied by the joint estimation and modeling of covariance...

  10. Advanced incomplete factorization algorithms for Stiltijes matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Il`in, V.P. [Siberian Division RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31

    The modern numerical methods for solving the linear algebraic systems Au = f with high order sparse matrices A, which arise in grid approximations of multidimensional boundary value problems, are based mainly on accelerated iterative processes with easily invertible preconditioning matrices presented in the form of approximate (incomplete) factorization of the original matrix A. We consider some recent algorithmic approaches, theoretical foundations, experimental data and open questions for incomplete factorization of Stiltijes matrices which are {open_quotes}the best{close_quotes} ones in the sense that they have the most advanced results. Special attention is given to solving the elliptic differential equations with strongly variable coefficients, singular perturbated diffusion-convection and parabolic equations.

  11. ENDF/B Pre-Processing Codes: Implementing and testing on a Personal Computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, P.K.

    1987-05-01

    This document describes the contents of the diskettes containing the ENDF/B Pre-Processing codes by D.E. Cullen, and example data for use in implementing and testing these codes on a Personal Computer of the type IBM-PC/AT. Upon request the codes are available from the IAEA Nuclear Data Section, free of charge, on a series of 7 diskettes. (author)

  12. The Influence of Preprocessing Steps on Graph Theory Measures Derived from Resting State fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Fatma; Kallel, Fathi; Delphine, Sebastien; Ben Hamida, Ahmed; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Valabregue, Romain

    2018-01-01

    Resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) is an imaging technique that allows the spontaneous activity of the brain to be measured. Measures of functional connectivity highly depend on the quality of the BOLD signal data processing. In this study, our aim was to study the influence of preprocessing steps and their order of application on small-world topology and their efficiency in resting state fMRI data analysis using graph theory. We applied the most standard preprocessing steps: slice-timing, realign, smoothing, filtering, and the tCompCor method. In particular, we were interested in how preprocessing can retain the small-world economic properties and how to maximize the local and global efficiency of a network while minimizing the cost. Tests that we conducted in 54 healthy subjects showed that the choice and ordering of preprocessing steps impacted the graph measures. We found that the csr (where we applied realignment, smoothing, and tCompCor as a final step) and the scr (where we applied realignment, tCompCor and smoothing as a final step) strategies had the highest mean values of global efficiency (eg) . Furthermore, we found that the fscr strategy (where we applied realignment, tCompCor, smoothing, and filtering as a final step), had the highest mean local efficiency (el) values. These results confirm that the graph theory measures of functional connectivity depend on the ordering of the processing steps, with the best results being obtained using smoothing and tCompCor as the final steps for global efficiency with additional filtering for local efficiency.

  13. Effect of pre-processing on the physico-chemical properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings indicated that the pre-processing treatments produced significant differences (p < 0.05) in protein (1.50 ± 0.18g/100g) and carbohydrate (1.09 ± 0.94g/100g) composition of the baking soda blanched milk sample. The viscosity of the baking soda blanched milk (18.91 ± 3.38cps) was significantly higher than that ...

  14. A clinical evaluation of the RNCA study using Fourier filtering as a preprocessing method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robeson, W.; Alcan, K.E.; Graham, M.C.; Palestro, C.; Oliver, F.H.; Benua, R.S.

    1984-06-01

    Forty-one patients (25 male, 16 female) were studied by Radionuclide Cardangiography (RNCA) in our institution. There were 42 rest studies and 24 stress studies (66 studies total). Sixteen patients were normal, 15 had ASHD, seven had a cardiomyopathy, and three had left-sided valvular regurgitation. Each study was preprocessed using both the standard nine-point smoothing method and Fourier filtering. Amplitude and phase images were also generated. Both preprocessing methods were compared with respect to image quality, border definition, reliability and reproducibility of the LVEF, and cine wall motion interpretation. Image quality and border definition were judged superior by the consensus of two independent observers in 65 of 66 studies (98%) using Fourier filtered data. The LVEF differed between the two processes by greater than .05 in 17 of 66 studies (26%) including five studies in which the LVEF could not be determined using nine-point smoothed data. LV wall motion was normal by both techniques in all control patients by cine analysis. However, cine wall motion analysis using Fourier filtered data demonstrated additional abnormalities in 17 of 25 studies (68%) in the ASHD group, including three uninterpretable studies using nine-point smoothed data. In the cardiomyopathy/valvular heart disease group, ten of 18 studies (56%) had additional wall motion abnormalities using Fourier filtered data (including four uninterpretable studies using nine-point smoothed data). We conclude that Fourier filtering is superior to the nine-point smooth preprocessing method now in general use in terms of image quality, border definition, generation of an LVEF, and cine wall motion analysis. The advent of the array processor makes routine preprocessing by Fourier filtering a feasible technologic advance in the development of the RNCA study.

  15. Review of Data Preprocessing Methods for Sign Language Recognition Systems based on Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorins Aleksejs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an introductory analysis of relevant research topic for Latvian deaf society, which is the development of the Latvian Sign Language Recognition System. More specifically the data preprocessing methods are discussed in the paper and several approaches are shown with a focus on systems based on artificial neural networks, which are one of the most successful solutions for sign language recognition task.

  16. Evaluation of a Stereo Music Preprocessing Scheme for Cochlear Implant Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyens, Wim; van Dijk, Bas; Moonen, Marc; Wouters, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Although for most cochlear implant (CI) users good speech understanding is reached (at least in quiet environments), the perception and the appraisal of music are generally unsatisfactory. The improvement in music appraisal was evaluated in CI participants by using a stereo music preprocessing scheme implemented on a take-home device, in a comfortable listening environment. The preprocessing allowed adjusting the balance among vocals/bass/drums and other instruments, and was evaluated for different genres of music. The correlation between the preferred settings and the participants' speech and pitch detection performance was investigated. During the initial visit preceding the take-home test, the participants' speech-in-noise perception and pitch detection performance were measured, and a questionnaire about their music involvement was completed. The take-home device was provided, including the stereo music preprocessing scheme and seven playlists with six songs each. The participants were asked to adjust the balance by means of a turning wheel to make the music sound most enjoyable, and to repeat this three times for all songs. Twelve postlingually deafened CI users participated in the study. The data were collected by means of a take-home device, which preserved all the preferred settings for the different songs. Statistical analysis was done with a Friedman test (with post hoc Wilcoxon signed-rank test) to check the effect of "Genre." The correlations were investigated with Pearson's and Spearman's correlation coefficients. All participants preferred a balance significantly different from the original balance. Differences across participants were observed which could not be explained by perceptual abilities. An effect of "Genre" was found, showing significantly smaller preferred deviation from the original balance for Golden Oldies compared to the other genres. The stereo music preprocessing scheme showed an improvement in music appraisal with complex music and

  17. Hyperspectral imaging in medicine: image pre-processing problems and solutions in Matlab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowski, Robert

    2015-11-01

    The paper presents problems and solutions related to hyperspectral image pre-processing. New methods of preliminary image analysis are proposed. The paper shows problems occurring in Matlab when trying to analyse this type of images. Moreover, new methods are discussed which provide the source code in Matlab that can be used in practice without any licensing restrictions. The proposed application and sample result of hyperspectral image analysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. A clinical evaluation of the RNCA study using Fourier filtering as a preprocessing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robeson, W.; Alcan, K.E.; Graham, M.C.; Palestro, C.; Oliver, F.H.; Benua, R.S.

    1984-01-01

    Forty-one patients (25 male, 16 female) were studied by Radionuclide Cardangiography (RNCA) in our institution. There were 42 rest studies and 24 stress studies (66 studies total). Sixteen patients were normal, 15 had ASHD, seven had a cardiomyopathy, and three had left-sided valvular regurgitation. Each study was preprocessed using both the standard nine-point smoothing method and Fourier filtering. Amplitude and phase images were also generated. Both preprocessing methods were compared with respect to image quality, border definition, reliability and reproducibility of the LVEF, and cine wall motion interpretation. Image quality and border definition were judged superior by the consensus of two independent observers in 65 of 66 studies (98%) using Fourier filtered data. The LVEF differed between the two processes by greater than .05 in 17 of 66 studies (26%) including five studies in which the LVEF could not be determined using nine-point smoothed data. LV wall motion was normal by both techniques in all control patients by cine analysis. However, cine wall motion analysis using Fourier filtered data demonstrated additional abnormalities in 17 of 25 studies (68%) in the ASHD group, including three uninterpretable studies using nine-point smoothed data. In the cardiomyopathy/valvular heart disease group, ten of 18 studies (56%) had additional wall motion abnormalities using Fourier filtered data (including four uninterpretable studies using nine-point smoothed data). We conclude that Fourier filtering is superior to the nine-point smooth preprocessing method now in general use in terms of image quality, border definition, generation of an LVEF, and cine wall motion analysis. The advent of the array processor makes routine preprocessing by Fourier filtering a feasible technologic advance in the development of the RNCA study

  19. The Influence of Preprocessing Steps on Graph Theory Measures Derived from Resting State fMRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Gargouri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI is an imaging technique that allows the spontaneous activity of the brain to be measured. Measures of functional connectivity highly depend on the quality of the BOLD signal data processing. In this study, our aim was to study the influence of preprocessing steps and their order of application on small-world topology and their efficiency in resting state fMRI data analysis using graph theory. We applied the most standard preprocessing steps: slice-timing, realign, smoothing, filtering, and the tCompCor method. In particular, we were interested in how preprocessing can retain the small-world economic properties and how to maximize the local and global efficiency of a network while minimizing the cost. Tests that we conducted in 54 healthy subjects showed that the choice and ordering of preprocessing steps impacted the graph measures. We found that the csr (where we applied realignment, smoothing, and tCompCor as a final step and the scr (where we applied realignment, tCompCor and smoothing as a final step strategies had the highest mean values of global efficiency (eg. Furthermore, we found that the fscr strategy (where we applied realignment, tCompCor, smoothing, and filtering as a final step, had the highest mean local efficiency (el values. These results confirm that the graph theory measures of functional connectivity depend on the ordering of the processing steps, with the best results being obtained using smoothing and tCompCor as the final steps for global efficiency with additional filtering for local efficiency.

  20. The Influence of Preprocessing Steps on Graph Theory Measures Derived from Resting State fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargouri, Fatma; Kallel, Fathi; Delphine, Sebastien; Ben Hamida, Ahmed; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Valabregue, Romain

    2018-01-01

    Resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) is an imaging technique that allows the spontaneous activity of the brain to be measured. Measures of functional connectivity highly depend on the quality of the BOLD signal data processing. In this study, our aim was to study the influence of preprocessing steps and their order of application on small-world topology and their efficiency in resting state fMRI data analysis using graph theory. We applied the most standard preprocessing steps: slice-timing, realign, smoothing, filtering, and the tCompCor method. In particular, we were interested in how preprocessing can retain the small-world economic properties and how to maximize the local and global efficiency of a network while minimizing the cost. Tests that we conducted in 54 healthy subjects showed that the choice and ordering of preprocessing steps impacted the graph measures. We found that the csr (where we applied realignment, smoothing, and tCompCor as a final step) and the scr (where we applied realignment, tCompCor and smoothing as a final step) strategies had the highest mean values of global efficiency (eg). Furthermore, we found that the fscr strategy (where we applied realignment, tCompCor, smoothing, and filtering as a final step), had the highest mean local efficiency (el) values. These results confirm that the graph theory measures of functional connectivity depend on the ordering of the processing steps, with the best results being obtained using smoothing and tCompCor as the final steps for global efficiency with additional filtering for local efficiency. PMID:29497372

  1. Supervised pre-processing approaches in multiple class variables classification for fish recruitment forecasting

    KAUST Repository

    Fernandes, José Antonio

    2013-02-01

    A multi-species approach to fisheries management requires taking into account the interactions between species in order to improve recruitment forecasting of the fish species. Recent advances in Bayesian networks direct the learning of models with several interrelated variables to be forecasted simultaneously. These models are known as multi-dimensional Bayesian network classifiers (MDBNs). Pre-processing steps are critical for the posterior learning of the model in these kinds of domains. Therefore, in the present study, a set of \\'state-of-the-art\\' uni-dimensional pre-processing methods, within the categories of missing data imputation, feature discretization and feature subset selection, are adapted to be used with MDBNs. A framework that includes the proposed multi-dimensional supervised pre-processing methods, coupled with a MDBN classifier, is tested with synthetic datasets and the real domain of fish recruitment forecasting. The correctly forecasting of three fish species (anchovy, sardine and hake) simultaneously is doubled (from 17.3% to 29.5%) using the multi-dimensional approach in comparison to mono-species models. The probability assessments also show high improvement reducing the average error (estimated by means of Brier score) from 0.35 to 0.27. Finally, these differences are superior to the forecasting of species by pairs. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Preprocessing with Photoshop Software on Microscopic Images of A549 Cells in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhou-Xin; Yu, Hai-Bin; Shen, Jun-Ling; Li, Ya; Li, Jian-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    To establish a preprocessing method for cell morphometry in microscopic images of A549 cells in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Adobe Photoshop CS2 (Adobe Systems, Inc.) was used for preprocessing the images. First, all images were processed for size uniformity and high distinguishability between the cell and background area. Then, a blank image with the same size and grids was established and cross points of the grids were added into a distinct color. The blank image was merged into a processed image. In the merged images, the cells with 1 or more cross points were chosen, and then the cell areas were enclosed and were replaced in a distinct color. Except for chosen cellular areas, all areas were changed into a unique hue. Three observers quantified roundness of cells in images with the image preprocess (IPP) or without the method (Controls), respectively. Furthermore, 1 observer measured the roundness 3 times with the 2 methods, respectively. The results between IPPs and Controls were compared for repeatability and reproducibility. As compared with the Control method, among 3 observers, use of the IPP method resulted in a higher number and a higher percentage of same-chosen cells in an image. The relative average deviation values of roundness, either for 3 observers or 1 observer, were significantly higher in Controls than in IPPs (p Photoshop, a chosen cell from an image was more objective, regular, and accurate, creating an increase of reproducibility and repeatability on morphometry of A549 cells in epithelial to mesenchymal transition.

  3. Characterizing the continuously acquired cardiovascular time series during hemodialysis, using median hybrid filter preprocessing noise reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Scott Wilson,1,2 Andrea Bowyer,3 Stephen B Harrap4 1Department of Renal Medicine, The Alfred Hospital, 2Baker IDI, Melbourne, 3Department of Anaesthesia, Royal Melbourne Hospital, 4University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, Australia Abstract: The clinical characterization of cardiovascular dynamics during hemodialysis (HD has important pathophysiological implications in terms of diagnostic, cardiovascular risk assessment, and treatment efficacy perspectives. Currently the diagnosis of significant intradialytic systolic blood pressure (SBP changes among HD patients is imprecise and opportunistic, reliant upon the presence of hypotensive symptoms in conjunction with coincident but isolated noninvasive brachial cuff blood pressure (NIBP readings. Considering hemodynamic variables as a time series makes a continuous recording approach more desirable than intermittent measures; however, in the clinical environment, the data signal is susceptible to corruption due to both impulsive and Gaussian-type noise. Signal preprocessing is an attractive solution to this problem. Prospectively collected continuous noninvasive SBP data over the short-break intradialytic period in ten patients was preprocessed using a novel median hybrid filter (MHF algorithm and compared with 50 time-coincident pairs of intradialytic NIBP measures from routine HD practice. The median hybrid preprocessing technique for continuously acquired cardiovascular data yielded a dynamic regression without significant noise and artifact, suitable for high-level profiling of time-dependent SBP behavior. Signal accuracy is highly comparable with standard NIBP measurement, with the added clinical benefit of dynamic real-time hemodynamic information. Keywords: continuous monitoring, blood pressure

  4. Characterizing the continuously acquired cardiovascular time series during hemodialysis, using median hybrid filter preprocessing noise reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott; Bowyer, Andrea; Harrap, Stephen B

    2015-01-01

    The clinical characterization of cardiovascular dynamics during hemodialysis (HD) has important pathophysiological implications in terms of diagnostic, cardiovascular risk assessment, and treatment efficacy perspectives. Currently the diagnosis of significant intradialytic systolic blood pressure (SBP) changes among HD patients is imprecise and opportunistic, reliant upon the presence of hypotensive symptoms in conjunction with coincident but isolated noninvasive brachial cuff blood pressure (NIBP) readings. Considering hemodynamic variables as a time series makes a continuous recording approach more desirable than intermittent measures; however, in the clinical environment, the data signal is susceptible to corruption due to both impulsive and Gaussian-type noise. Signal preprocessing is an attractive solution to this problem. Prospectively collected continuous noninvasive SBP data over the short-break intradialytic period in ten patients was preprocessed using a novel median hybrid filter (MHF) algorithm and compared with 50 time-coincident pairs of intradialytic NIBP measures from routine HD practice. The median hybrid preprocessing technique for continuously acquired cardiovascular data yielded a dynamic regression without significant noise and artifact, suitable for high-level profiling of time-dependent SBP behavior. Signal accuracy is highly comparable with standard NIBP measurement, with the added clinical benefit of dynamic real-time hemodynamic information.

  5. Validation of DWI pre-processing procedures for reliable differentiation between human brain gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellmer, Sebastian; Tonoyan, Aram S; Suter, Dieter; Pronin, Igor N; Maximov, Ivan I

    2018-02-01

    Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) is a powerful tool in clinical applications, in particular, in oncology screening. dMRI demonstrated its benefit and efficiency in the localisation and detection of different types of human brain tumours. Clinical dMRI data suffer from multiple artefacts such as motion and eddy-current distortions, contamination by noise, outliers etc. In order to increase the image quality of the derived diffusion scalar metrics and the accuracy of the subsequent data analysis, various pre-processing approaches are actively developed and used. In the present work we assess the effect of different pre-processing procedures such as a noise correction, different smoothing algorithms and spatial interpolation of raw diffusion data, with respect to the accuracy of brain glioma differentiation. As a set of sensitive biomarkers of the glioma malignancy grades we chose the derived scalar metrics from diffusion and kurtosis tensor imaging as well as the neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) biophysical model. Our results show that the application of noise correction, anisotropic diffusion filtering, and cubic-order spline interpolation resulted in the highest sensitivity and specificity for glioma malignancy grading. Thus, these pre-processing steps are recommended for the statistical analysis in brain tumour studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  6. [Study of near infrared spectral preprocessing and wavelength selection methods for endometrial cancer tissue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li-Ting; Xiang, Yu-Hong; Dai, Yin-Mei; Zhang, Zhuo-Yong

    2010-04-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy was applied to measure the tissue slice of endometrial tissues for collecting the spectra. A total of 154 spectra were obtained from 154 samples. The number of normal, hyperplasia, and malignant samples was 36, 60, and 58, respectively. Original near infrared spectra are composed of many variables, for example, interference information including instrument errors and physical effects such as particle size and light scatter. In order to reduce these influences, original spectra data should be performed with different spectral preprocessing methods to compress variables and extract useful information. So the methods of spectral preprocessing and wavelength selection have played an important role in near infrared spectroscopy technique. In the present paper the raw spectra were processed using various preprocessing methods including first derivative, multiplication scatter correction, Savitzky-Golay first derivative algorithm, standard normal variate, smoothing, and moving-window median. Standard deviation was used to select the optimal spectral region of 4 000-6 000 cm(-1). Then principal component analysis was used for classification. Principal component analysis results showed that three types of samples could be discriminated completely and the accuracy almost achieved 100%. This study demonstrated that near infrared spectroscopy technology and chemometrics method could be a fast, efficient, and novel means to diagnose cancer. The proposed methods would be a promising and significant diagnosis technique of early stage cancer.

  7. Data pre-processing for web log mining: Case study of commercial bank website usage analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Kapusta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We use data cleaning, integration, reduction and data conversion methods in the pre-processing level of data analysis. Data processing techniques improve the overall quality of the patterns mined. The paper describes using of standard pre-processing methods for preparing data of the commercial bank website in the form of the log file obtained from the web server. Data cleaning, as the simplest step of data pre-processing, is non–trivial as the analysed content is highly specific. We had to deal with the problem of frequent changes of the content and even frequent changes of the structure. Regular changes in the structure make use of the sitemap impossible. We presented approaches how to deal with this problem. We were able to create the sitemap dynamically just based on the content of the log file. In this case study, we also examined just the one part of the website over the standard analysis of an entire website, as we did not have access to all log files for the security reason. As the result, the traditional practices had to be adapted for this special case. Analysing just the small fraction of the website resulted in the short session time of regular visitors. We were not able to use recommended methods to determine the optimal value of session time. Therefore, we proposed new methods based on outliers identification for raising the accuracy of the session length in this paper.

  8. Wishart and anti-Wishart random matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janik, Romuald A; Nowak, Maciej A

    2003-01-01

    We provide a compact exact representation for the distribution of the matrix elements of the Wishart-type random matrices A † A, for any finite number of rows and columns of A, without any large N approximations. In particular, we treat the case when the Wishart-type random matrix contains redundant, non-random information, which is a new result. This representation is of interest for a procedure for reconstructing the redundant information hidden in Wishart matrices, with potential applications to numerous models based on biological, social and artificial intelligence networks

  9. Topological expansion of the chain of matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eynard, B.; Ferrer, A. Prats

    2009-01-01

    We solve the loop equations to all orders in 1/N 2 , for the Chain of Matrices matrix model (with possibly an external field coupled to the last matrix of the chain). We show that the topological expansion of the free energy, is, like for the 1 and 2-matrix model, given by the symplectic invariants of [19]. As a consequence, we find the double scaling limit explicitly, and we discuss modular properties, large N asymptotics. We also briefly discuss the limit of an infinite chain of matrices (matrix quantum mechanics).

  10. Partitioning sparse rectangular matrices for parallel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolda, T.G.

    1998-05-01

    The authors are interested in partitioning sparse rectangular matrices for parallel processing. The partitioning problem has been well-studied in the square symmetric case, but the rectangular problem has received very little attention. They will formalize the rectangular matrix partitioning problem and discuss several methods for solving it. They will extend the spectral partitioning method for symmetric matrices to the rectangular case and compare this method to three new methods -- the alternating partitioning method and two hybrid methods. The hybrid methods will be shown to be best.

  11. Annual modulation of the galactic binary confusion noise background and LISA data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seto, Naoki

    2004-01-01

    We study the anisotropies of the galactic confusion noise background and its effects on LISA data analysis. LISA has two data streams of gravitational wave signals relevant for the low frequency regime. Because of the anisotropies of the background, the matrix for their confusion noises has off-diagonal components and depends strongly on the orientation of the detector plane. We find that the sky-averaged confusion noise level √(S(f)) could change by a factor of 2 in 3 months and would be minimum when the orbital position of LISA is around either the spring or autumn equinox

  12. Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander; Genton, Marc G.; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    We approximate large non-structured Matérn covariance matrices of size n×n in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(kn log n), where rank k ≪ n is a small integer. Applications are: spatial statistics, machine learning and image analysis, kriging and optimal design.

  13. Theoretical origin of quark mass matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohapatra, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical origin of specific quark mass matrices in the grand unified theories. The author discusses the first natural derivation of the Stech-type mass matrix in unified gauge theories. A solution to the strong CP-problem is provided

  14. Malware Analysis Using Visualized Image Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KyoungSoo Han

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel malware visual analysis method that contains not only a visualization method to convert binary files into images, but also a similarity calculation method between these images. The proposed method generates RGB-colored pixels on image matrices using the opcode sequences extracted from malware samples and calculates the similarities for the image matrices. Particularly, our proposed methods are available for packed malware samples by applying them to the execution traces extracted through dynamic analysis. When the images are generated, we can reduce the overheads by extracting the opcode sequences only from the blocks that include the instructions related to staple behaviors such as functions and application programming interface (API calls. In addition, we propose a technique that generates a representative image for each malware family in order to reduce the number of comparisons for the classification of unknown samples and the colored pixel information in the image matrices is used to calculate the similarities between the images. Our experimental results show that the image matrices of malware can effectively be used to classify malware families both statically and dynamically with accuracy of 0.9896 and 0.9732, respectively.

  15. Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Mourrain; J.B. Lasserre; M. Laurent (Monique); P. Rostalski; P. Trebuchet (Philippe)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is nte. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and

  16. Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lasserre, J.B.; Laurent, M.; Mourrain, B.; Rostalski, P.; Trébuchet, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming its complex (resp. real) variety is finite. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and semi-definite

  17. Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Mourrain; J.B. Lasserre; M. Laurent (Monique); P. Rostalski; P. Trebuchet (Philippe)

    2011-01-01

    htmlabstractIn this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is nte. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and

  18. Malware analysis using visualized image matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, KyoungSoo; Kang, BooJoong; Im, Eul Gyu

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel malware visual analysis method that contains not only a visualization method to convert binary files into images, but also a similarity calculation method between these images. The proposed method generates RGB-colored pixels on image matrices using the opcode sequences extracted from malware samples and calculates the similarities for the image matrices. Particularly, our proposed methods are available for packed malware samples by applying them to the execution traces extracted through dynamic analysis. When the images are generated, we can reduce the overheads by extracting the opcode sequences only from the blocks that include the instructions related to staple behaviors such as functions and application programming interface (API) calls. In addition, we propose a technique that generates a representative image for each malware family in order to reduce the number of comparisons for the classification of unknown samples and the colored pixel information in the image matrices is used to calculate the similarities between the images. Our experimental results show that the image matrices of malware can effectively be used to classify malware families both statically and dynamically with accuracy of 0.9896 and 0.9732, respectively.

  19. Generation speed in Raven's Progressive Matrices Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verguts, T.; Boeck, P. De; Maris, E.G.G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the role of response fluency on a well-known intelligence test, Raven's (1962) Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) test. Critical in solving this test is finding rules that govern the items. Response fluency is conceptualized as generation speed or the speed at which a

  20. Inversion of General Cyclic Heptadiagonal Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Karawia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a reliable symbolic computational algorithm for inverting general cyclic heptadiagonal matrices by using parallel computing along with recursion. The computational cost of it is operations. The algorithm is implementable to the Computer Algebra System (CAS such as MAPLE, MATLAB, and MATHEMATICA. Two examples are presented for the sake of illustration.

  1. Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2015-11-30

    We approximate large non-structured Matérn covariance matrices of size n×n in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(kn log n), where rank k ≪ n is a small integer. Applications are: spatial statistics, machine learning and image analysis, kriging and optimal design.

  2. Thresholding: A Pixel-Level Image Processing Methodology Preprocessing Technique for an OCR System for the Brahmi Script

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. K. Anasuya Devi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the methodology employed for preprocessing the archaeological images. We present the various algorithms used in the low-level processing stage of image analysis for Optical Character Recognition System for Brahmi Script. The image preprocessing technique covered in this paper is thresholding. We also try to analyze the results obtained by the pixel-level processing algorithms.

  3. Optimal preprocessing of serum and urine metabolomic data fusion for staging prostate cancer through design of experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Hong; Cai, Aimin; Zhou, Qi; Xu, Pengtao; Zhao, Liangcai; Li, Chen; Dong, Baijun; Gao, Hongchang

    2017-01-01

    Accurate classification of cancer stages will achieve precision treatment for cancer. Metabolomics presents biological phenotypes at the metabolite level and holds a great potential for cancer classification. Since metabolomic data can be obtained from different samples or analytical techniques, data fusion has been applied to improve classification accuracy. Data preprocessing is an essential step during metabolomic data analysis. Therefore, we developed an innovative optimization method to select a proper data preprocessing strategy for metabolomic data fusion using a design of experiment approach for improving the classification of prostate cancer (PCa) stages. In this study, urine and serum samples were collected from participants at five phases of PCa and analyzed using a 1 H NMR-based metabolomic approach. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used as a classification model and its performance was assessed by goodness of fit (R 2 ) and predictive ability (Q 2 ). Results show that data preprocessing significantly affect classification performance and depends on data properties. Using the fused metabolomic data from urine and serum, PLS-DA model with the optimal data preprocessing (R 2  = 0.729, Q 2  = 0.504, P < 0.0001) can effectively improve model performance and achieve a better classification result for PCa stages as compared with that without data preprocessing (R 2  = 0.139, Q 2  = 0.006, P = 0.450). Therefore, we propose that metabolomic data fusion integrated with an optimal data preprocessing strategy can significantly improve the classification of cancer stages for precision treatment. - Highlights: • NMR metabolomic analysis of body fluids can be used for staging prostate cancer. • Data preprocessing is an essential step for metabolomic analysis. • Data fusion improves information recovery for cancer classification. • Design of experiment achieves optimal preprocessing of metabolomic data fusion.

  4. Optimal production scheduling for energy efficiency improvement in biofuel feedstock preprocessing considering work-in-process particle separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lin; Sun, Zeyi; Yao, Xufeng; Wang, Donghai

    2016-01-01

    Biofuel is considered a promising alternative to traditional liquid transportation fuels. The large-scale substitution of biofuel can greatly enhance global energy security and mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. One major concern of the broad adoption of biofuel is the intensive energy consumption in biofuel manufacturing. This paper focuses on the energy efficiency improvement of biofuel feedstock preprocessing, a major process of cellulosic biofuel manufacturing. An improved scheme of the feedstock preprocessing considering work-in-process particle separation is introduced to reduce energy waste and improve energy efficiency. A scheduling model based on the improved scheme is also developed to identify an optimal production schedule that can minimize the energy consumption of the feedstock preprocessing under production target constraint. A numerical case study is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The research outcome is expected to improve the energy efficiency and enhance the environmental sustainability of biomass feedstock preprocessing. - Highlights: • A novel method to schedule production in biofuel feedstock preprocessing process. • Systems modeling approach is used. • Capable of optimize preprocessing to reduce energy waste and improve energy efficiency. • A numerical case is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the method. • Energy consumption per unit production can be significantly reduced.

