WorldWideScience

Sample records for preprint posted electronically

  1. Electronic Preprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, R.

    1999-12-01

    Despite the tremendous advances in electronic publications and the increasing rapidity with which papers are now moving from acceptance into ``print,'' preprints continue to be an important mode of communication within the astronomy community. The Los Alamos e-preprint service, astro-ph, provides for rapid and cost-free (to authors and readers) dissemination of manuscripts. As the use of astro-ph has increased the number of paper preprints in circulation to libraries has decreased, and institutional preprint series appear to be waning. It is unfortunate, however, that astro-ph does not function in collaboration with the refereed publications. For example, there is no systematic tracking of manuscripts from preprint to their final, published form, and as a centralized archive it is difficult to distribute the tracking and maintenance functions. It retains documents that have been superseded or have become obsolete. We are currently developing a distributed preprint and document management system which can support both distributed collections of preprints (e.g., traditional institutional preprint series), can link to the LANL collections, can index other documents in the ``grey'' literature (observatory reports, telescope and instrument user's manuals, calls for proposals, etc.), and can function as a manuscript submission tool for the refereed journals. This system is being developed to work cooperatively with the refereed literature so that, for example, links to preprints are updated to links to the final published papers.

  2. Incorporating Electronic Preprints into an Effective Publishing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanisch, R. J.; Payne, H. E.; Huizinga, J. E.; Stevens-Rayburn, S.; Bouton, E. N.; Eichhorn, G.; Boyce, P. B.

    Preprints continue to play an important role in the astronomical literature, both for rapid dissemination of new results and for establishing institutional benchmarks for quality and productivity. Electronic preprint services have become a popular alternative to paper preprint distribution. As centralized services, however, they ignore the importance of preprints in defining an organization's scientific profile. Moreover, the existing electronic preprint services are far from comprehensive in content (relying totally on author contributions), and there is no systematic tracking of the preprint into the refereed literature. We are now implementing a distributed electronic preprint service which will provide a common index to preprint databases located at separate astronomy institutions. Because maintenance of the preprint databases is distributed, our expectation is that the contents will be much more complete than is the case for the existing services. A key element of our approach is to assign unique identifiers to preprints as they are entered into the system, and to use these identifiers to track the preprint into the refereed literature. Once a preprint is published users of the preprint database will be directed to the published version, with the preprint version deleted from the system. We are also developing simple, portable tools for maintaining a local preprint database. Both these tools and the distributed preprint system infrastructure will be extensible to other ``gray literature'' documents, such as observatory and instrumentation manuals and technical reports.

  3. Preprinting Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The field of microbiology has experienced significant growth due to transformative advances in technology and the influx of scientists driven by a curiosity to understand how microbes sustain myriad biochemical processes that maintain Earth. With this explosion in scientific output, a significant bottleneck has been the ability to rapidly disseminate new knowledge to peers and the public. Preprints have emerged as a tool that a growing number of microbiologists are using to overcome this bottleneck. Posting preprints can help to transparently recruit a more diverse pool of reviewers prior to submitting to a journal for formal peer review. Although the use of preprints is still limited in the biological sciences, early indications are that preprints are a robust tool that can complement and enhance peer-reviewed publications. As publishing moves to embrace advances in Internet technology, there are many opportunities for preprints and peer-reviewed journals to coexist in the same ecosystem. PMID:28536284

  4. On the Effect of Antimony Segregation to the Electronic Properties of InAs/InAsSb Superlattices (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-03

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0231 ON THE EFFECT OF ANTIMONY SEGREGATION TO THE ELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF INAS/INASSB SUPERLATTICES (PREPRINT...December 2016 Interim 11 September 2013 – 12 November 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ON THE EFFECT OF ANTIMONY SEGREGATION TO THE ELECTRONIC ...AUTHOR(S) H. J. Haugan, F. Szmulowicz, J. J. Hudgins, L. E. Cordonnier, and G. J. Brown - AFRL/RX 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 4348 5e. TASK

  5. Passive Two-Phase Cooling of Automotive Power Electronics: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, G.; Jeffers, J. R.; Narumanchi, S.; Bennion, K.

    2014-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a passive two-phase cooling strategy as a means of cooling automotive power electronics. The proposed cooling approach utilizes an indirect cooling configuration to alleviate some reliability concerns and to allow the use of conventional power modules. An inverter-scale proof-of-concept cooling system was fabricated, and tests were conducted using the refrigerants hydrofluoroolefin HFO-1234yf and hydrofluorocarbon HFC-245fa. Results demonstrated that the system can dissipate at least 3.5 kW of heat with 250 cm3 of HFC-245fa. An advanced evaporator design that incorporates features to improve performance and reduce size was conceived. Simulation results indicate its thermal resistance can be 37% to 48% lower than automotive dual side cooled power modules. Tests were also conducted to measure the thermal performance of two air-cooled condensers--plain and rifled finned tube designs. The results combined with some analysis were then used to estimate the required condenser size per operating conditions and maximum allowable system (i.e., vapor and liquid) temperatures.

  6. Influence of the Electron Seed Properties on the Discharge Characteristics of a Pseudospark (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-04

    referred to as the backlighted- thyratron (BLT). Experiments have shown that the number 8 of seed electrons needed to initiate a discharge is of the...followed by rapid ionization avalanche and electron beam formation, and finally a super-emissive state. The physical model for the latter phase (also...called “super-dense glow”) is not yet well understood, albeit likely to involve a self-sustained sputtering 16, and is not being modeled here; our

  7. Evaluation of Performance and Opportunities for Improvements in Automotive Power Electronics Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Gilberto; Bennion, Kevin; King, Charles; Narumanchi, Sreekant

    2016-06-14

    Thermal management strategies for automotive power electronic systems have evolved over time to reduce system cost and to improve reliability and thermal performance. In this study, we characterized the power electronic thermal management systems of two electric-drive vehicles--the 2012 Nissan LEAF and 2014 Honda Accord Hybrid. Tests were conducted to measure the insulated-gate bipolar transistor-to-coolant thermal resistances for both steady-state and transient conditions at various coolant flow rates. Water-ethylene glycol at a temperature of 65 degrees C was used as the coolant for these experiments. Computational fluid dynamics and finite element analysis models of the vehicle's power electronics thermal management system were then created and validated using experimentally obtained results. Results indicate that the Accord module provides lower steady-state thermal resistance as compared with the LEAF module. However, the LEAF design may provide improved performance in transient conditions and may have cost benefits.

  8. High Performance Polymer Film Dielectrics for Air Force Wide-Temperature Power Electronics Applications (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    perform, display, or disclose the work. 14. ABSTRACT Air Force currently has a strong need for the development of compact capacitors which are... capacitors typically use polycarbonate (PC) dielectric films in wound capacitors for operation from -55 ºC to 125 ºC, future power electronic systems would...such as fluorinated polybenzoxazoles (6F-PBO) and fluorenyl polyesters incorporating diamond-like hydrocarbon units (FDAPE). The discussion will be

  9. Evaluation of Maxim Module-Integrated Electronics at the DOE Regional Test Centers: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, C.; Sekulic, B.; Stein, J.; Barkaszi, S.; Yang, J.; Kahn, S.

    2014-07-01

    Module-embedded power electronics developed by Maxim Integrated are under evaluation through a partnership with the Department of Energy's Regional Test Center (RTC) program. Field deployments of both conventional modules and electronics-enhanced modules are designed to quantify the performance advantage of Maxim's products under different amounts of inter-row shading, and their ability to be deployed at a greater ground-coverage-ratio than conventional modules. Simulations in PVSYST have quantified the predicted performance difference between conventional modules and Maxim's modules from inter-row shading. Initial performance results have identified diffuse irradiance losses at tighter row spacing for both the Maxim and conventional modules. Comparisons with published models show good agreement with models predicting the greatest diffuse irradiance losses. At tighter row spacing, all of the strings equipped with embedded power electronics outperformed their conventional peers. An even greater performance advantage is predicted to occur in the winter months when the amount of inter-row shading mismatch is at a maximum.

  10. Stability and Electronic Structures of CuxS Solar Cell Absorbers: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, S. H.; Xu, Q.; Huang, B.; Zhao, Y.; Yan, Y.; Noufi, R.

    2012-07-01

    Cu{sub x}S is one of the most promising solar cell absorber materials that has the potential to replace the leading thin-film solar cell material Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} for high efficiency and low cost. In the past, solar cells based on Cu{sub x}S have reached efficiency as high as 10%, but it also suffers serious stability issues. To further improve its efficiency and especially the stability, it is important to understand the stability and electronic structure of Cu{sub x}S. However, due to the complexity of their crystal structures, no systematic theoretical studies have been carried out to understand the stability and electronic structure of the Cu{sub x}S systems. In this work, using first-principles method, we have systematically studied the crystal and electronic band structures of Cu{sub x}S (1.25 < x {le} 2). For Cu{sub 2}S, we find that all the three chalcocite phases, i.e., the low-chalcocite, the high-chalcocite, and the cubic-chalcocite phases, have direct bandgaps around 1.3-1.5 eV, with the low-chalcocite being the most stable one. However, Cu vacancies can form spontaneously in these compounds, causing instability of Cu{sub 2}S. We find that under Cu-rich condition, the anilite Cu{sub 1.75}S is the most stable structure. It has a predicted bandgap of 1.4 eV and could be a promising solar cell absorber.

  11. Air-Cooled Heat Exchanger for High-Temperature Power Electronics: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waye, S. K.; Lustbader, J.; Musselman, M.; King, C.

    2015-05-06

    This work demonstrates a direct air-cooled heat exchanger strategy for high-temperature power electronic devices with an application specific to automotive traction drive inverters. We present experimental heat dissipation and system pressure curves versus flow rate for baseline and optimized sub-module assemblies containing two ceramic resistance heaters that provide device heat fluxes. The maximum allowable junction temperature was set to 175 deg.C. Results were extrapolated to the inverter scale and combined with balance-of-inverter components to estimate inverter power density and specific power. The results exceeded the goal of 12 kW/L and 12 kW/kg for power density and specific power, respectively.

  12. Partial Shade Evaluation of Distributed Power Electronics for Photovoltaic Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, C.; Meydbrav, J.; Donovan, M.

    2012-06-01

    Site survey data for several residential installations are provided, showing the extent and frequency of shade throughout the year. This background information is used to design a representative shading test that is conducted on two side-by-side 8-kW photovoltaic (PV) installations. One system is equipped with a standard string inverter, while the other is equipped with microinverters on each solar panel. Partial shade is applied to both systems in a comprehensive range of shading conditions, simulating one of three shade extents. Under light shading conditions, the microinverter system produced the equivalent of 4% annual performance improvement, relative to the string inverter system. Under moderate shading conditions, the microinverter system outperformed the string inverter system by 8%, and under heavy shading the microinverter increased relative performance by 12%. In all three cases, the percentage of performance loss that is recovered by the use of distributed power electronics is 40%-50%. Additionally, it was found that certain shading conditions can lead to additional losses in string inverters due to peak-power tracking errors and voltage limitations.

  13. The Distributed Astronomical Preprint Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, J. E.; Hanisch, Robert J.; Payne, H. E.; Williamson, R. L.

    We have developed a prototype distributed preprint service. The system is hierarchical, with identical software at each node. Site maintenance tools written in Java allow information providers to enter new preprint metadata and to update them when preprints are published. A web site at each node is built on-the-fly from the metadata, allowing both browsing and searching. Parent servers can gather metadata from child servers, allowing the central server to index everything, and to notice new entries. Queries return preprint identifiers (``prepcodes'') which resolve to on-line journals in the case of published preprints.

  14. Duke Electronic Mail Post Office A Practical Mail Linking System*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryfoos, James D.; Hammond, William E.; Spero, Laurence A.; Rabold, Jean S.; Straube, Mark J.; Stead, William W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes a system designed to integrate the many different electronic mail systems in use throughout Duke University. The Duke Electronic Mail Post Office project is part of Duke University Medical Center's model for Achieving an Integrated Academic Information Management System (IAIMS). Main features of the systems, problems encountered during implementation, and future directions are presented and discussed.

  15. Electron acceleration in a post-flare decimetric continuum source

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian, P; Karlick'y, M; Sych, R; Sawant, H S; Ananthakrishnan, S; Subramanian, Prasad

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To calculate the power budget for electron acceleration and the efficiency of the plasma emission mechanism in a post-flare decimetric continuum source. Methods: We have imaged a high brightness temperature ($\\sim 10^{9}$K) post-flare source at 1060 MHz with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT). We use information from these images and the dynamic spectrum from the Hiraiso spectrograph together with the theoretical method described in Subramanian & Becker (2006) to calculate the power input to the electron acceleration process. The method assumes that the electrons are accelerated via a second-order Fermi acceleration mechanism. Results: We find that the power input to the nonthermal electrons is in the range $3\\times 10^{25}$--$10^{26}$ erg/s. The efficiency of the overall plasma emission process starting from electron acceleration and culminating in the observed emission could range from $2.87\\times 10^{-9}$ to $2.38 \\times 10^{-8}$.

  16. Grid Interconnection and Performance Testing Procedures for Vehicle-To-Grid (V2G) Power Electronics: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, W.; Chakraborty, S.; Kroposki, B.; Hoke, A.; Martin, G.; Markel, T.

    2012-03-01

    Bidirectional power electronics can add vehicle-to-grid (V2G) capability in a plug-in vehicle, which then allows the vehicle to operate as a distributed resource (DR). The uniqueness of the battery-based V2G power electronics requires a test procedure that will not only maintain IEEE interconnection standards, but can also evaluate the electrical performance of the vehicle working as a DR. The objective of this paper is to discuss a recently published NREL technical report that provides interim test procedures for V2G vehicles for their integration into the electrical distribution systems and for their performance in terms of continuous output power, efficiency, and losses. Additionally, some other test procedures are discussed that are applicable to a V2G vehicle that desires to provide power reserve functions. A few sample test results are provided based on testing of prototype V2G vehicles at NREL.

  17. search.bioPreprint: a discovery tool for cutting edge, preprint biomedical research articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwema, Carrie L; LaDue, John; Zack, Angela; Chattopadhyay, Ansuman

    2016-01-01

    The time it takes for a completed manuscript to be published traditionally can be extremely lengthy. Article publication delay, which occurs in part due to constraints associated with peer review, can prevent the timely dissemination of critical and actionable data associated with new information on rare diseases or developing health concerns such as Zika virus. Preprint servers are open access online repositories housing preprint research articles that enable authors (1) to make their research immediately and freely available and (2) to receive commentary and peer review prior to journal submission. There is a growing movement of preprint advocates aiming to change the current journal publication and peer review system, proposing that preprints catalyze biomedical discovery, support career advancement, and improve scientific communication. While the number of articles submitted to and hosted by preprint servers are gradually increasing, there has been no simple way to identify biomedical research published in a preprint format, as they are not typically indexed and are only discoverable by directly searching the specific preprint server websites. To address this issue, we created a search engine that quickly compiles preprints from disparate host repositories and provides a one-stop search solution. Additionally, we developed a web application that bolsters the discovery of preprints by enabling each and every word or phrase appearing on any web site to be integrated with articles from preprint servers. This tool, search.bioPreprint, is publicly available at http://www.hsls.pitt.edu/resources/preprint.

  18. STUDY ON THE POST-CURE KINETICS OF EPOXY RESIN IRRADIATED BY AN ELECTRON BEAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-wen Bao; Ye Li; Xiang-yu Zhong; Xiang-bao Chen; Feng-mei Li

    2004-01-01

    The post-cure kinetics of electron beam (EB) curing of epoxy resin initiated by diaryiodinium was investigated.The post-cure reaction fits first order reaction kinetics. The reaction rate constant increases with increasing treatment temperature of post-cure. The reaction rate of post-cure is much lower than the rate of its reaction on electron beam treatment.

  19. Runaway-electron formation and electron slide-away in an ITER post-disruption scenario

    CERN Document Server

    Stahl, A; Landreman, M; Papp, G; Fülöp, T

    2016-01-01

    Mitigation of runaway electrons is one of the outstanding issues for the reliable operation of ITER and other large tokamaks, and accurate estimates for the expected runaway-electron energies and current are needed. Previously, linearized tools (which assume the runaway population to be small) have been used to study the runaway dynamics, but these tools are not valid in the cases of most interest, i.e. when the runaway population becomes substantial. We study runaway-electron formation in a post-disruption ITER plasma using the newly developed non-linear code NORSE, and describe a feedback mechanism by which a transition to electron slide-away can be induced at field strengths significantly lower than previously expected. If the electric field is actively imposed using the control system, the entire electron population is quickly converted to runaways in the scenario considered. We find the time until the feedback mechanism sets in to be highly dependent on the details of the mechanisms removing heat from th...

  20. search.bioPreprint: a discovery tool for cutting edge, preprint biomedical research articles [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie L. Iwema

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The time it takes for a completed manuscript to be published traditionally can be extremely lengthy. Article publication delay, which occurs in part due to constraints associated with peer review, can prevent the timely dissemination of critical and actionable data associated with new information on rare diseases or developing health concerns such as Zika virus. Preprint servers are open access online repositories housing preprint research articles that enable authors (1 to make their research immediately and freely available and (2 to receive commentary and peer review prior to journal submission. There is a growing movement of preprint advocates aiming to change the current journal publication and peer review system, proposing that preprints catalyze biomedical discovery, support career advancement, and improve scientific communication. While the number of articles submitted to and hosted by preprint servers are gradually increasing, there has been no simple way to identify biomedical research published in a preprint format, as they are not typically indexed and are only discoverable by directly searching the specific preprint server websites. To address this issue, we created a search engine that quickly compiles preprints from disparate host repositories and provides a one-stop search solution. Additionally, we developed a web application that bolsters the discovery of preprints by enabling each and every word or phrase appearing on any web site to be integrated with articles from preprint servers. This tool, search.bioPreprint, is publicly available at http://www.hsls.pitt.edu/resources/preprint.

  1. Post-equinox periodicities in Saturn's energetic electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbary, J. F.; Mitchell, D. G.; Krimigis, S. M.; Krupp, N.

    2011-12-01

    Since Saturn's vernal equinox in August 2009 (day 223), energetic electrons (110-365 keV) have exhibited a variety of periodic and aperiodic behavior within a spectral window of 5-15 hours. From late 2009 through the end of 2010, when the observed at dusk, a single period near 10.7 hours dominated the Lomb spectra of these particles. Near the end of 2010, however, the energetic electrons displayed multiple periods, with the strongest at 10.65 hours. The periodicity observed after equinox has a mean value of 10.69 ± 0.06 hours and agreed closely with that of Saturn kilometric radio (south) emissions. By early 2011, when the observer had moved to the dayside, the periodicities abruptly disappeared and the Lomb spectra show no periodicity. This behavior may suggest changes in Saturn's ionosphere as a result of seasonal change, or may alternately imply a local time dependence of periodicity caused by magnetodisk thickness asymmetry.

  2. Model for Electron-Beam-Induced Current Analysis of mc-Si Addressing Defect Contrast Behavior in Heavily Contaminated PV Material: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guthrey, H.; Gorman, B.; Al-Jassim, M.

    2012-06-01

    Much work has been done to correlate electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) contrast behavior of extended defects with the character and degree of impurity decoration. However, existing models fail to account for recently observed contrast behavior of defects in heavily contaminated mc-Si PV cells. We have observed large increases in defect contrast with decreasing temperature for all electrically active defects, regardless of their initial contrast signatures at ambient temperature. This negates the usefulness of the existing models in identifying defect character and levels of impurity decoration based on the temperature dependence of the contrast behavior. By considering the interactions of transition metal impurities with the silicon lattice and extended defects, we attempt to provide an explanation for these observations. Our findings will enhance the ability of the PV community to understand and mitigate the effects of these types of defects as the adoption of increasingly lower purity feedstocks for mc-Si PV production continues.

  3. 77 FR 50932 - Electronic Transmission of Customs Data-Outbound International Letter-Post Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... 20 Electronic Transmission of Customs Data--Outbound International Letter-Post Items AGENCY: Postal... Standards of the United States Postal Service, International Mail Manual (IMM ) to require that customs data... Service and other federal agencies to ensure mailers' compliance with federal export...

  4. Euler European Libraries and Electronic Resources in Mathematical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    The Euler Project. Karlsruhe

    The European Libraries and Electronic Resources (EULER) Project in Mathematical Sciences provides the EulerService site for searching out "mathematical resources such as books, pre-prints, web-pages, abstracts, proceedings, serials, technical reports preprints) and NetLab (for Internet resources), this outstanding engine is capable of simple, full, and refined searches. It also offers a browse option, which responds to entries in the author, keyword, and title fields. Further information about the Project is provided at the EULER homepage.

  5. Chirped Auger electron emission due to field-assisted post-collision interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonitz M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the Auger decay in the temporal domain by applying a terahertz streaking light field. Xenon and krypton atoms were studied by implementing the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH as well as a source of high-order harmonic radiation combined with terahertz pulses from an optical rectification source. The observed linewidth asymmetries in the streaked spectra suggest a chirped Auger electron emission which is understood in terms of field-assisted post-collision interaction. The experimentally obtained results agree well with model calculations.

  6. Post-patterning of an electronic homojunction in atomically thin monoclinic MoTe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sera; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Dohyun; Hwang, Geunwoo; Baik, Jaeyoon; Yang, Heejun; Cho, Suyeon

    2017-06-01

    Monoclinic group 6 transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have been extensively studied for their intriguing 2D physics (e.g. spin Hall insulator) as well as for ohmic homojunction contacts in 2D device applications. A critical prerequisite for those applications is thickness control of the monoclinic 2D materials, which allows subtle engineering of the topological states or electronic bandgaps. Local thickness control enables the realization of clean homojunctions between different electronic states, and novel device operation in a single material. However, conventional fabrication processes, including chemical methods, typically produce non-homogeneous and relatively thick monoclinic TMDs, due to their distorted octahedral structures. Here, we report on a post-patterning technique using laser-irradiation to fabricate homojunctions between two different thickness areas in monoclinic MoTe2. A thickness-dependent electronic change from a metallic to semiconducting state, resulting in an electronic homojunction, was realized by the optical patterning of pristine MoTe2 flakes, and a pre-patterned device channel of monoclinic MoTe2 with a thickness-resolution of 5 nm. Our work provides insight on an optical post-process method for controlling thickness, as a promising approach for fabricating impurity-free 2D TMDs homojunction devices.

  7. APPLICATION OF ELECTRONIC TACHEOMETER FOR PREAND POST-CONSTRUCTION SURVEY OF ELEVATOR SHAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Nesterionok

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Floor-by-floor survey of installed elements of an elevator shaft using coordinate method and tacheometer is also inhibited by the necessity to determine device installation points for floors of every mounting horizon that leads to additional measurements due to conditions of the completed building framework and presence of a great number of situational disturbances and then it entails significant time expenditure and diminution of accuracy in the obtained results. Technical capabilities of the modern electronic tacheometer substantially simplify an accomplishment of the mission because the device can be applied not only in function of vertical projection but it can be used for preand post-construction survey of the elevator shaft with the help of advanced radiation method. While using the given method the electronic tacheometer equipped with diagonal ocular is installed over a bearing sign in the elevator pit and control points of the elevator shaft are determined with the help of specially developed portable beam deflector in the form of disc with radius r, which is fixed to a handle rod and orientated perpendicularly to a laser beam. An innovation diagram for preand post-construction survey of elevator shaft has been developed while applying this type of deflector. The diagram is characterized by high efficiency due to the fact that one tacheometer installation makes it possible to execute highly accurate, complete plane and high-level surveying of the whole elevator shaft including doorways, door sills and jambs.The paper proposes a new method for pre and post construction survey of the elevator shaft using the electronic tacheometer while applying specially developed beam deflector that ensures a geometric fixing of one or simultaneously two surveying points to spatial coordinate system where the preand post-construction survey is carried out. The method is characterized by high geometric accuracy and technological efficiency.

  8. Preprint server seeks way to halt plagiarists

    CERN Document Server

    Giles, J

    2003-01-01

    "An unusual case of plagiarism has struck ArXiv, the popular physics preprint server at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, resulting in the withdrawal of 22 papers...The plagiarism case traces its origins to June 2002, when Yasushi Watanabe, a high-energy physicist at the Tokyo Insitute of Technology, was contacted by Ramy Noboulsi, who said he was a mathematical physicist" (1 page)

  9. Finite Element Modeling for Ultrasonic Transducers (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-02-27

    virtual prototyping of transducers . Fig. 18 shows a 3D model of a Tonpilz device for low frequency sensing in air. This classical design is usually used...coupled Tonpilz transducer . A thick, flexible matching layer is bonded to the face of the conical head-mass. 7. CONCLUSIONS This paper was intended as a...This is a preprint of a paper published in Proc. SPIE Int. Symp. Medical Imaging 1998, San Diego, Feb 21-27, 1998 Ultrasonic Transducer Engineering

  10. Exploring the Frontier of Electronic Health Record Surveillance: The Case of Post-Operative Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzHenry, Fern; Murff, Harvey J.; Matheny, Michael E.; Gentry, Nancy; Fielstein, Elliot M.; Brown, Steven H; Reeves, Ruth M; Aronsky, Dominik; Elkin, Peter L.; Messina, Vincent P.; Speroff, Theodore

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to build electronic algorithms using a combination of structured data and natural language processing (NLP) of text notes for potential safety surveillance of nine post-operative complications. Methods Post-operative complications from six medical centers in the Southeastern United States were obtained from the Veterans Affairs Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP) registry. Development and test datasets were constructed using stratification by facility and date of procedure for patients with and without complication. Algorithms were developed from VASQIP outcome definitions using NLP coded concepts, regular expressions, and structured data. The VASQIP nurse reviewer served as the reference standard for evaluating sensitivity and specificity. The algorithms were designed in the development and evaluated in the test dataset. Results Sensitivity and specificity in the test set were 85% and 92% for acute renal failure, 80% and 93% for sepsis, 56% and 94% for deep vein thrombosis, 80% and 97% for pulmonary embolism, 88% and 89% for acute myocardial infarction, 88% and 92% for cardiac arrest, 80% and 90% for pneumonia, 95% and 80% for urinary tract infection, and 80% and 93% for wound infection, respectively. A third of the complications occurred outside of the hospital setting. Conclusions Computer algorithms on data extracted from the electronic health record produced respectable sensitivity and specificity across a large sample of patients seen in six different medical centers. This study demonstrates the utility of combining natural language processing with structured data for mining the information contained within the electronic health record. PMID:23673394

  11. The application of electronics in traffic risk control. Contribution to CEC / ECMT / COST International Seminar Electronics and traffic on major roads; Technical, reglementary and ergonomic aspects, Paris, 4-6 June 1985, Session 3: Assessment, Preprints, pp. 133-145

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, P.I.J.

    1985-01-01

    The introduction of electronic aids in traffic offers special opportunities for alleviating tasks of both public bodies and individual road users. However, the introduction is often problematical. In this context potential and existing applications are discussed in a functional classification, base

  12. An Examination of Soft Skills Listed in Texas Electronic Job Postings and Undergraduate Business Information Systems Syllabi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Bracey, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the alignment of soft skills sought by current business IS entry-level employers in electronic job postings, with the integration of soft skills in undergraduate business information systems (IS) syllabi of public four-year universities in Texas. One hundred fifty job postings were extracted from two major…

  13. Tunable Wavelength Soft Photoionization of Ionic Liquid Vapors (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-18

    empirical methods to predict the physical properties of ionic liquids: An overview of recent developments. Zeitschrift Fur Physikalische Chemie...calculations. Zeitschrift Fur Physikalische Chemie- Preprint Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13 International

  14. Los Alamos loses physics archive as preprint pioneer heads east

    CERN Multimedia

    Butler, D

    2001-01-01

    The Los Alamos preprint server is to move to Cornell University. Paul Ginsparg who created the server cites a lack of enthusiasm among senior staff at LANL as a major reason for his departure (1/2 page).

  15. Emerging Carbon and Post-Carbon Nanomaterial Inks for Printed Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secor, Ethan B; Hersam, Mark C

    2015-02-19

    Carbon and post-carbon nanomaterials present desirable electrical, optical, chemical, and mechanical attributes for printed electronics, offering low-cost, large-area functionality on flexible substrates. In this Perspective, recent developments in carbon nanomaterial inks are highlighted. Monodisperse semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes compatible with inkjet and aerosol jet printing are ideal channels for thin-film transistors, while inkjet, gravure, and screen-printable graphene-based inks are better-suited for electrodes and interconnects. Despite the high performance achieved in prototype devices, additional effort is required to address materials integration issues encountered in more complex systems. In this regard, post-carbon nanomaterial inks (e.g., electrically insulating boron nitride and optically active transition-metal dichalcogenides) present promising opportunities. Finally, emerging work to extend these nanomaterial inks to three-dimensional printing provides a path toward nonplanar devices. Overall, the superlative properties of these materials, coupled with versatile assembly by printing techniques, offer a powerful platform for next-generation printed electronics.

  16. Evaluation of Electronic Healthcare Databases for Post-Marketing Drug Safety Surveillance and Pharmacoepidemiology in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Gao, Shuangqing; Lin, Hongbo; Xie, Yanming; Feng, Yuji; Huang, Kui; Zhan, Siyan

    2017-08-16

    Electronic healthcare databases (EHDs) are used increasingly for post-marketing drug safety surveillance and pharmacoepidemiology in Europe and North America. However, few studies have examined the potential of these data sources in China. Three major types of EHDs in China (i.e., a regional community-based database, a national claims database, and an electronic medical records [EMR] database) were selected for evaluation. Forty core variables were derived based on the US Mini-Sentinel (MS) Common Data Model (CDM) as well as the data features in China that would be desirable to support drug safety surveillance. An email survey of these core variables and eight general questions as well as follow-up inquiries on additional variables was conducted. These 40 core variables across the three EHDs and all variables in each EHD along with those in the US MS CDM and Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) CDM were compared for availability and labeled based on specific standards. All of the EHDs' custodians confirmed their willingness to share their databases with academic institutions after appropriate approval was obtained. The regional community-based database contained 1.19 million people in 2015 with 85% of core variables. Resampled annually nationwide, the national claims database included 5.4 million people in 2014 with 55% of core variables, and the EMR database included 3 million inpatients from 60 hospitals in 2015 with 80% of core variables. Compared with MS CDM or OMOP CDM, the proportion of variables across the three EHDs available or able to be transformed/derived from the original sources are 24-83% or 45-73%, respectively. These EHDs provide potential value to post-marketing drug safety surveillance and pharmacoepidemiology in China. Future research is warranted to assess the quality and completeness of these EHDs or additional data sources in China.

  17. Additive manufacturing of Inconel 718 using electron beam melting: Processing, post-processing, & mechanical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sames, William James, V.

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) process parameters were studied for production of the high temperature alloy Inconel 718 using Electron Beam Melting (EBM) to better understand the relationship between processing, microstructure, and mechanical properties. Processing parameters were analyzed for impact on process time, process temperature, and the amount of applied energy. The applied electron beam energy was shown to be integral to the formation of swelling defects. Standard features in the microstructure were identified, including previously unidentified solidification features such as shrinkage porosity and non-equilibrium phases. The as-solidified structure does not persist in the bulk of EBM parts due to a high process hold temperature (˜1000°C), which causes in situ homogenization. The most significant variability in as-fabricated microstructure is the formation of intragranular delta-phase needles, which can form in samples produced with lower process temperatures (Inconel 718. Traditional post-processing methods of hot isostatic pressing (HIP) and solution treatment and aging (STA) were found to result in variability in grain growth and phase solution. Recrystallization and grain structure are identified as possible mechanisms to promote grain growth. These results led to the conclusion that the first step in thermal post-processing of EBM Inconel 718 should be an optimized solution treatment to reset phase variation in the as-fabricated microstructure without incurring significant grain growth. Such an optimized solution treatment was developed (1120°C, 2hr) for application prior to aging or HIP. The majority of as-fabricated tensile properties met ASTM AM Inconel 718 standards for yield stress and ultimate tensile strength, and STA yield stress, ultimate tensile strength, and elongation exceeded the ASTM standards for AM Inconel 718.

  18. Transmission electron microscopy as a tool for nanocrystal characterization pre- and post-injector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, H P; DePonte, D P; Makhov, A M; Conway, James F; Zeldin, O B; Boutet, S; Calero, G; Cohen, A E

    2014-07-17

    Recent advancements at the Linac Coherent Light Source X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) enabling successful serial femtosecond diffraction experiments using nanometre-sized crystals (NCs) have opened up the possibility of X-ray structure determination of proteins that produce only submicrometre crystals such as many membrane proteins. Careful crystal pre-characterization including compatibility testing of the sample delivery method is essential to ensure efficient use of the limited beamtime available at XFEL sources. This work demonstrates the utility of transmission electron microscopy for detecting and evaluating NCs within the carrier solutions of liquid injectors. The diffraction quality of these crystals may be assessed by examining the crystal lattice and by calculating the fast Fourier transform of the image. Injector reservoir solutions, as well as solutions collected post-injection, were evaluated for three types of protein NCs (i) the membrane protein PTHR1, (ii) the multi-protein complex Pol II-GFP and (iii) the soluble protein lysozyme. Our results indicate that the concentration and diffraction quality of NCs, particularly those with high solvent content and sensitivity to mechanical manipulation may be affected by the delivery process. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Information Operations and Terrorism (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-18

    independent organization, called Anti-Terrorism Intelligence (ATI), in March 2005. 42 Brian McWilliams , “Anti-India Hackers Turn Attacks on US Systems...20, 2003. 48 David McGuire, “Al Qaeda Messages Posted on U.S. Server,” The Washington Post, July 13, 2004. 49 Alan Sipress, “An Indonesian’s Prison

  20. Post mastectomy chest wall irradiation using mixed electron-photon beams with or without isocentric technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, H K; Zikry, M S

    2008-01-01

    To describe our technique in delivering post mastectomy radiotherapy to chest wall using electron-photon mixed beam with or without isocentric application of the tangential photon portals, and to evaluate the associated acute and delayed morbidities. Twenty-two females with invasive breast cancer were subjected to modified radical mastectomy with adequate axillary dissection. All the patients have either tumour > or = 5 cm and/ or positive axillary nodes > 3. Chest wall was irradiated by a mixed beam of 6-Mev electrons (10Gy) and opposed tangential fields using 6 Mev-photons (36 Gy) followed by 6-Mev electrons boost to the scar of mastectomy for 4 Gy/2 fractions. We randomly allocated our patients to receive the photon beam with or without the isocentric technique. The mean dose to the planned target volume (PTV) by mixed beam was 44 Gy (96%) with a mean dose of 42 Gy (91%) to the overlying skin for the whole study group. In cases with right breast disease (17 cases), the mean right lung tissue volume within the PTV was 220 ml (15%). It was relatively higher with the non-iscocentric technique, 281 ml (19%), compared to the isocentric technique of 159 ml (10.5%). In cases with left breast disease (5 cases), the mean left lung volume within the PTV was 175 ml (14%). Larger volume of the lung tissue was included with the non-isocentric technique, 197 ml (16%) compared to the isocentric technique of 153 ml (12%). The mean scattered doses to the rest of the lung tissue, the rest of the heart in left breast cases, and the contra-lateral breast for the whole study group were 2.8 Gy, 1.8 Gy, and 1.4 Gy respectively and was comparable in both treatment arms. None of the cases developed any element of acute radiation related pneumonitis. Delayed radiation induced pneumonitis was seen in 2 cases (18%), with the chest wall treated with radiation with the non-isocentric technique. This study clearly demonstrated the utility of mixed beam in irradiating the chest wall after

  1. Control of Post-disruption Runaway Electron Beams in the DIII-D Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidietis, N. W.

    2011-10-01

    Recent experiments on DIII-D have demonstrated real-time control of post-disruption runaway electron (RE) beams, presenting the possibility for slow, controlled dissipation of the beam energy. RE beams will present a greater challenge to ITER than present tokamaks due to ITER's high RE avalanche gain constant [Nucl.Fusion 37, 1355-62 (1997)] and the difficulty repairing potential damage to its first wall. In the rare event that disruption control and mitigation schemes fail to suppress RE generation, active control of the RE beam may be an important line of defense to prevent rapid, localized deposition of RE beam energy on the first wall. Initially, sustaining a RE beam plateau requires avoiding radial collapse of the beam into the inner wall during the first 1-2 wall penetration times following the current quench (CQ). This collapse is caused by attractive induced currents in the wall and a lack of radial equilibrium with slow vertical field coils. The collapse is avoided by slewing the inner PF coils to push the RE beam off the wall while reducing the outer PF coil currents. Beam survival through this phase requires sufficient RE plateau current (IRE) and power supply slew rates to re-establish equilibrium. Following that transient period, RE beam vertical position was dynamically controlled, and stabilization was maintained in an elongated (κ VDEs to the pre-programmed ramp-down time, indicating that steady-state control may be achievable. Supported by the US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  2. Post calibration of the two-dimensional electron cyclotron emission imaging instrument with electron temperature characteristics of the magnetohydrodynamic instabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M J; Park, H K; Yun, G S; Nam, Y B; Choe, G H; Lee, W; Jardin, S

    2016-01-01

    The electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) instrument is widely used to study the local electron temperature (Te) fluctuations by measuring the ECE intensity IECE ∝ Te in tokamak plasmas. The ECEI measurement is often processed in a normalized fluctuation quantity against the time averaged value due to complication in absolute calibration. In this paper, the ECEI channels are relatively calibrated using the flat Te assumption of the sawtooth crash or the tearing mode island and a proper extrapolation. The 2-D relatively calibrated electron temperature (Te,rel) images are reconstructed and the displacement amplitude of the magnetohydrodynamic modes can be measured for the accurate quantitative growth analysis.

  3. Electron Conformal Radiotherapy for Post-Mastectomy Irradiation: A Bolus-Free, Multi-Energy, Multi-Segmented Field Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    The radiation oncologist outlines the PTV, which is the target area that will be treated with electrons . Figure 2 .2 shows a clinica l example of...post-mastectomy clinica l cases. These particular cases were previously treated using bolus ECT . After the segmented-field ECT plans were developed...size. This data was collected by the medica l physics staff at M . D. Anderson during the machine commissioning proces s for a linear accelerator . 19 3

  4. Post calibration of the two-dimensional electron cyclotron emission imaging instrument with electron temperature characteristics of the magnetohydrodynamic instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, M. J., E-mail: mjchoi@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of); Park, H. K. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 34133 (Korea, Republic of); Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Yun, G. S.; Nam, Y. B.; Choe, G. H. [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, W. [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan 689-798 (Korea, Republic of); Jardin, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    The electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) instrument is widely used to study the local electron temperature (T{sub e}) fluctuations by measuring the ECE intensity I{sub ECE} ∝ T{sub e} in tokamak plasmas. The ECEI measurement is often processed in a normalized fluctuation quantity against the time averaged value due to complication in absolute calibration. In this paper, the ECEI channels are relatively calibrated using the flat T{sub e} assumption of the sawtooth crash or the tearing mode island and a proper extrapolation. The 2-D relatively calibrated electron temperature (T{sub e,rel}) images are reconstructed and the displacement amplitude of the magnetohydrodynamic modes can be measured for the accurate quantitative growth analysis.

  5. Preprints, Impact Factors, and Unethical Behavior, but also Lots of Good News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gölitz, Peter

    2016-10-24

    Preprints as well? There is already the Accepted Article (published directly after refereeing and author revision), the Early-View/ASAP-Version (after refereeing, editing and proofing), and the final Version of Record. The problems with preprints are discussed in this Editorial along with the undeclared resubmission of previously rejected manuscripts: publication times, color costs, and Angewandte Symposia are further topics.

  6. Efficacy of Different Root Canal Irrigants on Smear Layer Removal after Post Space Preparation: A Scanning Electron Microscopy Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirseifinejad, Rahele; Tabrizizade, Mehdi; Davari, Abdolrahim; Mehravar, Fateme

    2017-01-01

    Effective durable adhesion between post material and dentine using resin cements is essential for longevity of restoration. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the effect of different irrigants on smear layer removal after post space preparation. A total of 75 extracted anterior human teeth were selected. The canals were instrumented by rotary system and then were filled. After preparing the post space, teeth were divided into 5 groups according to irrigants: 17% EDTA; 17% EDTA+2% CHX; 5.25% NaOCl; 17% EDTA+5.25% NaOCl; and saline. The canals were irrigated with 5 cc of each irrigants for 1 min. Specimens were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hulsmann's score was used for marking of smear layer removal at coronal, middle and apical thirds of post space. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The results revealed that subsequent use of 17% EDTA+5.25% NaOCl was more effective than the other groups in smear layer removal. No statistical difference was found among different levels of root canal within each group. It can be concluded that 17% EDTA+5.25% NaOCl could be an effective irrigant for smear layer removal after post space preparation.

  7. A new horizon in secondary neutral mass spectrometry: post-ionization using a VUV free electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veryovkin, Igor V.; Calaway, Wallis F.; Moore, Jerry F.; Pellin, Michael J.; Lewellen, John W.; Li, Yuelin; Milton, Stephen V.; King, Bruce V.; Petravic, Mladen

    2004-06-15

    A new time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer incorporating post-ionization of sputtered neutral species with tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light generated by a free electron laser (FEL) has been developed. Capabilities of this instrument, called SPIRIT, were demonstrated by experiments with photoionization of sputtered neutral gold atoms with 125 nm light generated by the VUV FEL located at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). In a separate series of experiments with a fixed wavelength VUV light source, a 157 nm F{sub 2} laser, a useful yield (atoms detected per atoms sputtered) of about 12% and a mass resolution better than 1500 were demonstrated for molybdenum.

  8. Herpetic brainstem encephalitis: report of a post-mortem case studied electron microscopically and immunohisiochemically

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Eymard Homem Pitella

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available A post-mortem examined case of herpetic brainstem encephalitis is presented. Clinically, the patient had cephalea followed by ataxia, drowsiness and multiple palsies of some cranial nerves, developing into death in eight days. The pathologic examination of the brain showed necrotizing encephalitis in multiple foci limited to the brainstem, more distinctly in the pons and medula oblongata. The technique of immunoperoxidase revealed rare glial cells with intranuclear immunoreactivity for herpes antigen. Rare viral particles with the morphological characteristics of the herpesvirus were identified in the nuclei of neurons in 10% formol fixed material. This is the second reported case of herpetic brainstem encephalitis confirmed by post-mortem examination. The pathway used by the virus to reach the central nervous system and its posterior dissemination to the oral cavity, the orbitofrontal region and the temporal lobes as well as to the brainstem, after a period of latency and reactivation, are discussed.

  9. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF RESIDUAL STRESSES IN TITANIUM ALLOY DURING ELECTRON BEAM LOCAL POST-WELD HEAT TREATMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Furong; Huo Lixing; Zhang Yufeng; Liu Fangjun; Chen Gang

    2005-01-01

    The distributions of temperature and residual stresses in thin plates of BT20 titanium alloy are numerically analyzed by three-dimensional finite element software during electron beam welding and electron beam local post-weld heat treatment (EBLPWHT). Combined with numerical calculating results, the effects of different EBLPWHT mode and parameters, including heat treating position,heating width and heating time, on the distribution of welding residual stresses are analyzed. The results show that, the residual tensile stresses in weld center can be largely decreased when the weld is heat treated at back preface of the plate. The numerical results also indicated that the magnitude of the residual longitudinal stresses of the weld and the zone vicinity of the weld is decreased, and the range of the residual longitudinal stresses is increased along with the increase of heating width and heating time.

  10. Bias-enhanced post-treatment process for enhancing the electron field emission properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, A.; Huang, B. R.; Sankaran, K. J.; Dong, C. L.; Tai, N. H.; Lin, I. N.

    2015-03-01

    The electron field emission (EFE) properties of ultrananocrystalline diamond films were markedly improved via the bias-enhanced plasma post-treatment (bep) process. The bep-process induced the formation of hybrid-granular structure of the diamond (bep-HiD) films with abundant nano-graphitic phase along the grain boundaries that increased the conductivity of the films. Moreover, the utilization of Au-interlayer can effectively suppress the formation of resistive amorphous-carbon (a-C) layer, thereby enhancing the transport of electrons crossing the diamond-to-Si interface. Therefore, bep-HiD/Au/Si films exhibit superior EFE properties with low turn-on field of E0 = 2.6 V/μm and large EFE current density of Je = 3.2 mA/cm2 (at 5.3 V/μm).

  11. Does electronic clinical microbiology results reporting influence medical decision making: a pre- and post-interview study of medical specialists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bloembergen Peter

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinicians view the accuracy of test results and the turnaround time as the two most important service aspects of the clinical microbiology laboratory. Because of the time needed for the culturing of infectious agents, final hardcopy culture results will often be available too late to have a significant impact on early antimicrobial therapy decisions, vital in infectious disease management. The clinical microbiologist therefore reports to the clinician clinically relevant preliminary results at any moment during the diagnostic process, mostly by telephone. Telephone reporting is error prone, however. Electronic reporting of culture results instead of reporting on paper may shorten the turnaround time and may ensure correct communication of results. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the implementation of electronic reporting of final microbiology results on medical decision making. Methods In a pre- and post-interview study using a semi-structured design we asked medical specialists in our hospital about their use and appreciation of clinical microbiology results reporting before and after the implementation of an electronic reporting system. Results Electronic reporting was highly appreciated by all interviewed clinicians. Major advantages were reduction of hardcopy handling and the possibility to review results in relation to other patient data. Use and meaning of microbiology reports differ significantly between medical specialties. Most clinicians need preliminary results for therapy decisions quickly. Therefore, after the implementation of electronic reporting, telephone consultation between clinician and microbiologist remained the key means of communication. Conclusions Overall, electronic reporting increased the workflow efficiency of the medical specialists, but did not have an impact on their decision-making.

  12. In Situ Cryo-Electron Tomography: A Post-Reductionist Approach to Structural Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Shoh; Engel, Benjamin D; Baumeister, Wolfgang

    2016-01-29

    Cryo-electron tomography is a powerful technique that can faithfully image the native cellular environment at nanometer resolution. Unlike many other imaging approaches, cryo-electron tomography provides a label-free method of detecting biological structures, relying on the intrinsic contrast of frozen cellular material for direct identification of macromolecules. Recent advances in sample preparation, detector technology, and phase plate imaging have enabled the structural characterization of protein complexes within intact cells. Here, we review these technical developments and outline a detailed computational workflow for in situ structural analysis. Two recent studies are described to illustrate how this workflow can be adapted to examine both known and unknown cellular complexes. The stage is now set to realize the promise of visual proteomics--a complete structural description of the cell's native molecular landscape.

