WorldWideScience

Sample records for preposition pied piping

  1. Preposition stranding versus pied-piping: Negative Shift of prepositional complements in dialects of Faroese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Engels

    2009-01-01

             These asymmetries will be accounted for within Fox and Pesetsky's (2003, 2005 cyclic linearization model, which requires non-string-vacuous movement to proceed through the left edge of Spell-out domains, deriving cross-linguistic variation as to Negative Shift from differences in the availability of these left-edge positions. Thereby, pied-piping is considered a last resort strategy, possible only if the prepositional complement cannot undergo Negative Shift on its own due to the unavailability of the relevant left-edge position.

  2. THE ACQUISITION OF PREPOSITION STRANDING AND PIED-PIPING BY INDONESIAN STUDENTS LEARNING ENGLISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drs. Suprapto, M.Hum. Drs. Suprapto, M.Hum.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article mainly deals with the acquisition of preposition stranding (PS and preposition pied-piping (PPP of English by the students of the English Department of Semarang State University. The main purpose of the study is to reveal their way of mastering this language area which is notably absent in their L1 system (PS. Based on the experience of the writer as a teacher, the different systems of preposition usage between L1 (Indonesian and L2(English constitutes a lot of learning problems. The PS and PPP learning problems encountered by the students are pedagogically appealing in that even the students of higher semester can often plunge into this particular problem (Mi Di 2006. English, and also other Germanic languages, permits both PS and PPP in their sentence constructions while in Indonesian and many other languages in the world the PS constructions do not appear to have a strong grammatical basis (Cable and Harris 2011; Sugisaki 2011. Researchers tried to understand the problem by viewing it through the notion of markedness theory in which language areas which are unmarked are relatively easier to learn than the ones marked. In the issue raised in this paper, the PPP is considered to be unmarked and the PS is more marked (van Buren and Smith 1985; Klein 1993. This study involves 62 students divided into two groups: 30 students of second semester and 32 students of fourth semester. They were given a task to construct sentences with wh-relative clauses using either PPP or PS forms employing different relative pronouns. The result shows that the second semester group tended to use more PPP than PS forms. They also used less PS than the intermediate group did. On the other hand, the fourth semester group tended to use more PS than the elementary did. These findings suggest a significant support towards the effectiveness of markedness theory. The results may also indicate that the theory works most effectively on lower level of learning and

  3. Postcolonial Prepositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    2018-01-01

    geopolitics” they represent. The study draws on insights from research in language ideology, onomastics, ethnosyntax, and metapragmatics, and with the Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) as its general framework. The study provides semantic explications for the two prepositional phrases i Grønland ‘in...

  4. Prepositions in Use: Prepositions of Standard, Prepositions of Possession and Prepositions of Accompaniment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naji Masned AlQbailat

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The current research paper attempted at investigating the use of prepositions of standard, prepositions of possession and prepositions of accompaniment by some Jordanian learners of English. A total of 53 Jordanian English Majors participated in the study from the department of English language at Princess Alia University College. In collecting the needed data for the purpose of the study, the researchers employed fifteen items of a multiple choice test. The results of the study showed that Jordanian learners of English encountered moderate difficulty in learning the three aforesaid usages of prepositions. This difficulty is ascribed mainly to first language interference more than intralingual interference. It was also found that prepositions of standard are the most difficult to learn by the participants, followed by prepositions of accompaniment and prepositions of possession respectively.       Keywords: First language Interference, Intralingual Interference, Prepositions of Standard, Prepositions of Accompaniment, Prepositions of Possession

  5. Prepositions in Use: Prepositions of Standard, Prepositions of Possession and Prepositions of Accompaniment

    OpenAIRE

    Naji Masned AlQbailat; Islam M. Al-Momani; Yazan Shaker Almahameed

    2016-01-01

    The current research paper attempted at investigating the use of prepositions of standard, prepositions of possession and prepositions of accompaniment by some Jordanian learners of English. A total of 53 Jordanian English Majors participated in the study from the department of English language at Princess Alia University College. In collecting the needed data for the purpose of the study, the researchers employed fifteen items of a multiple choice test. The results of the study showed that J...

  6. Various Views on Spatial Prepositions

    OpenAIRE

    Retz-Schmidt, Gudula

    1988-01-01

    In this article, principles involving the intrinsic, deictic, and extrinsic use of spatial prepositions are examined from linguistic, psychological, and AI approaches. First, I define some important terms. Second, those prepositions which permit intrinsic, deictic, and extrinsic use are specified. Third, I examine how the frame of reference is determined for all three cases. Fourth, I look at ambiguities in the use of prepositions and how they can be resolved. Finally, I introduce the natural...

  7. Uncovering Prepositional Senses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Tine

    of these data stem from a small pre-defined set of relations, and the ontological type information stems from the SIMPLE ontology. The resulting data set was used as input to a machine-learning algorithm, and the result was a set of rules that predict the semantic relation of a preposition based...... language wordnet, DanNet, as a source of ontological type information, while the relations stem from a larger set of relations which were the result of an analysis of dictionary entries and corpus evidences containing prepositions. Again, machine learning was applied, and the result was a set of rules...... called the skeleton ontology, and a set of production rules (cf. generative grammars) that allows for production of compound concepts. We represent such compound concepts in the ontology language ONTOLOG. In this language, compound concepts are represented as conceptual feature structures of the form c...

  8. Consciousness-Raising and Prepositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Monica

    2010-01-01

    For a variety of reasons, learning English prepositions is notoriously difficult and a slow, gradual process for English as a Second Language (ESL) students. To begin, English prepositions typically are short, single-syllable or two-syllable words that are seldom stressed when speaking and therefore often not articulated clearly or heard…

  9. Prepositions in MSA and English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Nasser Aldwayan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatial scenes are identical in the world languages. However, cultures may diverge in profiling spatial scenes (Levinson 2003. This paper selects for study the prepositions in and on in English and their Modern Standard Arabic (MSA counterparts fi and 3ala, arguing that MSA and English seem to diverge in the spatial configurations and meanings of these prepositions. The sub-schemas of CONTAINMENT (in-ness in MSA are found to partially overlap with those of English, with the other sub-schemas being taken care of by SUPPORT (on-ness and PUNCTUALITY (point-ness. Such differences classify MSA more as a CONTAINMENT-based language than English, which seems to prefer SUPPORT and PUNCTUALITY. However, English and MSA seem to converge in their metaphoric conceptualizations of states owing to conceptual embodiment (Lakoff 1987. The article discusses the implications of such findings for spatial cognition and cultural cognition and EFL/ESL writing and translating.

  10. Prepositions and ESL Learners: the Malaysian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norwati Roslim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a review of the literature on prepositions with a focus on definitions and main difficulties faced by Malaysian students. It further highlights recommendations about the role of syllabus designers, textbook writers and teachers in meeting these challenges. It is hoped that this article could provide a platform for any further studies on prepositions.

  11. An approach ecolinguistics of prepositions portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajla Katherine Rocha Simião

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the study of prepositions from the Ecology of Spatial Relations (ERE equivalent to what is presented in normative grammars, this way, the objective is to expose the ERE and contrasts it with the descriptions grammars do prepositions from a perspective Ecolinguistics.

  12. Use of English Prepositions by Japanese University Students

    OpenAIRE

    金子, 朝子; Tomoko, Kaneko; 昭和女子大学英語コミュニケーション学科; English Language and Communication Showa Women's University

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined if Japanese university students use bound prepositions more correctly than free prepositions in English writing. At the same time, the use of prepositions was compared with learners of various language backgrounds and the effect of the phrase meaning expressed by the combination of a verb and a preposition on the correctness of use was also examined using argumentative essay corpora. The result shows that there were more errors in bound prepositions, and missing err...

  13. Pie en espejo

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Quiñones, Alberto; Pancorbo Sandoval, Enrique; Diaz Prieto, Giraldo; Martín Tirado, Juan Carlos; Hernández Varela, Duniesky; Cruz Alard, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Paciente masculino de 79 años de edad, el cual presenta en el miembro inferior izquierdo a nivel del pie una malformación congénita que corresponde a un pie en espejo, representado por 9 artejos, articulados en 8 metatarsianos, pie zambo, seudoartrosis alta de la tibia y luxación congénita alta del peroné. Es inusual encontrar esta deformidad en el momento actual. Here is a 79 years-old patient who had in his left foot a congenital malformation called mirror foot, which is represented by 9...

  14. Tratamiento del pie equino

    OpenAIRE

    Robles, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    El pie equino varo es una patología frecuente en los pacientes con Encefalopatía crónica no evolutiva (ECNE).Se observó que existe una mayor frecuencia en el sexo masculino. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, comparativo y secundario, durante el periodo de septiembre del 2006 a septiembre del 2011, con un total de 125 pacientes con Ecne, de los cuales se encontraron 101 con pie equino varo congénito. Objetivo: observar los resultados obtenidos en la rehabilitación del pie equino, en niños de ...

  15. Of Prepositions and Propositions: Sharing Experiences and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of Prepositions and Propositions: Sharing Experiences and Perspectives on ... and Africanist scholars, written by an African and an Africanist graduate student. ... in the long-standing dispute over FGM (Female Genital Mutilation) research.

  16. Perception and Production of Thai Learners on English Prepositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruangjaroon, Sugunya

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I adopt Best's (2001) Perceptual Assimilation Model (PAM) to account for how Thai learners acquire English prepositions in prepositional phrases and propose the ranking order of English preposition acquisition into three different categories. The ranking is as follows: Category A is a one-to-one semantic mapping between English and…

  17. The Radial Structure of Some Middle Egyptian Prepositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyord, Rune

    2010-01-01

    Prepositions are traditionally treated in dictionaries and grammars by giving a list of usages, often corresponding more or less to the way the preposition is translated in the language of the modern work. This paper suggests an alternative way of approaching prepositions, derived from cognitive...

  18. Pied de Pulse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2016-01-01

    This project has two aims. The first is to study and implement a fractal-like structure of circles inspired by Apollonian circles, combined with a pied de poule (houndstooth). The second aim is to push the integration of electric actuators in garments, using the power of algorithmic design and

  19. Pie de madura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio E. Torres Reyes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available En el Hospital provincial “Antonio Agosthino Neto” de la ciudad de NDalatando, Kwanza Norte, Republica de Angola, se recibe una paciente femenina de la raza negra de 20 años de edad, con antecedentes de trabajar en el campo, laborando habitualmente descalza. Desde hace dos años, después de haberse hecho una herida con una espina de acacia, presentaba lesiones en la región del tarso y metatarso del pie derecho. Las lesiones nodulares que abarcaban la planta y dorso del pie presentaban color rojo amarillento y supuraban constantemente, con aumento de partes blandas. Se le indicaron análisis complementarios y estudios imagenológicos. Después de obtener los resultados micológicos, bacteriológicos e imagenológicos y debido a las lesiones óseas y en partes blandas que presentaba la paciente, se decide la amputación quirúrgica del pie

  20. Colligations of Prepositions: Essential Properties of Legal Phraseology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamariah Yunus

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Specialised discourses manifest the organising thoughts of the discourse community that speaks the language.  They are formed by a series of interrelated linguistic properties that are joined in sentences by small but very important lexico-grammatical properties - colligations of prepositions. This paper reviewed the linguistic properties that constitute these linguistic patterns (colligations of prepositions as well as their semantic and pragmatic functions in legal discourse. The literature reveals that prepositions have both the lexical and grammatical statuses. They are prevalent in legal texts, and they play very important role in conveying the thoughts of the discourse community of the law. Proficient linguistic users are marked by having competence of these patterns. Due to the importance of colligations of prepositions in legal discourse, it is recommended that law students and legal scholars be taught colligations of prepositions explicitly rather than learning them implicitly.

  1. Post irradiation effects (PIE) in integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.E.; Shaw, D.C.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Winokur, P.S.

    1992-01-01

    Post Irradiation Effects (PIE) ranging from normal recovery catastrophic failure have been observed in integrated circuits during the PIE period. These variations indicate that a rebound or PIE recipe used for radiation hardness assurance must be chosen with care. In this paper, the authors provide examples of PIE in a variety of integrated circuits of importance to spacecraft electronics

  2. The Production System's Formulation of Relative Clause Structures: Evidence from Polish

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Dana; Lech, Dorota

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we focused on the formulation of relative clauses with preposition and genitive pied-piping. Thirty child (5;9 to 8;4) and 30 adult Polish speakers were given an elicited production task and a grammaticality judgment task. Almost all of the children accepted preposition pied-piping, but only half of them produced it. We suggest that…

  3. Middle English Preposition Twēn(E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciszek-Kiliszewska Ewa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper focuses on the Middle English preposition twēn(e ‘between, among, in between’. The aim of the study is to review the acknowledged etymology of twēn(e as well as to provide its semantics, dialect distribution, complete textual distribution (record of texts employing twēn(e, and absolute token frequency. Moreover, all texts including the preposition twēn(e are subject to an analysis of the whole variety of prepositions meaning ‘between’ and their token frequency in order to establish the proportions of the use of twēn(e and other discussed prepositions, especially the better established preposition betwēn(e in texts employing twēn(e. The study is based on such extensive electronic databases as the Middle English Dictionary online, the Oxford English Dictionary online and the Corpus of Middle English Prose and Verse as well as on a number of complete Middle English texts. The study of the corpus demonstrates the presence of twēn(e and other prepositions meaning ‘between’ also in texts not listed by the Middle English Dictionary online or the Oxford English Dictionary online under appropriate entries, and thus helps to provide a more complete record of texts and authors utilizing twēn(e and the extent of use of twēn(e as compared to other prepositions meaning ‘between’. Moreover, the study demonstrates that also the other discussed prepositions are often not recorded in particular texts by the MED online or the OED online. In more general terms, the paper points out the need for the use of complete texts for the study of historical prepositions.

  4. Stovetop Earth Pecan Pie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, C. M.

    2005-12-01

    Many fluid mechanical experiments with direct applications to Earth Science are performed with sugary syrups using conceptually straightforward procedures. Corn syrup has indeed proven to be a godsend for those studying convection and related non-linear phenomena. In addition, however, it gives experimentalists a deep physical intuition for the interior workings of hot planets. The basic concepts behind plate tectonics and mantle convection are not difficult; indeed, although they may not be aware of it, most students probably have a basic intuitive understanding of fluid mechanics gained in their daily life. However, the large size and long time scale of geophysical processes may be quite intimidating to young students. Even a simple geophysical experiment requires a complicated array of coolers, heaters and measuring and recording equipment. It is of interest to introduce students to the geodynamical concepts that can be visualized in a high-tech lab using familiar processes and equipment. Using a homemade apparatus and grocery store supplies, I propose using a 'Stove-top Earth pecan pie' to introduce simple geodynamic concepts to middle- and high-school students. The initially cold syrup heats up and the pecans begin to float (continent formation), the syrup begins to convect (mantle convection), and convection slows down after the heat is removed (secular cooling). Even Wilson cycles can be simulated by moving the pan to one side or the other of the stovetop or heating element. The activity formally introduces students to convection and its application to the earth, and makes them think about plate motion, heat transfer, scaling, and experimental procedures. As an added bonus, they can eat their experiments after recess!

  5. Tratamiento Actual del Pie Zambo

    OpenAIRE

    Salom Taverner, M.; Mínguez Rey, María Fe

    2015-01-01

    El pie zambo es una deformidad congénita en la que el pie presenta una deformidad en equino, varo de retropié, aductus del antepié y cavo. Su tratamiento ha variado con el tiempo. Clásicamente se trataba mediante distintas técnicas quirúrgicas que permitían corregir todas las deformidades pero que se acompañaban de frecuentes complicaciones a corto y largo plazo. Actualmente el tratamiento más extendido de esta deformidad es el tratamiento conservador mediante la técnica de Ponset...

  6. Pie plano-valgo adquirido

    OpenAIRE

    Albiol Ferrer, Josep Maria; Giralt de Veciana, Enrique; Marugán de los Bueis, Montse; Novel Martí, Virginia; Ogalla, José Manuel; Zalacain, Antonio

    1990-01-01

    Es la patología del pie que tiene mayor incidencia durante la infancia. Su recuperación eficaz, además de precisar un largo período de tratamiento, requiere un diagnóstico precoz. Durante la lactancia, a partir de los tres meses, y después, durante la infancia, hasta los tres años aproximadamente, una gruesa y blanda capa de panlculo adiposo determina una configuración que rellena la bóveda y ofrece una falsa imagen de pie plano.

  7. El pie del adulto mayor

    OpenAIRE

    Parodi García, José Francisco

    2005-01-01

    Acta Médica Peruana es una publicación del Colegio Médico del Perú El estudio del pie y sus patologías es un capítulo muy importante de la Geriatría. Las patologías del pie no escapan las características comunes de muchos síndromes geriátricos como son el ser asumidos como "normales para la edad", ser poco valorados, menospreciados, no tratados, con gran impacto sobre la salud en general y la calidad de vida.

