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Sample records for prepositional object constructions

  1. Prepositions in Krio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen van de Vate

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of Peter Svenonius’ Adposition Seminar at the University of Tromsø which was taught in 2005-2006. The main focus was the distinction between locative path and locative place constructions. The aim of this paper is descriptive in nature and focuses on the complete prepositional system of Krio, an English-based Creole language spoken in Sierra Leone. The paper starts with a general introduction to prepositions in Krio. Three different categories are distinguished. This is followed by a description of each preposition individually and a discussion of intransitive prepositions and verb-particle constructions.

  2. Constructional effects on prepositional antonymy in Croatian and Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik; Katunar, Daniela

    in motionconstructions) and b) theconceptual content profiled by antonymy pairs (Cro. u:Acc–iz:Gen; Da. ind i-ud af 'into–out of'–container / Cro. u:Loc–izvan:Gen 'in – outside', Da. hjemme hos-ude hos 'home-out'–centre-periphery). Antonymy is thus regarded as a conceptual and constructional phenomenon which canbe used...

  3. Constructional effects on prepositional antonymy in Croatian and Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik; Katunar, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    in motionconstructions) and b) theconceptual content profiled by antonymy pairs (Cro. u:Acc–iz:Gen; Da. ind i-ud af 'into–out of'–container / Cro. u:Loc–izvan:Gen 'in – outside', Da. hjemme hos-ude hos 'home-out'–centre-periphery). Antonymy is thus regarded as a conceptual and constructional phenomenon which canbe used...

  4. Zum Problem der Differenzierung von praepositionalem Objekt und praepositionaler Adverbailbestimmung in der deutschen Gegenwartssprache (On the Problem of Distinguishing Prepositional Object from Prepositional Adverbial in Contemporary German)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambarzumjan, Rusanna

    1974-01-01

    Making this distinction is difficult because German here deals in prepositional phrases. More precise criteria for distinguishing may be expected from dependence grammar, and from application of the concepts of governance ("Rektion") and valence. Reference is made to experiments by J. D. Apresjan. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  5. A Developmental Study of Prepositional Phrases in Hebrew Written Text Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, Gilad; Ravid, Dorit

    2017-01-01

    Prepositional phrases (PPs) are considered an important feature of mature written expression. However, little is known about the development of PPs during the school years. The study examined the use of PPs in 160 narrative and expository texts, written by Hebrew-users in grades 4, 7, and 11, and adults. PPs were identified, counted, and…

  6. Double Object Constructions in L3 English: An Exploratory Study of Morphological and Semantic Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agirre, Ainara Imaz; García Mayo, María del Pilar

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the acquisition of double object constructions (DOCs) ("Susan gave Peter an apple") by 90 Basque/Spanish learners of English as a third language (L3). The aim of this study was to explore whether (i) learners established a distinction when accepting DOCs vs. prepositional phrase constructions (PPCs)…

  7. Common Preposition Errors Committed by Iranian Students

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    Samaneh Yousefi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined some common problems involving prepositions in learning a second language. Many students learning English as a foreign language commonly commit mistakes in prepositions. The aim of this paper is to survey the causes of errors in the use of prepositions that are frequently made by Iranian students. A diagnostic test (35 Multiple choice item was constructed to test the students proficiency in using these prepositions. The prepositions selected for this purpose were; to, in, at, on, with, of, from, for, about, during, into under, over and by. This test was given to a group of 35 intermediate students. The results indicated that the errors committed by the students were due to both Inter-lingual and Intra-lingual interferences. It is hoped that this research will help teachers of English Language to be aware of these problems and re-evaluate their teaching approach.

  8. Prepositions in Use: Prepositions of Standard, Prepositions of Possession and Prepositions of Accompaniment

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQbailat, Naji Masned; Al-Momani, Islam M.; Almahameed, Yazan Shaker

    2016-01-01

    The current research paper attempted at investigating the use of prepositions of standard, prepositions of possession and prepositions of accompaniment by some Jordanian learners of English. A total of 53 Jordanian English Majors participated in the study from the department of English language at Princess Alia University College. In collecting…

  9. Persian Preposition Classes

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    Marina Pantcheva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I present the prepositional system in Persian. I show that Persian prepositions can be divided into three classes (Class 1, Class 2a and Class 2b which exhibit distinct syntactic behavior. Then I examine the question of the categorial status of Class 2 prepositions and demonstrate that they are not to be regarded as nouns. Finally I present the extended PP projection of Persian spatial prepositions and argue for a feature-based analysis of the properties they manifest.

  10. Prepositions: Meaning and Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstromberg, Seth

    1996-01-01

    Outlines a new approach to teaching prepositions and directional adverbs based on work by Brugman (1981) and Lakoff (1987). The article aims to familiarize readers with the gist of prototype semantics as applied to prepositions, and to suggest pedagogical applications and benefits, with particular reference to the word "on." (15 references)…

  11. Conjunctive and prepositional comparatives in Slovenian

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    Sašo Živanović

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the distribution of conjunctive and prepositional comparative structures in Slovenian. They are introduced by the complementiser kot and the preposition od, respectively. Comparative structures are categorised along three dimensions: (i the morphological environment of the comparative morpheme (yielding amount and quality comparatives; (ii the syntactic environment of the comparative morpheme (eight syntactic environments are discussed: (nominative subject, (accusative direct object, (dative indirect object, prepositional object, locative adverbial, temporal adverbial, some other adverbial, and predicate; (iii the syntactic environment (the same environments as above are discussed of the associate (the non-elided phrase in the comparative complement is the remnant; its counterpart with the same grammatical function in the matrix clause is the associate. The comparison of conjunctive and prepositional comparatives shows that the distribution of the latter is more restricted and also exhibits more inter-speaker variation than the former. Conjunctive comparatives are acceptable in virtually all combinations of the above-mentioned parameters, the only exception being quality comparatives withan adverbial or predicate associate where the comparative morpheme is embedded in the associate. The only absolute generalisation that can be made about prepositional comparatives is that the associate must be either a subject or a direct object; all other generalisations are merely tendencies.

  12. On the Content of Prepositions in Prepositional Collocations

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    Eva Sicherl

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to shed some light on the problems faced by non-native speakers in the formation of so-called prepositional collocations (i.e. typical, recurrent combinations of verbal, nominal or adjectival bases with prepositional collocators. The reasons for frequent mistakes mainly lie in the meaning of the preposition used as part of collocation, which tends to be even more dispersed, abstract and difficult to define than that of the preposition used in a free combination. However, the preposition when used as a collocator seems to act, at least to some extent, as a carrier of some content; this can be proven by valency patterns: meaning-related content words (collocational bases tend to regularly combine with identical prepositions. The fact that prepositions used in collocations also have their semantic part to contribute to the whole unit should also be considered in the classification of collocations into grammatical and lexical ones.

  13. The Preference of Keeping the Intermediary /y/(ی in Prepositional Construction and Its Attachment to the Silent» h«.

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    Mohammad Irani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   One of the problems of Persian writing is the question of writing and including the noun or adjective "Prepositional" construction sign in words the written form of which end in a silent » h « which is in fact a short vowel equivalent to /e/ (kasra ـِـ .The difference between the two ways of writing the intermediary consonant /y/( ی at the end of the word with a last silent » h « , completely as « ی » or with the sign « ء» on the silent » h « is rooted in the controversy between the traditional and modern approaches of writing.   The present study is about to study into the following subjects: an analysis and criticism of both the above approaches, a survey of the history of the intermediary /y/( ی , recognizing its phonetic significance and its role in making and adding new syllables, and finally a conclusion about the more convenient way to write it. It is possible that the outcome of the present study will provide us with a unique form of writing of the case in different texts like books, articles, newspapers, journals and electronic texts.

  14. The Comprehension and Use of English Spatial Prepositions

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    罗平

    2009-01-01

    The traditional semantic accounts of spatial prepositions, mainlly focusing on the geometric relationship be-tween the locating object and the located object, are proved to be inadequate to explain the comprehension and use of spatial prepositions in all the .real situations. To compensate the deficiency, it is necessary to take into consideration the functional relationship between the Figure and the Ground, as well as the cognitive constraint on the choice of the Fig-ure and the Ground.

  15. Uncovering Prepositional Senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Tine

    This dissertation is concerned with the semantics of Danish prepositions in an ontology-based information retrieval framework. In such a framework, conceptual indexing of texts is needed and, for us, the goal of this indexing process is to index texts based on the conceptual content of larger text...... of these data stem from a small pre-defined set of relations, and the ontological type information stems from the SIMPLE ontology. The resulting data set was used as input to a machine-learning algorithm, and the result was a set of rules that predict the semantic relation of a preposition based...... chunks – ideally based on the conceptual content of sentences. The conceptual content of text chunks is mapped into a so-called generative ontology, which is to be understood as a non-finite set of concepts. Basically, a generative ontology consists of a given finite ontology ordered by the ISA relation...

  16. Neural correlates of locative prepositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Matthijs L.; Neggers, Sebastiaan F.W.; Ramsey, Nick F.; Postma, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Locative prepositions might be special linguistic modifiers because they form a natural link between verbal and visual-spatial information. In the present fMRI study we found evidence that understanding categorical spatial relations expressed in language with locative prepositions such as “to the le

  17. Neural correlates of locative prepositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, Matthijs Leendert; Neggers, Sebastiaan F.W.; Ramsey, Nick F.; Postma, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Locative prepositions might be special linguistic modifiers because they form a natural link between verbal and visual-spatial information. In the present fMRI study we found evidence that understanding categorical spatial relations expressed in language with locative prepositions such as “to the

  18. On the Normative Evaluation and Presentation of Some Phenomena in Lithuanian Syntax: Cases of the Prepositional Construction tikėti į ką (Believe in sb. and Attributive Locative

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    Vidas Valskys

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is an analysis of issues concerning the relationship of the prepositional construction tikėti į ką (“believe in sb.” and the attributive locative with the codified language norm. On the basis of the polemic and insights by some linguists and theologists as well as the data of contemporary usage, it is argued in the article whether the phrase tikėti į Dievą (“believe in God” should reasonably be treated as a translation loanword, whether it does not possess distinctive semantics typical of the Christian discourse, due to which such a prepositional construction should rather be acknowledged as variant of the norm in Standard Lithuanian. The article also contains a discussion on some cases of expressing an attribute using the locative case, as they also have a nuance of location. Therefore, a question is raised whether they are reasonably attributed to syntactic phenomena that should be avoided in standard language.

  19. Selective transfer in the acquisition of English double object constructions by Brazilian learners

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    Júlia Vidigal Zara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the acquisition of the English double object constructions (GOLDBERG, 1995 by Brazilian learners. We hypothesize that, due to first language (L1 influences, the prepositional ditransitive construction (John gave a book to Mary will be acquired earlier, while the ditransitive construction (John gave Mary a book will be part of the learner's interlanguages (SELINKER, 1972 only at the advanced level of proficiency. We also hypothesize that learners may transfer (ODLIN, 1989 the placement of the object pronoun in pre-verbal position from their L1 to their interlanguage in early stages of acquisition (João me deu um livro / *John me gave a book. We test our hypotheses by comparing the performance of three groups of learners (beginning, intermediate, and advanced and native speakers of English on an acceptability judgment task used as a measure of learnability and generalization. Results confirm the order of acquisition of the English double object constructions predicted for native speakers of Brazilian Portuguese. Moreover, results suggest that, although mother tongue influences may have taken place, they do not do so pervasively, but rather selectively, corroborating the proposal by Kellerman (1983.

  20. How Objects Shape Logics in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell; Georg, Susse

    2011-01-01

    The notion of institutional logics is a key tenet in institutional theory but few studies have attended to the micro‐foundations of logics. The sociology of associations is used to explore the micro‐foundations of logics, their emergence and temporal–spatial importance. A case study...... of the construction of the skyscraper, ‘Turning Torso’, in Malmö city, shows how technical objects and actions implicated in the material practices of building construction shape logics and identities associated with professions, economy, market, science and design. We summarize our findings by theorizing logics...... and identities as emergent and contingent outcomes of the material practices of building construction. The argument is concluded by considering the building construction as a materially mediated meaning structure....

  1. Neural correlates of locative prepositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noordzij, Matthijs L; Neggers, Sebastiaan F W; Ramsey, Nick F; Postma, Albert

    2008-04-01

    Locative prepositions might be special linguistic modifiers because they form a natural link between verbal and visual-spatial information. In the present fMRI study we found evidence that understanding categorical spatial relations expressed in language with locative prepositions such as "to the left of" and "to the right of" were reliably associated with cerebral activity in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) located in the left inferior parietal lobe. The higher activity associated with spatial as compared to non-spatial sentences in this region was not dependent on the context (verbal or visual-spatial) in which the sentence was read. Therefore, the function of this activity appears to be to create a general, amodal representation of locative prepositions that allow for flexible comparisons to either verbal or visual-spatial material.

  2. Neuroanatomical correlates of locative prepositions.

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    Tranel, Daniel; Kemmerer, David

    2004-10-01

    Very little research has explored which neural systems may be important for retrieving the meanings of locative prepositions (e.g., in, on, around). To begin to address this knowledge gap, we conducted a lesion study in which we tested the hypothesis that processing the meanings of locative prepositions depends on neural structures in the left inferior prefrontal cortex and left inferior parietal cortex. Seventy-eight subjects with focal, stable lesions to various parts of the telencephalon and a comparison group of 60 normal participants were studied with tasks that require production, comprehension, and semantic analysis of locative prepositions. In support of our hypothesis, we found that in subjects with impaired knowledge of locative prepositions, the highest region of lesion overlap was in the left frontal operculum and the left supramarginal gyrus, and in the white matter subjacent to these two areas. In a second study, focused on six subjects who had pervasive defects for locative preposition knowledge, we confirmed that such defects were associated specifically with damage to the posterior left frontal operculum, white matter subjacent to this region, and white matter underneath the inferior parietal operculum. These subjects did not have basic impairments in spatial processing or working memory, and they had relatively well-preserved processing of conceptual knowledge for actions and various categories of concrete entities (e.g., persons, animals, tools). All six subjects, however, had defects in naming actions, and some of them also had defective naming of some categories of concrete entities. Overall, the findings converge nicely with recent results from functional imaging approaches, and with classic studies from the aphasia-based literature, and suggest that the left inferior prefrontal and left inferior parietal regions have crucial-albeit not exclusive-roles in processing knowledge associated with locative prepositions.

  3. On the Distinction between Preposition Stranding and Orphan Prepositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Poplack, Zentz and Dion (PZD; Poplack, Zentz & Dion, 2011, this issue) examine the often unquestioned assumption that the existence of preposition stranding (PS) in Canadian French is linked to the presence of a contact situation with English in the North American context. Although this issue has been the topic of previous research from a…

  4. The Relationship between Understanding Prepositions and Reading Comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foust, Charles David

    The major objective of this study was to determine whether understanding prepositions and the relationships they signal is related to reading comprehension. A sample of 127 fourth grade students was selected from three socioeconomic levels of the Columbus, (Ohio) Public Schools using a stratified random sampling technique. The subjects were…

  5. An event-related potential observation of preposition processing in Chinese Is N280 a specific component for Chinese prepositions?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rongping Zhang; Huanhai Fang; Qifeng Jiang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that closed-class words, such as preposititions and conjunctions, induce a left anterior negativity (N280), indicating that N280 should be a specific component of the word category. OBJECTIVE: To observe if Chinese prepositions and verbs exhibit different linguistic functions, to determine whether they are processed by different neural systems, and to verify that N280 is a specific component. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: The observed neurolinguistics experiment was performed at Xuzhou Normal University between November and December 2006. PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen undergraduate students, comprising 8 females and 8 males, with no mental or neuropathological history, were selected. METHODS: A total of 15 verbs and prepositions were used as linguistic stimuli, and each verb and preposition was combined to produce four correct phrase collocations and four incorrect ones. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Event-related potentials were recorded in the subjects while they read correct or incorrect phases flashed upon a video screen. RESULTS: Both verbs and prepositions elicited negativity at the frontal site in a 230-330 ms window, as well as at the fronto-temporal and central sites in a 350-500 ms window. Neither exhibited significant differences in peak [F(1, 15) = 0.144, P= 0.7101 and latency IF(1, 15) = 0.144, P= 0.7101. Both verbs and prepositions elicited negativity at the left and right hemisphere in a 270-400 ms window. CONCLUSION: There was no significant diffence between Chinese prepositions and verbs in the neural system process and N280 was not the specific component for closed-class words.

  6. More Negative Findings for Positive Prepositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abkarian, G. G.

    1983-01-01

    Three- and four-year-old children were tested in their comprehension of locative prepositions. Results showed that those prepositions characterized as positive were comprehended less well than their ostensibly negative counterparts, contrary to theoretical predictions. An explanatory hypothesis concerning children's developing spatial…

  7. Locative prepositional phrases in severe aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, M; McCall, D; Shoosmith, L; Thomas, K; Katzenberger, K; Weber, C

    1993-07-01

    Six severely aphasic patients were trained on C-VIC, a computerized alternative communication system. Patients with both global and Broca's aphasia were able to produce and comprehend locative prepositions using C-VIC. The Broca's aphasic patients were able to produce and interpret symbol order correctly in C-VIC locative prepositional phrases, despite their difficulties in performing the same tasks using English. One patient's verbal production of locative prepositional phrases improved markedly after C-VIC training. These results suggest that the "mapping" impairment suffered by some Broca's aphasics may be ameliorated by use of alternative communication system, such as C-VIC.

  8. La preposición cero (Zero preposition

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    Andrés Gallardo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El llamado "signo cero" tiene una realidad funcional y semántica en la lengua en aquellos casos en que una ausencia contrasta de modo sistemático con una presencia en un contexto dado. En el caso concretoel análisis sintáctico, Ambrosio Rabanales (1966 ha postulado que en el complemento directo "sin preposición" de hecho hay un contraste recurrente, sistemático y significativo con la preposición "a". El presente trabajo sistematiza los planteamientos de Rabanales y ofrece ejemplos y argumentos para avalar la existencia de esta "preposición cero". (The notion of "zero sign" is both functionally and semantically valid in those cases where an absence (a silence systematically contrasts with a presence in a given context. Rabanales (1966 has posited the existence in Spanish of a recurrent "zero preposition" in the direct object, when the preposition "a" contrasts with an absence of a preposition. This paper offers cases and analyses that corroborate his position.

  9. Teaching English locative prepositions: a cognitive perspective

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    Silva Bratož

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prepositions are notoriously hard to learn, and frequently subject to negative transfer. In addition, prepositional meanings are commonly extended from the spatial to abstract domains and are, as a consequence, often unpredictable and arbitrary. Traditional approaches to second language preposition teaching have, therefore, suggested that the best way to learn prepositions would be through rote learning. On the other hand, a cognitive linguistics approach argues that the multiple uses of prepositions can be seen as related in systematic ways. Several pedagogical implications of applying cognitive linguistics findings in second language teaching and learning will be discussed, suggesting ways of translating theory into practical consideration and effective teaching materials. The second part of the article presents an instructional model for teaching the locative prepositions in, on and at from a cognitive perspective, and discusses the results of a study conducted to observe the learners’ response to instruction, based on cognitive linguistics findings. In addition, the benefits of focusing on the cross-linguistic differences between the native and target language, in an explicit and systematic way, will be discussed. In this context, reference will be made to several insights and ideas promoted by the CEFR. The article will end by considering some suggestions and ideas for future research.

  10. Rules-based object-relational databases ontology construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jia; Wu Yue

    2009-01-01

    To solve the problems of sharing and reusing information in the information system, a rules-based ontology constructing approach from object-relational databases is proposed. A 3-tuple ontology constructing model is proposed first. Then, four types of ontology constructing rules including class, property, property characteristics, and property restrictions axe formalized affording to the model. Experiment results described in Web ontology language prove that our proposed approach is feasible for applying in the semantic objects project of semantic computing laboratory in UC Irvine. Our approach reduces about twenty percent constructing time compared with the ontology construction from relational databases.

  11. On Functional Peculiarities of Locative Prepositions As Means of Spatial Relationships Expression in the German Language

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    Larisa Mikhaylovna Generalova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents locative prepositions as tools of space conceptualization and verbalization in the German language. The author states that there is some close interlink between two concepts – Man and space, and it plays an initial role in the organization of human knowledge. On offering the statement presented above, the author considers specificity of situational perception of spatial relationships that are conceptualized in a particular language. The suggested correlations of spatial relationships: location in space, transporting in space as a result of the movement and the movement itself included, helps the author to prove that spatial relationships may be differentiated as dynamic or static. It is confirmed that the main factors that influence the choice of the locative prepositions, viewed as the markers of spatial relationships, may include the measurability of the object relations, its functional qualities, and principles of visual perception that guard the specificity of person's orientation in space. It is proved that the native German speakers prefer using the preposition in to verbalize the situations of internal space and choose the preposition an to verbalize the situations of external space. The author concludes that the choice of the locative preposition for denoting space depends on the speaker's intentions and the ontological focus in which the speaker wishes to describe spatial relations.

  12. Complex object correspondence construction in two-dimensional animation.

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    Yu, Jun; Liu, Dongquan; Tao, Dacheng; Seah, Hock Soon

    2011-11-01

    Correspondence construction of objects in key frames is the precondition for inbetweening and coloring in 2-D computer-assisted animation production. Since each frame of an animation consists of multiple layers, objects are complex in terms of shape and structure. Therefore, existing shape-matching algorithms specifically designed for simple structures such as a single closed contour cannot perform well on objects constructed by multiple contours with an open shape. This paper introduces a semisupervised patch alignment framework for complex object correspondence construction. In particular, the new framework constructs local patches for each point on an object and aligns these patches in a new feature space, in which correspondences between objects can be detected by the subsequent clustering. For local patch construction, pairwise constraints, which indicate the corresponding points (must link) or unfitting points (cannot link), are introduced by users to improve the performance of correspondence construction. This kind of input is convenient for animation software users via user-friendly interfaces. A dozen of experimental results on our cartoon data set that is built on industrial production suggest the effectiveness of the proposed framework for constructing correspondences of complex objects. As an extension of our framework, additional shape retrieval experiments on MPEG-7 data set show that its performance is comparable with that of a prominent algorithm published in T-PAMI 2009.

  13. Testing the stem dominance hypothesis: meaning analysis of inflected words and prepositional phrases.

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    Minna Lehtonen

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that lexical-semantic access of inflected words is governed by the word stem. Object drawings overlaid with a dot/arrow marking position/movement were matched with corresponding linguistic expressions like "from the house". To test whether the stem dominates lexical-semantic access irrespective of its position, we used Swedish prepositional phrases (locative information via preposition immediately preceding the stem or Finnish case-inflected words (locative information via suffix immediately following the stem. Both in monolingual Swedish and in bilingual Finnish-Swedish speakers, correct stems with incorrect prepositions/case-endings were hardest to reject. This finding supports the view that the stem is indeed the dominant unit in meaning access of inflected words.

  14. Testing the stem dominance hypothesis: meaning analysis of inflected words and prepositional phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Minna; Harrer, Gabor; Wande, Erling; Laine, Matti

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that lexical-semantic access of inflected words is governed by the word stem. Object drawings overlaid with a dot/arrow marking position/movement were matched with corresponding linguistic expressions like "from the house". To test whether the stem dominates lexical-semantic access irrespective of its position, we used Swedish prepositional phrases (locative information via preposition immediately preceding the stem) or Finnish case-inflected words (locative information via suffix immediately following the stem). Both in monolingual Swedish and in bilingual Finnish-Swedish speakers, correct stems with incorrect prepositions/case-endings were hardest to reject. This finding supports the view that the stem is indeed the dominant unit in meaning access of inflected words.

  15. : The case of object marking constructions in Sinitic languages

    OpenAIRE

    Chappell, Hilary

    2006-01-01

    This article treats the diversity of object marking or ‘disposal' constructions in Sinitic languages. These constructions are used to highlight an affected referential object, typically corresponding to accusatively case-marked nouns in inflectional languages. The discussion begins with a brief description of early Spanish grammars of Chinese languages, based on a Greco-Latin model and progresses from the problems of Eurocentrism to those of Sinocentrism, based on the new model of the prestig...

  16. Preposition use in oral and written learner language

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    Susan Nacey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns preposition use in oral language produced by advanced Norwegian learners of English, using primary data from an oral learner corpus (LINDSEI-NO. We investigate the frequency of inappropriate preposition use in approximately 13 hours of transcribed informal interviews, as well as the possible extent to which L1 transfer may play a role in production. The contextually inappropriate prepositions were categorized in terms of factors that may influence preposition use, with particular focus on the congruence between L1 and L2 with respect to syntactic structure and basic meaning. These results about spoken preposition use are then contrasted with results from a corresponding investigation into preposition use in a written learner corpus (NICLE, allowing for comparison of preposition usage across modes.

  17. Semantic Multisense Features and Translation of English Preposition OF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张招霞

    2009-01-01

    The linguist often claims,"English is a language of the preposition".It is a difficult point to understand and translate it though the preposition is simple in form.The preposition OF is such a simple preposition.On the surface,it seems very simple,indeed insufficient for talk,to OF which belongs to the simple preposition and prepositional phrases formed by it,but there are many kinds of its usages.This article help readers further understanding of semantic multisense features and translation of English prepositions and offer a kind of research for the fact that the English-Chinese machine translation system choose for its model.

  18. Unifying Prepositions and Prefixes in Russian: Conceptual structure versus syntax

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    Inna Tolskaya

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to unify the polysemous verbal prefixes and prepositions in Russian. At first glance, the variety of possible denotations of a given prefix might appear a chaotic set of idiomatic meanings, e.g., the prefix za- may refer to beginning of an action, movement to a position behind an object, a brief deviation from a path, completion of an action, while the corresponding preposition za can mean ‘behind,’ ‘after,’ ‘for,’ ‘in’ (like in ‘in an hour’, ‘at’ (like in ‘at the table’. I will propose a unified analysis, where the differences in meaning are claimed to arise from different syntactic positions, while the lexical entry of a prefix remains the same. The main focus is on the verbs of motion due to the consistent duality displayed by the prefix meanings when added to directional and non-directional motion verbs. It will turn out that many prefixes appear to modify path when added onto a directional motion verb and to refer to movement in time with non-directional motion verbs. This semantic distinction corresponds to distinct sets of syntactic properties, specific for each set of prefixes. These two classes of prefixes correspond to the lexical versus superlexical distinction. However, a tripartite division will emerge in each set, corresponding to source, path, and goal of motion (FROM, VIA and TO for lexical prefixes and to initiation, process and result for superlexical prefixes. This leads to the suggestion that the syntactic representation of a VP contains at least six distinct nodes for the Russian verbal prefixes, each characterized by predictable semantic and syntactic properties. The same prefix with a consistent meaning, shared with the corresponding preposition, will receive part of its denotation from the syntactic head it attaches to, thus allowing the polysemy to arise from position, rather than from arbitrary homophony. Thus, conceptual structure will be unified with syntax.

  19. What is the "Sense" of Prepositions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreike, Beate

    1975-01-01

    Examines the semantics of certain prepositions to show that the interpretation of relationships between linguistic units in a sentence is not always deducible from the logical structure underlying it, if this study does not include the study of pragmatic factors. Available from Liber Laeromedel, Box 1205, S-22105 Lund, Sweden. (Author/TL)

  20. What is the "Sense" of Prepositions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreike, Beate

    1975-01-01

    Examines the semantics of certain prepositions to show that the interpretation of relationships between linguistic units in a sentence is not always deducible from the logical structure underlying it, if this study does not include the study of pragmatic factors. Available from Liber Laeromedel, Box 1205, S-22105 Lund, Sweden. (Author/TL)

  1. Mathematical model of innovative sustainability “green” construction object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slesarev Michail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of finding sustainability of “green” innovative processes in interaction between construction activities and the environment. The problem of today’s construction science is stated as comprehensive integration and automation of natural and artificial intellects within systems that ensure environmental safety of construction based on innovative sustainability of “green” technologies in the life environment, and “green” innovative products. The suggested solution to the problem should formalize sustainability models and methods for interpretation of optimization mathematical modeling problems respective to problems of environmental-based innovative process management, adapted to construction of “green” objects, “green” construction technologies, “green” innovative materials and structures.

  2. Multi-objective genetic optimization of linear construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma A. Agrama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the real world, the majority cases of optimization problems, met by engineers, are composed of several conflicting objectives. This paper presents an approach for a multi-objective optimization model for scheduling linear construction projects. Linear construction projects have many identical units wherein activities repeat from one unit to another. Highway, pipeline, and tunnels are good examples that exhibit repetitive characteristics. These projects represent a large portion of the construction industry. The present model enables construction planners to generate optimal/near-optimal construction plans that minimize project duration, total work interruptions, and total number of crews. Each of these plans identifies, from a set of feasible alternatives, optimal crew synchronization for each activity and activity interruptions at each unit. This model satisfies the following aspects: (1 it is based on the line of balance technique; (2 it considers non-serial typical activities networks with finish–start relationship and both lag or overlap time between activities is allowed; (3 it utilizes a multi-objective genetic algorithms approach; (4 it is developed as a spreadsheet template that is easy to use. Details of the model with visual charts are presented. An application example is analyzed to illustrate the use of the model and demonstrate its capabilities in optimizing the scheduling of linear construction projects.

  3. One sententional model with the prepositional accusativ AS proleptic subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonić Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this paper is a model of two-predicate sentence in which with the matrix predication, which makes the so-called sentential-transitive verb, there appears accusative with the preposition ZA (for and the complement clause with the conjunction DA (that. On the basis of such formal structure, it represents a sentence with two objects - one non-propositional object in the form of the prepositional accusative - indirect type and the other propositional object, sententially formalized. Conducted analysis showed that this is a specific sentential model which could be viewed at several relevant levels: at the syntactic, syntactic-semantic, semantic and pragmatic level, because only that way one can view all its features. It turned out that the status of complement clause was not problematic - it is a propositional-sentential object, obligatorily postponed both to the basic predication and to the prepositional accusative, but the prepositional accusative, though placed in the matrix sentence, is not in the direct correlation with its predication, so it is not its object, but has the function of PROLEPTIC SUBJECT of the complement clause (in the periphrasis test, the prepositional accusative is turned into nominative and is placed inside the complement clause, and semantically it is a pseudoagent: the bearer of the feature expressed in the predicate of the complement clause whose referent most frequently has the feature ‘alive’ ‘human’, but can also be abstract. Therefore, the verbs which appear in the matrix predication are the verbs of simple, obligatorily propositional-sentential transitivity which in addition also belong to specific semantic classes: it is the case with the verbs of cognition: primarily the basic verb of having knowledge znati (know and the verbs of acquiring knowledge saznati, doznati (get to know; the verbs of a different degree of certainty about the factual situation: the verb garantovati (guarantee and the

  4. Object-Oriented Software Tools for the Construction of Preconditioners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Mossberg

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been considerable progress concerning preconditioned iterative methods for large and sparse systems of equations arising from the discretization of differential equations. Such methods are particularly attractive in the context of high-performance (parallel computers. However, the implementation of a preconditioner is a nontrivial task. The focus of the present contribution is on a set of object-oriented software tools that support the construction of a family of preconditioners based on fast transforms. By combining objects of different classes, it is possible to conveniently construct any preconditioner within this family.

  5. Faint spatial object classifier construction based on data mining technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Xin; Zhao, Yang; Liao, Yurong; Nie, Yong-ming

    2016-11-01

    Data mining can effectively obtain the faint spatial object's patterns and characteristics, the universal relations and other implicated data characteristics, the key of which is classifier construction. Faint spatial object classifier construction with spatial data mining technology for faint spatial target detection is proposed based on theoretical analysis of design procedures and guidelines in detail. For the one-sidedness weakness during dealing with the fuzziness and randomness using this method, cloud modal classifier is proposed. Simulating analyzing results indicate that this method can realize classification quickly through feature combination and effectively resolve the one-sidedness weakness problem.

  6. Constructing Multidatabase Collections Using Extended ODMG Object Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Skehill Mark Roantree

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Collections are an important feature in database systems. They provide us with the ability to group objects of interest together, and then to manipulate them in the required fashion. The OASIS project is focused on the construction a multidatabase prototype which uses the ODMG model and a canonical model. As part of this work we have extended the base model to provide a more powerful collection mechanism, and to permit the construction of a federated collection, a collection of heterogenous objects taken from distributed data sources

  7. Knowledge Sharing in Construction Partnering - Redundancy, Boundary Objects and Brokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    2013-01-01

    common assignment of meaning, brokers (e.g. design managers), boundary objects (e.g. drawings) and arenas (e.g. meetings). The paper presents an ethnographic case study of a project partnership between engineers, architects and contractors in construction using the partnering concept. The focus is on two...

  8. Determining Reliable Networks of Prepositioning Materiel Warehouses for Public-Sector Rapid Response Supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Lang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Events such as natural disasters or combat operations require a rapid response capability from humanitarian service providers and military organizations. Such organizations can decrease their response times through the prepositioning of materiel in forward warehouses, reducing the time needed to transport items to the site of need. A particular challenge to the development of networks of prepositioning warehouses is that the warehouses themselves may be impacted by the very disruptions that drive demands for prepositioned materials. The objective of this research is to identify a reliable network posture, which is a set of utilized facility locations and an allocation of materiel to those locations, that can satisfy time-sensitive delivery requirements to potential locations around the globe, ensuring that demands can be satisfied even in the event of loss of access to a subset of storage sites (along with said sites’ materiel, all at minimum total cost. We develop new optimization formulations to account for differing levels of network reliability, all reflecting the time-sensitive environment faced by rapid response operations. We demonstrate an application of this methodology using rapid response material prepositioned by the US Air Force.

  9. ROLE OF UML SEQUENCE DIAGRAM CONSTRUCTS IN OBJECT LIFECYCLE CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Grgec

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available When modeling systems and using UML concepts, a real system can be viewed in several ways. The RUP (Rational Unified Process defines the "4 + 1 view": 1. Logical view (class diagram (CD, object diagram (OD, sequence diagram (SD, collaboration diagram (COD, state chart diagram (SCD, activity diagram (AD, 2.Process view (use case diagram, CD, OD, SD, COD, SCD, AD, 3. Development view (package diagram, component diagram, 4. Physical view (deployment diagram, and 5. Use case view (use case diagram, OD, SD, COD, SCD, AD which combines the four mentioned above. With sequence diagram constructs we are describing object behavior in scope of one use case and their interaction. Each object in system goes through a so called lifecycle (create, supplement object with data, use object, decommission object. The concept of the object lifecycle is used to understand and formalize the behavior of objects from creation to deletion. With help of sequence diagram concepts our paper will describe the way of interaction modeling between objects through lifeline of each of them, and their importance in software development.

  10. The preposition potential in formation of conjunctional means

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konjuškevič Marija I.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the ability of preposition to form conjunction or its equivalent has been considered. The mechanism of denominalization has been shown on the Russian material with the involvement of the author’s observations on prepositions in the Belarusian language - the morphological form transformation in to the subordinate part of complex sentence. The author’s conception is: 1 the syntaxeme is the actant position in the sentence; 2 the syntaxeme consists of the formant (preposition + flexion and nominative component (substantive; 3 at the level of the complex sentence the same actant position may take the predicative unit (subordinate part of the complex sentence; 4 the formant of the predicative syntaxeme in transforms is the conjunctional combination “preposition + demonstrative pronoun that + subordinate part conjunction“. The preposition at case syntaxeme transformation in to predicative does not change its function, but it is included in to the conjunctional formant as one of the elements of more complex formant - conjunctional combination. Each element of the conjunctional combination fulfills its function: the preposition still forms the syntaxeme, but with more complex nominative component as predicative unit, the pronoun that is “flection“ of this nominative component (subordinate part, and the conjunction acts as the explicator, providing grammatical connection of the nominative component of syntaxeme with the “flexion“ and the preposition. It is noted that the mechanism and the results of denominalization depend on the syntaxemes repertoire and character and on the preposition meaning: the same preposition, with different meaning has different conjunctional potential. In to the mechanism of denominalization are involved categorematic names (classifiers, which initially are used as structural vocabulary for forming secondary prepositions, and together with them, for forming conjunctional combinations. The methods

  11. The Production of Locative Prepositions by Young School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin

    1980-01-01

    Reports results of a study to examine the extent to which young English children volunteer prepositions in a simple but structured task of spatial description. Results show that children 3 to 7 years have an extensive and often inventive grasp of locative prepositions. (Author/KC)

  12. THE INVESTMENT MODEL OF THE CONSTRUCTION OF PUBLIC OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reperger Šandor

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the possible models of the construction and use of sports objects, especi- ally indoor facilities (sports centres, halls, swimming pools, shooting alleys and others is the cooperation of the public and private sector, by the investment model of PPP (Pu- blic-Private Partnership. PPP (Public-Private Partnership construction is the new form of securing civil works, already known in the developed countries, in which the job of planning, construc- tion, functioning and financing is done by the private sector – in the scope of a precisely elaborated cooperation with the state. The state engages the private sector for the administering of the civil works. By public adverstisements and contests they will find the investors who accept the administe- ring of certain public works by themselves or with the help of project partners with their own resources (with 60-85% of bank loans, secure the conditions for conducting certain services (by using the objects, halls, etc until the expiration of the agreed deadline. The essence of PPP construction is the fact that an investor from the private sec- tor, chosen through a contest, realizes the project using its own means. The object beco- mes the property of the investor and it secures the regular functioning of the object with exclusive rights. The income from the functioning belongs to the investor, in return the costs of the functioning of the object, the upkeep, as well as the costs of the personnel and public utilities are the responsibility of the investor. The public use of the object is realised by the means that the authorised ministry and the partner from the contest in an agreement of the realization and functioning of the object accurately define the time of maintenance and the duration of the services on the behalf of social interest. From the time specified in the agreement the investor doesn’t charge precisely defined users for general and specific services. As Sebia, with all its

  13. Test problem construction for single-objective bilevel optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Ankur; Malo, Pekka; Deb, Kalyanmoy

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a procedure for designing controlled test problems for single-objective bilevel optimization. The construction procedure is flexible and allows its user to control the different complexities that are to be included in the test problems independently of each other. In addition to properties that control the difficulty in convergence, the procedure also allows the user to introduce difficulties caused by interaction of the two levels. As a companion to the test problem construction framework, the paper presents a standard test suite of 12 problems, which includes eight unconstrained and four constrained problems. Most of the problems are scalable in terms of variables and constraints. To provide baseline results, we have solved the proposed test problems using a nested bilevel evolutionary algorithm. The results can be used for comparison, while evaluating the performance of any other bilevel optimization algorithm. The code related to the paper may be accessed from the website http://bilevel.org .

  14. Anthropology, ethical dissonance, and the construction of the object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainzang, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I discuss certain questions relating to the ethical difficulties faced by anthropologists when dealing with two different social groups and when one group holds a position of dominance over the other. In the first example, I draw on my work on doctor-patient relationships in France; in the second, on a study on reproduction in immigrant African families from Mali and Senegal, living in polygynous households in France. I use these examples to explore questions of positionality, beneficence, and potential harm. I show the choices I made in order to construct an epistemologically ethical object.

  15. Computational Interpretation English Spatial Prepositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-02-01

    cognitive concepts, among which are some which facilitate language-learning. In so doing, they have approached the theories of Jean Piaget who for half...the "map" analogy already mentioned, and the "oicture" analogy. As Piaget [ Piaget and Inhelder, 1967] and Clark [1973] noint out. the horizontal...drawing objects in regions with any part of the drawn object obscuring the drawn boundary of the region; evidence presented by Piaget and Inhelder [1967

  16. Codification of Some Usage Cases of Lithuanian Language Cases and Prepositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidas Valskys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article is related to analysing several cases of the relationship between usage of cases and prepositions with the norms indicated in the syntax booklet “Language Advice”. The article is a discussion regarding some normative evaluation aspects regarding the usage of the preposition “greta” (next to having the meaning of exception (exclusion, usage of the adjectivised instrumental case in constructions with the verb “(pavirsti” (to turn, to become, to grow, to get and some cases of the postposition “dėka” (with the help of. Utmost attention is paid to discussion of (nonnormative evaluation of some constructions including usage of the said cases and prepositions that are doubtful in some aspects, their presentation in normative sources and further prospects related to further codification of the said cases. The article is based on vast empirical materials: examples from the “Corpus of the Contemporary Lithuanian”, the Internet and other texts related to contemporary usage.

  17. Trainable Children Can Learn Adjectives, Polars, and Preposition!

    Science.gov (United States)

    And Others; Mitchell, Marlys

    1977-01-01

    A program utilizing a multisensory approach and active involvement was used to teach 12 trainable mentally retarded children (6-19 years old) the correct use of adjectives, polars, and locative prepositions. (DB)

  18. A Rule-Based Approach To Prepositional Phrase Attachment Disambiguation

    CERN Document Server

    Brill, E; Brill, Eric; Resnik, Philip

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a new corpus-based approach to prepositional phrase attachment disambiguation, and present results comparing performance of this algorithm with other corpus-based approaches to this problem.

  19. RUSSIAN PREPOSITION ПРИ IN ARKHANGELSK REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. B. Kachinskaya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article preposition при in Arkhangelsk dialects is considered from the point of view of its syntactic role (use with certain cases, in its stressed and unstressed variants, and semantics: locative, komitative, temporal, possessive and comparative. It is proved that in the dialects preposition при have more meanings than in the Russian literary language; it is used not only with locative, but with genitive, dative, accusative cases.

  20. Ditransitive sentences and indirect object in Bazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Torres Morais

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the syntax of dative arguments (indirect objects in Brazilian Portuguese is examined in a crosslinguistic perspective with European Portuguese. It is shown that the grammatical expression of BP indirect object has undergone significant changes, which were essentially triggered by two related phenomena: a decrease in the use of the preposition a introducing the indirect object, which is replaced by the preposition para, and a decrease in the use of the dative pronoun, particularly the 3rd person clitic lhe(s,which is substituted for innovative strategies of pronominalization. In European Portuguese, differently from BP, dative arguments are consistently introduced by the preposition a, and pronominalization involves the 3rd person dative clitic lhe(s. Based on the theory of applicative heads proposed in Pylkkänen (2008 and a particular notion of ditransitivity, proposed in Cuervo (2003/2010, we take these changes as evidence for the loss of the low applicative construction in Brazilian Portuguese, coupled with the loss of the morphosyntactic ditransitivity. Thus the connection between the morphological case system and the expression of parameters supports a view of syntactic change according to which parametric variation is determined in the lexicon, in terms of the grammatical features of functional heads.

  1. Preposition stranding versus pied-piping: Negative Shift of prepositional complements in dialects of Faroese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Engels

    2009-01-01

             These asymmetries will be accounted for within Fox and Pesetsky's (2003, 2005 cyclic linearization model, which requires non-string-vacuous movement to proceed through the left edge of Spell-out domains, deriving cross-linguistic variation as to Negative Shift from differences in the availability of these left-edge positions. Thereby, pied-piping is considered a last resort strategy, possible only if the prepositional complement cannot undergo Negative Shift on its own due to the unavailability of the relevant left-edge position.

  2. Preposition accuracy on a sentence repetition task in school age Spanish-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliancich-Klinger, Casey L; Bedore, Lisa M; Peña, Elizabeth D

    2017-05-16

    Preposition knowledge is important for academic success. The goal of this project was to examine how different variables such as English input and output, Spanish preposition score, mother education level, and age of English exposure (AoEE) may have played a role in children's preposition knowledge in English. 148 Spanish-English children between 7;0 and 9;11 produced prepositions in English and Spanish on a sentence repetition task from an experimental version of the Bilingual English Spanish Assessment Middle Extension (Peña, Bedore, Gutierrez-Clellen, Iglesias & Goldstein, in development). English input and output accounted for most of the variance in English preposition score. The importance of language-specific experiences in the development of prepositions is discussed. Competition for selection of appropriate prepositions in English and Spanish is discussed as potentially influencing low overall preposition scores in English and Spanish.