  13. Ad lib smoking in post-traumatic stress disorder: an electronic diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, Jean C; Wiley, Matthew T; Miller, Susannah C; Dennis, Michelle F; Wilson, Sarah M; McClernon, F Joseph; Calhoun, Patrick S

    2008-07-01

    Using ambulatory methods for 1 week of monitoring, this study investigated the association between smoking and situational cues in 22 smokers with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 23 smokers without PTSD. Generalized estimating equations contrasted 1,759 smoking and 1,088 nonsmoking situations by group status controlling for multiple covariates. PTSD smokers reported higher stress and PTSD symptoms across daily activities. For all smokers, higher nicotine dependence, craving, food and caffeine consumption, and being outside were related to smoking. PTSD smokers were more likely to smoke when experiencing PTSD symptoms, anxiety, and stress. Following smoking, smokers with PTSD reported a significant reduction in negative affect. These results are consistent with previous ambulatory findings regarding mood in smokers, and underscore that in smokers with PTSD, PTSD symptom variables as well as stress and anxiety are significantly associated with ad lib smoking.

  14. A data-capture system for post-marketing surveillance of drugs that integrates with hospital electronic health records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto K

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Keiichi Yamamoto1, Shigemi Matsumoto2, Kazuhiro Yanagihara2, Satoshi Teramukai1, Masanori Fukushima1,2,31Department of Clinical Trial Design and Management, Translational Research Center, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto, Japan; 2Outpatient Oncology Unit, Kyoto University Hospital, Kyoto, Japan; 3Translational Research Informatics Center, Foundation for Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe, JapanPurpose: In conventional clinical studies, the cost of data management for the purposes of quality control tend to be high and collecting paper-based case report forms (CRFs can be burdensome, because paper-based CRFs must be developed and filled out for each clinical study protocol. Use of electronic health records (EHRs for this purpose could reduce costs and improve data quality in clinical studies. Kyoto University Hospital launched an EHR system in January 2005. At the same time, a replicate of that database was established for other purposes. At the Outpatient Oncology Unit of Kyoto University Hospital we developed a data-capture system that includes a cancer clinical database system and a data warehouse for outcomes studies. This system allows us to accumulate data at low cost and apply it to various uses in clinical or outcomes studies. Here we report on the application of this system to the post-marketing surveillance of drugs.Methods: We evaluated the availability of this system and identified problems for future development. With this system investigators can register cases for post-marketing surveillance, and the registered cases are listed on a screen. When CRFs for a particular case are required, data can be extracted from the list and CRFs are produced in PDF format.Results and conclusion: In this study we confirmed the applicability of our new system to post-marketing surveillance in providing prompt and efficient data exchange. We expect it to reduce the cost of data management and analysis and to improve the quality of data in post

  15. Effect of different adhesion strategies on fiber post cementation: Push-out test and scanning electron microscopy analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Letícia Oliveria; Aguiar, Thaiane Rodrigues; Costa, Leonardo; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Muniz, Leonardo; Mathias, Paula

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of phosphoric acid etching and the dentin pre-treatment with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on the push-out bond strength between fiber post and root canal dentin. Root canals of 48 human incisors were selected, post spaces were prepared and assigned to four groups: G1-37% phosphoric acid (15 s); G2-5.25% NaOCl (2 min) +37% phosphoric acid (15 s); G3-37% phosphoric acid (60 s); and G4-5.25% NaOCl (2 min) +37% phosphoric acid (60 s). Fiber post cementation was performed with two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive system/dual-cured resin cement according to the manufacturer's recommendation. After 24 h, each root was sectioned transversally into three slices (cervical, middle and apical) and the bond strength of each section was determined using a push-out bond strength test. Morphology analysis of the bonded interface was evaluated using a scanning electron microscopy. Push-out strength data (MPa) were analyzed by Analysis of Variance and Tukey-Kramer (α = 0.05). Considering the NaOCl pre-treatment, no statistically significant differences were observed among groups; however, when the phosphoric acid was applied during 60 s in the apical portion without NaOCl pre-treatment, the bond strength was statistically significant increased. The NaOCl pre-treatment did not improve the bond strength of adhesive luting cement to root canal dentin. The findings suggest that the use of 37% phosphoric acid for 60 s may have a beneficial effect on bond strength in the apical root third.

  16. Effect of different adhesion strategies on fiber post cementation: Push-out test and scanning electron microscopy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Oliveria Saraiva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of phosphoric acid etching and the dentin pre-treatment with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl on the push-out bond strength between fiber post and root canal dentin. Materials and Methods: Root canals of 48 human incisors were selected, post spaces were prepared and assigned to four groups: G1-37% phosphoric acid (15 s; G2-5.25% NaOCl (2 min +37% phosphoric acid (15 s; G3-37% phosphoric acid (60 s; and G4-5.25% NaOCl (2 min +37% phosphoric acid (60 s. Fiber post cementation was performed with two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive system/dual-cured resin cement according to the manufacturer′s recommendation. After 24 h, each root was sectioned transversally into three slices (cervical, middle and apical and the bond strength of each section was determined using a push-out bond strength test. Morphology analysis of the bonded interface was evaluated using a scanning electron microscopy. Push-out strength data (MPa were analyzed by Analysis of Variance and Tukey-Kramer (α = 0.05. Results: Considering the NaOCl pre-treatment, no statistically significant differences were observed among groups; however, when the phosphoric acid was applied during 60 s in the apical portion without NaOCl pre-treatment, the bond strength was statistically significant increased. Conclusion: The NaOCl pre-treatment did not improve the bond strength of adhesive luting cement to root canal dentin. The findings suggest that the use of 37% phosphoric acid for 60 s may have a beneficial effect on bond strength in the apical root third.

  17. Transparent Conducting Oxides for Infrared Plasmonic Waveguides: ZnO (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-15

    AFRL-RY-WP-TP-2014-0009 TRANSPARENT CONDUCTING OXIDES FOR INFRARED PLASMONIC WAVEGUIDES: ZnO (PREPRINT) Monica Allen, Jeffery Allen...CONDUCTING OXIDES FOR INFRARED PLASMONIC WAVEGUIDES: ZnO (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N...for plasmonic waveguiding applications with an emphasis on highly conducting ZnO . In addition, the paper contains analysis of a set of thin Al-doped

  18. Quasiperiodic Strain Bursts and Self-Organization in Crystal Microplasticity (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2012-0249 QUASIPERIODIC STRAIN BURSTS AND SELF- ORGANIZATION IN CRYSTAL MICROPLASTICITY (PREPRINT) D.M. Dimiduk Metals...2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE QUASIPERIODIC STRAIN BURSTS AND SELF-ORGANIZATION IN CRYSTAL MICROPLASTICITY (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house...18 Quasiperiodic strain bursts and self-organization in crystal microplasticity S. Papanikolaou,1,2∗ D. M. Dimiduk,3 W. Choi4, J. P. Sethna4, M. D

  19. Scalable SiC Power Switches for Applications in More Electric Vehicles (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    AFRL-PR-WP-TP-2007-237 SCALABLE SiC POWER SWITCHES FOR APPLICATIONS IN MORE ELECTRIC VEHICLES (PREPRINT) Michael S. Mazzola, Douglas Seale...SWITCHES FOR APPLICATIONS IN MORE ELECTRIC VEHICLES (PREPRINT) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 63175C 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 1168 5e. TASK NUMBER 13 6...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 1 Scalable SiC Power Switches for Applications in More Electric Vehicles Abstract

  20. Ultrastructural Identification and Colocalization of Interacting Proteins in the Murine Cochlea by Post-Embedding Immunogold Transmission Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Margaret C; Sokolowski, Bernd H A

    2016-01-01

    Verification of the presence and location of a protein within tissue can be accomplished by western blotting and immunohistochemistry, using either paraffin or frozen sections. Affinity purification by reciprocal coimmunoprecipitations using the tissue of interest can demonstrate the existence of an interacting pair of proteins. Ultimately, the ability to visualize the interaction at the cellular level is desired. Precise location(s) of interacting proteins in situ can be accomplished by ultrastructural localization with high-quality primary antibodies and small-particle-size Au-conjugated secondary antibodies. Visualization can be obtained with a transmission electron microscope fitted with a high-resolution camera permitting magnifications that exceed 2 × 10(5), and, to date, resolution capability of 20+ Mpixels, thus enabling localization of the target protein to within nanometers of the actual location. Here, we report the method by which immunolocalization at the level of the electron microscope is accomplished using the post-embedding technique, i.e., performing antibody labeling of proteins on ultrathin sections of tissue embedded in acrylic resin.

  1. Comparison of the fracture toughness and wear resistance of indirect composites cured by conventional post curing methods and electron beam irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaishnavi C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To compare the fracture toughness and wear resistance of indirect composites cured by conventional post curing methods and electron beam irradiation. Materials and Methods : Forty specimens were randomly assigned into four groups of ten each and were subjected to various post curing methods. Fracture toughness and wear resistance tests were performed and the results were tabulated and analyzed statistically using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test. Results : It was found that Inlay system showed higher values followed by electron beam irradiation. Conclusion : Electron beam irradiation of dental composites gives comparable mechanical properties to other post curing systems. It can be concluded that further studies with increased radiation dose should be performed to improve the mechanical properties of indirect composites.

  2. A revised partiality model and post-refinement algorithm for X-ray free-electron laser data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginn, Helen Mary [Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Brewster, Aaron S.; Hattne, Johan [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Evans, Gwyndaf; Wagner, Armin [Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Fermi Avenue, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Grimes, Jonathan M. [Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Fermi Avenue, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Sauter, Nicholas K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Sutton, Geoff [Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Stuart, David Ian, E-mail: dave@strubi.ox.ac.uk [Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Fermi Avenue, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-23

    An updated partiality model and post-refinement algorithm for XFEL snapshot diffraction data is presented and confirmed by observing anomalous density for S atoms at an X-ray wavelength of 1.3 Å. Research towards using X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) data to solve structures using experimental phasing methods such as sulfur single-wavelength anomalous dispersion (SAD) has been hampered by shortcomings in the diffraction models for X-ray diffraction from FELs. Owing to errors in the orientation matrix and overly simple partiality models, researchers have required large numbers of images to converge to reliable estimates for the structure-factor amplitudes, which may not be feasible for all biological systems. Here, data for cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus type 17 (CPV17) collected at 1.3 Å wavelength at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) are revisited. A previously published definition of a partiality model for reflections illuminated by self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) pulses is built upon, which defines a fraction between 0 and 1 based on the intersection of a reflection with a spread of Ewald spheres modelled by a super-Gaussian wavelength distribution in the X-ray beam. A method of post-refinement to refine the parameters of this model is suggested. This has generated a merged data set with an overall discrepancy (by calculating the R{sub split} value) of 3.15% to 1.46 Å resolution from a 7225-image data set. The atomic numbers of C, N and O atoms in the structure are distinguishable in the electron-density map. There are 13 S atoms within the 237 residues of CPV17, excluding the initial disordered methionine. These only possess 0.42 anomalous scattering electrons each at 1.3 Å wavelength, but the 12 that have single predominant positions are easily detectable in the anomalous difference Fourier map. It is hoped that these improvements will lead towards XFEL experimental phase determination and structure determination by sulfur SAD and will

  3. Chaotic Motions in the Real Fuzzy Electronic Circuits (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    10 oscillators ”, Nonlinear Dynamics, vol. 70, no. 2, pp. 1079-1094, 2012. 7. A. Freihat and S. Momani, “Adaptation of Differential Transform Method...Mathieu-Van der Pol Systems with New Mathieu - Duffing Systems as Functional System by GYC Partial Region Stability Theory”, Nonlinear Analysis: Theory...well as the bifurcation mechanism in controlled Lorenz oscillator with two time scales”, Physics Letters A, vol. 375, no. 8, pp. 1183–1190, 2011. 26

  4. Novel Power Electronics Three-Dimensional Heat Exchanger: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, K.; Cousineau, J.; Lustbader, J.; Narumanchi, S.

    2014-08-01

    Electric drive systems for vehicle propulsion enable technologies critical to meeting challenges for energy, environmental, and economic security. Enabling cost-effective electric drive systems requires reductions in inverter power semiconductor area. As critical components of the electric drive system are made smaller, heat removal becomes an increasing challenge. In this paper, we demonstrate an integrated approach to the design of thermal management systems for power semiconductors that matches the passive thermal resistance of the packaging with the active convective cooling performance of the heat exchanger. The heat exchanger concept builds on existing semiconductor thermal management improvements described in literature and patents, which include improved bonded interface materials, direct cooling of the semiconductor packages, and double-sided cooling. The key difference in the described concept is the achievement of high heat transfer performance with less aggressive cooling techniques by optimizing the passive and active heat transfer paths. An extruded aluminum design was selected because of its lower tooling cost, higher performance, and scalability in comparison to cast aluminum. Results demonstrated a heat flux improvement of a factor of two, and a package heat density improvement over 30%, which achieved the thermal performance targets.

  5. Non-equilibrium vibrational and electron energy distributions functions in atmospheric nitrogen ns pulsed discharges and \\mus post-discharges: the role of electron molecule vibrational excitation scaling-laws

    CERN Document Server

    Colonna, Gianpiero; Celiberto, Roberto; Capitelli, Mario; Tennyson, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The formation of the electron energy distribution function in nanosecond atmospheric nitrogen discharges is investigated by means of self-consistent solution of the chemical kinetics and the Boltzmann equation for free electrons. The post-discharge phase is followed to few microseconds. The model is formulated in order to investigate the role of the cross section set, focusing on the vibrational-excitation by electron-impact through resonant channel. Four different cross section sets are considered, one based on internally consistent vibrational-excitation calculations which extend to the whole vibrational ladder, and the others obtained by applying commonly used scaling-laws.

  6. Optimizing the design of preprinted orders for ambulatory chemotherapy: combining oncology, human factors, and graphic design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jennifer; White, Rachel E; Hunt, Richard G; Cassano-Piché, Andrea L; Easty, Anthony C

    2012-03-01

    To establish a set of guidelines for developing ambulatory chemotherapy preprinted orders. Multiple methods were used to develop the preprinted order guidelines. These included (A) a comprehensive literature review and an environmental scan; (B) analyses of field study observations and incident reports; (C) critical review of evidence from the literature and the field study observation analyses; (D) review of the draft guidelines by a clinical advisory group; and (E) collaboration with graphic designers to develop sample preprinted orders, refine the design guidelines, and format the resulting content. The Guidelines for Developing Ambulatory Chemotherapy Preprinted Orders, which consist of guidance on the design process, content, and graphic design elements of ambulatory chemotherapy preprinted orders, have been established. Health care is a safety critical, dynamic, and complex sociotechnical system. Identifying safety risks in such a system and effectively addressing them often require the expertise of multiple disciplines. This study illustrates how human factors professionals, clinicians, and designers can leverage each other's expertise to uncover commonly overlooked patient safety hazards and to provide health care professionals with innovative, practical, and user-centered tools to minimize those hazards.

  7. Damages of the tibial post in constrained total knee prostheses in the early postoperative course – a scanning electron microscopic study of polyethylene inlays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reichelt Rudolf

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation of the risk of fracture of the polyethylene (PE inlay in constrained total knee prostheses. Methods Three unused and seven polyethylene inlays that had been implanted in a patient's knee for an average of 25.4 months (min 1.1 months, max 50.2 months were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. All inlays were of the same type and size (Genesis II constrained, Smith & Nephew. The PE surface at the transition from the plateau to the post was analyzed. Results The unused inlays had fissure-free surfaces. All inlays that had been implanted in a patient's knee already had distinct fissures at the front and backside of the post. Conclusion The fissures of the transition from the plateau to the post indicated a loading-induced irreversible mechanical deformation and possibly cause the fracture of the inlay.

  8. What is the impact of an electronic test result acknowledgement system on Emergency Department physicians' work processes? A mixed-method pre-post observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Andrew; McCaughey, Euan J; Tariq, Amina; Walter, Scott R; Li, Julie; Callen, Joanne; Paoloni, Richard; Runciman, William B; Westbrook, Johanna I

    2017-03-01

    To examine the impact of an electronic Results Acknowledgement (eRA) system on emergency physicians' test result management work processes and the time taken to acknowledge microbiology and radiology test results for patients discharged from an Emergency Department (ED). The impact of the eRA system was assessed in an Australian ED using: a) semi-structured interviews with senior emergency physicians; and b) a time and motion direct observational study of senior emergency physicians completing test acknowledgment pre and post the implementation of the eRA system. The eRA system led to changes in the way results and actions were collated, stored, documented and communicated. Although there was a non-significant increase in the average time taken to acknowledge results in the post period, most types of acknowledgements (other than simple acknowledgements) took less time to complete. The number of acknowledgements where physicians sought additional information from the Electronic Medical Record (EMR) rose from 12% pre to 20% post implementation of eRA. Given that the type of results are unlikely to have changed significantly across the pre and post implementation periods, the increase in the time physicians spent accessing additional clinical information in the post period likely reflects the greater access to clinical information provided by the integrated electronic system. Easier access to clinical information may improve clinical decision making and enhance the quality of patient care. For instance, in situations where a senior clinician, not initially involved in the care process, is required to deal with the follow-up of non-normal results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Audit of Physicians’ Adherence to a Preprinted Order Set for Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowkes, Curt T; Gee, Carol; Bluemink, Tammy; Cole, Dana; Falkner, Barbara L; Hamour, Abu A

    2010-01-01

    Background: Community-acquired pneumonia is the seventh leading cause of death in Canada. Previous studies have shown reductions in both mortality rate and length of hospital stay with the use of guideline-concordant empiric therapy and standardized preprinted orders. Objectives: The primary objective was to determine adherence to the preprinted order for community-acquired pneumonia at the University Hospital of Northern British Columbia (UHNBC). The study also had the following secondary objectives: to assess the appropriateness of prescribing of levofloxacin in relation to institutional recommendations; to determine adherence with recent guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Thoracic Society (ATS) for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia; and to determine all-cause mortality, duration of IV antibiotic therapy, and length of stay for the various regimens reviewed. Methods: A retrospective observational chart review was conducted of patients with community-acquired pneumonia who were admitted between November 2007 and February 2008. Exclusion criteria were designed to eliminate patients who did not have this condition. Descriptive statistics were used to assess adherence with the preprinted order. Secondary outcomes were analyzed with the Pearson χ2 test, t tests, and analysis of variance. Results: In total, the charts for 113 patients were reviewed, and 58 patients were included in the study. The preprinted order for community-acquired pneumonia was used for 25 (43%) of the 58 patients; however, for only 4 (7%) of these admissions were all sections of the preprinted order used correctly. No statistically significant differences in length of stay were found for any of the antibiotic combinations assessed. However, the proportion of patients treated according to the IDSA–ATS guidelines was significantly greater when the preprinted order was used (p = 0.012). In addition, use of the preprinted order encouraged

  10. Detection of Localized Heat Damage in a Polymer Matrix Composite by Thermo-Elastic Method (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    AFRL-ML-WP-TP-2007-437 DETECTION OF LOCALIZED HEAT DAMAGE IN A POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE BY THERMO-ELASTIC METHOD (PREPRINT) John Welter...GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DETECTION OF LOCALIZED HEAT DAMAGE IN A POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE BY THERMO-ELASTIC METHOD (PREPRINT) 5c...Include Area Code) N/A Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 1 DETECTION OF LOCALIZED HEAT DAMAGE IN A POLYMER MATRIX COMPOSITE BY

  11. Microstructure Evolution during Friction Stir Welding of Mill-Annealed Ti-6Al-4V (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2011-4300 MICROSTRUCTURE EVOLUTION DURING FRICTION STIR WELDING OF MILL-ANNEALED Ti-6Al-4V (Preprint) A.L. Pilchak...DURING FRICTION STIR WELDING OF MILL-ANNEALED Ti-6Al-4V (Preprint) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...Transactions A. Document contains color. 14. ABSTRACT In this study, mill-annealed Ti-6Al-4V plates were successfully friction stir welded over a

  12. Platinum Acetylide Two-Photon Chromophores (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    the higher energy range that lead to its photodegradation . Secondly, because there is a quadratic dependence of two-photon absorption (2PA) on the...to either an electron donating amino- fluorenyl or electron withdrawing benzothiazolyl-fluorene that are themselves known as two-photon absorbing dyes ...groups in place of phenyl groups have shown a doubling of the intrinsic cr2value at 740 nm.40,41In this paper we describe novel platinum dyes that

  13. Dark-field imaging based on post-processed electron backscatter diffraction patterns of bulk crystalline materials in a scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodusch, Nicolas; Demers, Hendrix; Gauvin, Raynald

    2015-01-01

    Dark-field (DF) images were acquired in the scanning electron microscope with an offline procedure based on electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) patterns (EBSPs). These EBSD-DF images were generated by selecting a particular reflection on the electron backscatter diffraction pattern and by reporting the intensity of one or several pixels around this point at each pixel of the EBSD-DF image. Unlike previous studies, the diffraction information of the sample is the basis of the final image contrast with a pixel scale resolution at the EBSP providing DF imaging in the scanning electron microscope. The offline facility of this technique permits the selection of any diffraction condition available in the diffraction pattern and displaying the corresponding image. The high number of diffraction-based images available allows a better monitoring of deformation structures compared to electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) which is generally limited to a few images of the same area. This technique was applied to steel and iron specimens and showed its high capability in describing more rigorously the deformation structures around micro-hardness indents. Due to the offline relation between the reference EBSP and the EBSD-DF images, this new technique will undoubtedly greatly improve our knowledge of deformation mechanism and help to improve our understanding of the ECCI contrast mechanisms.

  14. The Logic, Affectivity and Ethics of Electronic Conferencing Teaching Strategies in Post-Secondary Mixed-Mode Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Milton

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to identify and to understand the role of the logical, the affective and the ethical dimensions of knowledge in the online interactions of post-secondary teachers and students. By understanding how these dimensions are interwoven, I intend to demonstrate that the instructor?s course design and teaching strategies must take them…

  15. Is there any measurable benefit in publishing preprints in the arXiv section Quantitative Biology?

    CERN Document Server

    Aman, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    A public preprint server such as arXiv allows authors to publish their manuscripts before submitting them to journals for peer review. It offers the chance to establish priority by making the results available upon completion. This article presents the arXiv section Quantitative Biology and investigates the advantages of preprint publications in terms of reception, which can be measured by means of citations. This paper focuses on the publication and citation delay, citation counts and the authors publishing their e-prints on arXiv. Moreover, the paper discusses the benefit for scientists as well as publishers. The results that are based on 12 selected journals show that submitting preprints to arXiv has become more common in the past few years, but the number of papers submitted to Quantitative Biology is still small and represents only a fraction of the total research output in biology. An immense advantage of arXiv is to overcome the long publication delay resulting from peer review. Although preprints are...

  16. Characterization of polarized electrons coming from helium post-discharge source; Caracterisation du faisceau d`electrons polarises issus d`une source a post-decharge d`helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerhouni, R.O.

    1996-02-01

    The objective of this thesis is the characterization of the polarized electron source developed at Orsay and foreseen to be coupled to a cw accelerator for nuclear physics experiments. The principle of operation of this source relies on the chemo-ionization reaction between optically aligned helium triplet metastable atoms and CO{sub 2} molecules. The helium metastable atoms are generated by injection of purified helium into a 2,45 GHz micro-wave discharge. They are optically pumped using two beams of 1,083 micro-meter resonant radiation, one circularly and the other linearly polarized. Both beams are delivered by a high power LNA laser. The metastable atomic beam interacts with a dense (10{sup 13} cm {sup -3}) spin singlet CO{sub 2} target. A fraction of the produced polarized electrons is extracted and collimated by electrostatic optics. Either to the Mott polarimeter or to the Faraday cup in order to measure the electron polarization and extracted current. For current intensities of 100 micro-Amperes, the electronic polarization reaches 62 % and shows that this type of source has reached the same high competitive level as the most performing GaAs ones. Additionally, the optical properties of the extracted beam are found to be excellent. These properties (energy spread and emittance) reflect the electron energy distribution at the chemo-ionization region. The upper limit of the beam`s energy spread is 0.24 eV since this value characterizes our instrumental resolution. The average normalized emittance is found to be 0.6 pi mm-mrad. These values satisfy the requirements of most cw accelerators. All the measurements were performed at low electron beam transport energies (1 to 2 KeV). (author). 105 refs., 54 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Localization of Post-Translational Modifications in Peptide Mixtures via High-Resolution Differential Ion Mobility Separations Followed by Electron Transfer Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Matthew A.; Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.

    2016-12-01

    Precise localization of post-translational modifications (PTMs) on proteins and peptides is an outstanding challenge in proteomics. While electron transfer dissociation (ETD) has dramatically advanced PTM analyses, mixtures of localization variants that commonly coexist in cells often require prior separation. Although differential or field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) achieves broad variant resolution, the need for standards to identify the features has limited the utility of approach. Here we demonstrate full a priori characterization of variant mixtures by high-resolution FAIMS coupled to ETD and the procedures to systematically extract the FAIMS spectra for all variants from such data.

  18. Towards Liquid Chromatography Time-Scale Peptide Sequencing and Characterization of Post-Translational Modifications in the Negative-Ion Mode Using Electron Detachment Dissociation Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Frank; Hørning, Ole B; Jensen, Søren S

    2008-01-01

    Electron detachment dissociation (EDD) of peptide poly-anions is gentle towards post-translational modifications (PTMs) and produces predictable and interpretable fragment ion types (a., x ions). However, EDD is considered an inefficient fragmentation technique and has not yet been implemented...... coverage) were sequenced by both EDD and ECD. The relative small overlap of identified BSA peptides demonstrates the complementarity of the two dissociation modes. Phosphopeptide mixtures from three trypsin-digested phosphoproteins were subjected to LC-EDD-MS/MS resulting in the identification of five...

  19. Poster — Thur Eve — 51: An analysis of the effectiveness of automated pre-, post- and intra-treatment auditing of electronic health records

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, A.; Seuntjens, J.; Parker, W.; Kildea, J. [Dept. of Medical Physics, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada); Freeman, C. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    We describe development of automated, web-based, electronic health record (EHR) auditing software for use within our paperless radiation oncology clinic. By facilitating access to multiple databases within the clinic, each patient's EHR is audited prior to treatment, regularly during treatment, and post treatment. Anomalies such as missing documentation, non-compliant workflow and treatment parameters that differ significantly from the norm may be monitored, flagged and brought to the attention of clinicians. By determining historical trends using existing patient data and by comparing new patient data with the historical, we expect our software to provide a measurable improvement in the quality of radiotherapy at our centre.

  20. Localization of Post-Translational Modifications in Peptide Mixtures via High-Resolution Differential Ion Mobility Separations Followed by Electron Transfer Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Matthew A.; Shvartsburg, Alexandre A.

    2016-09-01

    Precise localization of post-translational modifications (PTMs) on proteins and peptides is an outstanding challenge in proteomics. While electron transfer dissociation (ETD) has dramatically advanced PTM analyses, mixtures of localization variants that commonly coexist in cells often require prior separation. Although differential or field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) achieves broad variant resolution, the need for standards to identify the features has limited the utility of approach. Here we demonstrate full a priori characterization of variant mixtures by high-resolution FAIMS coupled to ETD and the procedures to systematically extract the FAIMS spectra for all variants from such data.

  1. ePSproc: Post-processing suite for ePolyScat electron-molecule scattering calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Hockett, Paul

    2016-01-01

    ePSproc provides codes for post-processing results from ePolyScat (ePS), a suite of codes for the calculation of quantum scattering problems, developed and released by Luchesse \\& co-workers (Gianturco et al. 1994)(Natalense and Lucchese 1999)(R. R. Lucchese and Gianturco 2016). ePS is a powerful computational engine for solving scattering problems, but its inherent complexity, combined with additional post-processing requirements, ranging from simple visualizations to more complex processing involving further calculations based on ePS outputs, present a significant barrier to use for most researchers. ePSproc aims to lower this barrier by providing a range of functions for reading, processing and plotting outputs from ePS. Since ePS calculations are currently finding multiple applications in AMO physics (see below), ePSproc is expected to have significant reuse potential in the community, both as a basic tool-set for researchers beginning to use ePS, and as a more advanced post-processing suite for those...

  2. Time-dependent coupling of electron energy distribution function, vibrational kinetics of the asymmetric mode of CO2 and dissociation, ionization and electronic excitation kinetics under discharge and post-discharge conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietanza, L. D.; Colonna, G.; D'Ammando, G.; Capitelli, M.

    2017-01-01

    A time-dependent self-consistent model based on the coupling of the Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) with the non-equilibrium vibrational kinetics of the asymmetric mode, as well as a simplified global model, have been implemented for a pure CO2 plasma. The simplified time-dependent global model takes into account dissociation and ionization as well as the reverse of these processes. It also takes into account the excitation/de-excitation of an electronic excited state at 10.5 eV. The model has been applied to describe the discharge and post-discharge conditions typically met in an atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) and in a moderate-pressure microwave discharge. The reported results show the strong coupling between the excited state and the electron energy distribution kinetics due to superelastic (vibrational and electronic) collisions. Moreover, the dissociation rate from a pure vibrational mechanism can become competitive with the corresponding rate from the direct electron impact mechanism at high values of vibrational temperature.

  3. Techno-Tourism and Post-industrial Neo-Romanticism in Berlin’s Electronic Dance Music Scenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, Luis-Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This article profiles the ‘techno-tourists’ of Berlin: music fans who return repeatedly to the city in order to participate in the local electronic dance music (EDM) scenes. Based on interviews, this article sketches a profile of these music-minded voyagers, surveying their motivations, their

  4. A conductive polymer based electronic nose for early detection of Penicillium digitatum in post-harvest oranges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Jonas, E-mail: jogruber@iq.usp.br [Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 748, CEP 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Nascimento, Henry M. [Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Yamauchi, Elaine Y. [Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 748, CEP 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Li, Rosamaria W.C. [Centro Universitário Estácio Radial São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Esteves, Carlos H.A. [Instituto de Química, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 748, CEP 05508-000 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rehder, Gustavo P. [Escola Politécnica, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gaylarde, Christine C. [University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth (United Kingdom); Shirakawa, Márcia A. [Escola Politécnica, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    We describe the construction of an electronic nose, comprising four chemiresistive sensors formed by the deposition of thin conductive polymer films onto interdigitated electrodes, attached to a personal computer via a data acquisition board. This e-nose was used to detect biodeterioration of oranges colonized by Penicillium digitatum. Significant responses were obtained after only 24 h of incubation i.e. at an early stage of biodeterioration, enabling remedial measures to be taken in storage facilities and efficiently distinguishing between good and poor quality fruits. The instrument has a very low analysis time of 40 s. - Highlights: • Early detection of Penicillium digitatum in oranges • Low cost electronic nose based on conductive polymers • Efficient distinction between good and poor quality fruits.

  5. Degradation Characterization of Thermal Interface Greases: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVoto, Douglas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Major, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Paret, Paul P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-03

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are used in power electronics packaging to minimize thermal resistance between the heat generating component and the heat sink. Thermal greases are one such class. The conformability and thin bond line thickness (BLT) of these TIMs can potentially provide low thermal resistance throughout the operation lifetime of a component. However, their performance degrades over time due to pump-out and dry-out during thermal and power cycling. The reliability performance of greases through operational cycling needs to be quantified to develop new materials with superior properties. NREL, in collaboration with DuPont, has performed thermal and reliability characterization of several commercially available thermal greases. Initial bulk and contact thermal resistance of grease samples were measured, and then the thermal degradation that occurred due to pump-out and dry-out during temperature cycling was monitored. The thermal resistances of five different grease materials were evaluated using NREL's steady-state thermal resistance tester based on the ASTM test method D5470. Greases were then applied, utilizing a 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm stencil, between invar and aluminum plates to compare the thermomechanical performance of the materials in a representative test fixture. Scanning Acoustic microscopy, thermal, and compositional analyses were performed periodically during thermal cycling from -40 degrees Celcius to 125 degrees Celcius. Completion of this characterization has allowed for a comprehensive evaluation of thermal greases both for their initial bulk and contact thermal performance, as well as their degradation mechanisms under accelerated thermal cycling conditions.

  6. A conductive polymer based electronic nose for early detection of Penicillium digitatum in post-harvest oranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Jonas; Nascimento, Henry M; Yamauchi, Elaine Y; Li, Rosamaria W C; Esteves, Carlos H A; Rehder, Gustavo P; Gaylarde, Christine C; Shirakawa, Márcia A

    2013-07-01

    We describe the construction of an electronic nose, comprising four chemiresistive sensors formed by the deposition of thin conductive polymer films onto interdigitated electrodes, attached to a personal computer via a data acquisition board. This e-nose was used to detect biodeterioration of oranges colonized by Penicillium digitatum. Significant responses were obtained after only 24 h of incubation i.e. at an early stage of biodeterioration, enabling remedial measures to be taken in storage facilities and efficiently distinguishing between good and poor quality fruits. The instrument has a very low analysis time of 40 s.

  7. KF Post-Deposition Treatment of Industrial Cu(In, Ga)(S, Se)2 Thin-Film Surfaces: Modifying the Chemical and Electronic Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, Lorelle M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mezher, Michelle [University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV); Horsley, Kimberly [University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV); Blum, Monika [University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV); Wieting, Robert [STION; Weinhardt, Lothar [University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT); Ramanathan, Kannan [STION; Heske, Clemens [University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT)

    2017-08-14

    The chemical and electronic structures of industrial chalcopyrite photovoltaic absorbers after KF post-deposition treatment (KF-PDT) are investigated using electron spectroscopies to probe the occupied and unoccupied electronic states. In contrast to a variety of recent publications on the impact of KF-PDT, this study focuses on industrial Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 absorbers that also contain sulfur at the surface. We find that the KF-PDT removes surface adsorbates and oxides and also observe a change in the S/Se ratio. Furthermore, the KF-PDT leads to a Cu reduction at the surface but to a much lower degree than the strongly Cu-depleted or even Cu-free surfaces reported for (non-industrial) sulfur-free Cu(In,Ga)Se2 absorbers. The valence band maximum at the surface is found at a lower energy compared to the untreated absorber, and the conduction band minimum is found at a higher energy, overall revealing a widening of the bandgap in the surface region.

  8. Clinical application of 3D-printed-step-bolus in post-total-mastectomy electron conformal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwangwoo; Park, Sungjin; Jeon, Mi-Jin; Choi, Jinhyun; Kim, Jun Won; Cho, Yoon Jin; Jang, Won-Seok; Keum, Yo Sup; Lee, Ik Jae

    2017-04-11

    The 3D-printed boluses were used during the radiation therapy of the chest wall in six patients with breast cancer after modified radical mastectomy (MRM). We measured the in-vivo skin doses while both conventional and 3D-printed boluses were placed on the chest wall and compared the mean doses delivered to the ipsilateral lung and the heart. The homogeneity and conformity of the dose distribution in the chest wall for both types of boluses were also evaluated. The uniformity index on the chest skin was improved when the 3D-printed boluses were used, with the overall average skin dose being closer to the prescribed one in the former case (-0.47% versus -4.43%). On comparing the dose-volume histogram (DVH), it was found that the 3D-printed boluses resulted in a reduction in the mean dose to the ipsilateral lung by up to 20%. The precision of dose delivery was improved by 3% with the 3D-printed boluses; in contrast, the conventional step bolus resulted in a precision level of 5%. In conclusion, the use of the 3D-printed boluses resulted in better dose homogeneity and conformity to the chest wall as well as the sparing of the normal organs, especially the lung. This suggested that their routine use on the chest wall as a therapeutic approach during post-mastectomy radiation therapy offers numerous advantages over conventional step boluses.

  9. Effect of Prior and Post-Weld Heat Treatment on Electron Beam Weldments of (α + β) Titanium alloy Ti-5Al-3Mo-1.5V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anil Kumar, V.; Gupta, R. K.; Manwatkar, Sushant K.; Ramkumar, P.; Venkitakrishnan, P. V.

    2016-06-01

    Titanium alloy Ti5Al3Mo1.5V is used in the fabrication of critical engine components for space applications. Double vacuum arc re-melted and (α + β) forged blocks were sliced into 10-mm-thick plates and subjected to electron beam welding (EBW) with five different variants of prior and post-weld heat treatment conditions. Effects of various heat treatment conditions on the mechanical properties of the weldments have been studied. The welded coupons were characterized for microstructure, mechanical properties, and fracture analysis. An optimized heat treatment and welding sequence has been suggested. Weld efficiency of 90% could be achieved. Weldment has shown optimum properties in solution treated and aged condition. Heat-affected zone adjacent to weld fusion line is found to have lowest hardness in all conditions.

  10. Post-focus expansion of ion beams for low fluence and large area MeV ion irradiation: Application to human brain tissue and electronics devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, Harry J.; Guibert, Edouard; Jeanneret, Patrick; Homsy, Alexandra; Roth, Joy; Krause, Sven; Roux, Adrien; Eggermann, Emmanuel; Stoppini, Luc

    2017-08-01

    Irradiation with ∼3 MeV proton fluences of 106-109 protons cm-2 have been applied to study the effects on human brain tissue corresponding to single-cell irradiation doses and doses received by electronic components in low-Earth orbit. The low fluence irradiations were carried out using a proton microbeam with the post-focus expansion of the beam; a method developed by the group of Breese [1]. It was found from electrophysiological measurements that the mean neuronal frequency of human brain tissue decreased to zero as the dose increased to 0-1050 Gy. Enhancement-mode MOSFET transistors exhibited a 10% reduction in threshold voltage for 2.7 MeV proton doses of 10 Gy while a NPN bipolar transistor required ∼800 Gy to reduce the hfe by 10%, which is consistent the expected values.

  11. Beams of Particles and Papers. The Role of Preprint Archives in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Delfanti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    In high energy physics scholarly papers circulate primarily through online preprint archives based on a centralized repository, arXiv.org, that physicists simply refer to as 'the archive.' This is not a tool for preservation and memory, but rather a space of flows where written objects are detected and then disappear, and their authors made available for scrutiny. In this work I analyse the reading and publishing practices of two subsets of particle physicists, theorists and experimentalists. In order to be recognized as legitimate and productive members of their community, physicists need to abide by the temporalities and authorial practices structured by the archive. Theorists live in a state of accelerated time that shapes their reading and publishing practices around a 24 hour cycle. Experimentalists resolve to tactics that allow them to circumvent the slowed-down time and invisibility they experience as members of large collaborations. As digital archives for the exchange of preprint articles emerge in o...

  12. Safety: Special Effects of Thermal Runaway Chapter Heading for Encyclopedia of Electrochemical Power Sources (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-09

    Safety: Special Effects of Thermal Runaway Chapter Heading for Encyclopedia of Electrochemical Power Sources Henry A. Catherino U.S. Army... Power Sources (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Henry A. Catherino 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...Electrochemical Power Sources ", The original document contains color images. 14. ABSTRACT Any system that stores energy has the potential of becoming a

  13. A Model for Estimating Nonlinear Deformation and Damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2011-4232 A MODEL FOR ESTIMATING NONLINEAR DEFORMATION AND DAMAGE IN CERAMIC MATRIX COMPOSITES (PREPRINT) Unni Santhosh and...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F 6. AUTHOR(S) Unni Santhosh and Jalees Ahmad 5d. PROJECT...Composite Materials, 2010 A Model for Estimating Nonlinear Deformation and Damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites Unni Santhosh and Jalees Ahmad Research

  14. Thermo-Elastic Nondestructive Evaluation of Fatigue Damage in PMR-15 Resin (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2011-4365 THERMO-ELASTIC NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF FATIGUE DAMAGE IN PMR -15 RESIN (PREPRINT) J.T. Welter and E.A...Technical Paper 1 November 2011 – 1 November 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THERMO-ELASTIC NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF FATIGUE DAMAGE IN PMR -15 RESIN...largely been overlooked. In this paper we present studies of nondestructive evaluation of fatigue damage in a thermoset polyimide resin, PMR -15, performed

  15. Automated Identification and Characterization of Secondary & Tertiary gamma’ Precipitates in Nickel-Based Superalloys (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    METHODOLOGY A nickel-based superalloy sample (Rene88DT) was cut from a forged disc developed under a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency funded...AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2010-4064 AUTOMATED IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SECONDARY & TERTIARY γ’ PRECIPITATES IN NICKEL-BASED SUPERALLOYS ...AUTOMATED IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SECONDARY & TERTIARY γ’ PRECIPITATES IN NICKEL-BASED SUPERALLOYS (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In

  16. The virtual library in action: Collaborative international control of high-energy physics pre-print

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreitz, P.A.; Addis, L.; Galic, H.; Johnson, T.

    1996-02-01

    This paper will discuss how control of the grey literature in high-energy physics pre-prints developed through a collaborative effort of librarians and physicists. It will highlight the critical steps in the development process and describe one model of a rapidly evolving virtual library for high-energy physics information. In conclusion, this paper will extend this physics model to other areas of grey literature management.

  17. Using Information from the Electronic Health Record to Improve Measurement of Unemployment in Service Members and Veterans with mTBI and Post-Deployment Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillahunt-Aspillaga, Christina; Finch, Dezon; Massengale, Jill; Kretzmer, Tracy; Luther, Stephen L.; McCart, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this pilot study is 1) to develop an annotation schema and a training set of annotated notes to support the future development of a natural language processing (NLP) system to automatically extract employment information, and 2) to determine if information about employment status, goals and work-related challenges reported by service members and Veterans with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and post-deployment stress can be identified in the Electronic Health Record (EHR). Design Retrospective cohort study using data from selected progress notes stored in the EHR. Setting Post-deployment Rehabilitation and Evaluation Program (PREP), an in-patient rehabilitation program for Veterans with TBI at the James A. Haley Veterans' Hospital in Tampa, Florida. Participants Service members and Veterans with TBI who participated in the PREP program (N = 60). Main Outcome Measures Documentation of employment status, goals, and work-related challenges reported by service members and recorded in the EHR. Results Two hundred notes were examined and unique vocational information was found indicating a variety of self-reported employment challenges. Current employment status and future vocational goals along with information about cognitive, physical, and behavioral symptoms that may affect return-to-work were extracted from the EHR. The annotation schema developed for this study provides an excellent tool upon which NLP studies can be developed. Conclusions Information related to employment status and vocational history is stored in text notes in the EHR system. Information stored in text does not lend itself to easy extraction or summarization for research and rehabilitation planning purposes. Development of NLP systems to automatically extract text-based employment information provides data that may improve the understanding and measurement of employment in this important cohort. PMID:25541956

  18. Analysis of spontaneous inquiries about suspected adverse drug reactions posted by the general public on the electronic Japanese bulletin board “Yahoo! Japan Chiebukuro”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobashi A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Akira Dobashi,1 Kaori Kurata,1 Mitsuhiro Okazaki,2,3 Mari Nishizawa4 1Education and Research Institute of Information Science, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Hachioji, Tokyo, 2Faculty of Health Sciences, Health Innovation and Technology Center, Hokkaido University, Hokkaido, 3Cross Care Field Co., Ltd., 4Yakuju Corporation, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: Spontaneous inquiries about the development of adverse drug reactions (ADRs to medicines can be extracted based on the questions posted by the general public on the electronic Japanese bulletin board “Yahoo! Japan Chiebukuro”. Our aim was to clarify the characteristics related to people’s descriptions of suspected ADRs and determine the reasons for submitting a spontaneous inquiry. Methods: Fifty brand names of medicines used for inquiry extraction were chosen by selecting 35 pharmaceutical products, based on the generic names that had the highest sales in Japan. Questions containing both the brand name of one of these medicines and the term “Fukusayō” (ADR in Japanese that were posted from July 2004 to June 2009 were extracted from the site. Results: Among 1,419 questions extracted, 614 questions had at least one identifiable brand name of a suspected medicine, an ADR description, and the extent to which the ADR appeared to be caused by the suspected medicine(s. Among these 614 questions, 589 described in detail the symptoms/signs that the inquirers themselves or their families had experienced as ADRs. The highest number of questions was found for Paxil (525. Posts asking whether the symptoms being experienced were due to an ADR accounted for the highest number of questions. In most cases, the inquirer suspected that a single medicine led to an ADR and was seeking advice from others taking the same medicine. Conclusion: Our examination of spontaneous inquiries showed that people have sufficient knowledge to adequately report potential ADRs in terms of their symptoms

  19. Outside Mainstream Electronic Databases: Review of Studies Conducted in the USSR and Post-Soviet Countries on Electric Current-Assisted Consolidation of Powder Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene G. Grigoryev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews research articles published in the former USSR and post-soviet countries on the consolidation of powder materials using electric current that passes through the powder sample and/or a conductive die-punch set-up. Having been published in Russian, many of the reviewed papers are not included in the mainstream electronic databases of the scientific articles and thus are not known to the scientific community. The present review is aimed at filling this information gap. In the paper, the electric current-assisted sintering techniques based on high- and low-voltage approaches are presented. The main results of the theoretical modeling of the processes of electromagnetic field-assisted consolidation of powder materials are discussed. Sintering experiments and related equipment are described and the major experimental results are analyzed. Sintering conditions required to achieve the desired properties of the sintered materials are provided for selected material systems. Tooling materials used in the electric current-assisted consolidation set-ups are also described.

  20. The pressure-induced ringwoodite to Mg-perovskite and periclase post-spinel phase transition: a Bader's topological analysis of the ab initio electron densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Filippo; Sciascia, Luciana; Princivalle, Francesco; Merli, Marcello

    2012-02-01

    In order to characterize the pressure-induced decomposition of ringwoodite (γ-Mg2SiO4), the topological analysis of the electron density ρ( r), based upon the theory of atoms in molecules (AIM) developed by Bader in the framework of the catastrophe theory, has been performed. Calculations have been carried out by means of the ab initio CRYSTAL09 code at the HF/DFT level, using Hamiltonians based on the Becke- LYP scheme containing hybrid Hartree-Fock/density functional exchange-correlation terms. The equation of state at 0 K has been constructed for the three phases involved in the post-spinel phase transition (ringwoodite → Mg-perovskite + periclase) occurring at the transition zone-lower mantel boundary. The topological results show that the decomposition of the ringwoodite at high pressures is caused by a conflict catastrophe. Furthermore, topological evidences of the central role played by the oxygen atoms to facilitate the pressure-induced ringwoodite decomposition and the subsequent phase transition have been noticed.