  5. Discrete pre-processing step effects in registration-based pipelines, a preliminary volumetric study on T1-weighted images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muncy, Nathan M; Hedges-Muncy, Ariana M; Kirwan, C Brock

    2017-01-01

    Pre-processing MRI scans prior to performing volumetric analyses is common practice in MRI studies. As pre-processing steps adjust the voxel intensities, the space in which the scan exists, and the amount of data in the scan, it is possible that the steps have an effect on the volumetric output. To date, studies have compared between and not within pipelines, and so the impact of each step is unknown. This study aims to quantify the effects of pre-processing steps on volumetric measures in T1-weighted scans within a single pipeline. It was our hypothesis that pre-processing steps would significantly impact ROI volume estimations. One hundred fifteen participants from the OASIS dataset were used, where each participant contributed three scans. All scans were then pre-processed using a step-wise pipeline. Bilateral hippocampus, putamen, and middle temporal gyrus volume estimations were assessed following each successive step, and all data were processed by the same pipeline 5 times. Repeated-measures analyses tested for a main effects of pipeline step, scan-rescan (for MRI scanner consistency) and repeated pipeline runs (for algorithmic consistency). A main effect of pipeline step was detected, and interestingly an interaction between pipeline step and ROI exists. No effect for either scan-rescan or repeated pipeline run was detected. We then supply a correction for noise in the data resulting from pre-processing.

  6. The use of source memory to identify one's own episodic confusion errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S M; Tindell, D R; Pierce, B H; Gilliland, T R; Gerkens, D R

    2001-03-01

    In 4 category cued recall experiments, participants falsely recalled nonlist common members, a semantic confusion error. Errors were more likely if critical nonlist words were presented on an incidental task, causing source memory failures called episodic confusion errors. Participants could better identify the source of falsely recalled words if they had deeply processed the words on the incidental task. For deep but not shallow processing, participants could reliably include or exclude incidentally shown category members in recall. The illusion that critical items actually appeared on categorized lists was diminished but not eradicated when participants identified episodic confusion errors post hoc among their own recalled responses; participants often believed that critical items had been on both the incidental task and the study list. Improved source monitoring can potentially mitigate episodic (but not semantic) confusion errors.

  7. Cellular hemangioma and angioblastoma of the spine, originally classified as hemangioendothelioma. A confusing diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Been, H. D.; Fidler, M. W.; Bras, J.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report two cases of vascular tumors of the spine, classified originally as benign and malignant hemangioendothelioma, and after revision, as cellular hemangioma and angioblastomatosis, respectively. Problems in interpretation of the confusing term hemangioendothelioma and treatment

  8. EARNED INCOME CREDIT: Opportunities To Make Recertification Program Less Confusing and More Consistent

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... While it is important to ensure that all persons eligible for the EIC receive it, equally important is the need to identify and deny erroneous claims, whether due to fraud, negligence, or confusion...

  9. Characteristics of Patients Who Report Confusion After Reading Their Primary Care Clinic Notes Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Joseph; Oster, Natalia V; Jackson, Sara L; Mejilla, Roanne; Walker, Jan; Elmore, Joann G

    2016-01-01

    Patient access to online electronic medical records (EMRs) is increasing and may offer benefits to patients. However, the inherent complexity of medicine may cause confusion. We elucidate characteristics and health behaviors of patients who report confusion after reading their doctors' notes online. We analyzed data from 4,528 patients in Boston, MA, central Pennsylvania, and Seattle, WA, who were granted online access to their primary care doctors' clinic notes and who viewed at least one note during the 1-year intervention. Three percent of patients reported confusion after reading their visit notes. These patients were more likely to be at least 70 years of age (p education (p reading visit notes (relative risk [RR] 4.83; confidence interval [CI] 3.17, 7.36) compared to patients who were not confused. In adjusted analyses, they were less likely to report feeling more in control of their health (RR 0.42; CI 0.25, 0.71), remembering their care plan (RR 0.26; CI 0.17, 0.42), and understanding their medical conditions (RR 0.32; CI 0.19, 0.54) as a result of reading their doctors' notes compared to patients who were not confused. Patients who were confused by reading their doctors' notes were less likely to report benefits in health behaviors. Understanding this small subset of patients is a critical step in reducing gaps in provider-patient communication and in efforts to tailor educational approaches for patients.

  10. The relationship between magical thinking, inferential confusion and obsessive-compulsive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goods, N A R; Rees, C S; Egan, S J; Kane, R T

    2014-01-01

    Inferential confusion is an under-researched faulty reasoning process in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Based on an overreliance on imagined possibilities, it shares similarities with the extensively researched construct of thought-action fusion (TAF). While TAF has been proposed as a specific subset of the broader construct of magical thinking, the relationship between inferential confusion and magical thinking is unexplored. The present study investigated this relationship, and hypothesised that magical thinking would partially mediate the relationship between inferential confusion and obsessive-compulsive symptoms. A non-clinical sample of 201 participants (M = 34.94, SD = 15.88) were recruited via convenience sampling. Regression analyses found the hypothesised mediating relationship was supported, as magical thinking did partially mediate the relationship between inferential confusion and OC symptoms. Interestingly, inferential confusion had the stronger relationship with OC symptoms in comparison to the other predictor variables. Results suggest that inferential confusion can both directly and indirectly (via magical thinking) impact on OC symptoms. Future studies with clinical samples should further investigate these constructs to determine whether similar patterns emerge, as this may eventually inform which cognitive errors to target in treatment of OCD.

  11. Gravitational-wave confusion background from cosmological compact binaries: Implications for future terrestrial detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regimbau, T.; Hughes, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    Increasing the sensitivity of a gravitational-wave (GW) detector improves our ability to measure the characteristics of detected sources. It also increases the number of weak signals that contribute to the data. Because GW detectors have nearly all-sky sensitivity, they can be subject to a confusion limit: Many sources which cannot be distinguished may be measured simultaneously, defining a stochastic noise floor to the sensitivity. For GW detectors operating at present and for their planned upgrades, the projected event rate is sufficiently low that we are far from the confusion-limited regime. However, some detectors currently under discussion may have large enough reach to binary inspiral that they enter the confusion-limited regime. In this paper, we examine the binary inspiral confusion limit for terrestrial detectors. We consider a broad range of inspiral rates in the literature, several planned advanced gravitational-wave detectors, and the highly advanced 'Einstein telescope' design. Though most advanced detectors will not be impacted by this limit, the Einstein telescope with a very low-frequency 'seismic wall' may be subject to confusion noise. At a minimum, careful data analysis will be require to separate signals which will appear confused. This result should be borne in mind when designing highly advanced future instruments.

  12. EARLINET Single Calculus Chain - technical - Part 1: Pre-processing of raw lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Giuseppe; Amodeo, Aldo; Mattis, Ina; Freudenthaler, Volker; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we describe an automatic tool for the pre-processing of aerosol lidar data called ELPP (EARLINET Lidar Pre-Processor). It is one of two calculus modules of the EARLINET Single Calculus Chain (SCC), the automatic tool for the analysis of EARLINET data. ELPP is an open source module that executes instrumental corrections and data handling of the raw lidar signals, making the lidar data ready to be processed by the optical retrieval algorithms. According to the specific lidar configuration, ELPP automatically performs dead-time correction, atmospheric and electronic background subtraction, gluing of lidar signals, and trigger-delay correction. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio of the pre-processed signals can be improved by means of configurable time integration of the raw signals and/or spatial smoothing. ELPP delivers the statistical uncertainties of the final products by means of error propagation or Monte Carlo simulations. During the development of ELPP, particular attention has been payed to make the tool flexible enough to handle all lidar configurations currently used within the EARLINET community. Moreover, it has been designed in a modular way to allow an easy extension to lidar configurations not yet implemented. The primary goal of ELPP is to enable the application of quality-assured procedures in the lidar data analysis starting from the raw lidar data. This provides the added value of full traceability of each delivered lidar product. Several tests have been performed to check the proper functioning of ELPP. The whole SCC has been tested with the same synthetic data sets, which were used for the EARLINET algorithm inter-comparison exercise. ELPP has been successfully employed for the automatic near-real-time pre-processing of the raw lidar data measured during several EARLINET inter-comparison campaigns as well as during intense field campaigns.

  13. Cloudy Solar Software - Enhanced Capabilities for Finding, Pre-processing, and Visualizing Solar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istvan Etesi, Laszlo; Tolbert, K.; Schwartz, R.; Zarro, D.; Dennis, B.; Csillaghy, A.

    2010-05-01

    In our project "Extending the Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO)” we have combined some of the features available in Solar Software (SSW) to produce an integrated environment for data analysis, supporting the complete workflow from data location, retrieval, preparation, and analysis to creating publication-quality figures. Our goal is an integrated analysis experience in IDL, easy-to-use but flexible enough to allow more sophisticated procedures such as multi-instrument analysis. To that end, we have made the transition from a locally oriented setting where all the analysis is done on the user's computer, to an extended analysis environment where IDL has access to services available on the Internet. We have implemented a form of Cloud Computing that uses the VSO search and a new data retrieval and pre-processing server (PrepServer) that provides remote execution of instrument-specific data preparation. We have incorporated the interfaces to the VSO search and the PrepServer into an IDL widget (SHOW_SYNOP) that provides user-friendly searching and downloading of raw solar data and optionally sends search results for pre-processing to the PrepServer prior to downloading the data. The raw and pre-processed data can be displayed with our plotting suite, PLOTMAN, which can handle different data types (light curves, images, and spectra) and perform basic data operations such as zooming, image overlays, solar rotation, etc. PLOTMAN is highly configurable and suited for visual data analysis and for creating publishable figures. PLOTMAN and SHOW_SYNOP work hand-in-hand for a convenient working environment. Our environment supports a growing number of solar instruments that currently includes RHESSI, SOHO/EIT, TRACE, SECCHI/EUVI, HINODE/XRT, and HINODE/EIS.

  14. Fast randomized point location without preprocessing in two- and three-dimensional Delaunay triangulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muecke, E.P.; Saias, I.; Zhu, B.

    1996-05-01

    This paper studies the point location problem in Delaunay triangulations without preprocessing and additional storage. The proposed procedure finds the query point simply by walking through the triangulation, after selecting a good starting point by random sampling. The analysis generalizes and extends a recent result of d = 2 dimensions by proving this procedure to take expected time close to O(n{sup 1/(d+1)}) for point location in Delaunay triangulations of n random points in d = 3 dimensions. Empirical results in both two and three dimensions show that this procedure is efficient in practice.

  15. Preprocessing Raw Data in Clinical Medicine for a Data Mining Purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterková Andrea

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with data from the field of medicine is nowadays very current and difficult. On a global scale, a large amount of medical data is produced on an everyday basis. For the purpose of our research, we understand medical data as data about patients like results from laboratory analysis, results from screening examinations (CT, ECHO and clinical parameters. This data is usually in a raw format, difficult to understand, non-standard and not suitable for further processing or analysis. This paper aims to describe the possible method of data preparation and preprocessing of such raw medical data into a form, where further analysis algorithms can be applied.

  16. On Skew Circulant Type Matrices Involving Any Continuous Fibonacci Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaolin Jiang

    2014-01-01

    inverse matrices of them by constructing the transformation matrices. Furthermore, the maximum column sum matrix norm, the spectral norm, the Euclidean (or Frobenius norm, and the maximum row sum matrix norm and bounds for the spread of these matrices are given, respectively.

  17. Classification-based comparison of pre-processing methods for interpretation of mass spectrometry generated clinical datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoefsloot Huub CJ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mass spectrometry is increasingly being used to discover proteins or protein profiles associated with disease. Experimental design of mass-spectrometry studies has come under close scrutiny and the importance of strict protocols for sample collection is now understood. However, the question of how best to process the large quantities of data generated is still unanswered. Main challenges for the analysis are the choice of proper pre-processing and classification methods. While these two issues have been investigated in isolation, we propose to use the classification of patient samples as a clinically relevant benchmark for the evaluation of pre-processing methods. Results Two in-house generated clinical SELDI-TOF MS datasets are used in this study as an example of high throughput mass-spectrometry data. We perform a systematic comparison of two commonly used pre-processing methods as implemented in Ciphergen ProteinChip Software and in the Cromwell package. With respect to reproducibility, Ciphergen and Cromwell pre-processing are largely comparable. We find that the overlap between peaks detected by either Ciphergen ProteinChip Software or Cromwell is large. This is especially the case for the more stringent peak detection settings. Moreover, similarity of the estimated intensities between matched peaks is high. We evaluate the pre-processing methods using five different classification methods. Classification is done in a double cross-validation protocol using repeated random sampling to obtain an unbiased estimate of classification accuracy. No pre-processing method significantly outperforms the other for all peak detection settings evaluated. Conclusion We use classification of patient samples as a clinically relevant benchmark for the evaluation of pre-processing methods. Both pre-processing methods lead to similar classification results on an ovarian cancer and a Gaucher disease dataset. However, the settings for pre-processing

  18. Fungible Correlation Matrices: A Method for Generating Nonsingular, Singular, and Improper Correlation Matrices for Monte Carlo Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Niels G

    2016-01-01

    For a fixed set of standardized regression coefficients and a fixed coefficient of determination (R-squared), an infinite number of predictor correlation matrices will satisfy the implied quadratic form. I call such matrices fungible correlation matrices. In this article, I describe an algorithm for generating positive definite (PD), positive semidefinite (PSD), or indefinite (ID) fungible correlation matrices that have a random or fixed smallest eigenvalue. The underlying equations of this algorithm are reviewed from both algebraic and geometric perspectives. Two simulation studies illustrate that fungible correlation matrices can be profitably used in Monte Carlo research. The first study uses PD fungible correlation matrices to compare penalized regression algorithms. The second study uses ID fungible correlation matrices to compare matrix-smoothing algorithms. R code for generating fungible correlation matrices is presented in the supplemental materials.

  19. Evolutionary Games with Randomly Changing Payoff Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushkina, Tatiana; Saakian, David B.; Bratus, Alexander; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2015-06-01

    Evolutionary games are used in various fields stretching from economics to biology. In most of these games a constant payoff matrix is assumed, although some works also consider dynamic payoff matrices. In this article we assume a possibility of switching the system between two regimes with different sets of payoff matrices. Potentially such a model can qualitatively describe the development of bacterial or cancer cells with a mutator gene present. A finite population evolutionary game is studied. The model describes the simplest version of annealed disorder in the payoff matrix and is exactly solvable at the large population limit. We analyze the dynamics of the model, and derive the equations for both the maximum and the variance of the distribution using the Hamilton-Jacobi equation formalism.

  20. An algorithmic characterization of P-matricity

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Gharbia , Ibtihel; Gilbert , Jean Charles

    2013-01-01

    International audience; It is shown that a matrix M is a P-matrix if and only if, whatever is the vector q, the Newton-min algorithm does not cycle between two points when it is used to solve the linear complementarity problem 0 ≤ x ⊥ (Mx+q) ≥ 0.; Nous montrons dans cet article qu'une matrice M est une P-matrice si, et seulement si, quel que soit le vecteur q, l'algorithme de Newton-min ne fait pas de cycle de deux points lorsqu'il est utilisé pour résoudre le problème de compl\\émentarité lin...

  1. Introduction to random matrices theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Livan, Giacomo; Vivo, Pierpaolo

    2018-01-01

    Modern developments of Random Matrix Theory as well as pedagogical approaches to the standard core of the discipline are surprisingly hard to find in a well-organized, readable and user-friendly fashion. This slim and agile book, written in a pedagogical and hands-on style, without sacrificing formal rigor fills this gap. It brings Ph.D. students in Physics, as well as more senior practitioners, through the standard tools and results on random matrices, with an eye on most recent developments that are not usually covered in introductory texts. The focus is mainly on random matrices with real spectrum. The main guiding threads throughout the book are the Gaussian Ensembles. In particular, Wigner’s semicircle law is derived multiple times to illustrate several techniques  (e.g., Coulomb gas approach, replica theory). Most chapters are accompanied by Matlab codes (stored in an online repository) to guide readers through the numerical check of most analytical results.

  2. Teaching Fourier optics through ray matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, I; Sanchez-Lopez, M M; Ferreira, C; Davis, J A; Mateos, F

    2005-01-01

    In this work we examine the use of ray-transfer matrices for teaching and for deriving some topics in a Fourier optics course, exploiting the mathematical simplicity of ray matrices compared to diffraction integrals. A simple analysis of the physical meaning of the elements of the ray matrix provides a fast derivation of the conditions to obtain the optical Fourier transform. We extend this derivation to fractional Fourier transform optical systems, and derive the order of the transform from the ray matrix. Some examples are provided to stress this point of view, both with classical and with graded index lenses. This formulation cannot replace the complete explanation of Fourier optics provided by the wave theory, but it is a complementary tool useful to simplify many aspects of Fourier optics and to relate them to geometrical optics

  3. The recurrence sequences via Sylvester matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaduman, Erdal; Deveci, Ömür

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we define the Pell-Jacobsthal-Slyvester sequence and the Jacobsthal-Pell-Slyvester sequence by using the Slyvester matrices which are obtained from the characteristic polynomials of the Pell and Jacobsthal sequences and then, we study the sequences defined modulo m. Also, we obtain the cyclic groups and the semigroups from the generating matrices of these sequences when read modulo m and then, we derive the relationships among the orders of the cyclic groups and the periods of the sequences. Furthermore, we redefine Pell-Jacobsthal-Slyvester sequence and the Jacobsthal-Pell-Slyvester sequence by means of the elements of the groups and then, we examine them in the finite groups.

  4. Joint Matrices Decompositions and Blind Source Separation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chabriel, G.; Kleinsteuber, M.; Moreau, E.; Shen, H.; Tichavský, Petr; Yeredor, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 3 (2014), s. 34-43 ISSN 1053-5888 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/09/1278 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : joint matrices decomposition * tensor decomposition * blind source separation Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 5.852, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/SI/tichavsky-0427607.pdf

  5. Tensor Permutation Matrices in Finite Dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Christian, Rakotonirina

    2005-01-01

    We have generalised the properties with the tensor product, of one 4x4 matrix which is a permutation matrix, and we call a tensor commutation matrix. Tensor commutation matrices can be constructed with or without calculus. A formula allows us to construct a tensor permutation matrix, which is a generalisation of tensor commutation matrix, has been established. The expression of an element of a tensor commutation matrix has been generalised in the case of any element of a tensor permutation ma...

  6. Fast Approximate Joint Diagonalization Incorporating Weight Matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichavský, Petr; Yeredor, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2009), s. 878-891 ISSN 1053-587X R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : autoregressive processes * blind source separation * nonstationary random processes Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 2.212, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/SI/tichavsky-fast approximate joint diagonalization incorporating weight matrices.pdf

  7. Photoluminescence of nanocrystals embedded in oxide matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, C.; Gonzalez, J.A.; Kunold, A.; Reyes-Esqueda, J.A.; Pereyra, P.

    2006-12-01

    We used the theory of finite periodic systems to explain the photoluminescence spectra dependence on the average diameter of nanocrystals embedded in oxide matrices. Because of the broad matrix band gap, the photoluminescence response is basically determined by isolated nanocrystals and sequences of a few of them. With this model we were able to reproduce the shape and displacement of the experimentally observed photoluminescence spectra. (author)

  8. Equiangular tight frames and unistochastic matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Goyeneche, D.; Turek, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 24 (2017), č. článku 245304. ISSN 1751-8113 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA17-01706S Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : equiangular tight frames * unistochastic matrices * SIC POVM Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics OBOR OECD: Atomic, molecular and chemical physics (physics of atoms and molecules including collision, interaction with radiation, magnetic resonances, Mössbauer effect) Impact factor: 1.857, year: 2016

  9. Simplifications of rational matrices by using UML

    OpenAIRE

    Tasić, Milan B.; Stanimirović, Ivan P.

    2013-01-01

    The simplification process on rational matrices consists of simplifying each entry represented by a rational function. We follow the classic approach of dividing the numerator and denominator polynomials by their common GCD polynomial, and provide the activity diagram in UML for this process. A rational matrix representation as the quotient of a polynomial matrix and a polynomial is also discussed here and illustrated via activity diagrams. Also, a class diagram giving the links between the c...

  10. Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2015-01-07

    We approximate large non-structured covariance matrices in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(n log n). We compute inverse, Cholesky decomposition and determinant in H-format. As an example we consider the class of Matern covariance functions, which are very popular in spatial statistics, geostatistics, machine learning and image analysis. Applications are: kriging and optimal design

  11. Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2015-01-05

    We approximate large non-structured covariance matrices in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(nlogn). We compute inverse, Cholesky decomposition and determinant in H-format. As an example we consider the class of Matern covariance functions, which are very popular in spatial statistics, geostatistics, machine learning and image analysis. Applications are: kriging and op- timal design.

  12. PHAGOCYTOSIS AND REMODELING OF COLLAGEN MATRICES

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Leah C.; Dice, J Fred.; Lee, Kyongbum; Kaplan, David L.

    2007-01-01

    The biodegradation of collagen and the deposition of new collagen-based extracellular matrices are of central importance in tissue remodeling and function. Similarly, for collagen-based biomaterials used in tissue engineering, the degradation of collagen scaffolds with accompanying cellular infiltration and generation of new extracellular matrix is critical for integration of in vitro grown tissues in vivo. In earlier studies we observed significant impact of collagen structure on primary lun...

  13. Preconditioners for regularized saddle point matrices

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Axelsson, Owe

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 2 (2011), s. 91-112 ISSN 1570-2820 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : saddle point matrices * preconditioning * regularization * eigenvalue clustering Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.533, year: 2011 http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jnma.2011.19.issue-2/jnum.2011.005/jnum.2011.005. xml

  14. Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander; Genton, Marc G.; Sun, Ying; Tempone, Raul

    2015-01-01

    We approximate large non-structured covariance matrices in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(n log n). We compute inverse, Cholesky decomposition and determinant in H-format. As an example we consider the class of Matern covariance functions, which are very popular in spatial statistics, geostatistics, machine learning and image analysis. Applications are: kriging and optimal design

  15. Hierarchical matrix approximation of large covariance matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander; Genton, Marc G.; Sun, Ying; Tempone, Raul

    2015-01-01

    We approximate large non-structured covariance matrices in the H-matrix format with a log-linear computational cost and storage O(nlogn). We compute inverse, Cholesky decomposition and determinant in H-format. As an example we consider the class of Matern covariance functions, which are very popular in spatial statistics, geostatistics, machine learning and image analysis. Applications are: kriging and op- timal design.

  16. Group inverses of M-matrices and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kirkland, Stephen J

    2013-01-01

    Group inverses for singular M-matrices are useful tools not only in matrix analysis, but also in the analysis of stochastic processes, graph theory, electrical networks, and demographic models. Group Inverses of M-Matrices and Their Applications highlights the importance and utility of the group inverses of M-matrices in several application areas. After introducing sample problems associated with Leslie matrices and stochastic matrices, the authors develop the basic algebraic and spectral properties of the group inverse of a general matrix. They then derive formulas for derivatives of matrix f

  17. Effects of Preprocessing on Multi-Direction Properties of Aluminum Alloy Cold-Spray Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokni, M. R.; Nardi, A. T.; Champagne, V. K.; Nutt, S. R.

    2018-05-01

    The effects of powder preprocessing (degassing at 400 °C for 6 h) on microstructure and mechanical properties of 5056 aluminum deposits produced by high-pressure cold spray were investigated. To investigate directionality of the mechanical properties, microtensile coupons were excised from different directions of the deposit, i.e., longitudinal, short transverse, long transverse, and diagonal and then tested. The results were compared to properties of wrought 5056 and the coating deposited with as-received 5056 Al powder and correlated with the observed microstructures. Preprocessing softened the particles and eliminated the pores within them, resulting in more extensive and uniform deformation upon impact with the substrate and with underlying deposited material. Microstructural characterization and finite element simulation indicated that upon particle impact, the peripheral regions experienced more extensive deformation and higher temperatures than the central contact zone. This led to more recrystallization and stronger bonding at peripheral regions relative to the contact zone area and yielded superior properties in the longitudinal direction compared with the short transverse direction. Fractography revealed that crack propagation takes place along the particle-particle interfaces in the transverse directions (caused by insufficient bonding and recrystallization), whereas through the deposited particles, fracture is dominant in the longitudinal direction.

  18. A review of blood sample handling and pre-processing for metabolomics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Vinicius Veri; Barbas, Coral; Dudzik, Danuta

    2017-09-01

    Metabolomics has been found to be applicable to a wide range of clinical studies, bringing a new era for improving clinical diagnostics, early disease detection, therapy prediction and treatment efficiency monitoring. A major challenge in metabolomics, particularly untargeted studies, is the extremely diverse and complex nature of biological specimens. Despite great advances in the field there still exist fundamental needs for considering pre-analytical variability that can introduce bias to the subsequent analytical process and decrease the reliability of the results and moreover confound final research outcomes. Many researchers are mainly focused on the instrumental aspects of the biomarker discovery process, and sample related variables sometimes seem to be overlooked. To bridge the gap, critical information and standardized protocols regarding experimental design and sample handling and pre-processing are highly desired. Characterization of a range variation among sample collection methods is necessary to prevent results misinterpretation and to ensure that observed differences are not due to an experimental bias caused by inconsistencies in sample processing. Herein, a systematic discussion of pre-analytical variables affecting metabolomics studies based on blood derived samples is performed. Furthermore, we provide a set of recommendations concerning experimental design, collection, pre-processing procedures and storage conditions as a practical review that can guide and serve for the standardization of protocols and reduction of undesirable variation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Influence of Averaging Preprocessing on Image Analysis with a Markov Random Field Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Hirotaka; Nakanishi-Ohno, Yoshinori; Okada, Masato

    2018-02-01

    This paper describes our investigations into the influence of averaging preprocessing on the performance of image analysis. Averaging preprocessing involves a trade-off: image averaging is often undertaken to reduce noise while the number of image data available for image analysis is decreased. We formulated a process of generating image data by using a Markov random field (MRF) model to achieve image analysis tasks such as image restoration and hyper-parameter estimation by a Bayesian approach. According to the notions of Bayesian inference, posterior distributions were analyzed to evaluate the influence of averaging. There are three main results. First, we found that the performance of image restoration with a predetermined value for hyper-parameters is invariant regardless of whether averaging is conducted. We then found that the performance of hyper-parameter estimation deteriorates due to averaging. Our analysis of the negative logarithm of the posterior probability, which is called the free energy based on an analogy with statistical mechanics, indicated that the confidence of hyper-parameter estimation remains higher without averaging. Finally, we found that when the hyper-parameters are estimated from the data, the performance of image restoration worsens as averaging is undertaken. We conclude that averaging adversely influences the performance of image analysis through hyper-parameter estimation.

  20. Statistical Downscaling Output GCM Modeling with Continuum Regression and Pre-Processing PCA Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutikno Sutikno

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the climate models used to predict the climatic conditions is Global Circulation Models (GCM. GCM is a computer-based model that consists of different equations. It uses numerical and deterministic equation which follows the physics rules. GCM is a main tool to predict climate and weather, also it uses as primary information source to review the climate change effect. Statistical Downscaling (SD technique is used to bridge the large-scale GCM with a small scale (the study area. GCM data is spatial and temporal data most likely to occur where the spatial correlation between different data on the grid in a single domain. Multicollinearity problems require the need for pre-processing of variable data X. Continuum Regression (CR and pre-processing with Principal Component Analysis (PCA methods is an alternative to SD modelling. CR is one method which was developed by Stone and Brooks (1990. This method is a generalization from Ordinary Least Square (OLS, Principal Component Regression (PCR and Partial Least Square method (PLS methods, used to overcome multicollinearity problems. Data processing for the station in Ambon, Pontianak, Losarang, Indramayu and Yuntinyuat show that the RMSEP values and R2 predict in the domain 8x8 and 12x12 by uses CR method produces results better than by PCR and PLS.

  1. ITSG-Grace2016 data preprocessing methodologies revisited: impact of using Level-1A data products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger, Beate; Mayer-Gürr, Torsten

    2017-04-01

    For the ITSG-Grace2016 release, the gravity field recovery is based on the use of official GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) Level-1B data products, generated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Before gravity field recovery, the Level-1B instrument data are preprocessed. This data preprocessing step includes the combination of Level-1B star camera (SCA1B) and angular acceleration (ACC1B) data for an improved attitude determination (sensor fusion), instrument data screening and ACC1B data calibration. Based on a Level-1A test dataset, provided for individual month throughout the GRACE period by the Center of Space Research at the University of Texas at Austin (UTCSR), the impact of using Level-1A instead of Level-1B data products within the ITSG-Grace2016 processing chain is analyzed. We discuss (1) the attitude determination through an optimal combination of SCA1A and ACC1A data using our sensor fusion approach, (2) the impact of the new attitude product on temporal gravity field solutions, and (3) possible benefits of using Level-1A data for instrument data screening and calibration. As the GRACE mission is currently reaching its end-of-life, the presented work aims not only at a better understanding of GRACE science data to reduce the impact of possible error sources on the gravity field recovery, but it also aims at preparing Level-1A data handling capabilities for the GRACE Follow-On mission.