  3. Locative and Directional Prepositions in Conceptual Spaces: The Role of Polar Convexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwarts, J.; Gärdenfors, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We approach the semantics of prepositions from the perspective of conceptual spaces. Focusing on purely spatial locative and directional prepositions, we analyze both types of prepositions in terms of polar coordinates instead of Cartesian coordinates. This makes it possible to demonstrate that the

  4. The Construction and Validation of an Objective Formal Reasoning Instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burney, Gilbert McCollum

    The purpose of this study was the development and validation of a paper-and-pencil instrument to assess the formal stage of development as defined by Piaget. Initially, a 42-item test was constructed; item content included syllogisms, verbal analogies, combinatorial and probabilistic reasoning, and questions similar to Piagetian tasks. This…

  5. The Constructed Objectivity of Mathematics and the Cognitive Subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Giuseppe

    Mathematics is engendered in conjunction with other forms of knowledge, physics in particular. It is a "genealogy of concepts" (Riemann), that stems from our active reconstruction of the world. Mathematics organizes space and time. It stabilizes notions and concepts as no other language, while isolating by them a few intelligible fragments of "reality" at the phenomenal level. Thus an epistemological analysis of mathematics is proposed, as a foundation that departs from and complements the logico-formal approaches: Mathematics is grounded in a formation of sense, of a congnitive and historical nature, which preceeds the explicit formulation of axioms and rules. The genesis of some conceptual invariants will be sketched (numbers, continua, infinity, proofs, etc.). From these, categories as structural invariants (objects) and "invariant preserving maps" (morphisms, functors) are derived, in a reflective equilibrium of theories that parallels our endeavour to gain knowledge of the physical world.

  6. Efficiency of two-way weirs and prepositioned electrofishing for sampling potamodromous fish migrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favrot, Scott D.; Kwak, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Potamodromy (i.e., migration entirely in freshwater) is a common life history strategy of North American lotic fishes, and efficient sampling methods for potamodromous fishes are needed to formulate conservation and management decisions. Many potamodromous fishes inhabit medium-sized rivers and are mobile during spawning migrations, which complicates sampling with conventional gears (e.g., nets and electrofishing). We compared the efficiency of a passive migration technique (resistance board weirs) and an active technique (prepositioned areal electrofishers; [PAEs]) for sampling migrating potamodromous fishes in Valley River, a southern Appalachian Mountain river, from March through July 2006 and 2007. A total of 35 fish species from 10 families were collected, 32 species by PAE and 19 species by weir. Species richness and diversity were higher for PAE catch, and species dominance (i.e., proportion of assemblage composed of the three most abundant species) was higher for weir catch. Prepositioned areal electrofisher catch by number was considerably higher than weir catch, but biomass was lower for PAE catch. Weir catch decreased following the spawning migration, while PAEs continued to collect fish. Sampling bias associated with water velocity was detected for PAEs, but not weirs, and neither gear demonstrated depth bias in wadeable reaches. Mean fish mortality from PAEs was five times greater than that from weirs. Catch efficiency and composition comparisons indicated that weirs were effective at documenting migration chronology, sampling nocturnal migration, and yielding samples unbiased by water velocity or habitat, with low mortality. Prepositioned areal electrofishers are an appropriate sampling technique for seasonal fish occupancy objectives, while weirs are more suitable for quantitatively describing spawning migrations. Our comparative results may guide fisheries scientists in selecting an appropriate sampling gear and regime for research, monitoring

  7. Prescribed Spatial Prepositions Influence How We Think about Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjec, Alexander; Cardillo, Eileen R.; Schmidt, Gwenda L.; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2010-01-01

    Prepositions combine with nouns flexibly when describing concrete locative relations (e.g. "at/on/in" the school) but are rigidly prescribed when paired with abstract concepts (e.g. "at" risk; "on" Wednesday; "in" trouble). In the former case they do linguistic work based on their discrete semantic qualities, and in the latter they appear to serve…

  8. 33 CFR 154.1130 - Requirements for prepositioned response equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for prepositioned response equipment. 154.1130 Section 154.1130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF.... (7) Buckets, shovels, and various other tools. (8) Decontamination equipment. (9) Shoreline...

  9. 33 CFR 155.1130 - Requirements for prepositioned response equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for prepositioned response equipment. 155.1130 Section 155.1130 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... various other tools; (8) Decontamination equipment; (9) Shoreline cleanup equipment; (10)...

  10. A Preposition Is Something You Can End a Sentence With: Learning English Stranded Prepositions through Structural Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Mark A.; Antón-Méndez, Inés

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether second language (L2) learners of English could learn to produce stranded prepositions through structural priming. Structural priming is the tendency for speakers to repeat the structure of previously experienced sentences, without intention or conscious awareness of such behaviour, and is thought to be associated…

  11. A Preposition Is Something You Can End a Sentence With: Learning English Stranded Prepositions through Structural Priming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conroy, Mark A.; Antón-Méndez, Inés

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether second language (L2) learners of English could learn to produce stranded prepositions through structural priming. Structural priming is the tendency for speakers to repeat the structure of previously experienced sentences, without intention or conscious awareness of such behaviour, and is thought to be associated…

  12. Genetic algorithm-based multi-objective model for scheduling of linear construction projects

    OpenAIRE

    Senouci, Ahmed B.; Al-Derham, H.R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a genetic algorithm-based multi-objective optimization model for the scheduling of linear construction projects. The model allows construction planners to generate and evaluate optimal/near-optimal construction scheduling plans that minimize both project time and cost. The computations in the present model are organized in three major modules. A scheduling module that develops practical schedules for linear construction projects. A cost module that computes the project's c...

  13. О первом актанте русского предлога(On the First Actant of the Russian Preposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Lönngren

    2007-01-01

    In the article, the inventory of possible forms of the first actant is established. Moreover, special attention is paid to ambiguous constructions. For example, the preposition together with its second actant can function as an attribute of the first actant. Under certain circumstances, however, the preposition phrase may become detached, so that it is no longer syntac- tically, only semantically, connected with the first actant.

  14. Monthly Monetary Planning for China via Applying Method of Constructing Objective Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Jian-hua; YANG Xiao-guang; XU Shan-ying

    2001-01-01

    Many economic problems can be formulated as optimization problems. Econometricians have long devoted their efforts to construct the econometric equation systems, while the corresponding objective functions receive few attentions. In recent twenty years, some techniques to construct the objective functions with economic implications have been developed, which might have a potential in economic decision-making.In the paper we apply the method of constructing objective function to design an optimization model for monthly monetary planning of China. The real monthly data from 1991 to 1999 are used to evaluate the monthly economic situation. Our empirical experiment shows that the model gives a good short-term forecasting.

  15. Towards Linking Virtual Models with Physical Objects in Construction using RFID

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kristian Birch; Christiansson, Per; Svidt, Kjeld

    2008-01-01

    and the physical objects in the construction process can improve the information and knowledge handling from design to construction, operation and maintenance. The link can be created by use of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology. This paper describes a review and assessment of existing ontologies...

  16. 3D-Web-GIS RFID location sensing system for construction objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chien-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Construction site managers could benefit from being able to visualize on-site construction objects. Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been shown to improve the efficiency of construction object management. The objective of this study is to develop a 3D-Web-GIS RFID location sensing system for construction objects. An RFID 3D location sensing algorithm combining Simulated Annealing (SA) and a gradient descent method is proposed to determine target object location. In the algorithm, SA is used to stabilize the search process and the gradient descent method is used to reduce errors. The locations of the analyzed objects are visualized using the 3D-Web-GIS system. A real construction site is used to validate the applicability of the proposed method, with results indicating that the proposed approach can provide faster, more accurate, and more stable 3D positioning results than other location sensing algorithms. The proposed system allows construction managers to better understand worksite status, thus enhancing managerial efficiency.

  17. Multi-Objective Genetic Programming with Redundancy-Regulations for Automatic Construction of Image Feature Extractors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watchareeruetai, Ukrit; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Takeuchi, Yoshinori; Kudo, Hiroaki; Ohnishi, Noboru

    We propose a new multi-objective genetic programming (MOGP) for automatic construction of image feature extraction programs (FEPs). The proposed method was originated from a well known multi-objective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA), i.e., NSGA-II. The key differences are that redundancy-regulation mechanisms are applied in three main processes of the MOGP, i.e., population truncation, sampling, and offspring generation, to improve population diversity as well as convergence rate. Experimental results indicate that the proposed MOGP-based FEP construction system outperforms the two conventional MOEAs (i.e., NSGA-II and SPEA2) for a test problem. Moreover, we compared the programs constructed by the proposed MOGP with four human-designed object recognition programs. The results show that the constructed programs are better than two human-designed methods and are comparable with the other two human-designed methods for the test problem.

  18. 基于医院文化建设和团队精神培养的医院入职培训模式设计%Design on hospital pre-positive training formation based on the hospital culture construction and teamwork spirit training

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文京; 王霞; 张瑶

    2012-01-01

    The new staff pre-positive training plays a vital role in adapting new employees of different positions to the hospital working environment, and the medical working pressure. The author hopes to demonstrate that it can make newcomers adjust to the hospital culture more quickly by adding the courses of hospital culture and teamwork spirit into the new staff pre-positive training, besides, it can also make them get more effective communication, thereby improve the sense of belonging and cohesion of the new staff's.%医院的入职培训对于不同岗位的新职工适应医院的工作环境、适应医疗工作的压力,有着重要意义.笔者通过对不同模式的入职培训的比较分析,阐述了入职培训中加入医院文化和团队精神建设两方面内容,能使新职工更快地融入到医院文化当中,并促进新职工之间的积极沟通,从而提高新职工的归属感和凝聚力.

  19. Prepositioned Stocks: Additional Information and a Consistent Definition Would Make DOD’s Annual Report More Useful

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    reporting requirement.3 In our prior reports, we identified a number of long - term and ongoing challenges to DOD’s prepositioned stocks related to strategic...prepositioned stocks and the extent to which these shortfalls contribute to operational risk . View GAO-15-570. For more information, contact Cary Russell...shortfalls, Page 5 GAO-15-570 Prepositioned Stocks risks , and mitigation efforts. We also compared DOD’s definitions of prepositioning and

  20. 以介词为标记的句式信息组织原则及理据分析%An Analysis of the Information Organization Principle and Motivation for the Sentence Marked with Prepositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振来

    2012-01-01

    Word order is one of the most important Chinese grammar means. The basic order of Chinese is SVO. The marked preposition has no real word meaning and only have grammatical meaning, which can function as preposition introduction, transition and sentence forming in semantic functions. Some typical preposition marks can change the frame of Chinese order and preposition mark. "Ba" and "bei" can bring the object before the verb. The marked preposition for the principle of sentence information organization has two prominent characteristics: first, the agent and the patient can be placed before the verb; second, sentence often tends to highlight the result of action. This article, by application of marked theory, analy- zes the sentence marked with preposition for the information organization principle. We believe that there is a motive for engendering the preposition marked that preposition is a mark to differentiate between se- mantic roles, when the agent and the patient are placed before the verb. The composition of the sentence marked with preposition has motivation. It has prominent semantic features and forms a unique sentence characteristics.%语序是汉语最重要的语法手段之一,汉语的基本语序是SVO。介词标记没有实在的词汇意义,只有语法意义,在句法功能上起介引功能、衔接功能、构句功能等。而有些典型介词标记的使用可以改变汉语语序的格局,介词标记"把"、"被"等可以把宾语提到动词前,使句式格局发生变化,这种句式的突出特点是:一是使施事和受事置于动词前;二是句式往往突出动作的结果。说话者选用介词标记是有动因的,要求介词标记不仅要与句式语义相匹配,还要与语境相匹配。从句式结构上可以看出介词标记与句子其他成分之间的组合关系,这些成分的组合是有规律的,从认知角度探讨这些成分的组合规律,对外国人学习以介词为标记的句式大有裨益。

  1. Preposition Entries in UK Monolingual Learners' Dictionaries: Problems and Possible Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstromberg, Seth

    2001-01-01

    Presents a selective examination of the entries of the preposition "on" in five advanced learners' dictionaries published in the United Kingdom. The principal concern is the preposition "on" as a signifier of contact with a surface--especially an upper surface. (Author/VWL)

  2. Applying Cognitive Linguistics to Teaching the Spanish Prepositions "Por" and "Para"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Yvonne

    2009-01-01

    L2 prepositions are traditionally taught in a non-explanatory manner by having students learn each use individually. This study examines the effectiveness of an alternative explanatory approach based on cognitive linguistics, which considers the multiple uses of a preposition as related. Consequently, learners can be shown a general schema that…

  3. The Acquisition of Lexical Meaning in a Study Abroad Context: The Spanish Prepositions "por" and "para."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafford, Barbara A.; Ryan, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Examination of the development of form/function relations of the prepositions "por" and "para" at different levels of proficiency in the interlanguage of study-abroad students in Granada, Spain, revealed "noncanonical" as well as "canonical" uses of these prepositions. The most common noncanonical uses were…

  4. The Ability of Hearing Impaired Children to Comprehend the Semantics of English Prepositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluwin, Thomas N.

    Hearing impaired adolescents were administered one of four tests of syntax in preposition usage. Results indicated a clear developmental sequence: generally prepositions are first acquired in locative phrases, then as temporals, and then as manner relationships. The acquisition process is detailed. The author concludes that the complexity and…

  5. Efficiency potential of management and technical solutions for a construction object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lapidus Azariy Abramovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate the models of efficiency potential of management and technical solutions for a construction object, which allows accounting for the influence of management-technological and administrative solutions in the process of implementing construction project. The solutions are represented by various factors – solitary integral potentials. The factors, which should be taken into account in the process of developing an integral model, are: development of general contracting structure, project decisions, management decisions, administrative decisions and ecological impact. In is necessary to develop the model, which will integrally put together the above mentioned factors of a construction project, observe and investigate other factors, create a model and get the opportunity not only to predict the endpoint of the future construction object on the stage of formulating technological requirements, but also to monitor the changes of this prognosis in time. The parameters of the integral potential will allow the system to obtain flexibility, which makes it possible to adjust to the changes usually taking place on a construction object and at the same time to aim for optimization of organizational, technological and administrative solutions in the process of reaching endpoint of construction.

  6. Object Detection for Agricultural and Construction Environments Using an Ultrasonic Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, J S; Stone, M L; Self, K P

    2016-04-01

    This study tested an ultrasonic sensor's ability to detect several objects commonly encountered in outdoor agricultural or construction environments: a water jug, a sheet of oriented strand board (OSB), a metalfence post, a human model, a wooden fence post, a Dracaena plant, a juniper plant, and a dog model. Tests were performed with each target object at distances from 0.01 to 3 m. Five tests were performed with each object at each location, and the sensor's ability to detect the object during each test was categorized as "undetected," "intermittent," "incorrect distance," or "good." Rigid objects that presented a larger surface area to the sensor, such as the water jug and OSB, were better detected than objects with a softer surface texture, which were occasionally not detected as the distance approached 3 m. Objects with extremely soft surface texture, such as the dog model, could be undetected at almost any distance from the sensor. The results of this testing should help designers offuture systems for outdoor environments, as the target objects tested can be found in nearly any agricultural or construction environment.

  7. Quality assessment in in vivo NMR spectroscopy: III. Clinical test objects: design, construction, and solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leach, M.O.; Collins, D.J.; Keevil, S

    1995-01-01

    Based on the requirements of test protocols developed to evaluate clinical MRS single slice and volume localisation sequences, two clinical test objects, STO1 and STO2 have been developed. The properties of a range of potential construction materials have been assessed, demonstrating that the water...

  8. The acquisition of prepositions in Serbian: Factors and mechanisms of development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Maja

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The study proceeds from the results of the previous studies showing that the distributional characteristics (frequency of language input are crucial for the acquisition of prepositions (Savić & Anđelković, 2005, in preparation. The authors analyze deviations in the distribution of prepositions in children's spontaneous speech from the prediction made on the basis of the distributional characteristics of prepositions in adult language. The results show that, in comparison with adult language, only the prepositions "kod" (at, by, near, beside and "sa" (with, from, off deviate from the prediction. It was also found out that the unexpectedly early and frequent use of the preposition "kod" in child speech stemmed from the frequent use of this preposition in child-directed speech. On the other hand, the preposition "sa", which is very frequent in child-directed speech, is not present in children's production at the earliest age, because its homonymy makes it cognitively complex. The analysis of the reasons for such a deviation provided a basis for the discussion about the possible factors and mechanisms of development: the distributional characteristics of adult language are the major factor of acquisition, but the effects of conceptual and structural complexity were recorded as well.

  9. PRINCIPLES, STAGES AND OBJECTIVES OF FORMATION OF INNOVATIVE DEVELOPMENT PATTERNS AT CONSTRUCTION ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhaylov Valeriy Yurevich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the results of the research performed in the field of innovative development of enterprises are provided, and the main principles and the content of each stage of innovative development of construction enterprises in the new economic environment are developed on the basis of the research. Actions, proposed in the article, will ensure the implementation of the strategy of innovative development with a view to effective attainment of objectives of case management and successful adaptation of construction enterprises to altering factors of the media.

  10. Knowledge sharing in construction partnering projects - redundancy, boundary objects and brokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Thuesen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    common assignment of meaning, brokers (e.g., design managers), boundary objects (e.g., drawings) and arenas (e.g., meetings). The paper presents an ethnographic case study of a project partnership between engineers, architects and contractors in construction using the partnering concept. The focus......, multiple memberships and different levels of participation, and accompanied by a governance frame. The paper discusses central mechanisms for coordinating knowledge in such a complex construction project. The knowledge relations are conceptualised through focusing on redundancy, understood as negotiated...

  11. Construction and validation of a virtual learning object on intestinal elimination stoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecílio Soares Rodrigues Braga

    Full Text Available Objective.To construct and validate a virtual learning object (VLO on intestinal elimination stoma. Methods. Applied, descriptive and quantitative study. In 2014, eight stoma therapists and eight experts in computer science took part of the research. The VLO included four steps: i planning, ii construction of VLO and changes of content; iii development of dynamic, and iv conclusion and analysis. The VLO was inserted into the Moodle virtual learning environment. The ergonomic and pedagogical validation of the VLO was performed. Results. The experts appreciated the VLO satisfactorily, and scored it between good and full agreement. Conclusion. The VLO on intestinal elimination stoma is a tool that can be implemented at undergraduate programs in nursing and continuing education programs for nurses in clinical practice, contributing significantly to improve the theoretical skills necessary for the care of ostomized people safely, with quality and enabling self-care.

  12. From observing to constructing the Object in etnographic investigation: fieldwork on "botellón"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Jesús Sánchez Hernández

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In the professional career of any anthropologist there is the inevitable rite of passage of fieldwork and later ethnographic writing; the following illustrates the development of the process in the construction of the object from the perspective of the student who, for the first time, has to face the task of defining and limiting the scope of her investigation: the phenomenon of “botellón” (public drinking in two Spanish cities.

  13. 轮机英语中介词的语义动化%Semantic Verbalization of Prepositions in Marine Engineering English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾玉莲

    2011-01-01

    语义范畴的转换,尤其是由静态到动态的转换,是英语介词与汉语介词的重要区别之一。工科专业英语对简洁度和准确度的特别要求使得轮机英语中大量存在语义动化的介词。这些介词在语义指涉、句法功能、翻译方法、所接宾语等方面存在一定的特点,了解这些特点有助于学生更加准确理解并灵活运用轮机英语。%The shift of semantic domain,especially the shift from static to dynamic,makes a distinction between English prepositions and Chinese ones.Special requirement for concision and accuracy by ESP results in the massive presence of verbalized prepositions in marine engineering English.These prepositions have some characteristics regarding semantic reference,syntactic function,translation methods and following objects.Learning about these characteristics may help marine engineering majors to gain a more comprehensive knowledge and a better command of marine engineering English.

  14. Prepositional Phrase Attachment through a Backed-Off Model

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, M; Collins, Michael; Brooks, James

    1995-01-01

    Recent work has considered corpus-based or statistical approaches to the problem of prepositional phrase attachment ambiguity. Typically, ambiguous verb phrases of the form {v np1 p np2} are resolved through a model which considers values of the four head words (v, n1, p and n2). This paper shows that the problem is analogous to n-gram language models in speech recognition, and that one of the most common methods for language modeling, the backed-off estimate, is applicable. Results on Wall Street Journal data of 84.5% accuracy are obtained using this method. A surprising result is the importance of low-count events - ignoring events which occur less than 5 times in training data reduces performance to 81.6%.

  15. A double dissociation between the meanings of action verbs and locative prepositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerer, David; Tranel, Daniel

    2003-10-01

    Abstract We describe two patients who manifested opposite patterns of performance on test batteries that evaluated production, comprehension, and semantic analysis of action verbs on the one hand (e.g. smile, wave, run ) and locative prepositions on the other (e.g. in, on, over ). JP failed all of the verb tests but passed all of the preposition tests, suggesting impaired knowledge of the meanings of action verbs but intact knowledge of the meanings of locative prepositions. In contrast, RR exhibited the reverse dissociation: he passed many of the verb tests but failed all of the preposition tests, suggesting mostly intact knowledge of the meanings of action verbs but impaired knowledge of the meanings of locative prepositions. This behavioral double dissociation reflects the fact that the two categories of words differ along several conceptual parameters. To a large extent, the patients exhibited a neuroanatomical double dissociation as well, since JP's lesion is predominantly in the left frontal operculum whereas RR's is predominantly in the left inferior parietal lobe and the posterior superior temporal region. This constitutes preliminary evidence that the meanings of action verbs and locative prepositions are represented by partially independent neural networks in the brain.

  16. Effects of animation on naming and identification across two graphic symbol sets representing verbs and prepositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Ralf W; Koul, Rajinder; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Brock, Kristofer; Harmon, Ashley; Moerlein, Dorothy; Hearn, Emilia

    2014-10-01

    The effects of animation on naming and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were studied in 2 graphic symbol sets in preschoolers. Using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 completely randomized block design, preschoolers across three age groups were randomly assigned to combinations of symbol set (Autism Language Program [ALP] Animated Graphics or Picture Communication Symbols [PCS]), symbol format (animated or static), and word class (verbs or prepositions). Children were asked to name symbols and to identify a target symbol from an array given the spoken label. Animated symbols were more readily named than static symbols, although this was more pronounced for verbs than for prepositions. ALP symbols were named more accurately than PCS in particular with prepositions. Animation did not facilitate identification. ALP symbols for prepositions were identified better than PCS, but there was no difference for verbs. Finally, older children guessed and identified symbols more effectively than younger children. Animation improves the naming of graphic symbols for verbs. For prepositions, ALP symbols are named more accurately and are more readily identifiable than PCS. Naming and identifying symbols are learned skills that develop over time. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.

  17. Aspects of transport transit hubs construction management in coordination with object lifecycle projecting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilina Nina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article involves the results of the research in the field of the initial phase in the project of the object lifecycle for urban public transportation transit hubs (TTH. The main purpose is to provide definition and justification of area parameters for spatial solution of a hub with consideration of its construction viability and sustainability of urban development. In the article there are presented the results of analytical studies of the data available in the approved Planning documentation for TTH objects listed in the short-term program of TTH construction in Moscow. The point of interest was to obtain correlations between the total area of TTH area, areas of commercial and technological use and passenger traffic value in order to define territory balance providing request from city authorities and private investors for construction project management. Also, there is presented the theoretical model as an evaluation guide that allows evaluating not only the demand of a city and its population in the development of TTH territory but also and especially the requirements for placing commercial areas inside TTH.

  18. ECONOMIC SUBSTANTIATION OF REAL INVESTMENTS IN CONSTRUCTION OF OBJECTS OF SPHERE OF SERVICES IN A COUNTRYSIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. V. Belozertseva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of opportunities of construction of the enterprises of sphere of services in a countryside in Southern Dagestan is lead. Features and requirements to designing the enterprises of sphere of services in a countryside are considered {examined}. The four-stage concentric model of rational territorial accommodation of the enterprises of sphere of services and the author's approach to an estimation of efficiency of investment civil-engineering designs of objects of sphere of services in a countryside are offered.

  19. Study of capability of microorganisms to develop on construction materials used in space objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakova, N.; Svistunova, Y.; Novikova, N.

    One of the most topical issues nowadays in the whole set of space research is the study of microbiological risks (medical, technical, technological). Experiments held onboard MIR station and International Space Station (ISS) clearly demonstrated capacity of microorganisms to contaminate the environment, equipment and belonging of habitual compartments of space objects. In this connection microorganisms-biodestructors play an important role. In their vital functioning they are capable of causing biological damage of different polymers, biocorrosion of metals which can lead to serious difficulties in performing long-term flights, namely the planned mission to Mars. Our purpose was to study capability of growth and reproduction of microorganisms on construction materials of various chemical composition as the first stage of biodestruction process. In our research we used "flight" strains of bacteria (Bacillus subtilus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Pseudomonas pumilus etc.) recovered from the ISS environment in several missions. For control we used "earth" bacteria species with typical properties. To model the environment of the ISS we took construction materials which are widely used in the interior and equipment of the ISS. The results we've obtained show that some microorganisms are capable of living and reproducing themselves on construction materials and their capability is more pronounced than that of the "earth" species. The best capability for growth and reproduction was characteristic of Bacillus subtilus.

  20. Two ways of encoding location in Greek: Locative applicatives and prepositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelia Daskalaki

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cross-linguistically, oblique theta roles such as location can be encoded by both adpositions and applicative morphemes. In this paper we argue that Standard Modern Greek (SMG, a language that encodes location primarily with prepositions, has a set of morphologically complex predicates that consist of an intransitive verbal root and a locative prefix, and behave like locative applicative constructions. We argue that this prefix is a low applicative head, licensing the addition of a locative DP argument to the intransitive verbal root. Specifically, this applicative head: (i case-and theta-licenses the added argument, but being void of phi-features, it blocks its cliticization; (ii is distinct from a homophonous free standing P semantically and syntactically; (iii is undergoing grammaticalization, as evidenced by the emergence of a novel configuration, in which the locative predicates combine with locative PPs that retrieve semantic and syntactic information of the locative prefix. Our findings show that applicatives may come in various flavors, that a language may use both analytic and synthetic devices to encode location which are not derivationally related, and that lexical/inherent case does not necessarily reduce to a PP structure.

  1. Country Selection Model for Sustainable Construction Businesses Using Hybrid of Objective and Subjective Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Wook Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available An important issue for international businesses and academia is selecting countries in which to expand in order to achieve entrepreneurial sustainability. This study develops a country selection model for sustainable construction businesses using both objective and subjective information. The objective information consists of 14 variables related to country risk and project performance in 32 countries over 25 years. This hybrid model applies subjective weighting from industrial experts to objective information using a fuzzy LinPreRa-based Analytic Hierarchy Process. The hybrid model yields a more accurate country selection compared to a purely objective information-based model in experienced countries. Interestingly, the hybrid model provides some different predictions with only subjective opinions in unexperienced countries, which implies that expert opinion is not always reliable. In addition, feedback from five experts in top international companies is used to validate the model’s completeness, effectiveness, generality, and applicability. The model is expected to aid decision makers in selecting better candidate countries that lead to sustainable business success.

  2. Development of an example flow test object and comparison of five of these test objects, constructed in various laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teirlinck, C.J.P.M.; Bezemer, R.A.; Kollmann, C.; Lubbers, J.; Hoskins, P.R.; Fish, P.; Fredfeldt, K.-E.; Schaarschmidt, U.G.

    1998-01-01

    Doppler test objects are used to characterise Doppler systems, both stand-alone systems and the Doppler part of so-called duplex scanners. The aim of the project partially presented here is the development and validation of an example of a Doppler test object fulfilling the requirements of the IEC

  3. Development of an example flow test object and comparison of five of these test objects, constructed in various laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teirlinck, C.J.P.M.; Bezemer, R.A.; Kollmann, C.; Lubbers, J.; Hoskins, P.R.; Fish, P.; Fredfeldt, K.-E.; Schaarschmidt, U.G.

    1998-01-01

    Doppler test objects are used to characterise Doppler systems, both stand-alone systems and the Doppler part of so-called duplex scanners. The aim of the project partially presented here is the development and validation of an example of a Doppler test object fulfilling the requirements of the IEC 1

  4. Data on construction and architechture of cult objects in Drino’s valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melsi Labi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Drino’s valley is one of the richest areas with cult objects, which are a valuable treasure of our cultural heritage. The first early Christian churches date back to the 4-th century. Their construction is related to the spread of Christianity in the Albanian territory. In the first half of the 5-th century construction has been limited because of the barbarian invasions, and during the second half of the 5-th century and the beginning of the 6-th century Early Christian churches had a wide extension. Early Christian churches were built not only through early Episcopal centres but also in rural settlements. Archaeological discoveries have brought to light a large number of early Christian churches, out of which we can judge the architectural development of that period. A wide use during the early Christian period had the three-nave basilicas and one-nave churches. From what can be judged from the ruins left, the architectonic decorative treatment of early Christian churches has been very simple. Decorative ornaments were mainly inside the churches (Chalkiá, 1997, 10-11. Early Christian monuments of the IV-VI centuries, being considered in typological terms are divided into: one-nave basilicas and churches. Early Christian churches were built with simple walls and raw stones, which were related to each other with lime mortar, using a number of bricks. Early Christian builders knew very well physical laws on balance of the columns and arcades. From the chronological aspect, the early Christian churches are constructions of the second half of the 5-th century and the first half of 4-th century

  5. Translation of Rhetoric in Arabic Preposition in The Text of Al-Qur’an

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azman Che Mat

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Preposition was a word that completes the meaning of the verb and noun in the sentence structure of Arabic. The use of prepositions in Arabic was truly significant in understanding the Arabic text, especially holy texts. The question was why prepositions were used in sentences such, whereas the other joints could also give the same meaning? Article presented an analysis of syntax-semantics of prepositions في Fi and علىcAla in al-Quran al-Karim across science of Arabic rhetoric (Balagha. Data were restricted to partial phrase في الضلال and على الهدى ever discussed by Ibn Athir. There are 29 places in the Quran that mention في الضلال and 6 points for على الهدى. Critical analysis based on the discipline of linguistics is expected to expose the use of prepositions in Arabic from the precision and beauty of the Arabic language itself. Summary of the study suggest that research on elements of the rhetoric says that other reasonable tasks highlighted in subsequent studies. 

  6. The Role of Prepositioned Stocks: Sustaining and Responding to Foreign Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief (HADR) Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-12

    Disaster Assistance PREPO Prepositioned stocks SCM Supply Chain Management STRAT AIR Strategic Airlift STRAT SEA Strategic Sealift UN...prepositioning sources. Important outcomes of this examination identify advantages and disadvantages of logistical enablers i.e. supply chain management and...interest to the study. Furthermore, the case studies recognized above continues to identify the advantages and disadvantages associated with HADR

  7. Language Expression Means of the Conceptual Category "Relation" with Derivative Prepositions in Modern English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Kameneva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the revealing of the essence of language and cognitive processes behind the secondary nomination of expression of the conceptual category of «attitude» by derivative prepositions in modern English. The study addresses the issue of formation of prepositions in the diachronic aspect, as well as their status in the general classification of parts of speech in modern linguistics, deals with the phenomenon of secondary nomination, described by semantic features data implying the method of cognitive modeling, namely propositional modeling method.

  8. Constructal optimization for geometry of cavity by taking entransy dissipation minimization as objective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The entransy dissipation extremum principle provides new warranty and criterion for optimization of heat transfer.For two cases(body with heat generation and body heated externally)of a solid conducting wall with an open cavity,a dimensionless equivalent thermal resistance based on entransy dissipation definition was taken as the optimization objective to optimize the model constructal ge- ometry.Numerical results validated the necessity and feasibility of the presented method.Comparisons of the numerical results based on minimization of dimensionless maximum thermal resistance and minimization of dimensionless equivalent thermal resistance,respectively,showed that there was no obvious difference between the two results when the volume fractionΦoccupied by cavity was small, but the difference between the two results increased with the increases ofΦand the body aspect ratio H/L for any model.The optimal cavities for bodies heated externally were more slender than those for bodies with heat generation.Heat origin had obvious effect on the global performance of heat transfer. The entransy dissipation of body heated externally increased 2―3 times than that of body with heat generation,indicating that the global performance of heat transfer weakened.The method presented herein provides some guidelines for some relevant thermal design problems.

  9. Construct Validity of an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in Psychiatry: Associations with the Clinical Skills Examination and Other Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Robin S.; Chibnall, John T.; Blaskiewicz, Robert J.; Furman, Gail E.; Powell, Jill K.; Mohr, Clinton J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The construct validity of checklist and global process scores for an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in psychiatry was assessed. Multiple regression analysis was used to predict psychiatry OSCE scores from the clinical skills examination, an obstetrics/gynecology (OB/GYN) OSCE, and the National Board of Medical…

  10. System for conversion between the boundary representation model and a constructive solid geometry model of an object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Noel C.; Emery, James D.; Smith, Maurice L.

    1988-04-05

    A system converts from the boundary representation of an object to the constructive solid geometry representation thereof. The system converts the boundary representation of the object into elemental atomic geometrical units or I-bodies which are in the shape of stock primitives or regularized intersections of stock primitives. These elemental atomic geometrical units are then represented in symbolic form. The symbolic representations of the elemental atomic geometrical units are then assembled heuristically to form a constructive solid geometry representation of the object usable for manufacturing thereof. Artificial intelligence is used to determine the best constructive solid geometry representation from the boundary representation of the object. Heuristic criteria are adapted to the manufacturing environment for which the device is to be utilized. The surface finish, tolerance, and other information associated with each surface of the boundary representation of the object are mapped onto the constructive solid geometry representation of the object to produce an enhanced solid geometry representation, particularly useful for computer-aided manufacture of the object.

  11. A Constructivist View of Teaching——Taking Preposition “at” as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓惠

    2015-01-01

    Language is a dynamically evolving system. A word in its long development will little increasingly extend from a simplex meaning to a number of meanings,resulting in what is generally referred to as lexical polysemy. How to learn these words effectively? In this paper,a constructivist view of teaching and corpus were used to present how to teaching preposition effectively.

  12. More on the Acquisition of Locative Prepositions: An Analysis of Hebrew Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dromi, Esther

    1979-01-01

    The acquisition and use of locative prepositions by 30 Hebrew-speaking children aged two to three years was investigated in a cross-sectional study. Both the order of acquisition and the role of linguistic complexity in determining that order were examined. (Author/AM)

  13. Effects of Animation on Naming and Identification across Two Graphic Symbol Sets Representing Verbs and Prepositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Ralf W.; Koul, Rajinder; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Brock, Kristofer; Harmon, Ashley; Moerlein, Dorothy; Hearn, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of animation on naming and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were studied in 2 graphic symbol sets in preschoolers. Method: Using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 completely randomized block design, preschoolers across three age groups were randomly assigned to combinations of symbol set (Autism Language Program…

  14. Animation of Graphic Symbols Representing Verbs and Prepositions: Effects on Transparency, Name Agreement, and Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Ralf W.; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Koul, Rajinder; Bloomfield, Emma; Debrowski, Lisa; DeLuca, Tim; Miller, Stephanie; Schneider, Danielle; Neff, Allison

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of animation on transparency, name agreement, and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were evaluated in preschoolers of 3 age groups. Methods: A mixed-group design was used; in each age group, half of the children were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 orders of symbol formats. The 52 children were asked to…

  15. Animation of graphic symbols representing verbs and prepositions: effects on transparency, name agreement, and identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Ralf W; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Koul, Rajinder; Bloomfield, Emma; Debrowski, Lisa; DeLuca, Tim; Miller, Stephanie; Schneider, Danielle; Neff, Allison

    2012-04-01

    The effects of animation on transparency, name agreement, and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were evaluated in preschoolers of 3 age groups. Methods A mixed-group design was used; in each age group, half of the children were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 orders of symbol formats. The 52 children were asked to guess the meaning of symbols and to identify a target symbol among foils given the spoken label. Animated symbols were more transparent than static symbols, although this was more pronounced for verbs. Animated verbs were named more accurately than static verbs, but there was no difference between animated and static prepositions. Verbs were identified more accurately compared with prepositions, but there was no difference between symbol formats. Older children guessed, named, and identified symbols more effectively than younger children. Animation enhances transparency and name agreement, especially for verbs, which reduces the instructional burden that comes with nontransparent symbols. Animation does not enhance identification accuracy. Verbs are easier to identify than prepositions. A developmental effect was observed for each measure. Limitations and implications for future research are discussed.

  16. Adding and Subtracting Alternation: Resumption and Prepositional Phrase Chopping in Spanish Relative Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerron-Palomino Lopez, Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is a variationist account of two non-standard relative clause (RC) structures in Spanish: resumptive pronouns (RPs) and prepositional-phrase (PP) chopping. Previous typological studies considered RP explanations based on difficulty of processing (Hawkins, 1994), while Spanish-specific quantitative studies proposed a number of…

  17. Effects of Animation on Naming and Identification across Two Graphic Symbol Sets Representing Verbs and Prepositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Ralf W.; Koul, Rajinder; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Brock, Kristofer; Harmon, Ashley; Moerlein, Dorothy; Hearn, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of animation on naming and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were studied in 2 graphic symbol sets in preschoolers. Method: Using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 completely randomized block design, preschoolers across three age groups were randomly assigned to combinations of symbol set (Autism Language Program…

  18. Animation of Graphic Symbols Representing Verbs and Prepositions: Effects on Transparency, Name Agreement, and Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Ralf W.; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Koul, Rajinder; Bloomfield, Emma; Debrowski, Lisa; DeLuca, Tim; Miller, Stephanie; Schneider, Danielle; Neff, Allison

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of animation on transparency, name agreement, and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were evaluated in preschoolers of 3 age groups. Methods: A mixed-group design was used; in each age group, half of the children were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 orders of symbol formats. The 52 children were asked to…

  19. The Effect of Written Corrective Feedback on Omani Students’ Accuracy in the Use of English Prepositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Ali Saleh Al Ajmi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A quasi-experimental study was conducted to examin the effectiveness of providing written corrective feedback (WCF to Arab speakers of English on ten uses of English prepositions. Arab speakers commonly find it difficult to correctly use English propositions, mainly due to the differences between the two languages (e.g. Ortega, 2009. Examples of prepositions misuse are “married from,” “die from,” and “kind with.” The WCF implementation lasted for seven weeks.  The students’ being in intact classes made random assignments to different groups difficult. The data were derived from three tests: pre-test, immediate post-test and delayed post-test as well as an open-ended questionnaire. The experimental group (n= 25 received WCF on their writing, oral meta-linguistic tutorials, and a treatment task for their pre-test. For both the immediate post-test and the delayed post-test, they only received WCF on their writings. The control group (n= 25 only received general comments, like “good organization of the story events.” The statistical results of the independent samples t-test show the experimental group outperforming the control group on the target features. The analysis of the questionnaire data also shows the benefits of WCF for improving preposition use. The results also have pedagogical implications with regard to WCF. Keywords: WCF, writing, prepositions, students’ views, Arabic, EFL

  20. Restricted Object Use in Young Children with Autism: Definition and Construct Validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Cornelia Taylor; Yoder, Paul

    2007-01-01

    There are currently no measures of restricted object use in young children with autism. In this study the object play of 27 young children with autism was measured in a semi-structured context to quantify restricted object use. It was hypothesized that children who engaged in less restricted object use would show better responding, joint…

  1. A Study on the Diachronic Evolution of the Instrumental Prepositions%工具义介词的历时演变研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军

    2014-01-01

    介词在句法系统中占有重要地位,但是在不同的语言中介词的数量和虚化程度是不同的。介词主要由动词语法化而来,尤其是赋元动词。“以”、“用”、“持”、“取”、“捉”、“著”、“将”、“把”、“拿”、“使”这十个介词都是在连谓结构中由动词虚化而来,它们的宾语经常是工具成分,所以称之为工具义介词。这十个介词在相同的句法结构中标记相同的成分,但是它们的出现时间、发展过程以及发展结果都不尽相同。“以”和“用”产生最早,持续时间最长,“以”直到清代后期才消失,而“用”至今还在广泛使用。“持”在西汉萌芽,“取、捉、著、将”出现在中古汉语阶段;“把、使、拿”在唐宋时期才出现,相对较晚。除了“用”之外,其他介词存在的时间长短不一,但是最终都没有在普通话中保存下来,“捉、使、拿”在方言中仍有使用。%The prepositions occupy an important position in the syntactic system,but in different lan-guages the number of the prepositions and the degree of grammaticalization are different. Chinese has not rich morphological changes,so word order and function words occupy an important position. The prepositions mainly come from the grammaticalized verbs,especially role-assigning verbs. For exam-ple,“Yi”,“Yong”,“Chi”,“Qu”,“Zhuo”,“Zhe”,“Jiang”,“Ba”,“Na”and“Shi”are all from the verb blur in the continuous predicate structure,their objects are often the tool of components,so we call them tool meaning prepositions. Although these ten prepositions in the same syntax structure marK the same composition,their time of occurrence,the development process and the development results are different.“Yi”and“Yong”produce the earliest,the longest,“Yi”didn’t disappear until the late Qing Dynasty,and“Yong”are still widely used

  2. IMPLEMENTATION STRATEGY INNOVATIVE OF THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION BASED ON INFORMATION MODELING OF INDUSTRIAL AND CIVIL OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Валерий Владимирович Трофимов

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the implementation of the Russian construction industry innovative development strategies based on information modeling of industrial and civil objects with the use of information technology. The use of such technologies as the BIM: Building Information modeling - BIM, 4D modeling, Multi-D modeling, Product LiveCycle Management - PLM, allows to activate innovative processes and supports the basic condition for the realization of innovative strategy of development of the construction industry of the Russian Federation.

  3. Constructing a graph of connections in clustering algorithm of complex objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Татьяна Шатовская

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the results of modifying the algorithm Chameleon. Hierarchical multi-level algorithm consists of several phases: the construction of the count, coarsening, the separation and recovery. Each phase can be used various approaches and algorithms. The main aim of the work is to study the quality of the clustering of different sets of data using a set of algorithms combinations at different stages of the algorithm and improve the stage of construction by the optimization algorithm of k choice in the graph construction of k of nearest neighbors

  4. MRI reporting by radiographers: The construction of an objective structured examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, K.J. [Allied Health Professions Department, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, Kent CT1 1QU (United Kingdom)], E-mail: k.j.piper@canterbury.ac.uk; Buscall, K.L. [Allied Health Professions Department, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, Kent CT1 1QU (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-15

    Purpose: The aim was to construct a bank of general magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) investigations where good agreement was demonstrated between three independent radiological reports. The bank was subsequently to be used to assess radiographers' ability to accurately report at the end of an accredited programme; Postgraduate Certificate (PgC) Clinical Reporting (MRI-General Investigations). Method: Eighty-seven examinations (33 knee, 36 lumbar spine and 18 internal auditory meatus-IAM) were initially reported by two radiologists. Seventy-two of these examinations (25 knee, 29 lumbar spine and 18 IAM) were subsequently reported by a third radiologist. Interobserver agreement was assessed by estimating the total, positive and negative % agreement rates; and by use of the weighted or unweighted kappa values. Knee reports were analysed for meniscal tears, and degenerative meniscus (264 meniscal sites); ligament injury (ACL; PCL; MCI; and LCL; 132 ligament sites); bone bruise; effusion; fracture and/or osteochondral defect. Lumbar spine reports were analysed for disc morphology (bulge, protrusion, extrusion and/or annular tear-180 intervertebral disc levels); degenerative disc disease; Modic endplate changes; cord compression; spinal stenosis; nerve root involvement; vertebral collapse, primary tumour or metastases; and other incidental findings. IAM reports were analysed for acoustic neuroma and vascular loop. Results: Agreement in the knee reports varied mainly between moderate ({kappa} = 0.46) for ligament injury to very good [almost perfect] ({kappa} = 0.86) for meniscal tears, although agreement for degenerative meniscus was only fair ({kappa} = 0.3). Variation in the lumbar spine reports ranged predominantly between moderate ({kappa} = 0.54) for disc bulge/protrusion to fair ({kappa} = 0.32) for Modic endplate changes to good [substantial] ({kappa} = 0.79) for tumour/metastases. Agreement for the presence of acoustic neuroma was very good [almost perfect

  5. Constructing a Validity Argument for the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS): A Systematic Review of Validity Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatala, Rose; Cook, David A.; Brydges, Ryan; Hawkins, Richard

    2015-01-01

    In order to construct and evaluate the validity argument for the Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS), based on Kane's framework, we conducted a systematic review. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, Web of Science, Scopus, and selected reference lists through February 2013. Working in duplicate, we selected…

  6. Multi-objective evolutionary optimization for constructing neural networks for virtual reality visual data mining: application to geophysical prospecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Julio J; Barton, Alan J

    2007-05-01

    A method for the construction of virtual reality spaces for visual data mining using multi-objective optimization with genetic algorithms on nonlinear discriminant (NDA) neural networks is presented. Two neural network layers (the output and the last hidden) are used for the construction of simultaneous solutions for: (i) a supervised classification of data patterns and (ii) an unsupervised similarity structure preservation between the original data matrix and its image in the new space. A set of spaces are constructed from selected solutions along the Pareto front. This strategy represents a conceptual improvement over spaces computed by single-objective optimization. In addition, genetic programming (in particular gene expression programming) is used for finding analytic representations of the complex mappings generating the spaces (a composition of NDA and orthogonal principal components). The presented approach is domain independent and is illustrated via application to the geophysical prospecting of caves.