  1. Outside Mainstream Electronic Databases: Review of Studies Conducted in the USSR and Post-Soviet Countries on Electric Current-Assisted Consolidation of Powder Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olevsky, Eugene A.; Aleksandrova, Elena V.; Ilyina, Alexandra M.; Dudina, Dina V.; Novoselov, Alexander N.; Pelve, Kirill Y.; Grigoryev, Eugene G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews research articles published in the former USSR and post-soviet countries on the consolidation of powder materials using electric current that passes through the powder sample and/or a conductive die-punch set-up. Having been published in Russian, many of the reviewed papers are not included in the mainstream electronic databases of the scientific articles and thus are not known to the scientific community. The present review is aimed at filling this information gap. In the paper, the electric current-assisted sintering techniques based on high- and low-voltage approaches are presented. The main results of the theoretical modeling of the processes of electromagnetic field-assisted consolidation of powder materials are discussed. Sintering experiments and related equipment are described and the major experimental results are analyzed. Sintering conditions required to achieve the desired properties of the sintered materials are provided for selected material systems. Tooling materials used in the electric current-assisted consolidation set-ups are also described. PMID:28788337

  2. Nanoscale Measurements of the Surface Photovoltage in Cu(In,Ga)Se2, Cu2ZnSn4, and Cu2ZnSnSe4 Thin Films: The Role of the Surface Electronics on the Efficiency of Solar Cells: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, H.; Romero, M. J.; Repins, I.; Teeter, G.; Noufi, R.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

    2011-07-01

    We report on recent advances in the development of nanoscale measurements of the surface photovoltage (SPV) based on scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and its application to the kesterites Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) and Cu2ZnSnSe4 (CZTSe). One critical aspect of the electronic structure of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) that has yet to be determined in their related kesterite compounds is the character of the surface electronics. In CIGS, spontaneous deviations in the stoichiometry of the surface cause a depletion (or even a type inversion) region that reinforces the CIGS homojunction. First-principle calculations predict that this inversion region will be more difficult to form in CZTS. In this contribution, the characteristics of the surface space charge region for both CIGS and CZTS(e) are investigated by STM. The implications of the results of these measurements on the future development of CZTS solar cells will be discussed.

  3. Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS) Polyimides as Space-Survivable Materials (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-27

    Survivable Materials (Preprint) 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Sandra J. Tomczak (AFRL/PRSM...Multiple samples of Kapton H®, 8.75 % Si8O11 MC-POSS PI, and silica-coated Kapton HN® (provided by Astral Technology Unlimited, Inc. Lot No. 00625-007...self-passivation experiment. (a.) Kapton H®, (b.) SiO2 coated Kapton HN® (Provided by Astral Industries Inc.), and (c.) 8.75 wt % Si8O11 cage MC

  4. Optical Manipulation and Defect Creation in a Liquid Crystal on a Photo Responsive Surface (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-25

    optical tweezers . Optics Express. 19, 24320 (2011). 7. M. Carrascosa, A. García-Cabañes, M. Jubera, J. B. Ramiro, F. Agulló-López, LiNbO3: A photovoltaic...AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0236 OPTICAL MANIPULATION AND DEFECT CREATION IN A LIQUID CRYSTAL ON A PHOTO RESPONSIVE SURFACE (PREPRINT...December 2016 Interim 26 October 2015 – 16 November 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OPTICAL MANIPULATION AND DEFECT CREATION IN A LIQUID CRYSTAL ON A

  5. “This Post Is Sponsored” : Effects of Sponsorship Disclosure on Persuasion Knowledge and Electronic Word of Mouth in the Context of Facebook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerman, S.C.; Willemsen, L.M.; Van Der Aa, E.P.

    Social media, such as Facebook, offer brands the opportunity to reach their target audience in a less obtrusive way than traditional media, through sponsored posts. Regulations require marketers to explicitly inform consumers about the commercial nature of these posts. This study addresses the

  6. “This Post Is Sponsored” : Effects of Sponsorship Disclosure on Persuasion Knowledge and Electronic Word of Mouth in the Context of Facebook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerman, S.C.; Willemsen, L.M.; Van Der Aa, E.P.

    2017-01-01

    Social media, such as Facebook, offer brands the opportunity to reach their target audience in a less obtrusive way than traditional media, through sponsored posts. Regulations require marketers to explicitly inform consumers about the commercial nature of these posts. This study addresses the effec

  7. Note on: Considering the Case for Biodiversity Cycles: Reexamining the Evidence for Periodicity in the Fossil Record, by Lieberman and Melott, arXiv preprint 0704.2896

    CERN Document Server

    Omerbashich, M

    2007-01-01

    Lieberman and Melott built their recent arXiv preprint 0704.2896 on my published paper and (a preprint of) a subsequent comment by Liebermans associate Cornette. But had this group waited for the Cornette comment to actually appear in print together with the expected Reply, they would have learned that his comment exposes Cornettes confusion that likely was due to journal misprint of my figure. Thus 0704.2896 is baseless. Despite receiving the extended Reply with Errata, these authors still fail to recognize that detrending of paleontological records-which they erroneously promote as a must-is an arbitrary rather than a universal operation.

  8. Agile Thermal Management STT-RX. Catalytic Influence of Ni-based Additives on the Dehydrogentation Properties of Ball Milled MgH2 (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    milled MgH2 (PREPRINT) Patrick J. Shamberger, Jonathan E. Spowart, and Andrey A. Voevodin Thermal Sciences & Materials Branch Placidus B...the dehydrogentation properties of ball milled MgH2 (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62102F...LaNi5 on the dehydrogenation properties of milled MgH2 , was investigated. MgH2 milled in the presence of Ni (5wt%) and Zr2Ni5 (5wt%) catalysts for 2 h

  9. Thermal Management of Vehicle Electronic Payloads Using Nanofluids and Thermoelectric Devices--Modeling and Analysis (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Dittus- Boelter equation was used to model the Nusselt number relationship shown in Equation (1) ( Incropera and DeWitt, 1990) to provide a...Transfer, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 140-146. Incropera , F.P. and DeWitt, D.P. (1990) Introduction to Heat Transfer, New York: John Wiley & Sons. Kakac, S

  10. A Web Service and Interface for Remote Electronic Device Characterization (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    the WWW interface. User WWW Server Keithley 2602 Nanotube, graphene or Intel CMOS erver GPIB it l 1 Nanotube, graphene or Si MOSFET Electrical...Educational technology, engineering education, MOSFETs , online services, transistors The authors are...and metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors ( MOSFETs ). Theoretical studies alone cannot provide students with a complete understanding

  11. Joint Services Electronics Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    Resolution AFOSR-82-0248 Acousto- Optic Laser Probe," Preprint (August 1984). 3760 J. Foster, "High Resolution N00014-77-C-0412 Acoustic Microscopy in...Acoustic Microscopy ," Preprint (December 1984). 3825 T.H. Geballe, " Super - F49620-83-C-0014 conducting Thin Films, Com- posites, and Junctions," Proposed...C.F. Quate, "Research NSF-ECS-80-10786 on Acoustic Microscopy with Superior Resolution ," Final Report for the period 15 January 1981 to 31 July 1985

  12. SU-E-T-95: An Alternative Option for Reducing Lung Dose for Electron Scar Boost Irradiation in Post-Mastectomy Breast Cancer Patients with a Thin Chest Wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y; Kumar, P; Mitchell, M [University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Breast cancer patients who undergo a mastectomy often require post-mastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT) due to high risk disease characteristics. PMRT usually accompanies scar boost irradiation (10–16Gy in 5–8 fractions) using en face electrons, which often results in increased dose to the underlying lungs, thereby potentially increasing the risk of radiation pneumonitis. Hence, this study evaluated water-equivalent phantoms as energy degraders and as an alternative to a bolus to reduce radiation dose to the underlying lungs for electron scar boost irradiation. Methods: Percent depth dose (PDD) profiles of 6 MeV (the lowest electron energy available in most clinics) were obtained without and with commercial solid water phantoms (1 to 5mm by 1mm increments) placed on top of electron cones. Phantom attenuation was measured by taking a ratio of outputs with to without the phantoms in 10×10cm2 cone size for monitor unit (MU) calculation. In addition, scatter dose to contralateral breast was measured on a human-like phantom using two selected scar (short and long) boost patient setups. Results: The PDD plots showed that the solid water phantoms and the bolus had similar dosimetric effects for the same thickness. Lower skin dose (up to 3%) to ipsilateral breast was observed with a 5mm phantom compared with a 5mm bolus (up to 10%) for all electron cones. Phantom attenuation was increased by 50% with about a 4.5mm phantom. Also, the energy degraders caused scatter dose to contralateral breast by a factor of 3 with a 5mm phantom. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate the feasibility of using water-equivalent phantoms to reduce lung dose using en face electrons in patients with a thin chest wall undergoing PMRT. The disadvantages of this treatment approach (i.e., the increase in MUs and treatment time, and clinically insignificant scatter dose to the contralateral breast given usually 10Gy) are outweighed by its above clinical benefits.

  13. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäger, Patrick A; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6-10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail.

  14. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wäger, Patrick A., E-mail: patrick.waeger@empa.ch; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6–10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. - Highlights: • LCA of plastics production from plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues • Multiple stakeholder perspectives addressed via different research questions • Plastics production from WEEE treatment residues clearly superior to alternatives • Robust results as demonstrated by extensive sensitivity analyses.

  15. What is 'Post-digital?'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Cramer

    2014-01-01

    The term "post-digital" was coined in 2000 for electronic music, but reflecting on larger developments in technology and culture, to describe a perspective on digital information technology that is no longer focused on technical innovation or improvement. In the meantime, "post-digital" has acquired

  16. La Poste

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ The French Post Office has issued ten commemorative envelopes bearing original images depicting CERN and its history. This special fiftieth anniversary collector's edition will be available on the French Post Office (« La Poste ») stand at the Open Day on 16 October, in the CMS experiment hall at Cessy. Information for collectors: a pictorial postmark and date stamp have been specially designed and produced for the occasion with the assistance of CERN's graphics team. Sending a philatelic souvenir is a great way to commemorate the Open Day, so La Poste will be setting up a large post-box for that very purpose next to its stand. A perfect way to send images of CERN all around the world...

  17. Structural, optical and morphological properties of post-growth calcined TiO{sub 2} nanopowder for opto-electronic device application: Ex-situ studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathyaseelan, B., E-mail: bsseelan03@gmail.com [Dept of Physics, University College of Engineering Arni (A Constituent College of Anna University Chennai) Arni 632326, Tamil Nadu (India); Manikandan, E., E-mail: maniphysics@gmail.com [Central Research Laboratory, Sree Balaji Medical College & Hospital, Bharath University, BIHER, Chrompet, Chennai 600044, Tamil Nadu (India); UNESCO UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences & Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); Lakshmanan, V. [Dept of Physics, A.C.T College of Engineering & Technology, Nelvoy 603107 Kancheepuram (Dt), Tamil Nadu (India); Baskaran, I. [Dept of Physics, Arignar Anna Government Arts College, Cheyyar 604407, Tamil Nadu (India); Sivakumar, K. [Dept of Physics, Anna University, Chennai 600025, Tamil Nadu (India); Ladchumananandasivam, Rasiah [Dept of Textile Engineering & Post Graduate Programme in Mechanical Engineering Centre of Technology, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal (Brazil); Kennedy, J. [UNESCO UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences & Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa); The MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, PO Box 600, Wellington (New Zealand); Maaza, M., E-mail: maaza@tlabs.ac.za [UNESCO UNISA Africa Chair in Nanosciences & Nanotechnology, College of Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Muckleneuk Ridge, PO Box 392, Pretoria (South Africa)

    2016-06-25

    Nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} powders have been selectively prepared by the simple combustion reaction method using urea as a fuel. The crystalline powder was obtained using a silica basin heated directly on a hot plate at 500 °C until self-ignition occurred. After combustion process, the calcined products were obtained by heating the as-prepared powders for 1 h in air atmosphere at various sintering temperatures [500–900 °C]. The obtained nanopowder materials were systematically characterized by X-day diffraction (XRD), micro-Raman, UV–visible absorption (UV–vis), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopics. Powder XRD pattern shows the good agreement rutile phase structured TiO{sub 2} and the sharp diffraction peaks indicates good for crystallinity. The size of a symmetry of the nanoparticles have been measured with aid of a scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), and Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) surface studies. The crystallinity of the powders was found to increase with respect to calcination temperatures. The average specific surface area of the particle was probed using gas adsorption–desorption measurements. Raman spectroscopy experiment was performed to ascertain the nature of TiO{sub 2} powder quality. UV–vis absorption spectra results showed the changes in the absorption edges of TiO{sub 2} report to increasing the calcinations temperatures. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} Nanocrystalline powders were prepared by simple combustion reaction method. • Calcined TiO{sub 2} nanopowder obtained by heating for 1 hr in air atmosphere at 500–900 °C. • Systematic characterization employed by XRD, micro-Raman, Optical, SEM, HRTEM. • The size symmetry of nanoparticles measured by electron microscopes BET methods. • Calcinations raises the crystallinity size enhanced for future opto-electronic devices.

  18. Twenty-Fifth Annual Audio-Visual Aids Conference, Wednesday 9th to Friday 11th July 1975, Whitelands College, Putney SW15. Conference Preprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Committee for Audio-Visual Aids in Education, London (England).

    Preprints of papers to be presented at the 25th annual Audio-Visual Aids Conference are collected along with the conference program. Papers include official messages, a review of the conference's history, and presentations on photography in education, using school broadcasts, flexibility in the use of television, the "communications generation,"…

  19. Kesterites and Chalcopyrites: A Comparison of Close Cousins; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repins, I.; Vora, N.; Beall, C.; Wei, S. H.; Yan, Y.; Romero, M.; Teeter, G.; Du, H.; To, B.; Young, M.; Noufi, R.

    2011-05-01

    Chalcopyrite solar cells based on CuInSe2 and associated alloys have demonstrated high efficiencies, with current annual shipments in the hundreds of megawatts (MW) range and increasing. Largely due to concern over possible indium (In) scarcity, a related set of materials, the kesterites, which comprise Cu2ZnSnS4 and associated alloys, has received increasing attention. Similarities and differences between kesterites and chalcopyrites are discussed as drawn from theory, depositions, and materials characterization. In particular, we discuss predictions from density functional theory, results from vacuum co-evaporation, and characterization via x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, electron beam-induced current, quantum efficiency, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and luminescence.

  20. Dependence of Electron Peak Current on Hollow Cathode Dimensions and Seed Electron Energy in a Pseudospark Discharge (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-03

    photo-emission. The optically-triggered method is usually referred to as the backlighted- thyratron (BLT). Experiments have shown that the number10...emissive state. The physical model for the latter phase (also called “super-dense glow”) is not yet well understood, albeit likely to involve a self...sustained sputtering18, and is not being modeled here; our attention is focused on the triggering and avalanche processes, which can be identified here as

  1. The Strength of Chemical Bonds in Solids and Liquids (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    2001). 23 Gu, X. J., Poon, S. J., Shiflet, G. J. & Widom , M. Ductility improvement of amorphous steels: Roles of shear modulus and electronic...structure. Acta mater. 56, 88-94 (2008). 24 Gu, X. J., Poon, S. J., Shiflet, G. J. & Widom , M. Mechanical properties, glass transition temperature, and...www.nature.com/nature. Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 20 Acknowledgements We thank P. Harrowell, R. Busch, M. Widom , D. Nicholson

  2. Improved Analysis Techniques for Cylindrical and Spherical Double Probes (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    accounts for the finite, but non -negligible extent of the plasma sheath. One of the most extensive assessments of ion collection by a biased cylindrical...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 4 regardless of rP/λD so long as the electron distribution function is Maxwellian such that...731. 3 J.G. Laframboise, Theory of Spherical and Cylindrical Langmuir Probes in a Collisionless, Maxwellian Plasma at Rest, (University of Toronto

  3. A View of Cyberterrorism Five Years Later (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    1 Brian McWilliams , “Pakistani Hackers Deface U.S. Site With Ultimatum, Newsbytes, October 17, 2001. 2 Dorothy E. Denning...Mujahideen Refine Electronic Warfare Tactics,” Terrorism Focus, Vol. III, Issue 5, Jamestown Foundation, February 7, 2006. 27 Alan Sipress, “An...001, Government of Canada, November 2, 2001. 30 Brian McWilliams , “Suspect Claims Al Qaeda Hacked Microsoft,” Newsbytes, December 17, 2001. 31

  4. A Review on Sensor, Signal, and Information Processing Algorithms (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    exploration [1, 3]. With recent advances in hardware technology , it has been possible to deploy a large number of devices that are able to sense...University (United Kingdom), ETH Zurich (Switzerland), the University of Karlsruhe (Germany), the Interactive Institute (Sweden), and VTT Electronics... technology , it has been possible to deploy a large number of devices that are capable to sense, communicate, and infer information about physical phe- nomena

  5. Parametric Adaptive Matched Filter for Multistatic MIMO Radar (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-04

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Journal article submitted for publication to the IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems. The U.S. Government is joint...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 1 Parametric Adaptive Matched Filter for Multistatic MIMO Radar Tariq Qureshi Member, IEEE , Muralidhar Rangaswamy, Fellow... IEEE , and Kristine Bell, Fellow, IEEE Abstract A fully disrtibuted MIMO radar system can be treated in terms of all bistatic pairs. If a bistatic

  6. Understanding of Defect Physics in Polycrystalline Photovoltaic Materials: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Y.

    2011-07-01

    The performance of thin-film solar cells is influenced by the quality of interfaces and formation of defects such as point defects, stacking faults, twins, dislocations, and grain boundaries. It is important to understand the defect physics so that appropriate methods may be developed to suppress the formation of harmful defects. Here, we review our understanding of defect physics in thin-film photovoltaic (PV) materials such as Si, CdTe, Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS), Cu2ZnSnSe2 (CZTSe), and Cu2ZnSnS2 (CZTS) using the combination of nanoscale electron microscopy characterization and density-functional theory (DFT). Although these thin-film PV materials share the same basic structural feature - diamond structure based - the defect physics in them could be very different. Some defects, such as stacking faults and special twins, have similar electronic properties in these thin-film materials. However, some other defects, such as grain boundaries and interfaces, have very different electronic properties in these materials. For example, grain boundaries produce harmful deep levels in Si and CdTe, but they do not produce significant deep levels in CIGS, CZTSe, and CZTS. These explain why passivation is critical for Si and CdTe solar cells, but is less important in CIS and CZTS solar cells. We further provide understanding of the effects of interfaces on the performance of solar cells made of these PV materials.

  7. A three-phase model proposal for the evolution of scientific communication: from first print periodicals to current electronic communication system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Bertin

    Full Text Available Scientific communication has undergone deep transformations, since the emergence of Internet. Aiming to provide further thought on the evolution of scientific communication, this paper features a historical overview of the scientific communication advances over the last twenty years through a three-phase model for the evolution of the electronic journal and the preprints services, and presents Brazilian contemporary panorama for scientific communication. The three-phase model presented in this work is an adaptation of that one proposed by Tenopir et al. (2003 to describe the patterns of journal use by scientists since 1990. The early evolutionary phase followed the emergence of the first digital journals and the creation of repositories in the Web for publishing preliminary versions of scientific literature on the author’s initiative; by that time, most academics reproved electronic publishing initiatives. From 1996 and forward, in the consolidation phase, electronic journals were commonly identical to their print counterparts; the acceptance of the electronic format began to increase, and preprint services got underway in several disciplines. The advanced evolutionary phase started with the world discussion on open access to scientific information. The comparison of the current electronic journal with that viewed by enthusiasts in the first years of the 1990s shows that some aspects still remain to be improved in electronic formal and informal communication, towards effective dissemination of scientific information.

  8. Electronic word of mouth in social media: The common characteristics of retweeted and favourited marketer-generated content posted on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Alboqami, H; Al-Karaghouli, W; Baeshen, Y; Erkan, I; Evans, C.; Ghoneim, A.

    2015-01-01

    Marketers desire to utilise electronic word of mouth (eWOM) marketing on social media sites. However, not all online content generated by marketers has the same effect on consumers; some of them are effective while others are not. This paper aims to examine different characteristics of marketer-generated content (MGC) that of which one lead users to eWOM. Twitter was chosen as one of the leading social media sites and a content analysis approach was employed to identify the common characteris...

  9. A Method to Test Model Calibration Techniques: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, Ron; Polly, Ben; Neymark, Joel

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes a method for testing model calibration techniques. Calibration is commonly used in conjunction with energy retrofit audit models. An audit is conducted to gather information about the building needed to assemble an input file for a building energy modeling tool. A calibration technique is used to reconcile model predictions with utility data, and then the 'calibrated model' is used to predict energy savings from a variety of retrofit measures and combinations thereof. Current standards and guidelines such as BPI-2400 and ASHRAE-14 set criteria for 'goodness of fit' and assume that if the criteria are met, then the calibration technique is acceptable. While it is logical to use the actual performance data of the building to tune the model, it is not certain that a good fit will result in a model that better predicts post-retrofit energy savings. Therefore, the basic idea here is that the simulation program (intended for use with the calibration technique) is used to generate surrogate utility bill data and retrofit energy savings data against which the calibration technique can be tested. This provides three figures of merit for testing a calibration technique, 1) accuracy of the post-retrofit energy savings prediction, 2) closure on the 'true' input parameter values, and 3) goodness of fit to the utility bill data. The paper will also discuss the pros and cons of using this synthetic surrogate data approach versus trying to use real data sets of actual buildings.

  10. Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics: Modeling Atmospheric Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selesnick, R. S.

    2003-01-01

    The first year of work on this project has been completed. This report provides a summary of the progress made and the plan for the coming year. Also included with this report is a preprint of an article that was accepted for publication in Journal of Geophysical Research and describes in detail most of the results from the first year of effort. The goal for the first year was to develop a radiation belt electron model for fitting to data from the SAMPEX and Polar satellites that would provide an empirical description of the electron losses into the upper atmosphere. This was largely accomplished according to the original plan (with one exception being that, for reasons described below, the inclusion of the loss cone electrons in the model was deferred). The main concerns at the start were to accurately represent the balance between pitch angle diffusion and eastward drift that determines the dominant features of the low altitude data, and then to accurately convert the model into simulated data based on the characteristics of the particular electron detectors. Considerable effort was devoted to achieving these ends. Once the model was providing accurate results it was applied to data sets selected from appropriate periods in 1997, 1998, and 1999. For each interval of -30 to 60 days, the model parameters were calculated daily, thus providing good short and long term temporal resolution, and for a range of radial locations from L = 2.7 to 3.9. .

  11. Scholarly Electronic Full-Text Publications via the Internet: Issues and Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmin, Linda J.

    1999-01-01

    subjects, since these tend to require higher pricing and carry limited sales potential. Both electronic and print publications necessitate similar editorial, production, operating, and marketing dollars. Tradeoffs owing to delivery format difference do not necessarily mean less dollars need to be spent. Authors wishing to publish books are facing a decline in the role of scholarly monographs in electronic media. However, they are witnessing increased roles of electronic preprints and electronic journal articles. Moreover, the Internet fosters self-publishing without peer monitoring or formal review. Issues challenging end-users include electronic barriers to peer-reviewed formal published works (i.e., fee-based subscriptions to journal literature vs. traditional free-library concept). This often means password only access or IP address controlled site-licensed access. Also, in an uncontrolled Internet environment, sometimes there is a blurring of publication authorship/ownership, as various pieces of publications are cut/pasted into/re-posted on various, disconnected Web searchable home pages.

  12. Hydrogenation of Dislocation-Limited Heteroepitaxial Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolen, M. L.; Grover, S.; Teplin, C. W.; Bobela, D.; Branz, H. M.; Stradins, P.

    2012-06-01

    Post-deposition hydrogenation by remote plasma significantly improves performance of heteroepitaxial silicon solar cells. Heteroepitaxial deposition of thin crystal silicon on sapphire for photovoltaics (PV) is an excellent model system for the study and improvement of deposition on inexpensive Al2O3-coated (100) biaxially-textured metal foils. Without hydrogenation, PV conversion efficiencies are less than 1% on our model system. Performance is limited by carrier recombination at electrically active dislocations that result from lattice mismatch, and other defects. We find that low-temperature hydrogenation at 350 degrees C is more effective than hydrogenation at 610 degrees C. In this work, we use measurements such as spectral quantum efficiency, secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and vibrational Si-H spectroscopies to understand the effects of hydrogenation on the materials and devices. Quantum efficiency increases most at red and green wavelengths, indicating hydrogenation is affecting the bulk more than the surface of the cells. SIMS shows there are 100X more hydrogen atoms in our cells than dangling bonds along dislocations. Yet, Raman spectroscopy indicates that only low temperature hydrogenation creates Si-H bonds; trapped hydrogen does not stably passivate dangling-bond recombination sites at high temperatures.

  13. Metallic Nanocomposites as Next-Generation Thermal Interface Materials: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xuhui [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Narumanchi, Sreekant V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); King, Charles C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-14

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are an integral and important part of thermal management in electronic devices. The electronic devices are becoming more compact and powerful. This increase in power processed or passing through the devices leads to higher heat fluxes and makes it a challenge to maintain temperatures at the optimal level during operation. Herein, we report a free standing nanocomposite TIM in which boron nitride nanosheets (BNNS) are uniformly dispersed in copper matrices via an organic linker, thiosemicarbazide. Integration of these metal-organic-inorganic nanocomposites was made possible by a novel electrodeposition technique where the functionalized BNNS (f-BNNS) experience the Brownian motion and reach the cathode through diffusion, while the nucleation and growth of the copper on the cathode occurs via the electrochemical reduction. Once the f-BNNS bearing carbonothioyl/thiol groups on the terminal edges come into the contact with copper crystals, the chemisorption reaction takes place. We performed thermal, mechanical, and structural characterization of these nanocomposites using scanning electron microcopy (SEM), diffusive laser flash (DLF) analysis, phase-sensitive transient thermoreflectence (PSTTR), and nanoindentation. The nanocomposites exhibited a thermal conductivity ranging from 211 W/mK to 277 W/mK at a filler mass loading of 0-12 wt.percent. The nanocomposites also have about 4 times lower hardness as compared to copper, with values ranging from 0.27 GPa to 0.41 GPa. The structural characterization studies showed that most of the BNNS are localized at grain boundaries - which enable efficient thermal transport while making the material soft. PSTTR measurements revealed that the synergistic combinations of these properties yielded contact resistances on the order of 0.10 to 0.13 mm2K/W, and the total thermal resistance of 0.38 to 0.56 mm2K/W at bondline thicknesses of 30-50 um. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the

  14. Impact of implementing electronic clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis, control and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors: A pre-post controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comin, Eva; Catalan-Ramos, Arantxa; Iglesias-Rodal, Manuel; Grau, Maria; Del Val, Jose Luis; Consola, Alicia; Amado, Ester; Pons, Angels; Mata-Cases, Manel; Franzi, Alicia; Ciurana, Ramon; Frigola, Eva; Cos, Xavier; Davins, Josep; Verdu-Rotellar, Jose M

    To evaluate the impact of computerized clinical practice guidelines on the management, diagnosis, treatment, control, and follow-up of the main cardiovascular risk factors: hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pre-post controlled study. Catalonia, autonomous community located in north-eastern Spain. Individuals aged 35-74 years assigned to general practitioners of the Catalan Health Institute. The intervention group consisted of individuals whose general practitioners had accessed the computerized clinical practice guidelines at least twice a day, while the control group consisted of individuals whose general practitioner had never accessed the computerized clinical practice guidelines platform. The Chi-squared test was used to detect significant differences in the follow-up, control, and treatment variables for all three disorders (hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus) between individuals assigned to users and non-users of the computerized clinical practice guidelines, respectively. A total of 189,067 patients were included in this study, with a mean age of 56 years (standard deviation 12), and 55.5% of whom were women. Significant differences were observed in hypertension management, treatment and control; type 2 diabetes mellitus management, treatment and diagnoses, and the management and control of hypercholesterolaemia in both sexes. Computerized clinical practice guidelines are an effective tool for the control and follow-up of patients diagnosed with hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolaemia. The usefulness of computerized clinical practice guidelines to diagnose and adequately treat individuals with these disorders remains unclear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Computational Modeling of Degradation of Substituted Benzyltrimethyl Ammonium: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, H.; Pivovar, B. S.

    2014-09-01

    The degradation of cations on the alkaline exchange membranes is the major challenge for alkaline membrane fuel cells. In this paper, we investigated the degradation barriers by density functional theory for substituted benzyltrimethyl ammonium (BTMA+) cations, which is one of the most commonly used cations for alkaline exchange membranes. We found that substituted cations with electron-releasing substituent groups at meta-position of the benzyl ring could result in improved degradation barriers. However, after investigating more than thirty substituted BTMA+ cations with ten different substituent groups, the largest improvement of degradation barriers is only 1.6 kcal/mol. This implies that the lifetime of alkaline membrane fuel cells could increase from a few months to a few years by using substituted BTMA+ cations, an encouraging but still limited improvement for real-world applications.

  16. Excitation of H$_{2}^{+}$ with one-cycle laser pulses: Shaped post-laser-field electronic oscillations, generation of higher- and lower-order harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Paramonov, Guennaddi K; Bandrauk, Andre D

    2016-01-01

    Non Born-Oppenheimer quantum dynamics of H$_{2}^{+}$ excited by shaped one-cycle laser pulses linearly polarized along the molecular axis have been studied by the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schr\\"odinger equation within a %three-body three-dimensional model, including the internuclear separation, $R$, and the electron coordinates $z$ and $\\rho$. Laser carrier frequencies corresponding to the wavelengths $\\lambda_{l}=25$~nm through $\\lambda_{l}=400$~nm were used and the amplitudes of the pulses were chosen such that the energy of H$_{2}^{+}$ was close to its dissociation threshold at the end of any laser pulse applied. It is shown that there exists a characteristic oscillation frequency $\\omega_{\\rm osc} \\simeq 0.2265$~au (corresponding to the period of $\\tau_{\\rm osc} \\simeq 0.671$~fs and the wavelength of $\\lambda_{\\rm osc} \\simeq 200$~nm) that manifests itself as a "carrier" frequency of temporally shaped oscillations of the time-dependent expectation values $\\langle z \\rangle$ and $\\langle \\p...

  17. Monitoring post

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Pelle Guldborg; Jespersen, Andreas Maaløe

    2013-01-01

    This blog reports on the rumour that White House considers establishing a nudge unit similar to the UK Behavioural Insights Team. Given The Nudging Networks purpose and the work of the iNudgeYou-team this post is updated continuously to follow the US debate as it unfolds. Which issues are raised......? How is the debate different from the one in the UK? And how does our work relate to the issues raised? The post has already been referenced in several US media, including US News....

  18. Preprint of the results of `the publicly applied proposal type and hi-tech (emphasized) field research and development in fiscal 1995`; `1995 nendo teian kobogata saisentan (juten) bun`ya kenkyu kaihatsu` seika hokokukai yokoshu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The preprint was prepared of a report meeting for the results of `the publicly applied proposal type and hi-tech (emphasized) field research and development in fiscal 1995` to be held in Tokyo during February 12 to 14, 1997. In the meeting, a lecture titled `The system of fundamental researches and its execution` is to be given as a special lecture and the following are as general lectures: `Energy/environmental technology and next generation catalysts,` ` The present and outlook of surgery in the 21st century - computer surgery,` The present situation of education and research related to the design of digital integrated systems,` and `The present and future of research and development of a new carbon material, fullerene.` Research reports were prepared by field as follows: 73 papers in the new material technology field, 46 in the bio-technology field, 36 in the electronics/information technology field, 8 in the mechanical system technology field, 8 in the human life engineering technology field, 23 in the medical/welfare equipment technology field, 5 in the resource technology field, 17 in the energy/environment technology field.

  19. Life Prediction Model for Grid-Connected Li-ion Battery Energy Storage System: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Kandler A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saxon, Aron R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Keyser, Matthew A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lundstrom, Blake R [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-25

    Life Prediction Model for Grid-Connected Li-ion Battery Energy Storage System: Preprint Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are being deployed on the electrical grid for a variety of purposes, such as to smooth fluctuations in solar renewable power generation. The lifetime of these batteries will vary depending on their thermal environment and how they are charged and discharged. To optimal utilization of a battery over its lifetime requires characterization of its performance degradation under different storage and cycling conditions. Aging tests were conducted on commercial graphite/nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC) Li-ion cells. A general lifetime prognostic model framework is applied to model changes in capacity and resistance as the battery degrades. Across 9 aging test conditions from 0oC to 55oC, the model predicts capacity fade with 1.4 percent RMS error and resistance growth with 15 percent RMS error. The model, recast in state variable form with 8 states representing separate fade mechanisms, is used to extrapolate lifetime for example applications of the energy storage system integrated with renewable photovoltaic (PV) power generation.

  20. Analysis of Microstructural Evolution and Fracture Mechanisms in Ti-5Al-5V-5Mo-3Cr-0.4Fe in Response to Electron Beam Welding and Post Weld Heat Treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabol, Joseph C.

    Within the last half-century, advances in Ti and Ti alloys have increased their popularity in the aerospace industry as well as in commercial products. Some Ti alloys have even replaced steels and Ni-base alloys due to their high strength and superior corrosion resistance. Of the various Ti alloys, near-beta and metastable beta alloys have become more common since their first large-scale use in the SR-71 Blackbird. In particular, TIMET's Ti-5Al-5V-5Mo-3Cr (Timetal Ti555, Ti-5553) gained high attainable strengths, excellent forging characteristics, and increased sensitivity to heat treatments compared to other beta-Ti alloys. Ti-5553 has become widely known for its desirable attributes and has since become the baseline for the next generation of metastable beta and near-beta Ti alloys. However, as well known as Ti-5553 is in the aerospace and Ti industry, its responses to welding have, for the most part, gone uncharacterized. The work presented in this dissertation investigates the influence of electron beam welding and post weld heat treatments on the microstructural, mechanical, and fracture responses of Ti-5553. In this study, Ti-5553 was electron beam welded and heat-treated in accordance to three predetermined heat treatments: 700°C for 4 hours followed by air cooling to room temperature, 804°C for 1 hour followed by air cooling to room temperature, and 804°C for 1 hour followed by air cooling to room temperature then aging at 600°C for 4 hours followed by air cooling to room temperature. Subsequently, the mechanical properties, microstructure, solute partitioning, precipitate identities, and fracture characteristics were evaluated. With the use of traditional techniques and new technology it was shown that electron beam welded Ti-5553 in the as-welded condition and three post weld heat treatment conditions exhibited varying properties, distinctive to each of the corresponding microstructures. It was also found that the o-phase played a large role in the

  1. 3. IFAC workshop: advances in automotive control. Vol. 1. Preprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    As the subject indicates, the aim of this workshop will be to discuss the latest advances related to motor vehicles, but also, and more generally, to exchange ideas between academic partners, car-manufacturers and subcontractors. The programme shows that a special effort has been made in this respect. No doubt plenary lectures are of great importance and the thematic sessions in the different sectors are the essence of such workshops; however, the discussions between experts in the different fields, the meetings between people from industry, universities and public or private laboratories, as well as the resulting exchange of ideas, are at least as important. Research is often criticized for providing merely theoretical results and for the insufficient number of its applications. But the motor vehicle offers a wide field of applications in which we can validate all techniques, tools and methods. This allows us to be involved in all the areas of fundamental research, in all the different possible approaches from fundamental research to technology transfer, and to observe the actual effects of our results. The increase in road traffic was a major problem of the past XXth century. It is clear that one the challenges of the XXIst century will be improve driving safety and comfort. The different work sessions concerning more control, driveline modelling, vehicle dynamics, electronic architecture, intelligent components, engine control, engine modelling, the modelling of combustion and turbocharging, diagnostics and subsystems. The quality of the papers and the diversity of their origins clearly shows the interest that we all take in this key sector of our research and industry. (orig.)

  2. Coupled Dynamic Modeling of Floating Wind Turbine Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayman, E. N.; Sclavounos, P. D.; Butterfield, S.; Jonkman, J.; Musial, W.

    2006-03-01

    the two concepts was also performed. Key cost components included the material and construction costs of the buoy; material and installation costs of the tethers, mooring lines, and anchor technologies; costs of transporting and installing the system at the chosen site; and the cost of mounting the wind turbine to the platform. The two systems were evaluated based on their static and dynamic performance and the total system installed cost. Both systems demonstrated acceptable motions, and have estimated costs of $1.4-$1.8 million, not including the cost of the wind turbine, the power electronics, or the electrical transmission.

  3. Dynamic Braking System of a Tidal Generator: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard; Wright, Alan; Gevorgian, Vahan; Donegan, James; Marnagh, Cian; McEntee, Jarlath

    2016-08-01

    and abnormal operations. The main objective is to optimize the performance under emergency braking while designing the system to be as simple as possible to avoid overdesigning the power electronics or exceeding the target budget.

  4. SUSPICIOUS POST

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service

    2001-01-01

    If you receive a suspicious letter or package in the post, please do not open it and contact the Fire Brigade Tel. 74444. They will contact the CERN Medical Service. This is especially important in today's current situation with regard to the Anthrax scare. For further information, the Permanent Mission of Switzerland to the International Organisations in Geneva recommends the following web sites:   http://www.admin.ch/ch/f/cf/brennpunkt/03.html http://www.who.int/emc-documents/zoonoses/whoemczdi986c.html

  5. On the XeF+/H2O System: Synthesis and Characterization of the Xenon (II) Oxide Fluoride Cation, FXeOXeFXeF+ (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-30

    11 fluoride plays a two-fold role in influencing this equilibrium. There is the obvious mass effect expected from the Le Chatelier Principle ...the Xenon (II) Oxide Fluoride Cation, FXeOXeFXeF + (Preprint) 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) M. Gerken...AFRL/RZSP) 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 50260541 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING

  6. Reduciblity, Arrhenius plots and the Uroboros Dragon, a reply to the preprint "Correlations in Nuclear Arrhenius-Type Plots" by M.B. Tsang and P. Danielewicz

    CERN Document Server

    Moretto, L G; Phair, L; Wozniak, G J

    1997-01-01

    In a recent preprint by Tsang and Danielewicz, the authors attempt to give alternative or trivial explanations for the reducible and "thermal" nature of the intermediate mass fragment excitation functions reported previously (Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1530 (1995), Phys. Lett B 361, 25 (1995), Phys. Rep. 287, 249 (1997)). We demonstrate that their proposed "self-correlation" explanation for linear Arrhenius plots is based upon a flawed autocorrelation analysis involving circular reasoning.

  7. Effect of post-weld heat treatment on microstructure, hardness and low-temperature impact toughness of electron beam welds of NIFS-HEAT-2 and CEA-J57 heats of V–4Ti–4Cr alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Tsisar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bead-on-plate electron beam welding in high vacuum atmosphere was applied to the plates of NIFS-HEAT-2 and CEA-J57 heats of V–4Ti–4Cr alloy. Effect of post-weld heat treatment (PWHT in the temperature range 673–1273K on the hardness, impact toughness at 77K and microstructure of weld metal was investigated. After PWHT at 773K, hardness of weld metal slightly decreases from 180HV100 (as-welded state to ∼170HV100 while absorbed energy increases up to ∼10J showing ductile fracture mode. PWHT at 973K results in re-hardening of weld metal up to ∼180HV100 caused by re-precipitation of Ti–C,O,N precipitates and corresponding decreasing absorbed energy to ∼2J with brittle fracture mode. PWHT in-between 1073–1273K results in gradual recovery of hardness towards values comparable with those of base metal. Impact toughness (77 K of weld metal after PWHT at 1073K is not recovered nether to the value in as-welded state nor to that one of base metal.

  8. FTP-Server for exchange, interpretation, and database-search of ion mobility spectra, literature, preprints and software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbach, J. I.; Vonirmer, A.

    1995-01-01

    To assist current discussion in the field of ion mobility spectrometry, at the Institut fur Spectrochemie und angewandte Spektroskopie, Dortmund, start with 4th of December, 1994 work of an FTP-Server, available for all research groups at univerisities, institutes and research worker in industry. We support the exchange, interpretation, and database-search of ion mobility spectra through data format JCAMP-DS (Joint Committee on Atomic and Molecular Physical Data) as well as literature retrieval, pre-print, notice, and discussion board. We describe in general lines the entrance conditions, local addresses, and main code words. For further details, a monthly news report will be prepared for all common users. Internet email address for subscribing is included in document.

  9. The Review of China Post's Informationizing Constructing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei-min; DU Yu-wei; SUN Hao

    2005-01-01

    The article briefly introduces the three stages that China Post experienced and the circumstances of the fundamental network construction, focusing on introducing the three sorts of services based on postal comprehensive computer network's applicable software system: postal financial service; traditional service electrified; electronic postal service. Finally the thinking for future China Post's informationizing constructing is put forward.

  10. Electronics and electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, George H

    1987-01-01

    Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p

  11. Modern electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Watkins, John B

    2013-01-01

    Modern Electronic Materials focuses on the development of electronic components. The book first discusses the history of electronic components, including early developments up to 1900, developments up to World War II, post-war developments, and a comparison of present microelectric techniques. The text takes a look at resistive materials. Topics include resistor requirements, basic properties, evaporated film resistors, thick film resistors, and special resistors. The text examines dielectric materials. Considerations include basic properties, evaporated dielectric materials, ceramic dielectri

  12. Building and Managing Electronic Resources in Digital Era in India with Special Reference to IUCAA and NIV, Pune: A Comparative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, H. K.; Singh, S. N.

    2015-04-01

    This paper discusses and presents a comparative case study of two libraries in Pune, India, Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics and Information Centre and Library of National Institute of Virology (Indian Council of Medical Research). It compares how both libraries have managed their e-resource collections, including acquisitions, subscriptions, and consortia arrangements, while also developing a collection of their own resources, including pre-prints and publications, video lectures, and other materials in an institutional repository. This study illustrates how difficult it is to manage electronic resources in a developing country like India, even though electronic resources are used more than print resources. Electronic resource management can be daunting, but with a systematic approach, various problems can be solved, and use of the materials will be enhanced.

  13. Cross-Correlation for Automated Stitching of Two-Dimensional Multi-Tile Electron Backscatter Diffraction Data (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    registration. Practical applications include automatic alignment of SEM stages during three-dimensional serial sectioning experiments [Groeber, 2006...transpose of A, ATAw = ATc (26) it can be seen that w = ( ATA )-1ATc (27) These equations are solved twice, first row-wise, then...of serial section image data. Modeling Simul. Mater. Sic. Eng, vol. 17. Sinha, V., Mills, M.J. & Williams, J.C., (2007) Determination of

  14. Electronic Product Design and Manufacture of Integrated Training Course Design———To Occupation Post Oriented%电子产品设计与制作综合实训课程设计———以职业岗位为导向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马颖

    2012-01-01

      According to the teaching mode of combination working with learning ,in the creation of the occupation environment ,true to the development and production of electronic products the task as the carrier ,according to the enterprises of electronic product design and production activities of the typical tasks ,designed to occupation post oriented teaching model of six step program ,and electronic products in the design and manufacture of integrated training course teaching in a reproducible enterprise electronic product design and production process and technical environment ,make students obtain corresponding occupation post process knowledge and skills .%  按照工学结合的教学模式,在创设的职业环境中,以真实的电子产品开发生产任务为载体,根据企业电子产品的设计与生产活动的典型工作任务,设计以职业岗位为导向的六步项目教学模式,力求在电子产品设计与制作综合实训课程的教学中重现企业的电子产品的设计生产过程和技术环境,促使学生获得相应职业岗位过程性知识和技能。

  15. Comparative density functional theory and post-Hartree-Fock (CCSD, CASSCF) studies on the electronic structure of halogen nitrites ClONO and BrONO using quantum chemical topology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berski, Slawomir; Gordon, Agnieszka J

    2011-09-07

    In this paper, the electronic structures of cis- and trans-ClONO and BrONO are studied at the CCSD∕aug-cc-pVTZ, CASSCF(14,12)/aug-cc-pVTZ, and B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ computational levels. For the Cl-O bond, topological analysis of the electron density field, ρ(r), shows the prevalence of the shared-electron type bond (∇(2)ρ((3,-1)) 0). Topological analysis of the electron localization function, η(r), and electron localizability indicator (ELI-D), (D) (σ)(r), shows that the electronic structure of the central N-O bond is very sensitive to both electron correlation improvements (coupled-cluster single double (CCSD), CASSCF, density functional theory (DFT)) and bond length alteration. Depending on the method used, the N-O bond can be characterized as a "normal" N-O bond with a disynaptic V(N,O) basin (DFT); a protocovalent N-O bond with two monosynaptic, V(N) and V(O), basins (CCSD, CASSCF); or a new type, first discovered for FONO, characterized by a single monosynaptic, V(N) basin (CCSD, DFT). The total basin population oscillates between 0.46-0.96 e (CCSD) and 0.86-1.02 e (CASSCF). The X-O bond is described by the single disynaptic basin, V(X,O), with a basin population between 0.76 and 0.81 e (CCSD) or 0.77 and 0.85 e (CASSCF). Analysis of the localized electron detector distribution for the cis-Cl-O1-N=O2 shows a manifold in the Cl···O2 region, associated with decreased electron density. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  16. Information seeking behavior of scientists in the electronic information age: Astronomers, chemists, mathematicians, and physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cecelia M.

    1999-07-01

    The information seeking behavior of astronomers, chemists, mathematicians, and physicists at the University of Oklahoma was assessed using an electronically distributed questionnaire. All of the scientists surveyed relied greatly on the journal literature to support their research and creative activities. The mathematicians surveyed indicated an additional reliance on monographs, preprints, and attendance at conferences and personal communication to support their research activities. Similarly, all scientists responding scanned the latest issues of journals to keep abreast of current developments in their fields, with the mathematicians again reporting attendance at conferences and personal communication. Despite an expression by the scientists for more electronic services, the majority preferred access to journal articles in a print, rather than an electronic, form. The primary deficit in library services appeared to be in access to electronic bibliographic databases. The data suggest that a primary goal of science libraries is to obtain access to as many appropriate electronic bibliographic finding aids and databases possible. Although the results imply the ultimate demise of the printed bibliographic reference tool, they underscore the continued importance to scientists of the printed peer-reviewed journal article.