  8. PIE analysis for minor actinide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Kenya

    2005-01-01

    Minor actinide (MA) is generated in nuclear fuel during the operation of power reactor. For fuel design, reactivity decrease due to it should be considered. Out of reactors, MA plays key role to define the property of spent fuel (SF) such as α-radioactivity, neutron emission rate, and criticality of SF. In order to evaluate the calculation codes and libraries for predicting the amount of MA, comparison between calculation results and experimentally obtained data has been conducted. In this report, we will present the status of PIE data of MA taken by post irradiation examinations (PIE) and several calculation results. (author)

  9. Preposition accuracy on a sentence repetition task in school age Spanish–English bilinguals*

    Science.gov (United States)

    TALIANCICH-KLINGER, CASEY L.; BEDORE, LISA M.; PEÑA, ELIZABETH D.

    2018-01-01

    Preposition knowledge is important for academic success. The goal of this project was to examine how different variables such as English input and output, Spanish preposition score, mother education level, and age of English exposure (AoEE) may have played a role in children’s preposition knowledge in English. 148 Spanish–English children between 7;0 and 9;11 produced prepositions in English and Spanish on a sentence repetition task from an experimental version of the Bilingual English Spanish Assessment Middle Extension (Peña, Bedore, Gutierrez-Clellen, Iglesias & Goldstein, in development). English input and output accounted for most of the variance in English preposition score. The importance of language-specific experiences in the development of prepositions is discussed. Competition for selection of appropriate prepositions in English and Spanish is discussed as potentially influencing low overall preposition scores in English and Spanish. PMID:28506324

  10. Preposition Accuracy on a Sentence Repetition Task in School Age Spanish-English Bilinguals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliancich-Klinger, Casey L.; Bedore, Lisa M.; Pena, Elizabeth D.

    2018-01-01

    Preposition knowledge is important for academic success. The goal of this project was to examine how different variables such as English input and output, Spanish preposition score, mother education level, and age of English exposure (AoEE) may have played a role in children's preposition knowledge in English. 148 Spanish-English children between…

  11. Constructional effects on prepositional antonymy in Croatian and Danish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmark, Henrik; Katunar, Daniela

    Much of the research dealing with the semantics of prepositions has focused on their intralexical, i.e.polysemous structures (e.g. Lakoff 1987, Taylor 1993, Šarić 2008). As a consequence, theirinterlexical semantic relations, such as antonymy, were neglected as a focus of research. On the other h...

  12. The MEGAPIE PIE sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlmuther, M.; Boutellier, V.; Dai, Y.; Gavillet, D.; Geissmann, K.; Hahl, S.; Hammer, B.; Lagotzki, A.; Leu, H.; Linder, H.P.; Kalt, A.; Kuster, D.; Neuhausen, J.; Schumann, D.; Schwarz, R.; Schweikert, H.; Spahr, A.; Suter, P.; Teichmann, S.; Thomsen, K.; Wiese, H.; Wagner, W.; Zimmermann, U.; Zumbach, C.

    2015-01-01

    On the way towards Accelerator-driven Systems (ADS), the MEGAPIE (Mega-Watt Pilot Experiment) project is one of the key milestones. The MEGAPIE project aimed to prove that a liquid Lead-Bismuth-Eutectic (LBE) spallation target can be licensed, planned, built, operated, dismantled, examined and disposed. The project has finished the phase of producing the samples for Post-irradiation Examination (PIE). Samples to study structural material property changes due to the harsh environment of high temperatures, contact with flowing liquid metal (LBE), proton and neutron irradiation will be investigated by all partner laboratories (CEA, CNRS, ENEA, KIT, PSI and SCK-CEN). (authors)

  13. 9 CFR 319.500 - Meat pies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meat pies. 319.500 Section 319.500... ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Meat Food Entree Products, Pies, and...

  14. Nuestro concepto actual del pie valgo

    OpenAIRE

    Dorca Coll, Adelina; Cespedes Cespedes, Tomás; Concustell Gonfaus, Josep; Sacristán Valero, Sergi; Dorca Coll, Ma. Rosa

    1996-01-01

    Los autores hacen una revisión de los conceptos y etiologías que se han descrito del pie valgo. Incluyen una definición personal sobre el concepto funcional del pie valgo, definen por primera vez la marcha que cursa con estrés en valgo y presentan una descripción del comportamiento biomecánico de los diferentes pies valgos. Esta diferenciación será de gran utilidad para la posterior aplicación del tratamiento ortopodológico adecuado. Es de resaltar las imágenes que se presentan obtenidas de c...

  15. El pie diabético

    OpenAIRE

    Cespedes Cespedes, Tomás; Cuevas Gómez, Rafael; Dorca Coll, Adelina; Sacristán Valero, Sergi

    1991-01-01

    El pie diabético está considerado como un pie de alto riesgo, está demostrado que si aplicáramos una adecuada y correcta educación sanitaria a todos los profesionales de la salud y al propio paciente, se podrían evitar en la mayoría de los casos las tan temidas amputaciones. En el presente trabajo hacemos referencia de las características más importantes de la diabetes, pie diabético y a la actuación profesional del podólogo frente a estos pacientes.

  16. Defective Reduction in Frozen Pie Manufacturing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nooted, Oranuch; Tangjitsitcharoen, Somkiat

    2017-06-01

    The frozen pie production has a lot of defects resulting in high production cost. Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) technique has been applied to improve the frozen pie process. Pareto chart is also used to determine the major defects of frozen pie. There are 3 main processes that cause the defects which are the 1st freezing to glazing process, the forming process, and the folding process. The Risk Priority Number (RPN) obtained from FMEA is analyzed to reduce the defects. If RPN of each cause exceeds 45, the process will be considered to be improved and selected for the corrective and preventive actions. The results showed that RPN values decreased after the correction. Therefore, the implementation of FMEA technique can help to improve the performance of frozen pie process and reduce the defects approximately 51.9%.

  17. Preposition Entries in UK Monolingual Learners' Dictionaries: Problems and Possible Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstromberg, Seth

    2001-01-01

    Presents a selective examination of the entries of the preposition "on" in five advanced learners' dictionaries published in the United Kingdom. The principal concern is the preposition "on" as a signifier of contact with a surface--especially an upper surface. (Author/VWL)

  18. Unifying Prepositions and Prefixes in Russian: Conceptual structure versus syntax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna Tolskaya

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an attempt to unify the polysemous verbal prefixes and prepositions in Russian. At first glance, the variety of possible denotations of a given prefix might appear a chaotic set of idiomatic meanings, e.g., the prefix za- may refer to beginning of an action, movement to a position behind an object, a brief deviation from a path, completion of an action, while the corresponding preposition za can mean ‘behind,’ ‘after,’ ‘for,’ ‘in’ (like in ‘in an hour’, ‘at’ (like in ‘at the table’. I will propose a unified analysis, where the differences in meaning are claimed to arise from different syntactic positions, while the lexical entry of a prefix remains the same. The main focus is on the verbs of motion due to the consistent duality displayed by the prefix meanings when added to directional and non-directional motion verbs. It will turn out that many prefixes appear to modify path when added onto a directional motion verb and to refer to movement in time with non-directional motion verbs. This semantic distinction corresponds to distinct sets of syntactic properties, specific for each set of prefixes. These two classes of prefixes correspond to the lexical versus superlexical distinction. However, a tripartite division will emerge in each set, corresponding to source, path, and goal of motion (FROM, VIA and TO for lexical prefixes and to initiation, process and result for superlexical prefixes. This leads to the suggestion that the syntactic representation of a VP contains at least six distinct nodes for the Russian verbal prefixes, each characterized by predictable semantic and syntactic properties. The same prefix with a consistent meaning, shared with the corresponding preposition, will receive part of its denotation from the syntactic head it attaches to, thus allowing the polysemy to arise from position, rather than from arbitrary homophony. Thus, conceptual structure will be unified with syntax.

  19. Pied de pulse: packing embroidered circles and coil actuators in pied de poule (houndstooth)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijs, L.M.G.; Toeters, M.J.; Torrence, E.; Torrence, B.; Sequin, C.; McKenna, D.; Fenyvesi, K.; Sarhangi, R.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the integration of fractal-like structures inspired by Appolonian circles with pied de poule (houndstooth) fabric patterns, and on the use of electric actuators in garments made with digital embroidery techniques.

  20. The Afloat Prepositioning Program: Do Service Mission Differences Preclude Total Jointness?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McCain, Scott

    2003-01-01

    ...) make it a prime target for integration. Ranging from tanks and trucks to food and fuel, the prepositioning load lists provide a flexible range of deterrent and combat options to the Combatant Commander...

  1. Maritime Pre-Positioning Force-Future: Bill Payer or Sea Basing Enabler?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grotewold, William R

    2008-01-01

    .... The Maritime Prepositioning Force-Future (MPF-F) program, envisioned as a key enabler of sea basing, may be funded through further cuts in amphibious ships or fall victim to an untenable Navy ship building plan...

  2. Military Prepositioning: Army and Air Force Programs Need to Be Reassessed

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. military stores, or prepositions, reserves of military equipment and supplies near potential conflict areas to ensure that the material would be quickly available to forces in the event of a crisis...

  3. Effects of animation on naming and identification across two graphic symbol sets representing verbs and prepositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Ralf W; Koul, Rajinder; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Brock, Kristofer; Harmon, Ashley; Moerlein, Dorothy; Hearn, Emilia

    2014-10-01

    The effects of animation on naming and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were studied in 2 graphic symbol sets in preschoolers. Using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 completely randomized block design, preschoolers across three age groups were randomly assigned to combinations of symbol set (Autism Language Program [ALP] Animated Graphics or Picture Communication Symbols [PCS]), symbol format (animated or static), and word class (verbs or prepositions). Children were asked to name symbols and to identify a target symbol from an array given the spoken label. Animated symbols were more readily named than static symbols, although this was more pronounced for verbs than for prepositions. ALP symbols were named more accurately than PCS in particular with prepositions. Animation did not facilitate identification. ALP symbols for prepositions were identified better than PCS, but there was no difference for verbs. Finally, older children guessed and identified symbols more effectively than younger children. Animation improves the naming of graphic symbols for verbs. For prepositions, ALP symbols are named more accurately and are more readily identifiable than PCS. Naming and identifying symbols are learned skills that develop over time. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.

  4. SYSTEMATICITY OF L1 THAI LEARNERS' ENGLISH INTERLANGUAGE OF DEPENDENT PREPOSITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyaboot Sumonsriworakun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates systematicity in English interlanguage of dependent prepositions among L1 Thai learners of L2 English. It is hypothesized that Thai learners show non-random use of English dependent prepositions in their English interlanguage, and that the systematicity is largely attributable to cross-linguistic influence and certain cognitive factors. To test the hypothesis, 30 L1 Thai undergraduate students of L2 English at elementary, intermediate, and advanced proficiency levels took two tests: a Thai–English translation test and a cloze test. The tests involved four types of relationship between English and Thai dependent prepositions: (1 [–prep] in English but [+prep] in Thai, (2 [+prep] in English but [–prep] in Thai, (3 [+prep1] in English but [+prep2] in Thai, and (4 [+prep] in English and [+prep] in Thai. The findings demonstrate that systematicity occurred in the learners’ English usage of prepositions of all such types, possibly due to negative transfer from the learners’ native language. Also, the L2 learners tended to exhibit such systematicity irrespective of their English proficiency level. It may be assumed that the cognitive aspect of L2 learners’ working memory is involved in processing the usage of the four types of English dependent prepositions. The results of the study are expected to shed light on the problems of L2 English interlanguage of dependent prepositions among L1 Thai learners.

  5. Recent and future PIE activities in KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sangbok; Ryu, Woo-seok; Hong, Kwonpyo; Jeon, Yongbum; Kim, Dosik; Choo, Yongsun

    2012-01-01

    KAERI has two PIE hot cell facilities. One is Irradiated Material Examination Facility (IMEF) to examine irradiated nuclear fuels and core structural materials at HANARO, and the other is a Post Irradiation Examination Facility (PIEF) to do the operated PWR nuclear fuels and skeleton. Their activities are categorized by hot cell examinations, new technique developments, maintenance of facility utilities and a public acceptance work. In the past three years hot cell tests were executed over 2,000 times related to R and D projects of the future and next generation reactors such as SMART, U-Mo fuels, I-NERI etc., including 30 rods to be operated in domestic PWR's. To supply PIE data on time to the user schedules new equipment and techniques are being developed for 10 items which include an annealing fission gas release rate, thermal diffusivity measurement, a laser puncturing fission gas collection system and mechanical property measurements on PWR FA skeleton etc. For maintenance of facilities the aged utility equipment are refurbished and exchanged for new ones. The partly cracked and leaking building walls are completely repaired, and the aged electric UPS's, HVAC system parts, heating and cooling system are exchanged for new ones. Additionally efforts to upgrade the public acceptance for facility visiting events, open training courses to the university and graduated students have been made. Regarding the future of domestic R and D and a power reactor operating plan the demand for hot cell examinations will be steadily increased. Along with them new PIE techniques on TRISO fuels, minor actinide SFR fuels and CANDU fuels etc are required to be developed. New space to install small scale hot cells, and develop for the extreme conditioned test to meet future demands will be taken. (author)

  6. Clínica del pie valgo

    OpenAIRE

    Marcelino Reyes, Jesús

    1998-01-01

    Genericamente reconocemos al pie valgo, por las características siguientes: - desviación de la linea de Helbing ( retropié) - aplanamiento de la bóveda longitudinal interna - pronación de antepié. - aspecto de pié plano. Pero no podemos contentarnos con estas cuatro reglas,y por lo tanto hemos de pormenorizar y clasificar en función de los diferentes elementos que intervienen en la morfogenética de pié. Con lo cual también tendremos una visión mas amplia a la hora de poder aplicar un tratamie...

  7. El pie del diabético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parra Myriam

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Existen complicaciones neurovasculares periféricas en el paciente diabético que de no prevenirse o tratarse precozmente pueden conducir a la formación de lesiones graves e irreversibles en el pie. Los grados de lesión pueden evolucionar desde la presencia de factores de riesgo hasta la formación de gangrena local o generalizada conllevando a la amputación del pie. La participación del paciente y la familia con relación a los cuidados podológicos, cumplimiento en el  tratamiento dietético, farmacológico, de ejercicio e identificación de riesgos son definitivos; estos aspectos requieren de la orientación e intervención del profesional de enfermería en el manejo de cada grado de lesión basándose en la identificación de diagnósticos reales y/o potenciales prioritarios.

  8. Pipe support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollono, L.P.

    1979-01-01

    A pipe support for high temperature, thin-walled piping runs such as those used in nuclear systems is described. A section of the pipe to be suppported is encircled by a tubular inner member comprised of two walls with an annular space therebetween. Compacted load-bearing thermal insulation is encapsulated within the annular space, and the inner member is clamped to the pipe by a constant clamping force split-ring clamp. The clamp may be connected to pipe hangers which provide desired support for the pipe

  9. Constructing and applying the fractal pied de poule (houndstooth)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijs, L.M.G.; Toeters, M.J.; Hart, G.; Sarhangi, R.

    2013-01-01

    Time is ready for a fractal version of pied de poule; it is almost "in the air". Taking inspiration from the Cantor set, and using the analysis of the classical pattern, we obtain a family of elegant new fractal Pied de Poules. We calculate the fractal dimension and develop an attractive fashion

  10. Language Expression Means of the Conceptual Category "Relation" with Derivative Prepositions in Modern English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Kameneva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the revealing of the essence of language and cognitive processes behind the secondary nomination of expression of the conceptual category of «attitude» by derivative prepositions in modern English. The study addresses the issue of formation of prepositions in the diachronic aspect, as well as their status in the general classification of parts of speech in modern linguistics, deals with the phenomenon of secondary nomination, described by semantic features data implying the method of cognitive modeling, namely propositional modeling method.

  11. Prepositions in UK Monolingual Learners; Dictionaries: Expanding on Lindstromberg's Problems and Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brala, Marija M.

    2002-01-01

    Comments on Lindstromberg's (2001) article that argues that prepositional representation in dictionaries is frequently inadequate. Suggests that Lindstromberg's arguments are not exhaustive, and that he fails to include crucial psycholinguistic studies and to relate his views to current linguistic theories. (Author/VWL)

  12. Effects of Animation on Naming and Identification across Two Graphic Symbol Sets Representing Verbs and Prepositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlosser, Ralf W.; Koul, Rajinder; Shane, Howard; Sorce, James; Brock, Kristofer; Harmon, Ashley; Moerlein, Dorothy; Hearn, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The effects of animation on naming and identification of graphic symbols for verbs and prepositions were studied in 2 graphic symbol sets in preschoolers. Method: Using a 2 × 2 × 2 × 3 completely randomized block design, preschoolers across three age groups were randomly assigned to combinations of symbol set (Autism Language Program…

  13. A Usage-Based Approach to Preposition Placement in English as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jach, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the acquisition of preposition placement in English as a second language from a usage-based perspective. German and Chinese learners of English and English native speakers rated the acceptability of English oblique "wh" relative clauses in a magnitude estimation task. Results indicated that acceptability depended on…

  14. Obesidad infantil: factor de riesgo para desarrollar pie plano

    OpenAIRE

    Saldívar-Cerón, Héctor Iván; Garmendia Ramírez, Alberto; Rocha Acevedo, Marco Antonio; Pérez-Rodríguez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: En México, la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad en escolares es del 34.4% (ENSANUT 2012). Esta puede inducir un círculo vicioso “pie plano-plantalgia-sedentarismo-obesidad”. Sin embargo, la presencia y grado de pie plano en escolares con obesidad no se ha descrito en la población mexicana. El objetivo del estudio fue determinar la prevalencia de pie plano y su asociación con obesidad en escolares de Tamaulipas, México. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio analítico, transversal c...