  7. Neutral Object Tree Support For Inter-Discipline Communication In Large-Scale Construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolman, P.F.; Van Nederveen, S.

    2001-01-01

    Communication between disciplines in building and construction can be improved significantly by the proper use of Information and Communication Technology. For that reason, many research groups have been trying to achieve such improvement, especially by using Product Data Technology and STEP, and mo

  8. Specifics of system of external influences on the life cycle of a construction object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksanin Aleksander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a very important issue today which includes the harmonious and effective development of the system ‘man –environment’. Construction is a branch of material production, which has a significant negative impact on the world around us. It is necessary to plan and operate processes of construction at all stages of the life cycle of a building without exception, to prevent of ecological threats. The article describes the concept of ‘life cycle’ as applied to various fields of knowledge, analyzes existing in the scientific literature division of the life cycle of buildings in the periods, proposes own approach to the division of periods of the life cycle on the basis of resource-saving. The article proposes the creation of a unified organizational system for the effective management of all periods with the constituent phases and formulates the main external influences on the building life cycle.

  9. A multi-objective genetic algorithm model for time-cost trade-off analysis of construction projects

    OpenAIRE

    Senouci, Ahmed; Al-Derham, Hassan R.

    2006-01-01

    Time-cost trade-off analysis is one of the most important aspects of construction project planning and control. There are trade-offs between time and cost to complete the activities of a project. Existing methods for time-cost trade-off analysis are not efficient enough to solve large-scale CPM networks (hundreds of activities or more). This paper presents an advanced and robust multi-objective genetic algorithm model for the time-cost trade-off analysis of construction projects. The model al...

  10. “Volume-Point” heat conduction constructal optimization with entransy dissipation minimization objective based on rectangular element

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    By taking equivalent thermal resistance, which reflects the average heat conduc- tion effect and is defined based on entransy dissipation, as optimization objective, the "volume to point" constructal problem of how to discharge the heat generated in a fixed volume to a heat sink on the border through relatively high conductive link is re-analyzed and re-optimized in this paper. The constructal shape of the control volume with the best average heat conduction effect is deduced. For the elemental area and the first order construct assembly, when the thermal current density in the high conductive link is linear with the length, the optimized shapes of assemble based on the minimization of entransy dissipation are the same as those based on minimization of maximum temperature difference, and the mean tem- perature difference is 2/3 of the maximum temperature difference. For the second and higher order construct assemblies, the thermal current densities in the high conductive link are not linear with the length, and the optimized shapes of assem- ble based on the minimization of entransy dissipation are different from those based on minimization of maximum temperature difference. For the same parame- ters, the constructs based on minimization of entransy dissipation and the con- structs based on minimization of maximum temperature difference are compared, and the results show that the constructs based on entransy dissipation can de- crease the mean temperature difference better than the constructs based on mini- mization of maximum temperature difference. But with the increase of the number of the order, the mean temperature difference does not always decrease, and there exist some fluctuations. Because the idea of entransy describes the heat transfer ability more suitably, all of the heat conduction constructal problems may be re-optimized based on it.

  11. Eye movement suppression interferes with construction of object-centered spatial reference frames in working memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Kristensen, Line Burholt; Olsen, Jacob Hedeager

    2011-01-01

    of an object-centered, rather than egocentric, spatial reference frame. In this behavioral experiment we wanted to demonstrate a causal relationship between eye movement control and manipulation of spatial reference frames. Sixty two participants recalled either spatial ("Was X in front of Y?") or non...... were significantly slower for spatial relations with distraction while there was no effect on non-spatial relations. There was no effect on accuracy, i.e. WM maintenance. This is consistent with the hypothesis that in spatial representations the FEFs are involved in WM content manipulation......, such as establishing an object-centered spatial frame of reference....

  12. Prepositioned Materiel and Equipment: DOD Would Benefit from Developing Strategic Guidance and Improving Joint Oversight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    analysis by having two analysts independently compare the prepositioned materiel and equipment information in DOD’s fiscal year 2011 report with the 12...Source: GAO analysis . We assessed five of the elements as being addressed because the information provided in the report was responsive to the...report did not include Air Force munitions, auxiliary fuel tanks, missile launchers, pylons, ejector racks, and adapters, medical stocks, fuel, and

  13. Learning to Appraise the Quality of Qualitative Research Articles: A Contextualized Learning Object for Constructing Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenail, Ronald J.

    2011-01-01

    Helping beginning qualitative researchers critically appraise qualitative research articles is a common learning objective for introductory methodology courses. To aid students in achieving competency in appraising the quality of qualitative research articles, a multi-part activity incorporating the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme's (CASP)…

  14. How job demands, resources, and burnout predict objective performance: a constructive replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Arnold B; Van Emmerik, Hetty; Van Riet, Pim

    2008-07-01

    The present study uses the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007) to examine how job characteristics and burnout (exhaustion and cynicism) contribute to explaining variance in objective team performance. A central assumption in the model is that working characteristics evoke two psychologically different processes. In the first process, job demands lead to constant psychological overtaxing and in the long run to exhaustion. In the second process, a lack of job resources precludes actual goal accomplishment, leading to cynicism. In the present study these two processes were used to predict objective team performance. A total of 176 employees from a temporary employment agency completed questionnaires on job characteristics and burnout. These self-reports were linked to information from the company's management information system about teams' (N=71) objective sales performance (actual sales divided by the stated objectives) during the 3 months after the questionnaire data collection period. The results of structural equation modeling analyses did not support the hypothesis that exhaustion mediates the relationship between job demands and performance, but confirmed that cynicism mediates the relationship between job resources and performance suggesting that work conditions influence performance particularly through the attitudinal component of burnout.

  15. Towards a syntactic analysis of European Portuguese cognate objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celda Morgado Choupina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper aims at discussing selected syntactic aspects of cognate objects in European Portuguese, along the lines of Distributed Morphology (Haugen, 2009. Cognate objects may be readily discovered in numerous human languages, including European Portuguese (Chovia uma chuva miudinha. It is assumed in papers devoted to their English counterparts that they belong to various subclasses. Indeed, some of them are genuine cognates (to sleep a sleep... or hyponyms (to dance a jig; Hale & Keyser, 2002. It turns out that in European Portuguese, they can be split into four different categories: (i genuine cognate objects (chorar um choro..., (ii similar cognate objects (dançar uma dança (iii objects hyponyms (dançar um tango and (iv prepositional cognate objects (morrer de uma morte .... There are, then, significant differences between various classes of cognate objects: whereas the genuine ones call imperatively for a restrictive modifier and a definite article, the remaining ones admit it only optionally. It might be concluded, then, that a lexicalist theory set up along the lines of Hale and Keyser is unable to deal successfully with distributional facts proper to various classes of cognate constructions in European Portuguese. That is why the present study is conducted more in accordance with syntactic principles of Distributed Morphology, with a strong impact of hypotheses put forward by Haugen (2009.

  16. The semantics of the preposition ὑπέρ in Homeric Greek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Zanchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Prepositions are highly polysemic words. In Homeric Greek, they either retain a number of meanings that are lost in post-Homeric Greek, or have not yet developed other meanings that later become conventionalized. In this paper, I analyze the semantics of the preposition ὑπέρ in Homeric Greek using the terminology of cognitive grammar. In addition, I use the model of structured polysemy in order to detect the original meaning of ὑπέρ, and to distinguish, among all its meanings, those triggered by the context from those independently stored in the mind of speakers. While making such a distinction, I also take into account both the semantic development of ὑπέρ in post-Homeric Greek, and the interaction between preposition and morphological case. I then arrange the distinct meanings in a semantic network, and link them directly or indirectly to the original spatial meaning. At the end, I show how further spatial or abstract meanings develop from the original meaning.

  17. L1 Transfer in Post-Verbal Preposition: An Inter-level Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Mollaei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study intended to investigate the well-known issue of L1 transfer in L2acquisition. The primary aim of this research was to compare the extent to which L1 transfer may take place in different developmental stages in L2 learning procedure. Persian learners of English have been observed to misuse a number of the prepositions with some of the verbs. Having scrutinized more than a hundred pieces of students’ writing assignments, the authors came up with a pattern of errors in this area. It was observed that the majority of these errors could be attributed to Persian: the learners’ choice of preposition mirror the corresponding case in their L1, Persian. Moreover, the pattern of mistakes was put to test to check whether these mistakes increase or decrease according to the level of proficiency of the learners. To this end, two groups of students, one in elementary and the other in intermediate level, were tested on their use of proper prepositions with different verbs and the results of these tests were compared to see whether any significant difference exists between the two groups of students. The results showed no significant difference between the students of the two proficiency levels.

  18. Constructing Relationship Between Software Metrics and Code Reusability in Object Oriented Design

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj H.M; Dr. Nandakumar A.N

    2016-01-01

    The role of the design pattern in the form of software metric and internal code architecture for object-oriented design plays a critical role in software engineering regarding production cost efficiency. This paper discusses code reusability that is a frequently exercised cost saving methodology in IT production. After reviewing existing literature towards a study on software metrics, we found that very few studies are witnessed to incline towards code reusability. Hence, we developed a simpl...

  19. Object Oriented Programming Constructs' in VHSIC Hardware Description Language ‘Why & How’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Jain

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Object Oriented Programming Structure (OOPS has proved its importance in software development in terms of advantages like Abstraction, Encapsulation, Polymorphism, Concurrency, Modularity and Reusability. Also the Object Oriented codes are found to be more verifiable & maintainable. Hence they allow reduction in efforts for development, testing & maintenance of the software. In current scenario, digital-VLSI design life cycle begins with modeling using some Hardware Description Language (HDL followed by functional verification of the HDL-model by its simulation. Often, VLSI-developers show interest in getting software that simulates the functional behavior of the hardware for its analysis from different points of concern. For the sack of effort minimization in co-designing of Digital VLSI chips and their simulating software, it is of interest to introduce automation in code conversion from HDL to OOPS and vise versa. Author’s efforts in this direction are summarized in this document. The outcome of this paper may be developed as a code converter from C++ to VHDL and vise versa.

  20. Sol-gel preservation of mankind`s cultural heritage in objects constructed of stone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinker, C.J.; Ashley, C.S.; Sellinger, A.S. [and others

    1998-01-01

    Monuments, buildings, and works of art constructed of carbonate-based stone (calcite, e.g., limestone and marble) are subject to deterioration resulting from the effects of environmental exposure, granular disintegration, freeze/thaw cycles, and salt recrystallization. This damage can potentially be reversed by the use of mineral-specific chemical passivants and consolidants that prevent hydrolytic attack and mechanical weakening. The treatment strategy combined the use of calcite coupling molecules to passivate the surfaces against new weathering with alkoxysilane strengthening or consolidating layers to arrest physical deterioration. The authors report on the effectiveness of passivating agents designed through a combined approach of modeling their adhesive and passivating properties using computations at the molecular scale and testing those properties using simulated leaching tests, microscopic evaluation, and characterization of mechanical strength. The experimental results indicate that there may be a threshold binding energy for the passivant above which the dissolution rate of calcite is actually enhanced. Passivant/consolidant treatments were identified which showed substantial reductions in the leach rate of calcite exposed to simulated acid rain conditions.

  1. Constructing Relationship Between Software Metrics and Code Reusability in Object Oriented Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj H.M

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of the design pattern in the form of software metric and internal code architecture for object-oriented design plays a critical role in software engineering regarding production cost efficiency. This paper discusses code reusability that is a frequently exercised cost saving methodology in IT production. After reviewing existing literature towards a study on software metrics, we found that very few studies are witnessed to incline towards code reusability. Hence, we developed a simple analytical model that establishes a relationship between the design components of standard software metric and code reusability using case studies of three software projects (Customer Relationship Management project, Supply Chain Management project, and Enterprise Relationship Management project. We also testify our proposal using stochastic based Markov model to find that proposed system can extract significant information of maximized values of code reusability with increasing level of uncertainties of software project methodologies.

  2. Hermann von Helmholtz's empirico-transcendentalism reconsidered: construction and constitution in Helmholtz's psychology of the object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kock, Liesbet

    2014-12-01

    This paper aims at contributing to the ongoing efforts to get a firmer grasp of the systematic significance of the entanglement of idealism and empiricism in Helmholtz's work. Contrary to existing analyses, however, the focal point of the present exposition is Helmholtz's attempt to articulate a psychological account of objectification. Helmholtz's motive, as well as his solution to the problem of the object are outlined, and interpreted against the background of his scientific practice on the one hand, and that of empiricist and (transcendental) idealist analyses of experience on the other. The specifically psychological angle taken, not only prompts us to consider figures who have hitherto been treated as having only minor import for Helmholtz interpretation (most importantly J.S. Mill and J.G. Fichte), it furthermore sheds new light on some central tenets of the latter's psychological stance that have hitherto remained underappreciated. For one thing, this analysis reveals an explicit voluntarist tendency in Helmholtz's psychological theory. In conclusion, it is argued that the systematic significance of Helmholtz's empirico-transcendentalism with respect to questions of the mind is best understood as an attempt to found his empirical theory of perception in a second order, normative account of epistemic subjectivity.

  3. Effects of Natural Disaster Trends: A Case Study for Expanding the Pre-Positioning Network of CARE International

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhan Duran

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The increasing number of natural disasters in the last decade necessitates the increase in capacity and agility while delivering humanitarian relief. A common logistics strategy used by humanitarian organizations to respond this need is the establishment of pre-positioning warehouse networks. In the pre-positioning strategy, critical relief inventories are located near the regions at which they will be needed in advance of the onset of the disaster. Therefore, pre-positioning reduces the response time by totally or partially eliminating the procurement phase and increasing the availability of relief items just after the disaster strikes. Once the pre-positioning warehouse locations are decided and warehouses on those locations become operational, they will be in use for a long time. Therefore, the chosen locations should be robust enough to enable extensions, and to cope with changing trends in disaster types, locations and magnitudes. In this study, we analyze the effects of natural disaster trends on the expansion plan of pre-positioning warehouse network implemented by CARE International. We utilize a facility location model to identify the additional warehouse location(s for relief items to be stored as an extension of the current warehouse network operated by CARE International, considering changing natural disaster trends observed over the past three decades.

  4. Effects of natural disaster trends: a case study for expanding the pre-positioning network of CARE International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Melda; Duran, Serhan

    2012-08-01

    The increasing number of natural disasters in the last decade necessitates the increase in capacity and agility while delivering humanitarian relief. A common logistics strategy used by humanitarian organizations to respond this need is the establishment of pre-positioning warehouse networks. In the pre-positioning strategy, critical relief inventories are located near the regions at which they will be needed in advance of the onset of the disaster. Therefore, pre-positioning reduces the response time by totally or partially eliminating the procurement phase and increasing the availability of relief items just after the disaster strikes. Once the pre-positioning warehouse locations are decided and warehouses on those locations become operational, they will be in use for a long time. Therefore, the chosen locations should be robust enough to enable extensions, and to cope with changing trends in disaster types, locations and magnitudes. In this study, we analyze the effects of natural disaster trends on the expansion plan of pre-positioning warehouse network implemented by CARE International. We utilize a facility location model to identify the additional warehouse location(s) for relief items to be stored as an extension of the current warehouse network operated by CARE International, considering changing natural disaster trends observed over the past three decades.

  5. A Corpus Based Study on the Use of Preposition of Time "On" and "At" in Argumentative Essays of Form 4 and Form 5 Malaysian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Darina Lokeman; Ali, Juliana; Anthony, Norin Norain Zulkifli

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a corpus-based investigation on English prepositions of time presented in the argumentative essays of Form 4 and Form 5 Malaysian secondary students in the MCSAW corpus. The aims were to find out the distribution patterns and the common errors in the use of preposition of time, "on" and "at". This corpus…

  6. The Use of Locative Prepositions by Hebrew Speaking Children 2:0 - 3:0 Years Old. Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics, Volume 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dromi, Esther

    The use of locative prepositions in the spontaneous speech of 30 Hebrew speaking children two to three years old was studied. The rank order of locative prepositions is determined according to the correct use in obligatory contexts, and tentative conclusions are drawn concerning the order of acquisition of these terms in Hebrew. An attempt is made…

  7. Constructal complex-objective optimization of electromagnets based on maximization of magnetic induction and minimization of entransy dissipation rate

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    Lingen Chen, Shuhuan Wei, Zhihui Xie, Fengrui Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An electromagnet requests high magnetic induction and low temperature. Based on constructal theory and entransy theory, a new complex-objective function of magnetic induction and mean temperature difference to describe performance of electromagnet is provided, and the electromagnet has been optimized using the new complex-objective function. When the performance of electromagnet achieves its best, the solenoid becomes longer and thinner as the number of the high thermal conductivity cooling discs increases. Simultaneously, the magnetic induction becomes higher and the mean temperature difference becomes lower. The optimized performance of electromagnet is also improved as the volume of solenoid increases. Simultaneously, as the volume of the electromagnet increases, the magnetic induction increases to its maximum and then decreases, but the mean temperature decreases all along.

  8. Cohesion, Coherence, and the Construction of Discourse Objects: a Glimpse of a Sociocognitive and Interacional Perspective on Teaching of Writing

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    Silvia Augusta Albert Bachur

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting how current theoretical advances on Text Linguistics in its sociocognitive and interactional perspective, by approaching the concepts of cohesion, coherence, and referentiation, may contribute to the pedagogical practice regarding the teaching and learning of writing vis-à-vis the development of writing proficiency. Hence, cohesion and coherence are considered the criteria for textualization, and both their reciprocity and their mutual determination in the referentiation process are here acknowledged. From this point view, the construction of cohesion and coherence is a dynamic process that occurs via inferences and cognitive devices to which the linguistic marks, the speakers’ interaction, and the context contribute. Accordingly, a selection of nominal forms in the building of representations of discourse objects is to be highlighted and related to the project of saying enounced by the herald of college entrance essays. The hypothesis is thus that, by constructing representations of discourse objects, referentiation establishes a groundwork for text structuring and provides hints to produce meaning in writing. The main studies this article is grounded on are Koch (2006, Marcuschi (2006; 2007; 2008, Cavalcante et al. (2010, and Bentes (2012.

  9. Constructal optimization of a vertical insulating wall based on a complex objective combining heat flow and strength

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    For a vertical insulating wall,a product function of heat flow and strength with power weight is introduced as the complex optimization objective to compromise between insulating performance and mechanical performance.Under the global constraints of fixed external dimensions and safety requirements,the constructal optimization of the wall is carried out by taking the complex function maximization as the objective.It is shown that the maximum of the complex-objective function and its corresponding optimal internal structure design under a certain environmental condition can be obtained by allowing the internal structure of the wall to vary(evolve)freely.The validity,effectivity and applicability of the complex function are proved by the results and the power weight parameter in the range from 0.4 to 4 can compromise between the requirements of insulating and strength simultaneously and preferably.The constructal optimization with coequal attention to heat flow and strength and the corresponding results are discussed in detail.The optimal structure design and the corresponding performance analyses under various environmental conditions of application are presented.When the change of environment is greater and the total Rayleigh number is bigger,the insulating wall with large number of cavities should be employed.When the total Rayleigh number is small,the better performance can be obtained by reasonably employing the insulating wall with small number of cavities.The complex function has better selfadaptability,and the results in the recent literature are special cases of this paper.

  10. Applying cognitive linguistics to pedagogical grammar: the english prepositions of verticality

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    Vyvyan Evans

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we illustrate the merit of applying insights from Cognitive Linguistics to pedagogical grammar. We do so by examining English prepositions, long assumed to be one of the most difficult areas of acquisition for second language learners. The approach to the semantics of English prepositions we present is that developed in Evans and Tyler (2004a, b, In prep. and Tyler and Evans (2001a, 2003. This account offers the following insights: 1 the concepts encoded by prepositions are image-schematic in nature and thus have an embodied basis. In other words, prepositions are not appropriately modelled as constituting linguistic propositions or semantic feature bundles (the received view in formal linguistics; 2 an English preposition encodes an abstract mental idealization of a spatial relation, derived from more specific spatial scenes. This forms the primary meaning component of a semantic network; 3 the idealized spatial relation also encodes a functional element, which derives from the way spatial relations are salient and relevant for human function and interaction with the physical environment; and 4 the additional senses in the semantic network have been extended in systematic, constrained ways. We discuss two key principles of extension: ways of viewing a spatial scene and experiential correlation. We demonstrate the usefulness of a Cognitive Linguistics approach by examining a few aspects of the lexicalization patterns exhibited by in and the four English prepositions of verticality, over, above, under and below. These prepositions provide good evidence that prepositional meanings are extended from the spatial to abstract domains in ways that are regular and constrained. We conclude that a Cognitive Linguistics approach to prepositions provides a more accurate, systematic account that, in turn, offers the basis for a more coherent, learnable presentation of this hitherto seemingly arbitrary aspect of English grammar.Neste artigo

  11. The structural possibilities of serbo-croatian related to the English structure adjective + prepositional sentential complement

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    Ljiljana Bibović

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Sentential complements occurring with prepositions in English are traditiona ly known as gerunds, verbal forms in -ing having the functions of both nouns and verbs.In transformational-generative grammar they are interpreted as ,embedded sentences in the underlying structure containing their own subject, which may be either deleted under coreference with the subject of the matrix sentence or overtly expressed, as in 1. (aJohn is happy about leaving (b John is happy about Mary leaving.

  12. Selective transfer in the acquisition of english double object constrctions by brazilian learners

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    Júlia Vidigal Zara

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the acquisition of the English double object constructions (GOLDBERG, 1995 by Brazilian learners. We hypothesize that, due to first language (L1 influences, the prepositional ditransitive construction (John gave a book to Mary will be acquired earlier, while the ditransitive construction (John gave Mary a book will be part of the learner’s interlanguages (SELINKER, 1972 only at the advanced level of proficiency. We also hypothesize that learners may transfer (ODLIN, 1989 the placement of the object pronoun in pre-verbal position from their L1 to their interlanguage in early stages of acquisition (João me deu um livro / *John me gave a book. We test our hypotheses by comparing the performance of three groups of learners (beginning, intermediate, and advanced and native speakers of English on an acceptability judgment task used as a measure of learnability and generalization. Results confirm the order of acquisition of the English double object constructions predicted for native speakers of Brazilian Portuguese. Moreover, results suggest that, although mother tongue influences may have taken place, they do not do so pervasively, but rather selectively, corroborating the proposal by Kellerman (1983.

  13. The importance of lexical verbs in the acquisition of spatial prepositions: The case of in and on.

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    Johannes, Kristen; Wilson, Colin; Landau, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    The prepositions in and on appear early in children's descriptions of simple containment and support relations, such as "apple in the bowl" and "cup on the table". However, mature use of these basic terms extends across a very broad range of object configurations, raising the question of whether children and adults share the same underlying semantic space, and if so, how children's use of in and on comes to match that of adults. With a new battery containing diverse object configurations, we asked how 4 and 6 year-olds and adults distribute basic spatial expressions (isin, is on) and lexical verbs (hang, attach, etc.) across subtypes of containment and support. Our results reveal probabilistic distributions of in and on in both adult and child language, with similar distributions among adults and children for in but different patterns for on. Moreover, we find substantial differences in the use of lexical verbs across the two spatial domains and across ages. We propose that children and adults share a structured semantic space for both containment and support relations, but larger portions of this space are described by in and on early in development because alternative descriptions employing lexical verbs are inhibited. Using computational modeling along with experimental data, we link developmental changes in the scope of basic spatial expressions to increasing use of lexical verbs in parts of the space that reflect less central relations of containment or support. This result supports a nuanced view of spatial language acquisition that shifts the focus from how children learn basic expressions to how they learn to distribute expressions of varying content and complexity across the semantic space.

  14. ASYNCHRONOUS COMPUTER-MEDIATED CORRECTIVE FEEDBACK AND THE CORRECT USE OF PREPOSITIONS: Is It Really Effective?

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    Seyyed Behrooz HOSSEINI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available An area that has recently attracted increasing attention is providing feedback on learners’ writing accuracy through the Internet. However, research in this area has largely focused on synchronous communication, i.e., chatting, with fewer studies assessing asynchronous technologies, i.e., e-mailing. Therefore, this study investigates the effectiveness of asynchronous computer-mediated corrective feedback-explicit and implicit, on increasing the correct use of prepositions. Forty-five Iranian elementary EFL learners at the ILI in Tehran were randomly assigned to two experimental groups, receiving explicit and implicit corrective feedback respectively, and one control group receiving no corrective feedback. Each group included 15 participants. After the treatment, a post-test was administered to assess the probable increase in the correct use of prepositions for the experimental groups compared to the control group. Analysis of the results through a one-way ANOVA revealed that the experimental group 1 who received explicit corrective feedback significantly outperformed the experimental group 2 and the control group. The experimental group 2 who received implicit corrective feedback showed no significant improvement over the experimental group 1 and the control group. Computer-mediated communication, asynchronous CMC, synchronous CMC, the Internet, corrective feedback, e-mail, chat. Although the findings support the current view on feedback through technology, due to the scarcity of research, more investigation is merited as there is much to gain regarding this burgeoning field.

  15. A corpus-based study on the spatial metaphor--take the preposition under as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒晗

    2015-01-01

    This study focuses on the preposition under when it is used in a metaphorical expression. The data for the spatial metaphorical use of the word under were colected from the Corpus of Contemporary American English (COCA). This paper aims to analyze the actual cognitive metaphorical use of the word under with the corpus colected.

  16. Can 28-Month-Old Children Learn Spatial Prepositions Robustly from Pictures? Yes, When Narrative Input Is Provided

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Katharina J.; Nachtigäller, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The learning of spatial prepositions is assumed to be based on experience in space. In a slow mapping study, we investigated whether 31 German 28-month-old children could robustly learn the German spatial prepositions hinter [behind] and neben [next to] from pictures, and whether a narrative input can compensate for a lack of immediate experience in space. One group of children received pictures with a narrative input as a training to understand spatial prepositions. In two further groups, we controlled (a) for the narrative input by providing unconnected speech during the training and (b) for the learning material by training the children on toys rather than pictures. We assessed children’s understanding of spatial prepositions at three different time points: pretest, immediate test, and delayed posttest. Results showed improved word retention in children from the narrative but not the control group receiving unconnected speech. Neither of the trained groups succeeded in generalization to novel referents. Finally, all groups were instructed to deal with untrained material in the test to investigate the robustness of learning across tasks. None of the groups succeeded in this task transfer. PMID:27471479

  17. Can 28-month-old children learn spatial prepositions robustly from pictures? Yes, when narrative input is provided

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    Katharina J. Rohlfing

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The learning of spatial prepositions is assumed to be based on experience in space. In a slow mapping study, we investigated whether 31 German 28-month-old children could robustly learn the German spatial prepositions hinter [behind] and neben [next to] from pictures, and whether a narrative input can compensate for a lack of immediate experience in space. One group of children received pictures with a narrative input as a training to understand spatial prepositions. In two further groups, we controlled for the (a for the narrative input by providing unconnected speech during the training and (b for the learning material by training the children on toys rather than pictures. We assessed children’s understanding of spatial prepositions at three different time points: pretest, immediate test and delayed posttest. Results showed improved word retention in children from the narrative but not the control group receiving unconnected speech. Neither of the trained groups succeeded in generalization to novel referents. Finally, all groups were instructed to deal with untrained material in the test to investigate the robustness of learning across tasks. None of the groups succeeded in this task transfer.

  18. Can 28-Month-Old Children Learn Spatial Prepositions Robustly from Pictures? Yes, When Narrative Input Is Provided.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfing, Katharina J; Nachtigäller, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    The learning of spatial prepositions is assumed to be based on experience in space. In a slow mapping study, we investigated whether 31 German 28-month-old children could robustly learn the German spatial prepositions hinter [behind] and neben [next to] from pictures, and whether a narrative input can compensate for a lack of immediate experience in space. One group of children received pictures with a narrative input as a training to understand spatial prepositions. In two further groups, we controlled (a) for the narrative input by providing unconnected speech during the training and (b) for the learning material by training the children on toys rather than pictures. We assessed children's understanding of spatial prepositions at three different time points: pretest, immediate test, and delayed posttest. Results showed improved word retention in children from the narrative but not the control group receiving unconnected speech. Neither of the trained groups succeeded in generalization to novel referents. Finally, all groups were instructed to deal with untrained material in the test to investigate the robustness of learning across tasks. None of the groups succeeded in this task transfer.

  19. Acquisition of Some Selected Prepositions of Time by English Major Undergraduates at Balqa Applied University in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qudah, Ayat Khalid

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the acquisition of some selected prepositions of time by English major undergraduates at Balqa Applied University in Jordan and to reveal any significant differences among their acquisition attributed to the academic level (1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th year levels) and to studying "English Basic Grammar" course. A…

  20. Phrase-Final Prepositions in Quebec French: An Empirical Study of Contact, Code-Switching and Resistance to Convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormel, Ellen; Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate whether preposition stranding, a stereotypical non-standard feature of North American French, results from convergence with English, and the role of bilingual code-switchers in its adoption and diffusion. Establishing strict criteria for the validation of contact-induced change, we make use of the comparative…

  1. Concurrent Models and Cross-Linguistic Analogies in the Study of Prepositional Stranding in French in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otheguy, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Prepositions can be found with and without adjacent complements in many forms of popular spoken French. The alternation appears in main clauses ("il veut pas payer pour ca [approximately] il veut pas payer pour" "he doesn't want to pay for [it]") and, though with a more restricted social and geographic distribution, in relative…

  2. Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Harbor Deepening Project, Jacksonville, FL Palm Valley Bridge Project, Jacksonville, FL Rotary Club of San Juan, San Juan, PR Tren Urbano Subway...David. What is nanotechnology? What are its implications for construction?, Foresight/CRISP Workshop on Nanotechnology, Royal Society of Arts

  3. Javanese Phrase Construction in Classical Books Translation

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    Moh. Masrukhi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available When the system or structure of language is used and influenced by other languages, it is called interference, and it may ruin the concept of structures.   This research is about Arabic phrase construction that influenced Javanese phrase construction in classical books translation (TKK. This involvement appears when the concept of Arabic’s construction is translated literally into Javanese.   The research was carried out by applying theories of interference and translation. It’s analysis approach with contrastive analysis which is allegedly enabled errors to be predicted from a comparison between Arabic’s and Javanese’s phrase construction. The data were found and collected from several classical books in Arabic language (KKbA translated by different writers. The results show that Javanese phrase construction (as the target language, particularly, with noun phrases,  with adjectival phrases, with numeral phrases, and with prepositional phrases was influenced by Arabic’s murakkab or Arabic phrase construction (as the source language. Arabic has its own concept of phrase construction.  The phrase construction cannot be translated into Javanese directly through word-for-word translation or literal translation. Thus, Javanese in TKK became inconvenient and ungrammatical. Arabic phrase construction is flipped around (with noun phrases and adjectival phrases and prepositions are used and translated improperly or in the wrong position (with prepositional phrases. This research has many implications for further use, such as: for the identification and description of the deviation of  Javanese phrase construction which has been affected by direct translation from the Arabic language,  and furthermore, to increase the knowledge of those who are learning by increasing the realization and awareness in writing and translating (especially from Arabic to Javanese about the fact that  Arabic and Javanese  have their own regulations or

  4. Prepositioned Stocks: DOD has Addressed Required Reporting Elements but Needs to Develop a Department-Wide Policy and Joint Service Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    possibility of higher repair costs in the long run. The Army and Air Force Prepositioned Stock Programs Reported Assumed Risks but Did Not...in the quality of information DOD provided on costs for completely reconstituting prepositioned stocks . Further, GAO found that risks which DOD...have reported on a number of ongoing and long - term challenges in DOD’s annual reports to Congress related to strategic planning, joint service

  5. Word Order in Adjective-Noun Pairs Inside and Outside the Prepositional Phrase: A Contribution to the 15th International Congress of Slavists (Minsk, 2013

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    Philip R. Minlos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a statistical correlation between possessive prenominal placement and the presence of a preposition. The data from mediaeval Russian, Czech, and Croatian are validated against standard statistical measures (chisquare (X2 test and phi (φ coefficient. Different explanations for the correlation are proposed; the most natural and simple one links the syntactic feature with the phonetic chunking of preposition and adjacent possessive, strengthened by their frequent co-occurence.

  6. El significado de la preposición 'de': un enfoque cognitivo-prototípico THE MEANING OF THE PREPOSITION 'DE: A COGNITIVE-PROTOTYPE FOCUS

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    María Soledad Funes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El carácter léxico de la preposición 'de' no siempre ha sido reconocido debidamente por cuanto las preposiciones no pueden funcionar independientemente y por la variedad de significados que se les atribuye. Considerando este vacío teórico, el presente trabajo, enmarcado en el Enfoque Cognitivo-Prototípico (Lakoff 1987; Langacker 1987, 1991; Hopper 1988; Geeraerts 2007; entre otros, plantea las siguientes hipótesis: a los distintos valores semánticos de la preposición 'de' (en construcciones adnominales están organizados sistemáticamente y configuran un ítem polisémico; b el ítem polisémico 'de' se caracteriza por organizarse (1 mediante una estructura de categoría radial (Lakoff 1987, (2 sobre la base del modelo cognitivo idealizado del punto de referencia (Langacker 1991 y (3 a partir de los atributos de Taylor (1995 para el uso posesivo, que es el uso prototípico; c finalmente, las construcciones con 'de' que se alejan del valor prototípico siguen guardando relación semántico-pragmática con este por 'semejanza de familia' (Wittgenstein 1988[1953]; Lakoff 1987. Esta relación de semejanza contempla tanto la pérdida como el agregado de atributos no presentes en la zona prototípica. Para demostrar estas hipótesis, se analizaron cualitativamente diversos ejemplos de las extensiones semánticas surgidas del sentido central de posesión. Los ejemplos fueron seleccionados de un corpus oral del español de Buenos Aires.The lexical nature of the preposition 'de' has not always been recognized duly. This is because prepositions cannot work independently and also because of the variety of meanings that they convey. In view of this theoretical gap, the present study -in line with the Prototypical-Cognitive Approach (Lakoff 1987, Langacker 1987, 1991, Hopper 1988, Geeraerts 2007, among others- formulates the following hypotheses: a the different semantic values of the preposition 'de' (in nominal constructions are systematically

  7. The analysis of the existing typology of energy saving measures in the course of construction project implementation and real estate object operation

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    Kiseleva Ekaterina Aleksandrovna

    Full Text Available Today, speaking about the efficiency of energy saving measures it is necessary to analyze the consequences of alternative options of the use of renewables at reconstruction and updating of housing stock from the point of view of secondary energy use and by doing that to avoid negative consequences of greenhouse gases emissions. Thus special attention is paid as a rule to residential buildings. In addition to the assessment of the ideas of housing stock and power sources updating, the cost of construction materials in reconstruction projects, various concepts of reconstruction and economic consequences of the repair of buildings is also important. As a rule, the life cycle of a real estate object is longer, than the life cycle of the production process of the goods or service occurring on this object. Careful planning of the operation program of a real estate object already at the stage of its design and also its timely modernization according to new requirements play an important role throughout the whole life cycle of an object and its long-term and effective operation. The decision on the expediency of a construction project is made on the basis of the analysis of expenses for it. In practice it is quite seldom possible to take into account all the expenses for a constructed facility, that is the expenses arising at construction, operation, the contents and service of a real estate object during its existence. Often realization of more expensive solutions at the level of construction designs and equipment leads to considerable decrease in operational costs of a real estate object. Thus, without creation of a program of operation for this object it is very difficult to prove the expediency of more expensive resources and methods at construction, then it is determined by the minimum requirements. Nevertheless, the object not necessarily has to correspond to its initial state. As a rule, after some time the use of newer technical solutions is

  8. Objects, Entities, Behaviors, and Interactions: A Typology of Student-Constructed Computer-Based Models of Physical Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louca, Loucas T.; Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Michael, Michalis; Constantinou, Constantinos P.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a framework for analyzing and evaluating student-constructed models of physical phenomena and monitoring the progress of these models. Moreover, we aimed to examine whether this framework could capture differences between models created using different computer-based modeling tools; namely, computer-based…

  9. 英语中的介词及隐喻意义探讨%Discussion on Prepositions in English and Their Metaphorical Meanings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐莉

    2015-01-01

    The preposition is an important part of English language , and the metaphor plays a critical role in learning English prepositions . To clear the metaphorical meanings of English preposi‐tions ,firstly ,this paper defines the original spatial meaning of English prepositions .Then it gives a de‐tailed analysis on the cognition of metaphorical meanings of English prepositions .Finally ,it analyzes the metaphorical rhetorical effect of prepositions .The author hopes that this paper can help English learners understand the importance of metaphorical competence and strength the development of metaphorical competence in English learning .%介词是英语语言的重要组成部分,而隐喻对学习者学习英语介词具有非常重要的作用。为明确英语介词的隐喻意义,文章首先对英语介词的空间愿意进行释义,其次,对英语介词的隐喻意义认知进行详细的分析,最后围绕隐喻介词的修辞效果进行了详细的分析,希望可以使英语学习者明确隐喻能力的重要性,并加强英语学习中隐喻能力的培养。

  10. Note sull'analisi delle preposizioni italiane in un modello semantico generativo (Notes on the Analysis of Italian Prepositions Within a Generative Semantic Model). Acts of the Colloquium of the Swiss Interuniversity Commission for Applied Linguistics. CILA Bulletin, No. 25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretta, Monica

    A generative semantic model for a componential analysis of prepositions in Italian sentences is described and critiqued. According to the model, a sentence is analyzed in terms of a "predicate" plus one or more "arguments." The model emphasizes the semantic role of prepositions and regards this role as the basis for a syntactic analysis of…

  11. Note sull'analisi delle preposizioni italiane in un modello semantico generativo (Notes on the Analysis of Italian Prepositions Within a Generative Semantic Model). Acts of the Colloquium of the Swiss Interuniversity Commission for Applied Linguistics. CILA Bulletin, No. 25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretta, Monica

    A generative semantic model for a componential analysis of prepositions in Italian sentences is described and critiqued. According to the model, a sentence is analyzed in terms of a "predicate" plus one or more "arguments." The model emphasizes the semantic role of prepositions and regards this role as the basis for a syntactic…

  12. Conditional Random Field (CRF-Boosting: Constructing a Robust Online Hybrid Boosting Multiple Object Tracker Facilitated by CRF Learning

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    Ehwa Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the reasonably acceptable performance of state-of-the-art object detectors, tracking-by-detection is a standard strategy for visual multi-object tracking (MOT. In particular, online MOT is more demanding due to its diverse applications in time-critical situations. A main issue of realizing online MOT is how to associate noisy object detection results on a new frame with previously being tracked objects. In this work, we propose a multi-object tracker method called CRF-boosting which utilizes a hybrid data association method based on online hybrid boosting facilitated by a conditional random field (CRF for establishing online MOT. For data association, learned CRF is used to generate reliable low-level tracklets and then these are used as the input of the hybrid boosting. To do so, while existing data association methods based on boosting algorithms have the necessity of training data having ground truth information to improve robustness, CRF-boosting ensures sufficient robustness without such information due to the synergetic cascaded learning procedure. Further, a hierarchical feature association framework is adopted to further improve MOT accuracy. From experimental results on public datasets, we could conclude that the benefit of proposed hybrid approach compared to the other competitive MOT systems is noticeable.

  13. Catanionic drug-derivative nano-objects constructed by chlorambucil and its derivative for efficient leukaemia therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoqing; Shi, Chunhuan; Li, Nuannuan; Wang, Kaiming; Li, Zhonghao; Luan, Yuxia

    2015-12-01

    A new carrier-free catanionic drug-derivative nano-object strategy is developed for leukaemia therapy. The as-prepared drug-derivative nano-objects are formed by ionic pairs of hydrophobic anticancer drug chlorambucil (CLB) and its derivative N-(2-Amino-ethyl)-4-{4-[bis-(2-chloro-ethyl)-amino]-phenyl}-butyramide (CLBM). The designed drug delivery system has the advantage of 100% drug content without additional carrier materials. The ionic pairs are formed by proton exchange between CLB and CLBM. Due to the amphiphilicity of the ionic pairs, they can assemble into well-defined drug-derivative (CLB-CLBM) nano-objects. Series of techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and electrical conductivity are used to investigate the property of the solution and aggregation behaviour of as-prepared drug-derivative ionic pairs. In vitro drug release study of the as-prepared nano-objects shows their prolonged drug release behavior. Specifically, in vitro cytotoxicity results of these nano-objects show obviously higher cytotoxicity, which is promising for clinical efficacy. This study may pave the way for the fabrication of carrier-free drug delivery system with efficient cancer therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Significant geological engineering assessment salt massif, using them as a medium for the construction of underground objects for different purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosevskaja L,P.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available At present time rock salt bodies are considered to be not only an object for mining operations (rock salt but also a favorable geological environment for allocating different under-ground objects. Yet to this day there is no generally accepted synergetic system of engineering-geological estimation of rock salt bodies. In the paper given they propose underlying principles of system approach to solving issues of keeping equilibrium system under creating man-caused cavities of different purposes in rock salt bodies.

  15. The effects of safety handrails and the heights of scaffolds on the subjective and objective evaluation of postural stability and cardiovascular stress in novice and expert construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Seung-Nam; Kim, Jung-Yong; Parnianpour, Mohamad

    2012-05-01

    Work performed on scaffolds carries the risk of falling that disproportionately threatens the safety and health of novice construction workers. Hence, objective measures of the postural stability, cardiovascular stress, and subjective difficulty in maintaining postural balance were evaluated for four expert and four novice construction workers performing a manual task in a standing posture on a scaffold with and without safety handrails at two different elevation heights. Based on a multivariate analysis of variance, the experience, scaffold height, and presence of a handrail were found to significantly affect measures of the postural stability and cardiovascular stress. At a lower level of worker experience, a higher scaffold height, and in the absence of a handrail (which may correspond to higher risk of a fall), postural stability was significantly reduced, while cardiovascular stress and subjective difficulties in maintaining postural balance increased. We emphasize the importance of training and handrails for fall prevention at construction sites.