  17. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    In the fields of power conversion devices and broadcasting/communication amplifiers, high power, high frequency and low losses are desirable. Further, for electronic elements in aerospace/aeronautical/geothermal surveys, etc., heat resistance to 500degC is required. Devices which respond to such hard specifications are called hard electronic devices. However, with Si which is at the core of the present electronics, the specifications cannot fully be fulfilled because of the restrictions arising from physical values. Accordingly, taking up new device materials/structures necessary to construct hard electronics, technologies to develop these to a level of IC were examined and studied. They are a technology to make devices/IC of new semiconductors such as SiC, diamond, etc. which can handle higher temperature, higher power and higher frequency than Si and also is possible of reducing losses, a technology to make devices of hard semiconducter materials such as a vacuum microelectronics technology using ultra-micro/high-luminance electronic emitter using negative electron affinity which diamond, etc. have, a technology to make devices of oxides which have various electric properties, etc. 321 refs., 194 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Post-Concussion Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post-concussion syndrome Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Post-concussion syndrome is a complex disorder in which various symptoms — ... sometimes months after the injury that caused the concussion. Concussion is a mild traumatic brain injury that ...

  19. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics ...

  20. The Electron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, George

    1972-01-01

    Electrons are elementary particles of atoms that revolve around and outside the nucleus and have a negative charge. This booklet discusses how electrons relate to electricity, some applications of electrons, electrons as waves, electrons in atoms and solids, the electron microscope, among other things.

  1. Hard electronics; Hard electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Hard material technologies were surveyed to establish the hard electronic technology which offers superior characteristics under hard operational or environmental conditions as compared with conventional Si devices. The following technologies were separately surveyed: (1) The device and integration technologies of wide gap hard semiconductors such as SiC, diamond and nitride, (2) The technology of hard semiconductor devices for vacuum micro- electronics technology, and (3) The technology of hard new material devices for oxides. The formation technology of oxide thin films made remarkable progress after discovery of oxide superconductor materials, resulting in development of an atomic layer growth method and mist deposition method. This leading research is expected to solve such issues difficult to be easily realized by current Si technology as high-power, high-frequency and low-loss devices in power electronics, high temperature-proof and radiation-proof devices in ultimate electronics, and high-speed and dense- integrated devices in information electronics. 432 refs., 136 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. An Overview of Ni Base Additive Fabrication Technologies for Aerospace Applications (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    electron beam free form fabrication, EBFFF, Direct Metal Melting, DMM, Direct Metal Laser Sintering, DMLS, Electron Beam Melting, EBM . Abstract...commercially available DMLS is limited to 300mm x 350mm x 300mm height Electron Beam Melting ( EBM ) The EBM process operates much the same as the...This can result in parts with less distortion and less residual stress compared to DLMM. The EBM process also has slow build rate compared to non

  3. CDW-EIS calculations for multiple ionization of Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe by the impact of H{sup +} and He{sup +}, including post-collisional electron emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montanari, C C; Miraglia, J E [Instituto de AstronomIa y FIsica del Espacio, casilla de correo 67, sucursal 28, C1428EGA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Montenegro, E C, E-mail: mclaudia@iafe.uba.a [Instituto de FIsica, Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro 21945-970, RJ (Brazil)

    2010-08-28

    We present theoretical single to quintuple ionization cross sections for Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe bombarded by H{sup +} and He{sup +}. Post-collisional contributions due to Auger-like processes are taken into account using recent photoionization data. The present continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state (CDW-EIS) and first Born approximation results are compared with the experimental data available in the energy range of 50-10 000 keV amu{sup -1} for H{sup +} on Ne and Ar, and 50-1000 keV amu{sup -1} for the other cases. In general, the combination of the CDW-EIS with the post-collisional branching ratios describes well the multiple ionization data above 300 keV amu{sup -1}, showing a clear tendency to coalesce with the first Born approximation at high energies. The surprising result of this work is the good performance of the first Born approximation which describes rather well the experimental data of double and triple ionization, even in the intermediate energy range (50-300 keV amu{sup -1}), where direct ionization is the dominant contribution.

  4. Effect of different silanization treatments on the bond strength of fiber posts with scanning electron microscope%不同表面处理对纤维桩粘结强度的影响及电镜观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴华英; 穆锦全; 许祥芹; 杜劲英; 陈亚明

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较研究不同表面处理对纤维桩剪切粘结强度的影响及各自的粘结面超微结构。方法20根纤维桩分为4组(n=5):表面无处理组(A)、椅旁硅烷化处理组(B)、厂家预处理组(C)、厂家预处理+椅旁硅烷化处理组(D)。分别用树脂核材料置于纤维桩周围制成圆柱形标准试件,包埋,切割成1 mm薄片。每根纤维桩可获得10个薄片。每组5个薄片用于电镜观察纤维桩与树脂核材料粘结界面的超微结构;45个薄片在万能实验机上进行微推出实验,记录数值并进行统计学分析。结果各组的剪切粘结强度依次为(13.46±1.78)、(18.39±1.60)、(24.54±1.34)、(24.39±1.65)MPa。表面处理组均高于 A组,C 组高于 B组,D组与 C 组之间无差异。电镜观察各组纤维桩与树脂核材料粘结界面结合良好。C 组和 D 组的纤维桩粘结界面可见微机械固位结构。结论纤维桩表面由厂家预处理有效提高了纤维桩剪切粘结强度,表面预处理形成的微机械固位和化学粘结固位是增强纤维桩粘结强度的重要因素。%Objective To investigate the influence of different silanization treatments on the shear bond strength of fiber posts and the SEM structure.Methods 20 glass fiber posts were divided into 4 groups(n =5 ):no treatment(A),chair-side silane application (B),industrial silane treatment(C),industrial silane treatment followed by chair-side silane application(D).After surface treatment,a composite resin core was placed around each fiber post by a PTFE tube.The specimens were embedded in a cylinder of clear self-cured acrylic resin and sectioned into 1-mm-thick segments with a water-cooled diamond blade.Each post can be sectioned into 1 0 segments. In each group,5 segments were put under the SEM to observe the ultra microstructure of the bonding interface of the fiber post and the resin core material and 45

  5. Post cardiac injury syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S L; Nielsen, F E

    1991-01-01

    The post-pericardiotomy syndrome is a symptom complex which is similar in many respects to the post-myocardial infarction syndrome and these are summarized under the diagnosis of the Post Cardiac Injury Syndrome (PCIS). This condition, which is observed most frequently after open heart surgery, i...... on the coronary vessels, with cardiac tamponade and chronic pericardial exudate. In the lighter cases, PCIS may be treated with NSAID and, in the more severe cases, with systemic glucocorticoid which has a prompt effect....

  6. Ambient Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Someya, Takao

    2012-10-01

    We report the recent research progress and future prospects of flexible and printed electronics, focusing on molecular electronic material-based thin-film transistors, which are expected to usher in a new era of electronics.

  7. Low Temperature Superplasticity of Ti-6Al-4V Processed by Warm Multidirectional Forging (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    using a JEOL JEM-2100FX transmission electron microscope (TEM) and a Quanta 600 field-emission-gun scanning-electron microscope (SEM). Results and...factor of three compared to the initial condition (Fig. 2b). A backscattered electron ( BSE ) image revealed the distribution of the  phase in the...a) BSE image of Ti-6Al-4V after annealing at Т=550С for 0.5 hour and (b) grain size as a function of soak time at 550C. Superplastic Behavior

  8. Electron cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkov, I.; Sidorin, A.

    2004-10-01

    The brief review of the most significant and interesting achievements in electron cooling method, which took place during last two years, is presented. The description of the electron cooling facilities-storage rings and traps being in operation or under development-is given. The applications of the electron cooling method are considered. The following modern fields of the method development are discussed: crystalline beam formation, expansion into middle and high energy electron cooling (the Fermilab Recycler Electron Cooler, the BNL cooler-recuperator, cooling with circulating electron beam, the GSI project), electron cooling in traps, antihydrogen generation, electron cooling of positrons (the LEPTA project).

  9. Gas-Phase Ion-Molecule Reactions in Selected Cyclohexanes (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Varian variable leak valve) into the FTMS system. The hydrocarbon ions were formed by electron impact on C6H12 or C7H14 in the trapping cell at a total...would become overpopulated during electron ionization, resulting in a significant space charge effect. To eliminate this effect, an rf waveform with the...H- transfer proceeding via large impact parameter collisions, favoring no H/D shuffling. Direct H- transfer vs. H- transfer via long-lived complex

  10. Polymer Nanocomposites with Prescribed Morphology: Going Beyond Nanoparticle-Filled Polymers (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    protein (MW, 70 000).26 (b) Rod: 5 wt % carbon nanofibers (Applied Science, Inc) dispersed in thermoplastic polyurethane .27 and (c) Plate: 3 wt...performance for many potential high- technology applications, such as dielectric underfills for electronic packaging, printed flexible electronics, engi...Percolation phase diagrams result, in which shear rate produces transitions between 3D, 2D, and 1D percolating clusters, as well as the loss of

  11. Post-Polio Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or fatigue, this may overwork already stressed-out motor neurons and increase your risk of post-polio syndrome. Generally, post-polio syndrome is rarely life-threatening, but severe muscle weakness can lead to complications: Falls. Weakness in your leg muscles makes it ...

  12. Commitments by hostage posting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raub, W.; Baurmann, M.; Lahno, B.

    2009-01-01

    We survey research on incurring commitments by voluntary hostage posting as a mechanism of cooperation. The Trust Game is employed as a paradigmatic example of cooperation problems. We sketch a very simple game-theoretic model that shows how voluntary hostage posting can bind the trustee and thus in

  13. Post-Concussion Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if you're having problems with memory or problem-solving. There is no specific treatment for post-concussion ... for post-concussion syndrome if you have cognitive problems, as most of them ... or other techniques to work around memory deficits and attention skills. ...

  14. Fence Posts and Rails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turton, Roger

    2016-01-01

    "Mathematical Lens" uses photographs as a springboard for mathematical inquiry and appears in every issue of "Mathematics Teacher." Recently while dismantling an old wooden post-and-rail fence, Roger Turton noticed something very interesting when he piled up the posts and rails together in the shape of a prism. The total number…

  15. Post-Session Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2012-01-01

    . In this paper, we consider the case of post-session authentication, where parties authenticate each other at the end of their interactive session. This use of authentication is different from session-less authentication (e.g., in RFID) and pre-session authentication (e.g., for access control.) Post...

  16. [Flexible root posts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadachkoriia, N R; Mandzhavidze, N A; Gumberidze, N Sh

    2009-02-01

    The article discusses the current state of restoration techniques of root canal treatment. Nowadays, technical progress allows manufacturers to develop flexible fiberglass posts, aspiring not only to an excellent aesthetics and mechanical properties (first of all, in comparison with metal and cast posts), but also to maintenance of their radio density and a wide range of forms. Growth of fiberglass posts popularity testifies to their clinical efficiency that also is confirmed by results of long-term researches. Introduction of fiberglass posts in a dental practice has rendered huge influence on restoration techniques of root canal treatment. Convincing factors of fiberglass posts superiority provide restoration the appearance similar with the natural dentition; possess close to dentine elasticity; creation of monolithic structure with hard tooth tissues and composite cement, posts, in case of need, can be easily adjusted on length, adhesive linkage of posts gives them additional stability. Modern researches have confirmed that only elastic, namely carbon fiber and the fiberglass posts made of modern technologies possess similar physical properties, as tooth structure. They can create reliable biomimetic design; solve a complex of aesthetic and functional restoration problems.

  17. Post-Stroke Rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF (704 kb) » Spanish Version » Order Materials » Post-Stroke Rehabilitation In the United States more than 700,000 ... best possible long-term outcome. What is post-stroke rehabilitation? Rehabilitation helps stroke survivors relearn skills that are ...

  18. Photon imaging using post-processed CMOS chips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melai, Joost

    2010-01-01

    This thesis presents our work on an integrated photon detector made by post-processing of CMOS sensor arrays. The aim of the post-processing is to combine all elements of the detector into a single monolithic device. These elements include a photocathode to convert photon radiation into electronic s

  19. What is 'Post-digital?' : typewriters vs. imageboard memes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramer, F.

    2014-01-01

    The term "post-digital" was coined in 2000 for electronic music, but reflecting on larger developments in technology and culture, to describe a perspective on digital information technology that is no longer focused on technical innovation or improvement. In the meantime, "post-digital" has acquired

  20. SyNAPS: System for Networking Astronomical Publication Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, H. E.; Huizinga, J. E.; Hanisch, R. J.

    We are developing a Java/XML based distributed electronic preprint service. The goal is to create the tools and infrastructure necessary to allow (astronomical) institutes to create and maintain individual preprint collections while presenting end-users with an integrated preprint system and notification service.

  1. Modeling of Inelastic Collisions in a Multifluid Plasma: Excitation and Deexcitation (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    interaction. We use superscripts (en), (ei) and ( xd ) to denote electron-neutral, electron-ion (Coulomb), and excitation/dexcitation (as a whole...for each bound-bound transition and summed over all transitions to yield the total rates: K( xd ) = me ∑ ℓ ∑ u>ℓ ( κ↑(u|ℓ)nlne + κ ↓ (ℓ|u)nune ) (70a) J... xd ) = ∑ ℓ ∑ u>ℓ ( j↑(u|ℓ)nlne + j ↓ (ℓ|u)nune ) (70b) Based on the total frictional and thermal resistance coefficients, we can extract average

  2. Toward the understanding of chemical absorption processes for post-combustion capture of carbon dioxide: electronic and steric considerations from the kinetics of reactions of CO2(aq) with sterically hindered amines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, William; Wang, Xiaoguang; Fernandes, Debra; Burns, Robert; Lawrance, Geoffrey; Puxty, Graeme; Maeder, Marcel

    2013-01-15

    The present study reports (a) the determination of both the kinetic rate constants and equilibrium constants for the reaction of CO(2)(aq) with sterically hindered amines and (b) an attempt to elucidate a fundamental chemical understanding of the relationship between the amine structure and chemical properties of the amine that are relevant for postcombustion capture of CO(2) (PCC) applications. The reactions of CO(2)(aq) with a series of linear and methyl substituted primary amines and alkanolamines have been investigated using stopped-flow spectrophotometry and (1)H NMR measurements at 25.0 °C. The specific mechanism of absorption for each of the amines, that is CO(2) hydration and/or carbamate formation, is examined and, based on the mechanism, the kinetic and equilibrium constants for the formation of carbamic acid/carbamates, including protonation constants of the carbamate, are reported for amines that follow this pathway. A Brønsted correlation relating the kinetic rate constants and equilibrium constants for the formation of carbamic acid/carbamates with the protonation constant of the amine is reported. Such a relationship facilitates an understanding of the effects of steric and electronic properties of the amine toward its reactivity with CO(2). Further, such relationships can be used to guide the design of new amines with improved properties relevant to PCC applications.

  3. Automated Serial Sectioning Methods for Rapid Collection of 3D Microstructure Data (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    transmission images taken at various projections, while other methods utilize diffraction contrast and either ray tracing methods [9-11] or other spatial...comprised of high-resolution backscattered electron ( BSE ) images that provide atomic-number-based contrast to differentiate between multiple phases

  4. Probing Structure and Composition of Nickel/Titanium Carbide Hybrid Interfaces at the Atomic Scale (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The transition in structure and composition across the titanium carbide /nickel hybrid interface has been determined at near atomic resolution by...coupling high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with three-dimensional atom probe tomography. The titanium carbide phase adopts a rocksalt-type

  5. Emprego da microscopia eletrônica na avaliação pós-vacinal de epitélio traqueal de patos (Anas platyrhynchos imunizados contra a doença de Newcastle The use of scanning electron microscopy in post-vaccinal evaluation of tracheal epithelium in ducks (Anas platyrhynchos imunized against Newcastle disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Franzo

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o emprego da microscopia eletrônica de varredura no estudo da reação respiratória pós-vacinal em epitélio traqueal de patos (Anas platyrhynchos imunizados contra a doença de Newcastle. Foram utilizadas 48 aves, distribuídas em quatro grupos: T1 - grupo de aves-controle (não vacinadas, T2 - grupo de aves vacinadas com a estirpe Ulster 2C, T3 - grupo de aves vacinadas com a estirpe B1 e T4 - grupo de aves vacinadas com a estirpe LaSota. Independente do grupo experimental, as aves não apresentaram sinais clínicos detectáveis de reação respiratória pós-vacinal. Ao microscópio eletrônico de varredura, observou-se que os animais vacinados com as estirpes B1 e LaSota desenvolveram descamação epitelial da traqueia, enquanto os vacinados com a estirpe Ulster 2C não, mostrando um epitélio traqueal íntegro, semelhante ao do grupo-controle. Os patos vacinados com a estirpe B1 mostraram evidências de regeneração epitelial da traqueia decorridos 21 dias pós-vacinação, o que não ocorreu com os vacinados com a amostra LaSota.Scanning electron microscopy was used in the study of the post-vaccinal respiratory reaction of the tracheal epithelium of ducks (Anas platyrhynchos immunized against Newcastle disease. Forty-eight ducks were distributed into four groups: T1 - control birds (non-vaccinated; T2 - birds vaccinated with Ulster 2C strain; t3 - birds vaccinated with B1 strain; and t4 - birds vaccinated with LaSota strain. Regardless the experimental group, birds did not show detectable clinical signs of post-vaccinal respiratory reaction. Scanning electron microscopy showed that birds vaccinated with B1 and LaSota strains developed epithelial sloughing of the trachea, whereas those vaccinated with Ulster 2C strain did not develop this change, showing intact tracheal epithelium, similar to the control group. However, the birds vaccinated with B1 strain showed evidences of regeneration of tracheal epithelium 21 days post

  6. Post-Approval Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CDRH Post-Approval Studies Program encompasses design, tracking, oversight, and review responsibilities for studies mandated as a condition of approval of a...

  7. Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  8. Electron Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael

    1980-01-01

    Reviews technical aspects of structure determination in biological electron microscopy (EM). Discusses low dose EM, low temperature microscopy, electron energy loss spectra, determination of mass or molecular weight, and EM of labeled systems. Cites 34 references. (CS)

  9. Understand electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bishop, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Understand Electronics provides a readable introduction to the exciting world of electronics for the student or enthusiast with little previous knowledge. The subject is treated with the minimum of mathematics and the book is extensively illustrated.This is an essential guide for the newcomer to electronics, and replaces the author's best-selling Beginner's Guide to Electronics.The step-by-step approach makes this book ideal for introductory courses such as the Intermediate GNVQ.

  10. Electronic components

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  11. Thermal Performance and Reliability Characterization of Bonded Interface Materials (BIMs): Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVoto, D.; Paret, P.; Mihalic, M.; Narumanchi, S.; Bar-Cohen, A.; Matin, K.

    2014-08-01

    Thermal interface materials are an important enabler for low thermal resistance and reliable electronics packaging for a wide array of applications. There is a trend towards bonded interface materials (BIMs) because of their potential for low thermal resistivity (< 1 mm2K/W). However, BIMs induce thermomechanical stresses in the package and can be prone to failures and integrity risks. Deteriorated interfaces can result in high thermal resistance in the package and degradation and/or failure of the electronics. DARPA's Thermal Management Technologies program has addressed this challenge, supporting the development of mechanically-compliant, low resistivity nano-thermal interface (NTI) materials. In this work, we describe the testing procedure and report the results of NREL's thermal performance and reliability characterization of an initial sample of four different NTI-BIMs.

  12. Computer Security: posting and mis-posting

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    This is what can happen at CERN if you don't lock your computer screen...   “Hi, I am looking for a partner either male or female to attend salsa lessons. I have a great body and enjoy rubbing it against other people on the dance floor. I would consider dinner after with the right person. If you think you can keep up with me and enjoy getting sweaty send me a reply. Stay sexy…” This is the original text of a recent posting on the CERN Market webpage. Some people might find this appealing, some people think this is funny. Personally, I couldn’t care less. But professionally, we had to follow up as this text can be perceived as inappropriate and, thus, in violation of the Terms of Usage of the CERN Market as well as the CERN Computing Rules and its annex on private usage of the CERN computing facilities. We remind you that the CERN Market is a public website that can be used by people within but also outside CERN. All posts are visible world...

  13. Hysteresis Loss Analysis of Soft Magnetic Materials Under Direct Current Bias Conditions (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 09-1-2015...Power Electronics, DC Core Losses, Magnetic Domain, Inductor 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 11...Metglas 2605SA1 type amorphous “U” shaped cores was formed into a rectangular core. The core dimensions were 30 mm high and 10 mm thick with inside

  14. Insulation Coordination and Failure Mitigation Concerns for Roust Dc Electrical Power Systems (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    because of its inclusion of a reasonable range of altitudes. For design of printed circuit boards, IPC - 2221A was also considered important because...Technology Equipment – Safety – Part 1: General Requirements, second edition, 2007. [6] IPC -9592, Performance Parameters for Power Conversion Devices...Final Draft, April 2007. [7] IPC -2221A, Generic Standard on Printed Board Design, IPC - Association Connecting Electronics Industries, May 2003. [8

  15. Electronic Prescribing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Do you prescribe electronically?” For more information about electronic prescribing, call 1-800-MEDICARE (1-800-633- ... TTY users should call 1-877-486-2048 . Electronic eRx Prescribing I went to the pharmacy, and ...

  16. Defect-Band Emission Photoluminescence Imaging on Multi-Crystalline Si Solar Cells: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, F.; Johnston, S.; Zaunbrecher, K.; Al-Jassim, M.; Sidelkheir, O.; Blosse, A.

    2011-07-01

    Defect-band photoluminescence (PL) imaging with an InGaAs camera was applied to multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) wafers, which were taken from different heights of different Si bricks. Neighboring wafers were picked at six different processing steps, from as-cut to post-metallization. By using different cut-off filters, we were able to separate the band-to-band emission images from the defect-band emission images. On the defect-band emission images, the bright regions that originate from the grain boundaries and defect clusters were extracted from the PL images. The area fraction percentage of these regions at various processing stages shows a correlation with the final cell electrical parameters.

  17. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Holbrook, Harold D

    1971-01-01

    Basic Electronics is an elementary text designed for basic instruction in electricity and electronics. It gives emphasis on electronic emission and the vacuum tube and shows transistor circuits in parallel with electron tube circuits. This book also demonstrates how the transistor merely replaces the tube, with proper change of circuit constants as required. Many problems are presented at the end of each chapter. This book is comprised of 17 chapters and opens with an overview of electron theory, followed by a discussion on resistance, inductance, and capacitance, along with their effects on t

  18. Response of Cds/CdTe Devices to Te Exposure of Back Contact: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gessert, T. A.; Burst, J. M.; Ma, J.; Wei, S. H.; Kuciauskas, D.; Barnes, T. M.; Duenow, J. N.; Young, M. R.; Rance, W. L.; Li, J. V.; Dippo, P.

    2012-06-01

    Theoretical predictions of thin-film CdS/CdTe photovoltaic (PV) devices have suggested performance may be improved by reducing recombination due to Te-vacancy (VTe) or Te-interstitial (Tei) defects. Although formation of these intrinsic defects is likely influenced by CdTe deposition parameters, it also may be coupled to formation of beneficial cadmium vacancy (VCd) defects. If this is true, reducing potential effects of VTe or Tei may be difficult without also reducing the density of VCd. In contrast, post-deposition processes can sometimes afford a greater degree of defect control. Here we explore a post-deposition process that appears to influence the Te-related defects in polycrystalline CdTe. Specifically, we have exposed the CdTe surface to Te prior to ZnTe:Cu/Ti contact-interface formation with the goal of reducing VTe but without significantly reducing VCd. Initial results show that when this modified contact is used on a CdCl2-treated CdS/CdTe device, significantly poorer device performance results. This suggests two things: First, the amount of free-Te available during contact formation (either from chemical etching or CuTe or ZnTe deposition) may be a more important parameter to device performance than previously appreciated. Second, if processes have been used to reduce the effect of VTe (e.g., oxygen and chlorine additions to the CdTe), adding even a small amount of Te may produce detrimental defects.

  19. Electronic Government and Electronic Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambouris, E.; Scholl, H.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Wimmer, M.A.; Tarabanis, K.; Gascó, M.; Klievink, A.J.; Lindgren, I.; Milano, M.; Panagiotopoulos, P.; Pardo, T.A.; Parycek, P.; Sæbø, O.

    2015-01-01

    Electronic government and electronic participation continue to transform the public sector and society worldwide and are constantly being transformed themselves by emerging information and communication technologies. This book presents papers from the 14th International Federation for Information P

  20. Esthetic Intracanal Posts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parčina, Ivana; Amižić

    2016-01-01

    The primary function of an endodontic post is to provide retention for the core and enable full sealing of the coronal portion of the root canal. Traditionally used metal posts do not meet the requirements of modern dental medicine due to some fairly significant drawbacks such as color, corrosion potential, non-adhesive bonding and high modulus of elasticity which can lead to root fracture. Recently, esthetic ceramic and fiber reinforced posts have been manufactured in order to avoid such imperfections. Since much attention has been devoted to the esthetic aspects of dental medicine, the use of these posts with composite/ceramic cores is very common in restorative dentistry and it is actually becoming a standard. This is due to the fact that, apart from being an esthetically pleasing material, they are also biocompatible, have good physical properties and the capacity of adhesive bonding to tooth tissue and core buildup. Nonetheless, a good clinician should know how to spot the difference between them in order to select and use the appropriate post system in each specific situation. PMID:27789912

  1. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  2. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  3. The "Post-Post Period" and Environmental Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Marcia

    2005-01-01

    Described as "post-experimental" and of the "post-post period," the current moment in social science research is typified by multi-voiced texts, researcher reflexivity, cultural criticism, and experimental works; characteristics in keeping with post-structurally informed understandings of social science research as contingent, evolving and messy.…

  4. Electric Energy Management in the Smart Home: Perspectives on Enabling Technologies and Consumer Behavior: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipperer, A.; Aloise-Young, P. A.; Suryanarayanan, S.; Roche, R.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Bauleo, P.; Zimmerle. D.

    2013-08-01

    Smart homes hold the potential for increasing energy efficiency, decreasing costs of energy use, decreasing the carbon footprint by including renewable resources, and transforming the role of the occupant. At the crux of the smart home is an efficient electric energy management system that is enabled by emerging technologies in the electric grid and consumer electronics. This article presents a discussion of the state-of-the-art in electricity management in smart homes, the various enabling technologies that will accelerate this concept, and topics around consumer behavior with respect to energy usage.

  5. Electronic Discharge Letter Mobile App

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lezcano, Leonardo; Triana, Michel; Ternier, Stefaan; Hartkopf, Kathleen; Stieger, Lina; Schroeder, Hanna; Sopka, Sasa; Drachsler, Hendrik; Maher, Bridget; Henn, Patrick; Orrego, Carola; Marcus, Specht

    2014-01-01

    The electronic discharge letter mobile app takes advantage of Near Field Communication (NFC) within the PATIENT project and a related post-doc study. NFC enabled phones to read passive RFID tags, but can also use this short-range wireless technology to exchange (small) messages. NFC in that sense co

  6. Post-partum pancreatitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai P

    1993-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy and post-partum period, rarely encountered in surgical practice, can have a lethal effect on the mother and the foetus. We report here a case of a 35 year old tertigravida who presented with high grade fever, abdominal pain with distension, tachycardia and tachypnoea. Chest examination and X-rays were suggestive of pneumonia. The abdomen was tense and tender. Peristalsis was absent. Ultrasound revealed presence of fluid in the abdominal cavity which on paracentesis was found to contain Gram positive cocci. Fluid amylase levels were high. On exploratory laparotomy, haemorrhagic oedematous pancreatitis was noticed. The patient expired on the 2nd post operative day.

  7. Post-human Viewing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2013-01-01

    to become part of a global cultural flow, thus calling into question the physical connection between viewer and image. This article analyses what happens to that connection when not only the image but also the physical body is mediated and challenged in post-human relations, and examines the ensuing ethical...... implications. The author takes photojournalism and, in particular, mobile phone footage as a starting point for an exploration of the (post-human) body as evidence and sign of authenticity in the modern age of digital communications and journalism....

  8. Investigation of Thermal Interface Materials Using Phase-Sensitive Transient Thermoreflectance Technique: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, X.; King, C.; DeVoto, D.; Mihalic, M.; Narumanchi, S.

    2014-08-01

    With increasing power density in electronics packages/modules, thermal resistances at multiple interfaces are a bottleneck to efficient heat removal from the package. In this work, the performance of thermal interface materials such as grease, thermoplastic adhesives and diffusion-bonded interfaces are characterized using the phase-sensitive transient thermoreflectance technique. A multi-layer heat conduction model was constructed and theoretical solutions were derived to obtain the relation between phase lag and the thermal/physical properties. This technique enables simultaneous extraction of the contact resistance and bulk thermal conductivity of the TIMs. With the measurements, the bulk thermal conductivity of Dow TC-5022 thermal grease (70 to 75 um bondline thickness) was 3 to 5 W/(m-K) and the contact resistance was 5 to 10 mm2-K/W. For the Btech thermoplastic material (45 to 80 μm bondline thickness), the bulk thermal conductivity was 20 to 50 W/(m-K) and the contact resistance was 2 to 5 mm2-K/W. Measurements were also conducted to quantify the thermal performance of diffusion-bonded interface for power electronics applications. Results with the diffusion-bonded sample showed that the interfacial thermal resistance is more than one order of magnitude lower than those of traditional TIMs, suggesting potential pathways to efficient thermal management.

  9. Stress Intensity of Delamination in a Sintered-Silver Interconnection: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVoto, D. J.; Paret, P. P.; Wereszczak, A. A.

    2014-08-01

    In automotive power electronics packages, conventional thermal interface materials such as greases, gels, and phase-change materials pose bottlenecks to heat removal and are also associated with reliability concerns. The industry trend is toward high thermal performance bonded interfaces for large-area attachments. However, because of coefficient of thermal expansion mismatches between materials/layers and resultant thermomechanical stresses, adhesive and cohesive fractures could occur, posing a reliability problem. These defects manifest themselves in increased thermal resistance. This research aims to investigate and improve the thermal performance and reliability of sintered-silver for power electronics packaging applications. This has been experimentally accomplished by the synthesis of large-area bonded interfaces between metalized substrates and copper base plates that have subsequently been subjected to thermal cycles. A finite element model of crack initiation and propagation in these bonded interfaces will allow for the interpretation of degradation rates by a crack-velocity (V)-stress intensity factor (K) analysis. A description of the experiment and the modeling approach are discussed.

  10. Detailed Study of Defects in Silicon Solar Cells by Cathodoluminescence Spectrum Imaging: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, M. J.; Ostapenko, S.; Al-Jassim, M. M.; Tarasov, I.; Sheldon, P.

    2003-08-01

    We have recently developed a spectrum imaging system for cathodoluminescence (CLsi) at NREL, which has been successfully applied to different semiconductors. The advanced multi-channel detection required for CLsi consists of an ultrafast spectrum acquisition triggered by the electron beam during scanning. Spectra are acquired either with a Roper Scientific silicon EEV-1340400 cryogenic CCD or an InGaAs 5121 cryogenic PDA, depending on the range of spectral emission. Acquisition times by pixel are typically of 10 to 20 ms (180 seconds for a 100100 pixel image). The output of spectrum imaging measurements is thus represented by a series of emission spectra. CCDIMAG, the software developed for CLsi, processes this spectrum series to reconstruct monochromatic images or extract the spectrum from any area on the image. This system is operated on the JEOL-5800 scanning electron microscope (SEM). CLsi measurements can be performed at temperatures between 15 K and 300 K. A low-vibration ARS Displex DE-202 closed-circuit cryostat provides cryogenic operation. The interface for vibration isolation has been developed to be compatible with SEM observation.

  11. Multifractal Measure of Post Distribution in Post System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li; HUANG Deng-shi

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the true post distribution in the whole society, microelasticity (MIE) and macroelasticity (MAE) were defined by regarding all posts as a system. On this basis, the method for measuring post distribution was proposed. Using the Legendre dual transformation between MIE and MAE to highlight the probabilities of different levels, the post distribution were analyzed hierarchically. The two-scale Cantor model verified that the multifractal measure is applicable to the post distribution evolution process.

  12. Electronic Commerce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Đerić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electronic commerce can be defined in different ways. Any definition helps to understand and explain that concept as better as possible.. Electronic commerce is a set of procedures and technologies that automate the tasks of financial transactions using electronic means. Also, according to some authors, electronic commerce is defined as a new concept, which is being developed and which includes process of buying and selling or exchanging products, services or information via computer networks, including the Internet. Electronic commerce is not limited just to buying and selling, but it also includes all pre-sales and after-sales ongoing activities along the supply chain. Introducing electronic commerce, using the Internet and Web services in business, realizes the way to a completely new type of economy - internet economy.

  13. Micropower electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Keonjian, Edward

    1964-01-01

    Micropower Electronics deals with the operation of modern electronic equipment at micropower levels and the problems associated with micropower electronics. Topics covered include the relations between minimum required power density and frequency response for semiconductor triode amplifiers; physical realization of digital logic circuits; micropower microelectronic subsystems; and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect devices for micropower logic circuitry. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with an analysis of fundamental relationships and basic requirements pertinent to the ph

  14. Inflow Characterization and Aerodynamics Measurements on a SWT-2.3-101 Wind Turbine: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, P.; Singh, M.; Johansen, J.; Jove, A.; Fingersh, L.; Schreck, S.

    2012-01-01

    Post processing techniques for aerodynamic data acquired from a Siemens SWT-2.3-101 turbine have been developed and applied in this paper. The turbine is installed at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as part of Cooperative Research And Development Agreement between Siemens Wind Power and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) under U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsorship. The results indicate that the use of these corrections is essential for accurate analysis of the data. An example of local inflow angles, velocities, and inflow velocity over the rotor plane derived from measurements from a 5-hole probe is also presented. Finally the pressure measurements are used to characterize unsteady phenomenon, namely, rotational augmentation and dynamic stall on an inboard station. The results show that the rotational augmentation can considerably increase the attached flow regime compared to the 2D CFD results. The dynamic stall event was seen to significantly delay the stall. Furthermore, the nondimensionalized vortex convection derived from the dynamic stall event was found to agree well with results from others studies.

  15. Oxygen Incorporation During Fabrication of Substrate CdTe Photovoltaic Devices: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duenow, J. N.; Dhere, R. G.; Kuciauskas, D.; Li, J. V.; Pankow, J. W.; DeHart, C. M.; Gessert, T. A.

    2012-06-01

    Recently, CdTe photovoltaic (PV) devices fabricated in the nonstandard substrate configuration have attracted increasing interest because of their potential compatibility with flexible substrates such as metal foils and polymer films. This compatibility could lead to the suitability of CdTe for roll-to-roll processing and building-integrated PV. Currently, however, the efficiencies of substrate CdTe devices reported in the literature are significantly lower ({approx}6%-8%) than those of high-performance superstrate devices ({approx}17%) because of significantly lower open-circuit voltage (Voc) and fill factor (FF). In our recent device development efforts, we have found that processing parameters required to fabricate high-efficiency substrate CdTe PV devices differ from those necessary for traditional superstrate CdTe devices. Here, we investigate how oxygen incorporation in the CdTe deposition, CdCl2 heat treatment, CdS deposition, and post-deposition heat treatment affect device characteristics through their effects on the junction. By adjusting whether oxygen is incorporated during these processing steps, we have achieved Voc values greater than 860 mV and efficiencies greater than 10%.

  16. Hydrogen Monitoring Requirements in the Global Technical Regulation on Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttner, William; Rivkin, Carl; Burgess, Robert; Hartmann, Kevin; Bubar, Max; Post, Matthew; Boon-Brett, Lois; Weidner, Eveline; Moretto, Pietro

    2016-07-01

    The United Nations Global Technical Regulation (GTR) Number 13 (Global Technical Regulation on Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Vehicles) is the defining document regulating safety requirements in hydrogen vehicles, and in particular fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV). GTR Number 13 has been formally implemented and will serve as the basis for the national regulatory standards for FCEV safety in North America (Canada, United States), Japan, Korea, and the European Union. The GTR defines safety requirement for these vehicles, including specifications on the allowable hydrogen levels in vehicle enclosures during in-use and post-crash conditions and on the allowable hydrogen emissions levels in vehicle exhaust during certain modes of normal operation. However, in order to be incorporated into national regulations, that is, in order to be binding, methods to verify compliance to the specific requirements must exist. In a collaborative program, the Sensor Laboratories at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in the United States and the Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport in the Netherlands have been evaluating and developing analytical methods that can be used to verify compliance to the hydrogen release requirement as specified in the GTR.

  17. Post trauma abdominal cocoon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Supreet; Doley, Rudra Prasad; Chabbhra, Mohinish; Kapoor, Rajeev; Wig, Jaidev

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal cocoon or sclerosing peritonitis refers to a rare cause of intestinal obstruction due to formation of a membrane encasing the bowel. We report a case of abdominal cocoon post blunt trauma abdomen. The patient presented with a history of subacute intestinal obstruction and a mobile abdomen lump. Abdominal cocoon was diagnosed on computed tomography. He underwent adhesiolysis with excision of membrane.

  18. [Post-transfusional AIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzini, M; Maccabruni, A; Marcellini, M; Michelone, G; Dei Cas, A

    1987-01-01

    Two cases of post-transfusional AIDS in two premature babies who received blood of the same seropositive donor, are reported. The risk of the susceptibility to HIV infection of these patients, in relation to the immaturity of immune system and to the transfusional treatment often necessary in premature newborns, is stressed.

  19. Teaching Post Keynesian Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    2013-01-01

    Denne bog har gør gældende, at post keynesiansk økonomi har sit egen metodiske og didaktiske grundlag, og dens realistisk analyse er tiltrængt i den aktuelle økonomiske og finansielle krise. På et tidspunkt hvor det oprindelige indhold i Keynes 'General Theory ikke længere er til stede i de flest...

  20. Post-duralpunktur hovedpine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, J B; Rosenberg, J

    1990-01-01

    Post dural puncture headache is one of the major complications of spinal anaesthesia. In order to establish this diagnosis, the headache must be dependent on the position of the patient. The symptoms are probably due to leakage of cerebro-spinal fluid from the subarachnoid space to the epidural...

  1. Post Rule of Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kerstin Bree

    2016-01-01

    addresses the practice of hybridity in ICP, drawing examples from the construction and evolution of hybrid procedure at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), to argue that the hybridity practiced by international criminal tribunals renders them ‘post rule of law’ institutions...

  2. Teaching Post Keynesian Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Thøis

    2013-01-01

    Denne bog har gør gældende, at post keynesiansk økonomi har sit egen metodiske og didaktiske grundlag, og dens realistisk analyse er tiltrængt i den aktuelle økonomiske og finansielle krise. På et tidspunkt hvor det oprindelige indhold i Keynes 'General Theory ikke længere er til stede i de flest...

  3. Microfluidic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shi; Wu, Zhigang

    2012-08-21

    Microfluidics, a field that has been well-established for several decades, has seen extensive applications in the areas of biology, chemistry, and medicine. However, it might be very hard to imagine how such soft microfluidic devices would be used in other areas, such as electronics, in which stiff, solid metals, insulators, and semiconductors have previously dominated. Very recently, things have radically changed. Taking advantage of native properties of microfluidics, advances in microfluidics-based electronics have shown great potential in numerous new appealing applications, e.g. bio-inspired devices, body-worn healthcare and medical sensing systems, and ergonomic units, in which conventional rigid, bulky electronics are facing insurmountable obstacles to fulfil the demand on comfortable user experience. Not only would the birth of microfluidic electronics contribute to both the microfluidics and electronics fields, but it may also shape the future of our daily life. Nevertheless, microfluidic electronics are still at a very early stage, and significant efforts in research and development are needed to advance this emerging field. The intention of this article is to review recent research outcomes in the field of microfluidic electronics, and address current technical challenges and issues. The outlook of future development in microfluidic electronic devices and systems, as well as new fabrication techniques, is also discussed. Moreover, the authors would like to inspire both the microfluidics and electronics communities to further exploit this newly-established field.

  4. Paper electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobjörk, Daniel; Österbacka, Ronald

    2011-05-03

    Paper is ubiquitous in everyday life and a truly low-cost substrate. The use of paper substrates could be extended even further, if electronic applications would be applied next to or below the printed graphics. However, applying electronics on paper is challenging. The paper surface is not only very rough compared to plastics, but is also porous. While this is detrimental for most electronic devices manufactured directly onto paper substrates, there are also approaches that are compatible with the rough and absorptive paper surface. In this review, recent advances and possibilities of these approaches are evaluated and the limitations of paper electronics are discussed.

  5. Electron holography

    CERN Document Server

    Tonomura, Akira

    1993-01-01

    Holography was devised for breaking through the resolution limit of electron microscopes The advent of a "coherent" field emission electron beam has enabled the use of Electron Holography in various areas of magnetic domain structures observation, fluxon observation in superconductors, and fundamental experiments in physics which have been inaccessible using other techniques After examining the fundamentals of electron holography and its applications to the afore mentioned fields, a detailed discussion of the Aharonov-Bohm effect and the related experiments is presented Many photographs and illustrations are included to elucidate the text

  6. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Hsin-Fei, Meng

    2013-01-01

    Polymer semiconductor is the only semiconductor that can be processed in solution. Electronics made by these flexible materials have many advantages such as large-area solution process, low cost, and high performance. Researchers and companies are increasingly dedicating time and money in polymer electronics. This book focuses on the fundamental materials and device physics of polymer electronics. It describes polymer light-emitting diodes, polymer field-effect transistors, organic vertical transistors, polymer solar cells, and many applications based on polymer electronics. The book also disc

  7. Electronic Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Meredith Lindsay

    1995-01-01

    The main objective was to assist in the production of electronic images in the Electronic Photography Lab (EPL). The EPL is a new facility serving the electronic photographic needs of the Langley community. The purpose of the Electronic Photography lab is to provide Langley with access to digital imaging technology. Although the EPL has been in operation for less than one year, almost 1,000 images have been produced. The decision to establish the lab was made after careful determination of the centers needs for electronic photography. The LaRC community requires electronic photography for the production of electronic printing, Web sites, desktop publications, and its increased enhancement capabilities. In addition to general use, other considerations went into the planning of the EPL. For example, electronic photography is much less of a burden on the environment compared to conventional photography. Also, the possibilities of an on-line database and retrieval system could make locating past work more efficient. Finally, information in an electronic image is quantified, making measurements and calculations easier for the researcher.

  8. Electron Bifurcation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, John W.; Miller, Anne-Frances; Jones, Anne K.; King, Paul W.; Adams, Michael W. W.

    2016-04-01

    Electron bifurcation is the recently recognized third mechanism of biological energy conservation. It simultaneously couples exergonic and endergonic oxidation-reduction reactions to circumvent thermodynamic barriers and minimize free energy loss. Little is known about the details of how electron bifurcating enzymes function, but specifics are beginning to emerge for several bifurcating enzymes. To date, those characterized contain a collection of redox cofactors including flavins and iron-sulfur clusters. Here we discuss the current understanding of bifurcating enzymes and the mechanistic features required to reversibly partition multiple electrons from a single redox site into exergonic and endergonic electron transfer paths.

  9. Effect of relining on fiber post retention to root canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria-e-Silva, André Luís; Pedrosa-Filho, Celso de Freitas; Menezes, Murilo de Sousa; Silveira, Daniele Machado da; Martins, Luís Roberto Marcondes

    2009-01-01

    One of the clinically relevant problems dentists face when restoring endodontically treated teeth is the mismatch between fiber post and post space diameters, which results in an excessively thick resin cement layer. Fiber post relining appears as a solution for this problem. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fiber post relining with composite resin on push-out bond strength. Twenty bovine incisors were selected to assess post retention. The crowns were removed below the cementoenamel junction and the root canals were treated endodontically and flared with diamond burs. The roots were allocated into two groups (n=10): G1: fiber posts without relining and G2: fiber posts relined with composite resin. The posts were cemented with a dual-cured resin cement and the specimens were sectioned transversally. Three 1.5-mm thick slabs were obtained per root and identified as cervical, medium and apical thirds. The push-out test was performed at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until post dislodgement occurred. The failure mode of fractured specimens was analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed by split-plot ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's test at a pre-set alpha of 0.05. Relined fiber posts presented higher retention values than non-relined post in all thirds. No statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were found among thirds for relined posts. All failures occurred at the interface between resin cement and root dentin. Relining with composite resin seems to be an effective method to improve the retention of fiber posts to flared root canals.

  10. Effect of relining on fiber post retention to root canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Faria-e-Silva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the clinically relevant problems dentists face when restoring endodontically treated teeth is the mismatch between fiber post and post space diameters, which results in an excessively thick resin cement layer. Fiber post relining appears as a solution for this problem. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fiber post relining with composite resin on push-out bond strength. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty bovine incisors were selected to assess post retention. The crowns were removed below the cementoenamel junction and the root canals were treated endodontically and flared with diamond burs. The roots were allocated into two groups (n=10: G1: fiber posts without relining and G2: fiber posts relined with composite resin. The posts were cemented with a dual-cured resin cement and the specimens were sectioned transversally. Three 1.5-mm thick slabs were obtained per root and identified as cervical, medium and apical thirds. The push-out test was performed at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until post dislodgement occurred. The failure mode of fractured specimens was analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed by split-plot ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's test at a pre-set alpha of 0.05. RESULTS: Relined fiber posts presented higher retention values than non-relined post in all thirds. No statistically significant differences (p>0.05 were found among thirds for relined posts. All failures occurred at the interface between resin cement and root dentin. CONCLUSIONS: Relining with composite resin seems to be an effective method to improve the retention of fiber posts to flared root canals.

  11. Using Measurements of Fill Factor at High Irradiance to Deduce Heterobarrier Band Offsets: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, J. M.; Steiner, M. A.; Kanevce, A.

    2011-07-01

    Using a 2D device simulation tool, we examine the high irradiance behavior of a single junction, GaAs concentrator cell as a function of the doping in the back surface confinement layer. The confinement layer is designed to be a barrier for both holes and electrons in the base of the solar cell. For a p-type base we show that the FF of the cell at high concentrations is a strong function of both the magnitude of the valence band offset and the doping level in the barrier. In short, for a given valence band offset (VBO), there is a critical barrier doping, below which the FF drops rapidly with lower doping. This behavior is confirmed experimentally for a GaInP/GaAs double heterostructure solar cell where the critical doping concentration (at 500 suns) in the back surface confinement layer is ~1e18 cm-3 for a VBO of 300 meV.

  12. Use Conditions and Efficiency Measurements of DC Power Optimizers for Photovoltaic Systems: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deline, C.; MacAlpine, S.