  2. 3-D image pre-processing algorithms for improved automated tracing of neuronal arbors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswamy, Arunachalam; Wang, Yu; Roysam, Badrinath

    2011-09-01

    The accuracy and reliability of automated neurite tracing systems is ultimately limited by image quality as reflected in the signal-to-noise ratio, contrast, and image variability. This paper describes a novel combination of image processing methods that operate on images of neurites captured by confocal and widefield microscopy, and produce synthetic images that are better suited to automated tracing. The algorithms are based on the curvelet transform (for denoising curvilinear structures and local orientation estimation), perceptual grouping by scalar voting (for elimination of non-tubular structures and improvement of neurite continuity while preserving branch points), adaptive focus detection, and depth estimation (for handling widefield images without deconvolution). The proposed methods are fast, and capable of handling large images. Their ability to handle images of unlimited size derives from automated tiling of large images along the lateral dimension, and processing of 3-D images one optical slice at a time. Their speed derives in part from the fact that the core computations are formulated in terms of the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), and in part from parallel computation on multi-core computers. The methods are simple to apply to new images since they require very few adjustable parameters, all of which are intuitive. Examples of pre-processing DIADEM Challenge images are used to illustrate improved automated tracing resulting from our pre-processing methods.

  3. Safe and sensible preprocessing and baseline correction of pupil-size data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathôt, Sebastiaan; Fabius, Jasper; Van Heusden, Elle; Van der Stigchel, Stefan

    2018-02-01

    Measurement of pupil size (pupillometry) has recently gained renewed interest from psychologists, but there is little agreement on how pupil-size data is best analyzed. Here we focus on one aspect of pupillometric analyses: baseline correction, i.e., analyzing changes in pupil size relative to a baseline period. Baseline correction is useful in experiments that investigate the effect of some experimental manipulation on pupil size. In such experiments, baseline correction improves statistical power by taking into account random fluctuations in pupil size over time. However, we show that baseline correction can also distort data if unrealistically small pupil sizes are recorded during the baseline period, which can easily occur due to eye blinks, data loss, or other distortions. Divisive baseline correction (corrected pupil size = pupil size/baseline) is affected more strongly by such distortions than subtractive baseline correction (corrected pupil size = pupil size - baseline). We discuss the role of baseline correction as a part of preprocessing of pupillometric data, and make five recommendations: (1) before baseline correction, perform data preprocessing to mark missing and invalid data, but assume that some distortions will remain in the data; (2) use subtractive baseline correction; (3) visually compare your corrected and uncorrected data; (4) be wary of pupil-size effects that emerge faster than the latency of the pupillary response allows (within ±220 ms after the manipulation that induces the effect); and (5) remove trials on which baseline pupil size is unrealistically small (indicative of blinks and other distortions).

  4. THE IMAGE REGISTRATION OF FOURIER-MELLIN BASED ON THE COMBINATION OF PROJECTION AND GRADIENT PREPROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Gao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Image registration is one of the most important applications in the field of image processing. The method of Fourier Merlin transform, which has the advantages of high precision and good robustness to change in light and shade, partial blocking, noise influence and so on, is widely used. However, not only this method can’t obtain the unique mutual power pulse function for non-parallel image pairs, even part of image pairs also can’t get the mutual power function pulse. In this paper, an image registration method based on Fourier-Mellin transformation in the view of projection-gradient preprocessing is proposed. According to the projection conformational equation, the method calculates the matrix of image projection transformation to correct the tilt image; then, gradient preprocessing and Fourier-Mellin transformation are performed on the corrected image to obtain the registration parameters. Eventually, the experiment results show that the method makes the image registration of Fourier-Mellin transformation not only applicable to the registration of the parallel image pairs, but also to the registration of non-parallel image pairs. What’s more, the better registration effect can be obtained

  5. Applying Enhancement Filters in the Pre-processing of Images of Lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Sérgio Henrique; Do Nascimento, Marcelo Zanchetta; Neves, Leandro Alves; Batista, Valério Ramos

    2015-01-01

    Lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects the immune system, and is classified as Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin. It is one of the ten types of cancer that are the most common on earth. Among all malignant neoplasms diagnosed in the world, lymphoma ranges from three to four percent of them. Our work presents a study of some filters devoted to enhancing images of lymphoma at the pre-processing step. Here the enhancement is useful for removing noise from the digital images. We have analysed the noise caused by different sources like room vibration, scraps and defocusing, and in the following classes of lymphoma: follicular, mantle cell and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The filters Gaussian, Median and Mean-Shift were applied to different colour models (RGB, Lab and HSV). Afterwards, we performed a quantitative analysis of the images by means of the Structural Similarity Index. This was done in order to evaluate the similarity between the images. In all cases we have obtained a certainty of at least 75%, which rises to 99% if one considers only HSV. Namely, we have concluded that HSV is an important choice of colour model at pre-processing histological images of lymphoma, because in this case the resulting image will get the best enhancement

  6. Automated cleaning and pre-processing of immunoglobulin gene sequences from high-throughput sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miri eMichaeli

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available High throughput sequencing (HTS yields tens of thousands to millions of sequences that require a large amount of pre-processing work to clean various artifacts. Such cleaning cannot be performed manually. Existing programs are not suitable for immunoglobulin (Ig genes, which are variable and often highly mutated. This paper describes Ig-HTS-Cleaner (Ig High Throughput Sequencing Cleaner, a program containing a simple cleaning procedure that successfully deals with pre-processing of Ig sequences derived from HTS, and Ig-Indel-Identifier (Ig Insertion – Deletion Identifier, a program for identifying legitimate and artifact insertions and/or deletions (indels. Our programs were designed for analyzing Ig gene sequences obtained by 454 sequencing, but they are applicable to all types of sequences and sequencing platforms. Ig-HTS-Cleaner and Ig-Indel-Identifier have been implemented in Java and saved as executable JAR files, supported on Linux and MS Windows. No special requirements are needed in order to run the programs, except for correctly constructing the input files as explained in the text. The programs' performance has been tested and validated on real and simulated data sets.

  7. A Technical Review on Biomass Processing: Densification, Preprocessing, Modeling and Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Christopher T. Wright

    2010-06-01

    It is now a well-acclaimed fact that burning fossil fuels and deforestation are major contributors to climate change. Biomass from plants can serve as an alternative renewable and carbon-neutral raw material for the production of bioenergy. Low densities of 40–60 kg/m3 for lignocellulosic and 200–400 kg/m3 for woody biomass limits their application for energy purposes. Prior to use in energy applications these materials need to be densified. The densified biomass can have bulk densities over 10 times the raw material helping to significantly reduce technical limitations associated with storage, loading and transportation. Pelleting, briquetting, or extrusion processing are commonly used methods for densification. The aim of the present research is to develop a comprehensive review of biomass processing that includes densification, preprocessing, modeling and optimization. The specific objective include carrying out a technical review on (a) mechanisms of particle bonding during densification; (b) methods of densification including extrusion, briquetting, pelleting, and agglomeration; (c) effects of process and feedstock variables and biomass biochemical composition on the densification (d) effects of preprocessing such as grinding, preheating, steam explosion, and torrefaction on biomass quality and binding characteristics; (e) models for understanding the compression characteristics; and (f) procedures for response surface modeling and optimization.

  8. Preprocessing of A-scan GPR data based on energy features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Mesut; Turhan-Sayan, Gonul

    2016-05-01

    There is an increasing demand for noninvasive real-time detection and classification of buried objects in various civil and military applications. The problem of detection and annihilation of landmines is particularly important due to strong safety concerns. The requirement for a fast real-time decision process is as important as the requirements for high detection rates and low false alarm rates. In this paper, we introduce and demonstrate a computationally simple, timeefficient, energy-based preprocessing approach that can be used in ground penetrating radar (GPR) applications to eliminate reflections from the air-ground boundary and to locate the buried objects, simultaneously, at one easy step. The instantaneous power signals, the total energy values and the cumulative energy curves are extracted from the A-scan GPR data. The cumulative energy curves, in particular, are shown to be useful to detect the presence and location of buried objects in a fast and simple way while preserving the spectral content of the original A-scan data for further steps of physics-based target classification. The proposed method is demonstrated using the GPR data collected at the facilities of IPA Defense, Ankara at outdoor test lanes. Cylindrically shaped plastic containers were buried in fine-medium sand to simulate buried landmines. These plastic containers were half-filled by ammonium nitrate including metal pins. Results of this pilot study are demonstrated to be highly promising to motivate further research for the use of energy-based preprocessing features in landmine detection problem.

  9. Change detection using landsat time series: A review of frequencies, preprocessing, algorithms, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhe

    2017-08-01

    The free and open access to all archived Landsat images in 2008 has completely changed the way of using Landsat data. Many novel change detection algorithms based on Landsat time series have been developed We present a comprehensive review of four important aspects of change detection studies based on Landsat time series, including frequencies, preprocessing, algorithms, and applications. We observed the trend that the more recent the study, the higher the frequency of Landsat time series used. We reviewed a series of image preprocessing steps, including atmospheric correction, cloud and cloud shadow detection, and composite/fusion/metrics techniques. We divided all change detection algorithms into six categories, including thresholding, differencing, segmentation, trajectory classification, statistical boundary, and regression. Within each category, six major characteristics of different algorithms, such as frequency, change index, univariate/multivariate, online/offline, abrupt/gradual change, and sub-pixel/pixel/spatial were analyzed. Moreover, some of the widely-used change detection algorithms were also discussed. Finally, we reviewed different change detection applications by dividing these applications into two categories, change target and change agent detection.

  10. The effects of pre-processing strategies in sentiment analysis of online movie reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zin, Harnani Mat; Mustapha, Norwati; Murad, Masrah Azrifah Azmi; Sharef, Nurfadhlina Mohd

    2017-10-01

    With the ever increasing of internet applications and social networking sites, people nowadays can easily express their feelings towards any products and services. These online reviews act as an important source for further analysis and improved decision making. These reviews are mostly unstructured by nature and thus, need processing like sentiment analysis and classification to provide a meaningful information for future uses. In text analysis tasks, the appropriate selection of words/features will have a huge impact on the effectiveness of the classifier. Thus, this paper explores the effect of the pre-processing strategies in the sentiment analysis of online movie reviews. In this paper, supervised machine learning method was used to classify the reviews. The support vector machine (SVM) with linear and non-linear kernel has been considered as classifier for the classification of the reviews. The performance of the classifier is critically examined based on the results of precision, recall, f-measure, and accuracy. Two different features representations were used which are term frequency and term frequency-inverse document frequency. Results show that the pre-processing strategies give a significant impact on the classification process.

  11. Data Acquisition and Preprocessing in Studies on Humans: What Is Not Taught in Statistics Classes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yeyi; Hernandez, Ladia M; Mueller, Peter; Dong, Yongquan; Forman, Michele R

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to address issues in research that may be missing from statistics classes and important for (bio-)statistics students. In the context of a case study, we discuss data acquisition and preprocessing steps that fill the gap between research questions posed by subject matter scientists and statistical methodology for formal inference. Issues include participant recruitment, data collection training and standardization, variable coding, data review and verification, data cleaning and editing, and documentation. Despite the critical importance of these details in research, most of these issues are rarely discussed in an applied statistics program. One reason for the lack of more formal training is the difficulty in addressing the many challenges that can possibly arise in the course of a study in a systematic way. This article can help to bridge this gap between research questions and formal statistical inference by using an illustrative case study for a discussion. We hope that reading and discussing this paper and practicing data preprocessing exercises will sensitize statistics students to these important issues and achieve optimal conduct, quality control, analysis, and interpretation of a study.

  12. Deterministic matrices matching the compressed sensing phase transitions of Gaussian random matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monajemi, Hatef; Jafarpour, Sina; Gavish, Matan; Donoho, David L.; Ambikasaran, Sivaram; Bacallado, Sergio; Bharadia, Dinesh; Chen, Yuxin; Choi, Young; Chowdhury, Mainak; Chowdhury, Soham; Damle, Anil; Fithian, Will; Goetz, Georges; Grosenick, Logan; Gross, Sam; Hills, Gage; Hornstein, Michael; Lakkam, Milinda; Lee, Jason; Li, Jian; Liu, Linxi; Sing-Long, Carlos; Marx, Mike; Mittal, Akshay; Monajemi, Hatef; No, Albert; Omrani, Reza; Pekelis, Leonid; Qin, Junjie; Raines, Kevin; Ryu, Ernest; Saxe, Andrew; Shi, Dai; Siilats, Keith; Strauss, David; Tang, Gary; Wang, Chaojun; Zhou, Zoey; Zhu, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    In compressed sensing, one takes samples of an N-dimensional vector using an matrix A, obtaining undersampled measurements . For random matrices with independent standard Gaussian entries, it is known that, when is k-sparse, there is a precisely determined phase transition: for a certain region in the (,)-phase diagram, convex optimization typically finds the sparsest solution, whereas outside that region, it typically fails. It has been shown empirically that the same property—with the same phase transition location—holds for a wide range of non-Gaussian random matrix ensembles. We report extensive experiments showing that the Gaussian phase transition also describes numerous deterministic matrices, including Spikes and Sines, Spikes and Noiselets, Paley Frames, Delsarte-Goethals Frames, Chirp Sensing Matrices, and Grassmannian Frames. Namely, for each of these deterministic matrices in turn, for a typical k-sparse object, we observe that convex optimization is successful over a region of the phase diagram that coincides with the region known for Gaussian random matrices. Our experiments considered coefficients constrained to for four different sets , and the results establish our finding for each of the four associated phase transitions. PMID:23277588

  13. Comparison of planar images and SPECT with bayesean preprocessing for the demonstration of facial anatomy and craniomandibular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircos, L.T.; Ortendahl, D.A.; Hattner, R.S.; Faulkner, D.; Taylor, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Craniomandiublar disorders involving the facial anatomy may be difficult to demonstrate in planar images. Although bone scanning is generally more sensitive than radiography, facial bone anatomy is complex and focal areas of increased or decreased radiotracer may become obscured by overlapping structures in planar images. Thus SPECT appears ideally suited to examination of the facial skeleton. A series of patients with craniomandibular disorders of unknown origin were imaged using 20 mCi Tc-99m MDP. Planar and SPECT (Siemens 7500 ZLC Orbiter) images were obtained four hours after injection. The SPECT images were reconstructed with a filtered back-projection algorithm. In order to improve image contrast and resolution in SPECT images, the rotation views were pre-processed with a Bayesean deblurring algorithm which has previously been show to offer improved contrast and resolution in planar images. SPECT images using the pre-processed rotation views were obtained and compared to the SPECT images without pre-processing and the planar images. TMJ arthropathy involving either the glenoid fossa or the mandibular condyle, orthopedic changes involving the mandible or maxilla, localized dental pathosis, as well as changes in structures peripheral to the facial skeleton were identified. Bayesean pre-processed SPECT depicted the facial skeleton more clearly as well as providing a more obvious demonstration of the bony changes associated with craniomandibular disorders than either planar images or SPECT without pre-processing

  14. A NOVEL TECHNIQUE TO IMPROVE PHOTOMETRY IN CONFUSED IMAGES USING GRAPHS AND BAYESIAN PRIORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safarzadeh, Mohammadtaher; Ferguson, Henry C.; Lu, Yu; Inami, Hanae; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new technique for overcoming confusion noise in deep far-infrared Herschel space telescope images making use of prior information from shorter λ < 2 μm wavelengths. For the deepest images obtained by Herschel, the flux limit due to source confusion is about a factor of three brighter than the flux limit due to instrumental noise and (smooth) sky background. We have investigated the possibility of de-confusing simulated Herschel PACS 160 μm images by using strong Bayesian priors on the positions and weak priors on the flux of sources. We find the blended sources and group them together and simultaneously fit their fluxes. We derive the posterior probability distribution function of fluxes subject to these priors through Monte Carlo Markov Chain (MCMC) sampling by fitting the image. Assuming we can predict the FIR flux of sources based on the ultraviolet-optical part of their SEDs to within an order of magnitude, the simulations show that we can obtain reliable fluxes and uncertainties at least a factor of three fainter than the confusion noise limit of 3σ c = 2.7 mJy in our simulated PACS-160 image. This technique could in principle be used to mitigate the effects of source confusion in any situation where one has prior information of positions and plausible fluxes of blended sources. For Herschel, application of this technique will improve our ability to constrain the dust content in normal galaxies at high redshift

  15. The confusion effect when attacking simulated three-dimensional starling flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Benedict G; Hildenbrandt, Hanno; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E; Cuthill, Innes C; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K

    2017-01-01

    The confusion effect describes the phenomenon of decreasing predator attack success with increasing prey group size. However, there is a paucity of research into the influence of this effect in coherent groups, such as flocks of European starlings ( Sturnus vulgaris ). Here, for the first time, we use a computer game style experiment to investigate the confusion effect in three dimensions. To date, computerized studies on the confusion effect have used two-dimensional simulations with simplistic prey movement and dynamics. Our experiment is the first investigation of the effects of flock size and density on the ability of a (human) predator to track and capture a target starling in a realistically simulated three-dimensional flock of starlings. In line with the predictions of the confusion effect, modelled starlings appear to be safer from predation in larger and denser flocks. This finding lends credence to previous suggestions that starling flocks have anti-predator benefits and, more generally, it suggests that active increases in density in animal groups in response to predation may increase the effectiveness of the confusion effect.

  16. Source Memory in Korsakoff Syndrome: Disentangling the Mechanisms of Temporal Confusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brion, Mélanie; de Timary, Philippe; Pitel, Anne-Lise; Maurage, Pierre

    2017-03-01

    Korsakoff syndrome (KS), most frequently resulting from alcohol dependence (ALC), is characterized by severe anterograde amnesia. It has been suggested that these deficits may extend to other memory components, and notably source memory deficits involved in the disorientation and temporal confusion frequently observed in KS. However, the extent of this source memory impairment in KS and its usefulness for the differential diagnosis between ALC and KS remain unexplored. Nineteen patients with KS were compared with 19 alcohol-dependent individuals and 19 controls in a source memory test exploring temporal context confusions ("continuous recognition task"). Episodic memory and psychopathological comorbidities were controlled for. While no source memory deficit was observed in ALC, KS was associated with a significant presence of temporal context confusion, even when the influence of comorbidities was taken into account. This source memory impairment did not appear to be related to performances on episodic memory or executive functions. Patients with KS displayed source memory deficits, as indexed by temporal context confusions. The absence of a relationship with episodic memory performances seems to indicate that source memory impairment is not a mere by-product of amnesia. As ALC was associated with preserved source memory, the presence of temporal context confusion may serve as a complementary tool for the differential diagnosis between ALC and KS. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  17. Uncertainty analysis in comparative NAA applied to geological and biological matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, Guilherme S.; Ticianelli, Regina B.; Lange, Camila N.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G., E-mail: gzahn@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Comparative nuclear activation analysis is a multielemental primary analytical technique that may be used in a rather broad spectrum of matrices with minimal-to-none sample preprocessing. Although the total activation of a chemical element in a sample depends on a rather large set of parameters, when the sample is irradiated together with a well-known comparator, most of these parameters are crossed out and the concentration of that element can be determined simply by using the activities and masses of the comparator and the sample, the concentration of this chemical element in the sample, the half-life of the formed radionuclide and the time between counting the sample and the comparator. This simplification greatly reduces not only the calculations required, but also the uncertainty associated with the measurement; nevertheless, a cautious analysis must be carried out in order to make sure all relevant uncertainties are properly treated, so that the final result can be as representative of the measurement as possible. In this work, this analysis was performed for geological matrices, where concentrations of the interest nuclides are rather high, but so is the density and average atomic number of the sample, as well as for a biological matrix, in order to allow for a comparison. The results show that the largest part of the uncertainty comes from the activity measurements and from the concentration of the comparator, and that while the influence of time-related terms in the final uncertainty can be safely neglected, the uncertainty in the masses may be relevant under specific circumstances. (author)

  18. Uncertainty analysis in comparative NAA applied to geological and biological matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahn, Guilherme S.; Ticianelli, Regina B.; Lange, Camila N.; Favaro, Deborah I.T.; Figueiredo, Ana M.G.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative nuclear activation analysis is a multielemental primary analytical technique that may be used in a rather broad spectrum of matrices with minimal-to-none sample preprocessing. Although the total activation of a chemical element in a sample depends on a rather large set of parameters, when the sample is irradiated together with a well-known comparator, most of these parameters are crossed out and the concentration of that element can be determined simply by using the activities and masses of the comparator and the sample, the concentration of this chemical element in the sample, the half-life of the formed radionuclide and the time between counting the sample and the comparator. This simplification greatly reduces not only the calculations required, but also the uncertainty associated with the measurement; nevertheless, a cautious analysis must be carried out in order to make sure all relevant uncertainties are properly treated, so that the final result can be as representative of the measurement as possible. In this work, this analysis was performed for geological matrices, where concentrations of the interest nuclides are rather high, but so is the density and average atomic number of the sample, as well as for a biological matrix, in order to allow for a comparison. The results show that the largest part of the uncertainty comes from the activity measurements and from the concentration of the comparator, and that while the influence of time-related terms in the final uncertainty can be safely neglected, the uncertainty in the masses may be relevant under specific circumstances. (author)

  19. Nuclear data for fusion: Validation of typical pre-processing methods for radiation transport calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, T.; Sublet, J.C.; Morgan, L.; Leadbeater, T.W.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We quantify the effect of processing nuclear data from ENDF to ACE format. • We consider the differences between fission and fusion angular distributions. • C-nat(n,el) at 2.0 MeV has a 0.6% deviation between original and processed data. • Fe-56(n,el) at 14.1 MeV has a 11.0% deviation between original and processed data. • Processed data do not accurately depict ENDF distributions for fusion energies. - Abstract: Nuclear data form the basis of the radiation transport codes used to design and simulate the behaviour of nuclear facilities, such as the ITER and DEMO fusion reactors. Typically these data and codes are biased towards fission and high-energy physics applications yet are still applied to fusion problems. With increasing interest in fusion applications, the lack of fusion specific codes and relevant data libraries is becoming increasingly apparent. Industry standard radiation transport codes require pre-processing of the evaluated data libraries prior to use in simulation. Historically these methods focus on speed of simulation at the cost of accurate data representation. For legacy applications this has not been a major concern, but current fusion needs differ significantly. Pre-processing reconstructs the differential and double differential interaction cross sections with a coarse binned structure, or more recently as a tabulated cumulative distribution function. This work looks at the validity of applying these processing methods to data used in fusion specific calculations in comparison to fission. The relative effects of applying this pre-processing mechanism, to both fission and fusion relevant reaction channels are demonstrated, and as such the poor representation of these distributions for the fusion energy regime. For the nat C(n,el) reaction at 2.0 MeV, the binned differential cross section deviates from the original data by 0.6% on average. For the 56 Fe(n,el) reaction at 14.1 MeV, the deviation increases to 11.0%. We

  20. Bayesian Optimization for Neuroimaging Pre-processing in Brain Age Classification and Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenessa Lancaster

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging-based age prediction using machine learning is proposed as a biomarker of brain aging, relating to cognitive performance, health outcomes and progression of neurodegenerative disease. However, even leading age-prediction algorithms contain measurement error, motivating efforts to improve experimental pipelines. T1-weighted MRI is commonly used for age prediction, and the pre-processing of these scans involves normalization to a common template and resampling to a common voxel size, followed by spatial smoothing. Resampling parameters are often selected arbitrarily. Here, we sought to improve brain-age prediction accuracy by optimizing resampling parameters using Bayesian optimization. Using data on N = 2003 healthy individuals (aged 16–90 years we trained support vector machines to (i distinguish between young (<22 years and old (>50 years brains (classification and (ii predict chronological age (regression. We also evaluated generalisability of the age-regression model to an independent dataset (CamCAN, N = 648, aged 18–88 years. Bayesian optimization was used to identify optimal voxel size and smoothing kernel size for each task. This procedure adaptively samples the parameter space to evaluate accuracy across a range of possible parameters, using independent sub-samples to iteratively assess different parameter combinations to arrive at optimal values. When distinguishing between young and old brains a classification accuracy of 88.1% was achieved, (optimal voxel size = 11.5 mm3, smoothing kernel = 2.3 mm. For predicting chronological age, a mean absolute error (MAE of 5.08 years was achieved, (optimal voxel size = 3.73 mm3, smoothing kernel = 3.68 mm. This was compared to performance using default values of 1.5 mm3 and 4mm respectively, resulting in MAE = 5.48 years, though this 7.3% improvement was not statistically significant. When assessing generalisability, best performance was achieved when applying the entire Bayesian

  1. Determination of coefficient matrices for ARMA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Dinh Tri.

    1990-10-01

    A new recursive algorithm for determining coefficient matrices of ARMA model from measured data is presented. The Yule-Walker equations for the case of ARMA model are derived from the ARMA innovation equation. The recursive algorithm is based on choosing appropriate form of the operator functions and suitable representation of the (n+1)-th order operator functions according to ones with the lower order. Two cases, when the order of the AR part is equal to one of the MA part, and the optimal case, were considered. (author) 5 refs

  2. Algebraic Graph Theory Morphisms, Monoids and Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Knauer, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    This is a highly self-contained book about algebraic graph theory which iswritten with a view to keep the lively and unconventional atmosphere of a spoken text to communicate the enthusiasm the author feels about this subject. The focus is on homomorphisms and endomorphisms, matrices and eigenvalues. Graph models are extremely useful for almost all applications and applicators as they play an important role as structuring tools. They allow to model net structures -like roads, computers, telephones -instances of abstract data structures -likelists, stacks, trees -and functional or object orient

  3. Coherence and extensions of stochastic matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Gilio

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a review of some general results on coherence of conditional probability assessments is given. Then, a necessary and sufficient condition on coherence of two finite families of discrete conditianal probability distributions, represented by two stochastic matrices P and Q, is obtained. Moreover, the possible extensions of the assessment (P,Q to the marginal distributions are examined and explicit formulas for them are given in some special case. Finally, a general algorithm to check coherence of (P,Q and to derive its extensions is proposed.

  4. 2D gravity and random matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinn-Justin, J.

    1990-01-01

    Recent progress in 2D gravity coupled to d ≤ 1 matter, based on a representation of discrete gravity in terms of random matrices, is reported. The matrix problem can be solved in many cases by the introduction of suitable orthogonal polynomials. Alternatively in the continuum limit the orthogonal polynomial method can be shown to be equivalent to the construction of representation of the canonical commutation relations in terms of differential operators. In the case of pure gravity or discrete Ising-like matter the sum over topologies is reduced to the solution of non-linear differential equations. The d = 1 problem can be solved by semiclassical methods

  5. A simpler method of preprocessing MALDI-TOF MS data for differential biomarker analysis: stem cell and melanoma cancer studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Dong L

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Raw spectral data from matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF with MS profiling techniques usually contains complex information not readily providing biological insight into disease. The association of identified features within raw data to a known peptide is extremely difficult. Data preprocessing to remove uncertainty characteristics in the data is normally required before performing any further analysis. This study proposes an alternative yet simple solution to preprocess raw MALDI-TOF-MS data for identification of candidate marker ions. Two in-house MALDI-TOF-MS data sets from two different sample sources (melanoma serum and cord blood plasma are used in our study. Method Raw MS spectral profiles were preprocessed using the proposed approach to identify peak regions in the spectra. The preprocessed data was then analysed using bespoke machine learning algorithms for data reduction and ion selection. Using the selected ions, an ANN-based predictive model was constructed to examine the predictive power of these ions for classification. Results Our model identified 10 candidate marker ions for both data sets. These ion panels achieved over 90% classification accuracy on blind validation data. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was performed and the area under the curve for melanoma and cord blood classifiers was 0.991 and 0.986, respectively. Conclusion The results suggest that our data preprocessing technique removes unwanted characteristics of the raw data, while preserving the predictive components of the data. Ion identification analysis can be carried out using MALDI-TOF-MS data with the proposed data preprocessing technique coupled with bespoke algorithms for data reduction and ion selection.

  6. Evaluation of the robustness of the preprocessing technique improving reversible compressibility of CT images: Tested on various CT examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Chang Ho; Kim, Bohyoung; Gu, Bon Seung; Lee, Jong Min [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 300 Gumi-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kil Joong [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 300 Gumi-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707, South Korea and Department of Radiation Applied Life Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kyoung Ho [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 300 Gumi-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707, South Korea and Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, and Clinical Research Institute, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Ki [Medical Information Center, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 300 Gumi-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 463-707 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To modify the preprocessing technique, which was previously proposed, improving compressibility of computed tomography (CT) images to cover the diversity of three dimensional configurations of different body parts and to evaluate the robustness of the technique in terms of segmentation correctness and increase in reversible compression ratio (CR) for various CT examinations.Methods: This study had institutional review board approval with waiver of informed patient consent. A preprocessing technique was previously proposed to improve the compressibility of CT images by replacing pixel values outside the body region with a constant value resulting in maximizing data redundancy. Since the technique was developed aiming at only chest CT images, the authors modified the segmentation method to cover the diversity of three dimensional configurations of different body parts. The modified version was evaluated as follows. In randomly selected 368 CT examinations (352 787 images), each image was preprocessed by using the modified preprocessing technique. Radiologists visually confirmed whether the segmented region covers the body region or not. The images with and without the preprocessing were reversibly compressed using Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG), JPEG2000 two-dimensional (2D), and JPEG2000 three-dimensional (3D) compressions. The percentage increase in CR per examination (CR{sub I}) was measured.Results: The rate of correct segmentation was 100.0% (95% CI: 99.9%, 100.0%) for all the examinations. The median of CR{sub I} were 26.1% (95% CI: 24.9%, 27.1%), 40.2% (38.5%, 41.1%), and 34.5% (32.7%, 36.2%) in JPEG, JPEG2000 2D, and JPEG2000 3D, respectively.Conclusions: In various CT examinations, the modified preprocessing technique can increase in the CR by 25% or more without concerning about degradation of diagnostic information.