  16. Combining Preposition “Ki” and Relative Pronoun “Kim” and Their Using in Different Meanings in Tenses in Ancient Anatolian Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan TOKATLI

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Combining sentences one by other by preposition comes to Turkish from endo-european languages. Preposition ki that combines the sub-clause to the main-clause as well used like adjective to a noun has entered Turkish from Perisain Language. Thus Turkish question pronoun kim had been used as ki until seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Specially takes place in Ancient Anatolian Turkish texts. In this article we try to spot light on the using of ki and kim from point of view of changing the meanings. Examples are taken from Ancient Anatolian Turkish texts.

  17. Constructal optimization of twice Y-shaped assemblies of fins by taking maximum thermal resistance minimization as objective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,constructal optimization of the twice Y-shaped assemblies of fins with six freedom degrees (characteristic parameters of geometry) is performed by employing finite element method and taking dimensionless maximum thermal resistance as a performance index,and the heat transfer performance of the twice Y-shaped assemblies of fins under various conditions with different freedom degrees are analyzed. The results show that the twice assemblies can improve the heat transfer performance of Y-shaped fin remarkably,and the minimum maximum thermal resistance of the twice Y-shaped assemblies of fins decreases by 36.37% compared with that of once Y-shaped assembly of fins. It is also proved again that the larger the number of freedom degrees for evolving is,the more perfect the system performance is. The effects of different characteristic parameters of geometry on the performance of the twice Y-shaped assemblies of fins are different,one should pay different attention to these parameters in practical engineering designs. The effects of two angles on the maximum thermal resistance are larger,but the optima of the two angles are robust. The effects of two height ratios on the maximum thermal resistance are more remarkable than those of two thickness ratios.

  18. 大型综合医院多院区总体发展建设规划探讨%THE OVERALL DEVELOPMENT AND CONSTRUCTION PLANNING OF LARGE GENERAL HOSPITAL MULTIPLE DISTRICTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭西平; 梁建岚; 陈海勇; 黄晓群; 曾勇

    2015-01-01

    The article explains the large general hospital multiple districts development planning principles, overal development and construction planning key points, based on the development direction and objectives, defines reasonable preposition, proper size and location of each district;combining fund raising capacity and medical business premises turnaround plan, makes rational phase implementation plan.%文章结合参加大型综合医院多院区总体发展建设规划的实践,系统阐述了大型综合医院多院区发展规划的原则、总体发展建设规划的编制要点。

  19. Dimensionality and construct validity of a video-based, objective personality test for the assessment of willingness to take risks in road traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendasy, Martin E; Hergovich, Andreas; Sommer, Markus; Bognar, Bettina

    2005-08-01

    The study at hand reports first results about the dimensionality and construct validity of a newly developed objective, video-based personality test, which assesses the willingness to take risks in traffic situations. On the basis of the theory of risk homeostasis developed by Wilde, different traffic situations with varying amounts of objective danger were filmed. These situations mainly consisted of situations with passing maneuvers and speed choice or traffic situations at intersections. Each of these traffic situations describes an action which should be carried out. The videos of the traffic situations are presented twice. Before the first presentation, a short written explanation of the preceding traffic situation and a situation-contingent reaction is provided. The respondents are allowed to obtain an overview of the given situations during the first presentation of each traffic situation. During the second presentation the respondents are asked to indicate at which point the action that is contingent on the described situation will become too dangerous to carry out. Latencies for items were recorded as a measure for the magnitude of the person's subjectively accepted willingness to take risks in the sense of the risk homeostasis theory by Wilde. In a study with 243 people with different education and sex, the one-dimensionality of the test corresponding to the latency model by Scheiblechner was investigated. Analysis indicated that the new measure assesses a one-dimensional latent personality trait which can be interpreted as subjectively accepted amount of risk (target risk value). First indicators for the construct validity of the test are given by a significant correlation with the construct-related secondary scale, adventurousness of the Eysenck Personality Profiler with, at the same time, nonsignificant correlations to the two secondary scales, extroversion and emotional stability, that are not linked to the construct.

  20. Identifying performing and under performing graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions in animated and static formats: a research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Ralf W; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Koul, Rajinder; Bloomfield, Emma

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions that were performing and underperforming in static and animated formats in a recent experiment on the effects of animation on transparency, name agreement, and identification of graphic symbols. Variable-specific criteria were developed in order to define when a symbol is considered to be performing in terms of its transparency, name agreement, and identification accuracy. Additionally, across-variable heuristic criteria were developed that allowed classification of symbols into four categories: (a) performing exceptionally, (b) performing effectively, (c) performing adequately, and (d) performing inadequately. These criteria were applied to 24 symbols for verbs and 8 symbols for prepositions in both animated and static formats. Results indicated that the vast majority of the symbols performed adequately or better while a few did not. Potential reasons as to why some of the symbols may have underperformed are discussed. Where appropriate, implications for modifying existing symbols and future research are drawn. Although the fact that the heuristic criteria were developed post-hoc is discussed as a limitation, the benefits of the proposed categories bode well for future applications.

  1. EXPERIENCE IN APPLICATION OF THE TECHNOLOGIES OF BUILDING INFORMATION MODELING WHEN CONSTRUCTING THE OLYMPIC OBJECTS OF SOCHI-2014 AND STADIUMS OF THE FIFA WORLD CUP 2018

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakhraman'yan Andrey Mikhaylovich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors describe the experience in application of information modeling technologies for buildings and structures on the example of design and construction of the objects SOCHI-2014 and stadiums of FIFA World Cup 2017. According to the regulatory documents in 2014 in Sochi the automated monitoring systems of the strain state of bearing structures and engineering systems were in-stalled in all the Olympic ice stadiums and in the Central Olympic Stadium. The systems were controlled by software package SODIS Building. The main possibilities of SODIS Building are enumerated in the article.

  2. Effects of focus and definiteness on children's word order: evidence from German five-year-olds' reproductions of double object constructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhle, Barbara; Hörnig, Robin; Weskott, Thomas; Knauf, Selene; Krüger, Agnes

    2014-07-01

    Two experiments tested how faithfully German children aged 4 ;5 to 5 ;6 reproduce ditransitive sentences that are unmarked or marked with respect to word order and focus (Exp1) or definiteness (Exp2). Adopting an optimality theory (OT) approach, it is assumed that in the German adult grammar word order is ranked lower than focus and definiteness. Faithfulness of children's reproductions decreased as markedness of inputs increased; unmarked structures were reproduced most faithfully and unfaithful outputs had most often an unmarked form. Consistent with the OT proposal, children were more tolerant against inputs marked for word order than for focus; in conflict with the proposal, children were less tolerant against inputs marked for word order than for definiteness. Our results suggest that the linearization of objects in German double object constructions is affected by focus and definiteness, but that prosodic principles may have an impact on the position of a focused constituent.

  3. The construction of the referent The place where I live in opinion articles: a dialogue between referential theory and objectivity in brackets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Fontenele Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to propose a discussion about the construction of the referent The place where I live in the V edition of the Portuguese Language Olympiad Writing the Future, while trying to hold a dialogue between the theory of referentiation and the concept of objectivity in brackets proposed by biologist Humberto Maturana. Part of this discussion includes the partial results of our master's research in the Postgraduate in Applied Linguistics Program, State University of Ceará. In this research, we analyze nine texts of opinion written by students of a state school in Fortaleza, produced and intended for this educational event. However, for the current work, we analyze just one text. We seek to achieve the approximation of the theories under discussion in the production of the texts, including the reference articulation that cover The place where I live in the analyzed text. From what we see, the construction of this reference exceeds relations between the words marked by direct expressions or predications attached to it. In fact, it occurs in relation to other related available in text and occurs before the mention by linguistic expressions, as already part of individual and collective buildings, marked by sociohistoric aspects and the intertextual relations with other sources.

  4. The two forms of Visuo-Spatial Perspective Taking are differently embodied and subserve different spatial prepositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus eKessler

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We set out to distinguish level 1 (VPT-1 and level 2 (VPT-2 perspective taking with respect to the embodied nature of the underlying processes as well as to investigate their dependence or independence of response modality (motor vs. verbal. While VPT-1 reflects understanding of what lies within someone else’s line of sight, VPT-2 involves mentally adopting someone else’s spatial point of view. Perspective taking is a high-level conscious and deliberate mental transformation that is crucially placed at the convergence of perception, mental imagery, communication, and even theory of mind in the case of VPT-2. The differences between VPT-1 and VPT-2 mark a qualitative boundary between humans and apes, with the latter being capable of VPT-1 but not of VPT-2. However, our recent data showed that VPT-2 is best conceptualised as the deliberate simulation or emulation of a movement, thus underpinning its embodied origins. In the work presented here we compared VPT-2 to VPT-1 and found that VPT-1 is not at all, or very differently embodied. In a second experiment we replicated the qualitatively different patterns for VPT-1 and VPT-2 with verbal responses that employed spatial prepositions. We conclude that VPT-1 is the cognitive process that subserves verbal localisations using in front and behind, while VPT-2 subserves left and right from a perspective other than the egocentric. We further conclude that both processes are grounded and situated, but only VPT-2 is embodied in the form of a deliberate movement simulation that increases in mental effort with distance and incongruent proprioception. The differences in cognitive effort predict differences in the use of the associated prepositions. Our findings, therefore, shed light on the situated, grounded and embodied basis of spatial localisations and on the psychology of their use.

  5. Towards a construction grammar account of the distributive PO in Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Przepiórkowski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Towards a construction grammar account of the distributive PO in Polish Polish distributive constructions involving the form po are well known for their syntactic and semantic idiosyncrasy. The aim of this paper is to show that, contrary to the received wisdom, two different lexemes po take part in such constructions: a preposition and an adnumeral operator. This explains some of the idiosyncratic behaviour, namely, the apparent ability of po to combine with different grammatical cases. A preliminary Construction Grammar analysis is proposed which eschews the potential problem of missed generalisations that such a dual account of po might engender.

  6. An Object-oriented Environment Model and Its Construction Method%一种面向目标的环境模型及其构建方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汉峰

    2013-01-01

    环境地图是机器人环境认知并提供服务的基础.以服务机器人为实际应用背景,综合应用多传感器数据,将环境中的具体目标信息映射到利用SLAM技术创建的地图中,生成面向目标的环境模型.论文详细介绍了该环境模型的表示、构建和更新方法,并通过实验证明该模型可有效地提高机器人的环境理解能力和工作效率.%The environment map is the basis for robot understanding surround and providing services.Take service robots for example,multi-sensor data are integrated and specific objects are rejected into the environment map called as object-oriented map using SLAM technology,the paper describes the representation,construction and update methods of the environment model.The experiments show that with the model,robot can effectively improve environment-understanding ability and working efficiency.

  7. Change of object expression in the history of French verbs of helping and hindering

    CERN Document Server

    Troberg, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This comprehensive case study of a systematic shift in object expression provides insight into the construal of a class of two-place activity verbs in the history of French and proposes that a change in the prepositional system underlies the shift. The book focuses on nineteen verbs of helping and hindering whose single internal object shifts from indirect to direct object during the 15th and 16th century. It describes how these verbs are distinguished from all other verbs that take indirect...

  8. Research of Engineering Construction Schedule Optimization Based on Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm%基于多目标遗传算法的工程施工进度计划优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李竞克; 侯琳

    2014-01-01

    In order to optimize the construction schedule, make a more scientific schedule plan and apply multi-objective genetic algorithm into construction schedule planning process. Firstly, We elaborate on the multi-objective optimization mathematical model and multi-objective genetic algorithm. Then, establish multi- objective engineering construction progress from the following three aspects: the minimum cost, the shortest duration and the best quality. Finally, using the simulation to test the performance that multi-objective genetic algorithm in construction schedule plan. The experiments pshows that we can well solve the construction schedule objective function optimal solutions through this method, apart from this, it can offers a variety of optimization scheme, which has a high research value.%为使工程施工进度实现最优化,使进度计划方案更为科学合理,可以在施工计划制定的过程中融入多目标遗传算法。首先对多目标优化和多目标遗传算法数学模型进行了详细阐述,接着从最小费用、最短工期和最佳质量三个方面建立多目标工程施工进度目标函数,最后采用实例仿真,验证多目标遗传算法在施工进度计划制定的性能。实验证明,采用该方法能较好地求解施工进度目标函数最优解,而且能提供多种优化方案,具有较高的研究价值。

  9. Process and system innovation in the building and construction industry: Developing a model for integrated value chain and life cycle management of built objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, H.A.J. de; Vrijhoef, R.

    2004-01-01

    The building and construction industry has a large contribution and impact on society, e.g. economical and environmental, involving a vast spectrum of stakeholders. However, the value delivering performance of the industry has often been criticized. The predictability of the value, price and costs o

  10. Process and system innovation in the building and construction industry: Developing a model for integrated value chain and life cycle management of built objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, H.A.J. de; Vrijhoef, R.

    2004-01-01

    The building and construction industry has a large contribution and impact on society, e.g. economical and environmental, involving a vast spectrum of stakeholders. However, the value delivering performance of the industry has often been criticized. The predictability of the value, price and costs

  11. A Cognitive Analysis of the Polysemy of the Preposition "to"%介词“to”多义性的认知分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春燕

    2012-01-01

    Prepositions are the most basic words people employ to express spatial concepts,and they are also an important part of English language.Based on the prototype theory,this paper is to analyze the semantic structure of to in a systematic and comprehensive way and to prove the fact that every sense of a preposition is from the prototypical features of the word.Thus,it is aimed to give some implications for English teaching.%介词是人们用来表达空间概念的一种基本词汇,在英语语言中起着举足轻重的作用。本文从认知语言学中的原型理论出发,对英语介词"to"的语义结构进行系统、全面的分析,阐述了介词的多义性均来自于其原型特征这一事实。

  12. The Ibibio Locative Copular Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonna Anyanwu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Ibibio language, a member of the Lower Cross group of languages is predominantly spoken in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Ibibio has two types of copular construction. One is locative while the other is predicative. Using a purely descriptive approach/method, this paper provides a descriptive account of the copular locative constructions in Ibibio. This study is based on a database collected from adult speakers of Ibibio by the author using an elicitation list. The database includes both actual and potential words/sentences, which standard Ibibio speakers found to be in consistent with their language rules.The paper has observed that Ibibio copular locatives make use of locative copular verbs which have semantic content, but are however, with indeterminate locative precision except when they co- occur with an appropriate locative complement. It has further observed that in Ibibio, the location of a subject entity can be marked with locative elements in two ways. In the first instance, a locative copular verb which can be dórò, ‘be on’ síne ‘be in’ bà ‘be at’ obligatorily co-occurs with a deitic locative complement or a locative prepositional phrase (PP complement headed by a multipurpose preposition (P, ké. The P is semantically, interpreted as either on, in, at or under depending on the particular locative copular verb that it co-occurs with. In the second instance, in addition to the locative copular verb and the locative PP complement headed by the P ké, there is also within the PP complement (headed by the P ké , a locative relational noun modifier which, modifies the head noun, a complement to the locative P ké. Based on Ameka andOgbonna Anyanwu71Levinson’s (2007 cross-linguistic classification of positional and locative verbs, the paper concludes that Ibibio belongs to the multi-verb type of languages with inherently locative copular verbs which are used to express the spatial locative orientation of subject

  13. Social Cognitive Constructs Did Not Mediate the BEAT Cancer Intervention Effects on Objective Physical Activity Behavior Based on Multivariable Path Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Laura Q; Courneya, Kerry S; Anton, Phillip M; Hopkins-Price, Patricia; Verhulst, Steven; Robbs, Randall S; Vicari, Sandra K; McAuley, Edward

    2017-04-01

    Most breast cancer survivors do not meet physical activity recommendations. Understanding mediators of physical activity behavior change can improve interventions designed to increase physical activity in this at-risk population. Study aims were to determine the 3-month Better Exercise Adherence after Treatment for Cancer (BEAT Cancer) behavior change intervention effects on social cognitive theory constructs and the mediating role of any changes on the increase in accelerometer-measured physical activity previously reported. Post-treatment breast cancer survivors (N = 222) were randomized to BEAT Cancer or usual care. Assessments occurred at baseline, 3 months (M3), and 6 months (M6). Adjusted linear mixed model analysis of variance determined intervention effects on walking self-efficacy, outcome expectations, goal setting, and perceived barrier interference at M3. Path analysis determined mediation of intervention effects on physical activity at M6 by changes in social cognitive constructs during the intervention (i.e., baseline to M3). BEAT Cancer significantly improved self-efficacy, goals, negative outcome expectations, and barriers. Total path analysis model explained 24 % of the variance in M6 physical activity. There were significant paths from randomized intervention group to self-efficacy (β = 0.15, p < .05) and barriers (β = -0.22, p < .01). Barriers demonstrated a borderline significant association with M6 physical activity (β = -0.24, p = .05). No statistically significant indirect effects were found. Although BEAT Cancer significantly improved social cognitive constructs, no significant indirect effects on physical activity improvements 3 months post-intervention were observed (NCT00929617).

  14. Object and Objective Lost?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the erosion and problematization of ‘the organization’ as a demarcated entity. Utilizing Foucault's reflections on ‘state-phobia’ as a source of inspiration, I show how an organization-phobia has gained a hold within Organization Theory (OT). By attending to the history...... of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OT has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming theoretically deconstructed and associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history......, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OT. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OT intellectual credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia...

  15. A Transformation of the Object of Psychology:from the Psychological Phenomenon to the Discursive Construct%心理学研究对象的转换:从心理现象到话语建构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜永志

    2012-01-01

    The development of theoretical psychology relates to the concept of psychological science,nature and methodology.This discussion on the object of psychology as the main element of methodology in psychology play a decisive role for the overall development of psychology.Throughout the development of psychological theory,the object of Psychology has been changed from the psychological phenomenon of positivism to the construction of mental life and discursive construct based on the subjective construction.This conversion is also accompanied by a conversion and beyond of subject-object dichotomy and value-neutrality.%理论心理学的发展涉及到对心理学科学观、学科性质和方法论的探讨,心理学研究对象作为心理学方法论讨论的主要内容,对心理学的整体发展具有决定作用。纵观心理学理论发展,心理学研究对象已经从实证主义的心理现象转换到主观建构的心理生活和话语建构。这种转换的同时也伴随着主客二分思维和价值无涉问题的转换和超越。

  16. Marine Ethics Research Object And Its System Construction%海洋伦理学研究对象及其框架体系建构初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕建华; 吴失

    2012-01-01

    At present, the academia to the marine ethics research is still at the starting stage, not forming a complete system of academic disciplines and mature research framework. From course construction, its content mainly includes the ethical relationship between man and the sea, and the sea of human ethics relations in two aspects. From the framework of system, it mainly includes the marine ethics produced and theory origin, the value of the ocean and the sea power of human behavior, ethics, marine relations in the marine ethics, ethics and law, marine marine marine ethical awareness in seven aspects.%随着海洋环境问题的日益突出,海洋伦理学的学科建设已正式提上议程。但目前学界对海洋伦理学的研究尚处在起步阶段,未形成完整的学科体系和成熟的研究框架。从学科建设看,其研究内容主要包括人与海洋的伦理关系和涉海活动中人与人之间的伦理关系两方面。从框架体系看,其内容主要包括海洋伦理学的产生、海洋伦理学的理论渊源、海洋的价值与权利、涉海活动中人类行为的伦理规范、管理决策中的海洋伦理、海洋伦理与海洋法制、海洋伦理意识等七方面。

  17. Scaled-Free Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Grilliette, Will

    2010-01-01

    Several functional analysts and C*-algebraists have been moving toward a categorical means of understanding normed objects. In this work, I address a primary issue with adapting these abstract concepts to functional analytic settings, the lack of free objects. Using a new object, called a "crutched set", and associated categories, I devise generalized construction of normed objects as a left adjoint functor to a natural forgetful functor. Further, the universal property in each case yields a "scaled-free" mapping property, which extends previous notions of `"free" normed objects. In particular, I construct the following types of scaled-free objects: Banach spaces, Banach algebras, C*-algebras, operator spaces, and operator algebras. In subsequent papers, this scaled-free property, coupled with the associated functorial results, will give rise to a new view of presentation theory for C*-algebras, which inherits many properties and constructions from its algebraic counterpart.

  18. 英汉双宾结构语法化特征的比较%A Comparative Study of the Grammaticalization Features of English and Chinese Double-object Constructions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓云华; 曹朝芳

    2016-01-01

    文章基于语法化理论,对英汉双宾结构的语法化特征,即语法化形式、程度和形态三个方面进行了细致的比较,分析了英汉双宾结构的共性和差异,并揭示了其认知动因,为此结构的有效习得和教学提供了参考。%Based on grammaticalization theory, this thesis makes a detailed comparative study of the grammaticalization features of English and Chinese double-object constructions, i.e.grammati-calization forms, degree and state.It analyses in depth the similarities and differences between English and Chinese double-object constructions, and uncovers their cognitive motivations.All the results and findings are expected to provide explicit and valuable reference for the acquisition and teaching of this construction.

  19. La construcción de objetos socioeducativos con base epistemológica The construction of epistemologically based socio-educational objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Massé Narváez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se centra en cuestionar, por qué en el país (independientemente de que el problema, seguro impregna otras latitudes latinoamericanas la llamada "Investigación Educativa" (IE adoptó acríticamente a la llamada teoría educativa y, o a la teoría pedagógica clássica. Asumimos la posición de que una pretendida perspectiva de base "experimental" no puede autoproclamarse poseedora del herramental de conocimiento para la investigación educativa y, o declarar que ese es El Paradigma correcto. Para ello hacemos un breve ejercicio de problematización de algunas de las múltiples dimensiones que abarcan, o abarcar pordrían, algo así como El Campo de La Educación. Posteriormente, pasamos a esbozar una propuesta que releva a la construcción de conocimiento de dicho campo, en los puntos de articulación que quieren ser conocidos, pasando por el cuestionamiento y el control del elemento explicativo de las teorías educativas y sociales en general, para subrayar la necesidad de un uso crítico de estas, así como un uso crítico de los factores Ideológico, el "experiencial", como factores predeterminantes muchas veces a priori.The article questions why, in Mexico (independent of the fact that this problem also occurs in other Latin American latitudes, the so-called "educational research" (ER has uncritically adopted the educational theory and/or the classical pedagogical theory. This work maintains that the proposed perspective of an "experimental" basis cannot presume to possess the knowledge tools for educational research, or state that this paradigm is the right one. For this reason, the text presents a brief exercise of problematization of some of the multiple dimensions that include, or could include, something like the field of education. Subsequently, the paper outlines a proposal that deals with the construction of knowledge in this field at its key points of articulation, which include the questioning and control of the

  20. Using gray-based Taguchi method to construct multi-objective optimal model in super-resolution near-field photolithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ching-Been; Chiang, Hsiu-Lu

    2013-01-01

    This study integrated thermally induced super-resolution into near-field photolithography and conducted simulation and analysis on line segment fabrication. This technique involves passing a laser beam through an aluminum-plated optical fiber probe onto a thin film of indium (approximately 10 nm thick). The indium film opens a melted aperture narrower than the width of the laser beam, creating a melted region and a crystalline region. The difference in penetration rate between the two regions leads to the generation of thermally induced super-resolution. This paper proposes a combination of Taguchi method with gray relational analysis, in which S/N ratios obtained using the Taguchi method are converted into gray relational grades to identify an optimal combination of parameters capable of meeting multiple quality objectives. This optimal combination includes a probe aperture of 100 nm (A1), exposure energy/μm of 0.002nJ/μm (B2), development time of 60 s (C3), and indium film with a thickness of 7 nm (D1). The optimal parameters were (A1B2C3D1) for the gray relational analysis and (A1B1C1D1) for the Taguchi method. Results showed a negative improvement of -14.3% in line width from 126.2 (Taguchi method) to 144.2 nm (gray relational analysis). Working depth, however, showed a significantly improvement of 140.4% from 5.7 (Taguchi method) to 13.7 nm (gray relational analysis). The proposed approach resolves the conflicts that commonly occur among factor levels in Taguchi analysis under the requirements of multiple quality requirements.

  1. LA TRADUCTION DES PREPOSITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira MOUTAKIL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available L’idée de cet article nous est venue d’un cours qu’on assure pour les futurs guides touristiques en Jordanie. En traduisant des textes - français-arabe ou arabe-français, les étudiants se heurtent à certains problèmes pour rendre le texte vers la langue cible et qui soit convenable syntaxiquement et sémantiquement. On a remarqué donc que la traduction des prépositions vers l’une ou l’autre langue présente un dilemme pour les apprenants. On a décidé de composer un corpus de phrases contenant les propositions en français, « à » avec toutes ses formes, « dans et sur » et de l'arabe "على", "في" . Dans un premier temps, on a constitué le corpus avec 25 phrases dans les deux langues et on les a soumises aux étudiants, la liste en français aux étudiants du niveau A2 et la liste ne arabe aux étudiants du niveau A1. Par la suite, on a dégagé ce qui ressort de leurs traductions ce qui nous a permis de faire une analyse sémantico-syntaxique assez détaillée. En conclusion de cet article, on présente les résultats de cette expérience très intéressante.

  2. Capturing Temperament Constructs with Objective Biodata

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-11-01

    Dr. Burke provided and continues to provide sage advice and direction on all aspects of this research effort. Jane Richards and Jackie Pittard also...were drawn upon regularly at all stages of this research. Frank Erwin, Michael Mumford, and Richard Reilly were among a number of researchers and...of biodata items (Asher, 1972; Gandy, Outerbridge, Sharf , & Dye, 1989; Henry, 1965; Stricker, 1987). In addition, while some have attempted to

  3. Object crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Julian M; Tjan, Bosco S

    2011-05-25

    Crowding occurs when stimuli in the peripheral fields become harder to identify when flanked by other items. This phenomenon has been demonstrated extensively with simple patterns (e.g., Gabors and letters). Here, we characterize crowding for everyday objects. We presented three-item arrays of objects and letters, arranged radially and tangentially in the lower visual field. Observers identified the central target, and we measured contrast energy thresholds as a function of target-to-flanker spacing. Object crowding was similar to letter crowding in spatial extent but was much weaker. The average elevation in threshold contrast energy was in the order of 1 log unit for objects as compared to 2 log units for letters and silhouette objects. Furthermore, we examined whether the exterior and interior features of an object are differentially affected by crowding. We used a circular aperture to present or exclude the object interior. Critical spacings for these aperture and "donut" objects were similar to those of intact objects. Taken together, these findings suggest that crowding between letters and objects are essentially due to the same mechanism, which affects equally the interior and exterior features of an object. However, for objects defined with varying shades of gray, it is much easier to overcome crowding by increasing contrast.

  4. Performance Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    objectives may direct students’ learning (Duchastel and Merrill, 1973; Kapfer , 1970; Kibler et al., 1974), since such objectives may provide...matter learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 62(1): 67-70 (1971). Kapfer , P. G. Behavioral objectives and the curriculum processor. Educational

  5. An Object-oriented Approach for Distributed Product Design System Construction%基于对象的分布式产品设计系统构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄双喜; 范玉顺

    2001-01-01

    提出了一个分布式产品设计的过程算法,在此 基础上,通过对象技术,将异地分布的产品对象、需求和约束、评价方案融合起来,实现了 分布式产品设计的过程协同,为实际系统的构建提供了基本思路和模型框架。%The 21st manufacturing enterprise need a distributed product design system. This article proposes a feature algorithm to control the distributed design process. Based on it, the design objects, design requirements and constraints, the evaluation scheme are combined together and the collaborative product design is realized. It provides the fundamental thought and structure for constructing the distributed product design system.

  6. Construction Path of the Alleviation Dynamic Screening Mechanism Object for China's Rural Poverty%我国农村扶贫对象动态甄别机制的构建路径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈潇阳

    2014-01-01

    构建高效准确的贫困对象甄别机制,是扶贫开发工作顺利进行的前提和基础。针对当前我国扶贫工作中存在资源配置集中、扶贫监测滞后、贫困统计多口径等造成的扶贫对象甄别有偏,导致扶贫资源配置错位问题,从贫困对象“进入”和“退出”角度,构建了扶贫对象自愿申报、政府部门自动识别、脱贫对象主动退出、公众参与评议“四位一体”的动态甄别机制,实现贫困群体由“甄别有偏”向“高度匹配”转变,提高扶贫资源配置效率。%The construction of poor object discrimination mechanism efficiently and accurately ,is the premise and foundation to begin the poverty alleviation w ork .In view of the current poverty alleviation work in our country having poor screening resources allocation ,poverty alleviation monitoring lag ,con-centrated poverty statistics caliber w hich caused more biased ,w hich result in poor resource allocation problem ,and based on the dislocation ,this paper ,from the perspective of poor objects’“entrance”and“exit” ,constructed a dynamic supervision of“four in one” that include helping the poor voluntary declaration , automatic screening poverty alleviation for government departments ,poverty object voluntary exit ,and public participation in the appraisal object ,in order to turn the poverty groups “biased by screening” to be “height matching”,and improve the efficiency of the allocation of resources for poverty alleviation .

  7. Study on Model of Multi-Objective Optimization of Construction Waste Field Management%建筑废料现场管理多目标优化决策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛大任; 陈建国

    2012-01-01

    To achieve the optimization of decision-making of construction waste field management system, a framework for multi-objective optimization of waste management is developed considering three objectives, which are effectiveness, cost and time. A model is solved by multi-objective genetic algorithm NSGA-II. An application example is analyzed according to practical requirements and conditions, to illustrate the use of the model and to demonstrate its capabilities in generation and visualizing optimization among waste management effectiveness, cost and time.%为了研究建筑废料现场管理的优化决策问题,在明确废料现场管理有效性最大化、成本最小化和时间最小化三大目标的基础上,设计了废料管理多目标优化模型框架,建立了相应的数学模型,应用多目标遗传算法NSGA-I对模型进行求解,并借助MATLAB工具进行算法编程.通过实例应用分析,找出了各种资源因素的最佳组合方式,决策者可根据实际项目对成本、时间和废料管理有效性的要求,以及项目自身特点和资源条件,选择最为合适的废料现场管理方案.

  8. Agile Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Senta; Harris, Jim

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the art-historical canon, however it is construed, has little relevance to the selection of objects for museum-based teaching. Their contention is that all objects are fundamentally agile and capable of interrogation from any number of disciplinary standpoints, and that the canon of museum education,…

  9. 以目标管理为导向的公共组织激励机制的建构%The Construction of Objective Management of Motivation Mechanism in Public Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林首淑

    2013-01-01

    公共组织的公益性及人力资源作为特殊资源在公共组织发挥的作用越来越明显.实现有效激励与人力资源的良性互动得益于建构有效、合理的激励机制,以目标管理为导向的公共组织的激励机制的建构,更好地发挥地目标管理民主参与的特点,最大限度地激活人力资本,把组织目标与个人目标有机结合起来,提高公共组织的运作效率.因此.探讨公共组织激励存在的问题及如何建立适宜的激励机制显得尤为重要.%In view of the increasingly significant role played by public organization and human resource as a special resource , achieving effective incentive strategies and interaction of human resources depends on constructing effective and reasonable incentive mechanism. The construction of objective oriented management of incentive mechanism in public organization not only contributes to the target management of democratic participation and the activation to human capital at the most, but also contributes to the combination of organizational goal and personal goal and improving the operational efficiency of public organization. Therefore, there is a great significance in exploring the problems of incentive methods in public organization and finding the ways of establishing motivation mechanism.

  10. The syntax of naming constructions in European Portuguese dialects: variation and change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cardoso

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the syntax of naming constructions with the verb chamar ‘to call’. We show that in some varieties of European Portuguese the verb chamar displays an alternation in the expression of the named entity, which is manifested by the presence/omission of the preposition a in sentences like Nós chamamos (a isso cruzeta ‘lit. We call (to this hanger’. We will look at this phenomenon from an areal, historical and theoretical perspective, trying to relate the intricate patterns observed. We will show that the alternation with the verb chamar is attested in the course of the diachrony of Portuguese, but it is synchronically confined to two restricted geographical areas: the archipelago of the Azores and the northern region of the Portuguese continental territory. As for the theoretical analysis, we claim that both the variants involve a small clause complement structure, with the named entity in the subject position. The a that precedes the subject of the small clause is taken to be a kind of ‘dummy’ preposition that showed up as a strategy to resolve syntactic ambiguity in sentences exhibiting the verb chamar with the personal pronoun se (which were ambiguous between an impersonal and an anticausative reading.

  11. Human Resource Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Centering on strategic objective of reform and development,CIAE formulated its objectives in human resource construction for the 13th Five-year Plan period,and achieved new apparent progress in human resource construction in 2015.1 Implementation of"LONGMA Project"

  12. Trusted Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  13. Object theatre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryöppy, Merja; Heiberg, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    possibilities to emerge. We present a study in which the Object Theatre approach is applied to redesign socially shared everyday products that are located in public places. This project demonstrates how Object Theatre offers a broad perspective form which to explore and present product interactions....... In particular, it emphasises the understanding of a product by relating and changing perspectives, and takes into account context of use and diverse social settings....

  14. On the Restoration and Construction of Qie Zhong Ci to the Object-chanting Ci Theory%《箧中词》对咏物词理论的修补和建构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁美丽

    2012-01-01

    Qie Zhong Ci is an important Ci anthology in the Qing Dynasty Ci,widely admired by Ci theorists.Current studies of the anthology mainly focus on Tan Xian's theories on Ci,and the discussion of the composition of anthology.Yet few scholars have ever paid attention to the fact that a great number of object-chanting Ci are selected in Qie zhong Ci with comments.In this paper,the study mainly focuses on the Tan Xian's contribution in restoring and constructing the object-chanting Ci theory from the following four perspectives: meaning under the apparent form,representation with Bi Xing,aesthetic pursuit for naturalness and vagueness,and broad theoretical vision.%《箧中词》是清代重要的词选本,颇为词家推崇。目前对《箧中词》的研究多集中在探讨谭献的词学思想和从词选角度进行系统研究与理论阐释,而对《箧中词》编选大量咏物词并进行评点,学者们则关注较少。文章从别有怀抱的内蕴要求、比兴寄托的表现方法、幽涩自然的美学追求和广阔的理论视野四个方面来论述谭献对咏物词理论的修补和建构。

  15. Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2009-01-01

    This article attempts to create a framework for understanding modern fashion phenomena on the basis of Durkheim's sociology of religion. It focuses on Durkheim's conception of the relation between the cult and the sacred object, on his notion of 'exteriorisation', and on his theory of the social...... symbol in an attempt to describe the peculiar attraction of the fashion object and its social constitution. However, Durkheim's notions of cult and ritual must undergo profound changes if they are to be used in an analysis of fashion. The article tries to expand the Durkheimian cult, radically enlarging...... it without totally dispersing it; depicting it as held together exclusively by the sheer 'force' of the sacred object. Firstly, the article introduces the themes and problems surrounding Durkheim's conception of the sacred. Next, it briefly sketches an outline of fashion phenomena in Durkheimian categories...

  16. Two Structural Positions for Locative and Directional PPs in Norwegian Motion Constructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai Tungseth

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses two types of constructions in Norwegian where a combination of a verb of motion and a prepositional phrase are ambiguous between a reading of directed motion and a reading of located motion. Based on the differences in the syntactic behaviour of the two types of constructions with respect to a variety of tests (viz. VP constituency tests, adverbial placement, accent placement and the binding of anaphora, I argue that the two different readings have different argument structures and syntactic structures. On the directed motion reading, the PP appears low down in the verb phrase as complement to a functional head Path0, where it is interpreted as endpoint. Locative PPs, however, appear higher up in the structure as a verb phrase adjunct.

  17. GIS技术及物联网在城市物联应急平台构建中的应用%Application of GIS technology and IOT in construction of urban objects associated emergency platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晓军; 范冬萍

    2015-01-01

    In order to analyze and explore the application of GIS technology and Internet of Things(IOT)in construction of the urban objects associated emergency platform,the concepts and characteristics of GIS technology and IOT are analyzed and discussed first in this paper , and then the important role of GIS technology and IOT in urban objects associated emergency management is elaborated and the factors which affect the construction of the emergency platform are discussed. Finally the appli⁃cation of GIS technology and IOT in the emergency platform is investigated. The results show it is significant for the continuous promotion of capacity in emergency warning,intelligent detection and emergency response as well as guarantee of the unban eco⁃nomic development and the security to use the GIS technology and IOT in the field of emergency,and create the urban emergen⁃cy platform. The application of GIS technology and IOT in the emergency platform can achieve the functions of spatial data storage, sharing,acquisition,analysis and mapping,has a positive role to deal with emergencies,and can improve the management and maintenance efficiency of the urban objects associated emergency facilities.%为分析与探讨GIS技术及物联网在城市物联应急平台构建中的应用,研究了GIS技术与物联网的概念及特征,其次阐述GIS技术与物联网在城市物联应急管理中的重要作用,并对影响城市物联应急平台构建的因素进行论述,最后探讨物联网和GIS技术在城市物联应急平台构建中的应用,结果发现,在应急领域中应用GIS技术与物联网,创建城市应急管理平台,对突发事件预警、智能发现及应急处理能力进行不断提升,对确保城市经济发展与安全稳定极具重要意义。GIS与物联网在市物联应急平台构件中的应用,能够实现空间数据的存储、共享、采集、分析和制图等,有效处理应急事件,对于提高城市物联应

  18. Word Order in Adjective-Noun Pairs Inside and Outside the Prepositional Phrase: A Contribution to the 15th International Congress of Slavists (Minsk, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip R. Minlos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a statistical correlation between possessive prenominal placement and the presence of a preposition. The data from mediaeval Russian, Czech, and Croatian are validated against standard statistical measures (chisquare (X2 test and phi (φ coefficient. Different explanations for the correlation are proposed; the most natural and simple one links the syntactic feature with the phonetic chunking of preposition and adjacent possessive, strengthened by their frequent co-occurence. ____________________ В статье обсуждается статистическая корреляция между препозицией притяжательных местоимений и наличием предлога. Данные средневековых русских, чешских и хорватских памятников оцениваются по стандартным статистическим процедурам (критерий X2 и φ-коэффициент. В статье предложено несколько различных объяснений для этой корреляции; самое естественное и простое объяснение связывает эту синтаксическую особенность с фонетической: предлог со смежным притяжательным местоимением образуют единое фонетическое слово, причем это единство усиливается частым повторением этой пары в текстах.

  19. Objective becoming

    CERN Document Server

    Skow, Bradford

    2015-01-01

    Bradford Skow presents an original defense of the 'block universe' theory of time, often said to be a theory according to which time does not pass. Along the way, he provides in-depth discussions of alternative theories of time, including those in which there is 'robust passage' of time or 'objective becoming': presentism, the moving spotlight theory of time, the growing block theory of time, and the 'branching time' theory of time. Skow explains why the moving spotlight theory is the best of these arguments, and rebuts several popular arguments against the thesis that time passes. He surveys the problems that the special theory of relativity has been thought to raise for objective becoming, and suggests ways in which fans of objective becoming may reconcile their view with relativistic physics. The last third of the book aims to clarify and evaluate the argument that we should believe that time passes because, somehow, the passage of time is given to us in experience. He isolates three separate arguments thi...

  20. Surviving Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Murjas, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Surviving Objects (2012) is a devised multi-media practice-as-research performance based on extensive interviews conducted with my elderly mother and recorded on a hand-held device. Our conversations concern her experiences as a child refugee following violent deportation by the Soviet Army from Eastern Poland to Siberia (1941), and her subsequent route, via Persia, to a British-run refugee camp in Northern Rhodesia, where she remained for 6 years before arriving in the UK. In order to aid my...

  1. Applying lean thinking in construction

    OpenAIRE

    Remon Fayek Aziz; Sherif Mohamed Hafez

    2013-01-01

    The productivity of the construction industry worldwide has been declining over the past 40 years. One approach for improving the situation is using lean construction. Lean construction results from the application of a new form of production management to construction. Essential features of lean construction include a clear set of objectives for the delivery process, aimed at maximizing performance for the customer at the project level, concurrent design, construction, and the application of...

  2. 基于意向图式的多义介词on的空间隐喻认知%Research on Spacial and Metaphorical Cognition of Polysemous Preposition On Based on Image Schema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林殷

    2014-01-01

    空间概念是人类较早产生的、可以直接理解的概念,也是人们认识社会表达各种认知成果的基础。据Brown和LOB语料库统计,空间介词on在英语语言学习中占据着至关重要的地位。意象图式是认知语言中的重要概念,基于认知语言学中的意象图式来剖析介词on的空间原型义,及其在进行跨概念域转用时的隐喻映射过程,是符合人们跨概念域认知世界的过程。%The spacial concept grown early and been understandable directly .It is the basis peo-ple cognize the world and expresses kinds of cognitive achievements.According to the statistics from the corpus Brown and LOB,the spatial preposition On plays a crucial role in English language learn-ing.Image schema is an important concept in cognitive linguistics.To analyze the prototypical meaning of the spacial preposition On and the role of On in the metaphorical process of cross conceptual domain based on image schema is in line with the process that people cognize the world through cross conceptu-al domains.

  3. Objective thermomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Fülöp, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    An irreversible thermodynamical theory of solids is presented where the kinematic quantities are defined in an automatically objective way. Namely, auxiliary elements like reference frame, reference time and reference configuration are avoided by formulating the motion of the continuum on spacetime directly, utilizing the Weyl-Matolcsi description of spacetime. This restricts the range of definable kinematic quantities heavily. Solids are distinguished from fluids by possessing not only an instantaneous metric tensor but a relaxed metric, too, that represents the natural geometric structure of the solid. The comparison of the instantaneous metric to the relaxed one is the basis of the definition of the elastic state variable, the elastic deformedness tensor. Thermal expansion is conceived as the temperature dependence of the relaxed metric. As opposed to this reversible type of change, plasticity means an irreversible change in the relaxed metric, and is describable via a plastic change rate tensor. The relat...

  4. Study on cultivation objectives and curriculum system of nursing postgraduate constructed by Delphi method%Delphi法构建护理学研究生培养目标及课程体系的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋小平; 颜莉; 郑显兰; 刘贤; 魏晓琼

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To construct the specific ,detailed and operable cultivation objectives of nursing master postgraduates and curriculum system in favor of the cultivation of core competency of nursing professional mas‐ter ,so as to provide the references for the training program of medical colleges and higher nursing education management .Methods:By investigating the related literatures of training scheme of nursing academic type mas‐ter postgraduates in Chinese and English database various colleges and universities public web sites in nearly 5 years in 31 domestic and foreign universities ,and combining with Taylor’s education target model of theory frame ,Delphi specialist letter questionnaire was drafted ,a total of 2 rounds of inquiry were carried out .Statisti‐cal analysis was performed for the positive coefficient ,authoritative coefficient of expert ,expert opinion coordi‐nation degree and the mean value of indexes at all levels ,and coefficient of variation ,and to analyze the practica‐bility and significance of all indexes .Results:A total of 26 experts participated in inquiry ,value of their authority degree was 0 .88 ,and Kendall coordinated coefficient was 0 .531 ,χ2 test showed P<0 .01 ;the cultivation objec‐tives formed through two rounds of expert consultation had 9 concrete items ,including knowledge ,skills and humanistic accomplishment ;the formed curriculum system included 30 subjects totally ,in which there were 4 public obligatory courses ,6 professional basic courses ,20 professional expand option courses .Conclusion:The construction of nursing postgraduate cultivation objectives and curriculum system formed in this study were more specific and operable ,can provide references for development of postgraduate cultivation scheme of nursing profession .%[目的]构建具体、细化及可操作的护理学硕士研究生培养目标和有利于护理专业硕士生核心能力培养的课程体系,为各医学院校和高等护理教

  5. Investigation of present teaching performance assessment system problems and preposition of an appropriate model by technology: Sciences classrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Ghaderi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The common assessment method is manager assess teachers during teaching process, recruiting students’ opinions or roll call which is classified in traditional assessment methods. In this study, besides detection of present system problems, recruiting of video data as a new method is investigated to obtain a teacher performance assessment in classroom which is scientific and attributable. Finally, video data as a new way to evaluate teacher’s performance was identified as a suitable method. We argue that using of video data as a new method for evaluating the performance of teachers in the classroom in order to achieve the objectives of the performance assessment system and the current system problems was helpful.