    2013-10-01

    No consensus standard exists for estimating annual conversion efficiency of DC-DC converters or power optimizers in photovoltaic (PV) applications. The performance benefits of PV power electronics including per-panel DC-DC converters depend in large part on the operating conditions of the PV system, along with the performance characteristics of the power optimizer itself. This work presents acase study of three system configurations that take advantage of the capabilities of DC power optimizers. Measured conversion efficiencies of DC-DC converters are applied to these scenarios to determine the annual weighted operating efficiency. A simplified general method of reporting weighted efficiency is given, based on the California Energy Commission's CEC efficiency rating and severalinput / output voltage ratios. Efficiency measurements of commercial power optimizer products are presented using the new performance metric, along with a description of the limitations of the approach.

  13. Comparison of the Accuracy and Speed of Transient Mobile A/C System Simulation Models: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiss, T.; Lustbader, J.

    2014-03-01

    The operation of air conditioning (A/C) systems is a significant contributor to the total amount of fuel used by light- and heavy-duty vehicles. Therefore, continued improvement of the efficiency of these mobile A/C systems is important. Numerical simulation has been used to reduce the system development time and to improve the electronic controls, but numerical models that include highly detailed physics run slower than desired for carrying out vehicle-focused drive cycle-based system optimization. Therefore, faster models are needed even if some accuracy is sacrificed. In this study, a validated model with highly detailed physics, the 'Fully-Detailed' model, and two models with different levels of simplification, the 'Quasi-Transient' and the 'Mapped- Component' models, are compared. The Quasi-Transient model applies some simplifications compared to the Fully-Detailed model to allow faster model execution speeds. The Mapped-Component model is similar to the Quasi-Transient model except instead of detailed flow and heat transfer calculations in the heat exchangers, it uses lookup tables created with the Quasi-Transient model. All three models are set up to represent the same physical A/C system and the same electronic controls. Speed and results of the three model versions are compared for steady state and transient operation. Steady state simulated data are also compared to measured data. The results show that the Quasi-Transient and Mapped-Component models ran much faster than the Fully-Detailed model, on the order of 10- and 100-fold, respectively. They also adequately approach the results of the Fully-Detailed model for steady-state operation, and for drive cycle-based efficiency predictions

  14. Electron-stimulated purification of platinum nanostructures grown via focused electron beam induced deposition

    OpenAIRE

    Brett B. Lewis; Stanford, Michael G.; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Kevin Lester; Harald Plank; Philip D. Rack

    2015-01-01

    Platinum–carbon nanostructures deposited via electron beam induced deposition from MeCpPt(IV)Me3 are purified during a post-deposition electron exposure treatment in a localized oxygen ambient at room temperature. Time-dependent studies demonstrate that the process occurs from the top–down. Electron beam energy and current studies demonstrate that the process is controlled by a confluence of the electron energy loss and oxygen concentration. Furthermore, the experimental results are modeled a...

  15. Printed Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, John M. (Inventor); Lettow, John S. (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Korkut, Sibel (Inventor); Chiang, Katherine S. (Inventor); Chen, Chuan-Hua (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Printed electronic device comprising a substrate onto at least one surface of which has been applied a layer of an electrically conductive ink comprising functionalized graphene sheets and at least one binder. A method of preparing printed electronic devices is further disclosed.

  16. Influence of the dynamic screening on single-electron ionization of multi-electron atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti, J M; Fojon, O A; Rivarola, R D [Instituto de FIsica Rosario (CONICET-UNR) and Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, IngenierIa y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Avenida Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Hanssen, J, E-mail: monti@ifir-conicet.gov.a [Institut de Chimie, Physique et Materiaux, Laboratoire de Physique Moleculaire et des Collisions, Universite Paul Verlaine - Metz, 1 Bv. Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 3 (France)

    2010-10-28

    A complete formulation of the post-version of the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state model to investigate single-electron ionization of multi-electron atoms by fast bare ion beams is considered. The influence of the non-ionized electrons on the dynamic evolution of the ejected electron is analysed showing that the corresponding interaction plays a main role in the determination of double differential cross sections. It is demonstrated that its inclusion as an additional term in the perturbative potential of the exit channel avoids discrepancies between the pre- and post-versions of the studied distorted wave model.

  17. Effects of Post Weld Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of 2A14 High Strength Aluminum Alloy by Electron Beam Welding%焊后热处理对2A14高强铝合金电子束焊接头组织及力学性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亚荣; 黄文荣; 雷华东

    2011-01-01

    The challenges of significant weight reduction have promoted a focus on selection of light-weight materials. That is the reason that high strength aluminum alloy is becoming widely recognized as the candidates to replace steel. In order to develop proper post weld heat treatment process of 2A14 high strength aluminum alloy welded by electron beam, the effects of post weld heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of 2A14 aluminum alloy welded joint are studied by using optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), hardness test and tensile test. The results showed that the eutectic structure of the grain-boundary dissolved into the matrix gradually, dispersion-strengthening phase precipitated in weld zone and the hardness of weld seam increased obviously after post weld heat treatment. The tensile strength of the weld seam increased from 3SS Mpa to 465 Mpa, even larger than the base metal. The fracture analysis show the dimples became deeper and the fracture location is all in weld seam, which proposes that the toughness of the weld increased.%轻质化的需求使得人们把关注的焦点集中于轻质材料,高强铝合金作为钢结构材料的最佳替代品,受到越来越广泛的关注,利用电子束焊接高强铝合金,为获得性能优良的2A14高强铝合金电子束焊接接头,采用焊后热处理,通过组织观察(光学显微镜和扫描电镜)、维氏硬度测试、接头拉伸性能测试等方法研究焊后热处理对2A14电子束焊接接头显微组织和性能的影响.结果表明,通过焊后热处理,焊缝中心原晶界分布的网状共晶组织回溶于基体组织中消失,焊缝内部析出大量弥散强化项,基体强化效果增强,显微硬度显著升高,由焊态下低子母材硬度直接升高至超过母材硬度.接头抗拉强度由原来的355MPa提高到465 MPa,超过了母材强度.接头断裂均发生在焊缝,由断口分析发现热处理后接头韧性增强,韧窝深度

  18. Power electronics reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplar, Robert James; Brock, Reinhard C.; Marinella, Matthew; King, Michael Patrick; Stanley, James K.; Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

    2010-10-01

    The project's goals are: (1) use experiments and modeling to investigate and characterize stress-related failure modes of post-silicon power electronic (PE) devices such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) switches; and (2) seek opportunities for condition monitoring (CM) and prognostics and health management (PHM) to further enhance the reliability of power electronics devices and equipment. CM - detect anomalies and diagnose problems that require maintenance. PHM - track damage growth, predict time to failure, and manage subsequent maintenance and operations in such a way to optimize overall system utility against cost. The benefits of CM/PHM are: (1) operate power conversion systems in ways that will preclude predicted failures; (2) reduce unscheduled downtime and thereby reduce costs; and (3) pioneering reliability in SiC and GaN.

  19. Microscopic Measurements of Electrical Potential in Hydrogenated Nanocrystalline Silicon Solar Cells: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, C. S.; Moutinho, H. R.; Reedy, R. C.; Al-Jassim, M. M.; Yan, B.; Yue, G.; Sivec, L.; Yang, J.; Guha, S.; Tong, X.

    2012-04-01

    We report on a direct measurement of electrical potential and field profiles across the n-i-p junction of hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) solar cells, using the nanometer-resolution potential imaging technique of scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM). It was observed that the electric field is nonuniform across the i layer. It is much higher in the p/i region than in the middle and the n/i region, illustrating that the i layer is actually slightly n-type. A measurement on a nc-Si:H cell with a higher oxygen impurity concentration shows that the nonuniformity of the electric field is much more pronounced than in samples having a lower O impurity, indicating that O is an electron donor in nc-Si:H materials. This nonuniform distribution of electric field implies a mixture of diffusion and drift of carrier transport in the nc-Si:H solar cells. The composition and structure of these nc-Si:H cells were further investigated by using secondary-ion mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. The effects of impurity and structural properties on the electrical potential distribution and solar cell performance are discussed.

  20. Photovoltaics R&D in the United States: Positioning for Our Future; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazmerski, L. L.

    2002-05-01

    This conference paper provides a brief look at the current U.S. research and development (R&D) investments in photovoltaics, covering the spectrum from materials and devices through electronics and systems reliability. The program is balanced among fundamental R&D, technology development, and systems performance and reliability, with more than half the funding for university and industry partners. The major activities can be categorized into two general areas: improving current and near-term technologies toward their expected performance levels (the largest portion), and positioning the United States for technical leadership, decision making, and ownership for the host of next-technology options (including some options that have been called third-generation). The investments in these higher risk, longer-term technology generations provide options that could leapfrog into more rapid use because of their promise of potentially high payoff. Solar electricity is part of America's present and future energy security and independence-as is the R&D that enables it.

  1. Spray Deposition of High Quality CuInSe2 and CdTe Films: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, C. J.; van Hest, M.; Miedaner, A.; Leisch, J.; Hersh, P.; Nekuda, J.; Ginley, D. S.

    2008-05-01

    A number of different ink and deposition approaches have been used for the deposition of CuInSe2 (CIS), Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS), and CdTe films. For CIS and CIGS, soluble precursors containing Cu, In, and Ga have been developed and used in two ways to produce CIS films. In the first, In-containing precursor films were sprayed on Mo-coated glass substrates and converted by rapid thermal processing (RTP) to In2Se3. Then a Cu-containing film was sprayed down on top of the In2Se3 and the stacked films were again thermally processed to give CIS. In the second approach, the Cu-, In-, and Ga-containing inks were combined in the proper ratio to produce a mixed Cu-In-Ga ink that was sprayed on substrates and thermally processed to give CIGS films directly. For CdTe deposition, ink consisting of CdTe nanoparticles dispersed in methanol was prepared and used to spray precursor films. Annealing these precursor films in the presence of CdCl2 produced large-grained CdTe films. The films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Optimized spray and processing conditions are crucial to obtain dense, crystalline films.

  2. Unlikely Combination of Experiments With a Novel High-Voltage CIGS Photovoltaic Array: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    del Cueto, J. A.; Sekulic, B. R.

    2006-05-01

    A new high-voltage array comprising bipolar strings of copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) photovoltaic (PV) modules was inaugurated in 2005. It is equipped with a unique combination of tests, which likely have never before been deployed simultaneously within a single array: full current-voltage (I-V) traces, high-voltage leakage current measurements, and peak-power tracking or temporal stepped-bias profiling. The array nominally produces 1 kW power at 1 sun. The array's electrical characteristics are continuously monitored and controlled with a programmable electronic load interfaced to a data acquisition system (DAS), that also records solar and meteorological data. The modules are mounted with their frames electrically isolated from earth ground, in order to facilitate measurement of the leakage currents that arise between the high voltage bias developed in the series-connected cells and modules and their mounting frames. Because the DAS can perform stepped biasing of the array as a function of time, synchronous detection of the leakage current data with alternating bias is available. Leakage current data and their dependence on temperature and voltage are investigated. Array power data are analyzed across a wide range of varying illuminations and temperatures from the I-V traces. Array performance is also analyzed from an energy output perspective using peak-power tracking data.

  3. Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cell Characterization and Optimization Using In Situ and Ex Situ Spectroscopic Ellipsometry: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi, D.; Iwaniczko, E.; Page, M.; Branz, H.; Wang, T.

    2006-05-01

    We use in-situ and ex-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry to characterize the optical, electronic, and structural properties of individual layers and completed silicon heterojunction devices. The combination of in-situ measurements during thin film deposition with ex-situ measurements of completed devices allows us to understand both the growth dynamics of the materials and the effects of each processing step on material properties. In-situ ellipsometry measurements enable us to map out how the optical properties change with deposition conditions, pointing the way towards reducing the absorption loss and increasing device efficiency. We use the measured optical properties and thickness of the i-, n-, and p-layers in optical device modeling to determine how the material properties affect device performance. Our best solar energy conversion efficiencies are 16.9% for a non-textured, single-sided device with an aluminum back surface field contact on a p-type float zone silicon wafer, and 17.8% for a textured double-sided device on a p-type float zone silicon wafer.

  4. Development of an Energy-Savings Calculation Methodology for Residential Miscellaneous Electric Loads: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.

    2006-08-01

    In order to meet whole-house energy savings targets beyond 50% in residential buildings, it will be essential that new technologies and systems approaches be developed to address miscellaneous electric loads (MELs). These MELs are comprised of the small and diverse collection of energy-consuming devices found in homes, including what are commonly known as plug loads (televisions, stereos, microwaves), along with all hard-wired loads that do not fit into other major end-use categories (doorbells, security systems, garage door openers). MELs present special challenges because their purchase and operation are largely under the control of the occupants. If no steps are taken to address MELs, they can constitute 40-50% of the remaining source energy use in homes that achieve 60-70% whole-house energy savings, and this percentage is likely to increase in the future as home electronics become even more sophisticated and their use becomes more widespread. Building America (BA), a U.S. Department of Energy research program that targets 50% energy savings by 2015 and 90% savings by 2025, has begun to identify and develop advanced solutions that can reduce MELs.

  5. Combining Droop Curve Concepts with Control Systems for Wind Turbine Active Power Control: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buckspan, A.; Aho, J.; Pao, L.; Fleming, P.; Jeong, Y.

    2012-06-01

    Wind energy is becoming a larger portion of the global energy portfolio and wind penetration has increased dramatically in certain regions of the world. This increasing wind penetration has driven the need for wind turbines to provide active power control (APC) services to the local utility grid, as wind turbines do not intrinsically provide frequency regulation services that are common with traditional generators. It is common for large scale wind turbines to be decoupled from the utility grid via power electronics, which allows the turbine to synthesize APC commands via control of the generator torque and blade pitch commands. Consequently, the APC services provided by a wind turbine can be more flexible than those provided by conventional generators. This paper focuses on the development and implementation of both static and dynamic droop curves to measure grid frequency and output delta power reference signals to a novel power set point tracking control system. The combined droop curve and power tracking controller is simulated and comparisons are made between simulations using various droop curve parameters and stochastic wind conditions. The tradeoffs involved with aggressive response to frequency events are analyzed. At the turbine level, simulations are performed to analyze induced structural loads. At the grid level, simulations test a wind plant's response to a dip in grid frequency.

  6. Thermomechanical Modeling of Sintered Silver - A Fracture Mechanics-based Approach: Extended Abstract: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paret, Paul P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); DeVoto, Douglas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Narumanchi, Sreekant V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Sintered silver has proven to be a promising candidate for use as a die-attach and substrate-attach material in automotive power electronics components. It holds promise of greater reliability than lead-based and lead-free solders, especially at higher temperatures (less than 200 degrees Celcius). Accurate predictive lifetime models of sintered silver need to be developed and its failure mechanisms thoroughly characterized before it can be deployed as a die-attach or substrate-attach material in wide-bandgap device-based packages. We present a finite element method (FEM) modeling methodology that can offer greater accuracy in predicting the failure of sintered silver under accelerated thermal cycling. A fracture mechanics-based approach is adopted in the FEM model, and J-integral/thermal cycle values are computed. In this paper, we outline the procedures for obtaining the J-integral/thermal cycle values in a computational model and report on the possible advantage of using these values as modeling parameters in a predictive lifetime model.

  7. Methodology for Constructing Reduced-Order Power Block Performance Models for CSP Applications: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, M.

    2010-10-01

    The inherent variability of the solar resource presents a unique challenge for CSP systems. Incident solar irradiation can fluctuate widely over a short time scale, but plant performance must be assessed for long time periods. As a result, annual simulations with hourly (or sub-hourly) timesteps are the norm in CSP analysis. A highly detailed power cycle model provides accuracy but tends to suffer from prohibitively long run-times; alternatively, simplified empirical models can run quickly but don?t always provide enough information, accuracy, or flexibility for the modeler. The ideal model for feasibility-level analysis incorporates both the detail and accuracy of a first-principle model with the low computational load of a regression model. The work presented in this paper proposes a methodology for organizing and extracting information from the performance output of a detailed model, then using it to develop a flexible reduced-order regression model in a systematic and structured way. A similar but less generalized approach for characterizing power cycle performance and a reduced-order modeling methodology for CFD analysis of heat transfer from electronic devices have been presented. This paper builds on these publications and the non-dimensional approach originally described.

  8. Energy Storage Opportunities and Capabilities in a Type 3 Wind Turbine Generator: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard; Gevorgian, Vahan; Hoke, Andy

    2016-09-01

    Wind power plants and other renewable power plants with power electronic interfaces are capable of delivering frequency response (both governor and/or inertial response) to the grid by a control action; thus, the reduction of available online inertia as conventional power plants are retired can be compensated by designing renewable power plant controls to include frequency response. The source of energy to be delivered as inertial response is determined by the type of generation and control strategy chosen. The cost of energy storage is expected to drop over time, and global research activities on energy storage are very active, funded both by the private industry and governments. Different industry sectors (e.g., transportation, energy) are the major drivers of the recent storage research and development. This work investigates the opportunities and capabilities of deploying energy storage in renewable power plants. In particular, we focus on wind power plants with doubly-fed induction generators, or Type 3 wind turbine generator (WTGs). We find that the total output power of a system with Type 3 WTGs with energy storage can deliver a power boost during inertial response that is up to 45% higher than one without energy storage without affecting the torque limit, thus enabling an effective delivery of ancillary services to the grid.

  9. Short-Term Forecasting of Inertial Response from a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard; Gevorgian, Vahan; Hoke, Andy

    2016-09-01

    The total inertia stored in all rotating masses (synchronous generators, induction motors, etc.) connected to a power system grid is an essential force that keeps the system stable after disturbances. Power systems have been experiencing reduced inertia during the past few decades [1]. This trend will continue as the level of renewable generation (e.g., wind and solar) increases. Wind power plants (WPPs) and other renewable power plants with power electronic interfaces are capable of delivering frequency response (both droop and/or inertial response) by a control action; thus, the reduction in available online inertia can be compensated by designing the plant control to include frequency response. The source of energy to be delivered as inertial response is determined by the type of generation (wind, photovoltaic, concentrating solar power, etc.) and the control strategy chosen. The importance of providing ancillary services to ensure frequency control within a power system is evidenced from many recent publications with different perspectives (manufacturer, system operator, regulator, etc.) [2]-[6]. This paper is intended to provide operators with a method for the real-time assessment of the available inertia of a WPP. This is critical to managing power system stability and the reserve margin. In many states, modern WPPs are required to provide ancillary services (e.g., frequency regulation via governor response and inertial response) to the grid. This paper describes the method of estimating the available inertia and the profile of the forecasted response from a WPP.

  10. Electrical Power Conversion of a River and Tidal Power Generator: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard; Gevorgian, Vahan; Wright, Alan; Donegan, James; Marnagh, Cian; McEntee, Jarlath

    2016-09-01

    As renewable generation has become less expensive during recent decades, and it becomes more accepted by the global population, the focus on renewable generation has expanded to include new types with promising future applications, such as river and tidal generation. Although the utilization of power electronics and electric machines in industry is phenomenal, the emphasis on system design is different for various sectors of industry. In precision control, robotics, and weaponry, the design emphasis is on accuracy and reliability with less concern for the cost of the final product. In energy generation, the cost of energy is the prime concern; thus, capital expenditures (CAPEX) and operations and maintenance expenditures (OPEX) are the major design objectives. This paper describes the electrical power conversion aspects of river and tidal generation. Although modern power converter control is available to control the generation side, the design was chosen on the bases of minimizing the CAPEX and OPEX; thus, the architecture is simple and modular for ease of replacement and maintenance. The power conversion is simplified by considering a simple diode bridge and a DC-DC power converter to take advantage of abundant and low-cost photovoltaic inverters that have well-proven grid integration characteristics (i.e., the capability to produce energy with good power quality and control real power and voltage on the grid side).

  11. Communication from La Poste

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    We should like to remind users that post sent to the CERN site must be correctly addressed in order to reach the right destination as quickly as possible: Correspondence (goods subject to Swiss VAT): Surname, first name CERN (Department, Building & Mailbox) Route de Meyrin 385 Case Postale 1211 Genève 23 CERN (Switzerland) Official orders (goods not subject to Swiss VAT): CERN Goods Reception Order number ( Ca, Ct, Cl....) For the attention of: (surname, first name) Route de Meyrin 385 Case Postale 1211 Genève 23 CERN (Switzerland) Please inform your suppliers of the above addresses. Last minute Swiss motorway sticker on sale at the POST OFFICE, Main Building (63 R 02) 40.- CHF

  12. Communication from La Poste

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    We should like to remind users that post sent to the CERN site must be correctly addressed in order to reach the right destination as quickly as possible: Correspondence (goods subject to Swiss VAT): Surname, first name CERN (Department, Building & Mailbox) Route de Meyrin 385 Case Postale 1211 Genève 23 CERN (Switzerland) Official orders (goods not subject to Swiss VAT): CERN Goods Reception Order number ( Ca, Ct, Cl....) For the attention of: (surname, first name) Route de Meyrin 385 Case Postale 1211 Genève 23 CERN (Switzerland) Please inform your suppliers of the above addresses. Last minute Swiss motorway sticker on sale at the POST OFFICE, Main Building (63 R 02) 40.- CHF

  13. Post-16 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    Institute of Physics post-16 initiative, shaping the future Physics education based in IT - sorry ICT! Which, of course, makes for a nifty headline, but as is so often the case with neat slogans, little else. Two formative questions: What, in another decade, will the government of the day call `What you lot should be doing with computers'? and What, of the many things that currently exercise our intellects, will there be anything special to say about in a decade, concerning the use of computers in the teaching of physics? Advancing Physics represents some attempts to come to grips with the second of the two questions above. The first is left to a higher wisdom. In thinking about learning, what can we do with the huge processing power, increasingly available in smaller and less obtrusive packages? What will we do that helps people learn physics, both tomorrow and in 2009? Here are a few suggestions based on development work so far. Wide, reliable and shared access to well ordered learning resources. We have created a CD-ROM, with versions for both student and teacher, that provides a wide range of resources. These do not teach, but do provide. A commitment to allowing a course to evolve and adapt. Electronic publication puts the costs into origination, and not into publication and distribution. A website allows for the community of users to contribute. E-mail networks support individuals and propagate good practice. You can create and explore your own microworlds. The interactive nature of models, and the crafted relationships between the models and the natural world give an insight into the creative imaginary worlds of the physicist. The unreasonable, but pleasurable, success of mathematics in describing the natural world can come to the fore. Measurements that were not possible before are now possible. What was previously indirect, and inaccessible, now becomes a direct measurement, making relationships transparent in new and fruitful ways. The dichotomy between

  14. Post trauma abdominal cocoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal cocoon or sclerosing peritonitis refers to a rare cause of intestinal obstruction due to formation of a membrane encasing the bowel. We report a case of abdominal cocoon post blunt trauma abdomen. The patient presented with a history of subacute intestinal obstruction and a mobile abdomen lump. Abdominal cocoon was diagnosed on computed tomography. He underwent adhesiolysis with excision of membrane.

  15. Post-ATC Reviews

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Guatemala City,a most populous and prosperous metropolitan in Central America,was once again an eye-catcher for hosting for the second time,on April 16-19,the Council of Representatives'meeting of International Textile andClothing Bureau(ITCB)at the time when it has been already two years post the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing (ATC).

  16. Post-thyroidectomy hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, Christian; Madsen, Anders Rørbaek; Pedersen, Henrik Baymler;

    2009-01-01

    risk factors for hemorrhage. Increased hospital stay and infection rates were found in patients treated with drainage. The median time for onset of postoperative hemorrhage was 3 h (range 0-105). Compared with international literature our incidence of post-thyroidectomy hemorrhage is relatively high....... Improvement might be reached by the exchange of experience between departments with focus on adequate surgical technique and careful hemostasis....

  17. Síndrome post

    OpenAIRE

    Avalos, Raquel

    2014-01-01

    ¿Qué sigue luego de que una mujer terminara su relación con el último hombre que amaba? Eso, dicen ellas, depende de cuanto duró el romance o cómo sea la psiquis de cada amante. Lo cierto es que el escenario post convierte a algunas en depresivas, caletas, indiferentes y hasta amnésicas. ¿Qué te parece, varón?

  18. The Interplay of Electronic Properties and Magnetic Anisotropy in Quantum Dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zutic, Igor; Lee, Jeongsu; Vyborny, Karel; Han, Jong; Petukhov, Andre

    2012-02-01

    Tunability of magnetic anisotropy (MA) in nanostructures is a fascinating topic, for both fundamental understanding of nanomagnetism and possible spintronic applications. While there have been preceding efforts to systematically study the MA in bulk [1], we still lack a fundamental understanding of that in magnetic quantum dots (QDs). We first explore electronic properties of nonmagnetic QDs that can be significantly altered from the bulk-state depending upon the material and geometry. Focusing on II-VI materials forming both cubic and non-cubic QDs, we confirm qualitatively different energy spectra between different materials [2]. These findings can guide the control of MA in magnetic QDs. Supported by DOE-BES, NSF-DMR, AFOSR-DCT, U.S. ONR, and NSF-ECCS. [4pt] [1] X. Liu, Y. Sasaki and J. K. Furdyna, Phys. Rev. B 67, 205204 (2004). [0pt] [2] K. V'yborn'y, J.E. Han, R. Oszwadowski, I. Zuti'c, and A. G. Petukhov, preprint (2011).

  19. LHC support post

    CERN Multimedia

    1995-01-01

    LHC support post prototype, which dates in 1995, in a long development period which started in the early ’90s and continued until the end of the decade. The wires next to the support post are probably wires from strain gauges, which are employed to measure the stress level in the material when the support is mechanically loaded. These supports are mechanically optimized to withstand a weight of up to 100Kn (10 tons) while being as thin as possible to minimize conduction heat to magnets. This is the reason why the stress measurement was extensively done in the prototyping phase. About support posts: The high magnetic fields needed for the LHC can only be reached using superconductors. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC will be the largest superconducting installation ever built and, at 1.9 degrees above absolute zero (300 degrees below room temperature), one of the the coldest objects in the universe! The magnet supports have to brid...

  20. Design and Performance of Solar Decathlon 2011 High-Penetration Microgrid: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stafford, B.; Coddington, M.; Butt, R.; Solomon, S.; Wiegand, G.; Wagner, C.; Gonzalez, B.

    2012-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon challenges collegiate teams to design, build, and operate solar-powered houses that are cost-effective, energy-efficient, and attractive. The Solar Decathlon 2011 was held in Washington, D.C., from September 23 to October 2, 2011 . A high-penetration microgrid was designed, installed, and operated for the Solar Decathlon 2011 to grid-connect 19 highly energy-efficient, solar-powered competition houses to a single utility connection point. The capacity penetration of this microgrid (defined as maximum PV generation divided by maximum system load over a two-week period) was 74% based on 1-minute averaged data. Temporary, ground-laid conductors and electrical distribution equipment were installed to grid-connect the Solar Decathlon village, which included the houses as well as other electrical loads used by the event organizers. While 16 of the houses were connected to the 60 Hz microgrid, three houses from Belgium, China, and New Zealand were supplied with 50 Hz power. The design of the microgrid, including the connection of the houses powered by 50 Hz and a standby diesel generator, is discussed in this paper. In addition to the utility-supplied net energy meters at each house, a microgrid monitoring system was installed to measure and record energy consumption and PV energy production at 1-second intervals at each house. Bidirectional electronic voltage regulators were installed for groups of competition houses, which held the service voltage at each house to acceptable levels. The design and successful performance of this high-penetration microgrid is presented from the house, microgrid operator, and utility perspectives.

  1. Electron optics

    CERN Document Server

    Grivet, Pierre; Bertein, F; Castaing, R; Gauzit, M; Septier, Albert L

    1972-01-01

    Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and pris

  2. Electronic diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Colwell, Morris A

    1976-01-01

    Electronic Diagrams is a ready reference and general guide to systems and circuit planning and in the preparation of diagrams for both newcomers and the more experienced. This book presents guidelines and logical procedures that the reader can follow and then be equipped to tackle large complex diagrams by recognition of characteristic 'building blocks' or 'black boxes'. The goal is to break down many of the barriers that often seem to deter students and laymen in learning the art of electronics, especially when they take up electronics as a spare time occupation. This text is comprised of nin

  3. Digital electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, John

    2013-01-01

    An essential companion to John C Morris's 'Analogue Electronics', this clear and accessible text is designed for electronics students, teachers and enthusiasts who already have a basic understanding of electronics, and who wish to develop their knowledge of digital techniques and applications. Employing a discovery-based approach, the author covers fundamental theory before going on to develop an appreciation of logic networks, integrated circuit applications and analogue-digital conversion. A section on digital fault finding and useful ic data sheets completes th

  4. Electronic identity

    CERN Document Server

    de Andrade, Norberto Nuno Gomes; Argles, David

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing availability of electronic services, security and a reliable means by which identity is verified is essential.Written by Norberto Andrade the first chapter of this book provides an overview of the main legal and regulatory aspects regarding electronic identity in Europe and assesses the importance of electronic identity for administration (public), business (private) and, above all, citizens. It also highlights the role of eID as a key enabler of the economy.In the second chapter Lisha Chen-Wilson, David Argles, Michele Schiano di Zenise and Gary Wills discuss the user-cent

  5. Stretchable electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Someya, Takao

    2012-01-01

    With its comprehensive coverage this handbook and ready reference brings together some of the most outstanding scientists in the field to lay down the undisputed knowledge on how to make electronics stretchable.As such, it focuses on gathering and evaluating the materials, designs, models and technologies that enable the fabrication of fully elastic electronic devices which can sustain high strain. Furthermore, it provides a review of those specific applications that directly benefit from highly compliant electronics, including transistors, photonic devices and sensors. In addition to stre

  6. Starting electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Brindley, Keith

    2005-01-01

    Starting Electronics is unrivalled as a highly practical introduction for hobbyists, students and technicians. Keith Brindley introduces readers to the functions of the main component types, their uses, and the basic principles of building and designing electronic circuits. Breadboard layouts make this very much a ready-to-run book for the experimenter; and the use of multimeter, but not oscilloscopes, puts this practical exploration of electronics within reach of every home enthusiast's pocket. The third edition has kept the simplicity and clarity of the original. New material

  7. Polymer electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Polymer electronics is the science behind many important new developments in technology, such as the flexible electronic display (e-ink) and many new developments in transistor technology. Solar cells, light-emitting diodes, and transistors are all areas where plastic electronics is likely to, or is already having, a serious impact on our daily lives. With polymer transistors and light-emitting diodes now being commercialised, there is a clear need for a pedagogic text thatdiscusses the subject in a clear and concise fashion suitable for senior undergraduate and graduate students. The content

  8. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...... technology from kW to MW, discuss which power electronic solutions are most feasible and used today....

  9. Electronic Elections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    Electronic voting technology is a two edged sword. It comes with many risks but brings also many benefits. Instead of flat out rejecting the technology as uncontrollably dangerous, we advocate in this paper a different technological angle that renders electronic elections trustworthy beyond...... the usual levels of doubt. We exploit the trust that voters currently have into the democratic process and model our techniques around that observation accordingly. In particular, we propose a technique of trace emitting computations to record the individual steps of an electronic voting machine...... for a posteriori validation on an acceptably small trusted computing base. Our technology enables us to prove that an electronic elections preserves the voter’s intent, assuming that the voting machine and the trace verifier are independent....

  10. Electronic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinidou, Eleni; Gabrielsson, Roger; Gomez, Eliot; Crispin, Xavier; Nilsson, Ove; Simon, Daniel T.; Berggren, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    The roots, stems, leaves, and vascular circuitry of higher plants are responsible for conveying the chemical signals that regulate growth and functions. From a certain perspective, these features are analogous to the contacts, interconnections, devices, and wires of discrete and integrated electronic circuits. Although many attempts have been made to augment plant function with electroactive materials, plants’ “circuitry” has never been directly merged with electronics. We report analog and digital organic electronic circuits and devices manufactured in living plants. The four key components of a circuit have been achieved using the xylem, leaves, veins, and signals of the plant as the template and integral part of the circuit elements and functions. With integrated and distributed electronics in plants, one can envisage a range of applications including precision recording and regulation of physiology, energy harvesting from photosynthesis, and alternatives to genetic modification for plant optimization. PMID:26702448

  11. ELECTRONIC SIGNATURES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    10332324

    'electronic signature' means data attached to, incorporated in, or logically ... See Cwele v S 2012 4 All SA 497 (SCA); Mohlabeng v Minister of Safety and Security ... ZAKZPHC 51 (2 September 2010); Delta Finance, a Division of Wesbank, ...

  12. Electron Microprobe

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The JEOL JXA-8600 is a conventional hairpin filament thermal emission electron microprobe that is more than 20 years old. It is capable of performing qualitative and...

  13. Electronic commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Veselková, Zdeňka

    2012-01-01

    The thesis deals with a description of electronic commerce from its beginning up to present situation in this area. It explains basic terms connected with electronic commerce and it summarizes the relevant legislation. Moreover it describes e-contracts and rights and duties of both contractual parties. The main view is the view of Internet retailer, which is reflected in the practical part focused on concrete problems of retailers.

  14. 福特-后福特二元生产系统下的企业创新行为——以珠江三角洲电子产业为例%Firm Innovation Behavior Under the Fordism-post Fordism Dual Production System: A Case Study of Electronics Industry in the Zhujiang River Delta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符文颖

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of knowledge economy,innovation has become the key element in growth and development.Ample literature in regional innovation system suggests that firm network under the support of knowledge-related institution underlies the success of clusters.In the innovation studies,firm-level innovation strategies and behaviors are among the most important aspects in investigating the regional innovation prospect.Unlike the mechanic comparison between regional innovation systems among places,this article begs the question of what constitutes the innovation drives for the clustering firms in the Zhujiang River Delta,China,where the Fordist production sector relocated by multi-national corporations is intricately intertwined with post-Fordist mode of flexible production among small and medium sized supplier firms.Based on a random-sampled electronics firm questionnaire survey in the Zhujiang River Delta,this article begins by analyzing the Fordist-post Fordist way of production system in terms of production network,labor market,financial system,innovation system and business mode in the Zhujiang River Delta,concluding a close-oriented Fordist character in labor market,financial system and innovation system with relatively flexible way of production and business relations under the support of social capital.The study further investigates the innovation mechanism within this context of production system by building a probit model.In the model,the effect of firm scale,R&D investment,CEO background,staff turnover rate and urbanization economies on firm innovation have been examined.Moreover,the model succeeds in differentiating the effect of these factors between four types of innovation,i.e.product innovation,process innovation,organizational innovation and market innovation.The results show that while the production relations among the firms has become more vertically fragmented and flexible,innovation activities still keep the Fordist "in-house" characteristic

  15. Post-Cruise Questionnaire - Legacy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Post-Cruise Questionnaire is a mandatory post trip legal document that observers fill out after every trip they have completed.

  16. Post-Cruise Questionnaire - Legacy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Post-Cruise Questionnaire is a mandatory post trip legal document that observers fill out after every trip they have completed.

  17. 基于职业岗位的高职理实一体化人才培养模式探析——以湖州职业技术学院应用电子技术专业为例%Exploring to the Model of the Talens Train of the Higher Vocational Theory and Practice Unify on the Occupation Post ---For Example of the Higher Vocational Major of the Electronic Technique in Huzhou Vocational and Technological College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞志根; 左希庆

    2011-01-01

    It is Zhijian characteristic major of the Electronic Technique in Huzhou Vocational and Technological College, that have producted a model of the talens train of the theory and practice unify of the electronic technique major on the occupation post, and setted up course teaching details of the theory combined with practice, and constructed the major courses system in accordanced with the occupation post, by analysed the occupation post of the electronic products enterprise of the demand to specialty skill in the major reconstruction. The maximum trait is breaking quondam courses system, it will be recombination teaching content by the theory enter in the post practice, this model accommodated the specialty of the higher vocational students liked work, and giving consideration to the higher and occupation of the higher vocatipnal educatipn, the model have certain used for reference function to other engineering course major.%湖州职业技术学院应用电子技术专业作为浙江省特色专业,在专业建设中通过剖析电子产品生产企业职业岗位对专业技能的需求,按职业岗位重构专业课程体系,建立理论与岗位实践相结合的课程教学内容,形成了基于职业岗位的理实一体化应用电子技术专业高职人才培养模式。这一模式的最大特点是打破了原来的学科式课程体系,将理论知识融人岗位实践之中重组教学内容,适应了高职学生乐于动手的特点,更好地兼顾了高职教育的高等性与职业性。这种高职人才培养模式对于其他工科专业也有一定的借鉴作用。

  18. [Post-stripping telangiectasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutinel, B; Maraval, M

    1985-01-01

    These telangiectasia appear between one and six months after the operation, especially in cases of capillary fragility. The most common localizations are the antero-internal and external sides of the thighs and knees. Unnecessary strippings, of continent saphenous veins, are the most frequent cause of these. Their prevention consists of the least possible traumatising stripping, using a fine stripper, a very rigorous post-operative support, and the wearing of light varicose stockings or tights for between one and three months. The treatment using microsclerosis, often delicate, should not be undertaken before six months.

  19. Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Christian; Wallén, Mia; Aakesson, Marie;

    2008-01-01

    Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) is a relatively common and potentially life-threatening complication. The objective of this study was to examine the rate of PTH and identify risk factors. A retrospective cohort study was carried out including all tonsillectomies (430 patients) performed...... as surgical technique" [relative risk (RR) = 5.3], "peritonsillar abscess as indication for surgery" (RR = 0.3) and "age equal to or above 15 years at the time of surgery" (RR = 5.4). It is concluded that patient age, PTA as indication for surgery and the use of coblation significantly affect the occurrence...

  20. Perioperative post graduate education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapnoullas, J

    1997-04-01

    This article describes post-graduate perioperative education in Australia at the Australian Catholic University and St. Vincent's Public Hospital: The Graduate Certificate in Perioperative Practice. The Australian Catholic University operates from eight campuses along the east coast of Australia. There are approximately 9000 students along with 1000 staff. The University consists of major faculties that all have clear relevance to the workplace-namely Arts and Sciences, Education and Health Sciences. Qualifications are offered at Certificate of Doctoral level studies in the areas of business, education, ethics, human movement, management, information systems, music, nursing, religion, social work and theology.

  1. Electron-induced hydration of an alkene: alternative reaction pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneke, Jonas; Wang, Ziyan; Swiderek, Petra; Bredehöft, Jan Hendrik

    2015-03-27

    Electron-induced reactions in condensed mixtures of ethylene and water lead to the synthesis of ethanol, as shown by post-irradiation thermal desorption spectrometry (TDS). Interestingly, this synthesis is not only induced by soft electron impact ionization similar to a previously observed electron-induced hydroamination but also, at low electron energy, by electron attachment to ethylene and a subsequent acid/base reaction with water.

  2. Influence of Surface Preparation on Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy and Electron Backscatter Diffraction Analysis of Cross Sections of CdTe/CdS Solar Cells: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moutinho, H. R.; Dhere, R. G.; Jiang, C. S.; Al-Jassim, M. M.

    2011-06-01

    In this work we investigated different methods to prepare cross sections of CdTe/CdS solar cells for EBSD and SKPM analyses. We observed that procedures used to prepare surfaces for EBSD are not suitable to prepare cross sections, and we were able to develop a process using polishing and ion-beam milling. This process resulted in very good results and allowed us to reveal important aspects of the cross section of the CdTe film. For SKPM, polishing and a light ion-beam milling resulted in cross sections that provided good data. We were able to observe the depletion region on the CdTe film and the p-n junction as well as the interdiffusion layer between CdTe and CdS. However, preparing good-quality cross sections for SKPM is not a reproducible process, and artifacts are often observed.

  3. [Post-abortion contraception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohannessian, A; Jamin, C

    2016-12-01

    To establish guidelines of the French National College of Gynecologists and Obstetricians about post-abortion contraception. A systematic review of the literature about post-abortion contraception was performed on Medline and Cochrane Database between 1978 and March 2016. The guidelines of the French and foreign scientific societies were also consulted. After an abortion, if the woman wishes to use a contraception, it should be started as soon as possible because of the very early ovulation resumption. The contraception choice must be done in accordance with the woman's expectations and lifestyle. The contraindications of each contraception must be respected. The long-acting reversible contraception, intra-uterine device (IUD) and implant, could be preferred (grade C) as the efficacy is not dependent on compliance. Thus, they could better prevent repeat abortion (LE3). In case of surgical abortion, IUD should be proposed and inserted immediately after the procedure (grade A), as well as the implant (grade B). In case of medical abortion, the implant can be inserted from the day of mifépristone, the IUD after an ultrasound examination confirming the success of the abortion (no continuing pregnancy or retained sac) (grade C). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Shared consultant physician posts.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooke, J

    2012-01-31

    Our aim was to assess the acceptability and cost-efficiency of shared consultancy posts. Two consultant physicians worked alternate fortnights for a period of twelve months. Questionnaires were distributed to general practitioners, nurses, consultants and junior doctors affected by the arrangement. Patients or their next of kin were contacted by telephone. 1\\/17 of consultants described the experience as negative. 14\\/19 junior doctors reported a positive experience. 11 felt that training had been improved while 2 felt that it had been adversely affected. 17\\/17 GPs were satisfied with the arrangement. 1\\/86 nurses surveyed reported a negative experience. 1\\/48 patients were unhappy with the arrangement. An extra 2.2 (p<0.001) patients were seen per clinic. Length of stay was shortened by 2.49 days (p<0.001). A saving of 69,212 was made due to decreased locum requirements. We present data suggesting structured shared consultancy posts can be broadly acceptable and cost efficient in Ireland.

  5. [Post-traumatic tics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, S; Chacón, J; Redondo, L; Navarro-Busto, C; Solana, B

    1996-10-01

    Secondary tics are those in which an aetiology justifying them can be found, as compared to idiopathic tics, which make up the majority, and the Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (SGT), which is, at the moment, of unknown origin. Of the possible aetiologies described as causing tics, craneo-encephalic trauma has been mentioned on very few occasions. We present a case of post-traumatic tics (verbal and neck) in a young man of 24, and review the published cases which can be considered to be of post-traumatic tics. We have found six cases of tics secondary to traumas, all craneo-encephalic, like ours (the one under study). The time interval between the blow and the appearance of the tic or tics varied between 2 weeks and 3 months. The absence of significant lesions seen in the complementary investigations make it impossible for us to discover the site of the lesion caused by the trauma. However, the presence in some cases of other tics before the trauma, and of family histories of tics, supports the idea of a genetic basis or predisposition to suffer this disorder.

  6. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  7. Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Ciobotaru, Mihai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2008-01-01

    energy at the end-user should also be set up. Deregulation of energy has in the past lowered the investment in larger power plants, which means the need for new electrical power sources will be high in the near future. Two major technologies will play important roles to solve the future problems. One...... is to change the electrical power production sources from the conventional, fossil (and short term) based energy sources to renewable energy resources. The other is to use high efficient power electronics in power generation, power transmission/distribution and end-user application. This paper discuss the most...... emerging renewable energy sources, wind energy, which by means of power electronics are changing from being a minor energy source to be acting as an important power source in the energy system. Power electronics is the enabling technology and the presentation will cover the development in wind turbine...

  8. Electron Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegbahn, Kai

    Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen's discovery of X radiation in 1895 in Wörzburg resulted in an immediate break-through not only in physics but also in Society, the latter mainly because of its sensational radiological applications. Within a short time it furthermore indirectly led to the discovery of radioactivity by Henri Becquerel. The discovery of X radiation opened the gate to modern atomic physics, and radioactivity to nuclear physics. Later on, the discovery of X-ray diffraction by Laue, Friedrich and Knipping in 1912 initiated the field of X-ray spectroscopy with its fundamental contributions to atomic and crystal structures. Secondary electrons were early observed in the scattered radiation when X-rays were hitting a sample. The development of the corresponding electron spectroscopy had to wait a much longer time for its maturity. A survey of electron spectroscopy is presented.

  9. Electronic Commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laird, N. [NRG Information Services Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1995-11-01

    The concept of electronic commerce in the gas industry was discussed. It was defined as the integration of communication technology, advanced information processing capability and business standards, to improve effectiveness of the business process. Examples of electronic data interchange from the automotive, airline, and banking industry were given. The objective of using this technology in the gas industry was described as the provision of one electronic facility to make seamless contractual and operational arrangements for moving natural gas across participating pipelines. The benefit of seamless integration - one readily available standard system used by several companies - was highlighted. A list of value-added services such as the free movement of bulletins, directories, nominations,and other documents was provided.

  10. Spin electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Buhrman, Robert; Daughton, James; Molnár, Stephan; Roukes, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This report is a comparative review of spin electronics ("spintronics") research and development activities in the United States, Japan, and Western Europe conducted by a panel of leading U.S. experts in the field. It covers materials, fabrication and characterization of magnetic nanostructures, magnetism and spin control in magnetic nanostructures, magneto-optical properties of semiconductors, and magnetoelectronics and devices. The panel's conclusions are based on a literature review and a series of site visits to leading spin electronics research centers in Japan and Western Europe. The panel found that Japan is clearly the world leader in new material synthesis and characterization; it is also a leader in magneto-optical properties of semiconductor devices. Europe is strong in theory pertaining to spin electronics, including injection device structures such as tunneling devices, and band structure predictions of materials properties, and in development of magnetic semiconductors and semiconductor heterost...

  11. Molecular Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Karsten Stein

    ) are chemically merged together to form cruciform-like structures that are an essential part of the thesis. The cruciform molecules were subjected to molecular conductance measurements to explore their capability towards single-crystal field-effect transistors (Part 1), molecular wires, and single electron......This thesis includes the synthesis and characterisation of organic compounds designed for molecular electronics. The synthesised organic molecules are mainly based on two motifs, the obigo(phenyleneethynylenes) (OPE)s and tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) as shown below. These two scaffolds (OPE and TTF......, however, was obtained by a study of a single molecular transistor. The investigated OPE5-TTF compound was captured in a three-terminal experiment, whereby manipulation of the molecule’s electronic spin was possible in different charge states. Thus, we demonstrated how the cruciform molecules could...