  15. Pipe damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    Studies are being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to determine whether an increase in the damping values used in seismic structural analyses of nuclear piping systems is justified. Increasing the allowable damping would allow fewer piping supports which could lead to safer, more reliable, and less costly piping systems. Test data from availble literature were examined to determine the important parameters contributing to piping system damping, and each was investigated in separate-effects tests. From the combined results a world pipe damping data bank was established and multiple regression analyses performed to assess the relative contributions of the various parameters. The program is being extended to determine damping applicable to higher frequency (33 to 100 Hz) fluid-induced loadings. The goals of the program are to establish a methodology for predicting piping system damping and to recommend revised guidelines for the damping values to be included in analyses

  16. Pipe damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Arendts, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    A program has been developed to assess the available piping damping data, to generate additional data and conduct seperate effects tests, and to establish a plan for reporting and storing future test results into a data bank. This effort is providing some of the basis for developing higher allowable damping values for piping seismic analyses, which will potentially permit removal of a considerable number of piping supports, particularly snubbers. This in turn will lead to more flexible piping systems which will be less susceptible to thermal cracking, will be easier to maintain and inspect, as well as less costly

  17. Heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triggs, G.W.; Lightowlers, R.J.; Robinson, D.; Rice, G.

    1986-01-01

    A heat pipe for use in stabilising a specimen container for irradiation of specimens at substantially constant temperature within a liquid metal cooled fast reactor, comprises an evaporator section, a condenser section, an adiabatic section therebetween, and a gas reservoir, and contains a vapourisable substance such as sodium. The heat pipe further includes a three layer wick structure comprising an outer relatively fine mesh layer, a coarse intermediate layer and a fine mesh inner layer for promoting unimpeded return of condensate to the evaporation section of the heat pipe while enhancing heat transfer with the heat pipe wall and reducing entrainment of the condensate by the upwardly rising vapour. (author)

  18. Defense Logistics: Army Has Not Fully Planned or Budgeted for the Reconstitution of Its Afloat Prepositioned Stocks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solis, William M

    2008-01-01

    ...) the extent to which the Army's APS reconstitution strategy is reflected in current defense budget requests and cost estimates for restoring the prepositioned equipment sets to a posture that fully...

  19. ''Cutie Pie,'' A portable radiation instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, C.O.

    1947-01-01

    A portable beta and gamma radiation meter of exceedingly small dimensions and weight has been developed. User acceptance has been more enthusiastic than any previous instrument of its type. The circuit, using one Victoreen V-32 tube, is the simplest electronic circuit possible for radiation work and gives high sensitivity. Stability exceeds anything of comparable sensitivity which has come to our attention. The short term stability is due to a circuit which prevents emission before the cathode reaches operating temperature. Long term stability has been improved by evacuating the tube enclosure and switch. The complete, one unit instrument, weighs four pounds two ounces, and is carried with a pistol grip. Exclusive of chamber and handle, its dimensions are 3'' wide, 6 1/2'' long, and 5'' high. The case is formed of aluminum and is designed to give excellent visibility of the meter. Three ranges of approximately 50, 500 and 5000 mr/hr have been incorporated in the instruments. The instrument has been named ''Cutie Pie'' due to its diminutive size

  20. Pipe connector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.E.; Pardini, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A safety test facility for testing sodium-cooled nuclear reactor components includes a reactor vessel and a heat exchanger submerged in sodium in the tank. The reactor vessel and heat exchanger are connected by an expansion/deflection pipe coupling comprising a pair of coaxially and slidably engaged tubular elements having radially enlarged opposed end portions of which at least a part is of spherical contour adapted to engage conical sockets in the ends of pipes leading out of the reactor vessel and in to the heat exchanger. A spring surrounding the pipe coupling urges the end portions apart and into engagement with the spherical sockets. Since the pipe coupling is submerged in liquid a limited amount of leakage of sodium from the pipe can be tolerated

  1. Prepositioned Stocks: DOD has Addressed Required Reporting Elements but Needs to Develop a Department-Wide Policy and Joint Service Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    prepositioned stock information and indicate where that information resides. DOD has made limited progress in developing a department-wide strategic...assistance, and disaster relief. Prepositioned stocks have played an important role in supporting operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, but these operations...problem areas. These officials also indicated that the shortfalls in prepositioned stocks to be reported in the fiscal year 2015 report might be

  2. Exemplification in the prepositional entries of bilingual dictionaries. Theory and practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Ucherek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the article deals with the function of the examples in bilingual dictionaries, compared to their function in monolingual ones. First, it is argued that examples in an active bilingual dictionary should principally exemplify the use of the headword’s translation equivalents rather than the headword itself, as it is in the case of monolingual dictionaries. Then a survey is made dealing with examples selected from all simple preposition entries in a recent Polish-French dictionary, taking into consideration both the structure and the function of these examples. The general conclusion is that in the investigated entries exemplifi cation fails seriously enough to make it impossible for users to choose the appropriate equivalent of a particular preposition.

  3. Proposals for Upgrading the Lexicographical Treatment of Prepositions in Bilingual Dictionaries for Business Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandro; Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    dictionaries. The theory of lexicographical functions is used to determine which grammatical data types are needed by specific user types. The analysis focuses on a bidirectional Spanish-English business dictionary, its treatment of prepositions in entries and cross-references to the middle matter texts......A good lexicographical basis is needed for designing bilingual dictionaries that help users translate business texts. Many approaches have been suggested for including grammatical data in general dictionaries, but few have analysed the types of grammatical data relevant for bilingual specialised....... The findings show that the treatment is inconsistent and may mislead users, because their business-language competence is insufficient for producing correct translations. Bilingual dictionaries should offer a systematic treatment of prepositions and cross-reference users from entries to contrastive middle...

  4. How do German bilingual schoolchildren process German prepositions? – A study on language-motor interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischoff, Heike; Strozyk, Jessica Vanessa; Bryant, Doreen; Kaup, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    While much support is found for embodied language processing in a first language (L1), evidence for embodiment in second language (L2) processing is rather sparse. In a recent study, we found support for L2 embodiment, but also an influence of L1 on L2 processing in adult learners. In the present study, we compared bilingual schoolchildren who speak German as one of their languages with monolingual German schoolchildren. We presented the German prepositions auf (on), über (above), and unter (under) in a Stroop-like task. Upward or downward responses were made depending on the font colour, resulting in compatible and incompatible trials. We found compatibility effects for all children, but in contrast to the adult sample, there were no processing differences between the children depending on the nature of their other language, suggesting that the processing of German prepositions of bilingual children is embodied in a similar way as in monolingual German children. PMID:29538404

  5. How do German bilingual schoolchildren process German prepositions? - A study on language-motor interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, Daniela Katharina; Bischoff, Heike; Strozyk, Jessica Vanessa; Bryant, Doreen; Kaup, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    While much support is found for embodied language processing in a first language (L1), evidence for embodiment in second language (L2) processing is rather sparse. In a recent study, we found support for L2 embodiment, but also an influence of L1 on L2 processing in adult learners. In the present study, we compared bilingual schoolchildren who speak German as one of their languages with monolingual German schoolchildren. We presented the German prepositions auf (on), über (above), and unter (under) in a Stroop-like task. Upward or downward responses were made depending on the font colour, resulting in compatible and incompatible trials. We found compatibility effects for all children, but in contrast to the adult sample, there were no processing differences between the children depending on the nature of their other language, suggesting that the processing of German prepositions of bilingual children is embodied in a similar way as in monolingual German children.

  6. The facilitative effects of incidental teaching on preposition use by autistic children.

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, G G; Krantz, P J; McClannahan, L E

    1985-01-01

    In a comparison of incidental teaching and traditional training procedures, three language-delayed autistic children were taught expressive use of prepositions to describe the location of preferred edibles and toys. Traditional highly structured training and incidental teaching procedures were used in a classroom setting, and generalization was assessed during free-play sessions. Results clearly indicate that incidental teaching promoted greater generalization and more spontaneous use of prep...

  7. The pre-positioning of warehouses at regional and local levels for a humanitarian relief organisation

    OpenAIRE

    Roh, Saeyeon; Pettit, Stephen John; Harris, Irina; Beresford, Anthony Kenneth Charles

    2015-01-01

    Using pre-positioned warehouses at strategic locations around the world is an approach commonly taken by some humanitarian relief organisations to improve their capacities to deliver sufficient relief aid within a relatively short time frame, and to provide shelter and assistance to disaster victims. Although research into the facility location problem is extensive in both theory and application, such approaches have received little attention from the humanitarian relief perspective. In this ...

  8. Codification of Some Usage Cases of Lithuanian Language Cases and Prepositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidas Valskys

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article is related to analysing several cases of the relationship between usage of cases and prepositions with the norms indicated in the syntax booklet “Language Advice”. The article is a discussion regarding some normative evaluation aspects regarding the usage of the preposition “greta” (next to having the meaning of exception (exclusion, usage of the adjectivised instrumental case in constructions with the verb “(pavirsti” (to turn, to become, to grow, to get and some cases of the postposition “dėka” (with the help of. Utmost attention is paid to discussion of (nonnormative evaluation of some constructions including usage of the said cases and prepositions that are doubtful in some aspects, their presentation in normative sources and further prospects related to further codification of the said cases. The article is based on vast empirical materials: examples from the “Corpus of the Contemporary Lithuanian”, the Internet and other texts related to contemporary usage.

  9. L1 Transfer in Post-Verbal Preposition: An Inter-level Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Mollaei

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The study intended to investigate the well-known issue of L1 transfer in L2acquisition. The primary aim of this research was to compare the extent to which L1 transfer may take place in different developmental stages in L2 learning procedure. Persian learners of English have been observed to misuse a number of the prepositions with some of the verbs. Having scrutinized more than a hundred pieces of students’ writing assignments, the authors came up with a pattern of errors in this area. It was observed that the majority of these errors could be attributed to Persian: the learners’ choice of preposition mirror the corresponding case in their L1, Persian. Moreover, the pattern of mistakes was put to test to check whether these mistakes increase or decrease according to the level of proficiency of the learners. To this end, two groups of students, one in elementary and the other in intermediate level, were tested on their use of proper prepositions with different verbs and the results of these tests were compared to see whether any significant difference exists between the two groups of students. The results showed no significant difference between the students of the two proficiency levels.

  10. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1994-01-01

    It is approximately 10 years since the Third Edition of Heat Pipes was published and the text is now established as the standard work on the subject. This new edition has been extensively updated, with revisions to most chapters. The introduction of new working fluids and extended life test data have been taken into account in chapter 3. A number of new types of heat pipes have become popular, and others have proved less effective. This is reflected in the contents of chapter 5. Heat pipes are employed in a wide range of applications, including electronics cooling, diecasting and injection mo

  11. IPM Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Submit A Report View Reports List [+] View Reports Map [+] CDM Alert System Sign Up For Alerts User Login Annual Epidemic Histories Annual Season Summaries Contact Us ipmPIPE User Login Web Administrator Login

  12. Pipe grabber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharafutdinov, I.G.; Mubashirov, S.G.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1981-05-15

    A pipe grabber is suggested which contains a housing, clamping elements and centering mechanism with drive installed on the lower end of the housing. In order to improve the reliable operation of the pipe grabber, the centering mechanism is made in the form of a reinforced ringed flexible shaft, while the drive is made in the form of elastic rotating discs. In this case the direction of rotation of the discs and the flexible shaft is the opposite.

  13. Test requirement for PIE of HANARO irradiated fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, I. C.; Cho, Y. G.

    2000-06-01

    Since the first criticality of HANARO reached in Feb. of 1995, the rod type U 3 Si-A1 fuel imported from AECL has been used. From the under-water fuel inspection which has been conducted since 1997, a ballooning-rupture type abnormality was observed in several fuel rods. In order to find the root cause of this abnormality and to find the resolution, the post irradiation examination(PIE) was proposed as the best way. In this document, the information from the under-water inspection as well as the PIE requirements are described. Based on the information in this document, a detail test plan will be developed by the project team who shall conduct the PIE

  14. Enfoque integral del paciente con pie diabético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galia Fonseca Portilla

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Debe tenerse en cuenta que el diagnóstico de Diabetes Mellitus supone un cambio radical en las costumbres del paciente y que alcanzarlo puede requerir largo tiempo, por esto es necesario que los pacientes asistan a control cada dos o tres meses ye n cada visita insistirle en la importancia de curaciones. Si se continúa apoyando sobre la úlcera, se siguen exprimiendo, como esponja, las bacterias. Para el manejo del pie diabético se distinguen: prevención primaria (detección precoz del pie en riesgo, prevención secundaria (cuidado adecuado de las úlceras grado 1, 2 por el equipo interdisciplinario y prevención terciaria (a nivel hospitalario, para evitar la amputación de los pies con úlceras grado 3-5.

  15. Code Analyses Supporting PIE of Weapons-Grade MOX Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, Larry J.; Bevard, Bruce Balkcom; Spellman, Donald J.; McCoy, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Department of energy has decided to dispose of a portion of the nation's surplus weapons-grade plutonium by reconstituting it into mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and irradiating the fuel in commercial power reactors. Four lead test assemblies (LTAs) were manufactured with weapons-grade mixed oxide (WG-MOX) fuel and irradiated in the Catawba Nuclear Station Unit 1, to a maximum fuel rod burnup of ∼47.3 GWd/MTHM. As part of the fuel qualification process, five rods with varying burnups and initial plutonium contents were selected from one assembly and shipped to the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for hot cell examination. ORNL has provided analytical support for the post-irradiation examination (PIE) of these rods via extensive fuel performance modeling which has aided in instrument settings and PIE data interpretation. The results of these fuel performance simulations are compared in this paper with available PIE data.

  16. Solución Oportuna de Pie Plano

    OpenAIRE

    Espol; Tabares Cedeno, Maria Veronica; Ribadeneira Coloma, Betsy Evelyn; Zurita Aviles, Salomon Efrain

    2015-01-01

    Proponer una nueva técnica, donde se obtenga como beneficio la reparación definitiva de una lesion muy común como es el pie plano flexible y al mismo tiempo consolidar una empresa rentable y que genere valor ala sociedad el indice de prevalencia con diagnóstico de pie plano en el Ecuador es la especialidad de traumatología presentan este tipo de lesión. Guayaquil Magíster en Gerencia Hospitalaria

  17. Effects of natural disaster trends: a case study for expanding the pre-positioning network of CARE International.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Melda; Duran, Serhan

    2012-08-01

    The increasing number of natural disasters in the last decade necessitates the increase in capacity and agility while delivering humanitarian relief. A common logistics strategy used by humanitarian organizations to respond this need is the establishment of pre-positioning warehouse networks. In the pre-positioning strategy, critical relief inventories are located near the regions at which they will be needed in advance of the onset of the disaster. Therefore, pre-positioning reduces the response time by totally or partially eliminating the procurement phase and increasing the availability of relief items just after the disaster strikes. Once the pre-positioning warehouse locations are decided and warehouses on those locations become operational, they will be in use for a long time. Therefore, the chosen locations should be robust enough to enable extensions, and to cope with changing trends in disaster types, locations and magnitudes. In this study, we analyze the effects of natural disaster trends on the expansion plan of pre-positioning warehouse network implemented by CARE International. We utilize a facility location model to identify the additional warehouse location(s) for relief items to be stored as an extension of the current warehouse network operated by CARE International, considering changing natural disaster trends observed over the past three decades.

  18. 49 CFR 40.385 - Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Public Interest Exclusions § 40.385 Who bears the burden of proof in a PIE proceeding? (a) As the proponent of issuing a PIE, the initiating official bears...

  19. Personalized Information Environments: Do Public Libraries Want a Slice of the PIE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worcester, Lea

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of personalized information environments (PIEs) focuses on library personalized interfaces. Describes academic library PIEs and commercial sites, such as Amazon.com that use personalization; explores the Public Library of Charlotte and Mecklenburg's personalized interface; and discusses opportunities and challenges PIEs offer public…

  20. La ortopodología en el pie de riesgo (1ª Parte)

    OpenAIRE

    Dorca Coll, Adelina; Céspedes Céspedes, Tomás; Concustell Gonfaus, Josep; Cuevas Gómez, Rafael; Sacristán Valero, Sergi

    1994-01-01

    Los autores definen por primera vez el concepto de 'pie de riesgo' y ofrecen diferentes alternativas podológicas para prevenir lesiones en el pie y en el supuesto de que estas lesiones estén establecidas, presentan tratamientos ortésicos que equilibren el pie y eviten mayores cambios degenerativos.

  1. Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than 57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was 28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  2. A Corpus Based Study on the Use of Preposition of Time "On" and "At" in Argumentative Essays of Form 4 and Form 5 Malaysian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loke, Darina Lokeman; Ali, Juliana; Anthony, Norin Norain Zulkifli

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a corpus-based investigation on English prepositions of time presented in the argumentative essays of Form 4 and Form 5 Malaysian secondary students in the MCSAW corpus. The aims were to find out the distribution patterns and the common errors in the use of preposition of time, "on" and "at". This corpus…

  3. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... incorporating in a filling contained in a pastry shell mature, pitted, stemmed cherries that are fresh, frozen, and/or canned. The top of the pie may be open or it may be wholly or partly covered with pastry or other suitable topping. Filling, pastry, and topping components of the food consist of optional...