  6. LA ENSEÑANZA UNIVERSITARIA DE LA FÍSICA: LOS OBJETOS MATERIALES Y LA CONSTRUCCIÓN DE SIGNIFICADOS CIENTIFICOS (UNIVERSITY´S PHYSICS EDUCATION: MATERIALS OBJECTS AND CONSTRUCTION OF SCIENTIFICS MEANING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castells Llavanera Marina

    2009-08-01

    Jewitt, 2001, Kress, Ogborn and Martins, 1998 to analyze the multimodal aspects of the explanation. The analysis and findings highlight the contribution of the use of exhibits and material objects relating to the construction of meaning and belief to the students.

  7. Kirchnerist construction of memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bermúdez, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    The effects on the construction of collective memory caused by the arrival of the kirchnerism to the political field have been extensively studied. That construction suffered transformations with the change of president, which have been less studied. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to present an analysis about the discursive construction of memory during Cristina Fernández de Kirchner first government. This research is part of the discourse studies, and more precisely it is part of ...

  8. Constructed Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    these systems can improve water quality, engineers and scientists construct systems that replicate the functions of natural wetlands. Constructed wetlands are treatment systems that use natural processes

  9. Understanding the small object argument

    CERN Document Server

    Garner, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The small object argument is a transfinite construction which, starting from a set of maps in a category, generates a weak factorisation system on that category. As useful as it is, the small object argument has some problematic aspects: it possesses no universal property; it does not converge; and it does not seem to be related to other transfinite constructions occurring in categorical algebra. In this paper, we give an ``algebraic'' refinement of the small object argument, cast in terms of Grandis and Tholen's natural weak factorisation systems, which rectifies each of these three deficiencies.

  10. Construction management

    CERN Document Server

    Pellicer, Eugenio; Teixeira, José C; Moura, Helder P; Catalá, Joaquín

    2014-01-01

    The management of construction projects is a wide ranging and challenging discipline in an increasingly international industry, facing continual challenges and demands for improvements in safety, in quality and cost control, and in the avoidance of contractual disputes. Construction Management grew out of a Leonardo da Vinci project to develop a series of Common Learning Outcomes for European Managers in Construction. Financed by the European Union, the project aimed to develop a library of basic materials for developing construction management skills for use in a pan-European context. Focused exclusively on the management of the construction phase of a building project from the contractor's point of view, Construction Management covers the complete range of topics of which mastery is required by the construction management professional for the effective delivery of new construction projects. With the continued internationalisation of the construction industry, Construction Management will be required rea...

  11. Bayesian Tracking of Visual Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Nanning; Xue, Jianru

    Tracking objects in image sequences involves performing motion analysis at the object level, which is becoming an increasingly important technology in a wide range of computer video applications, including video teleconferencing, security and surveillance, video segmentation, and editing. In this chapter, we focus on sequential Bayesian estimation techniques for visual tracking. We first introduce the sequential Bayesian estimation framework, which acts as the theoretic basis for visual tracking. Then, we present approaches to constructing representation models for specific objects.

  12. Object Identity in Database Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天柱

    1995-01-01

    The concept of object identity and implementation of object identity in some systems have been explained in literature.Based on an analysis on the idea of data scheme in ANSI/X3/SPARC,this paper presents the concept of full-identity,which includes entity identity,conceptual object identity,and internal object identity,In addition,the equality of objects,which is richer and more practical,is discussed based on the full identity of objects.Therefore,the semantics and constructions of the identity for the complex objects are fully observed,and some appliactions in object management,version management,and user interface are found.Also,it could support the combination of O-O model with V-O model.

  13. An Analysis of the Errors in Sentences with the Chinese Prepositional Marker "you"%以介词“由”为标记句式的偏误分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振来; 侯盼盼

    2012-01-01

    “由”是介词,常做句式标记。留学生在使用介词标记“由”构句时,经常出现偏误现象。本文从第二语言习得的角度出发,以中介语理论为指导,对北京语言大学HSK动态作文语料库中的“由”字句进行了统计,把有问题的句式进行了分类,对“由”字句的偏误现象进行研究,主要偏误类型是与介词标记“由于、从、在”等混淆而造成的,在分析偏误原因的基础上提出解决的办法。%"you" is a Chinese preposition, which is often regarded as a marker of a sentence pattern. International students often commit errors when they use it. With the help of the second language ac- quisition theories and interlanguage theories, the paper gives a statistical analysis of the sentences with the Chinese prepos Culture University and caused by its confusion itional marker "you" from HSK composition databank in Beijing Language and classifies the sentences with such errors. It concludes that the main errors are with several other Chinese prepositions and some possible solutions are pro- posed.

  14. Usability Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmesen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper Anders Søren

    2007-01-01

    Whereas research on usability predominantly employs universal definitions of the aspects that comprise usability, people experience their use of information systems through personal constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affecte...

  15. Lunar base construction requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Steve; Helleckson, Brent

    1990-01-01

    The following viewgraph presentation is a review of the Lunar Base Constructibility Study carried out in the spring and summer of 1990. The objective of the study was to develop a method for evaluating the constructibility of Phase A proposals to build facilities on orbit or on extraterrestrial surfaces. Space construction was broadly defined as all forms of assembly, disassembly, connection, disconnection, deployment, stowage, excavation, emplacement, activation, test, transportation, etc., required to create facilities in orbit and on the surfaces of other celestial bodies. It was discovered that decisions made in the face of stated and unstated assumptions early in the design process (commonly called Phase A) can lock in non-optimal construction methods. Often, in order to construct the design, alterations must be made to the design during much later phases of the project. Such 'fixes' can be very difficult, expensive, or perhaps impossible. Assessing constructibility should thus be a part of the iterative design process, starting with the Phase A studies and continuing through production. This study assumes that there exists a minimum set of key construction requirements (i.e., questions whose answers form the set of discriminators) that must be implied or specified in order to assess the constructibility of the design. This set of construction requirements constitutes a 'constructibility filter' which then becomes part of the iterative design process. Five inherently different, dichotomous design reference missions were used in the extraction of these requirements to assure the depth and breath of the list.

  16. Electrochemical construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einstein, Harry; Grimes, Patrick G.

    1983-08-23

    An electrochemical cell construction features a novel co-extruded plastic electrode in an interleaved construction with a novel integral separator-spacer. Also featured is a leak and impact resistant construction for preventing the spill of corrosive materials in the event of rupture.

  17. Boltzmann Samplers for Colored Combinatorial Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Bodini, Olivier

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we give a general framework for the Boltzmann generation of colored objects belonging to combinatorial constructible classes. We propose an intuitive notion called profiled objects which allows the sampling of size-colored objects (and also of k-colored objects) although the corresponding class cannot be described by an analytic ordinary generating function.

  18. Instructional Objectives: Selecting and Devising Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileff, Milo

    2013-01-01

    In the present paper and the discussion that follows, the author presents aspects of test construction and a careful description of instructional objectives. Constructing tests involves several stages such as describing language objectives, selecting appropriate test task, devising and assembling test tasks, and devising a scoring system for…

  19. Conflict in writing: Actions and objects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galbraith, David; Baaijen, Veerle Marije; Cislaru, Georgeta

    2015-01-01

    This chapter argues that writing involves an interaction between conflicting cognitive systems, one designed for the construction of mental objects and the other for the taking of actions. It characterises the construction of mental objects as a problem-solving process involving the retrieval of con

  20. On the Teaching System of "Triple Subjects Plus Dual Objects" and Its Construction%论教学三主体双客体系统及其构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕凌霄

    2012-01-01

    有关教学主客体的研究是当代教育理论的一个重要课题。从宏观教学过程这一概念出发,在理论分析和概念识读的基础上,提出教学系统的三主体双客体结构理论。按照这一理论,教学系统由三类主体(教的主体、学的主体和管理主体)和两类客体(主体性客体和单纯性客体)构成。用这一理论来指导教学工作实践,可以充分调动教学过程中的一切积极因素,协调构成教学过程的各种要素的关系,促进教学质量和教学效率的提高。%Research on the subjects and objects of teaching has always been critical in the research field of modern educational theories. Proceeding from the concept of macro teaching process, and on the basis of theoretical analy- sis and conceptual differentiation, the structural theory of "triple subjects and dual objects" is proposed in the pa- per. Under this theoretical framework, the system of teaching is viewed as comprising three subjects, namely, sub- ject of instruction, subject of learning and subject of management, and two objects, namely, subjective object and singular object. With this theory guiding teaching practices, all positive elements in the teaching process can be ef- fectively mobilized and coordinated to produce the most desirous teaching effect and teaching proficiency.

  1. Lean Construction Implementation in the Saudi Arabian Construction Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil Ghazi Sarhan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA has witnessed a huge increase in construction during the last two decades. However, many projects experienced time delays, cost overruns and the generation of massive amounts of waste. To address these challenges, lean construction has been introduced into the Saudi construction industry; however, it is still in its infancy. This study therefore investigates the current state of lean construction implementation in the construction industry in the KSA. The objectives are to identify: the types of construction waste, level of use of tools that support the implementation of lean construction, stages of application of lean methods, and the benefits of lean construction. To achieve these objectives, a structured questionnaire survey of 282 construction professionals was carried out. After the analysis of the collected data using mean score and Anova test, the following conclusions were made.  In the construction industry in the KSA, waiting is the most common type of waste, while Computer Aided Design (CAD is the conventional tool supporting the implementation of lean construction. Furthermore, the data suggests that lean construction is most commonly used in the construction stage of projects while customer satisfaction is the main benefit derived from lean construction practices. This study concludes that the level of implementation of lean construction in the KSA construction industry is increasing. The results will help benchmark the current state of lean construction implementation, which will enable the construction industry to identify strategies to implement lean construction in Saudi Arabia in accordance with their needs and project goals, to achieve better productivity.

  2. VENTILATION NEEDS DURING CONSTRUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.R. Gorrell

    1998-07-23

    The purpose of this analysis is to determine ventilation needs during construction and development of the subsurface repository and develop systems to satisfy those needs. For this analysis, construction is defined as pre-emplacement excavation and development is excavation that takes place simultaneously with emplacement. The three options presented in the ''Overall Development and Emplacement Ventilation Systems'' analysis (Reference 5.5) for development ventilation will be applied to construction ventilation in this analysis as well as adding new and updated ventilation factors to each option for both construction and development. The objective of this analysis is to develop a preferred ventilation system to support License Application Design. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Description of ventilation conditions; (2) Ventilation factors (fire hazards, dust control, construction logistics, and monitoring and control systems); (3) Local ventilation alternatives; (4) Global ventilation options; and (5) Evaluation of options.

  3. 中小城市公共空间更新目标系统构建%The objective system construction in small and medium-sized city renewal of public space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张景礴

    2014-01-01

    公共空间更新所涉及到的内容非常广泛,跟其相关的不仅仅是物质环境,还包括非物质因素,是个复杂的系统,因此,我们不能仅仅从一个角度来解决公共空间更新这个复杂性问题,应该进行整体性的思考。本文以系统的方法论作为指导,借助目标系统理论,对于中小城市公共空间更新目标系统进行分析研究与构建。%Renewal of public space contains extensive contents, and the corelation is not only the physical environment, also includes non-material factors, it is a complex system, therefore, we can not solve the complexity problem of renewal of public space only from a single perspective , we need to think from the overal consideration. The paper analysis the objective system of smal and medium-sized city renewal of public space based on the system methodology as a guide, with the help of the objective system theory, and establish the scientific and reasonable objective system.

  4. Ship construction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eyres, D.J; Bruce, G.J

    2012-01-01

    .... "Acting as both a professional reference on current approaches in shipyard practice and a comprehensive introduction for students in any marine discipline, Ship Construction covers the complete...

  5. Constructive Fun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanek, Donald E.

    1994-01-01

    Compares and reviews currently available brands of steel construction sets that are useful to physics teachers for building demonstrations, prototypes of mechanisms, robotics, and remote control devices. (ZWH)

  6. Zero-Copy Objects System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Zero-Copy Objects System software enables application data to be encapsulated in layers of communication protocol without being copied. Indirect referencing enables application source data, either in memory or in a file, to be encapsulated in place within an unlimited number of protocol headers and/or trailers. Zero-copy objects (ZCOs) are abstract data access representations designed to minimize I/O (input/output) in the encapsulation of application source data within one or more layers of communication protocol structure. They are constructed within the heap space of a Simple Data Recorder (SDR) data store to which all participating layers of the stack must have access. Each ZCO contains general information enabling access to the core source data object (an item of application data), together with (a) a linked list of zero or more specific extents that reference portions of this source data object, and (b) linked lists of protocol header and trailer capsules. The concatenation of the headers (in ascending stack sequence), the source data object extents, and the trailers (in descending stack sequence) constitute the transmitted data object constructed from the ZCO. This scheme enables a source data object to be encapsulated in a succession of protocol layers without ever having to be copied from a buffer at one layer of the protocol stack to an encapsulating buffer at a lower layer of the stack. For large source data objects, the savings in copy time and reduction in memory consumption may be considerable.

  7. Cultura de organizações públicas de saúde: notas sobre a construção de um objeto The culture of public health organizations: notes on the construction of an object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeni Vaitsman

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Nestas notas, defino alguns conceitos necessários para a construção do objeto "cultura de organizações públicas de saúde". O conceito de cultura é amplo e deve ser ajustado aos tipos de fenômenos particulares que se pretende analisar. Tal como é percebida em uma organização pública de saúde, a cultura implica uma imbricação de fenômenos de distintas ordens, analisados mediante os conceitos de cultura política, cultura cívica, cultura organizacional e cultura profissional.The author defines some central concepts for construction of the subject of "public health organizations". The concept of culture is exceedingly broad, and must be adjusted to the types of particular phenomena analyzed. As perceived in a public health organization, culture implies phenomena belonging to different social dimensions and which can be grasped through the concepts of political, civic, organizational, and professional culture.

  8. The Construction and Implementation of an Object-Oriented Learning Analytics Model%面向对象的学习分析模型的构建与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑晓薇; 刘静; 高悦

    2016-01-01

    Learning analytics is the primary means of digitizing performance evaluation of learning.It is a focus of current research in the field of educational technology. In order to make learning analytics being more targeted guide the teaching process,this paper builds an object-oriented model for learning analytics from the perspective of stakeholders. The features of model is based on the object-oriented methodological theory to create learning objects classes which have the encapsulation nature of objects and the inheritance nature of classes.We design a set of methods according to the constrains of applied environment and the directivity of learning analytics goals.It can be used to quantify and calculate the variable of learning data and then targeted implement interventions in teaching. This paper makes contrast experiments for the teaching of computer operating system course as example to prove the reliability and validity of this model.Experimental results show that the object-oriented model for learning analytics can optimize the teaching process,it provide references and guidance for teaching and learning.This model enhances the students learning effect effectively and realizes personalized learning.%学习分析作为数字化学习绩效评价的主要手段,是目前教育技术领域研究的热点之一。为了使学习分析能够更有针对性地指导教学过程,该文从利益相关者的角度构建了面向对象的学习分析模型,其特征是基于面向对象方法学的理论创建学习对象类,具有对象的封装性和类的继承性。根据应用环境的约束和学习分析目标的方向性设计了一组方法,可对学习数据变量进行量化计算,实现在教学过程中有针对性地实施干预。以计算机操作系统课程教学为例,采用对照实验来验证该模型的可靠性与有效性。实验结果表明,面向对象的学习分析模型可以优化教学过程、为教与学提供参照与

  9. Object-oriented programming with gradual abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt; Thomsen, Lone Leth; Thomsen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    We describe an experimental object-oriented programming language, ASL2, that supports program development by means of a series of abstraction steps. The language allows immediate object construction, and it is possible to use the constructed objects for concrete problem solving tasks. Classes...... restrictive. As a central mechanism, weakly classified objects are allowed to borrow methods from each other. ASL2 supports class generalization, as a counterpart to class specialization and inheritance in mainstream object-oriented programming languages. The final abstraction step discussed in this paper...... and class hierarchies can be derived from the objects - via gradual abstraction steps. We introduce two levels of object classification, called weak and strong object classification. Strong object classification relies on conventional classes, whereas weak object classification is looser, and less...

  10. Applying lean thinking in construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remon Fayek Aziz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of the construction industry worldwide has been declining over the past 40 years. One approach for improving the situation is using lean construction. Lean construction results from the application of a new form of production management to construction. Essential features of lean construction include a clear set of objectives for the delivery process, aimed at maximizing performance for the customer at the project level, concurrent design, construction, and the application of project control throughout the life cycle of the project from design to delivery. An increasing number of construction academics and professionals have been storming the ramparts of conventional construction management in an effort to deliver better value to owners while making real profits. As a result, lean-based tools have emerged and have been successfully applied to simple and complex construction projects. In general, lean construction projects are easier to manage, safer, completed sooner, and cost less and are of better quality. Significant research remains to complete the translation to construction of lean thinking in Egypt. This research will discuss principles, methods, and implementation phases of lean construction showing the waste in construction and how it could be minimized. The Last Planner System technique, which is an important application of the lean construction concepts and methodologies and is more prevalent, proved that it could enhance the construction management practices in various aspects. Also, it is intended to develop methodology for process evaluation and define areas for improvement based on lean approach principles.

  11. Pseudorandomness and Combinatorial Constructions

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    In combinatorics, the probabilistic method is a very powerful tool to prove the existence of combinatorial objects with interesting and useful properties. Explicit constructions of objects with such properties are often very difficult, or unknown. In computer science, probabilistic algorithms are sometimes simpler and more efficient than the best known deterministic algorithms for the same problem. Despite this evidence for the power of random choices, the computational theory of pseudorandom...

  12. Early object relations into new objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    . Pain deprived of meaning is buried as neurosis. As we see in John's story, experience that cannot be integrated at the time is locked away from whatever developmental progression has occurred. Intolerable affects and ideas require particular circumstances of object relation and verbalization such as are found in the context of psychoanalysis and arrived at through psychoanalytic interpretation. Or, as in John's case, they may give way only slowly and irregularly over long stretches of time, when subjected to life experiences in the company of new object relations. Broadly stated, the Freud-Dann paper helps us to appreciate that there are several pathways of protection and growth in the ego that involve the discovery or construction of new objects. Family-romance fantasies are a common manifestation of new-object phenomena. Transitional object phenomena are also related. For some individuals at a particular time or over a span of time, providing the right circumstances for the resumption of maturational and developmental growth is all it takes to make them whole. Changes in the adaptive ego are sufficient to alleviate the conflicts stemming from the neurotic ego. For others, depending upon the degree of their neurotic impairment, or for the same individual under other circumstances, therapeutic change in the deepest sense demands the relatively unconditional presence of the interactive and interpreting other. Children of the storm who come in for shelter and warmth may thrive, but they also require a means of getting at the storm in their core that has been internalized as part of the ego's survival mechanism. What can be extracted from the poignant story of the Bulldogs Bank children about current child-analytic technique? The psychoanalytic piano now may be more formally conceptualized as having white as well as black keys. Most analyses, adult and child, have been conducted as though the "black keys"--pressure to mastery through repetition and its subsequent

  13. A Concurrent Object-Oriented Language Ondine

    OpenAIRE

    Arisawa, Makoto; Ogihara, Takeshi; Kajihara, Yoichi

    1988-01-01

    A new concurrent object-oriented language Ondine is described. The Ondine design goals are strong information hiding within objects, concurrent programming, and pointerless programming. Ondine has ordinary control statements and types so that Ada or C programmers can easily handle it. By introducing by copy and by object assignment/argument passing, an Ondine object can be accessed from only one other object thus accomplishing pointerless structure. Ondine channels are used for constructing o...

  14. Sound objects – Auditory objects – Musical objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens

    2015-01-01

    The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an ‘auditory object’ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that ‘sound objects’ are the fundamental perceptual units in ‘musical objects......’. In this paper, I review recent neurocognitive research suggesting that the auditory system is sensitive to structural information about real-world objects. Instead of focusing solely on perceptual sound features as determinants of auditory objects, I propose that real-world object properties are inherent...

  15. Sound objects – Auditory objects – Musical objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortkjær, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The auditory system transforms patterns of sound energy into perceptual objects but the precise definition of an ‘auditory object’ is much debated. In the context of music listening, Pierre Schaeffer argued that ‘sound objects’ are the fundamental perceptual units in ‘musical objects......’. In this paper, I review recent neurocognitive research suggesting that the auditory system is sensitive to structural information about real-world objects. Instead of focusing solely on perceptual sound features as determinants of auditory objects, I propose that real-world object properties are inherent...

  16. Images of Environmental Management: Competing Metaphors in Focus Group Discussions of Swedish Environmental Quality Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibeck, Victoria

    2012-04-01

    In managing environmental problems, several countries have chosen the management by objectives (MBO) approach. This paper investigates how focus group participants from the Swedish environmental administration used metaphors to describe the mode of organization needed to attain environmental objectives. Such analysis can shed light on how an MBO system is perceived by actors and how it works in practice. Although the Swedish government intended to stimulate broad-based cooperation among many actors, participants often saw themselves as located at a certain "level," i.e., "higher" or "lower," in the MBO system—that is, their conceptions corresponded to a traditional, hierarchical interpretation of MBO. Prepositions such as "in" and "out" contributed to feelings of inclusion and exclusion on the part of MBO actors. However, horizontal metaphors merged with vertical ones, indicating ongoing competition for the right to interpret how the system of environmental objectives should best be managed. The paper concludes that any organization applying MBO could benefit from discussing alternate ways of talking and thinking about its constituent "levels."

  17. Object-oriented programming with gradual abstraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt; Thomsen, Lone Leth; Thomsen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    We describe an experimental object-oriented programming language, ASL2, that supports program development by means of a series of abstraction steps. The language allows immediate object construction, and it is possible to use the constructed objects for concrete problem solving tasks. Classes...... restrictive. As a central mechanism, weakly classified objects are allowed to borrow methods from each other. ASL2 supports class generalization, as a counterpart to class specialization and inheritance in mainstream object-oriented programming languages. The final abstraction step discussed in this paper...

  18. Scandinavian Object Shift and Optimality Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engels, Eva; Vikner, Sten

    This study presents an account of object shift, a word order phenomenon found in most of the Scandinavian languages where an object occurs unexpectedly to the left and not to the right of a sentential adverbial. The book examines object shift across many of the Scandinavian languages and dialects...... for the variation as well as the interaction of object shift with other syntactic constructions such as verb second, other verb movements, double object constructions, particle verbs and causative verbs. The book moves on to investigate the interaction with remnant VP-topicalisation in great detail. With new...

  19. Research of Eliminating Occlusion in Visual Construction of Three-Dimensional Objects%三维物体视觉测量重构中解决遮挡问题的方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何炳蔚; 林东艺; 陈志鹏; 丁辉

    2011-01-01

    利用视觉技术自动获取未知物体三维模型的过程中,如何有效解决视觉遮挡问题是研究的难点.因此,提出一种能够合理解决视觉遮挡的视觉规划新方法,该方法将物体重建过程分成360°侧面重建和上表面重建两个步骤.侧面重建中,首先预测出遮挡部分的轮廓模型,结合可视空间确定出消除遮挡的视点位置.当物体侧面信息获取完整后,通过分析物体上表面边界点的可视性,将视觉系统能够获得最大上表面信息的空间位置定义为最优翻转视点.针对上表面重建过程中的遮挡问题,提出以遮挡边界连线的法矢为依据,确定解决遮挡问题的规划方案.最后通过三维实体模型的重构实验,验证所提方法的可行性.%How to solve the occlusion problem effectively is a difficult subject during the progress of acquiring unknown object's three-dimensional (3D) digital model. So a new view planning which can cope with occlusion correctly is proposed. The reconstruction progress is divided into two steps: 360°side surface reconstruction and upper surface reconstruction. Firstly, the contour predictable model of the occlusion is acquired and the position coping with the occlusion information is obtained with the visible region. Secondly, after the completion of side surface reconstruction, the visible criterion of the boundaries of the upper surface of the object is predicted and the best turnover angle of the vision system is defined where the vision system can acquire the maximal information of the upper surface. And then, the normal vector of the line connecting the occlusion boundary points is calculated, based on which a planning scheme to solve the occlusion is proposed. Finally, the experimental result of reconstructing the 3D real model shows that the method is feasible in practical implementation.

  20. War Journalism and 'Objectivity'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annabel McGoldrick

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This article opens by considering an apparent paradox. Many professional journalists, working on many media in many countries, consider themselves 'objective'. They do not, at least, set out to skew their coverage of important issues in favour of one side or the other. And yet much of their coverage of conflicts shows a discernible dominant pattern of War Journalism - biased in favour of war. This is not because of a lack of objectivity, the article suggests, but a surfeit. The set of conventions many editors and reporters regard as defining 'objective' journalism arose in response to economic and political conditions which rewarded news that could commend itself as unobjectionable to the maximum number of potential customers. Three of the most important conventions privilege official sources; a dualistic construction of stories and event, over process. Each of these, when applied to the representation of conflicts, leads readers and audiences - or leaves them - to over-value violent, reactive responses and under-value non-violent, developmental responses. Industry conventions sit uneasily alongside equally time-honoured expectations of journalism. These are encoded in rules and regulations governing the content of broadcast news, in many jurisdictions which have a public service concept for radio and television. In some respects, War Journalism can be shown to make it more difficult for broadcast news services to fulfil their public service obligations. Awareness is now growing, of the tension between these two pressures on journalism and its influence on the way pressing public debates are shaped and mediated. More Peace Journalism would help to bring public service news back into line with legitimate public expectations.

  1. 高校图书馆信息素养教育的对象、方式与模式、建设与展望%The object, methods and model, construction and prospect of information literacy education in academic library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许丹; 郭继军

    2016-01-01

    The construction and innovation of information literacy education in academic library were described in terms of its definition, object, methods and model, such as optimizing course system, strengthening librarian team construction, exploring innovative mechanism of information literacy education, and establishing teaching evaluation system for information literacy education.%以高校图书馆信息素养教育为研究对象,从信息素养的含义、信息素养教育对象、信息素养教育方式及模式对信息素养教育的建设及创新进行了展望,如优化课程体系设置、加强图书馆员队伍建设、探索信息素养教育创新机制及建立教学评估体系。

  2. Construction aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, T.I.; Bolen, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    Construction aggregates, primarily stone, sand and gravel, are recovered from widespread naturally occurring mineral deposits and processed for use primarily in the construction industry. They are mined, crushed, sorted by size and sold loose or combined with portland cement or asphaltic cement to make concrete products to build roads, houses, buildings, and other structures. Much smaller quantities are used in agriculture, cement manufacture, chemical and metallurgical processes, glass production and many other products.

  3. Responsible construction?

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Eric; Lee,Angela; WU, SONG; Mathison, Gill

    2015-01-01

    The ability of the construction industry to innovate in order to improve its practice has been widely debated over the years. As more and more organisations in other sectors, globally, are addressing 21st century consumer challenges: encompassing fair-trade, ethically sourced and more recycled products; and are reporting on their corporate responsibility performance (such as Marks and Spencer's Plan A, The Co-operative, The Body Shop etc), isn't it about time the construction industry followe...

  4. Quasi-objects, Cult Objects and Fashion Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjørn Schiermer

    2011-01-01

    This article attempts to rehabilitate the concept of fetishism and to contribute to the debate on the social role of objects as well as to fashion theory. Extrapolating from Michel Serres’ theory of the quasi-objects, I distinguish two phenomenologies possessing almost opposite characteristics....... These two phenomenologies are, so I argue, essential to quasi-object theory, yet largely ignored by Serres’ sociological interpreters. They correspond with the two different theories of fetishism found in Marx and Durkheim, respectively. In the second half of the article, I introduce the fashion object...... as a unique opportunity for studying the interchange between these two forms of fetishism and their respective phenomenologies. Finally, returning to Serres, I briefly consider the theoretical consequences of introducing the fashion object as a quasi-object....

  5. A double dissociation between linguistic and perceptual representations of spatial relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmerer, D; Tranel, D

    2000-07-01

    This paper explores from a neuropsychological perspective the relation between the meanings of English locative prepositions (e.g., in, on, above, below) and the kinds of representations that are used for many visuospatial processes such as recognising, drawing, and constructing spatially complex objects. One possibility that has been proposed by some psycholinguists is that the meanings of prepositions are the same as the representations used in these other processes. An alternative possibility, which has been proposed by a different group of researchers, is that the relation is more distant such that the meanings of prepositions constitute language-specific semantic structures that are distinct from the representations that underlie many visuospatial abilities. Here we report a detailed assessment of the linguistic as well as perceptual and cognitive representations of spatial relationships in two brain-damaged subjects. Four tests were administered that involve both the production and comprehension of English locative prepositions. In addition, four standardised neuropsychological tests that probe high-level nonlinguistic visuospatial perception and cognition were administered. Case 1 was significantly impaired on all of the preposition tests but was normal on all of the visuospatial tests. In striking contrast, Case 2 was normal on all of the preposition tests but was significantly impaired on all of the visuospatial tests. The subjects also had entirely different brain lesions: Case 1 had a left-hemisphere lesion in the frontoparietal region, and Case 2 had a right-hemisphere lesion in the frontoparietal and temporal regions. Together, the results constitute a "double dissociation," suggesting that the preposition tests and the visuospatial tests require cognitively and neurally distinct mechanisms that can be disrupted independently of each other. We interpret the data as supporting the second possibility described-namely, that the meanings of locative

  6. The subjective experience of object recognition: comparing metacognition for object detection and object categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuwese, Julia D I; van Loon, Anouk M; Lamme, Victor A F; Fahrenfort, Johannes J

    2014-05-01

    Perceptual decisions seem to be made automatically and almost instantly. Constructing a unitary subjective conscious experience takes more time. For example, when trying to avoid a collision with a car on a foggy road you brake or steer away in a reflex, before realizing you were in a near accident. This subjective aspect of object recognition has been given little attention. We used metacognition (assessed with confidence ratings) to measure subjective experience during object detection and object categorization for degraded and masked objects, while objective performance was matched. Metacognition was equal for degraded and masked objects, but categorization led to higher metacognition than did detection. This effect turned out to be driven by a difference in metacognition for correct rejection trials, which seemed to be caused by an asymmetry of the distractor stimulus: It does not contain object-related information in the detection task, whereas it does contain such information in the categorization task. Strikingly, this asymmetry selectively impacted metacognitive ability when objective performance was matched. This finding reveals a fundamental difference in how humans reflect versus act on information: When matching the amount of information required to perform two tasks at some objective level of accuracy (acting), metacognitive ability (reflecting) is still better in tasks that rely on positive evidence (categorization) than in tasks that rely more strongly on an absence of evidence (detection).

  7. Construction safety

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Rita Yi Man

    2013-01-01

    A close-to-ideal blend of suburb and city, speedy construction of towers of Babylon, the sparkling proportion of glass and steel buildings’ facade at night showcase the wisdom of humans. They also witness the footsteps, sweats and tears of architects and engineers. Unfortunately, these signatures of human civilizations are swathed in towering figures of construction accidents. Fretting about these on sites, different countries adopt different measures on sites. This book firstly sketches the construction accidents on sites, followed by a review on safety measures in some of the developing countries such as Bermuda, Egypt, Kuwait and China; as well as developed countries, for example, the United States, France and Singapore. It also highlights the enormous compensation costs with the courts’ experiences in the United Kingdom and Hong Kong.

  8. OBJECTIVITY REQUIREMENT FOR FLUID DYNAMICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹文楠

    2003-01-01

    A new flow theory is established through the objectivity requirement on the fluid dynamics. It was known that inhomogeneous fluid motion gave rise to viscous force while the selection of observers on different space-time points would change such an inhomogeneous character. Therefore, when the viscous force was considered as an objective existence foreign to the selection of observers, the form invariances of viscous force and momentum equation under local rotation transformation required a new dynamic field,namely the vortex field to be introduced. Then the dynamical equations of all flow fields were obtained through constructing the Lagrangian density of fluid system and using the variational approach of energy.

  9. The Interpretation of Object Shift and Optimality Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    2001-01-01

    Diesing (1996, 1997) observes that the interpretations of object-shifted objects and non-object-shifted objects in Icelandic object shift constructions differ along lines very similar to the interpretation differences between scrambled and non-scrambled objects in e.g. German. The present paper a...

  10. New Ideas for School Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producers' Council, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Present educators, architects, engineers, and building product manufacturers with a medium of common interest for discussion of mutual school construction problems, objectives, needs, ideas, capabilities and limitations. Contents include--(1) modern wood construction, (2) school room in a steel mill, (3) masonry in new school design, (4) the…

  11. 基于CDIO的《数据库原理及应用》课程群能力培养目标体系构建%Construction of CDIO-based competency objective system forthe curriculum group of 《database theory and application》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿英; 陈军霞; 任飞飞

    2012-01-01

    After analyzing the problem occurred in the teaching system of curriculum group, we construct the CDIO-based competency objective system for the curriculum group to solve the problem of "competency objective absent "and " knowledge dominant". The guarantee system for competency objective system is formed by following actions. The knowledge structure for curriculum group is integrated and the organization of teaching content is leaded by competency objective and the course design is optimized.%分析了《数据库原理及应用》课程群现行教学体系中存在的问题,针对该课程群能力“目标缺位”、“知识本位”等关键问题,引入CDIO的工程教育理念,构建课程群的能力培养目标体系,提出整合《数据库原理及应用》课程群知识结构,并利用能力目标引领教学内容改革,优化课程设计环节等措施,从而有效保障了该课程群能力目标体系的实现.

  12. Layout Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Palsberg, Jens; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    We design a system for generating newspaper layout proposals. The input to the system consists of editorial information (text, pictures, etc) and style information (non-editorial information that specifies the aesthetic appearance of a layout). We consider the automation of layout construction...

  13. Construction work

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Construction work on building 179 will start on the 16th February 2004 and continue until November 2004. The road between buildings 179 and 158 will temporarily become a one way street from Route Democrite towards building 7. The parking places between buildings 179 and 7 will become obsolete. The ISOLDE collaboration would like to apologize for any inconveniences.

  14. Layout Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Palsberg, Jens; Schmidt, Erik Meineche

    We design a system for generating newspaper layout proposals. The input to the system consists of editorial information (text, pictures, etc) and style information (non-editorial information that specifies the aesthetic appearance of a layout). We consider the automation of layout construction...

  15. Complex Predicates : Verbal Complexes, Resultative Constructions, and Particle Verbs in German

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    In this book, I presented analyses for auxiliaries, subject and object control verbs, subject and object raising verbs, copula constructions, subject and object predicative constructions, depictive predicates, resultative predicate constructions, and particle verbs. The depictive predicates were ana

  16. The Roles of Verb Semantics, Entrenchment, and Morphophonology in the Retreat from Dative Argument-Structure Overgeneralization Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambridge, Ben; Pine, Julian M.; Rowland, Caroline F.; Chang, Franklin

    2012-01-01

    Children (aged five-to-six and nine-to-ten years) and adults rated the acceptability of well-formed sentences and argument-structure overgeneralization errors involving the prepositional-object and double-object dative constructions (e.g. "Marge pulled the box to Homer/*Marge pulled Homer the box"). In support of the entrenchment hypothesis, a…

  17. 试论海洋科学专业的培养目标与专业能力体系建构——以钦州学院为例%Construction of Training Objective and Professional Competence System on Marine Science Profession——A Case Study of Qinzhou University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘雄; 钟运生; 杨斌; 张晨晓; 银建军

    2012-01-01

    教学型地方高校的海洋科学专业,要克服在人才培养目标和培养方案上简单向研究型大学看齐的弊端,就要从科学客观的专业定位及由定位确定的人才培养目标出发,精细设计突出应用型的专业能力体系,要充分考虑专业目标与职业目标、"学科知识体系"与"职业素质体系"、学生对学科知识的驾驭能力与运用知识解决实际问题的能力等因素。依据应用型的定位和培养目标,建构科学的"教育性知识体系",创新人才培养模式。%It is necessary for the marine science profession in a teaching-intensive local university to overcome the malprac-tice in training objective and training programmes that simply copy the example of research-intensive university. Teachers should start from scientific and objective professional position and its personnel training objectives to carefully design a y system which highlights applied professional ability. Fully think over the professional objective and career objective, "the subject knowledge hi-erarchy" and "the career quality system", students' abilities to master subject knowledge and to apply knowledge to solve practi-cal problems, etc. Construct scientific "educational knowledge system" and innovate talent training model based on the applica-tion-oriented position and training objectives.

  18. PODI AND ODI IN CLAUSE CONSTRUCTION OF KEMAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Wayan Budiarta

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article reveals podi and odi in clause construction of Kemak. Specifically, this article is aimed at finding out in what construction  podi and odi appear. Moreover, this article is also aimed at finding out the function of podi and odi in the clause construction of Kemak. Before exploring podi and odi in clause construction, the first discussion will examine the morphology of the verb of Kemak to find out how the verbs are formed in Kemak as they have the main role to fill the predicate. The discussion continues to examine the clause with nonverbal (verbless and verbal predicate. Clause with nonvebral (verbless predicate will begin the discussion on clause construction in Kemak. Then, the discussion goes to clause with verbal predicate. The clause with verbal predicate includes intransitive and transtive. The disscussion of transitive clause covers monotransitive and  ditransitive clause. The  study on transitive clause is related to the presence of podi and odi in the construction.The result shows that all verbs are basic verbs. Verbs in Kemak are morphologically unmarked (no affixes and there is no agreement between the verb and its arguments. The clause with nonverbal predicate in Kemak is filled by  noun, adjective, numeral, and prepositional phrase. Clause with nonverbal predicate requires one argument  functioning as grammatical subject. As cluase with nonverbal predicate, intransitive clause in Kemak also requires one argument  functioning as grammatical subject. Meanwhile, monotransitive clause requires two arguments, preverbal and postverbal argument. Ditranstive clause requires three arguments, one preverbal and two postverbal argument. Moreover, it was found that  podi appears in ditransitive clause (applicative/benefactive construction. Podi has the function to increase the verb valence from monotransitive into ditransitive. Meanwhile, odi appears in monotransitive clause  The presence of odi in monotrasitive is as the

  19. Scandinavian Object Shift and Optimality Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engels, Eva; Vikner, Sten

    This study presents an account of object shift, a word order phenomenon found in most of the Scandinavian languages where an object occurs unexpectedly to the left and not to the right of a sentential adverbial. The book examines object shift across many of the Scandinavian languages and dialects......, and analyses the variation, for example whether object shift is optional or obligatory, whether it applies only to pronouns or other objects as well, and whether it applies to adverbials. The authors show that optimality theory, traditionally used in phonology, is a useful framework for accounting...... for the variation as well as the interaction of object shift with other syntactic constructions such as verb second, other verb movements, double object constructions, particle verbs and causative verbs. The book moves on to investigate the interaction with remnant VP-topicalisation in great detail. With new...

  20. An Objective Evaluation of Determinants of Construction Project Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    Management Institute. pp. 13-2 1. 6 6p 7 or all parties to a project. A central theme throughout many of the articles is the different measures of success...estimated ’for low or negative factor levels is less than (or greater than) zero. .HEDULE PERFORMANCE FACTOR BETTER LOWER % DIFF SIGN MEASURE LL LEL EBM

  1. ROSS: An Object-Oriented Language for Constructing Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    W. Giarla, S. Narain, E. Cesar , and S. Turner, R-3158-AF, October 1984. Fast Concurrent Simulation Using the Time Warp Mechanism, Part I: Local Contru... Villanueva , and H. M. Markowitz, The Simscript H Pmoramming Language, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1968. Klahr, P., J. Ellis, W. Giarla, S...Narain, E. Cesar , and S. Turner, TWIRL Tactical Warfare in the ROSS Lanuage, The Rand Corporation, R.3158-AF, October 1984. Klahr, P., and W. S

  2. Model for setting priority construction project objectives aligned with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    revealed that the provision of work opportunities to Small, Micro- and Medium. Enterprises ...... Both males and females equally view the maintenance of performance to ...... Journal of the South African Institution of Civil Engineering,. 47(2), pp.

  3. Selecting a Reference Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2011-01-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected.…

  4. Modelling Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart

    2009-01-01

    There are many different notations and formalisms for modelling business processes and workflows. These notations and formalisms have been introduced with different purposes and objectives. Later, influenced by other notations, comparisons with other tools, or by standardization efforts, these no...

  5. Sandwich construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, A.

    A form of composites known as structural sandwich construction is presented in terms of materials used, design details for solving edging and attachment problems, and charts of design material analysis. Sandwich construction is used in nearly all commercial airliners and helicopters, and military air and space vehicles, and it is shown that this method can stiffen a structure without causing a weight increase. The facing material can be made of 2024 or 7075 aluminum alloy, titanium, or stainless steel, and the core material can be wood or foam. The properties of paper honeycomb and various aluminum alloy honeycombs are presented. Factors pertaining to adhesive materials are discussed, including products given off during cure, bonding pressure, and adaptability. Design requirements and manufacturing specifications are resolved using numerous suggestions.

  6. Fireplace construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billmeyer, T.F.; Faehling, F.L.

    1979-05-08

    A prebuilt fireplace construction for installation in a building structure, such as a mobile home, is presented. The construction includes a firebox having an open side and a combustion gas outlet adapted to be placed in fluid communication with a flue. A transparent door is provided for substantially sealing the open side and a housing at least partially surrounds the firebox in close proximity thereto to define an air space therebetween. The air space has a relatively low inlet and a relatively high outlet. A conduit isolated from the air space is provided and is adapted to be placed in fluid communication with a source of outside air. The conduit opens into the firebox to provide combustion air. A baffle is interposed between the opening of the conduit into the firebox and the combustion area thereof.

  7. Exploring object-oriented technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos Pollan, Raul

    2000-01-01

    Object oriented technologies are the corner stone of modern software development. A piece of software is today conceived, constructed and tested as a set of objects interacting with each other, rather than as a large sequential program. OO is present throughout the whole software life cycle allowing for maintainable code re-use, clean design and manageable complexity. OO is also the seed upon which other technologies are being built and deployed, such as distributed computing, component models, open interoperability, etc.This series of three seminars will provide a pragmatic overview on the main ideas behind OO software development and will explain the inner workings of the most outstanding technologies being built on OO, such as UML, CORBA, Component Models, Agent Oriented Computing, Business Objects, etc.

  8. Specification of Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten U.

    relation over two objects and an event. In the model, objects can be composed by parallel composition, encapsulation, and hiding of operations. Refinement between objects is defined as fair trace inclusion.A specification language is presented where objects can be specified operationally by abstract......Concurrent objects are named concurrent processes that interact by invoking each other's operations. We describe how such concurrent objects can be specified, how objects can be composed, and how it can be shown that one object refines another.First a model is defined, based on a transition...