  12. The SPEDE electron spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neill, George

    This thesis presents SPEDE (SPectrometer for Electron DEtection) and documents its construction, testing and performance during commissioning at Jyvaskyla, Finland, before deployment at the HIE-ISOLDE facility at CERN coupled with the MINIBALL array to perform in-beam electron-gamma spectroscopy using post-accelerated radioactive ion beams. Commissioning experiments took place in two two-day stints during spring 2015, coupled with several JUROGAMII gamma-detectors. This spectrometer will help aid in fully understanding exotic regions of the nuclear chart such as regions with a high degree of octupole deformation, and in those nuclei exhibiting shape coexistence. For the rst time, electron spectroscopy has been performed at the target position from states populated in accelerated nuclei via Coulomb excitation. The FWHM of SPEDE is approximately 7 keV at 320 keV, and Doppler correction was possible to improve Doppler broadened peaks. The results are intended to give the reader a full understanding of the dete...

  13. Post-Quantum Cryptography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gauthier Umana, Valérie

    The security of almost all the public-key cryptosystems used in practice depends on the fact that the prime factorization of a number and the discrete logarithm are hard problems to solve. In 1994, Peter Shor found a polynomial-time algorithm which solves these two problems using quantum computers....... The public key cryptosystems that can resist these emerging attacks are called quantum resistant or post-quantum cryptosystems. There are mainly four classes of public-key cryptography that are believed to resist classical and quantum attacks: code-based cryptography, hash-based cryptography, lattice......-cyclic alternant codes and quasi-dyadic codes (joint work with Gregor Leander). We also present a deterministic polynomial-time algorithm to solve the Goppa Code Distinguisher problem for high rate codes (joint work with Jean-Charles Faugere, Ayoub Otmani, Ludovic Perret and Jean-Pierre Tillich). In the second...

  14. Post-representational cartography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Kitchin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade there has been a move amongst critical cartographers to rethink maps from a post-representational perspective – that is, a vantage point that does not privilege representational modes of thinking (wherein maps are assumed to be mirrors of the world and automatically presumes the ontological security of a map as a map, but rather rethinks and destabilises such notions. This new theorisation extends beyond the earlier critiques of Brian Harley (1989 that argued maps were social constructions. For Harley a map still conveyed the truth of a landscape, albeit its message was bound within the ideological frame of its creator. He thus advocated a strategy of identifying the politics of representation within maps in order to circumnavigate them (to reveal the truth lurking underneath, with the ontology of cartographic practice remaining unquestioned.

  15. Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalovic A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis (PSGN is a frequent cause of acute nephritis in children. This case study was done with the aim to point out that the infections caused by Group A streptococci, in spite of antibiotic era, are still present in the population. An 8-year old boy was admitted in our hospital with a two-day history of fewer, tonsillopharyngitis. After hospital admission, patient was treated with penicillin during the period of 10 days, antihypertensive medications (captopril, furosemide, including restricted diet of salt. After the treatment, patient became better. On demission it was found proteinuria and microhematuria PSGN is very serious disease, which leaves severe complications if the valid therapy with penicillin is not used in propriety time, during the recommended period of 10 days.

  16. Post-Positivist Realism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barbara; Foley

    2006-01-01

    本文作者对《重申身份》一书中所持的后实证现实主义(post-positivist realism)观点进行了深刻的批评。作者指出,从后实证现实主义立场出发论述身份问题会遭遇到逻辑与政治的难题。它所提供的答案只是症候式,而非实质性的。实际上,后现代主义在身份问题上所处的尴尬也是后实证现实主义所同样面临的。

  17. Post-treatment CIN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bais, Aagje G; Eijkemans, Marinus J C; Rebolj, Mateja;

    2009-01-01

    compared health-care costs and impact of individual hrHPV type on the risk of residual/recurrent CIN. Follow-up by abnormal cytology alone (6, 12 and 24 months after treatment according to the Dutch protocol) showed a lower specificity for detection of residual/recurrent CIN than follow-up by abnormal...... cytology and presence of hrHPV (80 vs. 91%, relative risk 0.87 (95% CI 0.77-0.99)). Both methods showed no significant difference in sensitivity ((86 vs. 100%) RR 0.86 (95% CI 0.63-1.16)). Comparing different post hoc modifications in the strategy of combined testing showed similar test characteristics...

  18. Post-traumatic syringomyelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Amit

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive post-traumatic cystic syringomyelia is an uncommon and increasingly recognized cause of morbidity following spinal cord injury. We hereby report a 35-year-old gentleman who sustained wedge compression fracture of L-1 vertebral body 15 years back and had complete paraplegia with bowel/bladder involvement. The neurological deficit recovered with minimal residual motor deficits and erectile dysfunction. He presented now with increasing neurological deficits associated with pain and paresthesia. The MRI spine showed a syrinx extending from the site of injury up to the medulla. He underwent a syringo-peritoneal shunt and at follow-up his pain and motor functions had improved but erectile dysfunction was persisting.

  19. Electron-stimulated purification of platinum nanostructures grown via focused electron beam induced deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett B. Lewis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Platinum–carbon nanostructures deposited via electron beam induced deposition from MeCpPt(IVMe3 are purified during a post-deposition electron exposure treatment in a localized oxygen ambient at room temperature. Time-dependent studies demonstrate that the process occurs from the top–down. Electron beam energy and current studies demonstrate that the process is controlled by a confluence of the electron energy loss and oxygen concentration. Furthermore, the experimental results are modeled as a 2nd order reaction which is dependent on both the electron energy loss density and the oxygen concentration. In addition to purification, the post-deposition electron stimulated oxygen purification process enhances the resolution of the EBID process due to the isotropic carbon removal from the as-deposited materials which produces high-fidelity shape retention.

  20. Electron-stimulated purification of platinum nanostructures grown via focused electron beam induced deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Brett B; Stanford, Michael G; Fowlkes, Jason D; Lester, Kevin; Plank, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Summary Platinum–carbon nanostructures deposited via electron beam induced deposition from MeCpPt(IV)Me3 are purified during a post-deposition electron exposure treatment in a localized oxygen ambient at room temperature. Time-dependent studies demonstrate that the process occurs from the top–down. Electron beam energy and current studies demonstrate that the process is controlled by a confluence of the electron energy loss and oxygen concentration. Furthermore, the experimental results are modeled as a 2nd order reaction which is dependent on both the electron energy loss density and the oxygen concentration. In addition to purification, the post-deposition electron stimulated oxygen purification process enhances the resolution of the EBID process due to the isotropic carbon removal from the as-deposited materials which produces high-fidelity shape retention. PMID:25977862

  1. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due...

  2. Superconducting electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogalla, Horst

    1994-01-01

    During the last decades superconducting electronics has been the most prominent area of research for small scale applications of superconductivity. It has experienced quite a stormy development, from individual low frequency devices to devices with high integration density and pico second switching

  3. Electronic Portfolios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purves, Alan C.

    1996-01-01

    Outlines three forms of electronic portfolio based on a student's work, a class project about a specific topic, and a class seminar on a broad topic. Discusses logistical problems of management, access, and cross-referencing; technical problems of input, access, and copying; and theoretical issues of the lack of realia, of ownership and copyright,…

  4. Electronic Money.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Tim

    Thirty years ago a cashless society was predicted for the near future; paper currency and checks would be an antiquated symbol of the past. Consumers would embrace a new alternative for making payments: electronic money. But currency is still used for 87% of payments, mainly for "nickel and dime" purchases. And checks are the payment…

  5. Electronic spectroscopies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weckhuysen, B.M.; Schoonheydt, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared region is a versatile spectroscopic technique, as both d-d and charge transfer transitions of supported TMI can be probed. One of the advantages of electronic spectroscopy is that the obtained information is

  6. Electronic Homework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fong-lok; Heyworth, Rex M.

    The Electronic Homework assistant system is composed of two components: the Computer Tutor and the Homework Administrator. The Computer Tutor is an intelligent tutoring system that can provide personal assistance like supplying hints, checking errors, providing remediation and prioritizing problems. The Homework Administrator is a teacher's…

  7. Greening Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Søes Kokborg, Morten; Thomsen, Marianne

    Based on a literature review with focus on hazardous substances in waste electric and electronic equipment (WEEE) and numbers from a Danish treatment facility a flow analysis for specific substances has been conducted. Further, the accessible knowledge on human and environmental effects due to po...

  8. Electronic Government

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wimmer, Maria A.; Traunmüller, Roland; Grönlund, Åke

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Electronic Government, EGOV 2005, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in August 2005. The 30 revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions, and assess the state-of-the-art in e...

  9. Electronic detectors for electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faruqi, A R; McMullan, G

    2011-08-01

    Electron microscopy (EM) is an important tool for high-resolution structure determination in applications ranging from condensed matter to biology. Electronic detectors are now used in most applications in EM as they offer convenience and immediate feedback that is not possible with film or image plates. The earliest forms of electronic detector used routinely in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were charge coupled devices (CCDs) and for many applications these remain perfectly adequate. There are however applications, such as the study of radiation-sensitive biological samples, where film is still used and improved detectors would be of great value. The emphasis in this review is therefore on detectors for use in such applications. Two of the most promising candidates for improved detection are: monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) and hybrid pixel detectors (of which Medipix2 was chosen for this study). From the studies described in this review, a back-thinned MAPS detector appears well suited to replace film in for the study of radiation-sensitive samples at 300 keV, while Medipix2 is suited to use at lower energies and especially in situations with very low count rates. The performance of a detector depends on the energy of electrons to be recorded, which in turn is dependent on the application it is being used for; results are described for a wide range of electron energies ranging from 40 to 300 keV. The basic properties of detectors are discussed in terms of their modulation transfer function (MTF) and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) as a function of spatial frequency.

  10. Wiley electrical and electronics engineering dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, Steven M

    2004-01-01

    "The Wiley Electrical and Electronics Engineering Dictionary provides researchers, working engineers, students, and those in related disciplines with the definitions of all the terms and acronyms used in today's electrical and electronics literature. This comprehensive resource saves time by presenting the desired information in the place it is first looked up - and in a straightforward manner that allows this content to be more readily assimilated." "Utilizing information drawn from textbooks, handbooks, treatises, instruction manuals, theses, articles, reports, and Usenet postings, the Wiley Electrical and Electronics Engineering Dictionary is the most complete dictionary covering the entire field of electrical and electronics engineering."--Jacket.

  11. Post-16 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Post-16 Initiative logo This is the first of a regular series of contributions from the Institute's Post-16 Initiative. The Initiative is taking a hard and searching look at the physics taught in schools and colleges from age 16 to age 19. To start with, it is responding to Government initiatives, but hopes to encourage and stimulate good practice in physics teaching on a longer time scale than can be afforded in making responses to current developments. Here Jon Ogborn writes about what AS courses need to be, while Peter Campbell gives his thoughts about teaching matter. Advanced Subsidiary physics: what should it be? From September 2000 all A-levels will be new. Students can take the first Advanced Subsidiary (AS) year and stop there - or decide to go on. In the Institute of Physics post-16 Initiative, we have been thinking how to provide a satisfying one-year experience of physics at the new AS level, and what it should achieve. The students will decide. So the AS course must give a decent picture of what physics is, what it offers for their futures, what interests it can satisfy. That all says breadth, with enough depth to see what is in store later. And this sounds like the right recipe for someone who is taking a single AS year of physics to broaden their A-level experience. It must also be attractive. A way forward is shown by the Salters - Horners course, attracting interest through leading from applications. Why does that work? It gives physics a story to tell, into which ideas fit and make sense. Our own new A-level, Advancing Physics, must also have interesting stories to tell, which must in addition build up an honest picture of physics. An example: teach electric circuits through modern sensing devices. Sensor instrumentation is a key activity of physicists, full of new ideas, but also simple. It makes essential use of circuits such as the potential divider. Practical work gets better things to do than checking the equation for resistors in parallel

  12. Retention of Root Canal Posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, A; Benetti, Ana Raquel; Flury, S;

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cement film thickness of a zinc phosphate or a resin cement on retention of untreated and pretreated root canal posts. Prefabricated zirconia posts (CosmoPost: 1.4 mm) and two types of luting cements (a zinc phosphate cement [DeTrey Zinc......] and a self-etch adhesive resin cement [Panavia F2.0]) were used. After removal of the crowns of 360 extracted premolars, canines, or incisors, the root canals were prepared with a parallel-sided drill system to three different final diameters. Half the posts did not receive any pretreatment. The other half...... received tribochemical silicate coating according to the manufacturer's instructions. Posts were then luted in the prepared root canals (n=30 per group). Following water storage at 37°C for seven days, retention of the posts was determined by the pull-out method. Irrespective of the luting cement...

  13. Post combustion in converter steelmaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oghbasilasie, H.; Holappa, L.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this work is to study the fundamentals of post combustion and the effect of different process parameters on the post combustion ratio (PCR) and heat transfer efficiency (HTE) in converter steelmaking process. The PCR and HTE have been determined under normal operating conditions. Trials assessed the effect of lance height, vessel volume, foaming slag and pellet additions on PCR and HTE. Based on enthalpy considerations, post combustion of CO gas is regarded as one of the most effective means of increasing the heat supply to the BOP. The thermodynamic study of gas-metal-slag reactions gives the limiting conditions for post combustion inside the converter reactor. Different process parameters influencing both thermodynamic equilibria and kinetic conditions can greatly affect the post combustion ratio. Different features of converter processes as well smelting reduction processes utilizing post combustion have been reviewed. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 26 refs.

  14. Electronic Aggression

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Aggression is no longer limited to the school yard. New forms of electronic media, such as blogs, instant messaging, chat rooms, email, text messaging, and the internet are providing new arenas for youth violence to occur.  Created: 11/20/2007 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention.   Date Released: 11/28/2007.

  15. Interacting Electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Richard M.; Reining, Lucia; Ceperley, David M.

    2016-06-01

    Preface; Part I. Interacting Electrons: Beyond the Independent-Particle Picture: 1. The many electron problem: introduction; 2. Signatures of electron correlation; 3. Concepts and models for interacting electrons; Part II. Foundations of Theory for Many-Body Systems: 4. Mean fields and auxiliary systems; 5. Correlation functions; 6. Many-body wavefunctions; 7. Particles and quasi-particles; 8. Functionals in many-particle physics; Part III. Many-Body Green's Function Methods: 9. Many-body perturbation theory: expansion in the interaction; 10. Many-body perturbation theory via functional derivatives; 11. The RPA and the GW approximation for the self-energy; 12. GWA calculations in practice; 13. GWA calculations: illustrative results; 14. RPA and beyond: the Bethe-Salpeter equation; 15. Beyond the GW approximation; 16. Dynamical mean field theory; 17. Beyond the single-site approximation in DMFT; 18. Solvers for embedded systems; 19. Characteristic hamiltonians for solids with d and f states; 20. Examples of calculations for solids with d and f states; 21. Combining Green's functions approaches: an outlook; Part IV. Stochastic Methods: 22. Introduction to stochastic methods; 23. Variational Monte Carlo; 24. Projector quantum Monte Carlo; 25. Path integral Monte Carlo; 26. Concluding remarks; Part V. Appendices: A. Second quantization; B. Pictures; C. Green's functions: general properties; D. Matsubara formulation for Green's functions for T ̸= 0; E. Time-ordering, contours, and non-equilibrium; F. Hedin's equations in a basis; G. Unique solutions in Green's function theory; H. Properties of functionals; I. Auxiliary systems and constrained search; J. Derivation of the Luttinger theorem; K. Gutzwiller and Hubbard approaches; References; Index.

  16. The post-transcriptional operon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tenenbaum, Scott A.; Christiansen, Jan; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    A post-transcriptional operon is a set of monocistronic mRNAs encoding functionally related proteins that are co-regulated by a group of RNA-binding proteins and/or small non-coding RNAs so that protein expression is coordinated at the post-transcriptional level. The post-transcriptional operon...... model (PTO) is used to describe data from an assortment of methods (e.g. RIP-Chip, CLIP-Chip, miRNA profiling, ribosome profiling) that globally address the functionality of mRNA. Several examples of post-transcriptional operons have been documented in the literature and demonstrate the usefulness...

  17. Battery Post-Test Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Post-test diagnostics of aged batteries can provide additional information regarding the cause of performance degradation, which, previously, could be only inferred...

  18. ELECTRON GUN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofilos, N.C.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1960-04-01

    A pulsed electron gun capable of delivering pulses at voltages of the order of 1 mv and currents of the order of 100 amperes is described. The principal novelty resides in a transformer construction which is disposed in the same vacuum housing as the electron source and accelerating electrode structure of the gun to supply the accelerating potential thereto. The transformer is provided by a plurality of magnetic cores disposed in circumferentially spaced relation and having a plurality of primary windings each inductively coupled to a different one of the cores, and a helical secondary winding which is disposed coaxially of the cores and passes therethrough in circumferential succession. Additional novelty resides in the disposition of the electron source cathode filament input leads interiorly of the transformer secondary winding which is hollow, as well as in the employment of a half-wave filament supply which is synchronously operated with the transformer supply such that the transformer is pulsed during the zero current portions of the half-wave cycle.

  19. Photovoltaic Degradation Risk: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2012-04-01

    The ability to accurately predict power delivery over the course of time is of vital importance to the growth of the photovoltaic (PV) industry. Important cost drivers include the efficiency with which sunlight is converted into power, how this relationship changes over time, and the uncertainty in this prediction. An accurate quantification of power decline over time, also known as degradation rate, is essential to all stakeholders - utility companies, integrators, investors, and researchers alike. In this paper we use a statistical approach based on historical data to quantify degradation rates, discern trends and quantify risks related to measurement uncertainties, number of measurements and methodologies.

  20. Ultraviolet Background Radiation (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    importance is that the sky may be truly outstandingly black in the far ultraviolet, offering a "dark site " that is unprecedented in astronomy...Estimated spectral energy distribution of the night-sky background near the zenith at an excellent ground-based site on a moonless night and in a...1977. Ap. J. Suppl. 33:451 31. Henry, R. C. 1981. Ap. J. Lett. 244: L69 32. Henry, R. C. 1981. 16th Rencontre de Moriond, ed. J. Tran Thanh Van, p

  1. NEWS: Post-16 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Peter

    2000-07-01

    post16.gif As a teacher of physics it is very easy to become preoccupied with particulars of courses, or topics or even single concepts. Concerned with imminent student audiences and desired learning outcomes, the daily challenge is to summon satisfactory teaching approaches and resources for the job at hand. For the conscientious teacher, assessment outcomes may too often seem a judgment on our own efforts rather than those of our students. From time to time we may step back and think bigger, for example while planning a recruitment event, or while away from work on holiday. We may be successful locally. But why, at a time when books and television documentaries popularizing science have a large following, has physics education been facing declining numbers? Many recognize that physics has an essential contribution to make to the training of science or engineering specialists, but we know that it is also important for the skilled worker, the informed citizen and, in fact, for anyone trying to make sense of the world. So what are the best ways forward for post-16 physics? To make any impact on the bigger picture requires organization, thinking and meeting time among people in diverse roles: teachers and curriculum managers; university lecturers; employers and professional bodies; unitary awarding bodies; regulatory and funding agencies; and even Government. For the past few years, the Institute of Physics post-16 Initiative has created an unrivalled opportunity to address the wider issues. Its Shaping the Future booklets series was designed to stimulate informed discussion and debate, by providing background information and analysis. Taken together, the booklets should help all those concerned with physics education to understand where we are now, and why. Literally dozens of people have contributed to a review and analysis of physics education. Each booklet is a 48-page smorgasbord in A4 landscape format, containing many examples of good practice, basic but

  2. post-industrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Guerrero

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hoy en día la sociedad postindustrial se manifiesta en cinco dimensiones: un sector económico; una distribución ocupacional; la centralidad del conocimiento teórico; una orientación del futuro con base en el control de la tecnología y una hechura de decisiones orientadas por la nueva tecnología intelectual. De ahí nace la motivación del presente trabajo, el cual consiste en analizar la gerencia pública en la sociedad postindustrial, a través del análisis documental. Así, en consonancia con las condiciones presentes, esta sociedad da cobijo a una administración pública que se consolida en las relaciones de dominación, es decir el gobierno de los hombres; junto a una gerencia que asume la gestión de las cosas. Actualmente, en suma, la administración pública mantiene sus rasgos esenciales, sin menoscabo de convivir una época en la cual los cambios producidos por la post- industrialización provoca el advenimiento de la modalidad d la gerencia de servicios.

  3. Recovery post ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christina

    2014-10-01

    Many ICU patients struggle to recovery following critical illness and may be left with physical, cognitive and psychological problems, which have a negative impact on their quality of life. Gross muscle mass loss and weakness can take some months to recover after the patients' Intensive Care Unit (ICU) discharge, in addition critical illness polyneuropathies can further complicate physical recovery. Psychological problems such as anxiety, depression and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are common and have an negative impact on the patients' ability to engage in rehabilitation after ICU discharge. Finally cognitive deficit affecting memory can be a significant problem. The first step in helping patients to recover from such a devastating illness is to recognise those who have the greatest need and target interventions. Research now suggests that there are interventions that can accelerate physical recovery and reduce the incidence of psychological problems such as anxiety, depression and PTSD. Cognitive rehabilitation, however, is still in its infancy. This review will look at the research into patients' recovery and what can be done to improve this where needed.

  4. Mechanical and ultrastructural evaluation of quartz post-endodontic reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majori, M; Bedini, R; Altamura, C; Filippini, P; Caiazza, S

    2004-01-01

    Aesthetics is a very important element in dentistry, but requires the support of good mechanical performance. Quartz fiber used in post-endodontic reconstruction is an aesthetic material, although there is little research concerning its mechanical properties. This study evaluated the retentive property of post-endodontic reconstruction, composed of a quartz fiber post. Different thermal stresses were applied in vitro to post-endodontic reconstructions, in order to simulate oral thermal action on post-system dental structure linkage. We chose 30 human extracted teeth, endodontically treated and restored, and then divided them into three groups of 10 teeth. A different treatment was applied to each group before mechanical testing: in the 1st group no treatment was done (controls); in the 2nd group teeth were subjected, in a climatic chamber, to 10 thermo-cycles between 4 degrees C and 58 degrees C; in the 3rd group teeth were stored in a saline solution at 37 degrees C for 48 hr. The teeth then underwent tensile shear stress tests at break point using a computerized electronic dynamometer. After mechanical testing, two teeth from each group were longitudinally half-sectioned, sputter-coated in gold and observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The extracted quartz fiber post of each tooth also underwent SEM observation. Mechanical test results demonstrated that thermal cyclic variations could affect bond stability between dental structures and posts in quartz fiber reconstructions, whereas their bond strength seemed unaffected by humidity increases. Quartz fiber post SEM observation demonstrated a homogeneous structure and a regular fiber disposition. Dental root canal morphology SEM images always showed a different thickness in the cement layer. (Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Biomechanics 2004; 2: 156-61).

  5. Nursing Process in Post Tonsillectomy Pain Diagnosis: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleymanifard, Fateme; Khademolhoseyni, Seyyed Mohamad; Nouri, Jamile Mokhtari

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Tonsillectomy is the most common surgery in the field of ENT. Pain is the most common post tonsillectomy complaint. Considering the importance of nursing cares in relieving post-surgery pain in general and post-tonsillectomy pain in particular, this study is conducted with the aim of presenting nursing process in post tonsillectomy pain diagnosis for decreasing loss of appropriate opportunities in nursing cares and achieving appropriate results in taking care of the patients. Methods: This study is a targeted systematic review focusing on “effective nursing measures in relieving children’s post tonsillectomy pain”. The main stages of searching strategy included searching in electronic sources of Latin databases; Pub Med, Science Direct, and EMBASE and Persian databases; SID, Iran medex, ISC to find published articles from 2009 to 2014. In the end, final synthesis was done on eight articles in English. Findings: Effective nursing measurements for relieving post tonsillectomy pain include: decreasing children’s anxiety through children and their families’ psychological preparation by nurses and other caregivers, using cold compress to reduce neck and jaw pain, presenting distraction techniques, offering fluids and cold foods immediately in the period after surgery, creating a comfortable environment for the children, avoiding too much of talking and adequate sleep. Conclusion: It is recommended to the nursing managers and nurses to perform cares achieved from this systematic review to achieve appropriate results in relieving post tonsillectomy pain. PMID:25560345

  6. Rapid, Non-Contact Method for Measurement of Si-Wafer Thickness: Principles and Preliminary Results; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B.; Auriemma, C.; Li, C.; Madjdpour, J.

    2003-08-01

    The thickness of a semiconductor wafer can critically influence mechanical and/or electronic yield of the device(s) fabricated on it. For most microelectronic (surface) devices, the thickness of a wafer is important primarily for mechanical reasons--to provide control and stability of devices by minimizing stresses resulting from various device-fabrication processes. However, for minority-carrier devices, such as solar cells, the entire thickness of the wafer participates in the optical and electronic performance of the device. In either case, control of wafer thickness through careful measurement is a fundamental requirement in the commercial fabrication of electronic devices.

  7. NEWS: Post-16 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-01

    (post16) Making physics connect Doesn't Melvyn Bragg do a wonderful job, engaging both scientists and artists in sensitive discussion on Radio 4 about their methods and their purposes? But every week teachers have the chance to show their students that physics is a way of seeing the world that is well-connected with other aspects of knowledge and culture. The stakes are high: students who fail to appreciate this generally choose not to study the subject beyond GCSE. Most students find our preoccupation with technical detail off-putting. Accepting that we have a syllabus to cover, it's still a question of balance. In our teaching we should aim for variety in order to find ways to connect with every student's interests. Also, we can show that we (the nearest embodiment of a physicist some students will experience) are multidimensional and so fully human. Most important, teachers need flexibility to both encourage and respond to student comment and questions. The first booklet in the discussion series Shaping the Future takes up these themes. Rich in ideas for both immediate use and the longer term, it aims to stimulate debate and improve teaching. Copies cost £5.50 including postage and are available from Ingrid Ebeyer, Post-16 Initiative, Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London W1N 3DH. How far is it? This question is asked in many family cars and school minibuses at the start of a journey, and answered by most in terms of hours and minutes rather than miles. What a good idea for introducing a social and historical perspective to a lesson on distance, velocity and time. How far can you actually get in a day? What is the range of human activity? Walking for eight hours will get many people about 25 miles. A pack horse will progress at much the same rate, but fast riding or a coach and team of horses will get further. Motorway driving (when the cones are on holiday) would take you nearly 500 miles. The 05.15 am train from Penzance arrives in Inverness at 7

  8. Ionizing radiation post-curing of objects produced by stereolithography and other methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, David H.; Eberle, Claude C.; Janke, Christopher J.

    2000-01-01

    An object comprised of a curable material and formed by stereolithography or another three-dimensional prototyping method, in which the object has undergone initial curing, is subjected to post-curing by ionizing radiation, such as an electron beam having a predetermined beam output energy, which is applied in a predetermined dosage and at a predetermined dose rate. The post-cured object exhibits a property profile which is superior to that which existed prior to the ionizing radiation post-curing.

  9. Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) HIV Treatment HIV Treatment: The Basics Just Diagnosed: Next Steps After Testing ... HIV HIV and Mental Health How to Find HIV Treatment Services HIV Prevention Post-Exposure Prophylaxis (PEP) (Last ...

  10. 78 FR 70046 - Payment System Risk Policy; Daylight Overdraft Posting Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... Board is removing the posting rules for Electronic Federal Tax Payment System (EFTPS) investments from... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM Payment System Risk Policy; Daylight Overdraft Posting Rules AGENCY: Board of Governors of the...

  11. Benchmarking of the Placet and Dimad tracking codes using the CLIC Post-Collision line

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, I; Ferrari, A; Latina, A

    2009-01-01

    In this benchmarking study, two contemporary codes, DIMAD and PLACET, are compared. We consider the 20 mrad post-collision line of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) and perform tracking studies of heavily disrupted post-collision electron beams. We successfully find that the two codes provide an equivalent description of the beam transport from the interaction point to the final dump.

  12. Basic electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Tayal, DC

    2010-01-01

    The second edition of this book incorporates the comments and suggestions of my friends and students who have critically studied the first edition. In this edition the changes and additions have been made and subject matter has been rearranged at some places. The purpose of this text is to provide a comprehensive and up-to-date study of the principles of operation of solid state devices, their basic circuits and application of these circuits to various electronic systems, so that it can serve as a standard text not only for universities and colleges but also for technical institutes. This book

  13. Electronic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Kwok, H L

    2010-01-01

    The electronic properties of solids have become of increasing importance in the age of information technology. The study of solids and materials, while having originated from the disciplines of physics and chemistry, has evolved independently over the past few decades. The classical treatment of solid-state physics, which emphasized classifications, theories and fundamental physical principles, is no longer able to bridge the gap between materials advances and applications. In particular, the more recent developments in device physics and technology have not necessarily been driven by new conc

  14. Early Stages of Microstructure and Texture Evolution during Beta Annealing of Ti 6Al 4V (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-27

    Tiley JS, Kerns R. A novel method for acquiring large-scale automated scanning electron microscope data. J Microscopy 2011; 244: 181-186. 21...prior to insertion into an XL30 field-emission-gun, scanning electron microscope (FEI, Hillsboro, OR) for determination of the texture of the alpha...Yamrom B.Title. In: Blenkinsop PA, Evans WJ, Flower HM, editors. Titanium ’95: Science and Technology. London: Institute of Materials ; 1995, pp. 1116

  15. Electronic Router

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusan, Jason

    2005-01-01

    Electronic Router (E-Router) is an application program for routing documents among the cognizant individuals in a government agency or other organization. E-Router supplants a prior 14 NASA Tech Briefs, May 2005 system in which paper documents were routed physically in packages by use of paper slips, packages could be lost, routing times were unacceptably long, tracking of packages was difficult, and there was a need for much photocopying. E-Router enables a user to create a digital package to be routed. Input accepted by E-Router includes the title of the package, the person(s) to whom the package is to be routed, attached files, and comments to reviewers. Electronic mail is used to notify reviewers of needed actions. The creator of the package can, at any time, see the status of the package in the routing structure. At the end of the routing process, E-Router keeps a record of the package and of approvals and/or concurrences of the reviewers. There are commercial programs that perform the general functions of E-Router, but they are more complicated. E-Router is Web-based, easy to use, and does not require the installation or use of client software.

  16. Post-16 update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Post-16 Initiative logo Physics in Mathematical Mood Later this year, as part of the post-16 initiative of the Institute of Physics, a booklet with the above title will be published. In draft form, the booklet was discussed at the ASE conference in January. Some of the issues raised are briefly set out here. If you have any views to contribute, please write to Simon Carson at the Institute of Physics or e-mail simon.carson@physics.org. A mathematical view of the world is intrinsically a part of physics and therefore physics should be studied in an appropriately mathematical way. However, we all know that, to some students at least, mathematics proves to be a stumbling block rather than a powerful aid to understanding. So how can we help? Realizing that as physics teachers we need to deliver the mathematics necessary to an understanding of our subject is a start. Its corollary is that we need to find the space within the physics core. We may wish to use supplementary courses such as AS mathematics or QCA's new free-standing mathematics units, but requiring additional courses as a prerequisite to a study of A-level physics may deter students. Teaching the mathematics in context may aid understanding but we also must ensure that techniques are seen in a variety of contexts and that at some point the tool is abstracted from the background. As teachers we need to be aware of the very basic mathematical difficulties that students bring with them: the use of calculators, standard form, simple algebraic manipulation, for example. Mathematical arguments need to be developed fully and carefully. Encouraging cooperation and discussion between students may help the less able to understand and the more able to appreciate and develop their own understanding through making explicit their reasoning by explaining it to others. And what of new technology? Software tools allow students to develop their understanding about graphs, for example, enabling them to investigate the

  17. On the Electron Dynamics during Rapid Asymmetric Magnetic Island Coalescence: Insights on the Electrons Agyrotropy with the Presence of a Guide Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzola, Emanuele; Lapenta, Giovanni; Innocenti, Maria Elena; Goldman, Martin; Newman, David; Markidis, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    diffusion regions of collisionless magnetic reconnection using electron agyrotropy," Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics (1978-2012), vol. 113, no. A6, 2008. [4] M. Swisdak, "Quantifying gyrotropy in magnetic reconnection," arXiv preprint arXiv:1509.00787, 2015.

  18. Practical electronics handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Ian R

    2013-01-01

    Practical Electronics Handbook, Third Edition provides the frequently used and highly applicable principles of electronics and electronic circuits.The book contains relevant information in electronics. The topics discussed in the text include passive and active discrete components; linear and digital I.C.s; microprocessors and microprocessor systems; digital-analogue conversions; computer aids in electronics design; and electronic hardware components.Electronic circuit constructors, service engineers, electronic design engineers, and anyone with an interest in electronics will find the book ve

  19. POST-RELIGION: TRADITIONALISTS’ ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill M. Tovbin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study is to describe the phenomenon of post-religion as a specific spiritual sphere of the Post-modernity. Methodology. In the introduction analyzed a variety of methodological approaches, opening his inadequacy applied to the spiritual sphere of Post-modernity: «classic» religious studies, religious studies of traditional spiritual movements and the post-modern religious studies, partly produced Traditionalist school, could - according to the author's hypothesis - become a methodological basis for the most complete analysis of post-religion. Scientific novelty. In the main part of the article crystallized the authorized concept of post-religion, its relation with traditional and religious spiritual realms. Post-religion is positioned as the top of secularism enshrined in the departure from the straight and aggressive secularism of the Modernity, but without recourse to Tradition. Post-religion a simulation spirituality, skillfully imitating the outer areas of traditional spirituality and creates a planar religiosity, radically preventing attached to the vertical line of Traditions. In this regard, are the main artificially selected parameters of post-religion: deconstruction, splitting, virtualization, and collage. Deconstruction is a transformation of spirituality in semiotic set for egocentric selectivity of modern believer. Post-religion’s splitting is deprivation of spirituality center, destruction of sacral Center and the transformation of spirituality in the plane on which the intellectual and sensual wandering post-believer from one semiotic island to another. Virtualization is a displacement field of spiritual tension in a completely virtual area, isolated from the natural conditions of existence and created as his replacement, network discussion sites and galleries. Collage is an arbitrary combination of different semiotic pieces of Tradition with the aim of creating a believable picture of tradition; it is collage leads

  20. [Post-mortem microbiology analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Amparo; Alberola, Juan; Cohen, Marta Cecilia

    2013-12-01

    Post-mortem microbiology is useful in both clinical and forensic autopsies, and allows a suspected infection to be confirmed. Indeed, it is routinely applied to donor studies in the clinical setting, as well as in sudden and unexpected death in the forensic field. Implementation of specific sampling techniques in autopsy can minimize the possibility of contamination, making interpretation of the results easier. Specific interpretation criteria for post-mortem cultures, the use of molecular diagnosis, and its fusion with molecular biology and histopathology have led to post-mortem microbiology playing a major role in autopsy. Multidisciplinary work involving microbiologists, pathologists, and forensic physicians will help to improve the achievements of post-mortem microbiology, prevent infectious diseases, and contribute to a healthier population.

  1. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy post liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachiat, Ahmed; McCutcheon, Keir; Mahomed, Adam; Schleicher, Gunter; Brand, Liezl; Botha, Jean; Sussman, Martin; Manga, Pravin

    2016-10-23

    A patient with end-stage liver disease developed stress-induced Takotsubo cardiomyopathy post liver transplantation, with haemodynamic instability requiring a left ventricular assist device. We discuss the diagnosis and management of this condition.

  2. Calorie Posting in Chain Restaurants

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan Bollinger; Phillip Leslie; Alan Sorensen

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of mandatory calorie posting on consumers' purchase decisions, using detailed data from Starbucks. We find that average calories per transaction falls by 6%. The effect is almost entirely related to changes in consumers' food choices--there is almost no change in purchases of beverage calories. There is no impact on Starbucks profit on average, and for the subset of stores located close to their competitor Dunkin Donuts, the effect of calorie posting is actually to increas...

  3. Sustainable Management of Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    To provide information on EPAs strategy for electronics stewardship, certified electronics recyclers and the Challenge; as well as where to donate unwanted electronics, how to calculate benefits, and what's going on with electronics mgmt in their states.

  4. EDITORIAL: Synaptic electronics Synaptic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demming, Anna; Gimzewski, James K.; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2013-09-01

    Conventional computers excel in logic and accurate scientific calculations but make hard work of open ended problems that human brains handle easily. Even von Neumann—the mathematician and polymath who first developed the programming architecture that forms the basis of today's computers—was already looking to the brain for future developments before his death in 1957 [1]. Neuromorphic computing uses approaches that better mimic the working of the human brain. Recent developments in nanotechnology are now providing structures with very accommodating properties for neuromorphic approaches. This special issue, with guest editors James K Gimzewski and Dominique Vuillaume, is devoted to research at the serendipitous interface between the two disciplines. 'Synaptic electronics', looks at artificial devices with connections that demonstrate behaviour similar to synapses in the nervous system allowing a new and more powerful approach to computing. Synapses and connecting neurons respond differently to incident signals depending on the history of signals previously experienced, ultimately leading to short term and long term memory behaviour. The basic characteristics of a synapse can be replicated with around ten simple transistors. However with the human brain having around 1011 neurons and 1015 synapses, artificial neurons and synapses from basic transistors are unlikely to accommodate the scalability required. The discovery of nanoscale elements that function as 'memristors' has provided a key tool for the implementation of synaptic connections [2]. Leon Chua first developed the concept of the 'The memristor—the missing circuit element' in 1971 [3]. In this special issue he presents a tutorial describing how memristor research has fed into our understanding of synaptic behaviour and how they can be applied in information processing [4]. He also describes, 'The new principle of local activity, which uncovers a minuscule life-enabling "Goldilocks zone", dubbed the

  5. Complex structures of dense lithium: Electronic origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtyareva, V. F.

    2016-11-01

    Lithium—the lightest alkali metal exhibits unexpected structures and electronic behavior at high pressures. Like the heavier alkali metals, Li is bcc at ambient pressure and transforms first to fcc (at 7.5 GPa). The post-fcc high-pressure form Li-cI 16 (at 40-60 GPa) is similar to Na-cI 16 and related to more complex structures of heavy alkalis Rb-oC52 and Cs- oC84. The other high pressure phases for Li (oC88, oC40, oC24) observed at pressures up to 130 GPa are found only in Li. The different route of Li high-pressure structures correlates with its special electronic configuration containing the only 3 electrons (at 1s and 2s levels). Crystal structures for Li are analyzed within the model of Fermi sphere-Brillouin zone interactions. Stability of post-fcc structures for Li are supported by the Hume-Rothery arguments when new diffraction plains appear close to the Fermi level producing pseudogaps near the Fermi level and decreasing the crystal energy. The filling of Brillouin-Jones zones by electron states for a given structure defines the physical properties as optical reflectivity, electrical resistivity and superconductivity. To understand the complexity of structural and physical properties of Li above 60 GPa it is necessary to assume the valence electron band overlap with the core electrons and increase the valence electron count under compression.

  6. Evaluacion no lineal de dos postes diferentes.(poste colado, poste prefabricado)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Villaraga Ossa, Junes Abdul; Lopera Builes, Patricia; Latorre Correa, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Introduccion: los dientes tratados endodoncicamente que van a ser rehabilitados con coronas y que han perdido parte de su estructura dental, necesitan de un poste prefabricado o colado para que ayude...

  7. Electronic Mimosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjay; Datta, Meera S.; Rana, Vivek; Grover, Shailesh

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the design of a low-cost, 2D, electromagnetic tracking device for personal computers. This interface makes use of the well-known principle of electromagnetic induction to locate the position of a transmitter in an x-y plane. This device has a ring which is worn by the user on the index finger. The computer monitor is overlaid with a transparent screen equipped with tuned electromagnetic sensors. These sensors pick up the signals transmitted by the transmitter coil on the finger. The receiver circuit extracts the envelope of the received signal and digitizes it. These digitized values of x and y axis signals are read by the computer through the standard parallel port. The system software running on the computer calculates the x and y co-ordinates of the transmitter coil and displays a cursor at that location. The transmitter also has a button which can be used like a mouse button. This keypress information is also transmitted by the electromagnetic means. The device driver for this tracker replaces the standard mouse driver. Hence most applications which use a mouse can also use this tracker. Its name `Mimosa' indicates that the user need not touch the screen (Mimosa Pudica is the Latin name of a plant whose leaves wilt when touched). Presently work is on to achieve uniform sensitivity over the entire screen and reducing transmitter power consumption. In order to demonstrate its working, a small, 3D game was written. The player has to reach a pre-defined location after traversing through a maze. The paper describes the interface electronics, system software, mechanical design and the sample application.

  8. Laser-plasma booster for ion post acceleration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoh D.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A remarkable ion energy increase is demonstrated for post acceleration by a laser-plasma booster. An intense short-pulse laser generates a strong current by high-energy electrons accelerated, when this intense short-pulse laser illuminates a plasma target. The strong electric current creates a strong magnetic field along the high-energy electron current in plasma. During the increase phase in the magnetic field, a longitudinal inductive electric field is induced for the forward ion acceleration by the Faraday law. Our 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations demonstrate a remarkable increase in ion energy by several tens of MeV.

  9. Post irradiation test report of irradiated DUPIC simulated fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Jung, I. H.; Moon, J. S. and others

    2001-12-01

    The post-irradiation examination of irradiated DUPIC (Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) simulated fuel in HANARO was performed at IMEF (Irradiated Material Examination Facility) in KAERI during 6 months from October 1999 to March 2000. The objectives of this post-irradiation test are i) the integrity of the capsule to be used for DUPIC fuel, ii) ensuring the irradiation requirements of DUPIC fuel at HANARO, iii) performance verification in-core behavior at HANARO of DUPIC simulated fuel, iv) establishing and improvement the data base for DUPIC fuel performance verification codes, and v) establishing the irradiation procedure in HANARO for DUPIC fuel. The post-irradiation examination performed are {gamma}-scanning, profilometry, density, hardness, observation the microstructure and fission product distribution by optical microscope and electron probe microanalyser (EPMA)

  10. Carbon Nanotube Electron Gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Cattien V. (Inventor); Ribaya, Bryan P. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An electron gun, an electron source for an electron gun, an extractor for an electron gun, and a respective method for producing the electron gun, the electron source and the extractor are disclosed. Embodiments provide an electron source utilizing a carbon nanotube (CNT) bonded to a substrate for increased stability, reliability, and durability. An extractor with an aperture in a conductive material is used to extract electrons from the electron source, where the aperture may substantially align with the CNT of the electron source when the extractor and electron source are mated to form the electron gun. The electron source and extractor may have alignment features for aligning the electron source and the extractor, thereby bringing the aperture and CNT into substantial alignment when assembled. The alignment features may provide and maintain this alignment during operation to improve the field emission characteristics and overall system stability of the electron gun.

  11. More Abstracts on Effects of Radiation on Electronic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouquet, Frank L.

    1987-01-01

    Second volume of bibliography summarizes literature on radiation effects on new electronic devices. Includes those of protons, electrons, neutrons, gamma rays, and cosmic rays at energies up to about 20 GeV. Volume contains 219 abstracts from unclassified sources. Organized into four sections: dose-rate effects, new technology, post-irradiaton effects, and test environments.

  12. Accurate characterisation of post moulding shrinkage of polymer parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neves, L. C.; De Chiffre, L.; González-Madruga, D.;

    2015-01-01

    The work deals with experimental determination of the shrinkage of polymer parts after injection moulding. A fixture for length measurements on 8 parts at the same time was designed and manufactured in Invar, mounted with 8 electronic gauges, and provided with 3 temperature sensors. The fixture...... of post moulding shrinkage of polymer parts was developed. Expanded uncertainties (k=2) of 3 μm were obtained....

  13. Post-operative urinary retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steggall, Martin; Treacy, Colm; Jones, Mark

    Urinary retention is a common complication of surgery and anaesthesia. The risk of post-operative urinary retention is increased following certain surgical procedures and anaesthetic modalities, and with patients' advancing age. Patients at increased risk of post-operative urinary retention should be identified before surgery or the condition should be identified and treated in a timely manner following surgery. If conservative measures do not help the patient to pass urine, the bladder will need to be drained using either an intermittent catheter or an indwelling urethral catheter, which can result in catheter-associated urinary tract infections. This article provides an overview of normal bladder function, risk factors for developing post-operative urinary retention, and treatment options. Guidance drawn from the literature aims to assist nurses in identifying at-risk patients and inform patient care.

  14. Comparative Study of Zn(O,S) Buffer Layers and CIGS Solar Cells Fabricated by CBD, ALD, and Sputtering: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanathan, K.; Mann, J.; Glynn, S.; Christensen, S.; Pankow, J.; Li, J.; Scharf, J.; Mansfield, L. M.; Contreras, M. A.; Noufi, R.

    2012-06-01

    Zn(O,S) thin films were deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD), atomic layer deposition, and sputtering. Composition of the films and band gap were measured and found to follow the trends described in the literature. CBD Zn(O,S) parameters were optimized and resulted in an 18.5% efficiency cell that did not require post annealing, light soaking, or an undoped ZnO layer. Promising results were obtained with sputtering. A 13% efficiency cell was obtained for a Zn(O,S) emitter layer deposited with 0.5%O2. With further optimization of process parameters and an analysis of the loss mechanisms, it should be possible to increase the efficiency.

  15. Post-heroic warfare revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisk, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    killed during World War II (1940-1945) and the military campaign in Afghanistan (2002-2014), the paper shows that a ‘good’ military death is no longer conceived of as a patriotic sacrifice, but instead legitimised by an appeal to the unique moral worth, humanitarian goals and high professionalism...... of the fallen. The paper concludes that fatalities in transnational military interventions have invoked a sense of post-patriotic heroism instead of a post-heroic crisis, and argues that the social order of modern society has underpinned, rather than undermined, ideals of military self-sacrifice and heroism...

  16. Post-heroic warfare revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisk, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    killed during World War II (1940-1945) and the military campaign in Afghanistan (2002-2014), the paper shows that a ‘good’ military death is no longer conceived of as a patriotic sacrifice, but instead legitimised by an appeal to the unique moral worth, humanitarian goals and high professionalism...... of the fallen. The paper concludes that fatalities in transnational military interventions have invoked a sense of post-patriotic heroism instead of a post-heroic crisis, and argues that the social order of modern society has underpinned, rather than undermined, ideals of military self-sacrifice and heroism...

  17. 'I'm Sorry' Posting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING WENLEI

    2010-01-01

    @@ Having a time machine like the cute Japanese cartoon character Doraemon was once a dream shared by many Chinese born in the 1980s and 1990s. Now a message posted at Tianya forum, one of the most popular of China's online communities, provides them with a virtual version. A seemingly meaningless post in May 2008, saying "I'm going back to 1997, and I will miss you guys and will not fail you in your trust," regained popularity at the end of 2009. By December 28, it had attracted more than 1.6 million visits and nearly 19,000 replies.