  7. Confusion in practice: on nuclear safety responsibility subject of our nation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jia

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear safety responsibility subject seems a unquestionable issue, but when I took part in the CNNC searching team of 'nuclear law legislation', I found that there are confusions on understanding of this concept and in application. The paper focuses on the content of nuclear safety responsibility, using legal and practical method to dig out the differences with the related and frequently confusing concepts, on which basis to analyze the situation of nuclear safety responsibility subject of our nation. In conclusion, I give suggestions on who shall be the nuclear safety responsibility subject. (author)

  8. RELATIONAL HEALING OF EARLY AFFECT-CONFUSION - PART 3 OF A CASE STUDY TRILOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Erskine

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Part 3 of a case study trilogy on early affect-confusion describes the use of therapeutic dialogue, relational presence and supportive age regression in the psychotherapy of a client who lived on a “borderline” of early affect confusion. The concepts and methods of an in-depth, integrative and relational psychotherapy include a sensitivity to the client’s physiological and emotional expressions of implicit and sub-symbolic memories, therapeutic inference, an awareness of the client’s relational-needs, the effective use of a developmental image, as well the identification of an introjected other and the use of therapeutic interposition.

  9. Image Processing of Welding Procedure Specification and Pre-process program development for Finite Element Modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. S.; Lee, H. J.

    2009-11-01

    PRE-WELD program, which generates automatically the input file for the finite element analysis on the 2D butt welding at the dissimilar metal weld part, was developed. This program is pre-process program of the FEM code for analyzing the residual stress at the welding parts. Even if the users have not the detail knowledge for the FEM modelling, the users can make the ABAQUS INPUT easily by inputting the shape data of welding part, the weld current and voltage of welding parameters. By using PRE-WELD program, we can save the time and the effort greatly for preparing the ABAQUS INPUT for the residual stress analysis at the welding parts, and make the exact input without the human error

  10. Joint preprocesser-based detector for cooperative networks with limited hardware processing capability

    KAUST Repository

    Abuzaid, Abdulrahman I.

    2015-02-01

    In this letter, a joint detector for cooperative communication networks is proposed when the destination has limited hardware processing capability. The transmitter sends its symbols with the help of L relays. As the destination has limited hardware, only U out of L signals are processed and the energy of the remaining relays is lost. To solve this problem, a joint preprocessing based detector is proposed. This joint preprocessor based detector operate on the principles of minimizing the symbol error rate (SER). For a realistic assessment, pilot symbol aided channel estimation is incorporated for this proposed detector. From our simulations, it can be observed that our proposed detector achieves the same SER performance as that of the maximum likelihood (ML) detector with all participating relays. Additionally, our detector outperforms selection combining (SC), channel shortening (CS) scheme and reduced-rank techniques when using the same U. Our proposed scheme has low computational complexity.

  11. Flexible high-speed FASTBUS master for data read-out and preprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurz, A.; Manner, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a single slot FASTBUS master module. It can be used for read-out and preprocessing of data that are read out from FASTBUS modules, e.g., and ADC system. The module consists of a 25 MHz, 32-bit processor MC 68030 with cache memory and memory management, a floating point coprocessor MC68882, 4 MBytes of main memory, and FASTBUS master and slave interfaces. In addition, a DMA controller for read-out of FASTBUS data is provided. The processor allows I/O via serial ports, a 16-bit parallel port, and a transputer link. Additional interfaces are planned. The main memory is multi-ported and can be accessed directly by the CPU, the FASTBUS, and external masters via the high-speed local bus that is accessible by way of a connector. The FASTBUS interface supports most of the standard operations in master and slave mode

  12. Combined principal component preprocessing and n-tuple neural networks for improved classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høskuldsson, Agnar; Linneberg, Christian

    2000-01-01

    We present a combined principal component analysis/neural network scheme for classification. The data used to illustrate the method consist of spectral fluorescence recordings from seven different production facilities, and the task is to relate an unknown sample to one of these seven factories....... The data are first preprocessed by performing an individual principal component analysis on each of the seven groups of data. The components found are then used for classifying the data, but instead of making a single multiclass classifier, we follow the ideas of turning a multiclass problem into a number...... of two-class problems. For each possible pair of classes we further apply a transformation to the calculated principal components in order to increase the separation between the classes. Finally we apply the so-called n-tuple neural network to the transformed data in order to give the classification...

  13. Image preprocessing for improving computational efficiency in implementation of restoration and superresolution algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundareshan, Malur K; Bhattacharjee, Supratik; Inampudi, Radhika; Pang, Ho-Yuen

    2002-12-10

    Computational complexity is a major impediment to the real-time implementation of image restoration and superresolution algorithms in many applications. Although powerful restoration algorithms have been developed within the past few years utilizing sophisticated mathematical machinery (based on statistical optimization and convex set theory), these algorithms are typically iterative in nature and require a sufficient number of iterations to be executed to achieve the desired resolution improvement that may be needed to meaningfully perform postprocessing image exploitation tasks in practice. Additionally, recent technological breakthroughs have facilitated novel sensor designs (focal plane arrays, for instance) that make it possible to capture megapixel imagery data at video frame rates. A major challenge in the processing of these large-format images is to complete the execution of the image processing steps within the frame capture times and to keep up with the output rate of the sensor so that all data captured by the sensor can be efficiently utilized. Consequently, development of novel methods that facilitate real-time implementation of image restoration and superresolution algorithms is of significant practical interest and is the primary focus of this study. The key to designing computationally efficient processing schemes lies in strategically introducing appropriate preprocessing steps together with the superresolution iterations to tailor optimized overall processing sequences for imagery data of specific formats. For substantiating this assertion, three distinct methods for tailoring a preprocessing filter and integrating it with the superresolution processing steps are outlined. These methods consist of a region-of-interest extraction scheme, a background-detail separation procedure, and a scene-derived information extraction step for implementing a set-theoretic restoration of the image that is less demanding in computation compared with the

  14. A base composition analysis of natural patterns for the preprocessing of metagenome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham-Carter, Oliver; Ali, Hesham; Bastola, Dhundy

    2013-01-01

    On the pretext that sequence reads and contigs often exhibit the same kinds of base usage that is also observed in the sequences from which they are derived, we offer a base composition analysis tool. Our tool uses these natural patterns to determine relatedness across sequence data. We introduce spectrum sets (sets of motifs) which are permutations of bacterial restriction sites and the base composition analysis framework to measure their proportional content in sequence data. We suggest that this framework will increase the efficiency during the pre-processing stages of metagenome sequencing and assembly projects. Our method is able to differentiate organisms and their reads or contigs. The framework shows how to successfully determine the relatedness between these reads or contigs by comparison of base composition. In particular, we show that two types of organismal-sequence data are fundamentally different by analyzing their spectrum set motif proportions (coverage). By the application of one of the four possible spectrum sets, encompassing all known restriction sites, we provide the evidence to claim that each set has a different ability to differentiate sequence data. Furthermore, we show that the spectrum set selection having relevance to one organism, but not to the others of the data set, will greatly improve performance of sequence differentiation even if the fragment size of the read, contig or sequence is not lengthy. We show the proof of concept of our method by its application to ten trials of two or three freshly selected sequence fragments (reads and contigs) for each experiment across the six organisms of our set. Here we describe a novel and computationally effective pre-processing step for metagenome sequencing and assembly tasks. Furthermore, our base composition method has applications in phylogeny where it can be used to infer evolutionary distances between organisms based on the notion that related organisms often have much conserved code.

  15. chipPCR: an R package to pre-process raw data of amplification curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödiger, Stefan; Burdukiewicz, Michał; Schierack, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Both the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and quantitative isothermal amplification (qIA) are standard methods for nucleic acid quantification. Numerous real-time read-out technologies have been developed. Despite the continuous interest in amplification-based techniques, there are only few tools for pre-processing of amplification data. However, a transparent tool for precise control of raw data is indispensable in several scenarios, for example, during the development of new instruments. chipPCR is an R: package for the pre-processing and quality analysis of raw data of amplification curves. The package takes advantage of R: 's S4 object model and offers an extensible environment. chipPCR contains tools for raw data exploration: normalization, baselining, imputation of missing values, a powerful wrapper for amplification curve smoothing and a function to detect the start and end of an amplification curve. The capabilities of the software are enhanced by the implementation of algorithms unavailable in R: , such as a 5-point stencil for derivative interpolation. Simulation tools, statistical tests, plots for data quality management, amplification efficiency/quantification cycle calculation, and datasets from qPCR and qIA experiments are part of the package. Core functionalities are integrated in GUIs (web-based and standalone shiny applications), thus streamlining analysis and report generation. http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/chipPCR. Source code: https://github.com/michbur/chipPCR. stefan.roediger@b-tu.de Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Frequency filtering decompositions for unsymmetric matrices and matrices with strongly varying coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, C.

    1996-12-31

    In 1992, Wittum introduced the frequency filtering decompositions (FFD), which yield a fast method for the iterative solution of large systems of linear equations. Based on this method, the tangential frequency filtering decompositions (TFFD) have been developed. The TFFD allow the robust and efficient treatment of matrices with strongly varying coefficients. The existence and the convergence of the TFFD can be shown for symmetric and positive definite matrices. For a large class of matrices, it is possible to prove that the convergence rate of the TFFD and of the FFD is independent of the number of unknowns. For both methods, schemes for the construction of frequency filtering decompositions for unsymmetric matrices have been developed. Since, in contrast to Wittums`s FFD, the TFFD needs only one test vector, an adaptive test vector can be used. The TFFD with respect to the adaptive test vector can be combined with other iterative methods, e.g. multi-grid methods, in order to improve the robustness of these methods. The frequency filtering decompositions have been successfully applied to the problem of the decontamination of a heterogeneous porous medium by flushing.

  17. Rigid Body Attitude Control Based on a Manifold Representation of Direction Cosine Matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakath, David; Clemens, Joachim; Rachuy, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Autonomous systems typically actively observe certain aspects of their surroundings, which makes them dependent on a suitable controller. However, building an attitude controller for three degrees of freedom is a challenging task, mainly due to singularities in the different parametrizations of the three dimensional rotation group SO (3). Thus, we propose an attitude controller based on a manifold representation of direction cosine matrices: In state space, the attitude is globally and uniquely represented as a direction cosine matrix R ∈ SO (3). However, differences in the state space, i.e., the attitude errors, are exposed to the controller in the vector space ℝ 3 . This is achieved by an operator, which integrates the matrix logarithm mapping from SO (3) to so(3) and the map from so(3) to ℝ 3 . Based on this representation, we derive a proportional and derivative feedback controller, whose output has an upper bound to prevent actuator saturation. Additionally, the feedback is preprocessed by a particle filter to account for measurement and state transition noise. We evaluate our approach in a simulator in three different spacecraft maneuver scenarios: (i) stabilizing, (ii) rest-to-rest, and (iii) nadir-pointing. The controller exhibits stable behavior from initial attitudes near and far from the setpoint. Furthermore, it is able to stabilize a spacecraft and can be used for nadir-pointing maneuvers. (paper)

  18. Critical statistics for non-Hermitian matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Garcia, A.M.; Verbaarschot, J.J.M.; Nishigaki, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a generalized ensemble of non-Hermitian matrices interpolating between the Gaussian Unitary Ensemble, the Ginibre ensemble, and the Poisson ensemble. The joint eigenvalue distribution of this model is obtained by means of an extension of the Itzykson-Zuber formula to general complex matrices. Its correlation functions are studied both in the case of weak non-Hermiticity and in the case of strong non-Hermiticity. In the weak non-Hermiticity limit we show that the spectral correlations in the bulk of the spectrum display critical statistics: the asymptotic linear behavior of the number variance is already approached for energy differences of the order of the eigenvalue spacing. To lowest order, its slope does not depend on the degree of non-Hermiticity. Close the edge, the spectral correlations are similar to the Hermitian case. In the strong non-Hermiticity limit the crossover behavior from the Ginibre ensemble to the Poisson ensemble first appears close to the surface of the spectrum. Our model may be relevant for the description of the spectral correlations of an open disordered system close to an Anderson transition

  19. Tensor Dictionary Learning for Positive Definite Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivalingam, Ravishankar; Boley, Daniel; Morellas, Vassilios; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos

    2015-11-01

    Sparse models have proven to be extremely successful in image processing and computer vision. However, a majority of the effort has been focused on sparse representation of vectors and low-rank models for general matrices. The success of sparse modeling, along with popularity of region covariances, has inspired the development of sparse coding approaches for these positive definite descriptors. While in earlier work, the dictionary was formed from all, or a random subset of, the training signals, it is clearly advantageous to learn a concise dictionary from the entire training set. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for dictionary learning over positive definite matrices. The dictionary is learned by alternating minimization between sparse coding and dictionary update stages, and different atom update methods are described. A discriminative version of the dictionary learning approach is also proposed, which simultaneously learns dictionaries for different classes in classification or clustering. Experimental results demonstrate the advantage of learning dictionaries from data both from reconstruction and classification viewpoints. Finally, a software library is presented comprising C++ binaries for all the positive definite sparse coding and dictionary learning approaches presented here.

  20. Virial expansion for almost diagonal random matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yevtushenko, Oleg; Kravtsov, Vladimir E

    2003-01-01

    Energy level statistics of Hermitian random matrices H-circumflex with Gaussian independent random entries H i≥j is studied for a generic ensemble of almost diagonal random matrices with (vertical bar H ii vertical bar 2 ) ∼ 1 and (vertical bar H i≠j vertical bar 2 ) bF(vertical bar i - j vertical bar) parallel 1. We perform a regular expansion of the spectral form-factor K(τ) = 1 + bK 1 (τ) + b 2 K 2 (τ) + c in powers of b parallel 1 with the coefficients K m (τ) that take into account interaction of (m + 1) energy levels. To calculate K m (τ), we develop a diagrammatic technique which is based on the Trotter formula and on the combinatorial problem of graph edges colouring with (m + 1) colours. Expressions for K 1 (τ) and K 2 (τ) in terms of infinite series are found for a generic function F(vertical bar i - j vertical bar ) in the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (GOE), the Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE) and in the crossover between them (the almost unitary Gaussian ensemble). The Rosenzweig-Porter and power-law banded matrix ensembles are considered as examples

  1. Generalized Eigenvalues for pairs on heritian matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rublein, George

    1988-01-01

    A study was made of certain special cases of a generalized eigenvalue problem. Let A and B be nxn matrics. One may construct a certain polynomial, P(A,B, lambda) which specializes to the characteristic polynomial of B when A equals I. In particular, when B is hermitian, that characteristic polynomial, P(I,B, lambda) has real roots, and one can ask: are the roots of P(A,B, lambda) real when B is hermitian. We consider the case where A is positive definite and show that when N equals 3, the roots are indeed real. The basic tools needed in the proof are Shur's theorem on majorization for eigenvalues of hermitian matrices and the interlacing theorem for the eigenvalues of a positive definite hermitian matrix and one of its principal (n-1)x(n-1) minors. The method of proof first reduces the general problem to one where the diagonal of B has a certain structure: either diag (B) = diag (1,1,1) or diag (1,1,-1), or else the 2 x 2 principal minors of B are all 1. According as B has one of these three structures, we use an appropriate method to replace A by a positive diagonal matrix. Since it can be easily verified that P(D,B, lambda) has real roots, the result follows. For other configurations of B, a scaling and a continuity argument are used to prove the result in general.

  2. Meet and Join Matrices in the Poset of Exponential Divisors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... exponential divisor ( G C E D ) and the least common exponential multiple ( L C E M ) do not always exist. In this paper we embed this poset in a lattice. As an application we study the G C E D and L C E M matrices, analogues of G C D and L C M matrices, which are both special cases of meet and join matrices on lattices.

  3. The 'golden' matrices and a new kind of cryptography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stakhov, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    We consider a new class of square matrices called the 'golden' matrices. They are a generalization of the classical Fibonacci Q-matrix for continuous domain. The 'golden' matrices can be used for creation of a new kind of cryptography called the 'golden' cryptography. The method is very fast and simple for technical realization and can be used for cryptographic protection of digital signals (telecommunication and measurement systems)

  4. Generalized Perron--Frobenius Theorem for Nonsquare Matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Avin, Chen; Borokhovich, Michael; Haddad, Yoram; Kantor, Erez; Lotker, Zvi; Parter, Merav; Peleg, David

    2013-01-01

    The celebrated Perron--Frobenius (PF) theorem is stated for irreducible nonnegative square matrices, and provides a simple characterization of their eigenvectors and eigenvalues. The importance of this theorem stems from the fact that eigenvalue problems on such matrices arise in many fields of science and engineering, including dynamical systems theory, economics, statistics and optimization. However, many real-life scenarios give rise to nonsquare matrices. A natural question is whether the...

  5. Intrinsic Density Matrices of the Nuclear Shell Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deveikis, A.; Kamuntavichius, G.

    1996-01-01

    A new method for calculation of shell model intrinsic density matrices, defined as two-particle density matrices integrated over the centre-of-mass position vector of two last particles and complemented with isospin variables, has been developed. The intrinsic density matrices obtained are completely antisymmetric, translation-invariant, and do not employ a group-theoretical classification of antisymmetric states. They are used for exact realistic density matrix expansion within the framework of the reduced Hamiltonian method. The procedures based on precise arithmetic for calculation of the intrinsic density matrices that involve no numerical diagonalization or orthogonalization have been developed and implemented in the computer code. (author). 11 refs., 2 tabs

  6. Brand confusion in South African Rugby – Super 12 brands vs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brand confusion in South African Rugby – Super 12 brands vs Currie-Cup brands? ... Through the application of marketing principles and practice, sport marketers should anticipate, manage ... 12 rugby brands and the apparent lack of differentiation from the traditional Currie Cup brands. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. The Treatment of Six Sigma in Introductory Operations Management Textbooks: Clearing Up the Confusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravinder, Handanhal; Misra, Ram B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper critically examines the treatment of the statistical basis for Six Sigma and process capability in popular operations management textbooks. It discusses areas of confusion and suggest ways of treating the topic that make sense to instructors as well as students. Even though Six Sigma was introduced almost 30 years ago, misconceptions…

  8. Attempt at a de-confusion. Units, biological effects of radiation limits and their meaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueck, K

    1986-01-01

    In the wake of the Chernobyl accident the public was greatly confused by the press because units quite unknown before used and large numbers suggested danger; the meaning of limits for radionuclide concentrations in foods was also misunderstood. The present paper attempts a clarification. (G.Q.).

  9. Delictual Negligence of Educators in Schools: The Confusing Influence of the "in loco parentis" Doctrine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieter, Johan

    2004-01-01

    This article points out that the "in loco parentis" maxim is partly to blame for introducing the confusing "reasonable parent" doctrine as the test for delictual negligence of educators in the school context. It is argued that the standard of care exercised by parents over their children is not appropriate to determine the negligence of educators.…

  10. Perceptual Confusions of the Manual Alphabet by Naive, Trained, and Familiar Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, M. Dixie; Danhauer, Jeffrey L.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of the confusion resulting from reliance on visual perceptual teachers in the identification of dactylemes (handshapes) in the American Manual Alphabet (MA) is reported. A hierarchy of errors varying with subjects' degree of expertness in the MA is established. This can help manual communication teachers develop techniques for…

  11. Mirror-Image Confusions: Implications for Representation and Processing of Object Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Emma; McCloskey, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Perceiving the orientation of objects is important for interacting with the world, yet little is known about the mental representation or processing of object orientation information. The tendency of humans and other species to confuse mirror images provides a potential clue. However, the appropriate characterization of this phenomenon is not…

  12. The effect of cognitive load on social categorization in the category confusion paradigm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spears, R; Haslam, SA; Jansen, R

    1999-01-01

    The category confusion paradigm (Taylor, Fiske, Etcoff & Ruderman, 1978) was used to examine the relationship between cognitive load and the extent of social categorization. The original prediction made by Taylor et al. (1978; Experiment 2) and inferences from the cognitive miser model suggest that

  13. Mental Rotation Does Not Account for Sex Differences in Left-Right Confusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Hirnstein, Marco; Ohmann, Hanno Andreas; Hausmann, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that women believe they are more prone to left-right confusion (LRC) than men. However, while some studies report that there is also a sex difference in LRC tasks favouring men, others report that men and women perform equally well. Recently, it was suggested that sex differences only emerge in LRC tasks when they…

  14. Possible confusion between primary hypersomnia and adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterloo, M.; Lammers, G.; Overeem, S.; Noord, I. de; Kooij, J.J.S.

    2006-01-01

    We explored the possibility of diagnostic confusion between hypersomnias of central origin (narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia, IH) and the adult form of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We included 67 patients with narcolepsy, 7 with IH and 61 with ADHD. All patients completed

  15. BALANCING ON THE BORDERLINE OF EARLY AFFECT-CONFUSION - PART 2 OF A CASE STUDY TRILOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Erskine

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Part 2 of a case study trilogy on early affect-confusion describes the psychotherapy relationship between an angry/helpless client and the psychotherapist’s skill in balancing the “borderline” between behavioral management and affect attunement, historical inquiry and normalization, validation and shame. The therapeutic use of bifurcated questions and juxtaposition reactions is illustrated.

  16. Caffeine Confusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 20 mg* Milk chocolate 1 ounce 6 mg* Cocoa beverage 5 ounces 4 mg* Chocolate milk beverage 8 ounces 5 mg* Cold relief medication 1 tablet 30 mg* *This is an average amount of caffeine. That means some of these products may contain a little more caffeine; some may ...

  17. Confused thoughts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolonen, P.

    1999-01-01

    One of the special characters of public discussion on nuclear energy is the aggressivity. This writing tries to point out some arguments defending the use of nuclear energy also in the future. Although nuclear energy is very unfashionable at the moment, especially among youth, it still remains as a remarkable option to meet the increasing demand of energy. All the renewables and other production forms seem to leave a gap in the required energy supply. Some conventional forms of energy should be excluded because of the green house emission limitations. Fusion energy and other futuristic options do not seem to be near enough in the future. This means, that there still seems to be need for nuclear energy in the future. One of the topical problems in the nuclear field is the soon forthcoming collapse of experience and expertise due to the retirement of the current establishment. This urges to encourage the young generation to join and to stay in the nuclear field. As well it sets demand for public acceptance for nuclear energy among the youth. This seems to be a problem, but how to cope with it

  18. Noisy covariance matrices and portfolio optimization II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pafka, Szilárd; Kondor, Imre

    2003-03-01

    Recent studies inspired by results from random matrix theory (Galluccio et al.: Physica A 259 (1998) 449; Laloux et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 (1999) 1467; Risk 12 (3) (1999) 69; Plerou et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 83 (1999) 1471) found that covariance matrices determined from empirical financial time series appear to contain such a high amount of noise that their structure can essentially be regarded as random. This seems, however, to be in contradiction with the fundamental role played by covariance matrices in finance, which constitute the pillars of modern investment theory and have also gained industry-wide applications in risk management. Our paper is an attempt to resolve this embarrassing paradox. The key observation is that the effect of noise strongly depends on the ratio r= n/ T, where n is the size of the portfolio and T the length of the available time series. On the basis of numerical experiments and analytic results for some toy portfolio models we show that for relatively large values of r (e.g. 0.6) noise does, indeed, have the pronounced effect suggested by Galluccio et al. (1998), Laloux et al. (1999) and Plerou et al. (1999) and illustrated later by Laloux et al. (Int. J. Theor. Appl. Finance 3 (2000) 391), Plerou et al. (Phys. Rev. E, e-print cond-mat/0108023) and Rosenow et al. (Europhys. Lett., e-print cond-mat/0111537) in a portfolio optimization context, while for smaller r (around 0.2 or below), the error due to noise drops to acceptable levels. Since the length of available time series is for obvious reasons limited in any practical application, any bound imposed on the noise-induced error translates into a bound on the size of the portfolio. In a related set of experiments we find that the effect of noise depends also on whether the problem arises in asset allocation or in a risk measurement context: if covariance matrices are used simply for measuring the risk of portfolios with a fixed composition rather than as inputs to optimization, the

  19. The Evaluation of Preprocessing Choices in Single-Subject BOLD fMRI Using NPAIRS Performance Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephen, LaConte; Rottenberg, David; Strother, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    to obtain cross-validation-based model performance estimates of prediction accuracy and global reproducibility for various degrees of model complexity. We rely on the concept of an analysis chain meta-model in which all parameters of the preprocessing steps along with the final statistical model are treated...

  20. The recursive combination filter approach of pre-processing for the estimation of standard deviation of RR series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Alok; Swati, D

    2015-09-01

    Variation in the interval between the R-R peaks of the electrocardiogram represents the modulation of the cardiac oscillations by the autonomic nervous system. This variation is contaminated by anomalous signals called ectopic beats, artefacts or noise which mask the true behaviour of heart rate variability. In this paper, we have proposed a combination filter of recursive impulse rejection filter and recursive 20% filter, with recursive application and preference of replacement over removal of abnormal beats to improve the pre-processing of the inter-beat intervals. We have tested this novel recursive combinational method with median method replacement to estimate the standard deviation of normal to normal (SDNN) beat intervals of congestive heart failure (CHF) and normal sinus rhythm subjects. This work discusses the improvement in pre-processing over single use of impulse rejection filter and removal of abnormal beats for heart rate variability for the estimation of SDNN and Poncaré plot descriptors (SD1, SD2, and SD1/SD2) in detail. We have found the 22 ms value of SDNN and 36 ms value of SD2 descriptor of Poincaré plot as clinical indicators in discriminating the normal cases from CHF cases. The pre-processing is also useful in calculation of Lyapunov exponent which is a nonlinear index as Lyapunov exponents calculated after proposed pre-processing modified in a way that it start following the notion of less complex behaviour of diseased states.

  1. Preprocessing of 18F-DMFP-PET Data Based on Hidden Markov Random Fields and the Gaussian Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín Segovia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available 18F-DMFP-PET is an emerging neuroimaging modality used to diagnose Parkinson's disease (PD that allows us to examine postsynaptic dopamine D2/3 receptors. Like other neuroimaging modalities used for PD diagnosis, most of the total intensity of 18F-DMFP-PET images is concentrated in the striatum. However, other regions can also be useful for diagnostic purposes. An appropriate delimitation of the regions of interest contained in 18F-DMFP-PET data is crucial to improve the automatic diagnosis of PD. In this manuscript we propose a novel methodology to preprocess 18F-DMFP-PET data that improves the accuracy of computer aided diagnosis systems for PD. First, the data were segmented using an algorithm based on Hidden Markov Random Field. As a result, each neuroimage was divided into 4 maps according to the intensity and the neighborhood of the voxels. The maps were then individually normalized so that the shape of their histograms could be modeled by a Gaussian distribution with equal parameters for all the neuroimages. This approach was evaluated using a dataset with neuroimaging data from 87 parkinsonian patients. After these preprocessing steps, a Support Vector Machine classifier was used to separate idiopathic and non-idiopathic PD. Data preprocessed by the proposed method provided higher accuracy results than the ones preprocessed with previous approaches.

  2. On image pre-processing for PIV of sinlge- and two-phase flows over reflecting objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deen, N.G.; Willems, P.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.; Wessling, Matthias; van der Meer, Walterus Gijsbertus Joseph

    2010-01-01

    A novel image pre-processing scheme for PIV of single- and two-phase flows over reflecting objects which does not require the use of additional hardware is discussed. The approach for single-phase flow consists of image normalization and intensity stretching followed by background subtraction. For

  3. Conversation on data mining strategies in LC-MS untargeted metabolomics: pre-processing and pre-treatment steps

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tugizimana, F

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available -MS)-based untargeted metabolomic dataset, this study explored the influence of collection parameters in the data pre-processing step, scaling and data transformation on the statistical models generated, and feature selection, thereafter. Data obtained in positive mode...

  4. CudaPre3D: An Alternative Preprocessing Algorithm for Accelerating 3D Convex Hull Computation on the GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEI, G.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the calculating of convex hulls for point sets, a preprocessing procedure that is to filter the input points by discarding non-extreme points is commonly used to improve the computational efficiency. We previously proposed a quite straightforward preprocessing approach for accelerating 2D convex hull computation on the GPU. In this paper, we extend that algorithm to being used in 3D cases. The basic ideas behind these two preprocessing algorithms are similar: first, several groups of extreme points are found according to the original set of input points and several rotated versions of the input set; then, a convex polyhedron is created using the found extreme points; and finally those interior points locating inside the formed convex polyhedron are discarded. Experimental results show that: when employing the proposed preprocessing algorithm, it achieves the speedups of about 4x on average and 5x to 6x in the best cases over the cases where the proposed approach is not used. In addition, more than 95 percent of the input points can be discarded in most experimental tests.

  5. Equiangular tight frames and unistochastic matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyeneche, Dardo; Turek, Ondřej

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate that a complex equiangular tight frame composed of N vectors in dimension d , denoted ETF ( d , N ), exists if and only if a certain bistochastic matrix, univocally determined by N and d , belongs to a special class of unistochastic matrices. This connection allows us to find new complex ETFs in infinitely many dimensions and to derive a method to introduce non-trivial free parameters in ETFs. We present an explicit six-parametric family of complex ETF(6,16), which defines a family of symmetric POVMs. Minimal and maximal possible average entanglement of the vectors within this qubit–qutrit family are described. Furthermore, we propose an efficient numerical procedure to compute the unitary matrix underlying a unistochastic matrix, which we apply to find all existing classes of complex ETFs containing up to 20 vectors. (paper)

  6. Colonization of bone matrices by cellular components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchelkunova, E. I.; Voropaeva, A. A.; Korel, A. V.; Mayer, D. A.; Podorognaya, V. T.; Kirilova, I. A.