  9. Methodology based in the fuzzy logic for constructing the objective functions in optimization problems of nuclear fuel: application to the cells radial design; Metodologia basada en logica difusa para construir las funciones objetivo en problemas de optimizacion de combustible nuclear: aplicacion al diseno radial de celdas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barragan M, A.M.; Martin del Campo M, C.; Palomera P, M.A. [FI-UNAM, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: ale_bar_m@yahoo.com.mx

    2005-07-01

    A methodology based on Fuzzy Logic for the construction of the objective function of the optimization problems of nuclear fuel is described. It was created an inference system that responds, in certain form, as a human expert when it has the task of qualifying different radial designs of fuel cells. Specifically it is detailed how an inference system based based on Fuzzy Logic that has five enter variables and one exit variable was built, which corresponds to the objective function for the radial design of a fuel cell for a BWR. The use of Fuzzy with Mat lab offered the visualization capacity of the exit variable in function of one or two enter variables at the same time. This allowed to build, in appropriate way, the combination of the inference rules and the membership functions of those diffuse sets used for each one of the enter variables. The obtained objective function was used in an optimization process based on Taboo search. The new methodology was proven for the design of a cell used in a fuel assemble of the Laguna Verde reactor obtaining excellent results. (Author)

  10. Study on the Impacts of Core Specialized Courses Preposition on Core Competency and Vocational Willingness of Midwifery Students%专业核心课程前置对助产学生核心胜任力及职业意愿的影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖书娟; 石静; 王静; 李敏

    2015-01-01

    为分析助产专业核心课程前置对学生专业核心胜任力及职业意愿的影响,采用助产士核心胜任力量表对助产专业课程前置试验班及常规对照班学生进行核心胜任力评价,同时使用自制问卷收集其一般资料、成为助产士的意愿及核心课程理论成绩,分析试验组与对照组上述指标的差异性.路径分析模型结果显示,助产专业核心课程前置有利于提高学生专业核心胜任力以及增强学生职业选择成为助产士的意愿.%To analyze the impacts of core specialized courses preposition on the core competency and career willingness of midwifery students, this study evaluated the core competency of students both of core experimental class with core specialized courses preposition and conventional comparative class by using the "midwife core competency scale", meanwhile collected their demographic data and the willingness of being a midwife and the scores of core courses by using self-developed questionnaire, and then analyzed the difference between two groups in the indexes mentioned above. The results through pathway analyzing showed, the core courses preposition of midwifery specialty will improve the core professional competency and the vocational willingness to be midwife of students majoring midwifery specialty.

  11. Constructing Catalonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Philips

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Catalonia, in common with other nations, has long been concerned with the question of identity and difference. Its problematic relationship with Spain has led to an emphasis on differentiating itself from its larger neighbour (if we are to accept, as most Spaniards do not, that Catalonia is not Spain, a situation complicated by the loss of the Spanish colonies of Cuba and The Philippines in 1898, and the Spanish Civil War and subsequent dictatorship from 1936 to 1976. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, the construction of a Catalan identity followed a similar route to that taken by other European nations such as England, Ireland and, indeed, Spain, including an emphasis on rural values, activities and the countryside, and the conversion of specifically local traditions into national past times. It is only in the last ten years or so that this model of Catalan identity has been recognised for what it is – a model constructed and encouraged for and by specific nationalist political interests. Ironically, Catalonia’s identity abroad has also been constructed and manipulated for political purposes, but from quite a different perspective. Orwell’s /Homage to Catalonia/ (1938 narrates an extremely blinkered version of the Spanish Civil War which has achieved iconic status as a result of cold war politics. Subsequent portrayals of the Spanish Civil War – Valentine Cunningham’s /The Penguin Book of Spanish Civil War Verse/ (ed., Penguin, 1980, or Ken Loach’s 1995 film /Land and Freedom/ base their arguments unquestioningly on /Homage to Catalonia/, perpetuating a view of the nation’s recent history that is both reductive and inaccurate

  12. Objectives--Are They Useful? A Quick Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stephanie; Ellsworth, James B.; Kaufman, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Most people understand the importance of objectives and the link between having objectives and accomplishing results. However, there is a difference between a well-defined objective and a poorly developed objective both in how they are constructed and in what they ultimately lead to. In this article, we explore three levels of objectives, provide…

  13. Construction Operations Building Information Exchange (COBIE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    the Business Process Modeling Notation ( BPMN ) [Object Modeling Group 2006], was used to capture the steps relevant to COBIE. Information ex- ERDC...Construction Research Workshop, Stanford, California. Object Modeling Group. 2006. Business Process Modeling Notation ( BPMN ) Specification. Final

  14. Automatic object recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganath, H. S.; Mcingvale, Pat; Sage, Heinz

    1988-01-01

    Geometric and intensity features are very useful in object recognition. An intensity feature is a measure of contrast between object pixels and background pixels. Geometric features provide shape and size information. A model based approach is presented for computing geometric features. Knowledge about objects and imaging system is used to estimate orientation of objects with respect to the line of sight.

  15. Object oriented methods

    CERN Document Server

    Graham, Ian

    1994-01-01

    This book is a revision of Ian Graham's successful survey of the whole area of object technology. It covers object- oriented programming, object-oriented design, object- oriented analysis, object-oriented databases and treats several related technologies. New to this edition are more applications of object-oriented methods and more coverage of object-oriented database products available. Graham has also doubled the design and analysis material that examines over 60 different approaches - making this the most comprehensive book on the market. Also new is the foreword by Grady Booch.

  16. El régimen preposicional en español e italiano: breve estudio contrastivo y traductológico / The prepositional system in Spanish and Italian: towards a brief contrastive and translation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Trovato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: El presente artículo pretende ofrecer una sistematización en lo que atañe al régimen preposicional en dos lenguas afines: español e italiano. Por ello, el trabajo se inscribe dentro de un marco didáctico, con el objeto de brindar a todo docente de español algunas pautas metodológicas de interés e utilidad a la hora de abordar el tema en la clase de E/ LE. Para nuestros propósitos, pasaremos someramente revista a los estudios contrastivos más emblemáticos con los que contamos y, a continuación, para nuestro análisis, adoptaremos un enfoque contrastivo y traductológico (español-italiano, con miras a encuadrar la cuestión en un ámbito específico y determinar hasta qué punto las dos lenguas estudiadas guardan parentesco desde el punto de vista sintáctico y morfológico. ABSTRACT: This article aims to offer a systematization with regard to the prepositional system in two related languages: Spanish and Italian. To this end, this study adopts a didactic framework in order to provide every teacher of Spanish with useful methodological guidelines when it comes to addressing this grammar point with students in an SSL class. For our purposes, we will analyze the most important studies on this subject and we will then adopt a contrastive and translation approach (Spanish-Italian, in order to frame the question within a specific field and determine to what extent the two languages are related from a syntactic and morphological point of view.

  17. Virtual Objects on the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordán Pascual Espada

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available As technology advances more and more "things" began to appear in digital format, such as: tickets, agendas, books, electronic purses, etc. Internet of things encourages communication and integration of physical objects with each other and people to automate tasks and improve efficiency. Digital objects like physicists should be part of Internet of Things but the different structures of these digital objects causes in most cases these digital objects can interact only with specific applications that know the specific format. Based on the problems in this paper proposes a structure that supports the generic construction of virtual objects irrespective of their business logic and their integration with other applications and "things".

  18. Object reading: text recognition for object recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karaoglu, S.; van Gemert, J.C.; Gevers, T.

    2012-01-01

    We propose to use text recognition to aid in visual object class recognition. To this end we first propose a new algorithm for text detection in natural images. The proposed text detection is based on saliency cues and a context fusion step. The algorithm does not need any parameter tuning and can d

  19. Fireplace construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billmeyer, T.F.

    1978-10-03

    A prebuilt fireplace construction for installation in a building structure includes a firebox having an open forward side and an outlet for combustion gases and a housing at least partially surrounding the firebox with the combustion gas outlet extending through the top of the housing. A rotatable damper is disposed within the housing and is controlled externally by a rotatable shaft extending forwardly through the housing which is engaged by an external actuator operable from the front of the fireplace. An inlet conduit for combustion air is built into the housing for the fireplace beneath the level of the firebox for supply of combustion air to the firebox in the event doors are later added to close off the firebox.

  20. Constructing Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Patricia

    2003-02-01

    Schools are expected to lay the foundation upon which knowledge can be built and equip students with the tools necessary to accomplish the construction. The role of the teacher in this building process is crucial to the type of structure the student can build. Whether you call it constructivism, discussion teaching, project-based learning, inquiry learning, or any of the other names given to the instructional strategies being suggested by education researchers, the key is getting students to become active participants in the process. While some students may be able to learn from eloquently delivered lectures and dynamic demonstrations, the majority of students cannot effectively retain and apply ideas communicated in this manner.

  1. Hamiltonian dynamics of extended objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capovilla, R [Departamento de FIsica, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, Apdo Postal 14-740, 07000 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Guven, J [School of Theoretical Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, 10 Burlington Road, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Rojas, E [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apdo Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2004-12-07

    We consider relativistic extended objects described by a reparametrization-invariant local action that depends on the extrinsic curvature of the worldvolume swept out by the object as it evolves. We provide a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics of such higher derivative models which is motivated by the ADM formulation of general relativity. The canonical momenta are identified by looking at boundary behaviour under small deformations of the action; the relationship between the momentum conjugate to the embedding functions and the conserved momentum density is established. The canonical Hamiltonian is constructed explicitly; the constraints on the phase space, both primary and secondary, are identified and the role they play in the theory is described. The multipliers implementing the primary constraints are identified in terms of the ADM lapse and shift variables and Hamilton's equations are shown to be consistent with the Euler-Lagrange equations.

  2. Defining Learning Objectives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍鑫红

    2014-01-01

    <正>This article attempts to introduce the teacher to developments in the area of specifying learning objectives.When you have studied this article carefully,you should be able to(a)distinguish between statements of aims and statements of objectives,(b)discuss the merits of writing objectives from the point of view of the learner,and(c)write both complete and abbreviated statements of learning objectives for different language skills,functions,and notions.

  3. [Historiography of medical objects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, Felip

    2008-01-01

    It has become acceptable among historians of medicine to profess a predilection for the historiography of medical ideas. But it is justified all the same to ask whether the logical connection really caused the origin, the change, or the disappearance of the medical objects. The interaction of ideas and medical objects assure as much objectivity as possible. In consequence, the contents of the museums, medical objects, is an aspect rather that a branch of the history of medicine.

  4. Learning Objects and Gerontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreich, Donna M.; Tompkins, Catherine J.

    2006-01-01

    Virtual AGE (vAGE) is an asynchronous educational environment that utilizes learning objects focused on gerontology and a learning anytime/anywhere philosophy. This paper discusses the benefits of asynchronous instruction and the process of creating learning objects. Learning objects are "small, reusable chunks of instructional media" Wiley…

  5. Survivability via Control Objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.

    2000-08-11

    Control objectives open an additional front in the survivability battle. A given set of control objectives is valuable if it represents good practices, it is complete (it covers all the necessary areas), and it is auditable. CobiT and BS 7799 are two examples of control objective sets.

  6. Presentation on Instructional Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Bibi Asia

    2009-01-01

    "Learning can be defined as change in a student's capacity for performance as a result of experience" (Kenneth D. Moore). The intended changes should be specified in instructional objectives. Viewed in this context, an objective can be defined as a clear and unambiguous description of your instructional intent. An objective is not a…

  7. On the Crime Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutaev, Rasul M.; Magomedov, Guseyn B.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research of this problem is caused by the theoretical and practical needs of a specific concept of the crime object as one of the corpus delicti signs essentially the determining and defining its object and objective side, thereby--the nature of socially dangerous act. Besides, being a facultative sign of corpus delicti, the…

  8. Birth of the Object: Detection of Objectness and Extraction of Object Shape through Object Action Complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Dirk; Pugeault, Nicolas; Baseski, Emre

    2008-01-01

    interact. First, by making use of an object independent grasping mechanism, physical control over potential objects can be gained. Having evaluated the initial grasping mechanism as being successful, a second behavior extracts the object shape by making use of prediction based on the motion induced...

  9. Objects in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  10. Ownership and Object History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Ori; Neary, Karen R.; Defeyter, Margaret A.; Malcolm, Sarah L.

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate behavior in relation to an object often requires judging whether it is owned and, if so, by whom. The authors propose accounts of how people make these judgments. Our central claim is that both judgments often involve making inferences about object history. In judging whether objects are owned, people may assume that artifacts (e.g.,…

  11. Construction with macromolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hecht

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The generation of nanosized features via the bottom-up organization of individual atoms and molecules represents one of the most rapidly emerging fields in modern science and technology. In order to gain general and modular access to nanostructures, a construction kit consisting of molecular building blocks with defined nanoscale dimensions, shape, and functionality is required. While nature has developed a hierarchical strategy to construct sophisticated and complex nanostructures, chemistry is just starting to explore artificial macromolecules as a means to synthesize specific nano-objects. In this review, recent advances in achieving control over conformation within macromolecules and the interconnection of conformationally defined subunits by either covalent bonds or self-assembly are discussed in analogy to natural structure evolution.

  12. Per Object statistical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Variable. This procedure was developed in order to be able to export objects as ESRI shape data with the 90-percentile of the Hue of each object's pixels as an item in the shape attribute table. This procedure uses a sub-level single pixel chessboard segmentation, loops for each of the objects......This RS code is to do Object-by-Object analysis of each Object's sub-objects, e.g. statistical analysis of an object's individual image data pixels. Statistics, such as percentiles (so-called "quartiles") are derived by the process, but the return of that can only be a Scene Variable, not an Object...... of a specific class in turn, and uses as pair of PPO stages to derive the statistics and then assign them to the objects' Object Variables. It may be that this could all be done in some other, simply way, but several other ways that were tried did not succeed. The procedure ouptut has been tested against...

  13. Words without Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Laycock

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Resolution of the problem of mass nouns depends on an expansion of our semantic/ontological taxonomy. Semantically, mass nouns are neither singular nor plural; they apply to neither just one object, nor to many objects, at a time. But their deepest kinship links them to the plural. A plural phrase — 'the cats in Kingston' — does not denote a single plural thing, but merely many distinct things. Just so, 'the water in the lake' does not denote a single aggregate — it is not ONE, but rather MUCH. The world is not the totality of singular objects, plural objects, and mass objects; for there are no plural or mass objects. It is the totality of single objects and (just stuff.

  14. The neural correlates of spatial language in English and American Sign Language: a PET study with hearing bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmorey, Karen; Grabowski, Thomas; McCullough, Stephen; Ponto, Laura L B; Hichwa, Richard D; Damasio, Hanna

    2005-02-01

    Rather than specifying spatial relations with a closed-class set of prepositions, American Sign Language (ASL) encodes spatial relations using space itself via classifier constructions. In these constructions, handshape morphemes specify object type, and the position of the hands in signing space schematically represents the spatial relation between objects. A [15O]water PET study was conducted to investigate the neural regions engaged during the production of English prepositions and ASL locative classifier constructions in hearing subjects with deaf parents (ASL-English bilinguals). Ten subjects viewed line drawings depicting a spatial relation between two objects and were asked to produce either an ASL locative classifier construction or an English preposition that described the spatial relation. The comparison task was to name the figure object (colored red) in either ASL or in English. Describing spatial relations in either ASL or English engaged parietal cortex bilaterally. However, an interaction analysis revealed that right superior parietal cortex was engaged to a greater extent for ASL than for English. We propose that right parietal cortex is involved in the visual-motoric transformation required for ASL. The production of both English prepositions and ASL nouns engaged Broca's area to a greater extent than ASL classifier constructions. We suggest that Broca's area is not engaged because these constructions do not involve retrieval of the name of an object or the name of a spatial relation. Finally, under the same task conditions, only left parietal activation was observed for monolingual English speakers producing spatial prepositions (H. Damasio et al., 2001, NeuroImage, 13). We conclude that the right hemisphere activation observed for ASL-English bilinguals was due to their life-long experience with spatial language in ASL.

  15. Objects, materiality and meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Lindegaard, Hanne

    2008-01-01

    The present research work investigates the relation between physical objects, their materiality, understood as the physical substances they are made from, and the communication from the objects. In product design of physical objects the communicative aspects are just as important as the function ...... be written into the object. The materials are therefore carriers of communication, even though this is dependent of the cultural context and the environment which the object will be part of. However the designer has only minor influence on those.......The present research work investigates the relation between physical objects, their materiality, understood as the physical substances they are made from, and the communication from the objects. In product design of physical objects the communicative aspects are just as important as the function...... of the object, and the designers aim is therefore to tune both in order to achieve a desired goal. To do so the designer basically has 2 options: Alteration of the physical shape of the object and the selection of materials. Through the manipulation of shape and materials can symbolic and sensory information...

  16. Object-oriented persistent homology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Persistent homology provides a new approach for the topological simplification of big data via measuring the life time of intrinsic topological features in a filtration process and has found its success in scientific and engineering applications. However, such a success is essentially limited to qualitative data classification and analysis. Indeed, persistent homology has rarely been employed for quantitative modeling and prediction. Additionally, the present persistent homology is a passive tool, rather than a proactive technique, for classification and analysis. In this work, we outline a general protocol to construct object-oriented persistent homology methods. By means of differential geometry theory of surfaces, we construct an objective functional, namely, a surface free energy defined on the data of interest. The minimization of the objective functional leads to a Laplace-Beltrami operator which generates a multiscale representation of the initial data and offers an objective oriented filtration process. The resulting differential geometry based object-oriented persistent homology is able to preserve desirable geometric features in the evolutionary filtration and enhances the corresponding topological persistence. The cubical complex based homology algorithm is employed in the present work to be compatible with the Cartesian representation of the Laplace-Beltrami flow. The proposed Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology method is extensively validated. The consistence between Laplace-Beltrami flow based filtration and Euclidean distance based filtration is confirmed on the Vietoris-Rips complex for a large amount of numerical tests. The convergence and reliability of the present Laplace-Beltrami flow based cubical complex filtration approach are analyzed over various spatial and temporal mesh sizes. The Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology approach is utilized to study the intrinsic topology of proteins and fullerene molecules. Based on a

  17. Object-oriented Persistent Homology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2016-01-15

    Persistent homology provides a new approach for the topological simplification of big data via measuring the life time of intrinsic topological features in a filtration process and has found its success in scientific and engineering applications. However, such a success is essentially limited to qualitative data classification and analysis. Indeed, persistent homology has rarely been employed for quantitative modeling and prediction. Additionally, the present persistent homology is a passive tool, rather than a proactive technique, for classification and analysis. In this work, we outline a general protocol to construct object-oriented persistent homology methods. By means of differential geometry theory of surfaces, we construct an objective functional, namely, a surface free energy defined on the data of interest. The minimization of the objective functional leads to a Laplace-Beltrami operator which generates a multiscale representation of the initial data and offers an objective oriented filtration process. The resulting differential geometry based object-oriented persistent homology is able to preserve desirable geometric features in the evolutionary filtration and enhances the corresponding topological persistence. The cubical complex based homology algorithm is employed in the present work to be compatible with the Cartesian representation of the Laplace-Beltrami flow. The proposed Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology method is extensively validated. The consistence between Laplace-Beltrami flow based filtration and Euclidean distance based filtration is confirmed on the Vietoris-Rips complex for a large amount of numerical tests. The convergence and reliability of the present Laplace-Beltrami flow based cubical complex filtration approach are analyzed over various spatial and temporal mesh sizes. The Laplace-Beltrami flow based persistent homology approach is utilized to study the intrinsic topology of proteins and fullerene molecules. Based on a

  18. Constructing the Virtual Production Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙连胜; 宁汝新

    2003-01-01

    In order to study the constructing technology of virtual production line, the structure model of virtual production line was presented, and the object-oriented technique was used to establish its basic classes and relevant models, including solid model, behavior model and object-oriented Petri net based control model, and based on this, the constructing of virtual production line was realized. The application proved that the virtual production line had many good characteristics, such as visualization, interaction, multi-layer and reusability, and it's an efficient tool of analyzing and modeling for layout planning and rapidly reconfiguring of production line.

  19. Conceivability Theses and Objections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    the thesis is more fashionable in the current debate than defending conceivability as anything but one psychological heuristic device among others with which we form beliefs about modality. In this paper, I shall offer a way of demarcating conceivability theses in a way that offers a concise overview, and I...... will try to provide an overview also of the different objections that have been and are leveled at the conceivability theses. A number of these are problems for an epistemology of modality generally. I will focus on the objections that are peculiar to conceivability theses: the Standard Objection...... and the Uselessness Objection. The Standard Objection targets the second premise in an argument for possibility from conceivability, that what is conceived is possible, typically by offering counterexamples in the form of conceivable impossibilities. The Uselessness Objection targets the first premise in an argument...

  20. Reasoning about Function Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordio, Martin; Calcagno, Cristiano; Meyer, Bertrand; Müller, Peter; Tschannen, Julian

    Modern object-oriented languages support higher-order implementations through function objects such as delegates in C#, agents in Eiffel, or closures in Scala. Function objects bring a new level of abstraction to the object-oriented programming model, and require a comparable extension to specification and verification techniques. We introduce a verification methodology that extends function objects with auxiliary side-effect free (pure) methods to model logical artifacts: preconditions, postconditions and modifies clauses. These pure methods can be used to specify client code abstractly, that is, independently from specific instantiations of the function objects. To demonstrate the feasibility of our approach, we have implemented an automatic prover, which verifies several non-trivial examples.

  1. On Coordinating Collaborative Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Imine, Abdessamad

    2010-01-01

    A collaborative object represents a data type (such as a text document) designed to be shared by a group of dispersed users. The Operational Transformation (OT) is a coordination approach used for supporting optimistic replication for these objects. It allows the users to concurrently update the shared data and exchange their updates in any order since the convergence of all replicas, i.e. the fact that all users view the same data, is ensured in all cases. However, designing algorithms for achieving convergence with the OT approach is a critical and challenging issue. In this paper, we propose a formal compositional method for specifying complex collaborative objects. The most important feature of our method is that designing an OT algorithm for the composed collaborative object can be done by reusing the OT algorithms of component collaborative objects. By using our method, we can start from correct small collaborative objects which are relatively easy to handle and incrementally combine them to build more ...

  2. Organizing and Typing Persistent Objects Within an Object-Oriented Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madany, Peter W.; Campbell, Roy H.

    1991-01-01

    Conventional operating systems provide little or no direct support for the services required for an efficient persistent object system implementation. We have built a persistent object scheme using a customization and extension of an object-oriented operating system called Choices. Choices includes a framework for the storage of persistent data that is suited to the construction of both conventional file system and persistent object system. In this paper we describe three areas in which persistent object support differs from file system support: storage organization, storage management, and typing. Persistent object systems must support various sizes of objects efficiently. Customizable containers, which are themselves persistent objects and can be nested, support a wide range of object sizes in Choices. Collections of persistent objects that are accessed as an aggregate and collections of light-weight persistent objects can be clustered in containers that are nested within containers for larger objects. Automated garbage collection schemes are added to storage management and have a major impact on persistent object applications. The Choices persistent object store provides extensible sets of persistent object types. The store contains not only the data for persistent objects but also the names of the classes to which they belong and the code for the operation of the classes. Besides presenting persistent object storage organization, storage management, and typing, this paper discusses how persistent objects are named and used within the Choices persistent data/file system framework.

  3. Kuiper Binary Object Formation

    OpenAIRE

    Nazzario, R. C.; Orr, K.; Covington, C.; Kagan, D.; Hyde, T. W.

    2005-01-01

    It has been observed that binary Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) exist contrary to theoretical expectations. Their creation presents problems to most current models. However, the inclusion of a third body (for example, one of the outer planets) may provide the conditions necessary for the formation of these objects. The presence of a third massive body not only helps to clear the primordial Kuiper Belt but can also result in long lived binary Kuiper belt objects. The gravitational interaction betw...

  4. Propelling Extended Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Richard

    2010-01-01

    A force acting on just part of an extended object (either a solid or a volume of a liquid) can cause all of it to move. That motion is due to the transmission of the force through the object by its material. This paper discusses how the force is distributed to all of the object by a gradient of stress or pressure in it, which creates the local…

  5. Objective-C

    CERN Document Server

    DeVoe, Jiva

    2011-01-01

    A soup-to-nuts guide on the Objective-C programming language. Objective-C is the language behind Cocoa and Cocoa Touch, which is the Framework of applications written for the Macintosh, iPod touch, iPhone, and iPad platforms. Part of the Developer Reference series covering the hottest Apple topics, this book covers everything from the basics of the C language to advanced aspects of Apple development. You'll examine Objective-C and high-level subjects of frameworks, threading, networking, and much more.: Covers the basics of the C language and then quickly moves onto Objective-C and more advanc

  6. 类型学视野下汉韩语介词①相关语序与选择动因--以汉语“在+NP”及其韩语对应形式为中心%The Related Word Order and Motivation of Choice of Chinese and Korean Prepositions from the Perspec-tive of Typology-the Chinese “在+NP” and its Cor-responding Forms in Korean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑杰

    2016-01-01

    本文运用语序类型学、认知语言学等相关理论,以汉语“在+NP”及其韩语对应形式为中心,对汉韩语介词相关语序、选择动因等问题进行了细致的考察和说明。本文认为类型学关注的介词相关语序中,汉韩二语在介词短语内部都基本保持了与各自语言基本语序的和谐,体现了语言表达的经济性原则。但在句法层次上,韩语受限于动词强制居尾的句法结构特点,在距离象似原则的支配下,与VP形成和谐组配;而句法化程度较低的汉语则因为距离象似与时间象似性原则的竞争与妥协,以及介词语法化、动补结构发达等因素的共同作用,不仅大量派生介词框式结构,介词短语语序也呈现比韩语复杂的局面。%From the perspective of word order typology and cognitive linguistics, this paper has focused on the Chinese “在+NP ” and its cor-responding forms in Korean, elaborating on the related word order and motivation of choice of Chinese and Korean prepositions. This paper pro-poses that the word order inside the prepositional phrases of both Chinese and Korean are aligned with their basic word order, which embodies the economy principle of language. But on syntactic level, restricted by the characteristic of mandatory ending of verbs in Korean syntactic structure, prepositional phrases form a harmonious pair with VP under the dominance of distance iconicity principle. However, in Chinese, there are a large num-ber of circumpositions and the word order of prepositional phrases is also more complex than in Korean, due to the lower degree of syntacticalization and the competition and compromise between the principle of distance iconicity and the principle of temporal sequence (PTS), together with the combined effect of various factors including grammaticalization of preposi-tion and verb-complement structure.

  7. An object-based methodology for knowledge representation in SGML

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelsey, R.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)|New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Hartley, R.T. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Webster, R.B. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-11-01

    An object-based methodology for knowledge representation and its Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) implementation is presented. The methodology includes class, perspective domain, and event constructs for representing knowledge within an object paradigm. The perspective construct allows for representation of knowledge from multiple and varying viewpoints. The event construct allows actual use of knowledge to be represented. The SGML implementation of the methodology facilitates usability, structured, yet flexible knowledge design, and sharing and reuse of knowledge class libraries.

  8. Conscience and Conscientious Objections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, Anders

    2007-01-01

    In Western countries conscientious objection is usually accommodated in various ways, at least in certain areas (military conscription, medicine) and to some extent. It appears to be regarded as fundamentally different from other kinds of objection. But why? This study argues that conscientious obje

  9. The objective image

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galison, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In his work, Galison approaches the historical development of objectivity as an important factor that affects the way we experience and imagine ourselves in communities of knowledge and in democratic societies. Prof. Peter Galison has demonstrated that scientific objectivity has a history and he

  10. Choosing for learning objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonenboom, Judith; Emans, Bruno; Meijer, Joost

    2006-01-01

    Choosing for learning objects discusses eight educational ambitions and the possible roles of learning objects in realising these ambitions. The eight educational ambitions are: (1) Creating independent learning pathways, for example for lifelong learners; (2) Making education more flexible; (3) Res

  11. On Objects and Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eugster, Patrick Thomas; Guerraoui, Rachid; Damm, Christian Heide

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents linguistic primitives for publish/subscribe programming using events and objects. We integrate our primitives into a strongly typed object-oriented language through four mechanisms: (1) serialization, (2) multiple sub typing, (3) closures, and (4) deferred code evaluation. We...

  12. Choosing for learning objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoonenboom, Judith; Emans, Bruno; Meijer, Joost

    2006-01-01

    Choosing for learning objects discusses eight educational ambitions and the possible roles of learning objects in realising these ambitions. The eight educational ambitions are: (1) Creating independent learning pathways, for example for lifelong learners; (2) Making education more flexible; (3) Res

  13. Composing Concurrent Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, Lodewijk

    1994-01-01

    Adopting the object-oriented paradigm for the development of large and complex software systems offers several advantages, of which increased extensibility and reusability are the most prominent ones. The object-oriented model is also quite suitable for modelling concurrent systems. However, it

  14. Programs as Data Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the Second Symposium on Programs as Data Objects, PADO 2001, held in Aarhus, Denmark, in May 2001. The 14 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 30 submissions. Various aspects of looking at programs as data objects...

  15. Suggestive Objects at Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ratner, Helene Gad

    2009-01-01

    ’, constructed by combining insights from Gabriel Tarde's sociology with Bruno Latour's actor-network theory, to theorize the material dimension of organizational spirituality. The sacred in organizations arises not from the internalization of collective values but through the establishment of material...

  16. Superlensing Microscope Objective Lens

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Bing; Parker, Alan; Lai, Yukun; Thomas, John; Yue, Liyang; Monks, James

    2016-01-01

    Conventional microscope objective lenses are diffraction limited, which means that they cannot resolve features smaller than half the illumination wavelength. Under white light illumination, such resolution limit is about 250-300 nm for an ordinary microscope. In this paper, we demonstrate a new superlensing objective lens which has a resolution of about 100 nm, offering at least two times resolution improvement over conventional objectives in resolution. This is achieved by integrating a conventional microscope objective lens with a superlensing microsphere lens using a 3D printed lens adaptor. The new objective lens was used for label-free super-resolution imaging of 100 nm-sized engineering and biological samples, including a Blu-ray disc sample, semiconductor chip and adenoviruses. Our work creates a solid base for developing a commercially-viable superlens prototype, which has potential to transform the field of optical microscopy and imaging.

  17. Kuiper Binary Object Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Nazzario, R C; Covington, C; Kagan, D; Hyde, T W

    2005-01-01

    It has been observed that binary Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) exist contrary to theoretical expectations. Their creation presents problems to most current models. However, the inclusion of a third body (for example, one of the outer planets) may provide the conditions necessary for the formation of these objects. The presence of a third massive body not only helps to clear the primordial Kuiper Belt but can also result in long lived binary Kuiper belt objects. The gravitational interaction between the KBOs and the third body causes one of four effects; scattering into the Oort cloud, collisions with the growing protoplanets, formation of binary pairs, or creation of a single Kuiper belt object. Additionally, the initial location of the progenitors of the Kuiper belt objects also has a significant effect on binary formation.

  18. Beginning Objective-C

    CERN Document Server

    Dovey, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective-C is today's fastest growing programming language, at least in part due to the popularity of Apple's Mac, iPhone and iPad. Beginning Objective-C is for you if you have some programming experience, but you're new to the Objective-C programming language and you want a modern-and fast-way forwards to your own coding projects. Beginning Objective-C offers you a modern programmer's perspective on Objective-C courtesy of two of the best iOS and Mac developers in the field today, and gets you programming to the best of your ability in this important language.  It gets you rolling fast into

  19. Hardware Objects for Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Thalinger, Christian; Korsholm, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Java, as a safe and platform independent language, avoids access to low-level I/O devices or direct memory access. In standard Java, low-level I/O it not a concern; it is handled by the operating system. However, in the embedded domain resources are scarce and a Java virtual machine (JVM) without...... an underlying middleware is an attractive architecture. When running the JVM on bare metal, we need access to I/O devices from Java; therefore we investigate a safe and efficient mechanism to represent I/O devices as first class Java objects, where device registers are represented by object fields. Access...... to those registers is safe as Java’s type system regulates it. The access is also fast as it is directly performed by the bytecodes getfield and putfield. Hardware objects thus provide an object-oriented abstraction of low-level hardware devices. As a proof of concept, we have implemented hardware objects...

  20. Cultivating objects in interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2014-01-01

    is chapter explores patterns of repeated orientations to physical objects in interactants’ visuo-spatial and haptic surround. A number of examples are presented from advice-giving activities in various institutional settings, where participants-in-interaction initially draw on material objects...... at hand while pursuing a particular line of explanation, and then return to these objects at later intervals. e analysis suggests that the objects are afforded representational properties through their being anchored to some referent in the talk, and that participants subsequently draw...... on these associations for describing, disambiguating or clarifying aspects of the relatively complex procedural frameworks discussed in the settings. is suggests that the temporal stability of material objects available to participants makes them an ideal resource to be developed as visual motifs....

  1. Hardware Objects for Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Thalinger, Christian; Korsholm, Stephan

    2008-01-01

    Java, as a safe and platform independent language, avoids access to low-level I/O devices or direct memory access. In standard Java, low-level I/O it not a concern; it is handled by the operating system. However, in the embedded domain resources are scarce and a Java virtual machine (JVM) without...... an underlying middleware is an attractive architecture. When running the JVM on bare metal, we need access to I/O devices from Java; therefore we investigate a safe and efficient mechanism to represent I/O devices as first class Java objects, where device registers are represented by object fields. Access...... to those registers is safe as Java’s type system regulates it. The access is also fast as it is directly performed by the bytecodes getfield and putfield. Hardware objects thus provide an object-oriented abstraction of low-level hardware devices. As a proof of concept, we have implemented hardware objects...

  2. Canadian construction industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, M.

    2001-07-01

    The principal sectors of the Canadian construction industry - commercial, industrial, institutional and residential - are examined with regard to their technical considerations concerning the subject of sustainability. Apart from the different needs of each of the sectors of the industry there are also regional differences caused by population distribution, and differences in climate, that have to be identified and accommodated in considering attitudes to recycling and sustainable development. Some indications that there is growing awareness of recycling and reuse are: the increasing frequency of life cycle costing in the commercial and institutional sectors, the use of recycled or otherwise waste materials in concrete, examples of using steel supporting structures and roof joists salvaged from previous uncompleted projects in the industrial sector, improved building envelope and indoor air quality concerns, collective ground source heating, and new basement and framing technologies and construction materials in the residential sector. These improvements notwithstanding, there remains much to be done. The new objective-based National Building Code, for which comments are now being solicited across the country, is expected to identify new and innovative solutions and to kick-start serious efforts to come up with solutions towards increasing overall sustainability in all sectors of the Canadian construction industry.

  3. Tracking of deformable objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswani, Parimal; Wong, K. K.; Chong, Man N.

    2000-12-01

    Tracking of moving-objects in image sequences is needed for several video processing applications such as content-based coding, object oriented compression, object recognition and more recently for video object plane extraction in MPEG-4 coding. Tracking is a natural follow-up of motion-based segmentation. It is a fast and efficient method to achieve coherent motion segments along the temporal axis. Segmenting out moving objects for each and every frame in a video sequence is a computationally expensive approach. Thus, for better performance, semi-automatic segmentation is an acceptable compromise as automatic segmentation approaches rely heavily on prior assumptions. In semi-automatic segmentation approaches, motion-segmentation is performed only on the initial frame and the moving object is tracked in subsequent frames using tracking algorithms. In this paper, a new model for object tracking is proposed, where the image features -- edges, intensity pattern, object motion and initial keyed-in contour (by the user) form the prior and likelihood model of a Markov Random Field (MRF) model. Iterated Conditional Mode (ICM) is used for the minimization of the global energy for the MRF model. The motion segment for each frame is initialized using the segment information from the previous frame. For the initial frame, the motion segment is obtained by manually keying in the object contour. The motion-segments obtained using the proposed model are coherent and accurate. Experimental results on tracking using the proposed algorithm for different sequences -- Bream, Alexis and Claire are presented in this paper. The results obtained are accurate and can be used for a variety of applications including MPEG-4 Video Object Plane (VOP) extraction.

  4. Unifying Subjectivity and Objectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugesan Chandrasekaran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of modern science to the progress of civilization is immeasurable. Even its tendency toward exclusive concentration on the objective world has had salutary effects of great value. Modern science has wiped away much that was merely superstitious or speculative. Its rejection of unfounded opinions and prejudices has helped the thinking mind question conventional beliefs, shed preferences and prejudices, and challenge established authority. But modern systems thinking inherited from natural science is the suppression of the subjective dimension of reality. Many complex systems are an attempt to define and represent all subjective experience in physical terms. The modern man has a bias towards objectivity. The powerful influence of sense impressions on his mind and thinking makes him ignore the subjective experience and consider only objective facts as a valid, legitimate and representation of reality. Observing objective factors that are physical is easier than observing subjective factors that are subtle. The mechanistic view of reality has led to the rejection of the role of the individual in social development as insignificant. The individuals determine the development of society. Their social power has its roots both in subjective factors and objective factors. Economy, politics, society, and culture are inseparable dimensions of a single integrated reality. Subject and object constitute an integrated whole. The mind sees them as separate and independent. Or it views one as completely subordinate to the other. Unbiased approach to the study of all human experiences may prove that subject and object are interdependent dimensions or elements of reality.

  5. An automated quality assessor for Ada object-oriented designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailin, Sidney C.

    1988-01-01

    A tool for evaluating object-oriented designs (OODs) for Ada software is described. The tool assumes a design expressed as a hierarchy of object diagrams. A design of this type identifies the objects of a system, an interface to each object, and the usage relationships between objects. When such a design is implemented in Ada, objects become packages, interfaces become package specifications, and usage relationships become Ada `with' clauses and package references. An automated quality assessor has been developed that is based on flagging undesirable design constructs. For convenience, distinctions are made among three levels of severity: questionable, undesirable, and hazardous. A questionable construct is one that may well be appropriate. An undesirable construct is one that should be changed because it is potentially harmful to the reliability, maintainability, or reusability of the software. A hazardous construct is one that is undesirable and that introduces a high level of risk.

  6. Two Interesting Southern Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyulbudaghian, A. L.

    2016-06-01

    Two southern objects are studied. The first, the planetary nebula PK 349-01.1, is of interest because it has a chain of jets ejected from the central star. 12C(1-0) observations of the vicinity of this object reveal red- and blue-shifted molecular outflows. The second object is a star formation region consisting of two groups of IR stars. These groups have a trapezium-like configuration. Two stars in one of these groups are associated with a ring-shaped nebulae. This star formation region is associated with a new radial system of dark globules.

  7. Cultivating objects in interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hazel, Spencer

    2014-01-01

    is chapter explores patterns of repeated orientations to physical objects in interactants’ visuo-spatial and haptic surround. A number of examples are presented from advice-giving activities in various institutional settings, where participants-in-interaction initially draw on material objects...... on these associations for describing, disambiguating or clarifying aspects of the relatively complex procedural frameworks discussed in the settings. is suggests that the temporal stability of material objects available to participants makes them an ideal resource to be developed as visual motifs....

  8. [Achievement of therapeutic objectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantilla, Teresa

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic objectives for patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia are achieved by improving patient compliance and adherence. Clinical practice guidelines address the importance of treatment compliance for achieving objectives. The combination of a fixed dose of pravastatin and fenofibrate increases the adherence by simplifying the drug regimen and reducing the number of daily doses. The good tolerance, the cost of the combination and the possibility of adjusting the administration to the patient's lifestyle helps achieve the objectives for these patients with high cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis y Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  9. The Psychology of Life Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Maria Eduarda

    2009-01-01

    The present article analyzes, from a historical perspective, the object of the study in the fields of vocational guidance and career management. It then considers the contemporary need to view workers as collaborators within organizations. Finally, in the third part, it presents tentative principles for the construction of a new paradigm called…

  10. The Psychology of Life Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Maria Eduarda

    2009-01-01

    The present article analyzes, from a historical perspective, the object of the study in the fields of vocational guidance and career management. It then considers the contemporary need to view workers as collaborators within organizations. Finally, in the third part, it presents tentative principles for the construction of a new paradigm called…

  11. The worlds retail buyers construct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    Previous research on retailer buying has assumed that the context of decision-making is more or less objectively given, or is at least kept constant for the purpose of study. This paper develops an alternative view in which retail buyers and retailers actively participate in the construction...

  12. The worlds retail buyers construct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Lars

    Previous research on retailer buying has assumed that the context of decision-making is more or less objectively given, or is at least kept constant for the purpose of study. This paper develops an alternative view in which retail buyers and retailers actively participate in the construction...

  13. Piles of objects

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Shu-Wei

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for directly modeling piles of objects in multi-body simulations. Piles of objects represent some of the more interesting, but also most time-consuming portion of simulation. We propose a method for reducing computation in many of these situations by explicitly modeling the piles that the objects may form into. By modeling pile behavior rather than the behavior of all individual objects, we can achieve realistic results in less time, and without directly modeling the frictional component that leads to desired pile shapes. Our method is simple to implement and can be easily integrated with existing rigid body simulations. We observe notable speedups in several rigid body examples, and generate a wider variety of piled structures than possible with strict impulse-based simulation. © 2010 ACM.

  14. This elusive objective existence

    CERN Document Server

    Mohrhoff, U

    2004-01-01

    Zurek's existential interpretation of quantum mechanics suffers from three classical prejudices, including the belief that space and time are intrinsically and infinitely differentiated. They compel him to relativize the concept of objective existence in two ways. The elimination of these prejudices makes it possible to recognize the quantum formalism's ontological implications - the relative and contingent reality of spatiotemporal distinctions and the extrinsic and finite spatiotemporal differentiation of the physical world - which in turn makes it possible to arrive at an unqualified objective existence. Contrary to a widespread misconception, viewing the quantum formalism as being fundamentally a probability algorithm does not imply that quantum mechanics is concerned with states of knowledge rather than states of Nature. On the contrary, it makes possible a complete and strongly objective description of the physical world that requires no reference to observers. What objectively exists, in a sense that r...

  15. Safety objectives for 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2014-01-01

    This is the third year in which the CERN Management has presented annual safety objectives for the Organization, the “HSE Objectives”.   The HSE objectives for 2014, which were announced by the Director-General at his traditional New Year’s address to the staff and were presented at the first Enlarged Directorate meeting of the year, have been drawn up and agreed in close collaboration between the DSOs, the HSE Unit and the DG himself. From safety in the workplace to radiation and environmental protection, the document emphasises that “Safety is a priority for CERN” and that safety policy is a key element in how the Organization is run. And, like all policies, it generates objectives that “serve as a general framework for action”. The HSE objectives are broken down into the following fields: occupational health and safety on sites and in the workplace, radiation protection, radiation safety, environmental protection, emerge...

  16. Protected Objects in Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvengreen, Hans Henrik; Schwarzer, Jens Christian

    1998-01-01

    We present an implementation of Ada 95's notion of protected objects in Java. The implementation comprises a class library supporting entry queues and a (pre-) compiler translating slightly decorated Java classes to pure Java classes utilizing the library.......We present an implementation of Ada 95's notion of protected objects in Java. The implementation comprises a class library supporting entry queues and a (pre-) compiler translating slightly decorated Java classes to pure Java classes utilizing the library....

  17. Choosing for learning objects

    OpenAIRE

    Schoonenboom, Judith; Emans, Bruno; Meijer, Joost

    2006-01-01

    Choosing for learning objects discusses eight educational ambitions and the possible roles of learning objects in realising these ambitions. The eight educational ambitions are: (1) Creating independent learning pathways, for example for lifelong learners; (2) Making education more flexible; (3) Responding to differences between students; (4) The joint development of learning materials together with other institutions or external parties; (5) Attuning to professional practice; (6) Attuning to...

  18. Hijazi Architectural Object Library (haol)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, A.; Boehm, J.

    2017-02-01

    As with many historical buildings around the world, building façades are of special interest; moreover, the details of such windows, stonework, and ornaments give each historic building its individual character. Each object of these buildings must be classified in an architectural object library. Recently, a number of researches have been focusing on this topic in Europe and Canada. From this standpoint, the Hijazi Architectural Objects Library (HAOL) has reproduced Hijazi elements as 3D computer models, which are modelled using a Revit Family (RFA). The HAOL will be dependent on the image survey and point cloud data. The Hijazi Object such as Roshan and Mashrabiyah, become as vocabulary of many Islamic cities in the Hijazi region such as Jeddah in Saudi Arabia, and even for a number of Islamic historic cities such as Istanbul and Cairo. These architectural vocabularies are the main cause of the beauty of these heritage. However, there is a big gap in both the Islamic architectural library and the Hijazi architectural library to provide these unique elements. Besides, both Islamic and Hijazi architecture contains a huge amount of information which has not yet been digitally classified according to period and styles. Due to this issue, this paper will be focusing on developing of Heritage BIM (HBIM) standards and the HAOL library to reduce the cost and the delivering time for heritage and new projects that involve in Hijazi architectural styles. Through this paper, the fundamentals of Hijazi architecture informatics will be provided via developing framework for HBIM models and standards. This framework will provide schema and critical information, for example, classifying the different shapes, models, and forms of structure, construction, and ornamentation of Hijazi architecture in order to digitalize parametric building identity.