  18. Sustainable Materials Management (SMM) Electronics Challenge Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    On September 22, 2012, EPA launched the SMM Electronics Challenge. The Challenge encourages electronics manufacturers, brand owners and retailers to strive to send 100 percent of the used electronics they collect from the public, businesses and within their own organizations to third-party certified electronics refurbishers and recyclers. The Challenge??s goals are to: 1). Ensure responsible recycling through the use of third-party certified recyclers, 2). Increase transparency and accountability through public posting of electronics collection and recycling data, and 3). Encourage outstanding performance through awards and recognition. By striving to send 100 percent of used electronics collected to certified recyclers and refurbishers, Challenge participants are ensuring that the used electronics they collect will be responsibly managed by recyclers that maximize reuse and recycling, minimize exposure to human health and the environment, ensure the safe management of materials by downstream handlers, and require destruction of all data on used electronics. Electronics Challenge participants are publicly recognized on EPA's website as a registrant, new participant, or active participant. Awards are offered in two categories - tier and champion. Tier awards are given in recognition of achieving all the requirements under a gold, silver or bronze tier. Champion awards are given in two categories - product and non-product. For champion awards, a product is an it

  19. Nano-Electronics and Bio-Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Viewgraph presentation on Nano-Electronics and Bio-Electronics is discussed. Topics discussed include: NASA Ames nanotechnology program, Potential Carbon Nanotube (CNT) application, CNT synthesis,Computational Nanotechnology, and protein nanotubes.

  20. Credibility improves topical blog post retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerkamp, W.; de Rijke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Topical blog post retrieval is the task of ranking blog posts with respect to their relevance for a given topic. To improve topical blog post retrieval we incorporate textual credibility indicators in the retrieval process. We consider two groups of indicators: post level (determined using

  1. Credibility improves topical blog post retrieval

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerkamp, W.; de Rijke, M.

    2008-01-01

    Topical blog post retrieval is the task of ranking blog posts with respect to their relevance for a given topic. To improve topical blog post retrieval we incorporate textual credibility indicators in the retrieval process. We consider two groups of indicators: post level (determined using informati

  2. Electronics for LHC Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document gathers the abstracts of most presentations made at this workshop on electronics for the large hadron collider (LHC) experiments. The presentations were arranged into 6 sessions: 1) electronics for tracker, 2) trigger electronics, 3) detector control systems, 4) data acquisition, 5) electronics for calorimeters and electronics for muons, and 6) links, power systems, grounding and shielding, testing and quality assurance.

  3. A Post-Occidental Globe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Huseyin; Sanchez, Alejandra; Araya, Daniel; Gallaga, Drea; Kanogoiw, Fungai; Geary, James; Choe, Keecheng; Ullah, Khan Grogan; Carbajo, Lisa; Fitzpatrick, Margaret; Pour-Previti, Mercedes; Peters, Michael A.; Mukherjee, Mousumi; Britez, Rodrigo

    2012-01-01

    This is an experiment in conversation on the topic of "a post-occidental globe". It emerges from a moderated discussion group where members of a class--master's and PhD students--reflected upon a set of resources provided as part of a course in Global Studies in Education at the University of Illinois. The conversation threads were moderated and…

  4. Post Occupancy Evaluation in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Chris; Thomson, Keith

    2004-01-01

    The Scottish Executive, the devolved government for Scotland, is engaging with stakeholders to achieve excellence in the school estate through Post Occupancy Evaluation (POE). Design of the school environment has a direct impact on teaching and learning, activities which can be supported or frustrated by many building elements. Through a…

  5. Chaos Theory and Post Modernism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Chaos theory is often associated with post modernism. However, one may make the point that both terms are misunderstood. The point of this article is to define both terms and indicate their relationship. Description: Chaos theory is associated with a definition of a theory dealing with variables (butterflies) that are not directly related to a…

  6. Reconsidering Post-Traumatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    This article serves to challenge the prevailing wisdom that suggests that most trauma is followed by post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and is best treated with critical incident stress debriefing (CISD). Instead, recent evidence suggests that many individuals exposed to stress do not experience stress responses. Even those who do, however,…

  7. [Post-traumatic lung herniation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIjs, M.J. de; Verhagen, A.F.T.M.; Tan, E.C.T.H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic lung herniation due to a pathological defect in the chest wall is rare. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present a 73-year-old polytrauma patient who had extensive chest wall trauma after an accident, resulting in traumatic herniation of the lung. The patient was initially treated acc

  8. Adding semantics to microblog posts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Weerkamp, W.; de Rijke, M.

    2012-01-01

    Microblogs have become an important source of information for the purpose of marketing, intelligence, and reputation management. Streams of microblogs are of great value because of their direct and real-time nature. Determining what an individual microblog post is about, however, can be non-trivial

  9. Issues in post-literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Ravindra H.; Ouane, Adama; Sutton, Peter

    1989-12-01

    While school enrolments have been rising, the absolute number of illiterates in the world has grown too. Eradication of adult illiteracy and universalization of primary education are hindered by high drop-out in schools and relapse into illiteracy among adults. Post-literacy programmes seek to stop this reversal by ensuring retention, application and continuation of literacy skills. The Unesco Institute for Education (UIE) has been researching and promoting post-literacy strategies since 1980, but finds that most projects do not include provision for post-literacy from the outset, despite the evident need. Those programmes which have been mounted use a variety of strategies, which UIE has analysed in 12 categories. The exact delimitation of the post-literacy stage in the lifelong education continuum differs from project to project, and the emphasis on individual or societal advance depends on local perceptions of the goals of development. Examples are given of successful programmes, and the challenges of increasing participation and motivation, securing adequate funding, and making efficient and flexible use of institutional facilities are discussed.

  10. Estonianization Efforts Post-Independence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannut, Mart

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the sociolinguistic situation in Estonia. The paper opens with a historic overview, followed by an overview of the current demographic situation and of post-Soviet language and education policies and practices. It is argued that Estonia represents a success story in terms of language policy,…

  11. Possible Post-AGB Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Wallerstein, G; Shetrone, M D

    2003-01-01

    Radial velocities were measured for 5 potential post-AGB stars, two in the globular cluster NGC 1851 and three in the dSph galaxy Ursa Minor. All five potential PAGB stars were found to be radial velocity non-members.

  12. Post-partum psychiatric disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvi Vijay Tuteja

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-partum period is demanding period characterized by overwhelming biological, social and emotional changes. It requires significant personal and interpersonal adaptation, especially in case of primigravida. Childbearing from the standpoint of psychological medicine is the most complex event in human experience. Traditionally Inwood has classified post-partum psychiatric disorders (PPPD as maternity blues, post-partum (postnatal depression and puerperal psychosis (PP. However the spectrum of postpartum phenomenology is widely characterized by range of emotions from transient mood liability, irritability and weepiness to marked agitation, delusions, confusion and delirium. Untreated post-partum depression can have adverse long term effects. For the mother, the episode can be the precursor of chronic recurrent depression. For her children a mother's ongoing depression can contribute to emotional, cognitive and interpersonal problems in later life. And therefore a thorough knowledge of the same is important for all obstetrician and gynecologists. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(8.000: 2497-2502

  13. Post Keynesianism Meets Feminist Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis article explores the relationships between post-Keynesian economics and feminist economics. It distinguishes three key concepts in each tradition that recommend serious attention in the other tradition: gender, the household and unpaid work and caring as key concepts in feminist

  14. Chaos Theory and Post Modernism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Chaos theory is often associated with post modernism. However, one may make the point that both terms are misunderstood. The point of this article is to define both terms and indicate their relationship. Description: Chaos theory is associated with a definition of a theory dealing with variables (butterflies) that are not directly related to a…

  15. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a real illness. You can get PTSD after living through or seeing a traumatic event, such as war, a ... sexual assault, physical abuse, or a bad accident. PTSD makes you feel stressed and afraid after the ...

  16. Testing post-editing guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flanagan, Marian; Christensen, Tina Paulsen

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing interest in machine translation (MT) and post-editing (PE). MT has been around for decades, but the use of the technology has grown significantly in the language industry in recent years, while PE is still a relatively new task. Consequently, there are currently no standard PE ...

  17. Adding semantics to microblog posts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, E.; Weerkamp, W.; de Rijke, M.

    2012-01-01

    Microblogs have become an important source of information for the purpose of marketing, intelligence, and reputation management. Streams of microblogs are of great value because of their direct and real-time nature. Determining what an individual microblog post is about, however, can be non-trivial

  18. Retention and failure morphology of prefabricated posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, Alireza; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Asmussen, Erik;

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effect of cement, post material, surface treatment, and shape (1) on the retention of posts luted in the root canals of extracted human teeth and (2) on the failure morphology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Posts of titanium alloy (ParaPost XH), glass fiber (Para......Post Fiber White), and zirconia (Cerapost) received one of several surface treatments-sandblasting, CoJet treatment, application of Metalprimer II, or sandblasting followed by silane application-and were then luted in the prepared root canal of human incisors and canines (n = 10). Following water storage...... at 37 degrees C for 7 days, retention was determined by extraction of the posts. Failure morphology of extracted posts was analyzed and quantified stereomicroscopically. RESULTS: Type of luting cement, post material, and shape of post influenced the retention and failure morphology of the posts. Because...

  19. Interface Electronic Circuitry for an Electronic Tongue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keymeulen, Didier; Buehler, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Electronic circuitry has been developed to serve as an interface between an electronic tongue and digital input/output boards in a laptop computer that is used to control the tongue and process its readings. Electronic tongues can be used for a variety of purposes, including evaluating water quality, analyzing biochemicals, analyzing biofilms, and measuring electrical conductivities of soils.

  20. Mechanical properties related to the microstructure of seven different fiber reinforced composite posts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso de la Peña, Víctor; Caserío Valea, Martín; Guitián Rivera, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the mechanical properties (bending strength and hardness) of seven different fiber reinforced composite posts, in relation to their microstructural characteristics. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two hundred eighty posts were divided into seven groups of 40, one group for each type of post analyzed. Within each group, 15 posts were subjected to three-point bending strength test, 15 to a microhardess meter for the Knoop hardness, and 10 to Scanning Electron Microscope in order to determine the diameter of the fibers and the percentage of fibers embedded in the matrix. To compare the flexural strength in relation to the type of fiber, matrix, and the hardness of the posts, a Kruskal-Wallis H test was used. The Jonckheere-Terpstra test was used to determine if the volume percent of fibers in the post influenced the bending strength. RESULTS The flexural strength and the hardness depended on the type of fibers that formed the post. The lower flexural strength of a post could be due to deficient bonding between the fiber and the resin matrix. CONCLUSION According to the results, other factors, besides the microstructural characteristics, may also influence the mechanical properties of the post. The feature that has more influence on the mechanical properties of the posts is the type of fiber. PMID:28018560

  1. Electron beam focusing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dikansky, N.; Nagaitsev, S.; Parkhomchuk, V.

    1997-09-01

    The high energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. Thus, the electron beam focusing system is very important for the performance of electron cooling. A system with and without longitudinal magnetic field is presented for discussion. Interaction of electron beam with the vacuum chamber as well as with the background ions and stored antiprotons can cause the coherent electron beam instabilities. Focusing system requirements needed to suppress these instabilities are presented.

  2. Electronics and Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Previously founded as CCPITMachinery and Electronics Sub-council and CCOIC Machinery and Electronics Chamber of Corn-merce in June, 1988, CCPIT Electronics Sub-Council and CCOIC Electronics Chamber of Commerce were established in May, 1993, and then renamed as CCPIT Electronics and Information Industry Sub-council and CCOIC Electronics and Infor-mation Industry Chamber of Commerce (CCPITECC) in September 1999.

  3. Electronic Correlations in Electron Transfer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulla, Ralf; Tornow, Sabine; Anders, Frithjof

    Electron transfer processes play a central role in many chemical and biological systems. Already the transfer of a single electron from the donor to the acceptor can be viewed as a complicated many-body problem, due to the coupling of the electron to the infinitely many environmental degrees of freedom, realized by density fluctuations of the solvent or molecular vibrations of the protein matrix. We focus on the quantum mechanical modelling of two-electron transfer processes whose dynamics is governed by the Coulomb interaction between the electrons as well as the environmental degrees of freedoms represented by a bosonic bath. We identify the regime of parameters in which concerted transfer of the two electrons occurs and discuss the influence of the Coulomb repulsion and the coupling strength to the environment on the electron transfer rate. Calculations are performed using the non-perturbative numerical renormalization group approach for both equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties.

  4. Electronic health records to facilitate clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, Martin R; Blomster, Juuso I; Curtis, Lesley H; Duclaux, Sylvie; Ford, Ian; Fritz, Fleur; Goldman, Samantha; Janmohamed, Salim; Kreuzer, Jörg; Leenay, Mark; Michel, Alexander; Ong, Seleen; Pell, Jill P; Southworth, Mary Ross; Stough, Wendy Gattis; Thoenes, Martin; Zannad, Faiez; Zalewski, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHRs) provide opportunities to enhance patient care, embed performance measures in clinical practice, and facilitate clinical research. Concerns have been raised about the increasing recruitment challenges in trials, burdensome and obtrusive data collection, and uncertain generalizability of the results. Leveraging electronic health records to counterbalance these trends is an area of intense interest. The initial applications of electronic health records, as the primary data source is envisioned for observational studies, embedded pragmatic or post-marketing registry-based randomized studies, or comparative effectiveness studies. Advancing this approach to randomized clinical trials, electronic health records may potentially be used to assess study feasibility, to facilitate patient recruitment, and streamline data collection at baseline and follow-up. Ensuring data security and privacy, overcoming the challenges associated with linking diverse systems and maintaining infrastructure for repeat use of high quality data, are some of the challenges associated with using electronic health records in clinical research. Collaboration between academia, industry, regulatory bodies, policy makers, patients, and electronic health record vendors is critical for the greater use of electronic health records in clinical research. This manuscript identifies the key steps required to advance the role of electronic health records in cardiovascular clinical research.

  5. Electron Microscopy Center (EMC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electron Microscopy Center (EMC) at Argonne National Laboratory develops and maintains unique capabilities for electron beam characterization and applies those...

  6. Electronic devices for analog signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Rybin, Yu K

    2012-01-01

    Electronic Devices for Analog Signal Processing is intended for engineers and post graduates and considers electronic devices applied to process analog signals in instrument making, automation, measurements, and other branches of technology. They perform various transformations of electrical signals: scaling, integration, logarithming, etc. The need in their deeper study is caused, on the one hand, by the extension of the forms of the input signal and increasing accuracy and performance of such devices, and on the other hand, new devices constantly emerge and are already widely used in practice, but no information about them are written in books on electronics. The basic approach of presenting the material in Electronic Devices for Analog Signal Processing can be formulated as follows: the study with help from self-education. While divided into seven chapters, each chapter contains theoretical material, examples of practical problems, questions and tests. The most difficult questions are marked by a diamon...

  7. Electron correlations in single-electron capture from helium by fast protons and α particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mančev, Ivan; Milojević, Nenad

    2010-02-01

    Single-electron capture from heliumlike atomic systems by bare projectiles is investigated by means of the four-body boundary-corrected first Born approximation (CB1-4B). The effect of the dynamic electron correlation is explicitly taken into account through the complete perturbation potential. The quantum-mechanical post and prior transition amplitudes for single charge exchange encompassing symmetric and/or asymmetric collisions are derived in terms of two-dimensional real integrals in the case of the prior form and five-dimensional quadratures for the post form. An illustrative computation is performed for single-electron capture from helium by protons and α particles at intermediate and high impact energies. The role of dynamic correlations is examined as a function of increased projectile energy. The validity and utility of the proposed CB1-4B method is critically assessed in comparison with the existing experimental data for total cross sections, and excellent agreement is obtained.

  8. Post-Acquisition IT Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Yetton, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The extant research on post-acquisition IT integration analyzes how acquirers realize IT-based value in individual acquisitions. However, serial acquirers make 60% of acquisitions. These acquisitions are not isolated events, but are components in growth-by-acquisition programs. To explain how...... serial acquirers realize IT-based value, we develop three propositions on the sequential effects on post-acquisition IT integration in acquisition programs. Their combined explanation is that serial acquirers must have a growth-by-acquisition strategy that includes the capability to improve...... IT integration capabilities, to sustain high alignment across acquisitions and to maintain a scalable IT infrastructure with a flat or decreasing cost structure. We begin the process of validating the three propositions by investigating a longitudinal case study of a growth-by-acquisition program....

  9. Post-burnout thrust measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, E. F.; Smith, H. T.

    1980-06-01

    Research was conducted into the problems of avoiding collision between separated payloads and spent rocket motors due to post burnout thrust, and the problem of contamination of scientific instrumentation due to outgassing of the smoldering insulation. The post burnout thrust was measured using a payload instrument module separated from an instrumented Black Brant VC Rocket in the exoatmosphere. In addition to measuring acceleration and velocities the spent motor was observed by a TV camera on board the command attitude controlled payload module. Analysis shows that the payload separated cleanly from the vehicle at a relative separation velocity of 0.69 m/sec, however the residual thrust of the spent motor overcame this differential, catching up to the payload 37 sec after separation and continuing on a parallel velocity vector at about 1.03 m/sec.

  10. Post-digital literary studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cramer, Florian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Digital humanities and digital literary studies face much the same challenges as contemporary media art: what will become of them once their media are no longer “new”, and the limitations of processing art as data have become more clearly and widely understood? This paper revisits information aesthetics and computer poetics from the 1960s and 1970s, casting them as precursors of today’s digital humanities, with many of the same issues, achievements and failures, and with their own hype cycles of boom and bust. Conversely, “post-digital” and “Post-Internet” trends in music, graphic design and visual arts may anticipate possible futures of digital humanities and literary studies after the hype has passed.

  11. Post-Digital Literary Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Cramer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Digital humanities and digital literary studies face much the same challenges as contemporary media art: what will become of them once their media are no longer “new”, and the limitations of processing art as data have become more clearly and widely understood? This paper revisits information aesthetics and computer poetics from the 1960s and 1970s, casting them as precursors of today’s digital humanities, with many of the same issues, achievements and failures, and with their own hype cycles of boom and bust. Conversely, “post-digital” and “Post-Internet” trends in music, graphic design and visual arts may anticipate possible futures of digital humanities and literary studies after the hype has passed.

  12. Post-Lyme disease syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ścieszka, Joanna; Dąbek, Józefa; Cieślik, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    About 10% of patients with Lyme disease continue to experience musculoskeletal pain and cognitive dysfunction after recommended antibiotic treatment. This condition is called post-Lyme disease syndrome (PLDS) or post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome. These two terms are used interchangeably. The pathogenesis of PLDS has been controversial. The hypothesis that patients with PLDS may harbor hidden reservoirs of Borrelia burgdorferi after their initial antibiotic treatment is difficult to accept. The prospective, double-blind studies contradict this point of view. Also, recently published research applying xenodiagnosis to PLDS supports the opinion that PLDS most likely has an autoimmune background. Lengthy courses of antibiotics are not justified in patients with PLDS because of the lack of benefit, and they are fraught with hazards. Most patients with PLDS recover from persistent symptoms with time. However, it can take months before they feel completely well.

  13. The ISAC post-accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxdal, R. E.; Marchetto, M.

    2014-01-01

    The acceleration chain of the ISAC facility boosts the energy of both radioactive and stable light and heavy ions for beam delivery to both a medium energy area in ISAC-I and a high energy area in ISAC-II. The post-accelerator comprises a 35.4 MHz RFQ to accelerate beams of A/q ≤ 30 from 2 keV/u to 150 keV/u and a post stripper, 106.1 MHz variable energy drift tube linac (DTL) to accelerate ions of A/q ≤ 6 to a final energy between 0.15 MeV/u to 1.5 MeV/u. A 40 MV superconducting linac further accelerates beam from 1.5 MeV/u to energies above the Coulomb barrier. All linacs operate cw to preserve beam intensity.

  14. Post-orthodontic occlusal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A; Freer, T J

    1989-08-01

    The significance of orthodontic treatment in the aetiology of temporomandibular dysfunction continues to be a matter of controversy. However, the evidence of any association has been generally negative. This investigation involved the examination of a study group of 87 post-orthodontic patients, the average time out of all retention being 52 months. They were compared with an untreated control group. Signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disfunction were assessed for both groups. In only one instance, soft joint click, was there found to be a significant association between the treatment category and the occurrence of the symptom, there being a higher rate of soft clicks in the post-treatment group. While this may be ascribed to orthodontic treatment, there was also a different restorative pattern in the two groups. No other significant associations were found.

  15. Impacts of Mid-level Biofuel Content in Gasoline on SIDI Engine-Out and Tailpipe Particulate Matter Emissions: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, X.; Ireland, J. C.; Zigler, B. T.; Ratcliff, M. A.; Knoll, K. E.; Alleman, T. L.; Tester, J. T.

    2011-02-01

    The influences of ethanol and iso-butanol blended with gasoline on engine-out and post Three-Way Catalyst (TWC) particle size distribution and number concentration were studied using a GM 2.0L turbocharged Spark Ignition Direct Injection (SIDI) engine. The engine was operated using the production ECU with a dynamometer controlling the engine speed and the accelerator pedal position controlling the engine load. A TSI Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) spectrometer was used to measure the particle size distribution in the range from 5.6 to 560 nm with a sampling rate of 1 Hz. US federal certification gasoline (E0), two ethanol-blended fuels (E10 and E20), and 11.7% iso-butanol blended fuel (BU12) were tested. Measurements were conducted at ten selected steady-state engine operation conditions. Bi-modal particle size distributions were observed for all operating conditions with peak values at particle sizes of 10 nm and 70 nm. Idle and low speed / low load conditions emitted higher total particle numbers than other operating conditions. At idle, the engine-out Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were dominated by nucleation mode particles, and the production TWC reduced these nucleation mode particles by more than 50%, while leaving the accumulation mode particle distribution unchanged. At engine load higher than 6 bar NMEP, accumulation mode particles dominated the engine-out particle emissions and the TWC had little effect. Compared to the baseline gasoline (E0), E10 does not significantly change PM emissions, while E20 and BU12 both reduce PM emissions under the conditions studied. Iso-butanol was observed to impact PM emissions more than ethanol, with up to 50% reductions at some conditions. In this paper, the issues related to PM measurement using FMPS are also discussed. While some uncertainties are due to engine variation, the FMPS must be operated under careful maintenance procedures in order to achieve repeatable measurement results.

  16. Post-Industrial Cultural Criticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammer, Aske

    2015-01-01

    Integrating perspectives from research into cultural and post-industrial journalism, this article presents a pilot study of websites with reviews of arts and culture conducted by amateurs. Such websites constitute a popular space for cultural criticism, and one that challenges traditional...... reviewers have highly specialized knowledge of culture and, on that basis, argues that the emergence of this type of critic might represent a qualitative strengthening of cultural criticism....

  17. (Post)constructivism on Technoscience

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Zmodyfikowane tłumaczenie tekstu (Post)konstruktywizm na temat technonauki, „Zagadnienia Naukoznawstwa”, 2010, nr 2, 231-251, przeł. Monika Włudzik. The main aims of the article are as follows: (1) to indicate that cognition (in particular the conditions of effectiveness in laboratory practices) may be satisfactorily modelled from a (properly determined) constructivist perspective; (2) to reconstruct the latest tendencies within science and technology studies encapsulated in th...

  18. Actinomycosis - Left Post Chest Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kafil Akhtar, M. Naim, S. Shamshad Ahmad, Nazoora Khan, Uroos Abedi, A.H. Khan*

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A forty year old female of weak body built presented with recurring small hard lumps in let posteriorchest wall for 3 years and discharging ulcers for 3 months duration. Clinically, the provisional diagnosiswas malignancy with secondary infection. FNAC showed features suggestive of dysplasia buthistopathology confirmed the diagnosis as actinomycosis. The present case is reported due to rare incidenceof actinomycosis at post chest wall with muscle involvement.

  19. Post-dural puncture headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaleb A

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Ghaleb1, Arjang Khorasani2, Devanand Mangar31Department of Anesthesiology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, 2Anesthesiology Residency Program, Advocate Illinois Masonic Medical Center, Chicago, IL, 3Florida Gulf to Bay Anesthesiology, Tampa General Hospital, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: Since August Bier reported the first case in 1898, post-dural puncture headache (PDPH has been a problem for patients following dural puncture. Clinical and laboratory research over the last 30 years has shown that use of smaller-gauge needles, particularly of the pencil-point design, are associated with a lower risk of PDPH than traditional cutting point needle tips (Quincke-point needle. A careful history can rule out other causes of headache. A postural component of headache is the sine qua non of PDPH. In high-risk patients < 50 years, post-partum, in the event a large-gauge needle puncture is initiated, an epidural blood patch should be performed within 24–48 hours of dural puncture. The optimum volume of blood has been shown to be 12–20 mL for adult patients. Complications caused by autologous epidural blood patching (AEBP are rare.Keywords: post-dural puncture headache, gauge, needles, cause, risk, incidence

  20. Post-stenotic aortic dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangiri Marjan

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease affecting up to 4% of the elderly population. It can be associated with dilatation of the ascending aorta and subsequent dissection. Post-stenotic dilatation is seen in patients with AS and/or aortic regurgitation, patients with a haemodynamically normal bicuspid aortic valve and following aortic valve replacement. Controversy exists as to whether to replace the aortic root and ascending aorta at the time of aortic valve replacement, an operation that potentially carries a higher morbidity and mortality. The aetiology of post-stenotic aortic dilatation remains controversial. It may be due to haemodynamic factors caused by a stenotic valve, involving high velocity and turbulent flow downstream of the stenosis, or due to intrinsic pathology of the aortic wall. This may involve an abnormality in the process of extracellular matrix remodelling in the aortic wall including inadequate synthesis, degradation and transport of extracellular matrix proteins. This article reviews the aetiology, pathology and management of patients with post-stenotic aortic dilatation.

  1. Degradation in PV Encapsulant Strength of Attachment: An Interlaboratory Study Towards a Climate-Specific Test: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David C.; Annigoni, Eleonora; Ballion, Amal; Bokria, Jayesh G.; Bruckman, Laura S.; Burns, David M.; Chen, Xinxin; Feng, Jiangtao; French, Roger H.; Fowler, Sean; Honeker, Christian C.; Kempe, Michael D.; Khonkar, Hussam; Kohl, Michael; Perret-Aebi, Laure-Emmanuelle; Phillips, Nancy H.; Scott, Kurt P.; Sculati-Meillaud, Fanny; Wohlgemuth, John H.

    2016-07-01

    Reduced strength of attachment of the encapsulant resulting from outdoor environment, including ultraviolet (UV) radiation, may decrease photovoltaic (PV) module lifetime by enabling widespread corrosion of internal components. To date, few studies exist showing how the adhesion of PV components varies with environmental stress. We have conducted an interlaboratory experiment to provide an understanding that will be used to develop climatic specific module tests. Factors examined in the study included the UV light source (lamp type), temperature, and humidity to be proposed for use in accelerated aging tests. A poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) formulation often used in veteran PV installations was studied using a compressive shear test - to quantify the strength of attachment at the EVA/glass interface. Replicate laminated glass/polymer/glass coupon specimens were weathered at 12 institutions using a variety of indoor chambers or field aging. Shear strength, shear strain, and toughness were measured using a mechanical load-frame for the compressive shear test, with subsequent optical imaging and electron microscopy of the separated surfaces.

  2. Investigation of Junction Properties in CdS/CdTe Solar Cells and Their Correlation to Device Properties: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhere, R. G.; Zhang, Y.; Romero, M. J.; Asher, S. E.; Young, M.; To, B.; Noufi, R.; Gessert, T. A.

    2008-05-01

    Secondary-ion mass spectrometry analysis of the CdS/CdTe interface shows that S diffusion in CdTe increases with substrate temperature and CdCl2 heat treatment. There is also an accumulation of Cl at the interface for CdCl2-treated samples. Modulated photo-reflectance studies shows that devices with CdCl2 heat treatment and open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 835 mV have a distinct high electric-field region in the layer with bandgap of 1.45 eV. Electron-beam induced current measurements reveal a one-sided junction for high Voc devices. The nature of the junction changes with processing. For heterojunction devices, the depletion region includes the highly defective CdS/CdTe interface, which would increase the recombination current and consequently the dark current, leading to lower Voc. In the case of CdCl2-treated cells, the n+-p junction and its high electric-field results in the junction between structurally compatible CdTe and the Te-rich CdSTe alloy, and thus, in higher Voc.

  3. Demonstration of Active Power Controls by Utility-Scale PV Power Plant in an Island Grid: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, Vahan; O' Neill, Barbara

    2017-02-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), AES, and the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority conducted a demonstration project on a utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) plant to test the viability of providing important ancillary services from this facility. As solar generation increases globally, there is a need for innovation and increased operational flexibility. A typical PV power plant consists of multiple power electronic inverters and can contribute to grid stability and reliability through sophisticated 'grid-friendly' controls. In this way, it may mitigate the impact of its variability on the grid and contribute to important system requirements more like traditional generators. In 2015, testing was completed on a 20-MW AES plant in Puerto Rico, and a large amount of test data was produced and analyzed that demonstrates the ability of PV power plants to provide various types of new grid-friendly controls. This data showed how active power controls can leverage PV's value from being simply an intermittent energy resource to providing additional ancillary services for an isolated island grid. Specifically, the tests conducted included PV plant participation in automatic generation control, provision of droop response, and fast frequency response.

  4. Reduced-order Structure-preserving Model for Parallel-connected Three-phase Grid-tied Inverters: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Brian B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-31

    Given that next-generation infrastructures will contain large numbers of grid-connected inverters and these interfaces will be satisfying a growing fraction of system load, it is imperative to analyze the impacts of power electronics on such systems. However, since each inverter model has a relatively large number of dynamic states, it would be impractical to execute complex system models where the full dynamics of each inverter are retained. To address this challenge, we derive a reduced-order structure-preserving model for parallel-connected grid-tied three-phase inverters. Here, each inverter in the system is assumed to have a full-bridge topology, LCL filter at the point of common coupling, and the control architecture for each inverter includes a current controller, a power controller, and a phase-locked loop for grid synchronization. We outline a structure-preserving reduced-order inverter model for the setting where the parallel inverters are each designed such that the filter components and controller gains scale linearly with the power rating. By structure preserving, we mean that the reduced-order three-phase inverter model is also composed of an LCL filter, a power controller, current controller, and PLL. That is, we show that the system of parallel inverters can be modeled exactly as one aggregated inverter unit and this equivalent model has the same number of dynamical states as an individual inverter in the paralleled system. Numerical simulations validate the reduced-order models.

  5. Investigations on Electronic Materials

    OpenAIRE

    E. Pugnor; T. Kormány

    1982-01-01

    Electronics has been described as a materials oriented technology. In this sense a short review is given concerning: the connection of materials characterization to the design and processing of electronic components; the most important materials characterization methods used for electronic materials; the strategy of organizing a complete material characterization system for selected electronic components.

  6. Electron-attachment processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christophorou, L. G.; McCorkle, D. L.; Christodoulides, A. A.

    Topics covered include: modes of production of negative ions, techniques for the study of electron attachment processes, dissociative electron attachment to ground state molecules, dissociative electron attachment to hot molecules (effects of temperature on dissociative electron attachment), molecular parent negative ions, and negative ions formed by ion pair processes and by collisions of molecules with ground state and Rydberg atoms.

  7. Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Electronic Health Records KidsHealth > For Teens > Electronic Health Records Print A A A What's in ... t happen overnight, they are coming. Understanding EHRs Electronic health records (EHR) — also called electronic medical records ( ...

  8. Introduction to electronics

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    Electronics in HEP experiments: specificities and evolution The Art of Electronics: is there something beyond Ohm's law? Basic building blocks of Analog electronics: quickly understanding a schematic Charge preamps, current preamps and future preamps, shaping and the rest Electronics noise: fundamental and practical Evolution of technology: ASICs, FPGAs...

  9. Introduction to Electronics course

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    Electronics in HEP experiments: specificities and evolution The Art of Electronics: is there something beyond Ohm's law? Basic building blocks of Analog electronics: quickly understanding a schematic Charge preamps, current preamps and future preamps, shaping and the rest Electronics noise: fundamental and practical Evolution of technology: ASICs, FPGAs...

  10. Electronic Health Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Electronic Health Records KidsHealth > For Teens > Electronic Health Records A A A What's in this ... t happen overnight, they are coming. Understanding EHRs Electronic health records (EHR) — also called electronic medical records ( ...

  11. Introduction to Electronic Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilbeck, Lettie

    These materials for a five-unit course were developed to introduce secondary and postsecondary students to the use of electronic equipment in marketing. The units cover the following topics: electronic marketing as a valid marketing approach; telemarketing; radio electronic media marketing; television electronic media marketing; and cable TV…

  12. Hybrid printed electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.; Smits, E.; Rubingh, E.; Teunissen, P.; Kusters, R.; Abbel, R.; Brand, J. van den

    2016-01-01

    Although many electronic functionalities can be realized by printed or organic electronics, short-term marketable products often require robust, reproducible, and nondisturbing technologies. In this chapter we show how hybrid electronics, a combination of printed circuitry, thin-film electronics,

  13. Electron transfer reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Cannon, R D

    2013-01-01

    Electron Transfer Reactions deals with the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions between metal ions in solution, as well as the electron exchange between atoms or molecules in either the gaseous or solid state. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 covers the electron transfer between atoms and molecules in the gas state. Part 2 tackles the reaction paths of oxidation states and binuclear intermediates, as well as the mechanisms of electron transfer. Part 3 discusses the theories and models of the electron transfer process; theories and experiments involving bridged electron transfe

  14. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Mazda, F F

    1989-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, Sixth Edition is a five-part book that begins with a synopsis of mathematical and electrical techniques used in the analysis of electronic systems. Part II covers physical phenomena, such as electricity, light, and radiation, often met with in electronic systems. Part III contains chapters on basic electronic components and materials, the building blocks of any electronic design. Part IV highlights electronic circuit design and instrumentation. The last part shows the application areas of electronics such as radar and computers.

  15. 从企业需求层面分析高职电子类学生职业素质的培养——以明昕微电子股份有限公司招聘岗位职责为切入点%Analysis of cultivating the professional quality of Vocational college students majoring in electronics from the angle of enterprise demands —taking the responsibility of posts in Mingxin Microelectronic Co.,Ltd.as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明超

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays,Vocational college students majoring in electronics are facing stronger and stronger competition in the employment market.In order to acquire good posts after graduation,these students should get prepared and equip themselves with what are needed in the society.As the raise of talents,teachers and administrative staff should continually pay attention to industry trends,get to know needs of enterprises in time,actively analyze the needs of enterprises on talents,and organize teaching activities on purpose and emphasize on cultivating students' professional qualities,and then improve the students' core competitiveness.In the meantime,colleges should enhance their cooperation with enterprises,be striving to create the win-win situation of "co-establishing the course,co-raising the talent,co-administrate the process and share the resource ".%高职电子类学生的就业竞争日益加剧,毕业后如何在职场中拥有自己的一席之地,这就需要他们早做准备,练好"内功"。职教工作者作为人才的培养者,需不断关注行业动态,及时了解企业需要,主动分析企业对人才的要求,有针对性地组织教育教学活动,着力培养学生的职业素质,以提升学生的核心竞争力。同时要不断深化校企合作,力争形成"课程共建,人才共育,过程共管,资源共享"的多赢局面。

  16. Practical microwave electron devices

    CERN Document Server

    Meurant, Gerard

    2013-01-01

    Practical Microwave Electron Devices provides an understanding of microwave electron devices and their applications. All areas of microwave electron devices are covered. These include microwave solid-state devices, including popular microwave transistors and both passive and active diodes; quantum electron devices; thermionic devices (including relativistic thermionic devices); and ferrimagnetic electron devices. The design of each of these devices is discussed as well as their applications, including oscillation, amplification, switching, modulation, demodulation, and parametric interactions.

  17. Electronics engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, L W

    1976-01-01

    Electronics Engineer's Reference Book, 4th Edition is a reference book for electronic engineers that reviews the knowledge and techniques in electronics engineering and covers topics ranging from basics to materials and components, devices, circuits, measurements, and applications. This edition is comprised of 27 chapters; the first of which presents general information on electronics engineering, including terminology, mathematical equations, mathematical signs and symbols, and Greek alphabet and symbols. Attention then turns to the history of electronics; electromagnetic and nuclear radiatio

  18. Effective Assessment Framework: Sustainability of Post Amnesty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effective Assessment Framework: Sustainability of Post Amnesty Programme in ... Post Amnesty programme beyond Amnesty peace agreement in Niger Delta. ... leaf from other countries. management techniques such as in Canada and USA.

  19. Progress in post-quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfatti, Jack

    2017-05-01

    Newton's mechanics in the 17th century increased the lethality of artillery. Thermodynamics in the 19th led to the steam-powered industrial revolution. Maxwell's unification of electricity, magnetism and light gave us electrical power, the telegraph, radio and television. The discovery of quantum mechanics in the 20th century by Planck, Bohr, Einstein, Schrodinger, Heisenberg led to the creation of the atomic and hydrogen bombs as well as computer chips, the world-wide-web and Silicon Valley's multibillion dollar corporations. The lesson is that breakthroughs in fundamental physics, both theoretical and experimental, have always led to profound technological wealth-creating industries and will continue to do so. There is now a new revolution brewing in quantum mechanics that can be divided into three periods. The first quantum revolution was from 1900 to about 1975. The second quantum information/computer revolution was from about 1975 to 2015. (The early part of this story is told by Kaiser in his book, How the Hippies Saved Physics, how a small group of Berkeley/San Francisco physicists triggered that second revolution.) The third quantum revolution is how an extension of quantum mechanics may lead to the understanding of consciousness as a natural physical phenomenon that can emerge in many material substrates, not only in our carbon-based biochemistry. In particular, this new post-quantum mechanics may lead to naturally conscious artificial intelligence in nano-electronic machines, as well as perhaps extending human life spans to hundreds of years and more.

  20. Controllable Grid Interface for Testing Ancillary Service Controls and Fault Performance of Utility-Scale Wind Power Generation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, Vahan; Koralewicz, Przemyslaw; Wallen, Robb; Muljadi, Eduard

    2017-02-01

    The rapid expansion of wind power has led many transmission system operators to demand modern wind power plants to comply with strict interconnection requirements. Such requirements involve various aspects of wind power plant operation, including fault ride-through and power quality performance as well as the provision of ancillary services to enhance grid reliability. During recent years, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) of the U.S. Department of Energy has developed a new, groundbreaking testing apparatus and methodology to test and demonstrate many existing and future advanced controls for wind generation (and other renewable generation technologies) on the multimegawatt scale and medium-voltage levels. This paper describes the capabilities and control features of NREL's 7-MVA power electronic grid simulator (also called a controllable grid interface, or CGI) that enables testing many active and reactive power control features of modern wind turbine generators -- including inertial response, primary and secondary frequency responses, and voltage regulation -- under a controlled, medium-voltage grid environment. In particular, this paper focuses on the specifics of testing the balanced and unbalanced fault ride-through characteristics of wind turbine generators under simulated strong and weak medium-voltage grid conditions. In addition, this paper provides insights on the power hardware-in-the-loop feature implemented in the CGI to emulate (in real time) the conditions that might exist in various types of electric power systems under normal operations and/or contingency scenarios. Using actual test examples and simulation results, this paper describes the value of CGI as an ultimate modeling validation tool for all types of 'grid-friendly' controls by wind generation.

  1. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis in the electron microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, DC

    2003-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth description of x-ray microanalysis in the electron microscope. It is sufficiently detailed to ensure that novices will understand the nuances of high-quality EDX analysis. Includes information about hardware design as well as the physics of x-ray generation, absorption and detection, and most post-detection data processing. Details on electron optics and electron probe formation allow the novice to make sensible adjustments to the electron microscope in order to set up a system which optimises analysis. It also helps the reader determine which microanalytical me

  2. 应用电子技术专业项目式教学法项目载体的研究--以电子产品制造、生产管理和营销三大岗位群为例%Study on Project Carrier of Applied Electronic Technology Professional Project-based Teaching--Take Electronics Manufacturing, Production Management and Marketing Three Post Group as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    项盛荣

    2014-01-01

    项目载体是项目式教学法教学信息的承载者,应承载尽可能多的教学信息,应能起到教学、科研、经济和社会服务的作用。在选择项目载体时,要选择那些具有职业岗位性、教具性、教育科学性、实用性、经济性和社会服务性等项目载体特征的,且教学效益、经济效益和社会效益最大化的电子产品作为项目载体。%Project support is project-based pedagogy teaching bearer of information, should carry as much teaching infor-mation, should be able to play a role in teaching, research, economic, and social services. In selecting projects carrier, to select those with occupational status of the project carrier characteristics, sexual aids, educational science, practicality, economy and social services, etc., and teaching effectiveness, maximize economic and social benefits of electronic products as the pro-ject carrier.

  3. Effectiveness of bonding fiber posts to root canals and composite core build-ups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathke, Andreas; Haj-Omer, Dima; Muche, Rainer; Haller, Bernd

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of fiber posts, silanization, and luting agents on the interfacial strength to root dentin and composite cores. Root canals of 120 crownless human teeth were instrumented. Three different posts (opaque and translucent), with and without silane treatment, were bonded using etch-and-rinse, self-etch, and self-adhesive luting agents. The restored roots were built up with dual-curing composite. After storage in water for 24 h at 37 degrees C, 2-mm-thick slices were cut from each sample: one from the composite core and one from the restored root. Interfacial push-out bond strengths of the posts were determined in a universal testing machine. Failure modes were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The post type and the luting agent had significant effects on both the post-to-dentin and post-to-core strengths. Silanization did not significantly influence post-to-dentin strengths, but enhanced post-to-core strengths. With etch-and-rinse luting agents, debonding occurred predominantly between the post and the cement, while the self-etch and self-adhesive luting agents showed more failures on root dentin. No failures occurred between the composite core and the cement. The combination of translucent posts and etch-and-rinse dual-curing luting agents can positively influence the retention of fiber posts in root canals. Silanization seems to be less relevant for intra-root canal bonding, but may have beneficial effects on post-to-core strengths.

  4. 10 CFR 160.6 - Posting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Posting. 160.6 Section 160.6 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) TRESPASSING ON COMMISSION PROPERTY § 160.6 Posting. Notices stating the pertinent prohibitions of §§ 160.3 and 160.4 and penalties of § 160.5 will be conspicuously posted at all entrances...

  5. 10 CFR 73.75 - Posting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Posting. 73.75 Section 73.75 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Records and Reports § 73.75 Posting. (a... criminal penalties, and associated posting requirements, under section 229 of the Atomic Energy Act...

  6. 36 CFR 261.51 - Posting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Posting. 261.51 Section 261.51 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Areas Designated by Order § 261.51 Posting. Posting is accomplished by: (a) Placing a copy...

  7. 36 CFR 71.4 - Posting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Posting. 71.4 Section 71.4... § 71.4 Posting. (a) The administering bureaus of the Department of the Interior shall provide for the posting of the following designation sign at entrances to Designated Entrance Fee Areas and at...

  8. Clinical issues in post-abortion care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappiello, Joyce D; Beal, Margaret W; Simmonds, Katherine E

    2011-05-01

    This article provides an overview of the clinical issues in post-abortion care, including types of abortion procedures, expected post-abortion course, possible complications, and the components of the post-abortion visit. By providing follow-up care to their patients, NPs can increase continuity of care and promote successful contraceptive use.

  9. Single electron-ics with carbon nanotubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, G.T.J.

    2010-01-01

    We experimentally investigate Quantum Dots, formed in Carbon Nanotubes. The first part of this thesis deals with charge sensing on such quantum dots. The charge sensor is a metallic Single-electron-transistor, sensitive to the charge of a single electron on the quantum dot. We use this technique for

  10. Electron-electron interactions in disordered systems

    CERN Document Server

    Efros, AL

    1985-01-01

    ``Electron-Electron Interactions in Disordered Systems'' deals with the interplay of disorder and the Coulomb interaction. Prominent experts give state-of-the-art reviews of the theoretical and experimental work in this field and make it clear that the interplay of the two effects is essential, especially in low-dimensional systems.

  11. Tables of experimental branching ratios of Auger-type post collisional ionization of rare gases

    CERN Document Server

    Montanari, C C

    2016-01-01

    When an electron is emitted from a sub-valence shell, a vacancy is created and there is a not-null probability for different post collisional ionization (PCI) processes giving rise to a higher target charge state. It is reasonable to consider that PCI is a time-delayed electron emission and, therefore, independent of the projectile. We include the tables of the branching ratios of $0-6$ post-collisionally emitted electrons after single ionization of Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe in different inner shells. These values have already been employed with good results in previous calculations of multiple ionization of rare gases by electrons, positron, protons, antiprotons and different positive ions (see the text and references therein). These tables and explanation is included in [Montanari C C and Miraglia J E 2014, \\textit{J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys.} {\\bf 45}, 105203].

  12. VIRTUAL ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS OF THE ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lazarevich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is present new idea of the creation, developments and improvements of the electronic equipment of complex systems by means of the virtual electronic components. The idea of the virtual electronic components is a presentation and perception of the creation and developments of the equipment on two forming: real – in the manner of standard marketed block of the intellectual property and image – in the manner of virtual component. The real component in most cases slows the development of the electronic equipment. The imaginary component is the «locomotive» of development of the electronic equipment. The Imaginary component contains the scientific has brushed against developer. The scientific has brushed against developer reveals of itself in the manner of virtual component on the modern level of the design rates of microelectronics.

  13. Electron transporting semiconducting polymers in organic electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xingang; Zhan, Xiaowei

    2011-07-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in the preparation of semiconducting polymers over the past two decades, and successful commercial devices based on them are slowly beginning to enter the market. However, most of the conjugated polymers are hole transporting, or p-type, semiconductors that have seen a dramatic rise in performance over the last decade. Much less attention has been devoted to electron transporting, or n-type, materials that have lagged behind their p-type counterparts. Organic electron transporting materials are essential for the fabrication of organic p-n junctions, organic photovoltaic cells (OPVs), n-channel organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and complementary logic circuits. In this critical review we focus upon recent developments in several classes of electron transporting semiconducting polymers used in OLEDs, OFETs and OPVs, and survey and analyze what is currently known concerning electron transporting semiconductor architecture, electronic structure, and device performance relationships (87 references).