    2017-09-01

    Practical surgery, traumatology, orthopedics, and oncology require bioengineered constructs suitable for replacement of large-area bone defects. Only rigid/elastic matrix containing recipient's bone cells capable of mitosis, differentiation, and synthesizing extracellular matrix that supports cell viability can comply with these requirements. Therefore, the development of the techniques to produce structural and functional substitutes, whose three-dimensional structure corresponds to the recipient's damaged tissues, is the main objective of tissue engineering. This is achieved by developing tissue-engineering constructs represented by cells placed on the matrices. Low effectiveness of carrier matrix colonization with cells and their uneven distribution is one of the major problems in cell culture on various matrixes. In vitro studies of the interactions between cells and material, as well as the development of new techniques for scaffold colonization by cellular components are required to solve this problem.

  7. Computing with linear equations and matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchhouse, R.F.

    1983-01-01

    Systems of linear equations and matrices arise in many disciplines. The equations may accurately represent conditions satisfied by a system or, more likely, provide an approximation to a more complex system of non-linear or differential equations. The system may involve a few or many thousand unknowns and each individual equation may involve few or many of them. Over the past 50 years a vast literature on methods for solving systems of linear equations and the associated problems of finding the inverse or eigenvalues of a matrix has been produced. These lectures cover those methods which have been found to be most useful for dealing with such types of problem. References are given where appropriate and attention is drawn to the possibility of improved methods for use on vector and parallel processors. (orig.)

  8. Matrices over runtime systems at exascale

    KAUST Repository

    Agullo, Emmanuel

    2012-11-01

    The goal of Matrices Over Runtime Systems at Exascale (MORSE) project is to design dense and sparse linear algebra methods that achieve the fastest possible time to an accurate solution on large-scale multicore systems with GPU accelerators, using all the processing power that future high end systems can make available. In this poster, we propose a framework for describing linear algebra algorithms at a high level of abstraction and delegating the actual execution to a runtime system in order to design software whose performance is portable accross architectures. We illustrate our methodology on three classes of problems: dense linear algebra, sparse direct methods and fast multipole methods. The resulting codes have been incorporated into Magma, Pastix and ScalFMM solvers, respectively. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. Sparse random matrices: The eigenvalue spectrum revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerjian, Guilhem; Cugliandolo, Leticia F.

    2003-08-01

    We revisit the derivation of the density of states of sparse random matrices. We derive a recursion relation that allows one to compute the spectrum of the matrix of incidence for finite trees that determines completely the low concentration limit. Using the iterative scheme introduced by Biroli and Monasson [J. Phys. A 32, L255 (1999)] we find an approximate expression for the density of states expected to hold exactly in the opposite limit of large but finite concentration. The combination of the two methods yields a very simple geometric interpretation of the tails of the spectrum. We test the analytic results with numerical simulations and we suggest an indirect numerical method to explore the tails of the spectrum. (author)

  10. From Pauli Matrices to Quantum Ito Formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pautrat, Yan

    2005-01-01

    This paper answers important questions raised by the recent description, by Attal, of a robust and explicit method to approximate basic objects of quantum stochastic calculus on bosonic Fock space by analogues on the state space of quantum spin chains. The existence of that method justifies a detailed investigation of discrete-time quantum stochastic calculus. Here we fully define and study that theory and obtain in particular a discrete-time quantum Ito formula, which one can see as summarizing the commutation relations of Pauli matrices.An apparent flaw in that approximation method is the difference in the quantum Ito formulas, discrete and continuous, which suggests that the discrete quantum stochastic calculus differs fundamentally from the continuous one and is therefore not a suitable object to approximate subtle phenomena. We show that flaw is only apparent by proving that the continuous-time quantum Ito formula is actually a consequence of its discrete-time counterpart

  11. Dirac matrices for Chern-Simons gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izaurieta, Fernando; Ramirez, Ricardo; Rodriguez, Eduardo [Departamento de Matematica y Fisica Aplicadas, Universidad Catolica de la Santisima Concepcion, Alonso de Ribera 2850, 4090541 Concepcion (Chile)

    2012-10-06

    A genuine gauge theory for the Poincare, de Sitter or anti-de Sitter algebras can be constructed in (2n- 1)-dimensional spacetime by means of the Chern-Simons form, yielding a gravitational theory that differs from General Relativity but shares many of its properties, such as second order field equations for the metric. The particular form of the Lagrangian is determined by a rank n, symmetric tensor invariant under the relevant algebra. In practice, the calculation of this invariant tensor can be reduced to the computation of the trace of the symmetrized product of n Dirac Gamma matrices {Gamma}{sub ab} in 2n-dimensional spacetime. While straightforward in principle, this calculation can become extremely cumbersome in practice. For large enough n, existing computer algebra packages take an inordinate long time to produce the answer or plainly fail having used up all available memory. In this talk we show that the general formula for the trace of the symmetrized product of 2n Gamma matrices {Gamma}{sub ab} can be written as a certain sum over the integer partitions s of n, with every term being multiplied by a numerical cofficient {alpha}{sub s}. We then give a general algorithm that computes the {alpha}-coefficients as the solution of a linear system of equations generated by evaluating the general formula for different sets of tensors B{sup ab} with random numerical entries. A recurrence relation between different coefficients is shown to hold and is used in a second, 'minimal' algorithm to greatly speed up the computations. Runtime of the minimal algorithm stays below 1 min on a typical desktop computer for up to n = 25, which easily covers all foreseeable applications of the trace formula.

  12. Viscous hydrophilic injection matrices for serial crystallography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Kovácsová

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Serial (femtosecond crystallography at synchrotron and X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL sources distributes the absorbed radiation dose over all crystals used for data collection and therefore allows measurement of radiation damage prone systems, including the use of microcrystals for room-temperature measurements. Serial crystallography relies on fast and efficient exchange of crystals upon X-ray exposure, which can be achieved using a variety of methods, including various injection techniques. The latter vary significantly in their flow rates – gas dynamic virtual nozzle based injectors provide very thin fast-flowing jets, whereas high-viscosity extrusion injectors produce much thicker streams with flow rates two to three orders of magnitude lower. High-viscosity extrusion results in much lower sample consumption, as its sample delivery speed is commensurate both with typical XFEL repetition rates and with data acquisition rates at synchrotron sources. An obvious viscous injection medium is lipidic cubic phase (LCP as it is used for in meso membrane protein crystallization. However, LCP has limited compatibility with many crystallization conditions. While a few other viscous media have been described in the literature, there is an ongoing need to identify additional injection media for crystal embedding. Critical attributes are reliable injection properties and a broad chemical compatibility to accommodate samples as heterogeneous and sensitive as protein crystals. Here, the use of two novel hydrogels as viscous injection matrices is described, namely sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and the thermo-reversible block polymer Pluronic F-127. Both are compatible with various crystallization conditions and yield acceptable X-ray background. The stability and velocity of the extruded stream were also analysed and the dependence of the stream velocity on the flow rate was measured. In contrast with previously characterized injection media, both new

  13. Acquiring and preprocessing leaf images for automated plant identification: understanding the tradeoff between effort and information gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rzanny

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automated species identification is a long term research subject. Contrary to flowers and fruits, leaves are available throughout most of the year. Offering margin and texture to characterize a species, they are the most studied organ for automated identification. Substantially matured machine learning techniques generate the need for more training data (aka leaf images. Researchers as well as enthusiasts miss guidance on how to acquire suitable training images in an efficient way. Methods In this paper, we systematically study nine image types and three preprocessing strategies. Image types vary in terms of in-situ image recording conditions: perspective, illumination, and background, while the preprocessing strategies compare non-preprocessed, cropped, and segmented images to each other. Per image type-preprocessing combination, we also quantify the manual effort required for their implementation. We extract image features using a convolutional neural network, classify species using the resulting feature vectors and discuss classification accuracy in relation to the required effort per combination. Results The most effective, non-destructive way to record herbaceous leaves is to take an image of the leaf’s top side. We yield the highest classification accuracy using destructive back light images, i.e., holding the plucked leaf against the sky for image acquisition. Cropping the image to the leaf’s boundary substantially improves accuracy, while precise segmentation yields similar accuracy at a substantially higher effort. The permanent use or disuse of a flash light has negligible effects. Imaging the typically stronger textured backside of a leaf does not result in higher accuracy, but notably increases the acquisition cost. Conclusions In conclusion, the way in which leaf images are acquired and preprocessed does have a substantial effect on the accuracy of the classifier trained on them. For the first time, this

  14. Scientific data products and the data pre-processing subsystem of the Chang'e-3 mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Xu; Liu Jian-Jun; Li Chun-Lai; Feng Jian-Qing; Ren Xin; Wang Fen-Fei; Yan Wei; Zuo Wei; Wang Xiao-Qian; Zhang Zhou-Bin

    2014-01-01

    The Chang'e-3 (CE-3) mission is China's first exploration mission on the surface of the Moon that uses a lander and a rover. Eight instruments that form the scientific payloads have the following objectives: (1) investigate the morphological features and geological structures at the landing site; (2) integrated in-situ analysis of minerals and chemical compositions; (3) integrated exploration of the structure of the lunar interior; (4) exploration of the lunar-terrestrial space environment, lunar surface environment and acquire Moon-based ultraviolet astronomical observations. The Ground Research and Application System (GRAS) is in charge of data acquisition and pre-processing, management of the payload in orbit, and managing the data products and their applications. The Data Pre-processing Subsystem (DPS) is a part of GRAS. The task of DPS is the pre-processing of raw data from the eight instruments that are part of CE-3, including channel processing, unpacking, package sorting, calibration and correction, identification of geographical location, calculation of probe azimuth angle, probe zenith angle, solar azimuth angle, and solar zenith angle and so on, and conducting quality checks. These processes produce Level 0, Level 1 and Level 2 data. The computing platform of this subsystem is comprised of a high-performance computing cluster, including a real-time subsystem used for processing Level 0 data and a post-time subsystem for generating Level 1 and Level 2 data. This paper describes the CE-3 data pre-processing method, the data pre-processing subsystem, data classification, data validity and data products that are used for scientific studies

  15. Automatic pre-processing for an object-oriented distributed hydrological model using GRASS-GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzana, P.; Jankowfsky, S.; Branger, F.; Braud, I.; Vargas, X.; Hitschfeld, N.

    2012-04-01

    Landscapes are very heterogeneous, which impact the hydrological processes occurring in the catchments, especially in the modeling of peri-urban catchments. The Hydrological Response Units (HRUs), resulting from the intersection of different maps, such as land use, soil types and geology, and flow networks, allow the representation of these elements in an explicit way, preserving natural and artificial contours of the different layers. These HRUs are used as model mesh in some distributed object-oriented hydrological models, allowing the application of a topological oriented approach. The connectivity between polygons and polylines provides a detailed representation of the water balance and overland flow in these distributed hydrological models, based on irregular hydro-landscape units. When computing fluxes between these HRUs, the geometrical parameters, such as the distance between the centroid of gravity of the HRUs and the river network, and the length of the perimeter, can impact the realism of the calculated overland, sub-surface and groundwater fluxes. Therefore, it is necessary to process the original model mesh in order to avoid these numerical problems. We present an automatic pre-processing implemented in the open source GRASS-GIS software, for which several Python scripts or some algorithms already available were used, such as the Triangle software. First, some scripts were developed to improve the topology of the various elements, such as snapping of the river network to the closest contours. When data are derived with remote sensing, such as vegetation areas, their perimeter has lots of right angles that were smoothed. Second, the algorithms more particularly address bad-shaped elements of the model mesh such as polygons with narrow shapes, marked irregular contours and/or the centroid outside of the polygons. To identify these elements we used shape descriptors. The convexity index was considered the best descriptor to identify them with a threshold

  16. Pre-processing, registration and selection of adaptive optics corrected retinal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Gomathy; Devaney, Nicholas

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, the aim is to demonstrate enhanced processing of sequences of fundus images obtained using a commercial AO flood illumination system. The purpose of the work is to (1) correct for uneven illumination at the retina (2) automatically select the best quality images and (3) precisely register the best images. Adaptive optics corrected retinal images are pre-processed to correct uneven illumination using different methods; subtracting or dividing by the average filtered image, homomorphic filtering and a wavelet based approach. These images are evaluated to measure the image quality using various parameters, including sharpness, variance, power spectrum kurtosis and contrast. We have carried out the registration in two stages; a coarse stage using cross-correlation followed by fine registration using two approaches; parabolic interpolation on the peak of the cross-correlation and maximum-likelihood estimation. The angle of rotation of the images is measured using a combination of peak tracking and Procrustes transformation. We have found that a wavelet approach (Daubechies 4 wavelet at 6th level decomposition) provides good illumination correction with clear improvement in image sharpness and contrast. The assessment of image quality using a 'Designer metric' works well when compared to visual evaluation, although it is highly correlated with other metrics. In image registration, sub-pixel translation measured using parabolic interpolation on the peak of the cross-correlation function and maximum-likelihood estimation are found to give very similar results (RMS difference 0.047 pixels). We have confirmed that correcting rotation of the images provides a significant improvement, especially at the edges of the image. We observed that selecting the better quality frames (e.g. best 75% images) for image registration gives improved resolution, at the expense of poorer signal-to-noise. The sharpness map of the registered and de-rotated images shows increased

  17. It’s Time to End the Decade of Confusion about OBE in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Spady

    2008-09-01

    implementers warn strongly against; 5 lacking the future-focused grounding of OBE designs that are legitimately called “transformational;” and 6 falling into the familiar pattern of calling its “CBO” thinking and practices “OBE.”The latter relates to an almost universal constellation of practices that make educational systems virtually unchangeable from an OBE perspective: Curriculum Based Outcomes, Content Bound Objectives, Calendar Based Opportunities, Cellular Based Organization, Contest Biased Orientations, Convenience Based Operations, and Convention Bound Obsolescence. Unfortunately, Curriculum 2005 and its key advocates appeared to take these seven CBO’s as givens, which made their continuous reference to OBE incongruous at best. Consequently, the paper argues that, had South Africa’s key educational policy makers in1997, and since, taken the time to understand the six key points above, they would have been able to make a more constructive choice about the educational reforms they sought to bring about. First, recognizing these major disparities between their Curriculum 2005 strategies and the fundamentals of genuine OBE, they could have chosen to bring C2005 more strongly into alignment with OBE and modified their initial course of action considerably. Or, recognizing these major disparities, they could have chosen to drop the OBE label altogether and thereby reduced or avoided a lot of the confusion generated by implying that Curriculum 2005 required significant changes in familiar practice. For example, by maintaining the very “non-OBE” Matric and annual examination systems that had always been in place, the government kept everyone locked into traditional/conventional modes of thinking about learning, curriculum, achievement, assessment, and qualifications. Conclusion: South Africa should stop referring to OBE in any form. OBE never existed in1997, and has only faded farther from the scene as C2005 was replaced by the Revised National Curriculum

  18. Deterministic matrices matching the compressed sensing phase transitions of Gaussian random matrices

    OpenAIRE

    Monajemi, Hatef; Jafarpour, Sina; Gavish, Matan; Donoho, David L.; Ambikasaran, Sivaram; Bacallado, Sergio; Bharadia, Dinesh; Chen, Yuxin; Choi, Young; Chowdhury, Mainak; Chowdhury, Soham; Damle, Anil; Fithian, Will; Goetz, Georges; Grosenick, Logan

    2012-01-01

    In compressed sensing, one takes samples of an N-dimensional vector using an matrix A, obtaining undersampled measurements . For random matrices with independent standard Gaussian entries, it is known that, when is k-sparse, there is a precisely determined phase transition: for a certain region in the (,)-phase diagram, convex optimization typically finds the sparsest solution, whereas outside that region, it typically fails. It has been shown empirically that the same property—with the ...

  19. Binary Positive Semidefinite Matrices and Associated Integer Polytopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Letchford, Adam N.; Sørensen, Michael Malmros

    2012-01-01

    We consider the positive semidefinite (psd) matrices with binary entries, along with the corresponding integer polytopes. We begin by establishing some basic properties of these matrices and polytopes. Then, we show that several families of integer polytopes in the literature-the cut, boolean qua...

  20. CONVERGENCE OF POWERS OF CONTROLLABLE INTUITIONISTIC FUZZY MATRICES

    OpenAIRE

    Riyaz Ahmad Padder; P. Murugadas

    2016-01-01

    Convergences of powers of controllable intuitionistic fuzzy matrices have been stud¬ied. It is shown that they oscillate with period equal to 2, in general. Some equalities and sequences of inequalities about powers of controllable intuitionistic fuzzy matrices have been obtained.

  1. Propositional matrices as alternative representation of truth values ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper considered the subject of representation of truth values in symbolic logic. An alternative representation was given based on the rows and columns properties of matrices, with the operations involving the logical connectives subjected to the laws of algebra of propositions. Matrices of various propositions detailing ...

  2. The Modern Origin of Matrices and Their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the modern development of matrices, linear transformations, quadratic forms and their applications to geometry and mechanics, eigenvalues, eigenvectors and characteristic equations with applications. Included are the representations of real and complex numbers, and quaternions by matrices, and isomorphism in order to show…

  3. The construction of next-generation matrices for compartmental epidemic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekmann, O; Heesterbeek, J A P; Roberts, M G

    2010-06-06

    The basic reproduction number (0) is arguably the most important quantity in infectious disease epidemiology. The next-generation matrix (NGM) is the natural basis for the definition and calculation of (0) where finitely many different categories of individuals are recognized. We clear up confusion that has been around in the literature concerning the construction of this matrix, specifically for the most frequently used so-called compartmental models. We present a detailed easy recipe for the construction of the NGM from basic ingredients derived directly from the specifications of the model. We show that two related matrices exist which we define to be the NGM with large domain and the NGM with small domain. The three matrices together reflect the range of possibilities encountered in the literature for the characterization of (0). We show how they are connected and how their construction follows from the basic model ingredients, and establish that they have the same non-zero eigenvalues, the largest of which is the basic reproduction number (0). Although we present formal recipes based on linear algebra, we encourage the construction of the NGM by way of direct epidemiological reasoning, using the clear interpretation of the elements of the NGM and of the model ingredients. We present a selection of examples as a practical guide to our methods. In the appendix we present an elementary but complete proof that (0) defined as the dominant eigenvalue of the NGM for compartmental systems and the Malthusian parameter r, the real-time exponential growth rate in the early phase of an outbreak, are connected by the properties that (0) > 1 if and only if r > 0, and (0) = 1 if and only if r = 0.

  4. Abel-grassmann's groupoids of modulo matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javaid, Q.; Awan, M.D.; Naqvi, S.H.A.

    2016-01-01

    The binary operation of usual addition is associative in all matrices over R. However, a binary operation of addition in matrices over Z/sub n/ of a nonassociative structures of AG-groupoids and AG-groups are defined and investigated here. It is shown that both these structures exist for every integer n >≥ 3. Various properties of these structures are explored like: (i) Every AG-groupoid of matrices over Z/sub n/ is transitively commutative AG-groupoid and is a cancellative AG-groupoid if n is prime. (ii) Every AG-groupoid of matrices over Z/sub n/ of Type-II is a T/sup 3/-AG-groupoid. (iii) An AG-groupoid of matrices over Z/sub n/ ; G /sub nAG/(t,u), is an AG-band, if t+u=1(mod n). (author)

  5. Tools and Databases of the KOMICS Web Portal for Preprocessing, Mining, and Dissemination of Metabolomics Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nozomu Sakurai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A metabolome—the collection of comprehensive quantitative data on metabolites in an organism—has been increasingly utilized for applications such as data-intensive systems biology, disease diagnostics, biomarker discovery, and assessment of food quality. A considerable number of tools and databases have been developed to date for the analysis of data generated by various combinations of chromatography and mass spectrometry. We report here a web portal named KOMICS (The Kazusa Metabolomics Portal, where the tools and databases that we developed are available for free to academic users. KOMICS includes the tools and databases for preprocessing, mining, visualization, and publication of metabolomics data. Improvements in the annotation of unknown metabolites and dissemination of comprehensive metabolomic data are the primary aims behind the development of this portal. For this purpose, PowerGet and FragmentAlign include a manual curation function for the results of metabolite feature alignments. A metadata-specific wiki-based database, Metabolonote, functions as a hub of web resources related to the submitters' work. This feature is expected to increase citation of the submitters' work, thereby promoting data publication. As an example of the practical use of KOMICS, a workflow for a study on Jatropha curcas is presented. The tools and databases available at KOMICS should contribute to enhanced production, interpretation, and utilization of metabolomic Big Data.

  6. A new approach to pre-processing digital image for wavelet-based watermark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agreste, Santa; Andaloro, Guido

    2008-11-01

    The growth of the Internet has increased the phenomenon of digital piracy, in multimedia objects, like software, image, video, audio and text. Therefore it is strategic to individualize and to develop methods and numerical algorithms, which are stable and have low computational cost, that will allow us to find a solution to these problems. We describe a digital watermarking algorithm for color image protection and authenticity: robust, not blind, and wavelet-based. The use of Discrete Wavelet Transform is motivated by good time-frequency features and a good match with Human Visual System directives. These two combined elements are important for building an invisible and robust watermark. Moreover our algorithm can work with any image, thanks to the step of pre-processing of the image that includes resize techniques that adapt to the size of the original image for Wavelet transform. The watermark signal is calculated in correlation with the image features and statistic properties. In the detection step we apply a re-synchronization between the original and watermarked image according to the Neyman-Pearson statistic criterion. Experimentation on a large set of different images has been shown to be resistant against geometric, filtering, and StirMark attacks with a low rate of false alarm.

  7. An Advanced Pre-Processing Pipeline to Improve Automated Photogrammetric Reconstructions of Architectural Scenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Gaiani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Automated image-based 3D reconstruction methods are more and more flooding our 3D modeling applications. Fully automated solutions give the impression that from a sample of randomly acquired images we can derive quite impressive visual 3D models. Although the level of automation is reaching very high standards, image quality is a fundamental pre-requisite to produce successful and photo-realistic 3D products, in particular when dealing with large datasets of images. This article presents an efficient pipeline based on color enhancement, image denoising, color-to-gray conversion and image content enrichment. The pipeline stems from an analysis of various state-of-the-art algorithms and aims to adjust the most promising methods, giving solutions to typical failure causes. The assessment evaluation proves how an effective image pre-processing, which considers the entire image dataset, can improve the automated orientation procedure and dense 3D point cloud reconstruction, even in the case of poor texture scenarios.

  8. A comparative analysis of pre-processing techniques in colour retinal images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvatelli, A; Bizai, G; Barbosa, G; Drozdowicz, B; Delrieux, C

    2007-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a chronic disease of the ocular retina, which most of the times is only discovered when the disease is on an advanced stage and most of the damage is irreversible. For that reason, early diagnosis is paramount for avoiding the most severe consequences of the DR, of which complete blindness is not uncommon. Unsupervised or supervised image processing of retinal images emerges as a feasible tool for this diagnosis. The preprocessing stages are the key for any further assessment, since these images exhibit several defects, including non uniform illumination, sampling noise, uneven contrast due to pigmentation loss during sampling, and many others. Any feasible diagnosis system should work with images where these defects were compensated. In this work we analyze and test several correction techniques. Non uniform illumination is compensated using morphology and homomorphic filtering; uneven contrast is compensated using morphology and local enhancement. We tested our processing stages using Fuzzy C-Means, and local Hurst (self correlation) coefficient for unsupervised segmentation of the abnormal blood vessels. The results over a standard set of DR images are more than promising

  9. Voice preprocessing system incorporating a real-time spectrum analyzer with programmable switched-capacitor filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, G.

    1984-01-01

    As part of a speaker verification program for BISS (Base Installation Security System), a test system is being designed with a flexible preprocessing system for the evaluation of voice spectrum/verification algorithm related problems. The main part of this report covers the design, construction, and testing of a voice analyzer with 16 integrating real-time frequency channels ranging from 300 Hz to 3 KHz. The bandpass filter response of each channel is programmable by NMOS switched capacitor quad filter arrays. Presently, the accuracy of these units is limited to a moderate precision by the finite steps of programming. However, repeatability of characteristics between filter units and sections seems to be excellent for the implemented fourth-order Butterworth bandpass responses. We obtained a 0.1 dB linearity error of signal detection and measured a signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 70 dB. The proprocessing system discussed includes preemphasis filter design, gain normalizer design, and data acquisition system design as well as test results.

  10. Robust preprocessing for stimulus-based functional MRI of the moving fetus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Wonsang; Evangelou, Iordanis E; Zun, Zungho; Andescavage, Nickie; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    Fetal motion manifests as signal degradation and image artifact in the acquired time series of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. We present a robust preprocessing pipeline to specifically address fetal and placental motion-induced artifacts in stimulus-based fMRI with slowly cycled block design in the living fetus. In the proposed pipeline, motion correction is optimized to the experimental paradigm, and it is performed separately in each phase as well as in each region of interest (ROI), recognizing that each phase and organ experiences different types of motion. To obtain the averaged BOLD signals for each ROI, both misaligned volumes and noisy voxels are automatically detected and excluded, and the missing data are then imputed by statistical estimation based on local polynomial smoothing. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed pipeline was effective in mitigating the motion-induced artifacts in stimulus-based fMRI data of the fetal brain and placenta.

  11. The PREP Pipeline: Standardized preprocessing for large-scale EEG analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima eBigdelys Shamlo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The technology to collect brain imaging and physiological measures has become portable and ubiquitous, opening the possibility of large-scale analysis of real-world human imaging. By its nature, such data is large and complex, making automated processing essential. This paper shows how lack of attention to the very early stages of an EEG preprocessing pipeline can reduce the signal-to-noise ratio and introduce unwanted artifacts into the data, particularly for computations done in single precision. We demonstrate that ordinary average referencing improves the signal-to-noise ratio, but that noisy channels can contaminate the results. We also show that identification of noisy channels depends on the reference and examine the complex interaction of filtering, noisy channel identification, and referencing. We introduce a multi-stage robust referencing scheme to deal with the noisy channel-reference interaction. We propose a standardized early-stage EEG processing pipeline (PREP and discuss the application of the pipeline to more than 600 EEG datasets. The pipeline includes an automatically generated report for each dataset processed. Users can download the PREP pipeline as a freely available MATLAB library from http://eegstudy.org/prepcode/.

  12. Improving the performance of streamflow forecasting model using data-preprocessing technique in Dungun River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khai Tiu, Ervin Shan; Huang, Yuk Feng; Ling, Lloyd

    2018-03-01

    An accurate streamflow forecasting model is important for the development of flood mitigation plan as to ensure sustainable development for a river basin. This study adopted Variational Mode Decomposition (VMD) data-preprocessing technique to process and denoise the rainfall data before putting into the Support Vector Machine (SVM) streamflow forecasting model in order to improve the performance of the selected model. Rainfall data and river water level data for the period of 1996-2016 were used for this purpose. Homogeneity tests (Standard Normal Homogeneity Test, the Buishand Range Test, the Pettitt Test and the Von Neumann Ratio Test) and normality tests (Shapiro-Wilk Test, Anderson-Darling Test, Lilliefors Test and Jarque-Bera Test) had been carried out on the rainfall series. Homogenous and non-normally distributed data were found in all the stations, respectively. From the recorded rainfall data, it was observed that Dungun River Basin possessed higher monthly rainfall from November to February, which was during the Northeast Monsoon. Thus, the monthly and seasonal rainfall series of this monsoon would be the main focus for this research as floods usually happen during the Northeast Monsoon period. The predicted water levels from SVM model were assessed with the observed water level using non-parametric statistical tests (Biased Method, Kendall's Tau B Test and Spearman's Rho Test).

  13. A data preprocessing strategy for metabolomics to reduce the mask effect in data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun eYang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics is a booming research field. Its success highly relies on the discovery of differential metabolites by comparing different data sets (for example, patients vs. controls. One of the challenges is that differences of the low abundant metabolites between groups are often masked by the high variation of abundant metabolites -. In order to solve this challenge, a novel data preprocessing strategy consisting of 3 steps was proposed in this study. In step 1, a ‘modified 80%’ rule was used to reduce effect of missing values; in step 2, unit-variance and Pareto scaling methods were used to reduce the mask effect from the abundant metabolites. In step 3, in order to fix the adverse effect of scaling, stability information of the variables deduced from intensity information and the class information, was used to assign suitable weights to the variables. When applying to an LC/MS based metabolomics dataset from chronic hepatitis B patients study and two simulated datasets, the mask effect was found to be partially eliminated and several new low abundant differential metabolites were rescued.

  14. An Application for Data Preprocessing and Models Extractions in Web Usage Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Elena DINUCA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Web servers worldwide generate a vast amount of information on web users’ browsing activities. Several researchers have studied these so-called clickstream or web access log data to better understand and characterize web users. The goal of this application is to analyze user behaviour by mining enriched web access log data. With the continued growth and proliferation of e-commerce, Web services, and Web-based information systems, the volumes of click stream and user data collected by Web-based organizations in their daily operations has reached astronomical proportions. This information can be exploited in various ways, such as enhancing the effectiveness of websites or developing directed web marketing campaigns. The discovered patterns are usually represented as collections of pages, objects, or re-sources that are frequently accessed by groups of users with common needs or interests. In this paper we will focus on displaying the way how it was implemented the application for data preprocessing and extracting different data models from web logs data, finding association as a data mining technique to extract potentially useful knowledge from web usage data. We find different data models navigation patterns by analysing the log files of the web-site. I implemented the application in Java using NetBeans IDE. For exemplification, I used the log files data from a commercial web site www.nice-layouts.com.