  19. Sequential Construction of Costly Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutfraind, Alexander [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-01

    Natural disasters or attacks often disrupt infrastructure networks requiring a costly recovery. This motivates an optimization problem where the objecitve is to construct the nodes of a graph G(V;E), and the cost of each node is dependent on the number of its neighbors previously constructed, or more generally, any properties of the previously-completed subgraph. In this optimization problem the objective is to find a permutation of the nodes which results in the least construction cost. We prove that in the case where the cost of nodes is a convex function in the number of neighbors, the optimal construction sequence is to start at a single node and move outwards. We also introduce algorithms and heuristics for solving various instances of the problem. Those methods can be applied to help reduce the cost of recovering from disasters as well as to plan the deployment of new network infrastructure.

  20. Trajectory recognition as the basis for object individuation: A functional model of object file instantiation and object token encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris eFields

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The perception of persisting visual objects is mediated by transient intermediate representations, object files, that are instantiated in response to some, but not all, visual trajectories. The standard object file concept does not, however, provide a mechanism sufficient to account for all experimental data on visual object persistence, object tracking, and the ability to perceive spatially-disconnected stimuli as continuously-existing objects. Based on relevant anatomical, functional, and developmental data, a functional model is constructed that bases visual object individuation on the recognition of temporal sequences of apparent center-of-mass positions that are specifically identified as trajectories by dedicated trajectory recognition networks downstream of the medial-temporal motion detection area. This model is shown to account for a wide range of data, and to generate a variety of testable predictions. Individual differences in the recognition, abstraction and encoding of trajectory information are expected to generate distinct object persistence judgments and object recognition abilities. Dominance of trajectory information over feature information in stored object tokens during early infancy, in particular, is expected to disrupt the ability to re-identify human and other individuals across perceptual episodes, and lead to developmental outcomes with characteristics of autism spectrum disorders.

  1. Objects of consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Donald D; Prakash, Chetan

    2014-01-01

    Current models of visual perception typically assume that human vision estimates true properties of physical objects, properties that exist even if unperceived. However, recent studies of perceptual evolution, using evolutionary games and genetic algorithms, reveal that natural selection often drives true perceptions to extinction when they compete with perceptions tuned to fitness rather than truth: Perception guides adaptive behavior; it does not estimate a preexisting physical truth. Moreover, shifting from evolutionary biology to quantum physics, there is reason to disbelieve in preexisting physical truths: Certain interpretations of quantum theory deny that dynamical properties of physical objects have definite values when unobserved. In some of these interpretations the observer is fundamental, and wave functions are compendia of subjective probabilities, not preexisting elements of physical reality. These two considerations, from evolutionary biology and quantum physics, suggest that current models of object perception require fundamental reformulation. Here we begin such a reformulation, starting with a formal model of consciousness that we call a "conscious agent." We develop the dynamics of interacting conscious agents, and study how the perception of objects and space-time can emerge from such dynamics. We show that one particular object, the quantum free particle, has a wave function that is identical in form to the harmonic functions that characterize the asymptotic dynamics of conscious agents; particles are vibrations not of strings but of interacting conscious agents. This allows us to reinterpret physical properties such as position, momentum, and energy as properties of interacting conscious agents, rather than as preexisting physical truths. We sketch how this approach might extend to the perception of relativistic quantum objects, and to classical objects of macroscopic scale.

  2. Object of desire self-consciousness theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaert, Anthony F; Brotto, Lori A

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the construct of object of desire self-consciousness, the perception that one is romantically and sexually desirable in another's eyes. The authors discuss the nature of the construct, variations in its expression, and how it may function as part of a self-schemata or script related to romance and sexuality. The authors suggest that object of desire self-consciousness may be an adaptive, evolved psychological mechanism allowing sexual and romantic tactics suitable to one's mate value. The authors also suggest that it can act as a signal that one has high mate value in the sexual marketplace. The authors then review literature (e.g., on fantasies, on sexual activity preferences, on sexual dysfunctions, on language) suggesting that object of desire self-consciousness plays a particularly important role in heterosexual women's sexual/romantic functioning and desires.

  3. 应用标准化病人/客观结构化临床考试建立泌尿系统整合课程评价体系的研究%Research on construction of urinary system course integrated assessment system by using standardized patient/objective structured clinical examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘蔚; 何晓峰; 陈琢; 史雯静; 万宝俊; 舒涛; 姚颖

    2011-01-01

    课程整合是长学制医学教育课程改革的重要内容。标准化病人(standardized patient,SP)参与的客观结构化临床考试(objective structured clinical examination,OSCE)能够为医学生提供一种客观、公正的考试氛围,在临床技能考核中得到了深入的研究和广泛的应用。自2008年起,华中科技大学同济医学院内科学教研室开始尝试将SP/OSCE应用于长学制医学生泌尿系统整合课程的评价考试,在专科SP培训、OSCE考站设置、OSCE题库建立、评分系统构建等方面积累了一定的经验,从课程评价体系的角度将长学制医学教育临床教学改革推向深入。%Course integration is one of the curriculum reform focus of the long schooling for higher medical education.Standardized patient (SP) and objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) could offer an exam atmosphere with impersonality and justice for the medical students in clinical skill assessment,which have been widely applied by medical colleges and schools for medical educational evaluation.Internal medicine department began to use SP/OSCE on urinary system course integrated assessment test in 2008.They had achieved some experiences on training SP of urinary system diseases, and on organizing OSCE assessment station, and on writing OSCE examination bank, and on constructing assessment system.Thus to intensify education reform on long schooling clinical students from the angle of course assessment system.

  4. [Medicine and conscientious objection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, K

    2007-01-01

    Conscientious objection to democratically accepted laws in democratic societies is a fact, both among citizens and among professionals. Due respect for laws is a prima facie duty in these societies. But democratic justice must at the same time respect peoples' conscience for it constitutes the ethical identity of individuals. And both law and ethics are necessary - although neither of them is sufficient - for its realization. The problem of conscientious objection among healthcare professionals is analysed from this standpoint and the conclusion is that objection is not an absolute right to exemption from several duties, but that the responsibility of the professional and of the institutions towards the citizenry must always be taken into account. Some solutions are suggested that try to protect both the professionals and the citizens in a bi-directional way.

  5. Invariance and Objectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Gerhard

    2010-10-01

    Scientific knowledge should not only be true, it should be as objective as possible. It should refer to a reality independent of any subject. What can we use as a criterion of objectivity? Intersubjectivity (i.e., intersubjective understandability and intersubjective testability) is necessary, but not sufficient. Other criteria are: independence of reference system, independence of method, non-conventionality. Is there some common trait? Yes, there is: invariance under some specified transformations. Thus, we say: A proposition is objective only if its truth is invariant against a change in the conditions under which it was formulated. We give illustrations from geometry, perception, neurobiology, relativity theory, and quantum theory. Such an objectivist position has many advantages.

  6. Million object spectrograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditto, Thomas D.; Ritter, Joseph M.

    2008-07-01

    A new class of astronomical telescope with a primary objective grating (POG) has been studied as an alternative to mirrors. Nineteenth century POG telescopes suffered from low resolution and ambiguity of overlapping spectra as well as background noise. The present design uses a conventional secondary spectrograph to disambiguate all objects while enjoying a very wide instantaneous field-of-view, up to 40°. The POG competes with mirrors, in part, because diffraction gratings provide the very chromatic dispersion that mirrors defeat. The resulting telescope deals effectively with long-standing restrictions on multiple object spectrographs (MOS). The combination of a POG operating in the first-order, coupled to a spectrographic astronomical telescope, isolates spectra from all objects in the free spectral range of the primary. First disclosed as a concept in year 2002, a physical proof-of-principle is now reported. The miniature laboratory model used a 50 mm plane grating primary and was able to disambiguate between objects appearing at angular resolutions of 55 arcseconds and spectral spacings of 0.15 nm. Astronomical performance is a matter of increasing instrument size. A POG configured according to our specifications has no moving parts during observations and is extensible to any length that can be held flat to tolerances approaching float glass. The resulting telescope could record over one million spectra per night of objects in a line of right ascension. The novel MOS does not require pre-imaging to start acquisition of uncharted star fields. Problems are anticipated in calibration and integration time. We propose means to ameliorate them.

  7. Learning Objects Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blåbjerg, Niels Jørgen

    2005-01-01

    Learning Objects Web er et DEFF projekt som Aalborg Universitetsbibliotek har initieret. Projektet tager afsæt i de resultater og erfaringer som er opnået med vores tidligere projekt Streaming Webbased Information Modules (SWIM). Vi har et internationalt netværk af interessenter som giver os...... sparring og feedback i forhold til udviklingskoncept både omkring de teoretiske rammer og i forhold til praktisk anvendelse af vores undervisningskoncept. Med disse rygstød og input har vi forfulgt ønsket om at videreudvikle SWIM i det nye projekt Learning Objects Web. Udgivelsesdato: juni...

  8. Objective Eulerian Coherent Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Serra, M

    2015-01-01

    We define objective Eulerian Coherent Structures (OECSs) in two-dimensional, non-autonomous dynamical systems as instantaneously most influential material curves. Specifically, OECSs are stationary curves of the averaged instantaneous material stretching-rate or material shearing-rate functionals. From these objective (frame-invariant) variational principles, we obtain explicit differential equations for hyperbolic, elliptic and parabolic OECSs. As illustration, we compute OECSs in an unsteady ocean velocity data set. In comparison to structures suggested by other common Eulerian diagnostic tools, we find OECSs to be the correct short-term cores of observed trajectory deformation patterns.

  9. Sound Objects for SVG

    OpenAIRE

    Colbrant, Audrey; Lasorsa, Yohan; Lemordant, Jacques; Liodenot, David; Razafimahazo, Mathieu

    2010-01-01

    International audience; A sound object can be defined as a time structure of audio chunks whose duration is on the time scale of 100 ms to several seconds. Sound objects have heterogeneous and time-varying properties. They are the basic elements of any format for Interactive Audio (IA). We have designed an XML language, A2ML, for Interactive Audio which offers, concerning the sequencing of sounds, a level of capabilities similar to that of iXMF, the interactive audio file format defined by th...

  10. Pinocchio: Geppetto's transitional object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Zeloni

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The literature has been considered by Freud and others after him, a form of unaware exploration of mind that can leads to discoveries similar to psychoanalysis’s discoveries. From this perspective, the author puts forward the following hypothesis: Pinocchio is a puppet who comes to life and is therefore, from a child's perception, a transitional object according to Winnicott. Consequently Geppetto is nothing more than the involuntary representation of any child interacting with the transitional object. The author explains the results of the analysis of the text in support of the hypothesis and reflects on the impact of The adventure of Pinocchio on the reader.

  11. Near Earth Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    , Near Earth Objects: Asteroids and comets following paths that bring them near the Earth. NEOs have collided with the Earth since its formation, some causing local devastation, some causing global climate changes, yet the threat from a collision with a near Earth object has only recently been recognised...... of starlight by the Sun, and therefore directly observe the structure of space-time. This thesis explores several aspects of the observation of NEOs with Gaia, emphasising detection of NEOs and the quality of orbits computed from Gaia observations. The main contribution is the work on motion detection...

  12. Capturing Near Earth Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Baoyin, Hexi; CHEN Yang; Li, Junfeng

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Near Earth Objects (NEOs) have been attracting great attention, and thousands of NEOs have been found to date. This paper examines the NEOs' orbital dynamics using the framework of an accurate solar system model and a Sun-Earth-NEO three-body system when the NEOs are close to Earth to search for NEOs with low-energy orbits. It is possible for such an NEO to be temporarily captured by Earth; its orbit would thereby be changed and it would become an Earth-orbiting object after a small...

  13. Modification Management for Construction Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wolfgang Huhnt; Sven Richter; Felix Enge

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to handle different types of subsequent modifications in con-struction processes. It is focused on a formalized approach with the objective that effects of subsequent modifications are detected automatically. The approach presented in this paper makes use of an existing modeling technique specifically focused on construction processes. The modeling techniques result in a process description where all technological interdependencies between construction activities are consid-ered and where consistency between the sequence of activities and the history of components is guaran-teed. This modeling technique is expanded by an existing concept for handling versions and dependencies between objects. The integration of these different concepts makes it possible to track effects of relevant types of subsequent modifications in construction processes on a formalized basis. Effects of subsequent modifications are detected by algorithms, different versions can be compared by algorithms and different versions are stored so that subsequent modifications are documented. The innovation of the approach pre-sented is the completeness. Effects of different relevant types of subsequent modifications in construction processes are tracked on a formalized basis.

  14. The Language of Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskildsen, Kasper Risbjerg

    2012-01-01

    . The arrangement of artifacts not only helped him formulate his theories, but also allowed him to present his arguments in a language of objects. At the same time, Thomsen's definition of archaeology as a museum science placed his branch of archaeology in a closer relationship with other museum sciences...

  15. Big Java late objects

    CERN Document Server

    Horstmann, Cay S

    2012-01-01

    Big Java: Late Objects is a comprehensive introduction to Java and computer programming, which focuses on the principles of programming, software engineering, and effective learning. It is designed for a two-semester first course in programming for computer science students.

  16. The Road to Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham Harman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Harman presents an outline of how object-oriented ontology (OOO differentiates itself from other branches of speculative realism. Can OOO steer philosophy from an epistemological project that tends to reduce the discipline to "a series of small-time drug busts"?

  17. The Road to Objects

    OpenAIRE

    Graham Harman

    2011-01-01

    Harman presents an outline of how object-oriented ontology (OOO) differentiates itself from other branches of speculative realism. Can OOO steer philosophy from an epistemological project that tends to reduce the discipline to "a series of small-time drug busts"?

  18. Common Object Library Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Information Modeling ( BIM ) technology to be successful, it must be consistently applied across many projects, by many teams. The National Building Information ...distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT For Building Information Modeling ( BIM ) technology to be successful, it must be... BIM standards and for future research projects. 15. SUBJECT TERMS building information modeling ( BIM ), object

  19. Forecasters' Objectives and Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinovic, Iván; Ottaviani, Marco; Sørensen, Peter Norman

    2013-01-01

    This chapter develops a unified modeling framework for analyzing the strategic behavior of forecasters. The theoretical model encompasses reputational objectives, competition for the best accuracy, and bias. Also drawing from the extensive lit- erature on analysts, we review the empirical evidenc...

  20. Gender Object Identification Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigmon, Scott B.

    This test was designed primarily for the purpose of assisting social psychologists in researching sex roles and/or sex differences when a nonverbal instrument is desired. The hypothesis was that some objects would be easier for members of one gender to name. The subjects were 30 female and 20 male undergraduate students. Pictures of 65 commercial…

  1. Turning subjective into objective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cardoso, Maria João; Cardoso, Jaime; Amaral, Natália

    2007-01-01

    Twelve expert observers from nine different countries convened in a workshop to evaluate the validity of the Breast Cancer Conservative Treatment. Cosmetic results (BCCT.core) software, an objective method for the aesthetic evaluation of breast cancer conservative treatment. Experts were initiall...

  2. Concrete construction engineering handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Nawy, Edward G

    2008-01-01

    Provides coverage of concrete construction engineering and technology. This work features discussions focusing on: the advances in engineered concrete materials; reinforced concrete construction; specialized construction techniques; and, design recommendations for high performance.

  3. Welcoming high reliability organising in construction management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    olde Scholtenhuis, Léon Luc; Doree, Andries G.; Smith, S.D.; Ahiaga-Dagbui, D.D.

    2013-01-01

    To achieve project objectives, construction project managers have to manoeuvre through complex coordination structures. They have to simultaneously deal with limited budgets, tight schedules, demanding stakeholders and a fragmented supply-chain. Despite their extensive coordination efforts, project

  4. APPLICATION OF SIMPLIFIED TAXATION SYSTEM IN CONSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Golubova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Specificity concerning cost formation of construction work executed by  entities of small business enterprises that use a simplified taxation system has a direct impact on the effectiveness of organization activity. Dozens of business entities applying various taxation systems are involved in the execution of the construction process. For this reason an inclusion of taxes in work cost may have a decisive influence on the selection of a contractor for an object construction.  

  5. Constructal Theory: A Tool for Ergonomics

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, A. Heitor

    2015-01-01

    Constructal theory proposes to see living bodies as machines that are subjected to constraints, which are constructed with a goal, an objective, which is to obtain maximum efficiency. The Constructal Law states that if a system has freedom to morph it develops in time the flow architecture that provides easier access to the currents that flow through it. Here, the term “flow” means everything that invades a territory, such that in a living territory as it is the human bod...

  6. MAST Upgrade - Construction Status

    CERN Document Server

    Milnes, Joe; Dhalla, Fahim; Fishpool, Geoff; Hill, John; Katramados, Ioannis; Martin, Richard; Naylor, Graham; O'Gorman, Tom; Scannell, Rory

    2015-01-01

    The Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) is the centre piece of the UK fusion research programme. In 2010, a MAST Upgrade programme was initiated with three primary objectives, to contribute to: 1) Testing reactor concepts (in particular exhaust solutions via a flexible divertor allowing Super-X and other extended leg configurations); 2) Adding to the knowledge base for ITER (by addressing important plasma physics questions and developing predictive models to help optimise ITER performance of ITER) and 3) Exploring the feasibility of using a spherical tokamak as the basis for a fusion Component Test Facility. With the project mid-way through its construction phase, progress will be reported on a number of the critical subsystems. This will include manufacture and assembly of the coils, armour and support structures that make up the new divertors, construction of the new set coils that make up the centre column, installation of the new power supplies for powering the divertor coils and enhanced TF coil set, progr...

  7. Objectives and Outcomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segalman, D.J.

    1998-11-30

    I have recently become involved in the ABET certification process under the new system - ABET 2000. This system relies heavily on concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM). It encourages each institution to define its objectives in terms of its own mission and then create a coherent program based on it. The prescribed steps in setting up the new system at an engineering institution are: o identification of constituencies G definition of mission. It is expected that the department's mission will be consistent with that of the overall institution, but containing some higher resolution language appropriate to that particular discipline of the engineering profession. o statement of objectives consistent with the mission 3G~~\\vED " enumeration of desired, and preferably measurable, outcomes of the process that would ~ `=. verify satisfaction of the objectives. ~~~ 07 !398 o establish performance standards for each outcome. o creation of appropriate feedback loops to assure that the objectives are still consistent with Q$YT1 the mission, that the outcomes remain consistent with the objectives, and that the curriculum and the teaching result in those outcomes. It is my assertion that once the institution verbalizes a mission, enumerated objectives naturally flow from that mission. (We shall try to demonstrate by example.) Further, if the mission uses the word "engineer", one would expect that word also to appear in at least one of the objectives. The objective of producing engineers of any sort must -by decree - involve the presence of the ABET criteria in the outcomes list. In other words, successful satisfaction of the ABET items a-k are a necessary subset of the measure of success in producing engineers. o We shall produce bachelor level engineers whose training in the core topics of chemical (or electrical, or mechanical) engineering is recognized to be among the best in the nation. o We shall provide an opportunity for our students to gain

  8. Partnering in the Construction Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev Bohnstedt, Kristian; Bejder, Erik; Haugbølle, Kim

    2013-01-01

    publications change across this period. It is concluded that trends such as research on developing trust among construction partners to facilitate project success, feasibility of and the barriers to adopting a partnering approach and strategic propositions for overcoming barriers are highly emerging. Finally...... gaps in existing body of knowledge. The objective of this literature-based paper is to explore the current literature by systematically reviewing and summarizing research trends in leading top-tier construction management journals between 2002 and 2012, addressing how the themes in partnering related...

  9. Building constructions: architecture and nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayatskaya Irina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of optimization of building structures is considered in architectural bionic modeling on the bionic principle basis. It is possible to get a reliable and durable constructions by studying the structure and the laws of organization of natural objects. Modern architects have created unique buildings using the bionic approach. There are such properties as symmetry, asymmetry, self-similarity and fractality used in the modern architecture. Using the methods of fractal geometry in the design of architectural forms allows finding a variety of constructive solutions.

  10. Partnering in the Construction Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev Bohnstedt, Kristian; Haugbølle, Kim; Bejder, Erik

    2013-01-01

    gaps in existing body of knowledge. The objective of this literature-based paper is to explore the current literature by systematically reviewing and summarizing research trends in leading top-tier construction management journals between 2002 and 2012, addressing how the themes in partnering related...... publications change across this period. It is concluded that trends such as research on developing trust among construction partners to facilitate project success, feasibility of and the barriers to adopting a partnering approach and strategic propositions for overcoming barriers are highly emerging. Finally...

  11. The social construction of deafblindness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dammeyer, Jesper Herup

    2007-01-01

      At first sight one might think that deafblindness could be determined in a rather straightforward way by objective criteria, e.g., by medical vision and hearing tests. Reality - for most people, who are familiar with deafblindness - as we know, is not like that. But then, what is deafblindenss......? The following short article describes how deafblindness can be understood as a social construction - or maybe rather social practice or a special culture. The message of the article is that we, in our work of improving the offers to deafblind people, may benefit from being aware of the social construction......" rather than a compensation for missing vision and hearing....

  12. Transferring visual prior for online object tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Chen, Feng; Yang, Jimei; Xu, Wenli; Yang, Ming-Hsuan

    2012-07-01

    Visual prior from generic real-world images can be learned and transferred for representing objects in a scene. Motivated by this, we propose an algorithm that transfers visual prior learned offline for online object tracking. From a collection of real-world images, we learn an overcomplete dictionary to represent visual prior. The prior knowledge of objects is generic, and the training image set does not necessarily contain any observation of the target object. During the tracking process, the learned visual prior is transferred to construct an object representation by sparse coding and multiscale max pooling. With this representation, a linear classifier is learned online to distinguish the target from the background and to account for the target and background appearance variations over time. Tracking is then carried out within a Bayesian inference framework, in which the learned classifier is used to construct the observation model and a particle filter is used to estimate the tracking result sequentially. Experiments on a variety of challenging sequences with comparisons to several state-of-the-art methods demonstrate that more robust object tracking can be achieved by transferring visual prior.

  13. Prepositioning for Flooding in the Sacramento Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    away from Sacramento , we select RL2 (Mather Field), RL3 ( McClellan Air Park), and RL4 (Beale AFB ). Through private communications with CDPH’s David...Decommissioned Air Force base ( AFB ) RL3 McClellan  Air Park Decommissioned  AFB RL4 Beale  AFB Large active  AFB RL5 Yuba/Sutter CFG Medium‐sized county fairgrounds... McClellan ) 1124 281 AA5 ( Sacramento ) RL9 (Kaiser) 971 243 AA6 (Elk Grove) RL10 (Sutter) 1016 254 Table 18. AST movement of EP in Scenario 1 In Table

  14. The Maritime Preposition Force Ship 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    suits Ship Repair 2 1 cannon Ship Repair 1 chock and FC/GM/ET 4 chain 15 81 Total 96 WCC Weapons Control Console LaCC Launcher Control Console Sup In...missions. 13. Full Battle Scenarios No attempt was made by the design team to evaluate war games which involve the entire battle force including the MEF

  15. Quantum field theories of extended objects

    CERN Document Server

    Friedan, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    First steps are taken in a project to construct a general class of conformal and perhaps, eventually, non-conformal quantum field theories of (n-1)-dimensional extended objects in a d=2n dimensional conformal space-time manifold M. The fields live on the spaces E of relative integral (n-1)-cycles in M -- the integral (n-1)-currents of given boundary. Each E is a complete metric space geometrically analogous to a Riemann surface $\\Sigma$. For example, if $M=S^d$, $\\Sigma = S^2$. The quantum fields on E are to be mapped to observables in a 2d CFT on $\\Sigma$. The correlation functions on E are to be given by the 2d correlation functions on $\\Sigma$. The goal is to construct a CFT of extended objects in d=2n dimensions for every 2d CFT, and eventually a non-conformal QFT of extended objects for every non-conformal 2d QFT, so that all the technology of 2d QFT can be applied to the construction and analysis of quantum field theories of extended objects. The project depends crucially on settling some mathematical q...

  16. Observation and Quantum Objectivity

    CERN Document Server

    Healey, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The paradox of Wigner's friend challenges the objectivity of description in quantum theory. A pragmatist interpretation can meet this challenge by judicious appeal to decoherence. On this interpretation, quantum theory provides situated agents with resources for predicting and explaining what happens in the physical world---not conscious observations of it. Even in Wigner's friend scenarios, differently situated agents agree on the objective content of statements about the values of physical magnitudes. In more realistic circumstances quantum Darwinism also permits differently situated agents equal observational access to evaluate their truth. In this view, quantum theory has nothing to say about consciousness or conscious experiences of observers. But it does prompt us to reexamine the significance even of everyday claims about the physical world.

  17. Conscientious objection in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minerva, Francesca

    2015-02-01

    The law regulating abortion in Italy gives healthcare practitioners the option to make a conscientious objection to activities that are specific and necessary to an abortive intervention. Conscientious objectors among Italian gynaecologists amount to about 70%. This means that only a few doctors are available to perform abortions, and therefore access to abortion is subject to constraints. In 2012 the International Planned Parenthood Federation European Network (IPPF EN) lodged a complaint against Italy to the European Committee of Social Rights, claiming that the inadequate protection of the right to access abortion implies a violation of the right to health. In this paper I will discuss the Italian situation with respect to conscientious objection to abortion and I will suggest possible solutions to the problem.

  18. DOLIB: Distributed Object Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Azevedo, E.F.; Romine, C.H.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes the use and implementation of DOLIB (Distributed Object Library), a library of routines that emulates global or virtual shared memory on Intel multiprocessor systems. Access to a distributed global array is through explicit calls to gather and scatter. Advantages of using DOLIB include: dynamic allocation and freeing of huge (gigabyte) distributed arrays, both C and FORTRAN callable interfaces, and the ability to mix shared-memory and message-passing programming models for ease of use and optimal performance. DOLIB is independent of language and compiler extensions and requires no special operating system support. DOLIB also supports automatic caching of read-only data for high performance. The virtual shared memory support provided in DOLIB is well suited for implementing Lagrangian particle tracking techniques. We have also used DOLIB to create DONIO (Distributed Object Network I/O Library), which obtains over a 10-fold improvement in disk I/O performance on the Intel Paragon.

  19. The Commitment Objective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Milton; Kotler; President

    2007-01-01

    "So,tell me about Action Selling,"Matt said."It starts with Commitment Objectives?""All right,"Joe began,"first you tell me if this sounds familiar:You've made an initial appointment with a great prospect-call him Mr.Wright.You're heard his company has had some problems with its current vendor,and you figure they're ready to make a change.You're pumped.

  20. Projective ambidextrous objects

    CERN Document Server

    Geer, Nathan; Patureau-Mirand, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    We provide a necessary and sufficient condition for a simple object in a pivotal k-category to be ambidextrous. As a consequence we prove that they exist for factorizable ribbon Hopf algebras, modular representations of finite groups and their quantum doubles, complex and modular Lie (super)algebras, the (1,p) minimal model in conformal field theory, and quantum groups at a root of unity.

  1. Constructing an Archive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Claudia; Wieczorek, Izabela; Francis, Alice;

    2016-01-01

    "Constructing an Archive" contains a collection of student works conducted during the Fall semester of 2015 at the Aarhus School of Architecture, at the master studio Constructing an Archive......."Constructing an Archive" contains a collection of student works conducted during the Fall semester of 2015 at the Aarhus School of Architecture, at the master studio Constructing an Archive....

  2. Fermions as Topological Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yershov V. N.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A preon-based composite model of the fundamental fermions is discussed, in which the fermions are bound states of smaller entities — primitive charges (preons. The preon is regarded as a dislocation in a dual 3-dimensional manifold — a topological object with no properties, save its unit mass and unit charge. It is shown that the dualism of this manifold gives rise to a hierarchy of complex structures resembling by their properties three families of the fundamental fermions. Although just a scheme for building a model of elementary particles, this description yields a quantitative explanation of many observable particle properties, including their masses.

  3. Fermions as topological objects

    CERN Document Server

    Yershov, V N

    2002-01-01

    A conceptual preon-based model of fermions is discussed. The preon is regarded as a topological object with three degrees of freedom in a dual three-dimensional manifold. It is shown that properties of this manifold give rise to a set of preon structures, which resemble three families of fermions. The number of preons in each structure is easily associated with the mass of a fermion. Being just a kind of zero-approximation to a theory of particles and interactions below the quark scale, our model however predicts masses of fermions with an accuracy of about 0.0002% without using any experimental input parameters.

  4. Functional Object Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raket, Lars Lau

    -effect formulations, where the observed functional signal is assumed to consist of both fixed and random functional effects. This thesis takes the initial steps toward the development of likelihood-based methodology for functional objects. We first consider analysis of functional data defined on high......-dimensional Euclidean spaces under the effect of additive spatially correlated effects, and then move on to consider how to include data alignment in the statistical model as a nonlinear effect under additive correlated noise. In both cases, we will give directions on how to generalize the methodology to more complex...

  5. Algorithms for Decision Tree Construction

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    The study of algorithms for decision tree construction was initiated in 1960s. The first algorithms are based on the separation heuristic [13, 31] that at each step tries dividing the set of objects as evenly as possible. Later Garey and Graham [28] showed that such algorithm may construct decision trees whose average depth is arbitrarily far from the minimum. Hyafil and Rivest in [35] proved NP-hardness of DT problem that is constructing a tree with the minimum average depth for a diagnostic problem over 2-valued information system and uniform probability distribution. Cox et al. in [22] showed that for a two-class problem over information system, even finding the root node attribute for an optimal tree is an NP-hard problem. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  6. The Quantitative Decision on Conflicting Objective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei; ZHOU Yue-mei

    2004-01-01

    In view of the interconflict of multi-objectives in large decision systems, the problem that ranks all the objectives according to several standards is posed. Quantifing the value of decision for objectives according to the traits of researched systems,with the frequency distribution, we construct quantitative indices and then build up the comparative relation of superior and inferior between any two decisions and introduce the relation function which reflects not only the orientation of order but also the extent of superior and inferior for decisions. With calculating the weight coefficient, we put forward several comparative coefficients and finish off the order of superior and inferior of all the decisions for several conflict objectives. By positivist analyses, the solution shows its precise and concise traits dealing with complex decisions.

  7. Grid : A Graphical Object Connecting Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ian; Schutz, Bernard

    1997-08-01

    Signal-processing systems are fast becoming an essential tool within the scientific community. This is primarily due to the need for constructing large complex algorithms which would take many hours of work to code using conventional programming languages. Grid OCL (Object Connecting Language) is a graphical interactive multi-threaded environment allowing users to create complex algorithms by creating a flexible object-oriented block diagram of the analysis required. Algorithms can be run incrementally or continuously e.g. when analysing long data streams. Grid (1.0 alpha) is written in Java (about 37,000 lines of code) and is currently distributed free of charge over the WWW. Although originally developed to analyse data taken from the GEO 600 gravitational wave detector, its use has been much more widespread e.g. collaborators are working on tools for various signal and image problems, multimedia teaching aids and even to construct a musical composition system.

  8. Preserving urban objects of historicaland architectural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal'zannikova Ekaterina Mikhailovna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Large cities of central Russia were built under the influence of the factors that played an important role in protecting their population; natural resources and opportunities for trading were also essential. The industrial development and construction of large industrial facilities were significant for the formation of urban environment. As a result architectural monuments of great historical value that have a significant influence on the formation of the modern city image were preserved.Nowadays, a great number of buildings of historical and architectural heritage turned out to be in poor condition. Funding and its efficient use are rational means of saving the most valuable objects of historical and cultural heritage. In order to do this it is necessary to solve the problems of developing complex and effective measures for preserving these objectsThe existing method of preserving urban objects does not focus on urban architectural objects of historical and architectural value. It does not cover the study of urban development features in architectural and town-planning environment surrounding this object, it does not determine the historical and architectural value of the object and it does not identify the relationship of the object and the surrounding objects as well as architectural frame of the total area. That is why the existing method cannot be considered an appropriate system for preserving the objects of historical and architectural heritage.In order to avoid the disadvantages mentioned above and to increase tourist interest to the architecturally valuable buildings in urban areas, the author has proposed a complex approach to improve the method of reconstructing urban objects of great historical and architectural significance.The existing method of preserving historical objects includes the preparatory period of studying the degree of historical and architectural heritage wear and decay, developing the techniques for strengthening

  9. Face and object cognition across adult age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Andrea; Wilhelm, Oliver; Herzmann, Grit; Sommer, Werner

    2013-03-01

    We investigated the specificity of face compared with object cognition from an individual differences and aging perspective by determining the amount of overlap between these abilities at the level of latent constructs across age. Confirmatory factor analytic models tested the specificity of speed and accuracy measures for face and object cognition (N = 448; 18 to 88 years). Accuracy measures were distinguishable and slightly dedifferentiated across age, which was not due to loss of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. There was no face specificity for speed measures. These results support the specificity of face cognition from differential and developmental perspective only for performance accuracy.

  10. DIFFUSION BACKGROUND MODEL FOR MOVING OBJECTS DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Vishnyakov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new approach for moving objects detection in video surveillance systems. It is based on construction of the regression diffusion maps for the image sequence. This approach is completely different from the state of the art approaches. We show that the motion analysis method, based on diffusion maps, allows objects that move with different speed or even stop for a short while to be uniformly detected. We show that proposed model is comparable to the most popular modern background models. We also show several ways of speeding up diffusion maps algorithm itself.

  11. Multi-objective Transmission Planning Paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Dong, Zhao Yang; Wong, Kit Po

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a transmission expansion planning method based on multi-objective optimization (MOOP). The method starts with constructing a candidate pool of feasible expansion plans, followed by selection of the best candidates through MOOP, of which multiple objectives are tackled...... simultaneously, aiming at integrating the market operation and planning as one unified process in the market environment. Subsequently, reliability assessment is performed to evaluate and reinforce the resultant expansion plan from MOOP. The proposed method has been tested with the IEEE 14-bus system...

  12. Conscientious Objection to Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Steve; Giubilini, Alberto; Walker, Mary Jean

    2017-03-01

    Vaccine refusal occurs for a variety of reasons. In this article we examine vaccine refusals that are made on conscientious grounds; that is, for religious, moral, or philosophical reasons. We focus on two questions: first, whether people should be entitled to conscientiously object to vaccination against contagious diseases (either for themselves or for their children); second, if so, to what constraints or requirements should conscientious objection (CO) to vaccination be subject. To address these questions, we consider an analogy between CO to vaccination and CO to military service. We argue that conscientious objectors to vaccination should make an appropriate contribution to society in lieu of being vaccinated. The contribution to be made will depend on the severity of the relevant disease(s), its morbidity, and also the likelihood that vaccine refusal will lead to harm. In particular, the contribution required will depend on whether the rate of CO in a given population threatens herd immunity to the disease in question: for severe or highly contagious diseases, if the population rate of CO becomes high enough to threaten herd immunity, the requirements for CO could become so onerous that CO, though in principle permissible, would be de facto impermissible.

  13. New Characteristics of Residential Housing Construction Quality in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Gang; SUN Gang-zhu

    2008-01-01

    Base on the investigation results of residential housing construction quality recent years in China, this research first analyzes the general quality condition of residential housing construction, then demonstrates the quality condition in different regions in our country, finds out main quality problems in the residential housing construction and studies the new characteristics of quality problems, finally provides the construction industry positive foundation to solve the quality problems objectively for residential housing construction.

  14. Evolving Objects for Software Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper is concerned with evolving objects method for softwaredesign that can adapt to the changing environments and requirements automatically. We presen t system architecture with objects library, where there are objects based on dom ain ontologies. We define some genetic operators for objects, and discuss how to apply these genetic operators on objects to get new objects, which can satisfy new requirements.

  15. Scandinavian object shift, remnant VP-topicalisation, verb particles and causatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engels, Eva; Vikner, Sten

    2013-01-01

    constructions in Danish and Swedish, namely particle verb constructions and causative constructions with Danish "lade" and Swedish "låta" ‘let’. It is shown how differences in the VP-internal object position give rise to mirror image sequences concerning Object Shift in connection with verb second (Vº...

  16. The Zen Scavenger Hunt: Constructing and Presenting Persuasive Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    Courses: Persuasion; Persuasive Speaking. Objectives: Students will demonstrate the ability to apply persuasive concepts in constructing persuasive messages creatively, and students will present and analyze their persuasive messages.

  17. Objective perimetry in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klistorner, A; Graham, S L

    2000-12-01

    Objective perimetry in glaucoma is described using the multifocal pattern visually evoked potential (VEP). A multichannel recording technique was used to improve signal detection in healthy volunteers and assess its ability to detect glaucoma and early changes in patients with suspected glaucoma. Prospective, case-control study. Thirty healthy volunteers, 30 patients with suspected glaucoma, and 30 patients with glaucomatous visual field defects were tested. The VEP was recorded using cortically scaled, multifocal, pseudorandomly alternated pattern stimuli with the VERIS system (Electro-Diagnostic Imaging, Inc., San Francisco, CA). An array of four bipolar occipital electrodes provided four differently oriented channels for simultaneous recording. Signals were compared for different locations within the field up to 26 degrees of eccentricity. Healthy volunteers, patients with suspected glaucoma, and glaucoma patients with established visual field defects were tested, and results were compared with Humphrey visual fields (Humphrey Systems, Dublin, CA) performed on the same day. For reproducibility, five healthy volunteers were each tested on four separate days. The patients with suspected glaucoma and the established glaucoma patients were analyzed for intereye asymmetry of signals, and these data were compared with the asymmetry values of the healthy volunteers. Multiple recording channels significantly enhanced the recording of signals from parts of the visual field not reliably sampled with a single channel technique in all healthy volunteers, particularly along the horizontal meridian (P: < 0.001). Signal amplitude did not decline with age in healthy volunteers. Recordings showed good reproducibility within individuals. In all 30 glaucoma patients, the Humphrey visual field defects were well demonstrated by the VEP, and topographic location was strongly correlated (r(s) = 0.79). Despite large interindividual variations in amplitude, scotomas were well

  18. Fundamentals of Object Databases Object-Oriented and Object-Relational Design

    CERN Document Server

    Dietrich, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Object-oriented databases were originally developed as an alternative to relational database technology for the representation, storage, and access of non-traditional data forms that were increasingly found in advanced applications of database technology. After much debate regarding object-oriented versus relational database technology, object-oriented extensions were eventually incorporated into relational technology to create object-relational databases. Both object-oriented databases and object-relational databases, collectively known as object databases, provide inherent support for object

  19. 3D-PRINTING OF BUILD OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAVYTSKYI M. V.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Raising of problem. Today, in all spheres of our life we can constate the permanent search for new, modern methods and technologies that meet the principles of sustainable development. New approaches need to be, on the one hand more effective in terms of conservation of exhaustible resources of our planet, have minimal impact on the environment and on the other hand to ensure a higher quality of the final product. Construction is not exception. One of the new promising technology is the technology of 3D -printing of individual structures and buildings in general. 3Dprinting - is the process of real object recreating on the model of 3D. Unlike conventional printer which prints information on a sheet of paper, 3D-printer allows you to display three-dimensional information, i.e. creates certain physical objects. Currently, 3D-printer finds its application in many areas of production: machine building elements, a variety of layouts, interior elements, various items. But due to the fact that this technology is fairly new, it requires the creation of detailed and accurate technologies, efficient equipment and materials, and development of common vocabulary and regulatory framework in this field. Research Aim. The analysis of existing methods of creating physical objects using 3D-printing and the improvement of technology and equipment for the printing of buildings and structures. Conclusion. 3D-printers building is a new generation of equipment for the construction of buildings, structures, and structural elements. A variety of building printing technics opens up wide range of opportunities in the construction industry. At this stage, printers design allows to create low-rise buildings of different configurations with different mortars. The scientific novelty of this work is to develop proposals to improve the thermal insulation properties of constructed 3D-printing objects and technological equipment. The list of key terms and notions of construction

  20. Breaking object correspondence across saccadic eye movements deteriorates object recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H. Poth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception is based on information processing during periods of eye fixations that are interrupted by fast saccadic eye movements. The ability to sample and relate information on task-relevant objects across fixations implies that correspondence between presaccadic and postsaccadic objects is established. Postsaccadic object information usually updates and overwrites information on the corresponding presaccadic object. The presaccadic object representation is then lost. In contrast, the presaccadic object is conserved when object correspondence is broken. This helps transsaccadic memory but it may impose attentional costs on object recognition. Therefore, we investigated how breaking object correspondence across the saccade affects postsaccadic object recognition. In Experiment 1, object correspondence was broken by a brief postsaccadic blank screen. Observers made a saccade to a peripheral object which was displaced during the saccade. This object reappeared either immediately after the saccade or after the blank screen. Within the postsaccadic object, a letter was briefly presented (terminated by a mask. Observers reported displacement direction and letter identity in different blocks. Breaking object correspondence by blanking improved displacement identification but deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. In Experiment 2, object correspondence was broken by changing the object’s contrast-polarity. There were no object displacements and observers only reported letter identity. Again, breaking object correspondence deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. These findings identify transsaccadic object correspondence as a key determinant of object recognition across the saccade. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that breaking object correspondence results in separate representations of presaccadic and postsaccadic objects which then compete for limited attentional processing resources (Schneider, 2013. Postsaccadic

  1. Spatial distributions of niche-constructing populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhuo Han

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Niche construction theory regards organisms not only as the object of natural selection but also an active subject that can change their own selective pressure through eco-evolutionary feedbacks. Through reviewing the existing works on the theoretical models of niche construction, here we present the progress made on how niche construction influences genetic structure of spatially structured populations and the spatial-temporal dynamics of metapopulations, with special focuses on mathematical models and simulation methods. The majority of results confirmed that niche construction can significantly alter the evolutionary trajectories of structured populations. Organism-environmental interactions induced by niche construction can have profound influence on the dynamics, competition and diversity of metapopulations. It can affect fine-scale spatially distribution of species and spatial heterogeneity of the environment. We further propose a few research directions with potentials, such as applying adaptive dynamics or spatial game theory to explore the effect of niche construction on phenotypic evolution and diversification.

  2. [Abortion and conscientious objection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarkowski, Marek

    2015-03-01

    Polish laws specify the parties responsible for lawful medical care in the availability of abortion differently than the Resolution of the Council of Europe. According to Polish regulations they include all Polish doctors while according to the Resolution, the state. Polish rules should not discriminate against anyone in connection with his religion or belief, even more so because the issue of abortion is an example of an unresolved ethical dispute. The number of lawful abortion in Poland does not exceed 1000 per year and can be carried out by only a few specialists contracted by the National Health Fund. Sufficient information and assistance should be provided to all pregnant women by the National Health Fund. The participation of all physicians in the informing process is not necessary, as evidenced by the lack of complaints to provide information on where in vitro fertilization treatment can be found - until recently only available when paid for by the individual and performed in much larger numbers than abortion. Entities performing this paid procedure made sure to provide information on their own. The rejection of the right to the conscientious objection clause by negating the right to refuse information may lead some to give up the profession or cause the termination of certain professionals on the basis of the professed worldview. Meanwhile, doctors are not allowed to be discriminated against on the basis of their conscience or religion.

  3. Data quality objectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberer, F. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) spends about $500 million annually in collecting environmental data for scientific research and regulatory decision making. In addition, the regulated community may spend as much as ten times more each year in responding to EPA compliance requirements. Among the EPA and the regulated community there are several important common concerns: both want to make informed decisions using the right type, quality, and quantity of data. Collecting new data is very resource intensive to all parties. Neither EPA nor the regulated community can afford to collect more or {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} data than are really needed; the Data Quality Objectives (DQO) process is a systematic planning tool for ensuring that the right data will be collected for arriving at a decision within the desired confidence constraints. Using the DQO process to plan environmental data collections can help improve their effectiveness and efficiency, and enhance the defensibility of the decisions for which the data are used.