  14. Parameterized post-Newtonian cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanghai, Viraj A. A.; Clifton, Timothy

    2017-03-01

    Einstein’s theory of gravity has been extensively tested on solar system scales, and for isolated astrophysical systems, using the perturbative framework known as the parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) formalism. This framework is designed for use in the weak-field and slow-motion limit of gravity, and can be used to constrain a large class of metric theories of gravity with data collected from the aforementioned systems. Given the potential of future surveys to probe cosmological scales to high precision, it is a topic of much contemporary interest to construct a similar framework to link Einstein’s theory of gravity and its alternatives to observations on cosmological scales. Our approach to this problem is to adapt and extend the existing PPN formalism for use in cosmology. We derive a set of equations that use the same parameters to consistently model both weak fields and cosmology. This allows us to parameterize a large class of modified theories of gravity and dark energy models on cosmological scales, using just four functions of time. These four functions can be directly linked to the background expansion of the universe, first-order cosmological perturbations, and the weak-field limit of the theory. They also reduce to the standard PPN parameters on solar system scales. We illustrate how dark energy models and scalar-tensor and vector-tensor theories of gravity fit into this framework, which we refer to as ‘parameterized post-Newtonian cosmology’ (PPNC).

  15. [Post-Lyme disease syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błaut-Jurkowska, Justyna; Jurkowski, Marcin

    2016-02-01

    Lyme disease is a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacteria, spirochete of the Borrelia type. Skin, nervous system, musculoskeletal system and heart may be involved in the course of the disease. The prognosis for properly treated Lyme disease is usually good. However, in about 5% of patients so called Post-Lyme disease syndrome (PLSD) develops. It is defined as a syndrome of subjective symptoms persisting despite proper treatment of Borrelia burgdorferi infection. The most common symptoms include: fatigue, muscle and joint pain, and problems with memory and concentration. Pathogenesis of PLDS remains unknown. The differential diagnosis should include neurological, rheumatic and mental diseases. Till now there is no causative treatment of PLDS. In relieving symptom rehabilitation, painkillers, anti-inflammatory and antidepressants medicines are recommended. Emotional and psychological supports are also necessary. Non-specific symptoms reported by patients with post- Lyme disease syndrome raise the suspicion of other pathologies. This can lead to misdiagnosis and implementation of unnecessary, potentially harmful to the patient's therapy. An increase in tick-borne diseases needs to increase physicians awareness of these issues. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  16. Post-Newtonian cosmological models

    CERN Document Server

    Sanghai, Viraj A A

    2015-01-01

    We construct a framework to probe the effect of non-linear structure formation on the large-scale expansion of the universe. We take a bottom-up approach to cosmological modelling by splitting our universe into cells. The matter content within each cell is described by the post-Newtonian formalism. We assume that most of the cell is in the vicinity of weak gravitational fields, so that it can be described using a perturbed Minkowski metric. Our cells are patched together using the Israel junction conditions. We impose reflection symmetry across the boundary of these cells. This allows us to calculate the equation of motion for the boundary of the cell and, hence, the expansion rate of the universe. At Newtonian order, we recover the standard Friedmann-like equations. At post-Newtonian orders, we obtain a correction to the large-scale expansion of the universe. Our framework does not depend on the process of averaging in cosmology. As an example, we use this framework to investigate the cosmological evolution ...

  17. CERN at the Post Office

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    In collaboration with CERN and the Conseil général de l'Ain, the French postal services of the Pays de Gex have released a new set of pre-paid envelopes paying tribute to CERN. The envelopes, which come in packets of ten, each featuring a different aspect of CERN, will be on sale from 6 June onwards. They will be available from five post offices in the Pays de Gex (Ferney-Voltaire, Prévessin-Moëns, Saint-Genis-Pouilly, Thoiry and CERN-Prévessin), as well as from the CERN Shop (Reception, Building 33). The envelopes were unveiled at an official ceremony on 23 May, which was attended by Jocelyne Boch, Vice-President of the Conseil général de l'Ain and Mayoress of Thoiry, as well as Marina Combe, Head of the Saint-Genis-Pouilly, Thoiry and CERN-Prévessin post offices, and Maximilian Metzger, CERN's Secretary-General. The last set of envelopes to feature CERN, which commemorated the Laboratory's 50th anniversary in 2004, were a huge success, with sales totalling 35 000 in less than a year. 'We received...

  18. Electronics for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Shamieh

    2015-01-01

    Explore the basic concepts of electronics, build your electronics workbench, and begin creating fun electronics projects right away! Electronics For Dummies, 3rd Edition is your guide to the world of electronics. Spanning circuitry, wiring, robotics, transmitters, amplifiers, and more, this book demystifies electricity basics and beyond. The third edition offers new content revised to reflect the latest advancements in the electronics field, and it offers full color project examples to spark your creativity and inspire you to put your new skills to use! Packed with projects that can be comple

  19. High energy electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkhomchuk, V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-09-01

    High energy electron cooling requires a very cold electron beam. The questions of using electron cooling with and without a magnetic field are presented for discussion at this workshop. The electron cooling method was suggested by G. Budker in the middle sixties. The original idea of the electron cooling was published in 1966. The design activities for the NAP-M project was started in November 1971 and the first run using a proton beam occurred in September 1973. The first experiment with both electron and proton beams was started in May 1974. In this experiment good result was achieved very close to theoretical prediction for a usual two component plasma heat exchange.

  20. RHIC electron lenses upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Altinbas, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Bruno, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Binello, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Costanzo, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Drees, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Gassner, D. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Harvey, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Marusic, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mernick, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Michnoff, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Miller, T. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Pikin, A. I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Samms, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Shrey, T. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Tan, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Than, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Thieberger, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; White, S. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    2015-05-03

    In the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) 100 GeV polarized proton run in 2015, two electron lenses were used to partially compensate for the head-on beam-beam effect for the first time. Here, we describe the design of the current electron lens, detailing the hardware modifications made after the 2014 commissioning run with heavy ions. A new electron gun with 15-mm diameter cathode is characterized. The electron beam transverse profile was measured using a YAG screen and fitted with a Gaussian distribution. During operation, the overlap of the electron and proton beams was achieved using the electron backscattering detector in conjunction with an automated orbit control program.

  1. Post-representational cartography Cartografia post-rappresentativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Kitchin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade there has been a move amongst critical cartographers to rethink maps from a post-representational perspective – that is, a vantage point that does not privilege representational modes of thinking (wherein maps are assumed to be mirrors of the world and automatically presumes the ontological security of a map as a map, but rather rethinks and destabilises such notions. This new theorisation extends beyond the earlier critiques of Brian Harley (1989 that argued maps were social constructions. For Harley a map still conveyed the truth of a landscape, albeit its message was bound within the ideological frame of its creator. He thus advocated a strategy of identifying the politics of representation within maps in order to circumnavigate them (to reveal the truth lurking underneath, with the ontology of cartographic practice remaining unquestioned.

  2. Retention and failure morphology of prefabricated posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, Alireza; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Asmussen, Erik

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effect of cement, post material, surface treatment, and shape (1) on the retention of posts luted in the root canals of extracted human teeth and (2) on the failure morphology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Posts of titanium alloy (ParaPost XH), glass fiber (Para......Post Fiber White), and zirconia (Cerapost) received one of several surface treatments-sandblasting, CoJet treatment, application of Metalprimer II, or sandblasting followed by silane application-and were then luted in the prepared root canal of human incisors and canines (n = 10). Following water storage...

  3. Electronic Commerce and Competitive Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Explains the application of electronic commerce techniques (electronic data interchange (EDI), electronic mail (E-mail), electronic bulletin boards...purchase procedures of the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR). Changes to the FAR to recognize electronic commerce are recommended. Also discussed...are opportunities to use electronic commerce and small business and legal considerations of electronic commerce . This report describes how electronic

  4. Automated recognition and post-coordination of complex clinical terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Philip; Roudsari, Abdul

    2011-01-01

    One of the key tasks in integrating guideline-based decision support systems with the electronic patient record is the mapping of clinical terms contained in both guidelines and patient notes to a common, controlled terminology. However, a vocabulary of pre-coordinated terms cannot cover every possible variation - clinical terms are often highly compositional and complex. We present a rule-based approach for automated recognition and post-coordination of clinical terms using minimal, morpheme-based thesauri, neoclassical combining forms and part-of-speech analysis. The process integrates MetaMap with the open-source GATE framework.

  5. Post-Secularism, Religious Knowledge and Religious Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, David

    2012-01-01

    Post-secularism seems to follow in the wake of other (what are here called) "postal" perspectives--post-structuralism, postmodernism, post-empiricism, post-positivism, post-analytical philosophy, post-foundationalism and so on--in questioning or repudiating what it takes to be the epistemic assumptions of "modernism." To be sure, post-secularism…

  6. Post-Secularism, Religious Knowledge and Religious Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, David

    2012-01-01

    Post-secularism seems to follow in the wake of other (what are here called) "postal" perspectives--post-structuralism, postmodernism, post-empiricism, post-positivism, post-analytical philosophy, post-foundationalism and so on--in questioning or repudiating what it takes to be the epistemic assumptions of "modernism." To be sure, post-secularism…

  7. "Deprovincializing" sociology: the post colonial contribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Costa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay discusses the contributions of post-colonial studies for renewing the contemporary social theory. At first it considers the character of the critique addressed by post-colonial studies to social sciences. After that, it analyses the post-colonial epistemological alternatives, considering three interrelated concepts: entangled modernity, "hybrid" site of enunciation, and decentralized subject. The conclusion is that, in spite of its severity and suspicion among some authors that post-colonial theory can destroy epistemological foundations of social sciences, an important part of post-colonial critique is rather addressed to the theory of modernization. Here, post-colonial positions present affinities with objections, which have already been presented by "conventional" social scientists. Other aspects raised by post-colonial authors do not destabilize, necessarily, social sciences; they can even enrich them.

  8. Femtosecond electron bunches, source and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thongbai, C. [FNRF, Department of Physics, Chiang Mai University, Chiangmai 50200 (Thailand)], E-mail: chlada@chiangmai.ac.th; Kusoljariyakul, K. [FNRF, Department of Physics, Chiang Mai University, Chiangmai 50200 (Thailand); Rimjaem, S. [DESY Zeuthen, Platanenallee 6, Zeuthen 15738 (Germany); Rhodes, M.W. [IST, Chiang Mai University, Chiangmai 50200 (Thailand); Saisut, J. [FNRF, Department of Physics, Chiang Mai University, Chiangmai 50200 (Thailand); Thamboon, P.; Wichaisirimongkol, P. [IST, Chiang Mai University, Chiangmai 50200 (Thailand); Vilaithong, T. [FNRF, Department of Physics, Chiang Mai University, Chiangmai 50200 (Thailand)

    2008-03-11

    A femtosecond electron source has been developed at the Fast Neutron Research Facility (FNRF), Chiang Mai University, Thailand. So far, it has produced electron bunches as short as {sigma}{sub z}{approx}180 fs with (1-6)x10{sup 8} electrons per microbunch. The system consists of an RF-gun with a thermionic cathode, an alpha-magnet as a magnetic bunch compressor, and a linear accelerator as a post acceleration section. Coherent transition radiation emitted at wavelengths equal to and longer than the bunch length is used in a Michelson interferometer to determine the bunch length by autocorrelation technique. The experimental setup and results of the bunch length measurement are described.

  9. Certified Electronics Recyclers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn how EPA encourages all electronics recyclers become certified by demonstrating to an accredited, independent third-party auditor and that they meet specific standards to safely recycle and manage electronics.

  10. Chapter 9: Electronics

    OpenAIRE

    Spieler, Helmuth G

    2008-01-01

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  11. Chapter 9: Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-12-19

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  12. Presidential Electronic Records Library

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — PERL (Presidential Electronic Records Library) used to ingest and provide internal access to the Presidential electronic Records of the Reagan, Bush, and Clinton...

  13. THE ELECTRONIC SIGNATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voiculescu Madalina Irena

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Article refers to significance and the digital signature in electronic commerce. Internet and electronic commerce open up many new opportunities for the consumer, yet, the security (or perceived lack of security of exchanging personal and financial data

  14. Electronic Submission of Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  15. Chapter 9: Electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grupen, Claus; Shwartz, Boris A.

    2006-12-19

    Sophisticated front-end electronics are a key part of practically all modern radiation detector systems. This chapter introduces the basic principles and their implementation. Topics include signal acquisition, electronic noise, pulse shaping (analog and digital), and data readout techniques.

  16. Laboratory Handbook Electronics

    CERN Multimedia

    1966-01-01

    Laboratory manual 1966 format A3 with the list of equipment cables, electronic tubes, chassis, diodes transistors etc. One of CERN's first material catalogue for construction components for mechanical and electronic chassis.

  17. Electron shuttles in biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Manefield, Mike; Lee, Matthew; Kouzuma, Atsushi

    2009-12-01

    Electron-shuttling compounds (electron shuttles [ESs], or redox mediators) are essential components in intracellular electron transfer, while microbes also utilize self-produced and naturally present ESs for extracellular electron transfer. These compounds assist in microbial energy metabolism by facilitating electron transfer between microbes, from electron-donating substances to microbes, and/or from microbes to electron-accepting substances. Artificially supplemented ESs can create new routes of electron flow in the microbial energy metabolism, thereby opening up new possibilities for the application of microbes to biotechnology processes. Typical examples of such processes include halogenated-organics bioremediation, azo-dye decolorization, and microbial fuel cells. Herein we suggest that ESs can be applied widely to create new microbial biotechnology processes.

  18. Electronics materials research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The electronic materials and is aimed at the establishment of quantitative relationships underlying crystal growth parameters, materials properties, electronic characteristics and device applications. The overall program evolves about the following main thrust areas: (1) crystal growth novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor materials; (2) investigation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro and microscale; (3) surface properties and surface interactions with the bulk and ambients; (4) electronic properties controlling device applications and device performance.

  19. Thermography of electronic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Panfilova S. P.; Vlasov A. I.; Gridnev V. N.; Chervinsky A. S.

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of application of thermography to diagnose the electronic devices is analyzed in the article. Typical faults of electronic devices which can be found by means of thermography are given. Advantages of noncontact thermal inspection in comparison with the contact one are described. Some features of thermography of electronic devices are considered. Thermography apparatus is viewed and some pieces of advice about choosing it for electronic devices diagnosis are given. An example o...

  20. Electronics and computer acronyms

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Phil

    1988-01-01

    Electronics and Computer Acronyms presents a list of almost 2,500 acronyms related to electronics and computers. The material for this book is drawn from a number of subject areas, including electrical, electronics, computers, telecommunications, fiber optics, microcomputers/microprocessors, audio, video, and information technology. The acronyms also encompass avionics, military, data processing, instrumentation, units, measurement, standards, services, organizations, associations, and companies. This dictionary offers a comprehensive and broad view of electronics and all that is associated wi

  1. Extreme environment electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Cressler, John D

    2012-01-01

    Unfriendly to conventional electronic devices, circuits, and systems, extreme environments represent a serious challenge to designers and mission architects. The first truly comprehensive guide to this specialized field, Extreme Environment Electronics explains the essential aspects of designing and using devices, circuits, and electronic systems intended to operate in extreme environments, including across wide temperature ranges and in radiation-intense scenarios such as space. The Definitive Guide to Extreme Environment Electronics Featuring contributions by some of the world's foremost exp

  2. Mechanical Engineering for Electronics.

    OpenAIRE

    Was, Loïc

    2012-01-01

    Schlumberger drilling tools are exposed to very hard loading conditions (shocks, vibrations, thermal cycling) while performing a job. As these tools are full of electronics, issues can quickly come from electronics failure. Mechanisms of failure occurring in electronics are very complex but can be predicted in some cases. The first part of the thesis describes in which context mechanical engineering applied to electronics is used in Schlumberger. The different kinds of failure which will be i...

  3. Handbook on electronic commerce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, M. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Beckman Inst. for Advanced Science and Technology; Blanning, R. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States). Owen Graduate School of Management; Strader, T. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Management Information Systems; Whinston, A. [eds.] [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Management Science and Information Systems

    2000-07-01

    The world is undergoing a revolution to a digital economy, with pronounced implications for corporate strategy, marketing, operations, information systems, customer services, global supply-chain management, and product distribution. This handbook examines the aspects of electronic commerce, including electronic storefront, on-line business, consumer interface, business-to-business networking, digital payment, legal issues, information product development, and electronic business models. Indispensable for academics, students and professionals who are interested in Electronic Commerce and Internet Business. (orig.)

  4. Atomicity in Electronic Commerce,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    tremendous demand for the ability to electronically buy and sell goods over networks. Electronic commerce has inspired a large variety of work... commerce . It then briefly surveys some major types of electronic commerce pointing out flaws in atomicity. We pay special attention to the atomicity...problems of proposals for digital cash. The paper presents two examples of highly atomic electronic commerce systems: NetBill and Cryptographic Postage Indicia.

  5. Management Of Post Stroke Seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavian Ghandehari

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of seizures in relation to stroke is 8.9%, with a frequency of 10.6 and 8.6% in haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke, respectively. In subarachnoid haemorrhage the incidence is 8.5%. Due to the fact that infarcts are significantly more frequent than haemorrhages, seizures are mainly related to occlusive vascular disease of the brain. The general view is to consider stroke-related seizures as harmless complications in the course of a prolonged vascular disease involving the heart and brain. Seizures can be classified as those of early and those of late onset in a paradigm comparable to post-traumatic epilepsy, with an arbitrary dividing point of two weeks after the event. Most early-onset seizures occur during the first day after the stroke. Late-onset seizures occur three times more often than early-onset ones. A first late-onset epileptic event is most likely to take place between six months and two years after the stroke. However, up to 28% of patients develop their first seizure several years later. Simple partial seizures, with or without secondary generalisation, account for about 50% of total seizures, while complex partial spells, with or without secondary generalisation, and primary generalised tonic–clonic insults account for approximately 25% each. Status epilepticus occurs in 12% of stroke patients, but the recurrence rate after an initial status epilepticus is not higher than after a single seizure. Inhibitory seizures, mimicking transient ischaemic attacks, are observed in 7.1% of cases. The only clinical predictor of late-onset seizures is the initial presentation of partial anterior circulation syndrome due to a territorial infarct. Patients with total anterior circulation syndrome have less chance of developing epileptic spells, not only due to their shorter life expectancy but also due to the fact that the large infarcts are sharply demarcated in these patients. The optimal timing and type of antiepileptic drug

  6. [Post-tubal ligation syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, K; Osada, H

    1993-01-01

    Post-tubal ligation syndrome includes pain during intercourse, aching lower back, premenstrual tension syndrome, difficulty in menstruating, uterine hemorrhage, and absence of menstruation. The syndrome is caused by blood circulation problems in and around the Fallopian tubes and ovaries, pressure on nerves, and intrapelvic adhesion. Differentiating between this syndrome and endometritis during diagnosis and differentiating between functional hemorrhage due to hormonal abnormality and anatomical hemorrhage due to polyp or tumor is very important. Since the symptoms of this syndrome are mild, simple symptomatic treatment is sufficient in most cases. In some cases, however, desquamation surgery or reversal of tubal ligation may be necessary. Endoscopic surgery is also available. In Japan, because of widespread use of condoms and IUDs, tubal ligation is not very common.

  7. Post-piledriver concept letter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werth, G. C.

    1967-07-01

    This is the concept for a series of post-shot investigations at the Piledriver site, Area 15, Nevada Test Site (NTS), to gain information on: Chimney geometry and associated wall rock conditions resulting from a deeply buried (1500-ft) nuclear explosion in granite; The characteristics and distribution of rubble and radioactivity in the chimney; and Data pertinent to in-situ leaching. These categories define the three phases of this proposal in chronological order. The technical programs under Phases II and III will depend on the results of Phase 1. Presently, it is not known whether or not there has been a collapse of the Piledriver cavity. If collapse occurred, the predicted dimensions of the chimney, based on Hardhat experience, are expected to be 250 ft in diameter and 560 ft high. For the purpose of this discussion, it is assumed this condition exists.

  8. Post-CTS Delay Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianchao Lu

    2010-01-01

    clock skew operation is performed only at the clock sinks in order to preserve the structure and the optimizations implemented in the clock tree synthesis stage. The methodology is implemented as a linear programming model amenable to two design objectives: fixing timing violations or optimizing the clock period. Experimental results show that the clock networks of the largest ISCAS'89 circuits can be corrected post-CTS to resolve the timing conflicts in approximately 90% of the circuits with minimal delay insertion (0.159  ×  clock period per clock path on average. It is also shown that the majority of the clock period improvement achievable through unrestricted clock skew scheduling are obtained through very limited insertion (≈43% average improvement through 10% of max insertion.

  9. Effects of Mechanical and Chemical Pretreatments of Zirconia or Fiber Posts on Resin Cement Bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    Full Text Available The bonding strength between resin cement and posts is important for post and core restorations. An important method of improving the bonding strength is the use of various surface pretreatments of the post. In this study, the surfaces of zirconia (fiber posts were treated by mechanical and/or chemical methods such as sandblasting and silanization. The bonding strength between the zirconia (fiber post and the resin cement was measured by a push-out method after thermocycling based on the adhesion to Panavia F 2.0 resin cement. The zirconia and fiber posts exhibited different bonding strengths after sandblasting and/or silanization because of the different strengths and chemical structures. The zirconia post showed a high bonding strength of up to 17.1 MPa after a combined treatment of sandblasting and silanization because of the rough surface and covalent bonds at the interface. This effect was also enhanced by using 1,2-bis(trimethoxysilylethane for the formation of a flexible layer at the interface. In contrast, a high bonding strength of 13.9 MPa was obtained for the fiber post treated by silane agents because the sandblasting treatment resulted in damage to the fiber post, as observed by scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the improvement in the bonding strength between the post and the resin cement could be controlled by different chemical and/or mechanical treatments. Enhanced bonding strength depended on covalent bonding and the surface roughness. A zirconia post with high bonding strength could potentially be used for the restoration of teeth in the future.

  10. Collimation of fast electrons in critical density plasma channel

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Significantly collimated fast electron beam with a divergence angle 10° (FWHM) is generated through the interaction of ultra-intense laser light with a uniform critical density plasma in experiments and 2D PIC simulations. In the experiment, the uniform critical density plasma is created by ionizing an ultra-low density foam target. The spacial distribution of the fast electron is observed by Imaging Plate. 2D PIC simulation and post process analysis reveal magnetic collimation of energetic e...

  11. Non-equilibrium vibrational and electron energy distribution functions in mtorr, high-electron-density nitrogen discharges and afterglows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capitelli, M.; Colonna, G.; D’Ammando, G.; Laricchiuta, A.; Pietanza, L. D.

    2017-03-01

    Non-equilibrium vibrational distributions (vdf) and non-equilibrium electron energy distribution functions (eedf) in a nitrogen plasma at low pressure (mtorr) have been calculated by using a time-dependent plasma physics model coupled to the Boltzmann equation and heavy particle kinetics. Different case studies have been selected showing the non-equilibrium character of both vdf and eedf under discharge and post-discharge conditions in the presence of large concentrations of electrons. Particular attention is devoted to the electron-molecule resonant vibrational excitation cross sections acting in the whole vibrational ladder. The results in the post-discharge conditions show the interplay of superelastic vibrational and electronic collisions in forming structures in the eedf. The link between the present results in the mtorr afterglow regime with the existing eedf in the torr and atmospheric regimes is discussed.

  12. Post-therapeutic imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollice, Saverio, E-mail: saveriopollice@hotmail.it [Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, “L. Bonomo Hospital”, 76123 Andria, BT (Italy); Muto, Mario, E-mail: mutomar@tiscali.it [Department of Neuroradiology, “Cardarelli Hospital”, Naples (Italy); Scarabino, Tommaso, E-mail: tscarabino@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology and Neuroradiology, “L. Bonomo Hospital”, 76123 Andria, BT (Italy)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • This study is the result of collaboration between neuroradiologists and neurosurgeons. • Comparison between neuroimaging techniques to better evaluate the complications after treatment of the spin. • Evaluation of the imaging features of complications and definition of follow-up. - Abstract: Any surgical approach modifies the normal anatomical and functional arrangement of the segmental spine which is aimed, therefore image interpretation cannot ignore a correct set of knowledge in the field of anatomy, pathophysiology, drug compliance, interventional radiology and surgery. Neuroradiological imaging has an important role before surgery to direct the surgeon or interventional radiologist during the operation, both in post-surgery, where imaging examination can rightly evaluate properties and effects of the treatment and can detect potential complications as infections, abscess, bleeding, exuberant scar, mobilization and rupture of devices. The available methods of imaging are the X-rays (XR) made at least in two projections, Computed Tomography (CT) with MPR (multiplanar) and VR (volume rendering) reconstruction, and Magnetic Resonance (MR), often performed before and after contrast media injection. Imaging assessment of spine after surgery is complex and depends upon several factors, including surgical procedures and disease for which it was performed; biomechanical of the underlying cortical and cancellous bone findings; conditions of muscles, intervertebral disk and ligaments; time since surgery procedures; duration and nature of the post-surgical syndrome. Depending upon several factors, one or a combination of complementary imaging modalities (X-rays, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance) may be required to evaluate effectiveness of the treatment; to demonstrate any clinically relevant abnormality at the treated region and adjacent structures (complications such as inflammation, abscesses, bleeding and misplacement of the device); to

  13. Post-therapeutic imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollice, Saverio; Muto, Mario; Scarabino, Tommaso

    2015-05-01

    Any surgical approach modifies the normal anatomical and functional arrangement of the segmental spine which is aimed, therefore image interpretation cannot ignore a correct set of knowledge in the field of anatomy, pathophysiology, drug compliance, interventional radiology and surgery. Neuroradiological imaging has an important role before surgery to direct the surgeon or interventional radiologist during the operation, both in post-surgery, where imaging examination can rightly evaluate properties and effects of the treatment and can detect potential complications as infections, abscess, bleeding, exuberant scar, mobilization and rupture of devices. The available methods of imaging are the X-rays (XR) made at least in two projections, Computed Tomography (CT) with MPR (multiplanar) and VR (volume rendering) reconstruction, and Magnetic Resonance (MR), often performed before and after contrast media injection. Imaging assessment of spine after surgery is complex and depends upon several factors, including surgical procedures and disease for which it was performed; biomechanical of the underlying cortical and cancellous bone findings; conditions of muscles, intervertebral disk and ligaments; time since surgery procedures; duration and nature of the post-surgical syndrome. Depending upon several factors, one or a combination of complementary imaging modalities (X-rays, Computed Tomography, Magnetic Resonance) may be required to evaluate effectiveness of the treatment; to demonstrate any clinically relevant abnormality at the treated region and adjacent structures (complications such as inflammation, abscesses, bleeding and misplacement of the device); to assist the interventional radiologist or surgeon in deciding if is necessary intervene again, in which nature and in which vertebral level(s).

  14. Successful Pregnancies Post Renal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfi Adnan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the maternal and fetal outcomes in renal transplant female recipients who became pregnant from 1989 to 2005 in our center, we retrospectively studied 20 incident pregnancies in 12 renal transplant recipients; 5 (41.7 % of them from living related, 4 (33.3% from deceased, and 3 (25% from living unrelated donors. The mean age at pregnancy was 30.5 ± 4.5 years and mean interval from transplantation to pregnancy was 21 ± 5.7 months with the interval was < 1 year in one patient. The mean serum creatinine (SCr before pregnancy vs 6 months post delivery was 110 ± 24.3, and 156 ± 190 µmol/ L, respectively, (p = 0.2. All patients were normotensive during the prenatal period except two who were hypertensive, none was markedly proteinuric, and only one acute rejection episode occurred during one pregnancy. Graft loss one year post delivery occurred in 2 patients; one with elevated prenatal SCr > 132 µmol/L, and another with short interval from transplantation to pregnancy < 1 year, while the remaining 10 patients revealed current mean SCr of 105 ± 18.2 µmol/L. Complications during pregnancy inclu-ded pre-eclampsia in (25%, UTI (25%, preterm delivery < 37 weeks (30%, however, none of the pregnancies ended by abortion. Normal vaginal delivery vs cesarean section was 70% vs 30%, respectively. Gestational age at delivery was 36.3 ± 3.9 weeks, and mean fetal birth weight was 2349 ± 574 gm. Apgar score was 9-10 in all of the 20 babies, and none revealed intrauterine growth retardation or congenital anomalies. We conclude that consecutive pregnancies demons-trate long-term maternal and fetal survival and function. The major risk factors are elevated starting serum creatinine, hypertension, and short time interval from transplantation to pregnancy.

  15. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  16. Technology of Electronic Signatur

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    An electronic signature uses a hash of message and an asymetrical algorithm of encryption for its generation. During verification of message on receiver side the hash of original message must be identical with the hash of received message. Electronic message is secured autentization of author and integrity of transmission date. By electronic signature it is possible to sign everything what is in digital form.

  17. ELECTRONS IN NONPOLAR LIQUIDS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLROYD,R.A.

    2002-10-22

    Excess electrons can be introduced into liquids by absorption of high energy radiation, by photoionization, or by photoinjection from metal surfaces. The electron's chemical and physical properties can then be measured, but this requires that the electrons remain free. That is, the liquid must be sufficiently free of electron attaching impurities for these studies. The drift mobility as well as other transport properties of the electron are discussed here as well as electron reactions, free-ion yields and energy levels, Ionization processes typically produce electrons with excess kinetic energy. In liquids during thermalization, where this excess energy is lost to bath molecules, the electrons travel some distance from their geminate positive ions. In general the electrons at this point are still within the coulombic field of their geminate ions and a large fraction of the electrons recombine. However, some electrons escape recombination and the yield that escapes to become free electrons and ions is termed G{sub fi}. Reported values of G{sub fi} for molecular liquids range from 0.05 to 1.1 per 100 eV of energy absorbed. The reasons for this 20-fold range of yields are discussed here.

  18. Syringe injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  19. Arduino electronics blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcher, Don

    2015-01-01

    This book is intended for those who want to learn about electronics and coding by building amazing devices and gadgets with Arduino. If you are an experienced developer who understands the basics of electronics, then you can quickly learn how to build smart devices using Arduino. The only experience needed is a desire to learn about electronics, circuit breadboarding, and coding.

  20. Electron measurement in PHENIX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiba, Y. [Univ. of Tokyo, Tanashi (Japan)

    1995-07-15

    Electron Measurement in PHENIX detector at RHIC is discussed. The yield and S/N ratio at vector meson peaks ({phi}, {omega}, {rho}{sup o}, and J/{psi}) are evaluated. The electrons from open charm decay, and its consequence to the di-electron measurements is discussed.

  1. EFFECTIVE ELECTRONIC TUTORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei A. Fedoseev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes effective electronic tutorials creation and application based on the theory of pedagogy. Herewith the issues of necessary electronic tutorial functional, ways of the educational process organization with the use of information and communication technologies and the logistics of electronic educational resources are touched upon. 

  2. 基于岗位适任能力的“电子电气员专业英语”课程教学改革探析%Study on the Teaching Reform of Electronic & Electrical English Based on Post Competency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯淑芳

    2015-01-01

    Based on an analysis of the problems arising from the teaching of Electronic&Electrical English, this article studies the measures for its teaching reform from such angles as students’interest, informationized teaching design, curriculum resources construction, textbook selection, examining methods as well as teachers ’ team construction, which is expected to offer reference for the improvement of teaching quality.%文章分析了“电子电气员专业英语”课程教学中存在的问题,从学生的学习兴趣、信息化教学设计、课程资源的建设、教材的选用、考核方法、师资队伍建设等方面探讨了课程的教学改革措施,以期为提高教学质量提供借鉴。

  3. Sparse Representation of Multimodality Sensing Databases for Data Mining and Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-09

    Information ," IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, vol 14, no 1, pp. 3-16, Feb 2012. Preprint posted electronically on IEEE Xplore on Sept 5, 2011...08/30/2012 08/30/2012 Received Paper 6.00 7.00 8.00 K.-J. Hsiao, J. Kulezsa, A.O. Hero. Social Collaborative Retrieval, IEEE JOURNAL OF SELECTED...III. Ensemble estimators for multivariate entropy estimation, IEEE Trans on Information Theory, (07 2013): 4374. doi: A.O. Hero, K. Todros. On

  4. Measuring the success of electronic medical record implementation using electronic and survey data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavjee, K; Troyan, S; Holbrook, A M; VanderMolen, D

    2001-01-01

    Computerization of physician practices is increasing. Stakeholders are demanding demonstrated value for their Electronic Medical Record (EMR) implementations. We developed survey tools to measure medical office processes, including administrative and physician tasks pre- and post-EMR implementation. We included variables that were expected to improve with EMR implementation and those that were not expected to improve, as controls. We measured the same processes pre-EMR, at six months and 18 months post-EMR. Time required for most administrative tasks decreased within six months of EMR implementation. Staff time spent on charting increased with time, in keeping with our anecdotal observations that nurses were given more responsibility for charting in many offices. Physician time to chart increased initially by 50%, but went down to original levels by 18 months. However, this may be due to the drop-out of those physicians who had a difficult time charting electronically.

  5. Prospects for advanced electron cyclotron resonance and electron beam ion source charge breeding methods for EURISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delahaye, P.; Jardin, P.; Maunoury, L.; Traykov, E.; Varenne, F. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd. Becquerel, BP 55027, 14076 Caen Cedex 05 (France); Galata, A.; Porcellato, A. M.; Prete, G. F. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell' Universita 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Angot, J.; Lamy, T.; Sortais, P.; Thuillier, T. [LPSC Grenoble, 53, rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Ban, G. [LPC Caen, 6 bd Marechal Juin, 14050 Caen Cedex (France); Celona, L.; Lunney, D. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S.Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Choinski, J.; Gmaj, P.; Jakubowski, A.; Steckiewicz, O. [Heavy Ion Laboratory, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5a, 02 093 Warsaw (Poland); Kalvas, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, PB 35 (YFL) 40351 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); and others

    2012-02-15

    As the most ambitious concept of isotope separation on line (ISOL) facility, EURISOL aims at producing unprecedented intensities of post-accelerated radioactive isotopes. Charge breeding, which transforms the charge state of radioactive beams from 1+ to an n+ charge state prior to post-acceleration, is a key technology which has to overcome the following challenges: high charge states for high energies, efficiency, rapidity and purity. On the roadmap to EURISOL, a dedicated R and D is being undertaken to push forward the frontiers of the present state-of-the-art techniques which use either electron cyclotron resonance or electron beam ion sources. We describe here the guidelines of this R and D.

  6. The rabbit as an animal model for post-natal vitreous matrix differentiation and degeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Los, L. I.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluates whether rabbits are a suitable animal model to study post-natal vitreous differentiation and degeneration. Methods Human and rabbit eyes of various ages were studied by complementary anatomical techniques, light microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Results T

  7. Oncologists' perspectives on post-cancer treatment communication and care coordination with primary care physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klabunde, C N; Haggstrom, D; Kahn, K L; Gray, S W; Kim, B; Liu, B; Eisenstein, J; Keating, N L

    2017-01-10

    Post-treatment cancer care is often fragmented and of suboptimal quality. We explored factors that may affect cancer survivors' post-treatment care coordination, including oncologists' use of electronic technologies such as e-mail and integrated electronic health records (EHRs) to communicate with primary care physicians (PCPs). We used data from a survey (357 respondents; participation rate 52.9%) conducted in 2012-2013 among medical oncologists caring for patients in a large US study of cancer care delivery and outcomes. Oncologists reported their frequency and mode of communication with PCPs, and role in providing post-treatment care. Seventy-five per cent said that they directly communicated with PCPs about post-treatment status and care recommendations for all/most patients. Among those directly communicating with PCPs, 70% always/usually used written correspondence, while 36% always/usually used integrated EHRs; telephone and e-mail were less used. Eighty per cent reported co-managing with PCPs at least one post-treatment general medical care need. In multivariate-adjusted analyses, neither communication mode nor intensity were associated with co-managing survivors' care. Oncologists' reliance on written correspondence to communicate with PCPs may be a barrier to care coordination. We discuss new research directions for enhancing communication and care coordination between oncologists and PCPs, and to better meet the needs of cancer survivors post-treatment.

  8. Polarized Electron Source Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles K. Sinclair

    1990-02-23

    Presently, only two methods of producing beams of polarized electrons for injection into linear accelerators are in use. Each of these methods uses optical pumping by circularly polarized light to produce electron polarization. In one case, electron polarization is established in metastable helium atoms, while in the other case, the polarized electrons are produced in the conduction band of appropriate semiconductors. The polarized electrons are liberated from the helium metastable by chemi-ionization, and from the semiconductors by lowering the work function at the surface of the material. Developments with each of these sources since the 1988 Spin Physics Conference are reviewed, and the prospects for further improvements discussed.

  9. Soldering in electronics assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Soldering in Electronics Assembly discusses several concerns in soldering of electronic assemblies. The book is comprised of nine chapters that tackle different areas in electronic assembly soldering. Chapter 1 discusses the soldering process itself, while Chapter 2 covers the electronic assemblies. Chapter 3 talks about solders and Chapter 4 deals with flux. The text also tackles the CS and SC soldering process. The cleaning of soldered assemblies, solder quality, and standards and specifications are also discussed. The book will be of great use to professionals who deal with electronic assem

  10. Ultracold Ordered Electron Beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habs, D.; Kramp, J.; Krause, P.; Matl, K.; Neumann, R.; Schwalm, D.

    1988-01-01

    We have started an experimental program to develop an ultracold electron beam, which can be used together with a standard electron cooling device in the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring TSR. In contrast to the standard-type design using electron beam extraction from a heated cathode, the ultracold beam is produced by photoemission of electrons from a cooled semiconductor crystal irradiated with an intense near-infrared laser light beam. Adiabatic acceleration is expected to provide ordering of the electron beam itself. Besides the cooling of ion beams to extremely low temperatures, with the aim of obtaining crystallization, the ultracold beam will constitute an excellent target for atomic physics experiments.

  11. Ultracold ordered electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habs, D.; Kramp, J.; Krause, P.; Matl, K.; Neumann, R.; Schwalm, D.

    1988-01-01

    We have started an experimental program to develop an ultracold electron beam, which can be used together with a standard electron cooling device in the Heidelberg Test Storage Ring TSR. In contrast to the standard-type design using electron beam extraction beam extraction from a heated cathode, the ultracold beam is produced by photoemission of electrons from a cooled semiconductor crystal irradiated with an intense near-infrared laser light beam. Adiabatic acceleration is expected to provide ordering of the electron beam itself. Besides the cooling of ion beams to extremely low temperatures, with the aim of obtaining crystallization, the ultracold beam will constitute an excellent target for atomic physics experiments.

  12. Effects of radicular dentin treatments and luting materials on the bond of quartz fiber posts: scanning electron microscope study%根管壁不同处理方法对纤维桩粘接影响的扫描电镜观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛海燕; 严斌; 冯丽君; 陈亚明

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of radicular dentin treatments of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and ethylenediaminetctraacetic acid (EDTA) on the regional root canal bending interface of quartz fiber posts using 2 luting materials with SEM analysis. Methods Nine intact maxillary central incisors were sectioned and endodontically treated. Standardized post space preparations and acid etch were performed . All specimens were randomly divided into 3 groups(n =3). D.T. LIGHT posts were placed into the root canal using one of three radicular dentin treatments(0. 9% NaCl for 60 s, 10% NaOCl for60 s, 17% EDTA for 60 s followed by 5.25% NaOCl for 60 s) in combination of one of two luting materials (DuoLink, LuxaCore) respectively (factorial design). Cervical, middle, apical sections of each teeth are used for SEM study and spectroscopy of dispersion energy (EDS) microanalysis. Results With the radicular dentin treatment with 10% NaOCl alone or with 17% EDTA followed by 5.25% NaOCl, longer and increased number of penetration of resin tags into the dentinal tubules were observed at the resin-dentin interfaces, and adhesive lateral branches could be found easily. EDS microanalysis showed increase in the infiltration behavior of the luting cement. Conclusions Radicular dentin treatments provide good resin infiltration, which can produce a three-dimensional interlocking micronetwork of resin tags in the dentin tubules with multiple lateral branches that penetrate the intertubalar dentin, thus positively influence the adhesion between dentin and the luting materials.%目的 通过观察根管不同部位粘接界面的微观结构,探讨根管壁表面不同处理方法对纤维桩粘接的影响.方法 9颗完整离体上中切牙截冠后经根管治疗、根管预备和酸蚀后,分别采用0.9%NaCl溶液60 s(对照组,3颗)、10%NaOCl溶液60 s(实验1组,3颗)、17%乙二胺四乙酸溶液60 s与5.25%NaOCI溶液60 S联用(实验2组,3颗)冲洗根管壁;每组1

  13. Electronic equipment packaging technology

    CERN Document Server

    Ginsberg, Gerald L

    1992-01-01

    The last twenty years have seen major advances in the electronics industry. Perhaps the most significant aspect of these advances has been the significant role that electronic equipment plays in almost all product markets. Even though electronic equipment is used in a broad base of applications, many future applications have yet to be conceived. This versatility of electron­ ics has been brought about primarily by the significant advances that have been made in integrated circuit technology. The electronic product user is rarely aware of the integrated circuits within the equipment. However, the user is often very aware of the size, weight, mod­ ularity, maintainability, aesthetics, and human interface features of the product. In fact, these are aspects of the products that often are instrumental in deter­ mining its success or failure in the marketplace. Optimizing these and other product features is the primary role of Electronic Equipment Packaging Technology. As the electronics industry continues to pr...

  14. Advanced adhesives in electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Bailey, C

    2011-01-01

    Adhesives are widely used in the manufacture of electronic devices to act as passive and active components. Recently there has been considerable interest in the use of conductive adhesives. This book reviews key types of conductive adhesives, processing methods, properties and the way they can be modelled as well as potential applications.$bAdhesives for electronic applications serve important functional and structural purposes in electronic components and packaging, and have developed significantly over the last few decades. Advanced adhesives in electronics reviews recent developments in adhesive joining technology, processing and properties. The book opens with an introduction to adhesive joining technology for electronics. Part one goes on to cover different types of adhesive used in electronic systems, including thermally conductive adhesives, isotropic and anisotropic conductive adhesives and underfill adhesives for flip-chip applications. Part two focuses on the properties and processing of electronic ...

  15. Electron crystallography and aquaporins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Andreas D; Hite, Richard K; Engel, Andreas; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori; Walz, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Electron crystallography of two-dimensional (2D) crystals can provide information on the structure of membrane proteins at near-atomic resolution. Originally developed and used to determine the structure of bacteriorhodopsin (bR), electron crystallography has recently been applied to elucidate the structure of aquaporins (AQPs), a family of membrane proteins that form pores mostly for water but also other solutes. While electron crystallography has made major contributions to our understanding of the structure and function of AQPs, structural studies on AQPs, in turn, have fostered a number of technical developments in electron crystallography. In this contribution, we summarize the insights electron crystallography has provided into the biology of AQPs, and describe technical advancements in electron crystallography that were driven by structural studies on AQP 2D crystals. In addition, we discuss some of the lessons that were learned from electron crystallographic work on AQPs.

  16. Automotive electronics design fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zaman, Najamuz

    2015-01-01

    This book explains the topology behind automotive electronics architectures and examines how they can be profoundly augmented with embedded controllers. These controllers serve as the core building blocks of today’s vehicle electronics. Rather than simply teaching electrical basics, this unique resource focuses on the fundamental concepts of vehicle electronics architecture, and details the wide variety of Electronic Control Modules (ECMs) that enable the increasingly sophisticated "bells & whistles" of modern designs.  A must-have for automotive design engineers, technicians working in automotive electronics repair centers and students taking automotive electronics courses, this guide bridges the gap between academic instruction and industry practice with clear, concise advice on how to design and optimize automotive electronics with embedded controllers.

  17. Gynecologic Malignancies Post-LeFort Colpocleisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayan Elkattah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. LeFort colpocleisis (LFC is a safe and effective obliterative surgical option for older women with advanced pelvic organ prolapse who no longer desire coital activity. A major disadvantage is the limited ability to evaluate for post-LFC gynecologic malignancies. Methods. We present the first case of endometrioid ovarian cancer diagnosed after LFC and review all reported gynecologic malignancies post-LFC in the English medical literature. Results. This is the second reported ovarian cancer post-LFC and the first of the endometrioid subtype. A total of nine other gynecologic malignancies post-LFC have been reported in the English medical literature. Conclusions. Gynecologic malignancies post-LFC are rare. We propose a simple 3-step strategy in evaluating post-LFC malignancies.

  18. Orion Exploration Flight Test Post-Flight Inspection and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J. E.; Berger, E. L.; Bohl, W. E.; Christiansen, E. L.; Davis, B. A.; Deighton, K. D.; Enriquez, P. A.; Garcia, M. A.; Hyde, J. L.; Oliveras, O. M.

    2017-01-01

    The principal mechanism for developing orbital debris environment models, is to make observations of larger pieces of debris in the range of several centimeters and greater using radar and optical techniques. For particles that are smaller than this threshold, breakup and migration models of particles to returned surfaces in lower orbit are relied upon to quantify the flux. This reliance on models to derive spatial densities of particles that are of critical importance to spacecraft make the unique nature of the EFT-1's return surface a valuable metric. To this end detailed post-flight inspections have been performed of the returned EFT-1 backshell, and the inspections identified six candidate impact sites that were not present during the pre-flight inspections. This paper describes the post-flight analysis efforts to characterize the EFT-1 mission craters. This effort included ground based testing to understand small particle impact craters in the thermal protection material, the pre- and post-flight inspection, the crater analysis using optical, X-ray computed tomography (CT) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques, and numerical simulations.

  19. 10 CFR 860.6 - Posting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Posting. 860.6 Section 860.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY TRESPASSING ON DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY § 860.6 Posting. Notices stating the pertinent prohibitions of §§ 860.3 and 860.4 and penalties of § 860.5 will be conspicuously posted at all entrances of...

  20. Image Post-Processing in Dental Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Gormez, Ozlem; Yilmaz, Hasan Huseyin

    2009-01-01

    Image post-processing of dental digital radiographs, a function which used commonly in dental practice is presented in this article. Digital radiography has been available in dentistry for more than 25 years and its use by dental practitioners is steadily increasing. Digital acquisition of radiographs enables computer-based image post-processing to enhance image quality and increase the accuracy of interpretation. Image post-processing applications can easily be practiced in dental office by ...