  4. Geometry and computation of Houndstooth (Pied-de-poule)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijs, L.M.G.; Bosch, Robert; McKenna, Douglas; Sarhangi, Reza

    2012-01-01

    We apply a variety of geometric and computational tools to improve our understanding of the Houndstooth (Pied de poule) pattern. Although the pattern must have been known for centuries, it was made famous mostly by Christian Dior and is still frequently used in many variations. It is a

  5. Fitness costs of polygyny in female Pied Flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Both, C.

    2002-01-01

    Variance in mating systems can only be understood if the fitness consequences of the available options are known for both sexes. In Pied Flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca it has for long been suggested that females pairing with already mated males pay a fitness cost, and it is still debated why females

  6. 9 CFR 381.158 - Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Poultry dinners (frozen) and pies. 381... AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION REGULATIONS Definitions and Standards of Identity or...

  7. Shelf life of pie caps with biodegradable films as spacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Verónica Escobar Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Commonly pie caps at market use polyethylene films as spacers between them. This paper studies the conventional spacers replacement with edible and biodegradable films made with whey protein isolate (WPI and potassium sorbate as a preservative. Besides facilitating the separation of pie caps, with this application is intended to increase their shelf life. The films made by the compression molding method were used as spacers in pie caps without preservative in their formula (A and with preservative (B and they were compared with conventional polyethylene spacers (C. During four months, monthly sensory, microbiological and physicochemical (humidity evaluations were done on the pie caps, together with humidity and solubility evaluations of the films. None of the samples showed microbiological or sensory deterioration. The sensory attributes showed no or slight difference in study time. Between samples the differences were minor: the best scores were for sample A in color, sample C in flavor, and samples B and C in texture and overall liking. The edible films have an interesting potential for this application, although studies in disguise the flavor of serum should be done.

  8. Nesting ecology of Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta in Sfax salina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we use the results of a one-year monitoring of nests in Sfax salina to provide information on its nesting parameters, in particular nesting phenology, colony size and hatching success. Our results show that Pied Avocets formed dense colonies at the beginning of the nesting season, but colony size decreased as ...

  9. El pie en la danza clásica_

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Massó Ortigosa.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available La danza es una forma de lenguaje que utiliza como instrumento al propio cuerpo, y su práctica continuada genera cambios y adaptaciones debidas a las altas exigencias de esta actividad. En este artículo se analizan las demandas, patologías y exigencias osteo-musculares del pie en la danza clásica. Para ello se ha partido del análisis de las estructuras del pie en distintas posiciones técnicas como la punta, media punta, o el “en dehors”. Como consecuencia de estas demandas de esfuerzo, se observa que una alta proporción de bailarines/as presenta alteraciones en el pie como hallux valgus y dedos en garra. También se ha estudiado la implicación en las técnicas básicas del pie de danza clásica de los músculos tríceps sural, peroneo lateral largo, tibial posterior, flexor largo y flexor corto del dedo gordo, tibial anterior, extensor propio del dedo gordo, abductor del dedo gordo, así como la musculatura interósea y plantar.

  10. Prepositional phrases with verba dicendi from Dalmatin's translation of the Bible (1584 in relation to foreign language translations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Orel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In a diachronic perspective from the 16th century to the present, this article inves­ tigates translated interlinguistic agreement and difference in the use of the temporally marked Slovenian prepositional phrases that appeared in the semantic group of verba dicendi in the first two books of the Old Testament and the New Testament of the old­ est Slovenian translation of the Bible, from 1584, and that were replaced in the mod­ em literary language in the 19th century by the introduction of prepositionless or other prepositional patterns. A comparison is made on the basis of Internet publications of parallel sections of six foreign language translations (Latin, German, two English [17th century and modem], French and Russian, and the extent to which these preposition­ al phrases are covered by older or modem literary Slovenian syntactic patterns is deter­ mined .

  11. Mixed metaphors: Electrophysiological brain responses to (un)expected concrete and abstract prepositional phrases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zane, Emily; Shafer, Valerie

    2018-02-01

    Languages around the world use spatial terminology, like prepositions, to describe non-spatial, abstract concepts, including time (e.g., in the moment). The Metaphoric Mapping Theory explains this pattern by positing that a universal human cognitive process underlies it, whereby abstract concepts are conceptualized via the application of concrete, three-dimensional space onto abstract domains. The alternative view is that the use of spatial propositions in abstract phrases is idiomatic, and thus does not trigger metaphoric mapping. In the current study, event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to examine the time-course of neural processing of concrete and abstract phrases consisting of the prepositions in or on followed by congruent and incongruent nouns (e.g., in the bowl/plate and in the moment/mend). ERPs were recorded from the onset of reference nouns in 28 adult participants using a 128-channel electrode net. Results show that congruency has differential effects on neural measures, depending on whether the noun is concrete or abstract. Incongruent reference nouns in concrete phrases (e.g., on the bowl) elicited a significant central negativity (an N400 effect), while incongruent reference nouns in abstract phrases (e.g., on the moment) did not. These results suggest that spatially incongruent concrete nouns are semantically unexpected (N400 effect). A P600 effect, which might indicate rechecking, reanalysis and/or reconstruction, was predicted for incongruent abstract nouns, but was not observed, possibly due to the variability in abstract stimuli. Findings cast doubt on accounts claiming that abstract uses of prepositions are cognitively and metaphorically linked to their spatial sense during natural, on-line processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. PIE of test assembly of Qinshan nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ran, M.; Yan, J.; Wang, S.

    2000-01-01

    The small dimensional test fuel assembly (3x3-2) for the Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant was irradiated up to 25.7 Gwd/tU in the in-pile loop (15.5 Mpa,320 C) in Heavy Water Research Reactor (HWRR), CIAE, at simulative condition to Qinshan PWR normal and short time overpower operation for verifying the design, technology, and material properties of the fuel assembly. Comprehensive post-irradiation examination (PIE) including dimension measurement, gamma scanning, eddy current test, X ray, radiography, measurement of fission gas release, and quantitative metallography etc. were performed. PIE results show that the diameter of the fuel rods changed, ridges appeared on the cladding, pellets swelled, and the rate of fission gas release was higher than what we expected. The results would be an important basis for further improvement of design, technology and material properties for Qinshan PWR assembly. (author)

  13. Development of PIE techniques for irradiated LWR pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Masahiro; Kizaki, Minoru; Sukegawa, Tomohide

    1999-01-01

    For the evaluation of safety and integrity of light water reactors (LWRs), various post irradiation examinations (PIEs) of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels and fuel claddings have been carried out in the Research Hot Laboratory (RHL). In recent years, the instrumented Charpy impact testing machine was remodeled aiming at the improvement of accuracy and reliability. By this remodeling, absorbed energy and other useful information on impact properties can be delivered from the force-displacement curve for the evaluation of neutron irradiation embrittlement behavior of LWR-RPV steels at one-time striking. In addition, two advanced PIE technologies are now under development. One is the remote machining of mechanical test pieces from actual irradiated pressure vessel steels. The other is development of low-cycle and high-cycle fatigue test technology in order to clarify the post-irradiation fatigue characteristics of structural and fuel cladding materials. (author)

  14. Development, irradiation testing and PIE of UMo fuel at AECL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, D.F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews recent U-Mo dispersion fuel development, irradiation testing and postirradiation examination (PIE) activities at AECL. Low-enriched uranium fuel alloys and powders have been fabricated at Chalk River Labs, with compositions ranging from U-7Mo to U-10Mo. The bulk alloys and powders were characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy, chemical analysis, X-ray diffraction and neutron diffraction analysis. The analyses confirmed that the powders were of high quality, and in the desired gamma phase. Subsequently, kilogram quantities of DU-Mo and LEU-Mo powder have been manufactured for commercial customers. Mini-elements have been fabricated with LEU-7Mo and LEU-10Mo dispersed in aluminum, with a nominal loading of 4.5 gU/cm 3 . These have been irradiated in the NRU reactor at linear powers up to 100 kW/m. The mini-elements achieved 60 atom% 235 U burnup in 2004 March, and the irradiation is continuing to a planned discharge burnup of 80 atom% 235 U. Interim PIE has been conducted on mini-elements that were removed after 20 atom% 235 U burnup. The PIE results are presented in this paper. (author)

  15. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of the theory, design and manufacture of heat pipes and their applications. This latest edition has been thoroughly revised, up-dated and expanded to give an in-depth coverage of the new developments in the field. Significant new material has been added to all the chapters and the applications section has been totally rewritten to ensure that topical and important applications are appropriately emphasised. The bibliography has been considerably enlarged to incorporate much valuable new information. Thus readers of the previous edition, which has established

  16. Defense Logistics: Department of Defense's Annual Report on the Status of Prepositioned Materiel and Equipment Can Be Enhanced to Better Inform Congress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Solis, William M

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DOD) prepositions equipment at strategic locations around the world in order to field combat-ready forces in days, rather than the weeks it would take if equipment had to be moved from the United States...

  17. Pie technique of LWR fuel cladding fracture toughness test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Shinya; Usami, Koji; Nakata, Masahito; Fukuda, Takuji; Numata, Masami; Kizaki, Minoru; Nishino, Yasuharu

    2006-01-01

    Remote-handling techniques were developed by cooperative research between the Department of Hot Laboratories in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) and the Nuclear Fuel Industries Ltd. (NFI) for evaluating the fracture toughness on irradiated LWR fuel cladding. The developed techniques, sample machining by using the electrical discharge machine (EDM), pre-cracking by fatigue tester, sample assembling to the compact tension (CT) shaped test fixture gave a satisfied result for a fracture toughness test developed by NFL. And post-irradiation examination (PIE) using the remote-handling techniques were carried out to evaluate the fracture toughness on BWR spent fuel cladding in the Waste Safety Testing Facility (WASTEF). (author)

  18. PIE Report on the KOMO-3 Irradiation Test Fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Man; Ryu, H. J.; Yang, J. H.

    2009-04-01

    In the KOMO-3, in-reactor irradiation test had been performed for 12 kinds of dispersed U-Mo fuel rods, a multi wire fuel rod and a tube fuel rod. In this report we described the PIE results on the KOMO-3 irradiation test fuels. The interaction layer thickness between fuel particle and matrix could be reduced by using a large size U-Mo fuel particle or introducing Al-Si matrix or adding the third element in the U-Mo particle. Monolithic fuel rod of multi-wire or tube fuel was also effective in reducing the interaction layer thickness

  19. Lexicon and teaching: an analysis of the use of less frequent prepositions in a Spanish learners corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssyca Camargo Cruz

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at presenting a quantitative research and the analysis of the use of prepositions that are less frequent (underused in a corpus of learners of Spanish as a foreign language. We have observed the use of contra, hacia, enfrente de, excepto and tras through Corpus Linguistics by contrasting this lexical set and a supplementary corpus, composed by normative and descriptive Spanish grammar and by an online reference corpus of Spanish (CREA. Therefore, we present analyses made on a corpus constituted by 276 writings (85.729 words, gathered from two groups of freshman Language/Letras students, from 2011 to 2013. The data were collected with the aid of the WordSmith Tools (version 6 software and its tools, WordList and Concord enabled us to extract the frequency list of the prepositions in the corpus of study, as well as to observe and analyse their respective uses based on the lines of concordance.

  20. The pied piper of Hamelin: Exploring the story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Mury Bergmann

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article’s goal is to explore the story of The Pied Piper of Hamelin. In order to do so, social aspects of childhood in the (probable time when the story was created are presented, as well as some curiosities about the text. Furthermore, this paper brings a personal statement (by the authors of a storytelling activity in a public school nursery in Porto Alegre, based upon the version of the book The Pied Piper of Hamelin, by Tatiana Belinky. After some questions and informal conversation about the tale, the children’s verbal expositions were analyzed. The research brings, as a theoretical background, contributions of studies from authors connected, mainly, to the field of Children’s Literature and Education. It brought the conclusion that the piper’s story motivated representative interventions, since during the storytelling activity children used typical aspects of their culture and also showed their dominium of temporal arrangement of the text’s events, as well as their peculiar creativity – according to their age – of recreating in the situation of the so-called make-believe.

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A Tool for Pork Pie Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Adam P.; Morris, Robert H.; Newton, Michael I.

    2013-01-01

    The traditional British pork pie consists of roughly chopped pork cooked in a hot water pastry crust. Due to shrinkage of the meat during cooking, the gap formed around the meat is usually sealed using a gelatin based jelly to exclude air and thus help to preserve the pie. The properties of the jelly are such that it will ingress into the pastry crust causing undesirable softening. The jelly is traditionally produced by simmering pig trotters with seasoning for several hours. In this work we demonstrate the potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a tool for investigating the conditions required for producing jellies with different properties and present two examples of this use. Firstly we demonstrate that MRI can determine the ability of water to diffuse through the jelly which is critical in minimizing the amount of moisture moving from the jelly to the crust. Secondly, the impact of jelly temperature on the penetration length into the crust is investigated. These examples highlight the power of MRI as a tool for food assessment. PMID:28239124

  2. PIE DIABÉTICO: ¿PODEMOS PREVENIRLO?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Oriana Paiva M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La diabetes es una enfermedad epidémica, con más de 400 millones de personas diagnosticadas en la actualidad. Las úlceras del pie son una de las complicaciones crónicas más frecuentes de esta población, con un riesgo acumulado de desarrollarla a lo largo de la vida de 15%. La neuropatía y la enfermedad vascular son las principales causas de su aparición. Las amputaciones no traumáticas en diabéticos son 15 veces más frecuentes que en la población general, superando en 2 a 3 veces la tasa en hombres que en mujeres. El 80% se puede prevenir. La clave para ello incluye un examen periódico del pie a todo diabético al menos 1 vez al año, educación del paciente en autocuidado, para que logre identificar precozmente la aparición de lesiones evitando mayores complicaciones, un zapato adecuado y un buen control metabólico.

  3. Introducing a Framework for Physics Innovation and Entrepreneurship (PIE) Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roughani, Bahram

    A desired outcome for Physics Innovation and Entrepreneurship (PIE) education is preparing physics majors with an innovative and entrepreneurial mindset who are capable of opportunity recognition and adept in leveraging physics knowledge to address specific needs. Physics as a discipline is well-recognized to prepare students who become problem solvers and critical thinkers, gifted in dealing with abstract ideas and ambiguities in the context of complex and real-world problems. These characteristics when enhanced through appropriate combinations of curricular, co-curricular, and extra-curricular programs can prepare physics majors for careers and future challenges that may involve translating physics knowledge into useful products and services either as part of a technical team within an organization or through startups. A viable PIE education model prepares graduates for various career paths in addition to the traditional options such as pursuing graduate studies or becoming a science teacher. Having a well-defined ``third option'' for physics will benefit the robustness of the physics discipline through recruitment and retention of prospective students who in principle are interested in physics as a subject, but in practice they may overlook physics as their preferred major primarily because they are uncertain about a viable career path based on an undergraduate physics education. The ''Pathways to Innovation'' at Loyola is established based on the program developed by VentureWell and Epicenter (NSF Supported).

  4. Fundamentals of piping design

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Written for the piping engineer and designer in the field, this two-part series helps to fill a void in piping literature,since the Rip Weaver books of the '90s were taken out of print at the advent of the Computer Aid Design(CAD) era. Technology may have changed, however the fundamentals of piping rules still apply in the digitalrepresentation of process piping systems. The Fundamentals of Piping Design is an introduction to the designof piping systems, various processes and the layout of pipe work connecting the major items of equipment forthe new hire, the engineering student and the vetera

  5. Proceedings of 2005 JAEA-KAERI joint seminar on advanced irradiation and PIE technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-05-01

    In this seminar, total participants of over 100 were jointed from JAEA, KAERI, Hanyang University, Chungnam National University, Kyung Hee University, Oarai Branch of Institute for Materials Research (IMR) of Tohoku University, Nippon Nuclear Fuel Development Co., Ltd., Nuclear Development Corporation and others. The technical development and experimental data on the irradiation test and PIE were aggressively discussed in this seminar. Contributed presentations were 35 in three sessions; Current status and future program on irradiation test and PIE (10 presentations), Development of irradiation and PIE technologies (15 presentations) and Evaluation of irradiation and PIE data (10 presentations). Development of instrumented capsule technologies for HANARO irradiation, current PIE activities in each hot laboratory of both countries, development of irradiation capsules in JMTR for the Irradiation Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC) study, development of irradiation and PIE techniques for the safety research on the high burnup fuel, utilization plan of JOYO and development of MOX fuel containing americium have been widely noticed as topic items on irradiation and PIE technologies. This proceedings is containing papers presented in the 2005 JAEA-KAERI Joint Seminar. It also indicates the current status of the aggressive information exchange activity on two fields of irradiation test and PIE technologies between JAEA and KAERI under the Arrangement for the Implementation of Cooperative Research Program mentioned above. The 35 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  6. Insulated pipe clamp design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Hyde, L.L.; Wagner, S.E.; Severud, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thin wall large diameter piping for breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal shocks during reactor scrams and other upset events. On the Fast Flux Test Facility, the addition of thick clamps directly on the piping was undesired because the differential metal temperatures between the pipe wall and the clamp could have significantly reduced the pipe thermal fatigue life cycle capabilities. Accordingly, an insulated pipe clamp design concept was developed. 5 refs

  7. Insulated pipe clamp design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Hyde, L.L.; Wagner, S.E.; Severud, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thin wall large diameter piping for breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal shocks during reactor scrams and other upset events. On the Fast Flux Test Facility, the addition of thick clamps directly on the piping was undesired because the differential metal temperatures between the pipe wall and the clamp could have significantly reduced the pipe thermal fatigue life cycle capabilities. Accordingly, an insulated pipe clamp design concept was developed. The design considerations and methods along with the development tests are presented. Special considerations to guard against adverse cracking of the insulation material, to maintain the clamp-pipe stiffness desired during a seismic event, to minimize clamp restraint on the pipe during normal pipe heatup, and to resist clamp rotation or spinning on the pipe are emphasized

  8. HPFRCC - Extruded Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik; Pedersen, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    The present paper gives an overview of the research onHigh Performance Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composite -- HPFRCC --pipes recently carried out at Department of Structural Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. The project combines material development, processing technique development......-w$ relationship is presented. Structural development involved definition of a new type of semi-flexiblecement based pipe, i.e. a cement based pipe characterized by the fact that the soil-pipe interaction related to pipe deformation is an importantcontribution to the in-situ load carrying capacity of the pipe...