  4. [Hemodialysis with biological object].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eventov, V L; Maksimenko, V A; Zhidkov, I L; Andrianova, M Iu

    2005-01-01

    The essence of the method of biodialysis (hemodialysis with biological object) developed and suggested by the authors for clinical use consists in that the healthy organism exerts, through a system of mass transfer, a therapeutic action on the sick organism. Blood from the affected and healthy organisms is perfused through individual mass exchangers (dialyzers, hemodiafilters and hemofilters), which are hydraulically connected by a circulating transport medium. Metabolites that accumulate in blood of the affected organism diffuse into the transport medium and, from there, into blood of the healthy organism, which metabolizes them. The reverse process occurs simultaneously: substances, whose concentration in blood of the sick organism is less versus the healthy organism, diffuse from blood of the healthy organism to blood of patient. The method suggested by us can be used in clinical practice for normalizing a variety of parameters in patients with hepatic and renal insufficiency. Besides, a number of substances can be transferred from the healthy donor to patient in the process of biodialysis, which opens promising potentialities for the treatment of many diseases.

  5. Beyond the Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Object orientation (OO is regained not only in all components of integrate development media but it remarks in the rest of software world from operating system to last application domain - of course, with different intensity and success. A clear prove of OO application in all situations is the development of a wide range of industrial applications. OO technology allows drawing of relation between the geometry, topology and dimensions of data on a class hierarchy; thus, the observation of the amount of data gained by research in many scientific domains is facilitated through class libraries both for graphic primitives and for events examination. In conformity to all waiting, OO asserts in every distributive system, there are very important the applications for making open systems customer-server and dis-tributed applications in Java. Finally OO application in robot's programming and modeling needn't be omitted. However, far to be panacea, OO has also shades which will be researched so on.

  6. Research on the Construction of the Quality Assessment System of The Sunshine Sports Project of School——Take the High School in Sichuan Province as the Research Object%构建学校阳光体育工程质量评估体系的研究——以四川省中学为研究对象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦勇; 鲁飞; 李小刚; 张艳群

    2012-01-01

    By adopting the methods of literature document,questionnaire investigation expert interview...etc.to investigate of the present conditions of the 55 high schools to developed The Sunshine Sports Project in Sichuan province.The results showed:Majority of schools has developed Sunshine Sports to exercise,but total unbalance,situation didn't form to continuously develop,investigate its basic reason to lie in having never built up quality to investigate a mechanism.Therefore,The school is the corpus object of the Sunshine Sports Project quality valuation,science sets up the Sunshine Sports Project quality in school valuation index sign system,Should follow the basic principle of the "Assessing and to assessment and reform,combined with evaluation and construction,focusing on building";Should adhere to principle of the scientific and systematic,versatility and compatibility,and incentive-oriented,concise and operational;The system should cover the organization and management,security conditions,evaluation mechanisms,Students four specific evaluation index system and a feature of the index.Sunshine Sports to grow an effect mechanism.%运用文献资料法、问卷调查法、专家访谈法和数理统计法等研究方法,对四川省55所中学开展阳光体育工程的现状进行调查研究。结果显示:多数学校开展了阳光体育运动,但是发展不平衡,总体看尚未形成持续开展的局面,究其根本原因在于没有建立质量考核机制。为此,本课题确立学校是实施阳光体育工程质量评估的主体对象,提出科学构建学校阳光体育工程质量评估体系应遵循"以评促建、以评促改、评建结合、重在建设"的基本方针;应坚持科学性与系统性、通用性与兼容性、导向性与激励性、简明性与可操作性相结合的基本原则;应涵盖组织管理、条件保障、评价机制、学生体质四大基本考核指标体系和一个特色指标体系。

  7. Validating MEDIQUAL Constructs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Gun; Min, Jae H.

    In this paper, we validate MEDIQUAL constructs through the different media users in help desk service. In previous research, only two end-users' constructs were used: assurance and responsiveness. In this paper, we extend MEDIQUAL constructs to include reliability, empathy, assurance, tangibles, and responsiveness, which are based on the SERVQUAL theory. The results suggest that: 1) five MEDIQUAL constructs are validated through the factor analysis. That is, importance of the constructs have relatively high correlations between measures of the same construct using different methods and low correlations between measures of the constructs that are expected to differ; and 2) five MEDIQUAL constructs are statistically significant on media users' satisfaction in help desk service by regression analysis.

  8. Organizational Behaviour in Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)......Review of: Organizational Behaviour in Construction / Anthony Walker (Wiley-Blackwell,2011 336 pp)...

  9. Sustainable advanced construction technologies

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kuchena, JC

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Construction Technologies (ACTs) are set to become the sustainable mainstay of the construction industry due to the demand for innovative housing solutions. Like most emerging economies, South Africa from a historical perspective and global...

  10. Professional entrepreneurial identity construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsgaard, Michael Breum

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the construction of a professional identity as an entrepreneur in a sample of people with educational background in nutrition and health. The study examines the connection between professional identity construction and entrepreneurial business emergence using...

  11. USAID Construction Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The USAID construction assessment is a survey of the character, scope, value and management of construction activities supported by USAID during the period from...

  12. Skin Problems in Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you use at work. Find out more about construction hazards. To receive copies of this Hazard Alert ... index.html Physician’s Alert: Occupational Contact Dermatitis Among Construction Workers – give this Alert to your doctor http:// ...

  13. Construction Sector (NAICS 23)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find environmental regulatory information for the construction sector, including the construction of buildings or engineering projects. This includes RCRA information for hazardous waste, refrigeration compliance, asbestos, effluent guidelines & lead laws

  14. Object Markers in Ikalanga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Letsholo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an on-going debate amongst linguists regarding the status of the object marker (OM. Some scholars argue that OMs are agreement morphology (Baker 2010, Riedel 2009 while others argue that OMs are pronominal and not agreement morphology (Nevins 2010, Kramer, under review, Labelle 2007, Demuth and Johnson 1990, Mchombo 2002. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to this debate using data from Ikalanga to support the view that OMs are pronominal clitics. I discuss evidence in favor of the agreement analysis as well as that in favor of the pronominal analysis. OMs in Ikalanga behave like agreement morphology in that they attach only to the verbal stem, only one OM occurs in a clause, and they share grammatical features (person, gender and number with the lexical NP with which they co-refer. However, there are many ways in which OMs behave like pronominals. For example, OMs do not vary in form according to the mood of a sentence or negation while subject markers, which I analyze as agreement morphemes do. They are not obligatory in Ikalanga sentences while subject markers are. OMs are not subject to locality constraints while agreement is. They can be bound by the subject (backward pronominalization, something unexpected of agreement and there is ample evidence to show that the lexical NP with which the OM co-refers is an adjunct, a fact which has been used in the literature to argue that the OM is pronominal in such a set up. The evidence in favor of the pronominal analysis however, is more compelling and therefore I conclude that OMs are pronominal clitics and not agreement morphology.

  15. Constructing a Second Language: Analyses and Computational Simulations of the Emergence of Linguistic Constructions from Usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Nick C.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an analysis of interactions in the usage, structure, cognition, coadaptation of conversational partners, and emergence of linguistic constructions. It focuses on second language development of English verb-argument constructions (VACs: VL, verb locative; VOL, verb object locative; VOO, ditransitive) with particular reference…

  16. Component School Construction Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New Brunswick Dept. of Economic Growth, Fredericton.

    In 1968, the Province of New Brunswick initiated a three-phase program to provide for elementary school facilities, employing a component systems approach to their construction. This booklet describes briefly the planning and construction of these schools, and provides graphic and photographic records of the construction in progress as well as of…

  17. "Task" as Research Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedhouse, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The article examines "task" as research construct as predominantly conceived in terms of task-as-workplan in the task-based learning/second language acquisition literature. It is suggested that "task" has weak construct validity and ontology in an overwhelmingly quantitative paradigm because the construct has a "split personality."…

  18. Personality Constructs and Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teglasi, Hedwig; Simcox, April G.; Kim, Na-Young

    2007-01-01

    A psychological construct, such as personality, is an abstraction that is not directly seen but inferred through observed regularities in cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses in various settings. Two assumptions give meaning to the idea of construct validity. First, constructs represent real phenomena that exist apart from the potential…

  19. Construction and Demolition Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Andersen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Construction and demolition waste (C&D waste) is the waste generated during the building, repair, remodeling or removal of constructions. The constructions can be roads, residential housing and nonresidential buildings. C&D waste has traditionally been considered without any environmental problems...

  20. A Duplicate Construction Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, Brent

    This experiment was designed to assess the ability of item writers to construct truly parallel tests based on a "duplicate-construction experiment" in which Cronbach argues that if the universe description and sampling are ideally refined, the two independently constructed tests will be entirely equivalent, and that within the limits of item…

  1. Use of Self-to-Object and Object-to-Object Spatial Relations in Locomotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chengli; Mou, Weimin; McNamara, Timothy P.

    2009-01-01

    In 8 experiments, the authors examined the use of representations of self-to-object or object-to-object spatial relations during locomotion. Participants learned geometrically regular or irregular layouts of objects while standing at the edge or in the middle and then pointed to objects while blindfolded in 3 conditions: before turning (baseline),…

  2. Construction and demolition waste indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mália, Miguel; de Brito, Jorge; Pinheiro, Manuel Duarte; Bravo, Miguel

    2013-03-01

    The construction industry is one of the biggest and most active sectors of the European Union (EU), consuming more raw materials and energy than any other economic activity. Furthermore, construction waste is the commonest waste produced in the EU. Current EU legislation sets out to implement construction and demolition waste (CDW) prevention and recycling measures. However it lacks tools to accelerate the development of a sector as bound by tradition as the building industry. The main objective of the present study was to determine indicators to estimate the amount of CDW generated on site both globally and by waste stream. CDW generation was estimated for six specific sectors: new residential construction, new non-residential construction, residential demolition, non-residential demolition, residential refurbishment, and non-residential refurbishment. The data needed to develop the indicators was collected through an exhaustive survey of previous international studies. The indicators determined suggest that the average composition of waste generated on site is mostly concrete and ceramic materials. Specifically for new residential and new non-residential construction the production of concrete waste in buildings with a reinforced concrete structure lies between 17.8 and 32.9 kg m(-2) and between 18.3 and 40.1 kg m(-2), respectively. For the residential and non-residential demolition sectors the production of this waste stream in buildings with a reinforced concrete structure varies from 492 to 840 kg m(-2) and from 401 to 768 kg/m(-2), respectively. For the residential and non-residential refurbishment sectors the production of concrete waste in buildings lies between 18.9 and 45.9 kg/m(-2) and between 18.9 and 191.2 kg/m(-2), respectively.

  3. Politica de las Construcciones Escolares (Policy for School Construction).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storni, Adolfo Enrique, Ed.; And Others

    This document establishes the policy for school construction programs and projects to be conducted in Argentina. The first part establishes the bases for construction and defines the policy and its objectives. The second part discusses school construction in view of educational reform and planning and considers analysis of current systems,…

  4. Object-oriented data handler for sequence analysis software development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptitsyn, A A; Grigorovich, D A

    1995-12-01

    We report an object-oriented data handler and supplementary tools for the development of molecular genetics application software for various sequence analyses. Our data handler has a flexible and expandable format that supports the most common data types for molecular genetic software. New data types can be constructed in an object-oriented manner from the basic units. The data handler includes an object library, a format-converting program and a viewer that can visualize simultaneously the data contained in several files to construct a general picture from separate data. This software has been implemented on an IBM PC-compatible personal computer.

  5. An approach to computing direction relations between separated object groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, H.; Wang, Z.; Li, J.

    2013-09-01

    Direction relations between object groups play an important role in qualitative spatial reasoning, spatial computation and spatial recognition. However, none of existing models can be used to compute direction relations between object groups. To fill this gap, an approach to computing direction relations between separated object groups is proposed in this paper, which is theoretically based on gestalt principles and the idea of multi-directions. The approach firstly triangulates the two object groups, and then it constructs the Voronoi diagram between the two groups using the triangular network. After this, the normal of each Voronoi edge is calculated, and the quantitative expression of the direction relations is constructed. Finally, the quantitative direction relations are transformed into qualitative ones. The psychological experiments show that the proposed approach can obtain direction relations both between two single objects and between two object groups, and the results are correct from the point of view of spatial cognition.

  6. Constelación de cambios en torno a la categoría objeto indirecto en el español del siglo XVIII Triggering changes in the grammaticalization of the Indirect Object in 18th century Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción COMPANY COMPANY

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es arrojar nueva luz sobre diversos cambios interrelacionados en la lengua española especialmente activos durante el siglo XVIII concentrados todos ellos alrededor del objeto indirecto. El corpus se basa en el español del Virreinato de la Nueva España. Tras analizar diacrónicamente la duplicación del objeto indirecto, se aborda su relación con la pérdida en el siglo XVIII novohispano de vosotros en favor de ustedes y la significativa activación en ese siglo de la marcación prepositiva de objetos directos inanimados, así como con algunas innovaciones conexas como la pérdida de concordancia de número del clítico dativo les, la expansión funcional de la preposición a a zonas que no son la categoría objeto y la generalización de los clíticos de dativo y de acusativo a zonas no etimológicas y no referenciales. Todos estos cambios se pueden analizar mediante el concepto de «cadena de cambios» de Martinet y revelan la importancia del español del siglo XVIII como germen del español moderno.The aim of this paper is to shed new light on several intertwined changes in the Spanish language which were especially active during the 18th century in the Viceroyalty of New Spain. After a diachronical analysis of the indirect object clitic doubling, it addresses its relationship with the loss of vosotros in favour of ustedes in the 18th century in New Spain and the significant activation of the prepositional marking of inanimate direct objects in that same century. Certain other connected innovations are also studied, such as the loss of number concordance in the dative clitic les, the functional extension of the preposition a to contexts other than object and the generalization of dative and accusative clitics to non-etymological and non-referential contexts. All these changes can be analyzed under Martinet’s concept of «chain of changes» and show the importance of 18th century Spanish as the seed of Modern

  7. Introducing Object-Oriented Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2008-01-01

    The practice of teaching programming at universities, colleges and high schools went through a major change roughly in the mid 1990s: The teaching of objectorientation in introductory courses slowly became mainstream. Fairly soon, the Object First or Objects Early school of thought was formulated......, stating that teaching object orientation by discussing objects from the very start is a good thing....

  8. Construction sector development: frames and governance responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Stissing; Gottlieb, Stefan C.; Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    2011-01-01

    The governance of construction sector development constitutes an important policy issue in many European countries due to the increasing impact that construction as well as the built environment have on gross domestic product and the environment. Previous studies have discussed how national...... activities may be governed. Based on a case study of the sector development activities in the Danish construction industry, this paper argues that governance strategies should not necessarily be designed to ensure the development of a single industrial conceptualization. First, drawing on concepts from...... construction industries have been framed as objects of development. However, less attention has been placed on exploring how an industry is recognized and framed as an object that can be subjected to organized development activities from the viewpoint of strategically motivated actors, and how such framing...

  9. Towards a Constructive Foundation of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilga, Walter

    2016-11-01

    I describe a constructive foundation for quantum mechanics, based on the discreteness of the degrees of freedom of quantum objects and on the Principle of Relativity. Taking Einstein's historical construction of Special Relativity as a model, the construction is carried out in close contact with a simple quantum mechanical Gedanken experiment. This leads to the standard axioms of quantum mechanics. The quantum mechanical description is identified as a mathematical tool that allows describing objects, whose degree of freedom in space-time has a discrete spectrum, relative to classical observers in space-time. This description is covariant with respect to (continuous) coordinate transformations and meets the requirement that the spectrum is the same in every inertial system. The construction gives detailed answers to controversial questions, such as the measurement problem, the informational content of the wave function, and the completeness of quantum mechanics.

  10. Construction sector development: frames and governance responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Stissing; Gottlieb, Stefan C.; Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    2011-01-01

    construction industries have been framed as objects of development. However, less attention has been placed on exploring how an industry is recognized and framed as an object that can be subjected to organized development activities from the viewpoint of strategically motivated actors, and how such framing......The governance of construction sector development constitutes an important policy issue in many European countries due to the increasing impact that construction as well as the built environment have on gross domestic product and the environment. Previous studies have discussed how national...... activities may be governed. Based on a case study of the sector development activities in the Danish construction industry, this paper argues that governance strategies should not necessarily be designed to ensure the development of a single industrial conceptualization. First, drawing on concepts from...

  11. Towards a Constructive Foundation of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smilga, Walter

    2017-01-01

    I describe a constructive foundation for quantum mechanics, based on the discreteness of the degrees of freedom of quantum objects and on the Principle of Relativity. Taking Einstein's historical construction of Special Relativity as a model, the construction is carried out in close contact with a simple quantum mechanical Gedanken experiment. This leads to the standard axioms of quantum mechanics. The quantum mechanical description is identified as a mathematical tool that allows describing objects, whose degree of freedom in space-time has a discrete spectrum, relative to classical observers in space-time. This description is covariant with respect to (continuous) coordinate transformations and meets the requirement that the spectrum is the same in every inertial system. The construction gives detailed answers to controversial questions, such as the measurement problem, the informational content of the wave function, and the completeness of quantum mechanics.

  12. Contribution à une étude des constructions antéposées du type : « En homme intelligent et humain, il partagea tout de suite l'inquiétude de Marcel » (J. Verne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Vigier

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Dans cet article nous nous intéressons à une gamme de syntagmes prépositionnels (SP régis par la préposition « en » et dénotant une attitude, un comportement, un statut, une propriété plus ou moins permanente d’un actant. Nous étudions en particulier les emplois où ce SP apparaît détaché en tête de phrase, configuration peu étudiée jusqu’à présent à notre connaissance, notamment à partir de données attestées. Nous montrons que la portée sémantique de ces constituants ainsi que l’évaluation dont ils témoignent diffèrent sensiblement selon qu’ils apparaissent en position détachée frontale ou intraprédicative postverbale liée. Nous insistons enfin sur le caractère fréquemment polyphonique des énoncés qui les hébergentThis paper focuses on a set of Prepositional Phrases (PPs governed by the preposition “en” and indicating an attitude, a behaviour pattern, a status or a more or less permanent property of a participant. We study in particular sentences where the PP is placed in initial detached position, a construction to which little attention has been paid until now, especially when based on corpus data. We show that the semantic scope of these constituents and the judgement they express vary significantly according to their position (at the head of the sentence versus after the verb. We insist finally on the frequently polyphonic dimension of the sentences in which these constituents appear.

  13. Challenges of conservation: working objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Professor Elizabeth Pye

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the concepts and practice of museum conservation, and the role of conservation in preserving both material and significance of objects. It explores the conservation of science and industry collections and the fact that the significance of many of these objects lies in their operation. It considers alternatives to operating original objects but emphasises the value of experiencing the real thing, and argues that visitors should be given greater physical access to museum objects, including being enabled to handle and work functioning objects. It finishes by calling for research into the effects of operation on the objects themselves, and into what constitutes a satisfying experience of working objects.

  14. Visual object recognition and tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chu-Yin (Inventor); English, James D. (Inventor); Tardella, Neil M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    This invention describes a method for identifying and tracking an object from two-dimensional data pictorially representing said object by an object-tracking system through processing said two-dimensional data using at least one tracker-identifier belonging to the object-tracking system for providing an output signal containing: a) a type of the object, and/or b) a position or an orientation of the object in three-dimensions, and/or c) an articulation or a shape change of said object in said three dimensions.

  15. Object manipulation facilitates kind-based object individuation of shape-similar objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kingo, Osman Skjold; Krøjgaard, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Five experiments investigated the importance of shape and object manipulation when 12-month-olds were given the task of individuating objects representing exemplars of kinds in an event-mapping design. In Experiments 1 and 2, results of the study from Xu, Carey, and Quint (2004, Experiment 4) were......, Experiment 4 revealed that allowing infants to manipulate objects shortly before the individuation task enabled them to individuate shape-similar objects from different categories. In Experiment 5, allowing object manipulation did not induce infants to individuate natural-looking objects from the same...... category. These findings suggest that object manipulation facilitates kind-based individuation of shape-similar objects by 12-month-olds. Keywords: Object individuation; Object shape; Object manipulation; Kind representations; Infancy...

  16. Program Construction by Verifying Specification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林洪; 陈国良

    1998-01-01

    A program construction method based on Gamma language is proposed.The problem to be solved is specified by first-order predicate logic and a semantic verification program is constructed directly from the specification.Ways for improving efficiency of the program are also studied.The method differs from the one proposed by Manna and Waldinger,where a program is extracted from the proof of the existence of an object meeting the given specification.On the other hand,it also differs from the classical one used for deriving Gamma programs of Banatre and Le metayes,which consists in decomposing the specification into an invariant and a termination conditon.

  17. Object-Interviews: Folding, Unfolding, and Refolding Perceptions of Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Naomi Nordstrom PhD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the object-interview as a Deleuzian space in which subjects and objects, living and nonliving, entangle together. I developed the object-interview to understand the connections that 11 Midwestern family history genealogists made between objects (e.g., documents, photographs, and other artifacts and their ancestors. The object-interview suggests an alternative way to think and do qualitative interviews informed by poststructural theories. The method draws on French philosopher Deleuze's concepts of the fold, events, and a life, as well as conventional qualitative interview literature. Deleuze's concepts offer a way to rethink objects and subjects as fibrous, connective, and folding entities in qualitative interviews. Such a rethinking offers an alternative to subject-centered conventional qualitative interviews in which subjects are teased apart from objects and subjects primarily produce knowledge. The object-interview, then, is a Deleuzian space in which the supposed distinctions between subjects and objects, as well as other binary divisions, become indistinct, or entangled, as both subjects and objects produce knowledge. That space enabled me to create the concept ensemble of life—a constantly shifting group of objects associated with a person's life. In this article, I describe the theoretical entanglement of the object-interview, the object-interview itself, the data it produced in my dissertation study, and the significance of the method to the field of qualitative research methods.

  18. Adobe Boxes: Locating Object Proposals Using Object Adobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhiwen; Cao, Zhiguo; Xiao, Yang; Zhu, Lei; Yuan, Junsong

    2016-09-01

    Despite the previous efforts of object proposals, the detection rates of the existing approaches are still not satisfactory enough. To address this, we propose Adobe Boxes to efficiently locate the potential objects with fewer proposals, in terms of searching the object adobes that are the salient object parts easy to be perceived. Because of the visual difference between the object and its surroundings, an object adobe obtained from the local region has a high probability to be a part of an object, which is capable of depicting the locative information of the proto-object. Our approach comprises of three main procedures. First, the coarse object proposals are acquired by employing randomly sampled windows. Then, based on local-contrast analysis, the object adobes are identified within the enlarged bounding boxes that correspond to the coarse proposals. The final object proposals are obtained by converging the bounding boxes to tightly surround the object adobes. Meanwhile, our object adobes can also refine the detection rate of most state-of-the-art methods as a refinement approach. The extensive experiments on four challenging datasets (PASCAL VOC2007, VOC2010, VOC2012, and ILSVRC2014) demonstrate that the detection rate of our approach generally outperforms the state-of-the-art methods, especially with relatively small number of proposals. The average time consumed on one image is about 48 ms, which nearly meets the real-time requirement.

  19. Risk Management of Jettisoned Objects in LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, John B.; Gray, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The construction and maintenance of the International Space Station (ISS) has led to the release of many objects into its orbital plane, usually during the course of an extra-vehicular activity (EVA). Such releases are often unintentional, but in a growing number of cases, the jettison has been intentional, conducted after a careful assessment of the net risk to the partnership and to other objects in space. Since its launch in 1998 the ISS has contributed on average at least one additional debris object that is simultaneously in orbit with the station, although the number varies widely from zero to eight at any one moment. All of these objects present potential risks to other objects in orbit. Whether it comes from known and tracked orbiting objects or from unknown or untrackable objects, collision with orbital debris can have disastrous consequences. Objects greater than 10cm are generally well documented and tracked, allowing orbiting spacecraft or satellites opportunities to perform evasive maneuvers (commonly known as Debris Avoidance Maneuvers, or DAMs) in the event that imminent collision is predicted. The issue with smaller debris; however, is that it is too numerous to be tracked effectively and yet still poses disastrous consequences if it intercepts a larger object. Due to the immense kinetic energy of any item in orbit, collision with debris as small as 1cm can have catastrophic consequences for many orbiting satellites or spacecraft. Faced with the growing orbital debris threat and the potentially catastrophic consequences of a collision-generated debris shower originating in an orbit crossing the ISS altitude band, in 2007 the ISS program manger asked program specialists to coordinate a multilateral jettison policy amongst the ISS partners. This policy would define the acceptable risk trade rationale for intentional release of a debris object, and other mandatory constraints on such jettisons to minimize the residual risks whenever a jettison was

  20. Object Replication and CORBA Fault-Tolerant Object Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Arc hitecture) provides 16Common Object Services for distributed application develo pment, but none of them are fault-tolerance related services. In this paper, we propose a replicated object based Fault-Tolerant Object Service (FTOS) for COR BA environment. Two fault-tolerant mechanisms are provided in FTOS including dy namic voting mechanism and object replication mechanism. The dynamic voting mech anism uses majority-voting strategy to ensure object state consistency in failu re situations. The object replication mechanism can help system administrators t o replicate and start-up objects easily. Our implementation provides a library according to the style of COSS. With this library, programmers can develop distr ibuted applications with fault-tolerance capability very easily.

  1. Probabilistic object and viewpoint models for active object recognition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Govender, N

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available For mobile robots to perform certain tasks in human environments, fast and accurate object verification and recognition is essential. Bayesian approaches to active object recognition have proved effective in a number of cases, allowing information...

  2. Education Using ICT for Construction Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Soeiro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A project carried through between institutions of higher education and construction companies was co-financed by the European Commission. The project lasted three years where the main objective was to develop the staff training in using and applying the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT in construction management. The results of the project have been also used in a new course of the senior year in specialization area of construction of the Civil Engineering degree of the University of Porto. Some conclusions of the diverse experiences of the project partners are also presented indicating future developments in this area.

  3. The Power of Objectives: Moving beyond Learning Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jack J.; Phillips, Patti P.

    2010-01-01

    Although the need for project objectives is obvious, their value and role are much broader than most think. In this article, we explore the need for higher levels of objectives, along with tips and techniques to develop them properly. More important, we examine the benefits of objectives from many perspectives. In today's competitive environment,…

  4. Young Children's Self-Generated Object Views and Object Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Karin H.; Jones, Susan S.; Smith, Linda B.; Swain, Shelley N.

    2014-01-01

    Two important and related developments in children between 18 and 24 months of age are the rapid expansion of object name vocabularies and the emergence of an ability to recognize objects from sparse representations of their geometric shapes. In the same period, children also begin to show a preference for planar views (i.e., views of objects held…

  5. INFANTILISM: THEORETICAL CONSTRUCT AND OPERATIONALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelena V. Sabelnikova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the presented research is to define and operationalize theoretically the concept of infantilism and its construct. The content of theoretical construct «infantilism» is analyzed. Methods. The methods of theoretical research involve analysis and synthesis. The age and content criteria are analysed in the context of childhood and adulthood. The traits which can be interpreted as adult infantile traits are described. Results. The characteristics of adult infantilism in modern world taking into account the increasing of information flows and socio-economic changes are defined. The definition of the concept «infantilism» including its main features is given. Infantilism is defined as the personal organization including features and models of the previous age period not adequate for the real age stage with emphasis on immaturity of the emotional and volitional sphere. Scientific novelty. The main psychological characteristics of adulthood are described as the reflection, requirement to work and professional activity, existence of professional self-determination, possession of labor skills, need for selfrealization, maturity of the emotional and volitional sphere. As objective adulthood characteristics are considered the following: transition to economic and territorial independence of a parental family, and also development of new social roles, such as a worker, spouse, and parent. Two options of a possible operationalization of concept are allocated: objective (existence / absence in real human life of objective criteria of adulthood and subjective (the self-report on subjective feeling of existence / lack of psychological characteristics of adulthood. Practical significance consists in a construct operationalization of «infantilism» which at the moment has so many interpretations. That operationalization is necessary for the further analysis and carrying out various researches. 

  6. Xinjiang Dushanzi Project Started Construction Started Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Xinjiang Dushanzi petroleum refining and chemical integrated project,is the largest one so far in China, with a capacity of ten-million-ton petroleum refinery and onemillion-ton ethylene complex, directly under PetroChina Company Limited (PetroChina), was started construction along with laying a foundation on August 22, 2005.

  7. Constructing Student Problems in Phylogenetic Tree Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Steven D.

    Evolution is often equated with natural selection and is taught from a primarily functional perspective while comparative and historical approaches, which are critical for developing an appreciation of the power of evolutionary theory, are often neglected. This report describes a study of expert problem-solving in phylogenetic tree construction.…

  8. Constructive neural network learning

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Shaobo; Zeng, Jinshan; Zhang, Xiaoqin

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we aim at developing scalable neural network-type learning systems. Motivated by the idea of "constructive neural networks" in approximation theory, we focus on "constructing" rather than "training" feed-forward neural networks (FNNs) for learning, and propose a novel FNNs learning system called the constructive feed-forward neural network (CFN). Theoretically, we prove that the proposed method not only overcomes the classical saturation problem for FNN approximation, but also ...

  9. Preposition Stranding and Orphaning: The Case of Bare Prepositions in French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Georg A.

    2012-01-01

    In their keynote contribution, Poplack, Zentz & Dion (henceforth PZD; Poplack, Zentz & Dion, 2011, this issue) propose an interesting "scientific test of convergence" (under section heading: "Introduction") which contains criteria to check whether a particular feature in a given language in contact with another one is…

  10. Reflective State Pattern with Dynamic Constructiveness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    After discussing the reflective method of structure and behaviorin th e State design pattern based on Role Object pattern and the Reflective pattern o f software architecture, this paper proposes a reflective state pattern with dyn amic constructiveness. This paper explains the meta level and the base level, wh ich are two levels of this pattern, and specifies the relation of two levels by using Meta Object Protocol (MOP). Then it discusses mechanism of interception an d reification for reflecting base object from Meta object. Finally this paper g ives an example of network server for applying the Reflective State pattern

  11. Visuo-haptic integration in object identification using novel objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmarais, Geneviève; Meade, Melissa; Wells, Taylor; Nadeau, Mélanie

    2017-07-25

    Although some studies have shown that haptic and visual identification seem to rely on similar processes, few studies have directly compared the two. We investigated haptic and visual object identification by asking participants to learn to recognize (Experiments 1, and 3), or to match (Experiment 2) novel objects that varied only in shape. Participants explored objects haptically, visually, or bimodally, and were then asked to identify objects haptically and/or visually. We demonstrated that patterns of identification errors were similar across identification modality, independently of learning and testing condition, suggesting that the haptic and visual representations in memory were similar. We also demonstrated that identification performance depended on both learning and testing conditions: visual identification surpassed haptic identification only when participants explored the objects visually or bimodally. When participants explored the objects haptically, haptic and visual identification were equivalent. Interestingly, when participants were simultaneously presented with two objects (one was presented haptically, and one was presented visually), object similarity only influenced performance when participants were asked to indicate whether the two objects were the same, or when participants had learned about the objects visually-without any haptic input. The results suggest that haptic and visual object representations rely on similar processes, that they may be shared, and that visual processing may not always lead to the best performance.

  12. Generalized morphological transformation for describing nonhomotopic object metamorphosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Liu, Wen-Yu; Zhu, Yaoting; Zhu, Guang-Xi

    2001-09-01

    Metamorphosis or morphing is the process of continuously transforming one object into another, and is popular in computer animation, industrial design, and growth simulation. In this paper, a novel metamorphosis approach is presented for computing continuous shape transformation between polyhedral objects. Metamorphosis can be achieved by decomposing two objects into sets of individual convex sub- objects respectively and constructing the mapping relationship of subsets, this method can solve the metamorphosis problem of two non-homotopic objects (including concave objects and holey objects). The results of object metamorphosis are also discussed in this paper. The experiments show that this method can generate natural, high quality metamorphosis results with simple computation. This method can also be used in font composition and interpolation between two keyframes in 2D and 3D computer animation automatically.

  13. Quantum objects as elementary units of causality and locality

    CERN Document Server

    Diel, Hans H

    2016-01-01

    The author's attempt to construct a local causal model of quantum theory (QT) that includes quantum field theory (QFT) resulted in the identification of "quantum objects" as the elementary units of causality and locality. Quantum objects are collections of particles (including single particles) whose collective dynamics and measurement results can only be described by the laws of QT and QFT. Local causal models of quantum objects' internal dynamics are not possible if a locality is understood as a space-point locality. Within quantum objects, state transitions may occur which instantly affect the whole quantum object. The identification of quantum objects as the elementary units of causality and locality has two primary implications for a causal model of quantum objects: (1) quantum objects run autonomously with system-state update frequencies based on their local proper times and with either no or minimal dependency on external parameters. (2) The laws of physics that describe global (but relativistic) inter...

  14. Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection

    KAUST Repository

    Lao, Dong

    2017-01-08

    We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.

  15. Multidisciplinary Optimization Object Library Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development of a library of Common MDO Objects is proposed, in which the software objects will automate a variety of recurring problems in the development of MDO...

  16. Multidisciplinary Optimization Object Library Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development of a library of Common MDO Objects is proposed, in which the software objects will automate a variety of recurring problems in the development of MDO...

  17. From creation to consumption: objects and commodities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Bautista López

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Objects, persons and ideas are all merely merchandise in a world that is highly industrialised and utterly superficial. Consumer societies produce a profusion of merchandise. In strictly economic terms, merchandise is whatever has an exchange-value, in  a world where objects are valued for their utility. So goods are whatever is useful, where use can be measured in monetary terms. This perspective impoverishes social relations. People relate only insofar as their value dictates, and that value is merely utilitarian. Moreover, this commercialisation reaches up to impoverish society as a whole. All this is the result of a long process of objectification which, seeing the world as the exchange of goods, ends up treating people just like any other tradable commodity. This article takes a critical look at the processes involved, and proposes an explanation in terms of the social construction of 'utility''.

  18. Periodically distributed objects with quasicrystalline diffraction pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolny, Janusz, E-mail: wolny@fis.agh.edu.pl; Strzalka, Radoslaw [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Kuczera, Pawel [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Laboratory of Crystallography, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 10, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-03-30

    It is possible to construct fully periodically distributed objects with a diffraction pattern identical to the one obtained for quasicrystals. These objects are probability distributions of distances obtained in the statistical approach to aperiodic structures distributed periodically. The diffraction patterns have been derived by using a two-mode Fourier transform—a very powerful method not used in classical crystallography. It is shown that if scaling is present in the structure, this two-mode Fourier transform can be reduced to a regular Fourier transform with appropriately rescaled scattering vectors and added phases. Detailed case studies for model sets 1D Fibonacci chain and 2D Penrose tiling are discussed. Finally, it is shown that crystalline, quasicrystalline, and approximant structures can be treated in the same way.

  19. Objects as Temporary Autonomous Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Morton

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available From Hakim Bey's instructions on creating temporary autonomous zones we see an oscillation "between performance art and politics, circus clowning and revolution." In this essay Tim Morton discusses anarchist politics as, "the creation of fresh objects in a reality without a top or a bottom object, or for that matter a middle object."

  20. Objects as Temporary Autonomous Zones

    OpenAIRE

    Tim Morton

    2011-01-01

    From Hakim Bey's instructions on creating temporary autonomous zones we see an oscillation "between performance art and politics, circus clowning and revolution." In this essay Tim Morton discusses anarchist politics as, "the creation of fresh objects in a reality without a top or a bottom object, or for that matter a middle object."

  1. The Use of Educational Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stearns, Clio

    2016-01-01

    This conceptual paper looks at the Winnicottian notion of object use as it relates to education. Object use is understood as the process of attaching to but then attempting to destroy the educator in an effort to create new knowledge and relationships. The paper argues for educational object use as a way of understanding and normalising resistance…

  2. Creating the First SCORM Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Barbone, Victor; Anido-Rifon, Luis

    2008-01-01

    The creation of the first SCORM (Shareable Content Object Reference Model) object offers some challenges and difficulties which go beyond the facilities offered by content generation applications. In particular, the creation of really reusable, searchable learning objects requires a detailed consideration of metadata, where some institutional…

  3. Complex perspectives on learning objectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørcke, Anne Mette; Wichmann-Hansen, Gitte; Guldbrand Nielsen, Dorte

    2006-01-01

    opposite perspectives: objectives as context-free theory-based rules versus objectives as personal practice-based guidelines. The students favoured theory-based objectives, which should be defined by experts conclusively as minimum levels and checklists. The senior doctors preferred practice...

  4. Clustering objects from multiple collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollink, V.; van Someren, M.; de Boer, V.

    2009-01-01

    Clustering methods cluster objects on the basis of a similarity measure between the objects. In clustering tasks where the objects come from more than one collection often part of the similarity results from features that are related to the collections rather than features that are relevant for the

  5. Clustering Objects from Multiple Collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollink, V.; Someren, M. van; Boer, V. de

    2009-01-01

    Clustering methods cluster objects on the basis of a similarity measure between the objects. In clustering tasks where the objects come from more than one collection often part of the similarity results from features that are related to the collections rather than features that are relevant for the

  6. Clustering objects from multiple collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollink, V.; van Someren, M.; de Boer, V.

    2009-01-01

    Clustering methods cluster objects on the basis of a similarity measure between the objects. In clustering tasks where the objects come from more than one collection often part of the similarity results from features that are related to the collections rather than features that are relevant for the

  7. Creating the First SCORM Object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Barbone, Victor; Anido-Rifon, Luis

    2008-01-01

    The creation of the first SCORM (Shareable Content Object Reference Model) object offers some challenges and difficulties which go beyond the facilities offered by content generation applications. In particular, the creation of really reusable, searchable learning objects requires a detailed consideration of metadata, where some institutional…

  8. A Model for Concurrent Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Morten U.

    1996-01-01

    We present a model for concurrent objects where obejcts interact by taking part in common events that are closely matched to form call-response pairs, resulting in resulting in rendez-vous like communications. Objects are built from primitive objects by parallel composition, encapsulation and hid...

  9. Objective Tests versus Subjective tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏福林

    2007-01-01

    objective test has only one correct answer, while subjective test has a range of possible answers. Because of this feature, reliability will not be difficult to achieve in the marking of the objective item, while the marking of the subjective items is reliable. On the whole, a good test must contain both subjective and objective test items.

  10. Estimation of continuous object distributions from limited Fourier magnitude measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Charles L.; Fiddy, Michael A.

    1987-01-01

    From finite complex spectral data one can construct a continuous object with a given support that is consistent with the data. Given Fourier magnitude data only, one can choose the phases arbitrarily in the above construction. The energy in the extrapolated spectrum is phase-dependent and provides a cost function to be used in phase retrieval. The minimization process is performed iteratively, using an algorithm that can be viewed as a combination of Gerchberg-Papoulis and Fienup error reduction.

  11. Railway Construction in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Authored by Li Ping and Li Xinhu, the book actually is the result of research into “schemes of construction of railways in Yunnan and Tibet.” The book centers around research into the scheme of construction of the YunnanTibet Railway, conducting comprehensive studies involving political, economic, technological, social and State security fields.

  12. Employment and winter construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    2011-01-01

    Reduced seasonal building activity in the construction sector is often assumed to be related to hard winter conditions for building activities and poor working conditions for construction workers, resulting in higher costs and poor quality of building products, particularly in the northern hemisp...

  13. Personal Usability Constructs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Clemmensen, Torkil; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    Whereas the concept of usability is predominantly defined analytically, people relate to systems through personal usability constructs. Based on 48 repertory-grid interviews, this study investigates how such personal constructs are affected by two factors crucial to the international development ...

  14. Construction Technology Transfer Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-01

    44 USACERL TR 99/11 References Arditi , D., "Construction Productivity Improvement," Journal of Construction Engi- neering and Management, American...8. 12 Ichinowski, T. and Setzer, S. "Corps seeks plans to boost productivity." Engineering News Record, February 9, 1989, p. 11-12. 13 Arditi , D

  15. Acquisition of Comparison Constructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohaus, Vera; Tiemann, Sonja; Beck, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study on the time course of the acquisition of comparison constructions. The order in which comparison constructions (comparatives, measure phrases, superlatives, degree questions, etc.) show up in English- and German-learning children's spontaneous speech is quite fixed. It is shown to be insufficiently determined by…

  16. Construction execution and techology optimization – commercial and business building case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kumalić, Emir

    2010-01-01

    The key element for successful construction site is time-schedule, which allows us time organizing of construction site itself and reliable evaluation of construction course. In my work I discuss organization of construction site and construction technology, with emphasis on optimization of time-schedule. I applied it on the case of commercial-business object, which will be built in Ljubljana. After introduction, I have described this object further I described work technology and preparatory...

  17. SODA: Smart Objects, Dumb Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael L.; Maly, Kurt; Zubair, Mohammad; Shen, Stewart N. T.

    2004-01-01

    We present the Smart Object, Dumb Archive (SODA) model for digital libraries (DLs). The SODA model transfers functionality traditionally associated with archives to the archived objects themselves. We are exploiting this shift of responsibility to facilitate other DL goals, such as interoperability, object intelligence and mobility, and heterogeneity. Objects in a SODA DL negotiate presentation of content and handle their own terms and conditions. In this paper we present implementations of our smart objects, buckets, and our dumb archive (DA). We discuss the status of buckets and DA and how they are used in a variety of DL projects.

  18. Governmentalities of Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Stefan; Jensen, Jens Stissing

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we apply Foucault’s concept of governmentality in a dual analysis of the formation and transformation of the construction sector and the construction worker. The governmentality concept is well-suited for such an analysis as it directs attention to the ways in which control...... is the exercised over a specific area of institutional life through the shaping of individuals’ conduct. We argue that construction, as a coherent sector, first was rendered governable in the 1940s in order to achieve national modernisation. It is shown how the political measures that were based on the exercise...... of disciplinary power also impacted the formation of identities constituting the construction worker as a normalised subject. We then illustrate how construction since the mid-1990s has been shaped by two contrasting governmentalities framing the sector as respectively a resource area, with emphasis on innovation...

  19. Operations management for construction

    CERN Document Server

    March, Chris

    2009-01-01

    Students studying construction management and related subjects need to have a broad understanding of the major aspects of controlling the building processes. Operations Management for Construction is one of three textbooks (Business Organisation, Operations Management and Finance Control) written to systematically cover the field. Focusing on construction sites and operations which are challenging to run, Chris March explores issues such as the setting up of the site, the deciding of the methodology of construction, and the sequence of work and resourcing. As changing and increasing regulations affect the way sites are managed, he also considers the issues and methods of successful administering, safety, quality and environment. Finally, the contractor's responsibility to the environment, including relationships with third parties, selection of materials, waste management and sustainability is discussed. Chris March has a wealth of practical experience in the construction industry, as well as considerable exp...

  20. Motivating Workers in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason E. Barg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the motivation of construction workers is limited to a relatively small body of knowledge. Although there is considerable research available regarding motivation and productivity, few researchers have provided a comprehensive analysis on the motivation of construction workers. The research stated that productivity in construction has not improved compared to other industry sectors such as manufacturing. This trend has been echoed in publications throughout the past five decades, and suggested that motivation is one of the key factors impacting productivity. This paper offers a comprehensive review of the published work that directly links the key words—construction and motivation. The findings have been presented in five themes, that is, motivation models, environment and culture, incentives and empowerment, and worker management. This paper concludes with two methods suggested by previous researchers to improve motivation of construction workers: (1 relevant worker incentives (intrinsic or extrinsic and (2 improved management practices, specifically regarding communication with workers.