  15. A comparative analysis of pre-processing techniques in colour retinal images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvatelli, A [Artificial Intelligence Group, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios (Argentina); Bizai, G [Artificial Intelligence Group, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios (Argentina); Barbosa, G [Artificial Intelligence Group, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios (Argentina); Drozdowicz, B [Artificial Intelligence Group, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional de Entre Rios (Argentina); Delrieux, C [Electric and Computing Engineering Department, Universidad Nacional del Sur, Alem 1253, BahIa Blanca, (Partially funded by SECyT-UNS) (Argentina)], E-mail: claudio@acm.org

    2007-11-15

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a chronic disease of the ocular retina, which most of the times is only discovered when the disease is on an advanced stage and most of the damage is irreversible. For that reason, early diagnosis is paramount for avoiding the most severe consequences of the DR, of which complete blindness is not uncommon. Unsupervised or supervised image processing of retinal images emerges as a feasible tool for this diagnosis. The preprocessing stages are the key for any further assessment, since these images exhibit several defects, including non uniform illumination, sampling noise, uneven contrast due to pigmentation loss during sampling, and many others. Any feasible diagnosis system should work with images where these defects were compensated. In this work we analyze and test several correction techniques. Non uniform illumination is compensated using morphology and homomorphic filtering; uneven contrast is compensated using morphology and local enhancement. We tested our processing stages using Fuzzy C-Means, and local Hurst (self correlation) coefficient for unsupervised segmentation of the abnormal blood vessels. The results over a standard set of DR images are more than promising.

  16. Tools and databases of the KOMICS web portal for preprocessing, mining, and dissemination of metabolomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Nozomu; Ara, Takeshi; Enomoto, Mitsuo; Motegi, Takeshi; Morishita, Yoshihiko; Kurabayashi, Atsushi; Iijima, Yoko; Ogata, Yoshiyuki; Nakajima, Daisuke; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    A metabolome--the collection of comprehensive quantitative data on metabolites in an organism--has been increasingly utilized for applications such as data-intensive systems biology, disease diagnostics, biomarker discovery, and assessment of food quality. A considerable number of tools and databases have been developed to date for the analysis of data generated by various combinations of chromatography and mass spectrometry. We report here a web portal named KOMICS (The Kazusa Metabolomics Portal), where the tools and databases that we developed are available for free to academic users. KOMICS includes the tools and databases for preprocessing, mining, visualization, and publication of metabolomics data. Improvements in the annotation of unknown metabolites and dissemination of comprehensive metabolomic data are the primary aims behind the development of this portal. For this purpose, PowerGet and FragmentAlign include a manual curation function for the results of metabolite feature alignments. A metadata-specific wiki-based database, Metabolonote, functions as a hub of web resources related to the submitters' work. This feature is expected to increase citation of the submitters' work, thereby promoting data publication. As an example of the practical use of KOMICS, a workflow for a study on Jatropha curcas is presented. The tools and databases available at KOMICS should contribute to enhanced production, interpretation, and utilization of metabolomic Big Data.

  17. The PREP pipeline: standardized preprocessing for large-scale EEG analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigdely-Shamlo, Nima; Mullen, Tim; Kothe, Christian; Su, Kyung-Min; Robbins, Kay A

    2015-01-01

    The technology to collect brain imaging and physiological measures has become portable and ubiquitous, opening the possibility of large-scale analysis of real-world human imaging. By its nature, such data is large and complex, making automated processing essential. This paper shows how lack of attention to the very early stages of an EEG preprocessing pipeline can reduce the signal-to-noise ratio and introduce unwanted artifacts into the data, particularly for computations done in single precision. We demonstrate that ordinary average referencing improves the signal-to-noise ratio, but that noisy channels can contaminate the results. We also show that identification of noisy channels depends on the reference and examine the complex interaction of filtering, noisy channel identification, and referencing. We introduce a multi-stage robust referencing scheme to deal with the noisy channel-reference interaction. We propose a standardized early-stage EEG processing pipeline (PREP) and discuss the application of the pipeline to more than 600 EEG datasets. The pipeline includes an automatically generated report for each dataset processed. Users can download the PREP pipeline as a freely available MATLAB library from http://eegstudy.org/prepcode.

  18. Constant time distance queries in planar unweighted graphs with subquadratic preprocessing time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff-Nilsen, C.

    2013-01-01

    Let G be an n-vertex planar, undirected, and unweighted graph. It was stated as open problems whether the Wiener index, defined as the sum of all-pairs shortest path distances, and the diameter of G can be computed in o(n(2)) time. We show that both problems can be solved in O(n(2) log log n/log n......) time with O(n) space. The techniques that we apply allow us to build, within the same time bound, an oracle for exact distance queries in G. More generally, for any parameter S is an element of [(log n/log log n)(2), n(2/5)], distance queries can be answered in O (root S log S/log n) time per query...... with O(n(2)/root S) preprocessing time and space requirement. With respect to running time, this is better than previous algorithms when log S = o(log n). All algorithms have linear space requirement. Our results generalize to a larger class of graphs including those with a fixed excluded minor. (C) 2012...

  19. Fast data preprocessing for chromatographic fingerprints of tomato cell wall polysaccharides using chemometric methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéméner, Bernard; Bertrand, Dominique; Marty, Isabelle; Causse, Mathilde; Lahaye, Marc

    2007-02-02

    The variability in the chemistry of cell wall polysaccharides in pericarp tissue of red-ripe tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicon Mill.) was characterized by chemical methods and enzymatic degradations coupled to high performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) and mass spectrometry analysis. Large fruited line, Levovil (LEV) carrying introgressed chromosome fragments from a cherry tomato line Cervil (CER) on chromosomes 4 (LC4), 9 (LC9), or on chromosomes 1, 2, 4 and 9 (LCX) and containing quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for texture traits, was studied. In order to differentiate cell wall polysaccharide modifications in the tomato fruit collection by multivariate analysis, chromatograms were corrected for baseline drift and shift of the component elution time using an approach derived from image analysis and mathematical morphology. The baseline was first corrected by using a "moving window" approach while the peak-matching method developed was based upon location of peaks as local maxima within a window of a definite size. The fast chromatographic data preprocessing proposed was a prerequisite for the different chemometric treatments, such as variance and principal component analysis applied herein to the analysis. Applied to the tomato collection, the combined enzymatic degradations and HPAEC analyses revealed that the firm LCX and CER genotypes showed a higher proportion of glucuronoxylans and pectic arabinan side chains while the mealy LC9 genotype demonstrated the highest content of pectic galactan side chains. QTLs on tomato chromosomes 1, 2, 4 and 9 contain important genes controlling glucuronoxylan and pectic neutral side chains biosynthesis and/or metabolism.

  20. Min st-cut oracle for planar graphs with near-linear preprocessing time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borradaile, Glencora; Sankowski, Piotr; Wulff-Nilsen, Christian

    2010-01-01

    For an undirected n-vertex planar graph G with non-negative edge-weights, we consider the following type of query: given two vertices s and t in G, what is the weight of a min st-cut in G? We show how to answer such queries in constant time with O(n log5 n) preprocessing time and O(n log n) space....... We use a Gomory-Hu tree to represent all the pairwise min st-cuts implicitly. Previously, no subquadratic time algorithm was known for this problem. Our oracle can be extended to report the min st-cuts in time proportional to their size. Since all-pairs min st-cut and the minimum cycle basis are dual...... problems in planar graphs, we also obtain an implicit representation of a minimum cycle basis in O(n log5 n) time and O(n log n) space and an explicit representation with additional O(C) time and space where C is the size of the basis. To obtain our results, we require that shortest paths be unique...

  1. Ontological confusions but not mentalizing abilities predict religious belief, paranormal belief, and belief in supernatural purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Svedholm-Häkkinen, Annika M; Lipsanen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    The current research tested the hypothesis that the abilities for understanding other people's minds give rise to the cognitive biases that underlie supernatural beliefs. We used structural equation modeling (N=2789) to determine the roles of various mentalizing tendencies, namely self-reported affective and cognitive empathy (i.e., mind reading), actual cognitive and affective empathic abilities, hyper-empathizing, and two cognitive biases (core ontological confusions and promiscuous teleology) in giving rise to supernatural beliefs. Support for a path from mentalizing abilities through cognitive biases to supernatural beliefs was weak. The relationships of mentalizing abilities with supernatural beliefs were also weak, and these relationships were not substantially mediated by cognitive biases. Core ontological confusions emerged as the best predictor, while promiscuous teleology predicted only a small proportion of variance. The results were similar for religious beliefs, paranormal beliefs, and for belief in supernatural purpose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Linguistic confusion in economics: utility, causality, product differentiation, and the supply of natural resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, J L

    1982-01-01

    Lack of careful attention to the language used in the discussion of economic concepts has resulted in considerable confusion and error. 2 frequent sources of confusion include tautology and the absence of operational definitions of concepts. This paper outlines a more effective scientific practice through reference to 2 economic examples: 1) the concept of utility, where it is demonstrated that choice of an operational definition of the concept facilitates interpersonal comparisons; and 2) causality, where a multidimensional operational definition is needed to discriminate among the various meanings of the term in theoretical, empirical, and policy contexts. The paper further discusses the example of natural resource scarcity, where application of the term "finite" reveals that there is no empirical evidence of physical limits to growth in the use of resources. A more appropriate measure of scarcity is the economic concept of price.

  3. Autonomous technology - sources of confusion: a model for explanation and prediction of conceptual shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensson, Patrik; Jansson, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Today, autonomous is often used for technology with a more intelligent self-management capability than common automation. This concept usage is maladaptive, ignoring both the distinction between autonomy and heteronomy according to Kant's categorical imperative and that the meaning of autonomy implies qualities technology cannot have. Being autonomous is about having the right to be wrong, a right justified by accountability and insightful understanding of real-life values, and it is about being externally uncontrollable. The contemporary use of autonomy as well as similar concepts is discussed and a model is presented showing how six sources of confusion interact in a vicious circle that impede human authority and autonomy. Our goal is to sort out these confusions and contribute to a development in which the different roles of machines and people, and human responsibilities, are explicated rather than blurred, which should facilitate the forming of truly beneficial and complementary systems.

  4. Dyscalculia, Dysgraphia, and Left-Right Confusion from a Left Posterior Peri-Insular Infarct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhattacharyya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.

  5. Impact of Economic Hardship and Financial Threat on Suicide Ideation and Confusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiksenbaum, Lisa; Marjanovic, Zdravko; Greenglass, Esther; Garcia-Santos, Francisco

    2017-07-04

    The present study tested the extent to which perceived economic hardship is associated with psychological distress (suicide ideation and confusion) after controlling for personal characteristics. It also explored whether perceived financial threat (i.e., fearful anxious-uncertainty about the stability and security of one's personal financial situation) mediates the relationship between economic hardship and psychological distress outcomes. The theoretical model was tested in a sample of Canadian students (n = 211) and was validated in a community sample of employed Portuguese adults (n = 161). In both samples, the fit of the model was good. Parameter estimates indicated that greater experience of economic hardship increased with financial threat, which in turn increased with levels of suicide ideation and confusion. We discuss the practical implications of these results, such as for programs aimed at alleviating the burden of financial hardship, in our concluding remarks.

  6. Dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion from a left posterior peri-insular infarct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, S; Cai, X; Klein, J P

    2014-01-01

    The Gerstmann syndrome of dyscalculia, dysgraphia, left-right confusion, and finger agnosia is generally attributed to lesions near the angular gyrus of the dominant hemisphere. A 68-year-old right-handed woman presented with sudden difficulty completing a Sudoku grid and was found to have dyscalculia, dysgraphia, and left-right confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a focus of abnormal reduced diffusivity in the left posterior insula and temporoparietal operculum consistent with acute infarct. Gerstmann syndrome from an insular or peri-insular lesion has not been described in the literature previously. Pathological and functional imaging studies show connections between left posterior insular region and inferior parietal lobe. We postulate that the insula and operculum lesion disrupted key functional networks resulting in a pseudoparietal presentation.

  7. Categorical Confusion? The Strategic Implications of Recognizing Challenges Either as Irregular or Traditional

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    strategies, and even tactics, were seriously flawed systemically. But the urge to categorize and clarify, after the fashion of Victorian entomologists...strategic think- ing today is a confused jumble of briefly fashionable buzzwords of uncertain authority or merit. This con- 2 fusion of ideas rests and...concep- tual subject permits. 1. Clarity in definition matters greatly. It may be fashionable and expedient to deploy fuzzy blurring descriptors like

  8. Psychometric properties of the Flemish translation of the NEECHAM Confusion Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Ivo L

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Determination of a patient's cognitive status by use of a valid and reliable screening instrument is of major importance as early recognition and accurate diagnosis of delirium is necessary for effective management. This study determined the reliability, validity and diagnostic value of the Flemish translation of the NEECHAM Confusion Scale. Methods A sample of 54 elderly hip fracture patients with a mean age of 80.9 years (SD = 7.85 were included. To test the psychometric properties of the NEECHAM Confusion Scale, performance on the NEECHAM was compared to the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, by using aggregated data based on 5 data collection measurement points (repeated measures. The CAM and MMSE served as gold standards. Results The alpha coefficient for the total NEECHAM score was high (0.88. Principal components analysis yielded a two-component solution accounting for 70.8% of the total variance. High correlations were found between the total NEECHAM scores and total MMSE (0.75 and total CAM severity scores (-0.73, respectively. Diagnostic values using the CAM algorithm as gold standard showed 76.9% sensitivity, 64.6% specificity, 13.5% positive and 97.5% negative predictive values, respectively. Conclusion This validation of the Flemish version of the NEECHAM Confusion Scale adds to previous evidence suggesting that this scale holds promise as a valuable screening instrument for delirium in clinical practice. Further validation studies in diverse clinical populations; however, are needed.

  9. Vowel identity between note labels confuses pitch identification in non-absolute pitch possessors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Brancucci

    Full Text Available The simplest and likeliest assumption concerning the cognitive bases of absolute pitch (AP is that at its origin there is a particularly skilled function which matches the height of the perceived pitch to the verbal label of the musical tone. Since there is no difference in sound frequency resolution between AP and non-AP (NAP musicians, the hypothesis of the present study is that the failure of NAP musicians in pitch identification relies mainly in an inability to retrieve the correct verbal label to be assigned to the perceived musical note. The primary hypothesis is that, when asked to identify tones, NAP musicians confuse the verbal labels to be attached to the stimulus on the basis of their phonetic content. Data from two AP tests are reported, in which subjects had to respond in the presence or in the absence of visually presented verbal note labels (fixed Do solmization. Results show that NAP musicians confuse more frequently notes having a similar vowel in the note label. They tend to confuse e.g. a 261 Hz tone (Do more often with Sol than, e.g., with La. As a second goal, we wondered whether this effect is lateralized, i.e. whether one hemisphere is more responsible than the other in the confusion of notes with similar labels. This question was addressed by observing pitch identification during dichotic listening. Results showed that there is a right hemispheric disadvantage, in NAP but not AP musicians, in the retrieval of the verbal label to be assigned to the perceived pitch. The present results indicate that absolute pitch has strong verbal bases, at least from a cognitive point of view.

  10. TREATMENT PLANNING, PACING, AND COUNTERTRANSFERENCE: PERSPECTIVES ON THE PSYCHOTHERAPY OF EARLY AFFECT-CONFUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Erskine

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a rejoinder and elaboration on the article “Early Affect-Confusion: The ‘Borderline’ Between Despair and Rage: Part 1 of a Case Study Trilogy” and addresses the distinction between personality style, pattern, and disorder. It describes the pacing of a time-limited psychotherapy, the use of phenomenological inquiry in resolving transferential enactments, and the psychological function of idealization.

  11. A Rare Cause of Confusion: Steroid-Responsive Encephalopathy Associated with Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Virginia Gonzalez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An 81-year-old female patient required numerous admissions for symptoms of confusion, visual hallucinations, myoclonus and seizures, which were treated as stroke, infections and viral encephalitis with some improvement after treatment but with recurrence that caused her to be readmitted to hospital. On the last admission, she was found to have very high antithyroid antibodies and a diagnosis of Hashimoto’s encephalopathy was made, with an overwhelming response to steroids.

  12. Preparation to care for confused older patients in general hospitals: a study of UK health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Amanda; Knight, Alec; Harwood, Rowan; Gladman, John R F

    2014-07-01

    in the UK, two-thirds of patients in general hospitals are older than 70, of whom half have dementia or delirium or both. Our objective was to explore doctors, nurses and allied health professionals' perceptions of their preparation to care for confused older patients on general hospital wards. : using a quota sampling strategy across 11 medical, geriatric and orthopaedic wards in a British teaching hospital, we conducted 60 semi-structured interviews with doctors, nurses and allied healthcare professionals and analysed the data using the Consensual Qualitative Research approach. : there was consensus among participants that education, induction and in-service training left them inadequately prepared and under-confident to care for confused older patients. Many doctors reported initial assessments of confused older patients as difficult. They admitted inadequate knowledge of mental health disorders, including the diagnostic features of delirium and dementia. Handling agitation and aggression were considered top priorities for training, particularly for nurses. Multidisciplinary team meetings were highly valued but were reported as too infrequent. Participants valued specialist input but reported difficulties gaining such support. Communication with confused patients was regarded as particularly challenging, both in terms of patients making their needs known, and staff conveying information to patients. Participants reported emotional and behavioural responses including frustration, stress, empathy, avoidance and low job satisfaction. : our findings indicate that a revision of training across healthcare professions in the UK is required, and that increased specialist support should be provided, so that the workforce is properly prepared to care for older patients with cognitive problems. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  13. Productive confusions: learning from simulations of pandemic virus outbreaks in Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Micha; Greci, Laura S.; Hurst, Samantha; Garman, Karen; Hoffman, Helene; Huang, Ricky; Gates, Michael; Kho, Kristen; Mehrmand, Elle; Porteous, Todd; Calvitti, Alan; Higginbotham, Erin; Agha, Zia

    2011-03-01

    Users of immersive virtual reality environments have reported a wide variety of side and after effects including the confusion of characteristics of the real and virtual worlds. Perhaps this side effect of confusing the virtual and real can be turned around to explore the possibilities for immersion with minimal technological support in virtual world group training simulations. This paper will describe observations from my time working as an artist/researcher with the UCSD School of Medicine (SoM) and Veterans Administration San Diego Healthcare System (VASDHS) to develop trainings for nurses, doctors and Hospital Incident Command staff that simulate pandemic virus outbreaks. By examining moments of slippage between realities, both into and out of the virtual environment, moments of the confusion of boundaries between real and virtual, we can better understand methods for creating immersion. I will use the mixing of realities as a transversal line of inquiry, borrowing from virtual reality studies, game studies, and anthropological studies to better understand the mechanisms of immersion in virtual worlds. Focusing on drills conducted in Second Life, I will examine moments of training to learn the software interface, moments within the drill and interviews after the drill.

  14. Derivation of Color Confusion Lines for Pseudo-Dichromat Observers from Color Discrimination Thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahiro Matsudaira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to develop a method of defining color confusion lines in the display RGB color space through color discrimination tasks. In the experiment, reference and test square patches were presented side by side on a CRT display. The subject's task is to set the test color where the color difference from the reference is just noticeable to him/her. In a single trial, the test color was only adjustable along one of 26 directions around the reference. Thus 26 colors with just noticeable difference (JND were obtained and made up a tube-like or an ellipsoidal shape around each reference. With color-anomalous subjects, the major axes of these shapes should be parallel to color confusion lines that have a common orientation vector corresponding to one of the cone excitation axes L, M, or S. In our method, the orientation vector was determined by minimizing the sum of the squares of the distances from JND colors to each confusion line. To assess the performance the method, the orientation vectors obtained by pseudo-dichromats (color normal observers with a dichromat simulator were compared to those theoretically calculated from the color vision model used in the simulator.

  15. Substituted amylose matrices for oral drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghadam, S H; Wang, H W; El-Leithy, E Saddar; Chebli, C; Cartilier, L

    2007-01-01

    High amylose corn starch was used to obtain substituted amylose (SA) polymers by chemically modifying hydroxyl groups by an etherification process using 1,2-epoxypropanol. Tablets for drug-controlled release were prepared by direct compression and their release properties assessed by an in vitro dissolution test (USP XXIII no 2). The polymer swelling was characterized by measuring gravimetrically the water uptake ability of polymer tablets. SA hydrophilic matrix tablets present sequentially a burst effect, typical of hydrophilic matrices, and a near constant release, typical of reservoir systems. After the burst effect, surface pores disappear progressively by molecular association of amylose chains; this allows the creation of a polymer layer acting as a diffusion barrier and explains the peculiar behaviour of SA polymers. Several formulation parameters such as compression force, drug loading, tablet weight and insoluble diluent concentration were investigated. On the other hand, tablet thickness, scanning electron microscope analysis and mercury intrusion porosimetry showed that the high crushing strength values observed for SA tablets were due to an unusual melting process occurring during tabletting although the tablet external layer went only through densification, deformation and partial melting. In contrast, HPMC tablets did not show any traces of a melting process

  16. LIBS analysis of artificial calcified tissues matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasem, M A; Gonzalez, J J; Russo, R E; Harith, M A

    2013-04-15

    In most laser-based analytical methods, the reproducibility of quantitative measurements strongly depends on maintaining uniform and stable experimental conditions. For LIBS analysis this means that for accurate estimation of elemental concentration, using the calibration curves obtained from reference samples, the plasma parameters have to be kept as constant as possible. In addition, calcified tissues such as bone are normally less "tough" in their texture than many samples, especially metals. Thus, the ablation process could change the sample morphological features rapidly, and result in poor reproducibility statistics. In the present work, three artificial reference sample sets have been fabricated. These samples represent three different calcium based matrices, CaCO3 matrix, bone ash matrix and Ca hydroxyapatite matrix. A comparative study of UV (266 nm) and IR (1064 nm) LIBS for these three sets of samples has been performed under similar experimental conditions for the two systems (laser energy, spot size, repetition rate, irradiance, etc.) to examine the wavelength effect. The analytical results demonstrated that UV-LIBS has improved reproducibility, precision, stable plasma conditions, better linear fitting, and the reduction of matrix effects. Bone ash could be used as a suitable standard reference material for calcified tissue calibration using LIBS with a 266 nm excitation wavelength. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Neutrino mass matrices with vanishing determinant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Bhag C.; Pulido, Joao; Picariello, Marco

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the prospects for neutrinoless double beta decay, texture zeros. and equalities between neutrino mass matrix elements in scenarios with vanishing determinant mass matrices for vanishing and finite θ 13 mixing angles in normal and inverse mass hierarchies. For normal hierarchy and both zero and finite θ 13 it is found that neutrinoless double beta decay cannot be observed by any of the present or next generation experiments, while for inverse hierarchy it is, on the contrary, accessible to experiments. Regarding texture zeros and equalities between mass matrix elements, we find that in both normal and inverse hierarchies with θ 13 =0 no texture zeros nor any such equalities can exist apart from the obvious ones. For θ 13 ≠0 some texture zeros become possible. In normal hierarchy two texture zeros occur if 8.1x10 -2 ≤sinθ 13 ≤9.1x10 -2 while in inverse hierarchy three are possible, one with sinθ 13 ≥7x10 -3 and two others with sinθ 13 ≥0.18. All equalities between mass matrix elements are impossible with θ 13 ≠0

  18. Calculating scattering matrices by wave function matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwierzycki, M.; Khomyakov, P.A.; Starikov, A.A.; Talanana, M.; Xu, P.X.; Karpan, V.M.; Marushchenko, I.; Brocks, G.; Kelly, P.J.; Xia, K.; Turek, I.; Bauer, G.E.W.

    2008-01-01

    The conductance of nanoscale structures can be conveniently related to their scattering properties expressed in terms of transmission and reflection coefficients. Wave function matching (WFM) is a transparent technique for calculating transmission and reflection matrices for any Hamiltonian that can be represented in tight-binding form. A first-principles Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian represented on a localized orbital basis or on a real space grid has such a form. WFM is based upon direct matching of the scattering-region wave function to the Bloch modes of ideal leads used to probe the scattering region. The purpose of this paper is to give a pedagogical introduction to WFM and present some illustrative examples of its use in practice. We briefly discuss WFM for calculating the conductance of atomic wires, using a real space grid implementation. A tight-binding muffin-tin orbital implementation very suitable for studying spin-dependent transport in layered magnetic materials is illustrated by looking at spin-dependent transmission through ideal and disordered interfaces. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Probing the Topology of Density Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles-Edouard Bardyn

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The mixedness of a quantum state is usually seen as an adversary to topological quantization of observables. For example, exact quantization of the charge transported in a so-called Thouless adiabatic pump is lifted at any finite temperature in symmetry-protected topological insulators. Here, we show that certain directly observable many-body correlators preserve the integrity of topological invariants for mixed Gaussian quantum states in one dimension. Our approach relies on the expectation value of the many-body momentum-translation operator and leads to a physical observable—the “ensemble geometric phase” (EGP—which represents a bona fide geometric phase for mixed quantum states, in the thermodynamic limit. In cyclic protocols, the EGP provides a topologically quantized observable that detects encircled spectral singularities (“purity-gap” closing points of density matrices. While we identify the many-body nature of the EGP as a key ingredient, we propose a conceptually simple, interferometric setup to directly measure the latter in experiments with mesoscopic ensembles of ultracold atoms.

  20. Visualizing complex (hydrological) systems with correlation matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, J. C.

    2016-12-01

    When trying to understand or visualize the connections of different aspects of a complex system, this often requires deeper understanding to start with, or - in the case of geo data - complicated GIS software. To our knowledge, correlation matrices have rarely been used in hydrology (e.g. Stoll et al., 2011; van Loon and Laaha, 2015), yet they do provide an interesting option for data visualization and analysis. We present a simple, python based way - using a river catchment as an example - to visualize correlations and similarities in an easy and colorful way. We apply existing and easy to use python packages from various disciplines not necessarily linked to the Earth sciences and can thus quickly show how different aquifers work or react, and identify outliers, enabling this system to also be used for quality control of large datasets. Going beyond earlier work, we add a temporal and spatial element, enabling us to visualize how a system reacts to local phenomena such as for example a river, or changes over time, by visualizing the passing of time in an animated movie. References: van Loon, A.F., Laaha, G.: Hydrological drought severity explained by climate and catchment characteristics, Journal of Hydrology 526, 3-14, 2015, Drought processes, modeling, and mitigation Stoll, S., Hendricks Franssen, H. J., Barthel, R., Kinzelbach, W.: What can we learn from long-term groundwater data to improve climate change impact studies?, Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 15(12), 3861-3875, 2011

  1. Decellularized matrices for cardiovascular tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Francesco; Mirabella, Teodelinda

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death in the Western world. The replacement of damaged vessels and valves has been practiced since the 1950's. Synthetic grafts, usually made of bio-inert materials, are long-lasting and mechanically relevant, but fail when it comes to "biointegration". Decellularized matrices, instead, can be considered biological grafts capable of stimulating in vivo migration and proliferation of endothelial cells (ECs), recruitment and differentiation of mural cells, finally, culminating in the formation of a biointegrated tissue. Decellularization protocols employ osmotic shock, ionic and non-ionic detergents, proteolitic digestions and DNase/RNase treatments; most of them effectively eliminate the cellular component, but show limitations in preserving the native structure of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In this review, we examine the current state of the art relative to decellularization techniques and biological performance of decellularized heart, valves and big vessels. Furthermore, we focus on the relevance of ECM components, native and resulting from decellularization, in mediating in vivo host response and determining repair and regeneration, as opposed to graft corruption.

  2. On some Toeplitz matrices and their inversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dutta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, using the difference operator B(a[m], we introduce a lower triangular Toeplitz matrix T which includes several difference matrices such as Δ(1,Δ(m,B(r,s,B(r,s,t, and B(r̃,s̃,t̃,ũ in different special cases. For any x ∈ w and m∈N0={0,1,2,…}, the difference operator B(a[m] is defined by (B(a[m]xk=ak(0xk+ak-1(1xk-1+ak-2(2xk-2+⋯+ak-m(mxk-m,(k∈N0 where a[m] = {a(0, a(1, …, a(m} and a(i = (ak(i for 0 ⩽ i ⩽ m are convergent sequences of real numbers. We use the convention that any term with negative subscript is equal to zero. The main results of this article relate to the determination and applications of the inverse of the Toeplitz matrix T.

  3. lop-DWI: A Novel Scheme for Pre-Processing of Diffusion-Weighted Images in the Gradient Direction Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehrband, Farshid; Choupan, Jeiran; Caruyer, Emmanuel; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Gal, Yaniv; Tieng, Quang M; McMahon, Katie L; Vegh, Viktor; Reutens, David C; Yang, Zhengyi

    2014-01-01

    We describe and evaluate a pre-processing method based on a periodic spiral sampling of diffusion-gradient directions for high angular resolution diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. Our pre-processing method incorporates prior knowledge about the acquired diffusion-weighted signal, facilitating noise reduction. Periodic spiral sampling of gradient direction encodings results in an acquired signal in each voxel that is pseudo-periodic with characteristics that allow separation of low-frequency signal from high frequency noise. Consequently, it enhances local reconstruction of the orientation distribution function used to define fiber tracks in the brain. Denoising with periodic spiral sampling was tested using synthetic data and in vivo human brain images. The level of improvement in signal-to-noise ratio and in the accuracy of local reconstruction of fiber tracks was significantly improved using our method.