  9. Pipe drafting and design

    CERN Document Server

    Parisher, Roy A; Parisher

    2000-01-01

    Pipe designers and drafters provide thousands of piping drawings used in the layout of industrial and other facilities. The layouts must comply with safety codes, government standards, client specifications, budget, and start-up date. Pipe Drafting and Design, Second Edition provides step-by-step instructions to walk pipe designers and drafters and students in Engineering Design Graphics and Engineering Technology through the creation of piping arrangement and isometric drawings using symbols for fittings, flanges, valves, and mechanical equipment. The book is appropriate primarily for pipe

  10. Atritis gotosa como causa de pie de riesgo

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega-Avila, Ana Belén; Fernández Torres, Raúl; Agüera Jiménez, David

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: La gota es una manifestación común de la artritis, cuya inflamación se debe al depóstido de cristales de uratao monosódico en articulaciones y tejidos blandos por un aumento de ácido úrico en sangre y su padecimiento muestra una relación creciente con la edad. OBJETIVOS: Analizar las características fisiopatológicas de la artritis gotosa en el pie así como justificar la repercusión negativa que tiene su padecimiento en la calidad de vida de la población basándose en la simple af...

  11. Enlarging the Societal Pie Through Wise Legislation: A Psychological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jonathan; Bazerman, Max H; Shonk, Katherine

    2006-06-01

    We offer a psychological perspective to explain the failure of governments to create near-Pareto improvements. Our tools for analyzing these failures reflect the difficulties people have trading small losses for large gains: the fixed-pie approach to negotiations, the omission bias and status quo bias, parochialism and dysfunctional competition, and the neglect of secondary effects. We examine the role of human judgment in the failure to find wise trade-offs by discussing diverse applications of citizen and government decision making, including AIDS treatment, organ-donation systems, endangered-species protection, subsidies, and free trade. Our overall goal is to offer a psychological approach for understanding suboptimality in government decision making. © 2006 Association for Psychological Science.

  12. Structural Conservation and Functional Diversity of the Poxvirus Immune Evasion (PIE) Domain Superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Christopher A; Epperson, Megan L; Singh, Sukrit; Elliott, Jabari I; Fremont, Daved H

    2015-08-28

    Poxviruses encode a broad array of proteins that serve to undermine host immune defenses. Structural analysis of four of these seemingly unrelated proteins revealed the recurrent use of a conserved beta-sandwich fold that has not been observed in any eukaryotic or prokaryotic protein. Herein we propose to call this unique structural scaffolding the PIE (Poxvirus Immune Evasion) domain. PIE domain containing proteins are abundant in chordopoxvirinae, with our analysis identifying 20 likely PIE subfamilies among 33 representative genomes spanning 7 genera. For example, cowpox strain Brighton Red appears to encode 10 different PIEs: vCCI, A41, C8, M2, T4 (CPVX203), and the SECRET proteins CrmB, CrmD, SCP-1, SCP-2, and SCP-3. Characterized PIE proteins all appear to be nonessential for virus replication, and all contain signal peptides for targeting to the secretory pathway. The PIE subfamilies differ primarily in the number, size, and location of structural embellishments to the beta-sandwich core that confer unique functional specificities. Reported ligands include chemokines, GM-CSF, IL-2, MHC class I, and glycosaminoglycans. We expect that the list of ligands and receptors engaged by the PIE domain will grow as we come to better understand how this versatile structural architecture can be tailored to manipulate host responses to infection.

  13. The causal pie model: an epidemiological method applied to evolutionary biology and ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensink, Maarten; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Baudisch, Annette

    2014-05-01

    A general concept for thinking about causality facilitates swift comprehension of results, and the vocabulary that belongs to the concept is instrumental in cross-disciplinary communication. The causal pie model has fulfilled this role in epidemiology and could be of similar value in evolutionary biology and ecology. In the causal pie model, outcomes result from sufficient causes. Each sufficient cause is made up of a "causal pie" of "component causes". Several different causal pies may exist for the same outcome. If and only if all component causes of a sufficient cause are present, that is, a causal pie is complete, does the outcome occur. The effect of a component cause hence depends on the presence of the other component causes that constitute some causal pie. Because all component causes are equally and fully causative for the outcome, the sum of causes for some outcome exceeds 100%. The causal pie model provides a way of thinking that maps into a number of recurrent themes in evolutionary biology and ecology: It charts when component causes have an effect and are subject to natural selection, and how component causes affect selection on other component causes; which partitions of outcomes with respect to causes are feasible and useful; and how to view the composition of a(n apparently homogeneous) population. The diversity of specific results that is directly understood from the causal pie model is a test for both the validity and the applicability of the model. The causal pie model provides a common language in which results across disciplines can be communicated and serves as a template along which future causal analyses can be made.

  14. Pipe-to-pipe impact program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzheimer, J.M.; Bampton, M.C.C.; Friley, J.R.; Simonen, F.A.

    1984-06-01

    This report documents the tests and analyses performed as part of the Pipe-to-Pipe Impact (PTPI) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This work was performed to assist the NRC in making licensing decisions regarding pipe-to-pipe impact events following postulated breaks in high energy fluid system piping. The report scope encompasses work conducted from the program's start through the completion of the initial hot oil tests. The test equipment, procedures, and results are described, as are analytic studies of failure potential and data correlation. Because the PTPI Program is only partially completed, the total significance of the current test results cannot yet be accurately assessed. Therefore, although trends in the data are discussed, final conclusions and recommendations will be possible only after the completion of the program, which is scheduled to end in FY 1984

  15. Solar heating pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinson-Rider, G.

    1977-10-04

    A fluid carrying pipe is described having an integral transparent portion formed into a longitudinally extending cylindrical lens that focuses solar heat rays to a focal axis within the volume of the pipe. The pipe on the side opposite the lens has a heat ray absorbent coating for absorbing heat from light rays that pass through the focal axis.

  16. Current activities in development of PIE techniques in JMTR hot laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Toshimitsu; Ohmi, Masao; Shimizu, Michio; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Ueno, Fumiyoshi

    2006-01-01

    A wide variety of post-irradiation examinations (PIEs) for research and development of nuclear fuels and materials to be utilized in nuclear field has been carried out since 1971 in three kinds of β-γ hot cells; concrete, lead and steel cells in the JMTR Hot Laboratory (JMTR HL) associated with the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). In addition to PIEs, the re-capsuling work including re-instrumentation was also conducted for the power ramping tests of the irradiated LWR fuels using Boiling Water Capsule (BOCA). Recently, new PIE techniques are required for the advanced irradiation studies. In this paper, the irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) growth test technique of irradiated in-core structural materials and the remote operation technique of the atomic force microscope (AFM) are described as JMTR HL's current activities in the development of new PIE techniques. (author)

  17. Solecismo de régimen o enfermedad de las preposiciones Regime solecism or preposition disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Jiménez Arias

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En el artículo se aborda lo relacionado con antecedentes de las preposiciones, características generales, clasificación, mal empleo (por adición, discordancia y supresión, neutralización y síntesis. En todos los casos se ejemplifica, lo cual es muy útil para poder discernir cuándo se está atentando contra la exactitud o pureza del idioma español por utilizar erróneamente esa partícula; pero se trata apenas de una aproximación al asunto, teniendo en cuenta que un problema tan complejo es imposible solucionarlo en unas pocas páginas, pues la norma lingüística vigente puede sancionar hoy ciertas palabras que tal vez se impongan mañana como válidas por el uso iterado de los hablantes.The article deals with preposition background, general characteristics, classification, incorrect use (due to addition, disagreement or deletion, neutralization, and summary. Examples are shown in all cases, which is very useful to distinguish when it is attempted against the accuracy or purity of Spanish language because of the wrongly use of that particle. However, this is barely an approximation to the issue, taking into account that the problem is as complex as it is to solve it writing just a few pages; and then current linguistic rule can sanction nowadays some words that could be imposed perhaps tomorrow as valid due to the speakers´ repeated use.

  18. El dolor patelofemoral en el baile flamenco y su relación con el pie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Castillo-López

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available El dolor patelofemoral es uno de los desórdenes más comunes que afectan a la rodilla. De las lesiones descritas en el baile flamenco profesional, destacan las relacionadas con el pie y la rodilla, en relación al microtraumatismo repetido del gesto técnico del zapateado y a la flexión de rodilla mantenida que requiere. El objetivo de este estudio es determinar la presencia de dolor patelo femoral en profesionales del baile de flamenco y comprobar si existe relación alguna con el pie pronador y genus valgo. En el estudio han participado 46 profesionales del baile flamenco, 38 bailaoras y 8 bailaores, con una carga media de 25.4 ± 8.25 horas de baile semanales. El 34.78% de los participantes presentaban dolor patelofemoral. El 24% presentaba también genus valgo. Se encontró un 34.78% de pies pronadores. La asociación de pies pronadores y genus valgo fue del 31.25%, mientras que la asociación de pies pronadores y dolor patelofemoral fue de 43.75 % de los casos. Factores predisponentes de esta patología se dan en la práctica del baile flamenco: el impacto repetitivo, una posición mantenida y forzada de la rodilla en un rango concreto, desplazamientos y los giros bruscos. Como conclusión, se demuestra relación directa entre la presencia de pies pronadores y dolor patelofemoral en el baile flamenco. Así como entre pies pronadores y genus valgo. Estudios científicos actuales demuestran la utilidad de soportes plantares en este síndrome. La incidencia de pies pronadores y dolor patelofemoral hace recomendable estudios biomecánicos y podológicos y el uso de soportes plantares personalizados en cada caso.

  19. La enfermedad de manos, pies y boca (Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    La enfermedad de manos, pies y boca es una enfermedad contagiosa que afecta principalmente a niños menores de cinco años. En este podcast, la doctora Eileen Schneider habla de los síntomas de la enfermedad de manos, pies y boca, cómo se propaga y cómo protegerse y proteger a sus hijos para que no se infecten con el virus.

  20. La ortopodología en el pie de riesgo (2ª Parte)

    OpenAIRE

    Céspedes Céspedes, Tomás; Dorca Coll, Adelina; Concustell Gonfaus, Josep; Cuevas Gómez, Rafael; Sacristán Valero, Sergi

    1994-01-01

    Los autores presentan y describen varios casos clínicos podológicos, en los que aprecia: Una alteración y limitació progresiva de las funciones del pie y como resultado un transtomo general del equilibrio estático y dinámico: características que corresponden al ya descrito «Pie de riesgo'

  1. Drill pipe bridge plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winslow, D.W.; Brisco, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method of stopping flow of fluid up through a pipe bore of a pipe string in a well. It comprises: lowering a bridge plug apparatus on a work string into the pipe string to a position where the pipe bore is to be closed; communicating the pipe bore below a packer of the bridge plug apparatus through the bridge plug apparatus with a low pressure zone above the packer to permit the fluid to flow up through the bridge plug apparatus; engaging the bridge plug apparatus with an internal upset of the pipe string; while the fluid is flowing up through the bridge plug apparatus, pulling upward on the work string and the bridge plug apparatus and thereby sealing the packer against the pipe bore; isolating the pipe bore below the packer from the low pressure zone above the packer and thereby stopping flow of the fluid up through the pipe bore; disconnecting the work string from the bridge plug apparatus; and maintaining the bridge plug apparatus in engagement with the internal upset and sealed against the pipe bore due to an upward pressure differential applied to the bridge plug apparatus by the fluid contained therebelow

  2. Geophysical evidence for an extensive Pie de Palo Complex mafic-ultramafic belt, San Juan, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernicoff, Carlos J.; Vujovich, Graciela I.; van Staal, Cees R.

    2009-12-01

    The recent completion of a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey over the Pie de Palo uplift of the western Sierras Pampeanas has revealed an area of large magnetic anomalies associated with the Pie de Palo Complex. The Las Pirquitas thrust, which has transported and uplifted the Pie de Palo Complex, is recognized for at least 30 km in a roughly NE direction along the western boundary of the Pie de Palo Complex, beyond its limited outcrop. The type of sediments of the Caucete Group in the footwall of the Las Pirquitas thrust, which are regarded as the leading edge of the Precordillera terrane, are associated with much less pronounced magnetic anomalies. In addition, a conspicuous, NNE trending, broad magnetic high stands out in the survey, several kilometers to the east of the main outcrops of the Pie de Palo Complex; this broad magnetic anomaly bisects the Pie de Palo basement block, and continues further south at least as far as 32°S, the southern boundary of the latest aeromagnetic survey. This magnetic anomaly is interpreted to represent a structure corresponding to the Grenvillian Precordillera-Pie de Palo tectonic boundary zone, and would comprise the buried largest part of the mafic-ultramafic belt. The geophysical model of the magnetic data indicates that the boundary zone dips to the east, possibly suggesting the existence of a set of synthetic east dipping, west-verging thrusts, of which only one major structure (Las Pirquitas thrust) is exposed; the possibility of other slivers of upthrust boundary zone material cannot be excluded. It is considered that the Pie de Palo Complex represents a small sliver upthrust from the unexposed boundary zone material (containing highly magnetic mafic-ultramafic rocks). The east-dipping, west verging structures associated with the Pie de Palo Complex are suggested to represent an Ordovician reactivation of a Grenvillian suture zone developed when the Precordillera basement and Pie de Palo terrane docked; this

  3. Miniature Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Small Business Innovation Research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to Thermacore Inc. have fostered the company work on devices tagged "heat pipes" for space application. To control the extreme temperature ranges in space, heat pipes are important to spacecraft. The problem was to maintain an 8-watt central processing unit (CPU) at less than 90 C in a notebook computer using no power, with very little space available and without using forced convection. Thermacore's answer was in the design of a powder metal wick that transfers CPU heat from a tightly confined spot to an area near available air flow. The heat pipe technology permits a notebook computer to be operated in any position without loss of performance. Miniature heat pipe technology has successfully been applied, such as in Pentium Processor notebook computers. The company expects its heat pipes to accommodate desktop computers as well. Cellular phones, camcorders, and other hand-held electronics are forsible applications for heat pipes.

  4. Introduction to Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. NCTS 21070-15. Course Description: This course will present operating principles of the heat pipe with emphases on the underlying physical processes and requirements of pressure and energy balance. Performance characterizations and design considerations of the heat pipe will be highlighted. Guidelines for thermal engineers in the selection of heat pipes as part of the spacecraft thermal control system, testing methodology, and analytical modeling will also be discussed.

  5. Riser pipe elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, W.; Jimenez, A.F.

    1987-09-08

    This patent describes a method for storing and retrieving a riser pipe, comprising the steps of: providing an upright annular magazine comprised of an inside annular wall and an outside annular wall, the magazine having an open top; storing the riser pipe in a substantially vertically oriented position within the annular magazine; and moving the riser pipe upwardly through the open top of the annular magazine at an angle to the vertical along at least a portion of the length of the riser pipe.

  6. Piping engineering and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The conference 'Piping Engineering and Operation' was organized by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in November/December 1993 to follow on from similar successful events of 1985 and 1989, which were attended by representatives from all sectors of the piping industry. Development of engineering and operation of piping systems in all aspects, including non-metallic materials, are highlighted. The range of issues covered represents a balance between current practices and implementation of future international standards. Twenty papers are printed. Two, which are concerned with pressurized pipes or steam lines in the nuclear industry, are indexed separately. (Author)

  7. Piping equipment; Materiel petrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This 'blue bible' of the perfect piping-man appeals to end-users of industrial facilities of the petroleum and chemical industries (purchase services, standardization, new works, maintenance) but also to pipe-makers and hollow-ware makers. It describes the characteristics of materials (carbon steels, stainless steels, alloyed steels, special alloys) and the dimensions of pipe elements: pipes, welding fittings, flanges, sealing products, forged steel fittings, forged steel valves, cast steel valves, ASTM standards, industrial valves. (J.S.)