  4. PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS OF DATA PREPROCESSING AND GEOSPATIAL MEASURES FOR OPTIMIZING THE NEUROLOGICAL AND OTHER PEDIATRIC EMERGENCIES MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionela MANIU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Time management, optimal and timed determination of emergency severity as well as optimizing the use of available human and material resources are crucial areas of emergency services. A starting point for achieving these optimizations can be considered the analysis and preprocess of real data from the emergency services. The benefits of performing this method consist in exposing more useful structures to data modelling algorithms which consequently will reduce overfitting and improves accuracy. This paper aims to offer practical recommendations for data preprocessing measures including feature selection and discretization of numeric attributes regarding age, duration of the case, season, period, week period (workday, weekend and geospatial location of neurological and other pediatric emergencies. An analytical, retrospective study was conducted on a sample consisting of 933 pediatric cases, from UPU-SMURD Sibiu, 01.01.2014 – 27.02.2017 period.

  5. Novel low-power ultrasound digital preprocessing architecture for wireless display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Philippe; Sawan, Mohamad

    2010-03-01

    A complete hardware-based ultrasound preprocessing unit (PPU) is presented as an alternative to available power-hungry devices. Intended to expand the ultrasonic applications, the proposed unit allows replacement of the cable of the ultrasonic probe by a wireless link to transfer data from the probe to a remote monitor. The digital back-end architecture of this PPU is fully pipelined, which permits sampling of ultrasonic signals at a frequency equal to the field-programmable gate array-based system clock, up to 100 MHz. Experimental results show that the proposed processing unit has an excellent performance, an equivalent 53.15 Dhrystone 2.1 MIPS/ MHz (DMIPS/MHz), compared with other software-based architectures that allow a maximum of 1.6 DMIPS/MHz. In addition, an adaptive subsampling method is proposed to operate the pixel compressor, which allows real-time image zooming and, by removing high-frequency noise, the lateral and axial resolutions are enhanced by 25% and 33%, respectively. Realtime images, acquired from a reference phantom, validated the feasibility of the proposed architecture. For a display rate of 15 frames per second, and a 5-MHz single-element piezoelectric transducer, the proposed digital PPU requires a dynamic power of only 242 mW, which represents around 20% of the best-available software-based system. Furthermore, composed by the ultrasound processor and the image interpolation unit, the digital processing core of the PPU presents good power-performance ratios of 26 DMIPS/mW and 43.9 DMIPS/mW at a 20-MHz and 100-MHz sample frequency, respectively.

  6. Joint Preprocesser-Based Detectors for One-Way and Two-Way Cooperative Communication Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Abuzaid, Abdulrahman I.

    2014-05-01

    Efficient receiver designs for cooperative communication networks are becoming increasingly important. In previous work, cooperative networks communicated with the use of L relays. As the receiver is constrained, channel shortening and reduced-rank techniques were employed to design the preprocessing matrix that reduces the length of the received vector from L to U. In the first part of the work, a receiver structure is proposed which combines our proposed threshold selection criteria with the joint iterative optimization (JIO) algorithm that is based on the mean square error (MSE). Our receiver assists in determining the optimal U. Furthermore, this receiver provides the freedom to choose U for each frame depending on the tolerable difference allowed for MSE. Our study and simulation results show that by choosing an appropriate threshold, it is possible to gain in terms of complexity savings while having no or minimal effect on the BER performance of the system. Furthermore, the effect of channel estimation on the performance of the cooperative system is investigated. In the second part of the work, a joint preprocessor-based detector for cooperative communication networks is proposed for one-way and two-way relaying. This joint preprocessor-based detector operates on the principles of minimizing the symbol error rate (SER) instead of minimizing MSE. For a realistic assessment, pilot symbols are used to estimate the channel. From our simulations, it can be observed that our proposed detector achieves the same SER performance as that of the maximum likelihood (ML) detector with all participating relays. Additionally, our detector outperforms selection combining (SC), channel shortening (CS) scheme and reduced-rank techniques when using the same U. Finally, our proposed scheme has the lowest computational complexity.

  7. Hardware Design and Implementation of a Wavelet De-Noising Procedure for Medical Signal Preprocessing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szi-Wen Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a discrete wavelet transform (DWT based de-noising with its applications into the noise reduction for medical signal preprocessing is introduced. This work focuses on the hardware realization of a real-time wavelet de-noising procedure. The proposed de-noising circuit mainly consists of three modules: a DWT, a thresholding, and an inverse DWT (IDWT modular circuits. We also proposed a novel adaptive thresholding scheme and incorporated it into our wavelet de-noising procedure. Performance was then evaluated on both the architectural designs of the software and. In addition, the de-noising circuit was also implemented by downloading the Verilog codes to a field programmable gate array (FPGA based platform so that its ability in noise reduction may be further validated in actual practice. Simulation experiment results produced by applying a set of simulated noise-contaminated electrocardiogram (ECG signals into the de-noising circuit showed that the circuit could not only desirably meet the requirement of real-time processing, but also achieve satisfactory performance for noise reduction, while the sharp features of the ECG signals can be well preserved. The proposed de-noising circuit was further synthesized using the Synopsys Design Compiler with an Artisan Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC, Hsinchu, Taiwan 40 nm standard cell library. The integrated circuit (IC synthesis simulation results showed that the proposed design can achieve a clock frequency of 200 MHz and the power consumption was only 17.4 mW, when operated at 200 MHz.

  8. Hardware design and implementation of a wavelet de-noising procedure for medical signal preprocessing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szi-Wen; Chen, Yuan-Ho

    2015-10-16

    In this paper, a discrete wavelet transform (DWT) based de-noising with its applications into the noise reduction for medical signal preprocessing is introduced. This work focuses on the hardware realization of a real-time wavelet de-noising procedure. The proposed de-noising circuit mainly consists of three modules: a DWT, a thresholding, and an inverse DWT (IDWT) modular circuits. We also proposed a novel adaptive thresholding scheme and incorporated it into our wavelet de-noising procedure. Performance was then evaluated on both the architectural designs of the software and. In addition, the de-noising circuit was also implemented by downloading the Verilog codes to a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based platform so that its ability in noise reduction may be further validated in actual practice. Simulation experiment results produced by applying a set of simulated noise-contaminated electrocardiogram (ECG) signals into the de-noising circuit showed that the circuit could not only desirably meet the requirement of real-time processing, but also achieve satisfactory performance for noise reduction, while the sharp features of the ECG signals can be well preserved. The proposed de-noising circuit was further synthesized using the Synopsys Design Compiler with an Artisan Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC, Hsinchu, Taiwan) 40 nm standard cell library. The integrated circuit (IC) synthesis simulation results showed that the proposed design can achieve a clock frequency of 200 MHz and the power consumption was only 17.4 mW, when operated at 200 MHz.

  9. Preprocessing of gravity gradients at the GOCE high-level processing facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, Johannes; Rispens, Sietse; Gruber, Thomas; Koop, Radboud; Schrama, Ernst; Visser, Pieter; Tscherning, Carl Christian; Veicherts, Martin

    2009-07-01

    One of the products derived from the gravity field and steady-state ocean circulation explorer (GOCE) observations are the gravity gradients. These gravity gradients are provided in the gradiometer reference frame (GRF) and are calibrated in-flight using satellite shaking and star sensor data. To use these gravity gradients for application in Earth scienes and gravity field analysis, additional preprocessing needs to be done, including corrections for temporal gravity field signals to isolate the static gravity field part, screening for outliers, calibration by comparison with existing external gravity field information and error assessment. The temporal gravity gradient corrections consist of tidal and nontidal corrections. These are all generally below the gravity gradient error level, which is predicted to show a 1/ f behaviour for low frequencies. In the outlier detection, the 1/ f error is compensated for by subtracting a local median from the data, while the data error is assessed using the median absolute deviation. The local median acts as a high-pass filter and it is robust as is the median absolute deviation. Three different methods have been implemented for the calibration of the gravity gradients. All three methods use a high-pass filter to compensate for the 1/ f gravity gradient error. The baseline method uses state-of-the-art global gravity field models and the most accurate results are obtained if star sensor misalignments are estimated along with the calibration parameters. A second calibration method uses GOCE GPS data to estimate a low-degree gravity field model as well as gravity gradient scale factors. Both methods allow to estimate gravity gradient scale factors down to the 10-3 level. The third calibration method uses high accurate terrestrial gravity data in selected regions to validate the gravity gradient scale factors, focussing on the measurement band. Gravity gradient scale factors may be estimated down to the 10-2 level with this

  10. Impact of functional MRI data preprocessing pipeline on default-mode network detectability in patients with disorders of consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eAndronache

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available An emerging application of resting-state functional MRI is the study of patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC, where integrity of default-mode network (DMN activity is associated to the clinical level of preservation of consciousness. Due to the inherent inability to follow verbal instructions, arousal induced by scanning noise and postural pain, these patients tend to exhibit substantial levels of movement. This results in spurious, non-neural fluctuations of the blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD signal, which impair the evaluation of residual functional connectivity. Here, the effect of data preprocessing choices on the detectability of the DMN was systematically evaluated in a representative cohort of 30 clinically and etiologically heterogeneous DoC patients and 33 healthy controls. Starting from a standard preprocessing pipeline, additional steps were gradually inserted, namely band-pass filtering, removal of co-variance with the movement vectors, removal of co-variance with the global brain parenchyma signal, rejection of realignment outlier volumes and ventricle masking. Both independent-component analysis (ICA and seed-based analysis (SBA were performed, and DMN detectability was assessed quantitatively as well as visually. The results of the present study strongly show that the detection of DMN activity in the sub-optimal fMRI series acquired on DoC patients is contingent on the use of adequate filtering steps. ICA and SBA are differently affected but give convergent findings for high-grade preprocessing. We propose that future studies in this area should adopt the described preprocessing procedures as a minimum standard to reduce the probability of wrongly inferring that DMN activity is absent.

  11. Integrated fMRI Preprocessing Framework Using Extended Kalman Filter for Estimation of Slice-Wise Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Basile Pinsard; Basile Pinsard; Basile Pinsard; Arnaud Boutin; Arnaud Boutin; Julien Doyon; Julien Doyon; Habib Benali; Habib Benali; Habib Benali

    2018-01-01

    Functional MRI acquisition is sensitive to subjects' motion that cannot be fully constrained. Therefore, signal corrections have to be applied a posteriori in order to mitigate the complex interactions between changing tissue localization and magnetic fields, gradients and readouts. To circumvent current preprocessing strategies limitations, we developed an integrated method that correct motion and spatial low-frequency intensity fluctuations at the level of each slice in order to better fit ...

  12. TargetSearch - a Bioconductor package for the efficient preprocessing of GC-MS metabolite profiling data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Metabolite profiling, the simultaneous quantification of multiple metabolites in an experiment, is becoming increasingly popular, particularly with the rise of systems-level biology. The workhorse in this field is gas-chromatography hyphenated with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The high-throughput of this technology coupled with a demand for large experiments has led to data pre-processing, i.e. the quantification of metabolites across samples, becoming a major bottleneck. Existing software has several limitations, including restricted maximum sample size, systematic errors and low flexibility. However, the biggest limitation is that the resulting data usually require extensive hand-curation, which is subjective and can typically take several days to weeks. Results We introduce the TargetSearch package, an open source tool which is a flexible and accurate method for pre-processing even very large numbers of GC-MS samples within hours. We developed a novel strategy to iteratively correct and update retention time indices for searching and identifying metabolites. The package is written in the R programming language with computationally intensive functions written in C for speed and performance. The package includes a graphical user interface to allow easy use by those unfamiliar with R. Conclusions TargetSearch allows fast and accurate data pre-processing for GC-MS experiments and overcomes the sample number limitations and manual curation requirements of existing software. We validate our method by carrying out an analysis against both a set of known chemical standard mixtures and of a biological experiment. In addition we demonstrate its capabilities and speed by comparing it with other GC-MS pre-processing tools. We believe this package will greatly ease current bottlenecks and facilitate the analysis of metabolic profiling data. PMID:20015393

  13. TargetSearch - a Bioconductor package for the efficient preprocessing of GC-MS metabolite profiling data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisec Jan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metabolite profiling, the simultaneous quantification of multiple metabolites in an experiment, is becoming increasingly popular, particularly with the rise of systems-level biology. The workhorse in this field is gas-chromatography hyphenated with mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The high-throughput of this technology coupled with a demand for large experiments has led to data pre-processing, i.e. the quantification of metabolites across samples, becoming a major bottleneck. Existing software has several limitations, including restricted maximum sample size, systematic errors and low flexibility. However, the biggest limitation is that the resulting data usually require extensive hand-curation, which is subjective and can typically take several days to weeks. Results We introduce the TargetSearch package, an open source tool which is a flexible and accurate method for pre-processing even very large numbers of GC-MS samples within hours. We developed a novel strategy to iteratively correct and update retention time indices for searching and identifying metabolites. The package is written in the R programming language with computationally intensive functions written in C for speed and performance. The package includes a graphical user interface to allow easy use by those unfamiliar with R. Conclusions TargetSearch allows fast and accurate data pre-processing for GC-MS experiments and overcomes the sample number limitations and manual curation requirements of existing software. We validate our method by carrying out an analysis against both a set of known chemical standard mixtures and of a biological experiment. In addition we demonstrate its capabilities and speed by comparing it with other GC-MS pre-processing tools. We believe this package will greatly ease current bottlenecks and facilitate the analysis of metabolic profiling data.

  14. TargetSearch--a Bioconductor package for the efficient preprocessing of GC-MS metabolite profiling data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadros-Inostroza, Alvaro; Caldana, Camila; Redestig, Henning; Kusano, Miyako; Lisec, Jan; Peña-Cortés, Hugo; Willmitzer, Lothar; Hannah, Matthew A

    2009-12-16

    Metabolite profiling, the simultaneous quantification of multiple metabolites in an experiment, is becoming increasingly popular, particularly with the rise of systems-level biology. The workhorse in this field is gas-chromatography hyphenated with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The high-throughput of this technology coupled with a demand for large experiments has led to data pre-processing, i.e. the quantification of metabolites across samples, becoming a major bottleneck. Existing software has several limitations, including restricted maximum sample size, systematic errors and low flexibility. However, the biggest limitation is that the resulting data usually require extensive hand-curation, which is subjective and can typically take several days to weeks. We introduce the TargetSearch package, an open source tool which is a flexible and accurate method for pre-processing even very large numbers of GC-MS samples within hours. We developed a novel strategy to iteratively correct and update retention time indices for searching and identifying metabolites. The package is written in the R programming language with computationally intensive functions written in C for speed and performance. The package includes a graphical user interface to allow easy use by those unfamiliar with R. TargetSearch allows fast and accurate data pre-processing for GC-MS experiments and overcomes the sample number limitations and manual curation requirements of existing software. We validate our method by carrying out an analysis against both a set of known chemical standard mixtures and of a biological experiment. In addition we demonstrate its capabilities and speed by comparing it with other GC-MS pre-processing tools. We believe this package will greatly ease current bottlenecks and facilitate the analysis of metabolic profiling data.

  15. Information geometry of density matrices and state estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brody, Dorje C

    2011-01-01

    Given a pure state vector |x) and a density matrix ρ-hat, the function p(x|ρ-hat)= defines a probability density on the space of pure states parameterised by density matrices. The associated Fisher-Rao information measure is used to define a unitary invariant Riemannian metric on the space of density matrices. An alternative derivation of the metric, based on square-root density matrices and trace norms, is provided. This is applied to the problem of quantum-state estimation. In the simplest case of unitary parameter estimation, new higher-order corrections to the uncertainty relations, applicable to general mixed states, are derived. (fast track communication)

  16. THE EFFECT OF DECOMPOSITION METHOD AS DATA PREPROCESSING ON NEURAL NETWORKS MODEL FOR FORECASTING TREND AND SEASONAL TIME SERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subanar Subanar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, one of the central topics for the neural networks (NN community is the issue of data preprocessing on the use of NN. In this paper, we will investigate this topic particularly on the effect of Decomposition method as data processing and the use of NN for modeling effectively time series with both trend and seasonal patterns. Limited empirical studies on seasonal time series forecasting with neural networks show that some find neural networks are able to model seasonality directly and prior deseasonalization is not necessary, and others conclude just the opposite. In this research, we study particularly on the effectiveness of data preprocessing, including detrending and deseasonalization by applying Decomposition method on NN modeling and forecasting performance. We use two kinds of data, simulation and real data. Simulation data are examined on multiplicative of trend and seasonality patterns. The results are compared to those obtained from the classical time series model. Our result shows that a combination of detrending and deseasonalization by applying Decomposition method is the effective data preprocessing on the use of NN for forecasting trend and seasonal time series.

  17. Performance Comparison of Several Pre-Processing Methods in a Hand Gesture Recognition System based on Nearest Neighbor for Different Background Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Setyawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a performance analysis and comparison of several pre-processing methods used in a hand gesture recognition system. The pre-processing methods are based on the combinations of several image processing operations, namely edge detection, low pass filtering, histogram equalization, thresholding and desaturation. The hand gesture recognition system is designed to classify an input image into one of six possible classes. The input images are taken with various background conditions. Our experiments showed that the best result is achieved when the pre-processing method consists of only a desaturation operation, achieving a classification accuracy of up to 83.15%.

  18. Modular Extracellular Matrices: Solutions for the Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serban, Monica A.; Prestwich, Glenn D.

    2008-01-01

    The common technique of growing cells in two-dimensions (2-D) is gradually being replaced by culturing cells on matrices with more appropriate composition and stiffness, or by encapsulation of cells in three-dimensions (3-D). The universal acceptance of the new 3-D paradigm has been constrained by the absence of a commercially available, biocompatible material that offers ease of use, experimental flexibility, and a seamless transition from in vitro to in vivo applications. The challenge – the puzzle that needs a solution – is to replicate the complexity of the native extracellular matrix (ECM) environment with the minimum number of components necessary to allow cells to rebuild and replicate a given tissue. For use in drug discovery, toxicology, cell banking, and ultimately in reparative medicine, the ideal matrix would therefore need to be highly reproducible, manufacturable, approvable, and affordable. Herein we describe the development of a set of modular components that can be assembled into biomimetic materials that meet these requirements. These semi-synthetic ECMs, or sECMs, are based on hyaluronan derivatives that form covalently crosslinked, biodegradable hydrogels suitable for 3-D culture of primary and stem cells in vitro, and for tissue formation in vivo. The sECMs can be engineered to provide appropriate biological cues needed to recapitulate the complexity of a given ECM environment. Specific applications for different sECM compositions include stem cell expansion with control of differentiation, scar-free wound healing, growth factor delivery, cell delivery for osteochondral defect and liver repair, and development of vascularized tumor xenografts for personalized chemotherapy. PMID:18442709

  19. Comparison of eigensolvers for symmetric band matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldaschl, Michael; Gansterer, Wilfried N

    2014-09-15

    We compare different algorithms for computing eigenvalues and eigenvectors of a symmetric band matrix across a wide range of synthetic test problems. Of particular interest is a comparison of state-of-the-art tridiagonalization-based methods as implemented in Lapack or Plasma on the one hand, and the block divide-and-conquer (BD&C) algorithm as well as the block twisted factorization (BTF) method on the other hand. The BD&C algorithm does not require tridiagonalization of the original band matrix at all, and the current version of the BTF method tridiagonalizes the original band matrix only for computing the eigenvalues. Avoiding the tridiagonalization process sidesteps the cost of backtransformation of the eigenvectors. Beyond that, we discovered another disadvantage of the backtransformation process for band matrices: In several scenarios, a lot of gradual underflow is observed in the (optional) accumulation of the transformation matrix and in the (obligatory) backtransformation step. According to the IEEE 754 standard for floating-point arithmetic, this implies many operations with subnormal (denormalized) numbers, which causes severe slowdowns compared to the other algorithms without backtransformation of the eigenvectors. We illustrate that in these cases the performance of existing methods from Lapack and Plasma reaches a competitive level only if subnormal numbers are disabled (and thus the IEEE standard is violated). Overall, our performance studies illustrate that if the problem size is large enough relative to the bandwidth, BD&C tends to achieve the highest performance of all methods if the spectrum to be computed is clustered. For test problems with well separated eigenvalues, the BTF method tends to become the fastest algorithm with growing problem size.

  20. MATXTST, Basic Operations for Covariance Matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldo, Luiz P.; Smith, Donald

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: MATXTST and MATXTST1 perform the following operations for a covariance matrix: - test for singularity; - test for positive definiteness; - compute the inverse if the matrix is non-singular; - compute the determinant; - determine the number of positive, negative, and zero eigenvalues; - examine all possible 3 X 3 cross correlations within a sub-matrix corresponding to a leading principal minor which is non-positive definite. While the two programs utilize the same input, the calculational procedures employed are somewhat different and their functions are complementary. The available input options include: i) the full covariance matrix, ii) the basic variables plus the relative covariance matrix, or iii) uncertainties in the basic variables plus the correlation matrix. 2 - Method of solution: MATXTST employs LINPACK subroutines SPOFA and SPODI to test for positive definiteness and to perform further optional calculations. Subroutine SPOFA factors a symmetric matrix M using the Cholesky algorithm to determine the elements of a matrix R which satisfies the relation M=R'R, where R' is the transposed matrix of R. Each leading principal minor of M is tested until the first one is found which is not positive definite. MATXTST1 uses LINPACK subroutines SSICO, SSIFA, and SSIDI to estimate whether the matrix is near to singularity or not (SSICO), and to perform the matrix diagonalization process (SSIFA). The algorithm used in SSIFA is generalization of the Method of Lagrange Reduction. SSIDI is used to compute the determinant and inertia of the matrix. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Matrices of sizes up to 50 X 50 elements can be treated by present versions of the programs

  1. Evaluation of the efficiency of continuous wavelet transform as processing and preprocessing algorithm for resolution of overlapped signals in univariate and multivariate regression analyses; an application to ternary and quaternary mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegazy, Maha A.; Lotfy, Hayam M.; Mowaka, Shereen; Mohamed, Ekram Hany

    2016-07-01

    Wavelets have been adapted for a vast number of signal-processing applications due to the amount of information that can be extracted from a signal. In this work, a comparative study on the efficiency of continuous wavelet transform (CWT) as a signal processing tool in univariate regression and a pre-processing tool in multivariate analysis using partial least square (CWT-PLS) was conducted. These were applied to complex spectral signals of ternary and quaternary mixtures. CWT-PLS method succeeded in the simultaneous determination of a quaternary mixture of drotaverine (DRO), caffeine (CAF), paracetamol (PAR) and p-aminophenol (PAP, the major impurity of paracetamol). While, the univariate CWT failed to simultaneously determine the quaternary mixture components and was able to determine only PAR and PAP, the ternary mixtures of DRO, CAF, and PAR and CAF, PAR, and PAP. During the calculations of CWT, different wavelet families were tested. The univariate CWT method was validated according to the ICH guidelines. While for the development of the CWT-PLS model a calibration set was prepared by means of an orthogonal experimental design and their absorption spectra were recorded and processed by CWT. The CWT-PLS model was constructed by regression between the wavelet coefficients and concentration matrices and validation was performed by both cross validation and external validation sets. Both methods were successfully applied for determination of the studied drugs in pharmaceutical formulations.

  2. Joint Estimation of Multiple Precision Matrices with Common Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonyul; Liu, Yufeng

    Estimation of inverse covariance matrices, known as precision matrices, is important in various areas of statistical analysis. In this article, we consider estimation of multiple precision matrices sharing some common structures. In this setting, estimating each precision matrix separately can be suboptimal as it ignores potential common structures. This article proposes a new approach to parameterize each precision matrix as a sum of common and unique components and estimate multiple precision matrices in a constrained l 1 minimization framework. We establish both estimation and selection consistency of the proposed estimator in the high dimensional setting. The proposed estimator achieves a faster convergence rate for the common structure in certain cases. Our numerical examples demonstrate that our new estimator can perform better than several existing methods in terms of the entropy loss and Frobenius loss. An application to a glioblastoma cancer data set reveals some interesting gene networks across multiple cancer subtypes.

  3. Systems of Differential Equations with Skew-Symmetric, Orthogonal Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, P.

    2008-01-01

    The solution of a system of linear, inhomogeneous differential equations is discussed. The particular class considered is where the coefficient matrix is skew-symmetric and orthogonal, and where the forcing terms are sinusoidal. More general matrices are also considered.

  4. Finiteness properties of congruence classes of infinite matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggermont, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    We look at spaces of infinite-by-infinite matrices, and consider closed subsets that are stable under simultaneous row and column operations. We prove that up to symmetry, any of these closed subsets is defined by finitely many equations.

  5. Flexible Bayesian Dynamic Modeling of Covariance and Correlation Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Lan, Shiwei; Holbrook, Andrew; Fortin, Norbert J.; Ombao, Hernando; Shahbaba, Babak

    2017-01-01

    Modeling covariance (and correlation) matrices is a challenging problem due to the large dimensionality and positive-definiteness constraint. In this paper, we propose a novel Bayesian framework based on decomposing the covariance matrix

  6. A Conversation on Data Mining Strategies in LC-MS Untargeted Metabolomics: Pre-Processing and Pre-Treatment Steps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidele Tugizimana

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Untargeted metabolomic studies generate information-rich, high-dimensional, and complex datasets that remain challenging to handle and fully exploit. Despite the remarkable progress in the development of tools and algorithms, the “exhaustive” extraction of information from these metabolomic datasets is still a non-trivial undertaking. A conversation on data mining strategies for a maximal information extraction from metabolomic data is needed. Using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomic dataset, this study explored the influence of collection parameters in the data pre-processing step, scaling and data transformation on the statistical models generated, and feature selection, thereafter. Data obtained in positive mode generated from a LC-MS-based untargeted metabolomic study (sorghum plants responding dynamically to infection by a fungal pathogen were used. Raw data were pre-processed with MarkerLynxTM software (Waters Corporation, Manchester, UK. Here, two parameters were varied: the intensity threshold (50–100 counts and the mass tolerance (0.005–0.01 Da. After the pre-processing, the datasets were imported into SIMCA (Umetrics, Umea, Sweden for more data cleaning and statistical modeling. In addition, different scaling (unit variance, Pareto, etc. and data transformation (log and power methods were explored. The results showed that the pre-processing parameters (or algorithms influence the output dataset with regard to the number of defined features. Furthermore, the study demonstrates that the pre-treatment of data prior to statistical modeling affects the subspace approximation outcome: e.g., the amount of variation in X-data that the model can explain and predict. The pre-processing and pre-treatment steps subsequently influence the number of statistically significant extracted/selected features (variables. Thus, as informed by the results, to maximize the value of untargeted metabolomic data

  7. Procrustes Problems for General, Triangular, and Symmetric Toeplitz Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Toeplitz Procrustes problems are the least squares problems for the matrix equation AX=B over some Toeplitz matrix sets. In this paper the necessary and sufficient conditions are obtained about the existence and uniqueness for the solutions of the Toeplitz Procrustes problems when the unknown matrices are constrained to the general, the triangular, and the symmetric Toeplitz matrices, respectively. The algorithms are designed and the numerical examples show that these algorithms are feasible.

  8. An introduction to the theory of canonical matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Turnbull, H W

    2004-01-01

    Thorough and self-contained, this penetrating study of the theory of canonical matrices presents a detailed consideration of all the theory's principal features. Topics include elementary transformations and bilinear and quadratic forms; canonical reduction of equivalent matrices; subgroups of the group of equivalent transformations; and rational and classical canonical forms. The final chapters explore several methods of canonical reduction, including those of unitary and orthogonal transformations. 1952 edition. Index. Appendix. Historical notes. Bibliographies. 275 problems.

  9. Dynamical correlations for circular ensembles of random matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Taro; Forrester, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Circular Brownian motion models of random matrices were introduced by Dyson and describe the parametric eigenparameter correlations of unitary random matrices. For symmetric unitary, self-dual quaternion unitary and an analogue of antisymmetric Hermitian matrix initial conditions, Brownian dynamics toward the unitary symmetry is analyzed. The dynamical correlation functions of arbitrary number of Brownian particles at arbitrary number of times are shown to be written in the forms of quaternion determinants, similarly as in the case of Hermitian random matrix models

  10. Complementary Set Matrices Satisfying a Column Correlation Constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Di; Spasojevic, Predrag

    2006-01-01

    Motivated by the problem of reducing the peak to average power ratio (PAPR) of transmitted signals, we consider a design of complementary set matrices whose column sequences satisfy a correlation constraint. The design algorithm recursively builds a collection of $2^{t+1}$ mutually orthogonal (MO) complementary set matrices starting from a companion pair of sequences. We relate correlation properties of column sequences to that of the companion pair and illustrate how to select an appropriate...

  11. Open vessel microwave digestion of food matrices (T6)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, L.; LeBlanc, G.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Advancements in the field of open vessel microwave digestion continue to provide solutions for industries requiring acid digestion of large sample sizes. Those interesting in digesting food matrices are particularly interested in working with large amounts of sample and then diluting small final volumes. This paper will show the advantages of instantaneous regent addition and post-digestion evaporation when performing an open vessel digestion and evaporation methods for various food matrices will be presented along with analyte recovery data. (author)

  12. Quantum Algorithms for Weighing Matrices and Quadratic Residues

    OpenAIRE

    van Dam, Wim

    2000-01-01

    In this article we investigate how we can employ the structure of combinatorial objects like Hadamard matrices and weighing matrices to device new quantum algorithms. We show how the properties of a weighing matrix can be used to construct a problem for which the quantum query complexity is ignificantly lower than the classical one. It is pointed out that this scheme captures both Bernstein & Vazirani's inner-product protocol, as well as Grover's search algorithm. In the second part of the ar...