  8. Great tit and pied flycatcher populations on the territory of radioactive trail in the eastern Urals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedeva, N.V.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to evaluate the prospects for using populations of the great tit (Parus major) and the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) in ecological monitoring of territories contaminated with radionuclides. Studies were performed in the summer of 1992 in birch forests of the Southern Urals. Artificial nesting sites (log houses) located 1.5 m above the ground were distributed over territories of two test plots: 30 log houses on the contaminated plot and 60 on the control plot (contamination with Sr-90 1.5 and 2 · 10 -3 mCi/m 2 , respectively). The nesting success in the great tit was similar on both plots, whereas that in the pied flycatcher was significantly greater on the control plot (in a open-quotes cleanclose quotes forest). Pied flycatchers build their nests out of highly radioactive materials, whereas great tits use nonradioactive or weakly emitting materials. Hence, pied flycatcher's nestlings receive a significant radiation dose from components of the nest: From the moment of egg laying, this dose amounts to 0.5 rem. The pied flycatcher can be used as an indicator of radioactive contamination. This species is more sensitive than the great tit, which has been successfully used as an indicator for monitoring the industrial air pollution

  9. Transients in pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchesin, D.; Paes-Leme, P.J.S.; Sampaio, R.

    1981-01-01

    The motion of a fluid in a pipe is commonly modeled utilizing the one space dimension conservation laws of mass and momentum. The development of shocks and spikes utilizing the uniform sampling method is studied. The effects of temperature variations and friction are compared for gas pipes. (Author) [pt

  10. These Pipes Are "Happening"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The author is blessed with having the water pipes for the school system in her office. In this article, the author describes how the breaking of the pipes had led to a very worthwhile art experience for her students. They practiced contour and shaded drawing techniques, reviewed patterns and color theory, and used their reasoning skills--all while…

  11. Piping research program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    This document presents the piping research program plan for the Structural and Seismic Engineering Branch and the Materials Engineering Branch of the Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The plan describes the research to be performed in the areas of piping design criteria, environmentally assisted cracking, pipe fracture, and leak detection and leak rate estimation. The piping research program addresses the regulatory issues regarding piping design and piping integrity facing the NRC today and in the foreseeable future. The plan discusses the regulatory issues and needs for the research, the objectives, key aspects, and schedule for each research project, or group of projects focussing of a specific topic, and, finally, the integration of the research areas into the regulatory process is described. The plan presents a snap-shot of the piping research program as it exists today. However, the program plan will change as the regulatory issues and needs change. Consequently, this document will be revised on a bi-annual basis to reflect the changes in the piping research program. (author)

  12. Oscillating heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental fluid flow and heat transfer principles occurring in oscillating heat pipes and also provides updated developments and recent innovations in research and applications of heat pipes. Starting with fundamental presentation of heat pipes, the focus is on oscillating motions and its heat transfer enhancement in a two-phase heat transfer system. The book covers thermodynamic analysis, interfacial phenomenon, thin film evaporation,  theoretical models of oscillating motion and heat transfer of single phase and two-phase flows, primary  factors affecting oscillating motions and heat transfer,  neutron imaging study of oscillating motions in an oscillating heat pipes, and nanofluid’s effect on the heat transfer performance in oscillating heat pipes.  The importance of thermally-excited oscillating motion combined with phase change heat transfer to a wide variety of applications is emphasized. This book is an essential resource and learning tool for senior undergraduate, gradua...

  13. Description of the PIE facility for research reactors irradiated fuels in CNEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisca, A.; Coronel, R.; Homberger, V.; Quinteros, A.; Ratner, M.

    2002-01-01

    The PIE Facility (LAPEP), located at the Ezeiza Atomic Center (CAE), was designed to carry out destructive and non-destructive post-irradiation examinations (PIE) on research and power reactor spent fuels, reactor internals and other irradiated materials, and to perform studies related with: Station lifetime extension; Fuel performance; Development of new fuels; and Failures and determination of their causes. LAPEP is a relevant facility where research and development can be carried out. It is worth mentioning that in this facility the PIE corresponding to the Surveillance Program for the Atucha I Nuclear Power Plant (CNA-1) were successfully performed. Materials testing during the CNA-1 repair and the study of failures in fuel element plugs of the Embalse Nuclear Power Plant (CNE) were also performed. (author)

  14. 49 CFR 40.403 - Must a service agent notify its clients when the Department issues a PIE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Must a service agent notify its clients when the... Must a service agent notify its clients when the Department issues a PIE? (a) As a service agent, if... clients, in writing, about the issuance, scope, duration, and effect of the PIE. You may meet this...

  15. Pipe drafting and design

    CERN Document Server

    Parisher, Roy A

    2011-01-01

    Pipe Drafting and Design, Third Edition provides step-by-step instructions to walk pipe designers, drafters, and students through the creation of piping arrangement and isometric drawings. It includes instructions for the proper drawing of symbols for fittings, flanges, valves, and mechanical equipment. More than 350 illustrations and photographs provide examples and visual instructions. A unique feature is the systematic arrangement of drawings that begins with the layout of the structural foundations of a facility and continues through to the development of a 3-D model. Advanced chapters

  16. Heat pipe development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienart, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to investigate analytically and experimentally the performance of heat pipes with composite wicks--specifically, those having pedestal arteries and screwthread circumferential grooves. An analytical model was developed to describe the effects of screwthreads and screen secondary wicks on the transport capability of the artery. The model describes the hydrodynamics of the circumferential flow in triangular grooves with azimuthally varying capillary menisci and liquid cross-sections. Normalized results were obtained which give the influence of evaporator heat flux on the axial heat transport capability of the arterial wick. In order to evaluate the priming behavior of composite wicks under actual load conditions, an 'inverted' glass heat pipe was designed and constructed. The results obtained from the analysis and from the tests with the glass heat pipe were applied to the OAO-C Level 5 heat pipe, and an improved correlation between predicted and measured evaporator and transport performance were obtained.

  17. Simplified pipe gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, H.; Nordskov, A.; Sass, B.; Visler, T.

    1987-01-01

    A simplified version of a deuterium pellet gun based on the pipe gun principle is described. The pipe gun is made from a continuous tube of stainless steel and gas is fed in from the muzzle end only. It is indicated that the pellet length is determined by the temperature gradient along the barrel right outside the freezing cell. Velocities of around 1000 m/s with a scatter of +- 2% are obtained with a propellant gas pressure of 40 bar

  18. Stuck pipe prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Majed

    2016-03-10

    Disclosed are various embodiments for a prediction application to predict a stuck pipe. A linear regression model is generated from hook load readings at corresponding bit depths. A current hook load reading at a current bit depth is compared with a normal hook load reading from the linear regression model. A current hook load greater than a normal hook load for a given bit depth indicates the likelihood of a stuck pipe.

  19. Stuck pipe prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Majed; Alsolami, Fawaz; Chikalov, Igor; Algharbi, Salem; Aboudi, Faisal; Khudiri, Musab

    2016-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments for a prediction application to predict a stuck pipe. A linear regression model is generated from hook load readings at corresponding bit depths. A current hook load reading at a current bit depth is compared with a normal hook load reading from the linear regression model. A current hook load greater than a normal hook load for a given bit depth indicates the likelihood of a stuck pipe.

  20. 49 CFR 40.361 - What is the purpose of a public interest exclusion (PIE)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transportation employers and employees from serious noncompliance with DOT drug and alcohol testing rules, the Department's policy is to ensure that employers conduct business only with responsible service agents. (b... alcohol testing regulations, has shown that it is not currently acting in a responsible manner. (c) A PIE...

  1. Giant Paperclip Necklaces, Soup-Can Rings and Cherry-Pie Hats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Laurel A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project inspired by the wearable sculpture art created by artist Marjorie Schick. Students used wallpaper paste and newspapers to create papier-mache for a mountain hat, a cherry-pie mask/hat, a "dress" shoe and a Cubistic mask. Cardboard was used in many of these things, in addition to being used as…

  2. Moult, pied plumage and relationships within the genus of the Black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pied plumage of the adult Black Sparrowhawk is rather exceptional in the genus Accipiter and it could be explained by functionality or by phylogenetic relationships. The moult pattern of museum specimens is presented, supplementing information from captive birds. The post-juvenile moulting sequence is similar to that ...

  3. Lifting the Curse of the Roman: Quintus Horatius Flaccus Meets the Pied Piper of Hamelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, William

    There are many similarities between Robert Browning's "The Pied Piper of Hamelin" and Lewis Carroll's "Alice in Wonderland" that are seldom noted by literary critics. Both works were begun for the amusement of specific children, both employ a strange subterranean journey as a central device, and both are works of nonsense…

  4. Fractal Pied de Poule (houndstooth) Collection SS'15 : Parka and Jacket

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    Fractal Pied de Poule (houndstooth) Spring/Summer '15 is a collection consisting of a body, a jacket and a parka. The last two will be shown here. Algorithms, new materials, digital prototyping, drapability, tessellations and fractals are recurring themes in our projects. The body, the jacket and

  5. Proceedings of 2012 JAEA/KAERI joint seminar on advanced irradiation and PIE technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Masahiro; Ishitsuka, Etsuo; Suzuki, Masahide

    2012-12-01

    Under the 'Arrangement for Corporation in the field of peaceful uses of Nuclear Energy between the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and the Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI)', the 2012 JAEA/KAERI Joint Seminar on Advanced Irradiation and PIE (post-irradiation examination) Technologies has been held at Mito, Japan from March 28 to 30, 2012. This triennial seminar is the seventh in series of bilateral exchange of irradiation and PIE technologies and research reactor management. Since the first joint seminar on the PIE Technology between JAERI (Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, former agency of JAEA) and KAERI was held at JAERI Oarai Research Institute, Japan in 1992, the international cooperation program between JAEA and KAERI has been actively carried out in the field of neutron irradiation. At the fifth seminar in 2005 and sixth in 2008, the irradiation technology and the research reactor management fields were included, respectively, to the joint seminar, and it covers whole areas of irradiation using research reactors. In this seminar total 37 presentations were made in three technical sessions, which are 'research reactor management', 'advanced irradiation technology' and 'post-irradiation examination technology', and active information exchange was done among participants. Papers or manuscripts presented in the 2012 JAEA/KAERI Joint Seminar on Advanced Irradiation and PIE Technologies are contained in the proceedings. (author)

  6. Oxidative stress in pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings from metal contaminated environments in northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, A.M.M.; Sturve, J.; Foerlin, L.; Nyholm, N.E.I.

    2007-01-01

    Metals have been shown to induce oxidative stress in animals. One of the most metal polluted terrestrial environments in Sweden is the surroundings of a sulfide ore smelter plant located in the northern part of the country. Pied flycatcher nestlings (Ficedula hypoleuca) that grew up close to the industry had accumulated amounts of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead, iron and zinc in their liver tissue. The aim of this study was to investigate if pied flycatcher nestlings in the pollution gradient of the industry were affected by oxidative stress using antioxidant molecules and enzyme activities. The antioxidant assays were also evaluated in search for useful biomarkers in pied flycatchers. This study indicated that nestlings in metal contaminated areas showed signs of oxidative stress evidenced by up regulated hepatic antioxidant defense given as increased glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) activities and slightly but not significantly elevated lipid peroxidation and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities. Stepwise linear regression indicated that lipid peroxidation and CAT activities were influenced mostly by iron, but iron and lead influenced the CAT activity to a higher degree. Positive relationships were found between GST and lead as well as GR activities and cadmium. We conclude that GR, CAT, GST activities and lipid peroxidation levels may function as useful biomarkers for oxidative stress in free-living pied flycatcher nestlings exposed to metal contaminated environments

  7. Heat pipe dynamic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issacci, F.; Roche, G. L.; Klein, D. B.; Catton, I.

    1988-01-01

    The vapor flow in a heat pipe was mathematically modeled and the equations governing the transient behavior of the core were solved numerically. The modeled vapor flow is transient, axisymmetric (or two-dimensional) compressible viscous flow in a closed chamber. The two methods of solution are described. The more promising method failed (a mixed Galerkin finite difference method) whereas a more common finite difference method was successful. Preliminary results are presented showing that multi-dimensional flows need to be treated. A model of the liquid phase of a high temperature heat pipe was developed. The model is intended to be coupled to a vapor phase model for the complete solution of the heat pipe problem. The mathematical equations are formulated consistent with physical processes while allowing a computationally efficient solution. The model simulates time dependent characteristics of concern to the liquid phase including input phase change, output heat fluxes, liquid temperatures, container temperatures, liquid velocities, and liquid pressure. Preliminary results were obtained for two heat pipe startup cases. The heat pipe studied used lithium as the working fluid and an annular wick configuration. Recommendations for implementation based on the results obtained are presented. Experimental studies were initiated using a rectangular heat pipe. Both twin beam laser holography and laser Doppler anemometry were investigated. Preliminary experiments were completed and results are reported.

  8. Replaceable liquid nitrogen piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasujima, Yasuo; Sato, Kiyoshi; Sato, Masataka; Hongo, Toshio

    1982-01-01

    This liquid nitrogen piping with total length of about 50 m was made and installed to supply the liquid nitrogen for heat insulating shield to three superconducting magnets for deflection and large super-conducting magnet for detection in the π-meson beam line used for high energy physics experiment in the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. The points considered in the design and manufacture stages are reported. In order to minimize the consumption of liquid nitrogen during transport, vacuum heat insulation method was adopted. The construction period and cost were reduced by the standardization of the components, the improvement of welding works and the elimination of ineffective works. For simplifying the maintenance, spare parts are always prepared. The construction and the procedure of assembling of the liquid nitrogen piping are described. The piping is of double-walled construction, and its low temperature part was made of SUS 316L. The super-insulation by aluminum vacuum evaporation and active carbon were attached on the external surface of the internal pipe. The final leak test and the heating degassing were performed. The tests on evacuation, transport capacity and heat entry are reported. By making the internal pipe into smaller size, the piping may be more efficient. (Kako, I.)

  9. Efectividad de un programa educativo en pacientes con pie diabético de riesgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Lidia Pereira Despaigne

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio de intervención terapéutica educativa en pacientes con pie diabético de riesgo, atendidos en la Consulta de Angiopatía Diabética del Hospital Provincial Docente Clinicoquirúrgico "Saturnino Lora Torres" de Santiago de Cuba, desde enero del 2011 hasta igual mes del 2013, a fin de determinar la efectividad de un programa educativo (momento de la intervención al respecto. Fueron indicativos de pie diabético de riesgo (momento del diagnóstico, la úlcera previa o amputación, la neuropatía periférica con pérdida de sensación protectora, la enfermedad arterial periférica, la hiperqueratosis y la afección grave de las uñas, la deformidad en el pie, la movilidad articular reducida, el calzado inadecuado, el tabaquismo, la edad avanzada, la larga evolución de la diabetes mellitus y la falta de educación diabetológica en pie diabético. La información fue analizada y procesada mediante las pruebas de hipótesis de Mann-Whitney y de comparación de medias, con un error de 5 %, y se obtuvo que con este programa (momento evaluativo se disminuyera la afectación que el pie diabético ocasiona a la actividad social, laboral y familiar de estas personas, así como el elevado costo económico, tanto para ellos como para el sistema de salud

  10. International Workshop on Characterization and PIE Needs for Fundamental Understanding of Fuels Performance and Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not Listed

    2011-12-01

    The International Workshop on Characterization and PIE Needs to Support Science-Based Development of Innovative Fuels was held June 16-17, 2011, in Paris, France. The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) Working Party on the Fuel Cycle (WPFC) sponsored the workshop to identify gaps in global capabilities that need to be filled to meet projected needs in the 21st century. First and foremost, the workshop brought nine countries and associated international organizations, together in support of common needs for nuclear fuels and materials testing, characterization, PIE, and modeling capabilities. Finland, France, Germany, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States of America, IAEA, and ITU (on behalf of European Union Joint Research Centers) discussed issues and opportunities for future technical advancements and collaborations. Second, the presentations provided a base level of understanding of current international capabilities. Three main categories were covered: (1) status of facilities and near term plans, (2) PIE needs from fuels engineering and material science perspectives, and (3) novel PIE techniques being developed to meet the needs. The International presentations provided valuable data consistent with the outcome of the National Workshop held in March 2011. Finally, the panel discussion on 21st century PIE capabilities, created a unified approach for future collaborations. In conclusion, (1) existing capabilities are not sufficient to meet the needs of a science-based approach, (2) safety issues and fuels behavior during abnormal conditions will receive more focus post-Fukushima; therefore we need to adopt our techniques to those issues, and (3) International collaboration is needed in the areas of codes and standards development for the new techniques.

  11. prepare_taxa_charts.py: A Python program to automate generation of publication ready taxonomic pie chart images from QIIME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhujani, Vijay; Badapanda, Chandan

    2017-06-01

    QIIME (Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology) is one of the most popular open-source bioinformatics suite for performing metagenome, 16S rRNA amplicon and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) data analysis. Although, it is very comprehensive and powerful tool, it lacks a method to provide publication ready taxonomic pie charts. The script plot_taxa_summary . py bundled with QIIME generate a html file and a folder containing taxonomic pie chart and legend as separate images. The images have randomly generated alphanumeric names. Therefore, it is difficult to associate the pie chart with the legend and the corresponding sample identifier. Even if the option to have the legend within the html file is selected while executing plot_taxa_summary . py , it is very tedious to crop a complete image (having both the pie chart and the legend) due to unequal image sizes. It requires a lot of time to manually prepare the pie charts for multiple samples for publication purpose. Moreover, there are chances of error while identifying the pie chart and legend pair due to random alphanumeric names of the images. To bypass all these bottlenecks and make this process efficient, we have developed a python based program, prepare_taxa_charts . py , to automate the renaming, cropping and merging of taxonomic pie chart and corresponding legend image into a single, good quality publication ready image. This program not only augments the functionality of plot_taxa_summary . py but is also very fast in terms of CPU time and user friendly.

  12. Consideraciones anatómicas y funcionales en la patología del quinto radio del pie

    OpenAIRE

    Gallart Ortega, José; Lahoz Gimeno, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Se analiza si las diferentes alteraciones morfológicas y funcionales del pie se asocian estadísticamente a las diferentes desviaciones del quinto radio en el plano transverso y/o sagital como posible causa o agravantes de ésta. A su vez se describen las diferentes patologías quirúrgicas en quinto radio del pie y se evalúa el resultado goniométrico postquirúrgico de las diferentes técnicas quirúrgicas empleadas. MATERIAL MÉTODOS: En una muestra consecutiva de 121 pies intervenidos qu...

  13. Valoración de los resultados del tratamiento quirúrgico del pie plano estático

    OpenAIRE

    Paz Jiménez, José; Amigo Fernandez, A.; Romo Contreras, I.

    1989-01-01

    La deformidad fundamental del pie plano es el valgo de talón. Existe siempre un movimiento helicoidal en pronación del retropic y supinación del antepic. En este trabajo se hace una revisión de los pacientes tratados en nuestro Servicio a lo largo de diez años, que han sido sometidos a intervención quirúrgica, mayoritariamente artrodesis. - El fotopodograma constituye un excelente método para controlar la evolución de un pie plano. El pie plano por astrágalo vertical es irreductible des...

  14. Heat-pipe Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G

    2013-09-26

    The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics.

  15. Pipe whip: a summary of the damage observed in BNL pipe-on-pipe impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes examples of the damage resulting from the impact of a whipping pipe on a nearby pressurised pipe. The work is a by-product of a study of the motion of a whipping pipe. The tests were conducted with small-diameter pipes mounted in rigid supports and hence the results are not directly applicable to large-scale plant applications where flexible support mountings are employed. The results illustrate the influence of whipping pipe energy, impact position and support type on the damage sustained by the target pipe. (author)

  16. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  17. PE 100 pipe systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brömstrup, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    English translation of the 3rd edition ""Rohrsysteme aus PE 100"". Because of the considerably increased performance, pipe and pipe systems made from 100 enlarge the range of applications in the sectors of gas and water supply, sewage disposal, industrial pipeline construction and in the reconstruction and redevelopment of defective pipelines (relining). This book applies in particular to engineers, technicians and foremen working in the fields of supply, disposal and industry. Subject matters of the book are all practice-relevant questions regarding the construction, operation and maintenance

  18. Pipe-to-pipe impact tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bampton, M C.C.; Alzheimer, J M; Friley, J R; Simonen, F A

    1985-11-01

    Existing licensing criteria express what damage shall be assumed for various pipe sizes as a consequence of a postulated break in a high energy system. The criteria are contained in Section 3.6.2 of the Standard Review Plan, and the purpose of the program described with this paper is to evaluate the impact criteria by means of a combined experimental and analytical approach. A series of tests has been completed. Evaluation of the test showed a deficiency in the range of test parameters. These deficiencies are being remedied by a second series of tests and a more powerful impact machine. A parallel analysis capability has been developed. This capability has been used to predict the damage for the first test series. The quality of predictions has been improved by tests that establish post-crush and bending relationships. Two outputs are expected from this project: data that may, or may not, necessitate changes to the criteria after appropriate value impact evaluations and an analytic capability for rapidly evaluating the potential for pipe whip damage after a postulated break. These outputs are to be contained in a value-impact document and a program final report. (orig.).

  19. Performance of buried pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of geometric and mechanical parameters : characterizing the soil structure interaction developed in a buried pipe installation located under : roads/highways. The drainage pipes or culverts instal...

  20. The impact of conflict issues on fixed-pie perceptions, problem solving, and integrative outcomes in negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harinck, F.; de Dreu, C.K.W.; van Vianen, A.E.M.

    2000-01-01

    It is argued that a negotiators fixed-pie perception, cooperative motivation, problem-solving behavior, and integrative outcomes are influenced by the content of the negotiationthe conflict issue. Negotiation involves conflicting interests, conflicting ideas about intellective problems, or

  1. Factores asociados al pie diabético en pacientes ambulatorios. Centro de Diabetes Cardiovascular del Caribe. Barranquilla (Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mildred Rosales Amarís

    2012-01-01

    respectivamente, la neuropatía (OR = 10.14; p = 0.00 y la deformidad de los pies (OR = 10.02; p = 0.00 se asociaron significativamente al pie diabético. Se encontró como factor protector el autocuidado (OR = 0.21; p = 0.00000 y la educación relacionada con el control de factores de riesgo para la diabetes (OR = 0.32; p = 0.00007. Conclusión: La macroangiopatía, la microangiopatía, la neuropatía y la deformidad en los pies se comportaron como factores asociados a la presencia del pie diabético. El autocuidado contribuyó a la prevención del mismo.

  2. Alteraciones biomecánicas del antepie en el pie zambo y su tratamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Oller Asensio, Antonio; Prats Climent, Baldiri

    1991-01-01

    Definición y recuerdo anátomo-fisio-patológico del pie zambo y de las alteraciones funcionales más frecuentes que se encuentran asociadas a esta patología. Se define la metodología básica de exploración física del paciente y estudio radiológico con la determinación de las tangentes tibio-calcáneas. Desarrollo de los tratamientos generales, ortopodológicos, fisioterapéuticos y quirúrgicos. Presentación de tres casos clínicos afectos de alteraciones biomecánicas por pie zambo con su tratamiento...

  3. Pie plano astrágalo vertical asociado a sinovitis. Fases de tratamiento

    OpenAIRE

    Planell i Mas, Elena de; Bonilla Toyos, Elvira

    2008-01-01

    El pie plano astrágalo vertical congénito es una deformidad poco frecuente que se puede encontrar de forma aislada, dentro de un cuadro polimalformativo o en relación con afectaciones neurológicas. Se caracteriza por una luxación del escafoides por encima del astrágalo,lo que provoca un pie rígido o de dificil manipulación. En este artículo los autores describen un caso clínico de un paciente que acude a consulta por presentar una inflamación dolorosa en la zona de la cabeza del astrágalo del...

  4. [Characterization and nutritional value of a food artisan: the meat pie of Murcia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Cano, Domingo; Pérez-Llamas, Francisca; López-Jiménez, José Ángel; González-Silvera, Daniel; Frutos, Maria José; Zamora, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    The main aims of this study are to describe the characteristics of the meat pie, a typical product of the regional gastronomy of Murcia and to determine its nutritional and energy values, fatty acid profile and fat quality. There were studied 24 samples of Murcia's meat pie from the six best-selling retail establishments in this Region (four units per establishment).The moisture, protein, fat, carbohydrates, fibre and minerals, contents and the energy value, fatty acid profile and fat quality were analyzed using the Official Analysis Methods of Foods. All analyses were performed by triplicate. The average weight of this product was 192.3 ± 11.8 g, with three differentiated parts (base, filling and pastry lid). All ingredients were natural raw materials: wheat flour, lard, ground beef, sliced boiled egg and chorizo, water and spices (salt, pepper, garlic, paprika and nutmeg). Most of its organoleptic attributes are due to the type and amount of fat or lard. The combination of the other ingredients and the particular formulation of the spices are also responsible of other attributes. Due to its protein content (11.0%), this meat pie can replace other meat dishes, and be incorporated into a balanced diet. However, it is necessary to take into account its fat and energy contents (17.3 g and 317 kcal/100 g, respectively). Unlike many common pastry products, it contains no trans fatty acids. The results of the research show that the studied product remains, at present, an artisan food, and offer reliable information that it is representative of the energy and nutritional values of the Murcia's meat pie, a typical product of the gastronomy of the Region of Murcia. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  5. A meta-analysis on PewDiePie, his swearing and its development

    OpenAIRE

    Mononen, O. (Ossi)

    2018-01-01

    Abstract This thesis discusses the swearing present in the videos of the YouTube content creator PewDiePie through meta-analysis of a research article on the subject. The thesis will approach the primary article from the points of view of the fields of language play, language policy, ecological language learning and linguistic superdiversities. The primary article is analysed from the point of view of each field in order t...

  6. Prevención de úlceras en el pie del paciente diabético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Análida Pinilla Roa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La Diabetes Mellitus tipo dos (1 es una de las enfermedades metabólicas más comunes dentro de la población adulta (mayor de 30 años, da lugar a múltiples complicaciones como insuficiencia renal, enfermedades cardiovasculares, ceguera, neuropatía periférica y amputaciones de los miembros inferiores. Vale la pena destacar el profundo impacto de la diabetes en los pies debido a la gran morbilidad y mortalidad que puede causar. Se sabe que los problemas en los pies de los diabéticos son el resultado de varios factores como son la neuropatía periférica, la vasculopatía, los trastornos de la inmunidad  y los traumatismos entre otros. Cada uno de estos factores contribuye a la formación de úlceras que no sanan fácilmente y en general se infectan causando un proceso séptico que requiere el tratamiento radical de la amputación. El objetivo de este artículo es concientizar al personal de salud sobre  la necesidad de la prevención de las úlceras en los pies de los pacientes diabéticos, mediante la educación para permitir una detección temprana y un tratamiento oportuno, disminuir la tasa de úlceras y por ende de amputaciones de los miembros inferiores. La educación al paciente y al personal de salud debe incluir: el reconocimiento de signos tempranos de ulceración en las áreas de mayor presión de los pies mediante un adecuado autoexamen diario, la asesoría para el uso de calzado protector, adecuados hábitos de aseo y corte de uñas, así como medidas preventivas para evitar el trauma.

  7. Trade-offs between sexual advertisement and immune function in the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca).

    OpenAIRE

    Kilpimaa, Janne; Alatalo, Rauno V.; Siitari, Heli

    2004-01-01

    Good genes models of sexual selection assume that sexual advertisement is costly and thus the level of advertisement honestly reveals heritable viability. Recently it has been suggested that an important cost of sexual advertisement might be impairment of the functioning of the immune system. In this field experiment we investigated the possible trade-offs between immune function and sexual advertisement by manipulating both mating effort and activity of immune defence in male pied flycatcher...

  8. Impacto de las unidades a pie de carretera en las interferencias en redes vehiculares

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Gañán, Carlos; Reñé Vicente, Sergi; Mata Diaz, Jorge; Alins Delgado, Juan José

    2013-01-01

    Las redes ad hoc vehiculares (VANETs) han emergido como una tecnolog´ıa clave que posibilita el despliegue diversas aplicaciones. Proporcionar seguridad a los servicios de informaci´on y entretenimiento en estos entornos requiere del uso de unidades a pie de la carretera (RSU) como puertas de acceso a los recursos solicitados. Idealmente, las RSUs deben desplegarse para proporcionar conectividad continua. Si bien esto aumenta la capacidad y cobertura, tambi´en acarrea un ...

  9. Ontogenetic variation in the plumage colour of female European Pied Flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca

    OpenAIRE

    Potti, Jaime; Canal, David; Camacho, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Although variation in the dorsal plumage colour of male European Pied Flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca has received a great deal of attention, females of the species have been usually considered to be nearly uniformly monochromatic brown. Using reflectance spectrophotometry, we explore the age-dependent variation of plumage colour in females. We disentangle the within- and between-individual effects of this pattern and show a within-individual darkening of the mantle colour with age, whereas di...

  10. Optimization of Pipe Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C. T.; Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1991-01-01

    algorithm using successive linear programming is presented. The performance of the algorithm is illustrated by optimizing a network with 201 pipes and 172 nodes. It is concluded that the new algorithm seems to be very efficient and stable, and that it always finds a solution with a cost near the best...

  11. Current status of PIE activities in O-arai Engineering Center of JNC on FBR MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Shin-ichi; Osaka, Masahiko; Namekawa, Takashi; Itoh, Masahiko

    2003-01-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) is now totally promoting the development of commercialized fast reactors to realize stable supply of energy in future. One of the important items is to develop high-performance fuel. For this purpose, it is essential to carry out post-irradiation examinations (PIE) for evaluation of irradiated fuel performance and also to establish the PIE technology. This paper describes the current status of PIE results including its technology in O-arai Engineering Center of JNC. The facilities have been operating safely and successfully since the 1960's. Obtained PIE data were reflected to the design and operation of the experimental fast reactor JOYO, the prototype fast reactor MONJU and future fast reactors. The core modification from the breeding core (MK-I) to the irradiation core (MK-II) of JOYO was performed in 1982. Irradiation tests of fuels and materials in MK-II core started in 1982. At PIE facilities in OEC, 65 of driver fuels, fuel irradiation test rigs, material irradiation test rigs and several other components were examined related to JOYO MK-II core operation, and thus a lot of aspects were accumulated for irradiated fuel behaviors. As topical activities of these PIE techniques, burnup measurement and analytical technique for Minor Actinides (MA), such as neptunium and americium were described here. (author)

  12. PIE on Safety-Tested AGR-1 Compact 5-1-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunn, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Morris, Robert Noel [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baldwin, Charles A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Montgomery, Fred C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gerczak, Tyler J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Post-irradiation examination (PIE) is being performed in support of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel development and qualification for High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs). AGR-1 was the first in a series of TRISO fuel irradiation experiments initiated in 2006 under the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program; this work continues to be funded by the Department of Energy's Office of Nuclear Energy as part of the Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) initiative. AGR-1 fuel compacts were fabricated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 2006 and irradiated for three years in the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to demonstrate and evaluate fuel performance under HTGR irradiation conditions. PIE is being performed at INL and ORNL to study how the fuel behaved during irradiation, and to examine fuel performance during exposure to elevated temperatures at or above temperatures that could occur during a depressurized conduction cooldown event. This report summarizes safety testing of irradiated AGR-1 Compact 5-1-1 in the ORNL Core Conduction Cooldown Test Facility (CCCTF) and post-safety testing PIE.

  13. PIE the search: searching PubMed literature for protein interaction information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun; Kwon, Dongseop; Shin, Soo-Yong; Wilbur, W John

    2012-02-15

    Finding protein-protein interaction (PPI) information from literature is challenging but an important issue. However, keyword search in PubMed(®) is often time consuming because it requires a series of actions that refine keywords and browse search results until it reaches a goal. Due to the rapid growth of biomedical literature, it has become more difficult for biologists and curators to locate PPI information quickly. Therefore, a tool for prioritizing PPI informative articles can be a useful assistant for finding this PPI-relevant information. PIE (Protein Interaction information Extraction) the search is a web service implementing a competition-winning approach utilizing word and syntactic analyses by machine learning techniques. For easy user access, PIE the search provides a PubMed-like search environment, but the output is the list of articles prioritized by PPI confidence scores. By obtaining PPI-related articles at high rank, researchers can more easily find the up-to-date PPI information, which cannot be found in manually curated PPI databases. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/IRET/PIE/.

  14. Tratamiento del pie diabético en pacientes ancianos con Heberprot-P

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luís Solís Licea

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El pie diabético constituye la complicación crónica de mayor morbimortalidad de la diabetes mellitus, significando un problema de salud internacional, del cual no escapa nuestro país y nuestro sistema de salud. Se realizó un estudio de tipo clínico observacional y descriptivo, con el objetivo de evaluar el resultado del tratamiento con Heberprot-P en pacientes con úlceras del pie diabético, en ancianos ingresados en el servicio de Angiología del Hospital General Docente “Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna”, del municipio de Las Tunas, provincia de Las Tunas, en el período comprendido entre el 1ro de enero de 2010 al 31 de diciembre de 2011. Se estudiaron los pacientes según las variables de edad, localización de la lesión, resultado del tratamiento según la clasificación de Wagner y reacciones adversas presentadas. Con este estudio se pretende poner en manos del personal de la salud un material de consulta, que permita evaluar el tratamiento con Heberprot-P del pie diabético en el anciano.