  13. Asymptotic Distribution of Eigenvalues of Weakly Dilute Wishart Matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khorunzhy, A. [Institute for Low Temperature Physics (Ukraine)], E-mail: khorunjy@ilt.kharkov.ua; Rodgers, G. J. [Brunel University, Uxbridge, Department of Mathematics and Statistics (United Kingdom)], E-mail: g.j.rodgers@brunel.ac.uk

    2000-03-15

    We study the eigenvalue distribution of large random matrices that are randomly diluted. We consider two random matrix ensembles that in the pure (nondilute) case have a limiting eigenvalue distribution with a singular component at the origin. These include the Wishart random matrix ensemble and Gaussian random matrices with correlated entries. Our results show that the singularity in the eigenvalue distribution is rather unstable under dilution and that even weak dilution destroys it.

  14. Inference for High-dimensional Differential Correlation Matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, T Tony; Zhang, Anru

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by differential co-expression analysis in genomics, we consider in this paper estimation and testing of high-dimensional differential correlation matrices. An adaptive thresholding procedure is introduced and theoretical guarantees are given. Minimax rate of convergence is established and the proposed estimator is shown to be adaptively rate-optimal over collections of paired correlation matrices with approximately sparse differences. Simulation results show that the procedure significantly outperforms two other natural methods that are based on separate estimation of the individual correlation matrices. The procedure is also illustrated through an analysis of a breast cancer dataset, which provides evidence at the gene co-expression level that several genes, of which a subset has been previously verified, are associated with the breast cancer. Hypothesis testing on the differential correlation matrices is also considered. A test, which is particularly well suited for testing against sparse alternatives, is introduced. In addition, other related problems, including estimation of a single sparse correlation matrix, estimation of the differential covariance matrices, and estimation of the differential cross-correlation matrices, are also discussed.

  15. Reduced Discrimination in the Tritanopic Confusion Line for Congenital Color Deficiency Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marcelo F; Goulart, Paulo R K; Barboni, Mirella T S; Ventura, Dora F

    2016-01-01

    In congenital color blindness the red-green discrimination is impaired resulting in an increased confusion between those colors with yellow. Our post-receptoral physiological mechanisms are organized in two pathways for color perception, a red-green (protanopic and deuteranopic) and a blue-yellow (tritanopic). We argue that the discrimination losses in the yellow area in congenital color vision deficiency subjects could generate a subtle loss of discriminability in the tritanopic channel considering discrepancies with yellow perception. We measured color discrimination thresholds for blue and yellow of tritanopic channel in congenital color deficiency subjects. Chromaticity thresholds were measured around a white background (0.1977 u', 0.4689 v' in the CIE 1976) consisting of a blue-white and white-yellow thresholds in a tritanopic color confusion line of 21 congenital colorblindness subjects (mean age = 27.7; SD = 5.6 years; 14 deuteranomalous and 7 protanomalous) and of 82 (mean age = 25.1; SD = 3.7 years) normal color vision subjects. Significant increase in the whole tritanopic axis was found for both deuteranomalous and protanomalous subjects compared to controls for the blue-white (F 2,100 = 18.80; p color confusion axis is significantly reduced in congenital color vision deficiency compared to normal subjects. Since yellow discrimination was impaired the balance of the blue-yellow channels is impaired justifying the increased thresholds found for blue-white discrimination. The weighting toward the yellow region of the color space with the deuteranomalous contributing to that perceptual distortion is discussed in terms of physiological mechanisms.

  16. Reduced Discrimination in the Tritanopic Confusion Line for Congenital Color Deficiency Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fernandes Costa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In congenital color blindness the red-green discrimination is impaired resulting in an increased confusion between those colors with yellow. Our post-receptoral physiological mechanisms are organized in two pathways for color perception, a red-green (protanopic and deuteranopic and a blue-yellow (tritanopic. We argue that the discrimination losses in the yellow area in congenital color vision deficiency subjects could generate a subtle loss of discriminability in the tritanopic channel considering discrepancies with yellow perception. We measured color discrimination thresholds for blue and yellow of tritanopic channel in congenital color deficiency subjects. Chromaticity thresholds were measured around a white background (0.1977 u’, 0.4689 v’ in the CIE 1976 consisting of a blue-white and white-yellow thresholds in a tritanopic color confusion line of 21 congenital colorblindness subjects (mean age = 27.7; SD= 5.6 years; 14 deuteranomalous and 7 protanomalous and of 82 (mean age = 25.1; SD= 3.7 years normal color vision subjects. Significant increase in the whole tritanopic axis was found for both deuteranomalous and protanomalous subjects compared to controls for the blue-white (F2,100= 18.80; p< 0.0001 and white-yellow (F2,100= 22.10; p< 0.0001 thresholds. A Principal Component Analysis found a weighting toward to the yellow thresholds induced by deuteranomalous subjects. In conclusion, the discrimination in the tritanopic color confusion axis is significantly reduced in congenital color vision deficiency compared to normal subjects. Since yellow discrimination was impaired the balance of the blue-yellow channels is impaired justifying the increased thresholds found for blue-white discrimination. The weighting toward the yellow region of the color space with the deuteranomalous contributing to that perceptual distortion is discussed in terms of physiological mechanisms.

  17. Dream-reality confusion in Borderline Personality Disorder: A theoretical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagna eSkrzypińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of dream-reality confusion (DRC in relation to the characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD, based on research findings and theoretical considerations. It is hypothesized that people with BPD are more likely to experience DRC compared to people in non-clinical population. Several variables related to this hypothesis were identified through a theoretical analysis of the scientific literature. Sleep disturbances: Problems with sleep are found in 15-95.5% of people with BPD (Hafizi, 2013, and unstable sleep and wake cycles, which occur in BPD (Fleischer et al., 2012, are linked to DRC. Dissociation: Nearly two-thirds of people with BPD experience dissociative symptoms (Korzekwa and Pain, 2009 and dissociative symptoms are correlated with a fantasy proneness; both dissociative symptoms and fantasy proneness are related to DRC (Giesbrecht and Merckelbach, 2006. Negative dream content: People with BPD have nightmares more often than other people (Semiz et al., 2008; dreams that are more likely to be confused with reality tend to be more realistic and unpleasant, and are reflected in waking behavior (Rassin et al., 2001. Cognitive disturbances: Many BPD patients experience various cognitive disturbances, including problems with reality testing (Fiqueierdo, 2006; Mosquera et al., 2011, which can foster DRC. Thin boundaries: People with thin boundaries are more prone to DRC than people with thick boundaries, and people with BPD tend to have thin boundaries (Hartmann, 2011. The theoretical analysis on the basis of these findings suggests that people who suffer from BPD may be more susceptible to confusing dream content with actual waking events.

  18. Review of the Nomenclature of the Retaining Ligaments of the Cheek: Frequently Confused Terminology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeui Seok Seo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the time of its inception within facial anatomy, wide variability in the terminology as well as the location and extent of retaining ligaments has resulted in confusion over nomenclature. Confusion over nomenclature also arises with regard to the subcutaneous ligamentous attachments, and in the anatomic location and extent described, particularly for zygomatic and masseteric ligaments. Certain historical terms—McGregor’s patch, the platysma auricular ligament, parotid cutaneous ligament, platysma auricular fascia, temporoparotid fasica (Lore’s fascia, anterior platysma-cutaneous ligament, and platysma cutaneous ligament—delineate retaining ligaments of related anatomic structures that have been conceptualized in various ways. Confusion around the masseteric cutaneous ligaments arises from inconsistencies in their reported locations in the literature because the size and location of the parotid gland varies so much, and this affects the relationship between the parotid gland and the fascia of the masseter muscle. For the zygomatic ligaments, there is disagreement over how far they extend, with descriptions varying over whether they extend medially beyond the zygomaticus minor muscle. Even the ‘main’ zygomatic ligament’s denotation may vary depending on which subcutaneous plane is used as a reference for naming it. Recent popularity in procedures using threads or injectables has required not only an accurate understanding of the nomenclature of retaining ligaments, but also of their location and extent. The authors have here summarized each retaining ligament with a survey of the different nomenclature that has been introduced by different authors within the most commonly cited published papers.

  19. IMAGING THE EPOCH OF REIONIZATION: LIMITATIONS FROM FOREGROUND CONFUSION AND IMAGING ALGORITHMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedantham, Harish; Udaya Shankar, N.; Subrahmanyan, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Tomography of redshifted 21 cm transition from neutral hydrogen using Fourier synthesis telescopes is a promising tool to study the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). Limiting the confusion from Galactic and extragalactic foregrounds is critical to the success of these telescopes. The instrumental response or the point-spread function (PSF) of such telescopes is inherently three dimensional with frequency mapping to the line-of-sight (LOS) distance. EoR signals will necessarily have to be detected in data where continuum confusion persists; therefore, it is important that the PSF has acceptable frequency structure so that the residual foreground does not confuse the EoR signature. This paper aims to understand the three-dimensional PSF and foreground contamination in the same framework. We develop a formalism to estimate the foreground contamination along frequency, or equivalently LOS dimension, and establish a relationship between foreground contamination in the image plane and visibility weights on the Fourier plane. We identify two dominant sources of LOS foreground contamination—'PSF contamination' and 'gridding contamination'. We show that PSF contamination is localized in LOS wavenumber space, beyond which there potentially exists an 'EoR window' with negligible foreground contamination where we may focus our efforts to detect EoR. PSF contamination in this window may be substantially reduced by judicious choice of a frequency window function. Gridding and imaging algorithms create additional gridding contamination and we propose a new imaging algorithm using the Chirp Z Transform that significantly reduces this contamination. Finally, we demonstrate the analytical relationships and the merit of the new imaging algorithm for the case of imaging with the Murchison Widefield Array.

  20. Dazzle camouflage and the confusion effect: the influence of varying speed on target tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Benedict G; Cuthill, Innes C; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E

    2017-01-01

    The formation of groups is a common strategy to avoid predation in animals, and recent research has indicated that there may be interactions between some forms of defensive coloration, notably high-contrast 'dazzle camouflage', and one of the proposed benefits of grouping: the confusion effect. However, research into the benefits of dazzle camouflage has largely used targets moving with constant speed. This simplification may not generalize well to real animal systems, where a number of factors influence both within- and between-individual variation in speed. Departure from the speed of your neighbours in a group may be predicted to undermine the confusion effect. This is because individual speed may become a parameter through which the observer can individuate otherwise similar targets: an 'oddity effect'. However, dazzle camouflage patterns are thought to interfere with predator perception of speed and trajectory. The current experiment investigated the possibility that such patterns could ameliorate the oddity effect caused by within-group differences in prey speed. We found that variation in speed increased the ease with which participants could track targets in all conditions. However, we found no evidence that motion dazzle camouflage patterns reduced oddity effects based on this variation in speed, a result that may be informative about the mechanisms behind this form of defensive coloration. In addition, results from those conditions most similar to those of published studies replicated previous results, indicating that targets with stripes parallel to the direction of motion are harder to track, and that this pattern interacts with the confusion effect to a greater degree than background matching or orthogonal-to-motion striped patterns.

  1. A Probabilistic Approach to Network Event Formation from Pre-Processed Waveform Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, B. C.; Given, J.

    2017-12-01

    The current state of the art for seismic event detection still largely depends on signal detection at individual sensor stations, including picking accurate arrivals times and correctly identifying phases, and relying on fusion algorithms to associate individual signal detections to form event hypotheses. But increasing computational capability has enabled progress toward the objective of fully utilizing body-wave recordings in an integrated manner to detect events without the necessity of previously recorded ground truth events. In 2011-2012 Leidos (then SAIC) operated a seismic network to monitor activity associated with geothermal field operations in western Nevada. We developed a new association approach for detecting and quantifying events by probabilistically combining pre-processed waveform data to deal with noisy data and clutter at local distance ranges. The ProbDet algorithm maps continuous waveform data into continuous conditional probability traces using a source model (e.g. Brune earthquake or Mueller-Murphy explosion) to map frequency content and an attenuation model to map amplitudes. Event detection and classification is accomplished by combining the conditional probabilities from the entire network using a Bayesian formulation. This approach was successful in producing a high-Pd, low-Pfa automated bulletin for a local network and preliminary tests with regional and teleseismic data show that it has promise for global seismic and nuclear monitoring applications. The approach highlights several features that we believe are essential to achieving low-threshold automated event detection: Minimizes the utilization of individual seismic phase detections - in traditional techniques, errors in signal detection, timing, feature measurement and initial phase ID compound and propagate into errors in event formation, Has a formalized framework that utilizes information from non-detecting stations, Has a formalized framework that utilizes source information, in

  2. PreP+07: improvements of a user friendly tool to preprocess and analyse microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claros M Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nowadays, microarray gene expression analysis is a widely used technology that scientists handle but whose final interpretation usually requires the participation of a specialist. The need for this participation is due to the requirement of some background in statistics that most users lack or have a very vague notion of. Moreover, programming skills could also be essential to analyse these data. An interactive, easy to use application seems therefore necessary to help researchers to extract full information from data and analyse them in a simple, powerful and confident way. Results PreP+07 is a standalone Windows XP application that presents a friendly interface for spot filtration, inter- and intra-slide normalization, duplicate resolution, dye-swapping, error removal and statistical analyses. Additionally, it contains two unique implementation of the procedures – double scan and Supervised Lowess-, a complete set of graphical representations – MA plot, RG plot, QQ plot, PP plot, PN plot – and can deal with many data formats, such as tabulated text, GenePix GPR and ArrayPRO. PreP+07 performance has been compared with the equivalent functions in Bioconductor using a tomato chip with 13056 spots. The number of differentially expressed genes considering p-values coming from the PreP+07 and Bioconductor Limma packages were statistically identical when the data set was only normalized; however, a slight variability was appreciated when the data was both normalized and scaled. Conclusion PreP+07 implementation provides a high degree of freedom in selecting and organizing a small set of widely used data processing protocols, and can handle many data formats. Its reliability has been proven so that a laboratory researcher can afford a statistical pre-processing of his/her microarray results and obtain a list of differentially expressed genes using PreP+07 without any programming skills. All of this gives support to scientists

  3. The Theos/ComRes survey into public perception of Darwinism in the UK: a recipe for confusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Sylvia

    2012-04-01

    A survey of the general public in the UK, conducted in 2008, suggested that more than half of the British population are unconvinced by Darwinism. That survey, conducted by the polling company ComRes on behalf of the theological think-tank Theos, reported its full findings in March 2009 and found them to be "complex and confused." This paper argues that the confusion identified may have been partly engendered by the way in which the survey questionnaire was constructed and that the survey itself, not simply its respondents, was confused. A source of the confusion, it is argued, could be found, first, in the definitions used for the four positions of young earth creationism, theistic evolution, atheistic evolution and intelligent design. Second, a failure to define the key terms "evolution" and "science," used in some of the survey questions, resulted in responses that were difficult to interpret.

  4. Conceptions about the mind-body problem and their relations to afterlife beliefs, paranormal beliefs, religiosity, and ontological confusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riekki, Tapani; Lindeman, Marjaana; Lipsanen, Jari

    2013-01-01

    We examined lay people's conceptions about the relationship between mind and body and their correlates. In Study 1, a web survey (N = 850) of reflective dualistic, emergentistic, and monistic perceptions of the mind-body relationship, afterlife beliefs (i.e., common sense dualism), religiosity, paranormal beliefs, and ontological confusions about physical, biological, and psychological phenomena was conducted. In Study 2 (N = 73), we examined implicit ontological confusions and their relations to afterlife beliefs, paranormal beliefs, and religiosity. Correlation and regression analyses showed that reflective dualism, afterlife beliefs, paranormal beliefs, and religiosity were strongly and positively related and that reflective dualism and afterlife beliefs mediated the relationship between ontological confusions and religious and paranormal beliefs. The results elucidate the contention that dualism is a manifestation of universal cognitive processes related to intuitions about physical, biological, and psychological phenomena by showing that especially individuals who confuse the distinctive attributes of these phenomena tend to set the mind apart from the body.

  5. Abused, confused, and misused words a writer's guide to usage, spelling, grammar, and sentence structure

    CERN Document Server

    Embree, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Have you been putting bullion in your soup? Is incorrect spelling starting to have a negative affect on your term papers? Do you wonder what someone is inferring when they tell you to pick up a dictionary? These are just a few of the commonly misunderstood words discussed and explained in Abused, Confused, and Misused Words, an entertaining and informative look at the ever-changing nature of the English language. An alphabetical list of words that are frequently misspelled or misused is accompanied by a style guide to usage rules that tells you how and why

  6. New Classification for Heart Failure with Mildly Reduced Ejection Fraction; Greater clarity or more confusion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Nadar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The latest European Society of Cardiology (ESC guidelines for the diagnosis and management of heart failure include a new patient group for those with heart failure with mildly reduced ejection fraction (HFmrEF. By defining this group of patients as a separate entity, the ESC hope to encourage more research focusing on patients with HFmrEF. Previously, patients with this condition were caught between two classifications—heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Hopefully, the inclusion of new terminology will not increase confusion, but rather aid our understanding of heart failure, a complex clinical syndrome.

  7. N-Confused Porphyrin Immobilized on Solid Supports: Synthesis and Metal Ions Sensing Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara R. D. Gamelas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the N-confused porphyrin 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-2-aza-21-carbaporphyrin (NCTPP was immobilized on neutral or cationic supports based on silica and on Merrifield resin. The new materials were characterized by appropriate techniques (UV-Vis spectroscopy, SEM, and zeta potential analysis. Piezoelectric quartz crystal gold electrodes were coated with the different hybrids and their ability to interact with heavy metals was evaluated. The preliminary results obtained showed that the new materials can be explored for metal cations detection and the modification of the material surface is a key factor in tuning the metal selectivity.

  8. The Python Spectral Analysis Tool (PySAT) for Powerful, Flexible, and Easy Preprocessing and Machine Learning with Point Spectral Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. B.; Finch, N.; Clegg, S. M.; Graff, T.; Morris, R. V.; Laura, J.

    2018-04-01

    The PySAT point spectra tool provides a flexible graphical interface, enabling scientists to apply a wide variety of preprocessing and machine learning methods to point spectral data, with an emphasis on multivariate regression.

  9. Estimated correlation matrices and portfolio optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pafka, Szilárd; Kondor, Imre

    2004-11-01

    Correlations of returns on various assets play a central role in financial theory and also in many practical applications. From a theoretical point of view, the main interest lies in the proper description of the structure and dynamics of correlations, whereas for the practitioner the emphasis is on the ability of the models to provide adequate inputs for the numerous portfolio and risk management procedures used in the financial industry. The theory of portfolios, initiated by Markowitz, has suffered from the “curse of dimensions” from the very outset. Over the past decades a large number of different techniques have been developed to tackle this problem and reduce the effective dimension of large bank portfolios, but the efficiency and reliability of these procedures are extremely hard to assess or compare. In this paper, we propose a model (simulation)-based approach which can be used for the systematical testing of all these dimensional reduction techniques. To illustrate the usefulness of our framework, we develop several toy models that display some of the main characteristic features of empirical correlations and generate artificial time series from them. Then, we regard these time series as empirical data and reconstruct the corresponding correlation matrices which will inevitably contain a certain amount of noise, due to the finiteness of the time series. Next, we apply several correlation matrix estimators and dimension reduction techniques introduced in the literature and/or applied in practice. As in our artificial world the only source of error is the finite length of the time series and, in addition, the “true” model, hence also the “true” correlation matrix, are precisely known, therefore in sharp contrast with empirical studies, we can precisely compare the performance of the various noise reduction techniques. One of our recurrent observations is that the recently introduced filtering technique based on random matrix theory performs

  10. Application of artificial neural networks for versatile preprocessing of electrocardiogram recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, J; Rieta, J J

    2012-02-01

    The electrocardiogram (ECG) is the most widely used method for diagnosis of heart diseases, where a good quality of recordings allows the proper interpretation and identification of physiological and pathological phenomena. However, ECG recordings often have interference from noises including thermal, muscle, baseline and powerline noises. These signals severely limit ECG recording utility and, hence, have to be removed. To deal with this problem, the present paper proposes an artificial neural network (ANN) as a filter to remove all kinds of noise in just one step. The method is based on a growing ANN which optimizes both the number of nodes in the hidden layer and the coefficient matrices, which are optimized by means of the Widrow-Hoff delta algorithm. The ANN has been trained with a database comprising all kinds of noise, both from synthesized and real ECG recordings, in order to handle any noise signal present in the ECG. The proposed system improves results yielded by conventional techniques of ECG filtering, such as FIR-based systems, adaptive filtering and wavelet filtering. Therefore, the algorithm could serve as an effective framework to substantially reduce noise in ECG recordings. In addition, the resulting ECG signal distortion is notably more reduced in comparison with conventional methodologies. In summary, the current contribution introduces a new method which is able to suppress all ECG interference signals in only one step with low ECG distortion and a high noise reduction.

  11. Status of pre-processing of waste electrical and electronic equipment in Germany and its influence on the recovery of gold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chancerel, Perrine; Bolland, Til; Rotter, Vera Susanne

    2011-03-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) contains gold in low but from an environmental and economic point of view relevant concentration. After collection, WEEE is pre-processed in order to generate appropriate material fractions that are sent to the subsequent end-processing stages (recovery, reuse or disposal). The goal of this research is to quantify the overall recovery rates of pre-processing technologies used in Germany for the reference year 2007. To achieve this goal, facilities operating in Germany were listed and classified according to the technology they apply. Information on their processing capacity was gathered by evaluating statistical databases. Based on a literature review of experimental results for gold recovery rates of different pre-processing technologies, the German overall recovery rate of gold at the pre-processing level was quantified depending on the characteristics of the treated WEEE. The results reveal that - depending on the equipment groups - pre-processing recovery rates of gold of 29 to 61% are achieved in Germany. Some practical recommendations to reduce the losses during pre-processing could be formulated. Defining mass-based recovery targets in the legislation does not set incentives to recover trace elements. Instead, the priorities for recycling could be defined based on other parameters like the environmental impacts of the materials. The implementation of measures to reduce the gold losses would also improve the recovery of several other non-ferrous metals like tin, nickel, and palladium.

  12. On the Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of Block Triangular Preconditioned Block Matrices

    KAUST Repository

    Pestana, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Block lower triangular matrices and block upper triangular matrices are popular preconditioners for 2×2 block matrices. In this note we show that a block lower triangular preconditioner gives the same spectrum as a block upper triangular preconditioner and that the eigenvectors of the two preconditioned matrices are related. © 2014 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  13. Hamiltonian structure of isospectral deformation equation and semi-classical approximation to factorized S-matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, D.V.; Chudnovsky, G.V.

    1980-01-01

    We consider semi-classical approximation to factorized S-matrices. We show that this new class of matrices, called s-matrices, defines Hamiltonian structures for isospectral deformation equations. Concrete examples of factorized s-matrices are constructed and they are used to define Hamiltonian structure for general two-dimensional isospectral deformation systems. (orig.)

  14. To freeze or not to freeze embryos: clarity, confusion and conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Mohar; Murdoch, Alison P; Haimes, Erica

    2015-06-01

    Although embryo freezing is a routine clinical practice, there is little contemporary evidence on how couples make the decision to freeze their surplus embryos, or of their perceptions during that time. This article describes a qualitative study of 16 couples who have had in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment. The study question was 'What are the personal and social factors that patients consider when deciding whether to freeze embryos?' We show that while the desire for a baby is the dominant drive, couples' views revealed more nuanced and complex considerations in the decision-making process. It was clear that the desire to have a baby influenced couples' decision-making and that they saw freezing as 'part of the process'. However, there were confusions associated with the term 'freezing' related to concerns about the safety of the procedure. Despite being given written information, couples were confused about the practical aspects of embryo freezing, which suggests they were preoccupied with the immediate demands of IVF. Couples expressed ethical conflicts about freezing 'babies'. We hope the findings from this study will inform clinicians and assist them in providing support to couples confronted with this difficult decision-making.

  15. Scintillating confusion: Evaluation of a technique for measuring compact structure in weak radio sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangler, S.R.; Cordes, J.M.; Meyers, K.A.

    1979-01-01

    An attractive scheme for investigating compact structure in weak radio sources is to study the scintillation properties of confusion in a large single-dish radio telescope. We have investigated the utility of this technique by observing the scintillations of 860-MHz confusion of the NRAO 300' (91 m) telescope. Analysis of these data indicated a reduction in the mean scintillation index with decreasing flux density which implied that weaker sources possessed less compact structure. More direct observations indicated that the weak sources of interest were not significantly deficient in compact structure, so the first result is probably due to properties of the IPS process in the strong scintillation regime. Our results may be due to overresolution (by the IPS process in the strong scintillation regime) of the ''hot spots'' responsible for scintillation in most strong sources at frequencies below 1000 MHz, or may indicate abnormally strong turbulence in the solar wind during August, 1977. Future applications of this method would be best conducted at lower frequencies with larger reflectors or short-spacing interferometers

  16. [Confusion as a presentation symptom of pseudomigraine with pleocytosis in a paediatric patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Insuga, V; López-Villanueva, L; Rodrigo, M; Mois Aroyo, I; Losada, R; Soriano-Guillén, L

    2014-06-01

    Transient headache and neurological deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytic pleocytosis (Handl) syndrome is a rare condition of unknown origin that is characterized by episodes of severe headache, transient neurological deficits that recur over less than 3 months, and lymphocytic pleocytosis in CSF. We report the case of a 14 year-old girl who presented with headache and vomiting that lasted 4 days, later combined with a clinical presentation of confusion, with a decrease in the level of consciousness, aphasia, peripheral facial paralysis, ataxia and fever for 24 hours. CSF analysis showed pleocytosis (110 cells/ml) and proteinorrachia (87 mg/dl). Electroencephalogram in the acute time showed generalized slowing, and later a focal slowing in the left hemisphere. She suffered 7 episodes of migraine (severe headache and vomiting) in the following two months, remaining asymptomatic thereafter. This is the first pediatric case published in the literature that presents with an agitated and/or confused state. This condition must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with headache and acute altered level of consciousness, in order to avoid prolonged treatments or unnecessary invasive testing. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Why are some languages confused for others? Investigating data from the Great Language Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we explore the results of a large-scale online game called ‘the Great Language Game’, in which people listen to an audio speech sample and make a forced-choice guess about the identity of the language from 2 or more alternatives. The data include 15 million guesses from 400 audio recordings of 78 languages. We investigate which languages are confused for which in the game, and if this correlates with the similarities that linguists identify between languages. This includes shared lexical items, similar sound inventories and established historical relationships. Our findings are, as expected, that players are more likely to confuse two languages that are objectively more similar. We also investigate factors that may affect players’ ability to accurately select the target language, such as how many people speak the language, how often the language is mentioned in written materials and the economic power of the target language community. We see that non-linguistic factors affect players’ ability to accurately identify the target. For example, languages with wider ‘global reach’ are more often identified correctly. This suggests that both linguistic and cultural knowledge influence the perception and recognition of languages and their similarity. PMID:28379970

  18. Why are some languages confused for others? Investigating data from the Great Language Game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedvig Skirgård

    Full Text Available In this paper we explore the results of a large-scale online game called 'the Great Language Game', in which people listen to an audio speech sample and make a forced-choice guess about the identity of the language from 2 or more alternatives. The data include 15 million guesses from 400 audio recordings of 78 languages. We investigate which languages are confused for which in the game, and if this correlates with the similarities that linguists identify between languages. This includes shared lexical items, similar sound inventories and established historical relationships. Our findings are, as expected, that players are more likely to confuse two languages that are objectively more similar. We also investigate factors that may affect players' ability to accurately select the target language, such as how many people speak the language, how often the language is mentioned in written materials and the economic power of the target language community. We see that non-linguistic factors affect players' ability to accurately identify the target. For example, languages with wider 'global reach' are more often identified correctly. This suggests that both linguistic and cultural knowledge influence the perception and recognition of languages and their similarity.

  19. Why are some languages confused for others? Investigating data from the Great Language Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skirgård, Hedvig; Roberts, Seán G; Yencken, Lars

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we explore the results of a large-scale online game called 'the Great Language Game', in which people listen to an audio speech sample and make a forced-choice guess about the identity of the language from 2 or more alternatives. The data include 15 million guesses from 400 audio recordings of 78 languages. We investigate which languages are confused for which in the game, and if this correlates with the similarities that linguists identify between languages. This includes shared lexical items, similar sound inventories and established historical relationships. Our findings are, as expected, that players are more likely to confuse two languages that are objectively more similar. We also investigate factors that may affect players' ability to accurately select the target language, such as how many people speak the language, how often the language is mentioned in written materials and the economic power of the target language community. We see that non-linguistic factors affect players' ability to accurately identify the target. For example, languages with wider 'global reach' are more often identified correctly. This suggests that both linguistic and cultural knowledge influence the perception and recognition of languages and their similarity.

  20. Quantitative histologic study on confusion of the cerebellar cortex architecture in perinatally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, S.

    1986-01-01

    This study was designed to know dose-response relationship and age-dependence for two types of confusion of the cerebellar cortex architecture. The first is inhibition of the laminar-pattern development, and the second is persistent remaining of granule cells in the molecular and Purkinje layer which implies disturbance of cell migration. Male B6C3F 1 mice were used. Animals were irradiated at day 0 to 6 of the postnatal age or day 17 of the prenatal age with doses ranging from 50 to 700 rad of γ-rays, and killed at 60 days of age. Confusion of architecture was analysed using microscopic photographs. Development of the laminar-pattern was inhibited by irradiation with 100 rad or higher doses at day 0 to 3. There was a distinct regional difference in inhibition of the laminar-pattern development. Remaining of granule cells was detected after irradiation with 50 or higher doses at day 0 or 2. Irradiation at day 1 to 4 was most effective to disturb cell migration, though ectopic granule cells were detected in all irradiated groups. (orig.)