  15. PIE and separate effect test of high burnup UO2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yong Sik; Kim, S.K.; Kim, D.H.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the performance of a high burnup UO 2 fuel, the highest burnup fuel assembly in KOREA was transported to the PIE facility in KAERI. It was a 17·17 fuel assembly irradiated at the Ulchin Unit 2 PWR. The peak fuel rod average burnup was about 57MWd/kgU and locally 65MWd/kgU. The general PIE was performed to investigate the fuel rod irradiation performance. Fission gas release, burnup, oxide thickness, hydrogen pickup, CRUD, and density change were measured by destructive of non-destructive test. Microstructure change, bubble and pore size distributions were observed by optical microscopy, SEM and EPMA. All generated and available PIE results were used to verify high burnup fuel performance code INFRA. Several rods were cut for additional separate effect test. For the high burnup fission gas release behaviour analysis, annealing apparatus were developed and installed in hot cell and preliminary test was performed. In addition to current apparatus new induction furnace will be installed in hot cell to investigate the high temperature and transient fission gas release behaviour. Ring tensile test was performed to analyze the material property degradation which caused by the oxidation and hydride, and additional mechanical tests will be performed. (Author)

  16. Microbiological evaluation of sweet pies marketed fairs in special city Goiânia-GO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar Soares Nicolau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The sweet pies are widely consumed in special fairs in Goiânia-GO city. In general they are marketed in inadequate way, without refrigeration and most of times without any protection against various types of contaminants, including microbial contamination that can cause food toxi-infections to consumers. This study aimed to evaluate the microbiological quality of pies sold in 105 stalls in 23 special fair city of Goiânia, and also the impact of training on the Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP in the quality of these products. The micro-organisms investigated were those required the by standard microbiological: Salmonella, fecal coliforms, Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus coagulase positive. We also observed the temperature exposure of these foods on newsstands. We analyzed 259 samples in total, with 209 in the first stage, before the training of the fairground, and 50 in the second, after qualifying for the fair dealers in GMP. Pies sweets collected before training of fair dealers were considered unfit for consumption because it contains health indicators above the recommended limit (65.6% with fecal coliforms, 20.6% Staphylococcus coagulase positive and 16.8% with Bacillus cereus. In samples collected after training there was an improvement in the indices (28,0% contained coliforms, 14,0% Staphylococcus coagulase positive and 28,0% of Bacillus cereus, all above the limit set. None samples had Salmonella in both steps. It can be concluded that with the training of fair dealers there was an improvement in the microbiological quality of these products. These results reinforce the need for training of the fairground and the impact it can have on the quality of the products. The storage temperatures pies ranged from –5.3ºC to 28.7ºC in first step and –3.6ºC to 24.0ºC in the second. The presence of the refrigerated was not sufficient to maintain the optimal temperature (to 10 ° C for storage of pies.

  17. Active basement uplift as seen with cosmogenic lenses: the Sierra Pie de Palo case (Western Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siame, L. L.; Sébrier, M.; Costa, C. H.; Ahumada, E. A.; Bellier, O.

    2013-12-01

    The Andean foreland of western Argentina (28°S-33°S) corresponds to retroarc deformations associated with the ongoing flat subduction of the Nazca plate beneath the South American lithosphere, and associated with high levels of seismic activity and crustal active faulting. To improve earthquake source identification and characterization in the San Juan region, data from seismology, structural geology and quantitative geomorphology can be integrated and combined to provide a seismotectonic model. In this model, the Andean back-arc of western Argentina has to be regarded as an obliquely converging foreland where Plio-Quaternary deformations are partitioned between strike-slip and thrust motions that are localized on the E-verging, thin-skinned Argentine Precordillera, and the W-verging thick-skinned Sierras Pampeanas, respectively. In this domain, the Sierra Pie de Palo is a key structure playing a major role in the partitioning of the Plio-Quaternary deformations. Located in the westernmost Sierras Pampeanas, the Sierra Pie de Palo forms a NNE striking, 80 km-long and 35-40 km-wide, ellipsoid range that reaches elevation as high as 3162 m. This mountain range is an actively growing basement fold associated with a high level of seismic activity (e.g., the November 23, 1977, Caucete, Mw 7.4 earthquake). To evaluate the degree of tectonic activity around the Sierra Pie de Palo, we combined a detailed morphometric analysis of the topography together with in situ-produced cosmogenic 10Be concentrations measured in (1) bedrock outcrops corresponding to the exhumed erosional regional surface, (2) surface boulders abandoned on alluvial fans deformed by active faults, and (3) in fluvial sediments sampled at the outlets of selected watersheds that drains out from the Sierra Pie de Palo. All together, our results allows: (1) assessing quantitative constraints on the rate of tectonic and denudation processes that are responsible for the active growth and erosion of the Sierra

  18. Heat pipe applications workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranken, W.A.

    1978-04-01

    The proceedings of the Heat Pipe Applications Workshop, held at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory October 20-21, 1977, are reported. This workshop, which brought together representatives of the Department of Energy and of a dozen industrial organizations actively engaged in the development and marketing of heat pipe equipment, was convened for the purpose of defining ways of accelerating the development and application of heat pipe technology. Recommendations from the three study groups formed by the participants are presented. These deal with such subjects as: (1) the problem encountered in obtaining support for the development of broadly applicable technologies, (2) the need for applications studies, (3) the establishment of a heat pipe technology center of excellence, (4) the role the Department of Energy might take with regard to heat pipe development and application, and (5) coordination of heat pipe industry efforts to raise the general level of understanding and acceptance of heat pipe solutions to heat control and transfer problems

  19. Nuclear piping and pipe support design and operability relating to loadings and small bore piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, D.H.; Tubbs, J.M.; Callaway, W.O.; Tang, H.T.; Van Duyne, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The present nuclear piping system design practices for loadings, multiple support design and small bore piping evaluation are overly conservative. The paper discusses the results developed for realistic definitions of loadings and loading combinations with methodology for combining loads under various conditions for supports and multiple support design. The paper also discusses a simplified method developed for performing deadweight and thermal evaluations of small bore piping systems. Although the simplified method is oriented towards the qualification of piping in older plants, this approach is applicable to plants designed to any edition of the ASME Section III or B31.1 piping codes

  20. Diffusion in flexible pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogaard Kristensen, S.

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the work done on modelling and simulation of the complex diffusion of gas through the wall of a flexible pipe. The diffusion and thus the pressure in annulus depends strongly on the diffusion and solubility parameters of the gas-polymer system and on the degree of blocking of the outer surface of the inner liner due to pressure reinforcements. The report evaluates the basis modelling required to describe the complex geometries and flow patterns. Qualitatively results of temperature and concentration profiles are shown in the report. For the program to serve any modelling purpose in 'real life' the results need to be validated and possibly the model needs corrections. Hopefully, a full-scale test of a flexible pipe will provide the required temperatures and pressures in annulus to validate the models. (EHS)

  1. Diffusion in flexible pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogaard Kristensen, S

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the work done on modelling and simulation of the complex diffusion of gas through the wall of a flexible pipe. The diffusion and thus the pressure in annulus depends strongly on the diffusion and solubility parameters of the gas-polymer system and on the degree of blocking of the outer surface of the inner liner due to pressure reinforcements. The report evaluates the basis modelling required to describe the complex geometries and flow patterns. Qualitatively results of temperature and concentration profiles are shown in the report. For the program to serve any modelling purpose in 'real life' the results need to be validated and possibly the model needs corrections. Hopefully, a full-scale test of a flexible pipe will provide the required temperatures and pressures in annulus to validate the models. (EHS)

  2. Waste pipe calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    A rapid method is presented for calculating transport in a network of one-dimensional flow paths or ''pipes''. The method defines a Green's function for each flow path and prescribes a method of combining these Green's functions to produce an overall Green's function for the flow path network. A unique feature of the method is the use of the Laplace transform of these Green's functions to carry out most of the calculations

  3. Pipe damping studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is conducting a research program to assist the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) in determining best-estimate damping values for use in the dynamic analysis of nuclear power plant piping systems. This paper describes four tasks in the program that were undertaken in FY-86. In the first task, tests were conducted on a 5-in. INEL laboratory piping system and data were analyzed from a 6-in. laboratory system at the ANCO Engineers facility to investigate the parameters influencing damping in the seismic frequency range. Further tests were conducted on 3- and 5-in. INEL laboratory piping systems as the second task to determine damping values representative of vibrations in the 33 to 100 Hz range, typical of hydrodynamic transients. In the third task a statistical evaluation of the available damping data was conduted to determine probability distributions suitable for use in probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), and the final task evaluated damping data at high strain levels

  4. Pipe clamp effects on thin-walled pipe design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    Clamp induced stresses in FFTF piping are sufficiently large to require structural assessment. The basic principles and procedures used in analyzing FFTF piping at clamp support locations for compliance with ASME Code rules are given. Typical results from a three-dimensional shell finite element pipe model with clamp loads applied over the clamp/pipe contact area are shown. Analyses performed to categorize clamp induced piping loads as primary or secondary in nature are described. The ELCLAMP Computer Code, which performs analyses at clamp locations combining clamp induced stresses with stresses from overall piping system loads, is discussed. Grouping and enveloping methods to reduce the number of individual clamp locations requiring analysis are described

  5. Valoración del pie plano en personas adultas con síndrome de Down y de su afectación en la vida diaria

    OpenAIRE

    Stafford, Frances

    2017-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio en 50 adultos con síndrome de Down, entre 18 y 40 años para analizar la incidencia e influencia del pie plano sobre el funcionamiento de la vida diaria. La incidencia fue del 70%, con grados diversos de pie plano. Hubo dolor en 4 personas, si bien era debido a otros problemas y no achacable al pie plano. En ningún caso la presencia de pie plano afectó al funcionamiento de la vida ordinaria.

  6. Spatial distribution of breeding Pied Flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca in respect to their natal sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sokolov, L.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Study of philopatry and dispersal of pied flycatchers Ficedula hypoleuca was launched on the Courish Spit (SE Baltic in 1981. Since then, ca. 9,000 nestlings were ringed at different sites in the Russian part of the Courish Spit. A total of 557 individuals ringed as pulli were recaptured in subsequent seasons in the study area. Both males and females are more often recaptured in the plots where they were ringed than in other plots. These results were interpreted in the framework of the hypothesis forwarded by Löhrl (1959 and supported by Berndt & Winkel (1979. These authors suggested that cavity nesters (pied flycatchers and collared flycatchers F. albicollis imprint their future local breeding area during the period of postfledging exploration. Birds that survive until the next spring, return to these imprinted areas to breed. A similar study done by Sokolov et al. (1984 on the Courish Spit in an open nesting species, the chaffinch Fringilla coelebs, confirmed this finding. We assumed that juvenile pied flycatchers disperse for varying distances during their postfledging movements and imprint a local area, some 1–5 kilometres in diameter. This area is the goal of their migration next spring. It is suggested that in spring, yearlings are non–randomly distributed in respect to the area they have imprinted as juveniles. Recently, Vysotsky (2000, 2001 re–analysed the same data on philopatry of pied flycatchers on the Courish Spit and forwarded an alternative hypothesis. He suggests that juveniles, both males and females, do not imprint any local area during the postfledging period, but are distributed randomly across the area of several dozens of kilometres in spring. Vysotsky was able to show that distribution of distances of natal dispersal did not differ from the random pattern the study plot which was an 8.5 km long line of nest boxes along the Courish Spit. The aim of this study was to test these two alternative hypotheses. To do so, we

  7. Pipe inspection using the pipe crawler. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. In several of the buildings at the Fernald Site, there is piping that was used to transport process materials. As the demolition of these buildings occur, disposal of this piping has become a costly issue. Currently, all process piping is cut into ten-foot or less sections, the ends of the piping are wrapped and taped to prevent the release of any potential contaminants into the air, and the piping is placed in roll off boxes for eventual repackaging and shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal. Alternatives that allow for the onsite disposal of process piping are greatly desired due to the potential for dramatic savings in current offsite disposal costs. No means is currently employed to allow for the adequate inspection of the interior of piping, and consequently, process piping has been assumed to be internally contaminated and thus routinely disposed of at NTS. The BTX-II system incorporates a high-resolution micro color camera with lightheads, cabling, a monitor, and a video recorder. The complete probe is capable of inspecting pipes with an internal diameter (ID) as small as 1.4 inches. By using readily interchangeable lightheads, the same system is capable of inspecting piping up to 24 inches in ID. The original development of the BTX system was for inspection of boiler tubes and small diameter pipes for build-up, pitting, and corrosion. However, the system is well suited for inspecting the interior of most types of piping and other small, confined areas. The report describes the technology, its performance, uses, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned

  8. Heat pipes and heat pipe exchangers for heat recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, L L; Grakovich, L P; Kiselev, V G; Kurustalev, D K; Matveev, Yu

    1984-01-01

    Heat pipes and heat pipe exchangers are of great importance in power engineering as a means of recovering waste heat of industrial enterprises, solar energy, geothermal waters and deep soil. Heat pipes are highly effective heat transfer units for transferring thermal energy over large distance (tens of meters) with low temperature drops. Their heat transfer characteristics and reliable working for more than 10-15 yr permit the design of new systems with higher heat engineering parameters.

  9. Pipe inspection using the pipe crawler. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. In several of the buildings at the Fernald Site, there is piping that was used to transport process materials. As the demolition of these buildings occur, disposal of this piping has become a costly issue. Currently, all process piping is cut into ten-foot or less sections, the ends of the piping are wrapped and taped to prevent the release of any potential contaminants into the air, and the piping is placed in roll off boxes for eventual repackaging and shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal. Alternatives that allow for the onsite disposal of process piping are greatly desired due to the potential for dramatic savings in current offsite disposal costs. No means is currently employed to allow for the adequate inspection of the interior of piping, and consequently, process piping has been assumed to be internally contaminated and thus routinely disposed of at NTS. The BTX-II system incorporates a high-resolution micro color camera with lightheads, cabling, a monitor, and a video recorder. The complete probe is capable of inspecting pipes with an internal diameter (ID) as small as 1.4 inches. By using readily interchangeable lightheads, the same system is capable of inspecting piping up to 24 inches in ID. The original development of the BTX system was for inspection of boiler tubes and small diameter pipes for build-up, pitting, and corrosion. However, the system is well suited for inspecting the interior of most types of piping and other small, confined areas. The report describes the technology, its performance, uses, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.

  10. Pipe support program at Pickering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahazizian, L.A.; Jazic, Z.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the pipe support program at Pickering. The program addresses the highest priority in operating nuclear generating stations, safety. We present the need: safety, the process: managed and strategic, and the result: assurance of critical piping integrity. In the past, surveillance programs periodically inspected some systems, equipment, and individual components. This comprehensive program is based on a managed process that assesses risk to identify critical piping systems and supports and to develop a strategy for surveillance and maintenance. The strategy addresses all critical piping supports. Successful implementation of the program has provided assurance of critical piping and support integrity and has contributed to decreasing probability of pipe failure, reducing risk to worker and public safety, improving configuration management, and reducing probability of production losses. (author)

  11. Detection of rhodopsin dimerization in situ by PIE-FCCS, a time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    Rhodopsin self-associates in the plasma membrane. At low concentrations, the interactions are consistent with a monomer-dimer equilibrium (Comar et al., J Am Chem Soc 136(23):8342-8349, 2014). At high concentrations in native tissue, higher-order clusters have been observed (Fotiadis et al., Nature 421:127-128, 2003). The physiological role of rhodopsin dimerization is still being investigated, but it is clear that a quantitative assessment is essential to determining the function of rhodopsin clusters in vision. To quantify rhodopsin interactions, I will outline the theory and methodology of a specialized time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy for measuring membrane protein-protein interactions called pulsed-interleaved excitation fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (PIE-FCCS). The strength of this technique is its ability to quantify rhodopsin interactions in situ (i.e., a live cell plasma membrane). There are two reasons for restricting the scope to live cell membranes. First, the compositional heterogeneity of the plasma membrane creates a complex milieu with thousands of lipid, protein, and carbohydrate species. This makes it difficult to infer quaternary interactions from detergent solubilized samples or construct a model phospholipid bilayer that recapitulates all of the interactions present in native membranes. Second, organizational structure and dynamics is a key feature of the plasma membrane, and fixation techniques like formaldehyde cross-linking and vitrification will modulate the interactions. PIE-FCCS is based on two-color fluorescence imaging with time-correlated single-photon counting (TCSPC) (Becker et al., Rev Sci Instrum 70:1835-1841, 1999). By time-tagging every detected photon, the data can be analyzed as a fluorescence intensity distribution, fluorescence lifetime histogram, or fluorescence (cross-)correlation spectra (FCS/FCCS) (Becker, Advanced time-correlated single-photon counting techniques, Springer, Berlin, 2005). These

  12. Calling Where It Counts: Subordinate Pied Babblers Target the Audience of Their Vocal Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, David J; Finch, Fiona M; Bell, Matthew B V; Ridley, Amanda R

    2015-01-01

    For territorial group-living species, opportunities to reproduce on the natal territory can be limited by a number of factors including the availability of resources within a territory, access to unrelated individuals, and monopolies on reproduction by dominant group members. Individuals looking to reproduce are therefore faced with the options of either waiting for a breeding opportunity to arise in the natal territory, or searching for reproductive opportunities in non-natal groups. In the cooperatively breeding Southern pied babbler, Turdoides bicolor, most individuals who achieve reproductive success do so through taking up dominant breeding positions within non-natal groups. For subordinate pied babblers therefore, searching for breeding opportunities in non-natal groups is of primary importance as this represents the major route to reproductive success. However, prospecting (where individuals leave the group to search for reproductive opportunities within other groups) is costly and individuals rapidly lose weight when not part of a group. Here we demonstrate that subordinate pied babblers adopt an alternative strategy for mate attraction by vocal advertisement from within their natal territories. We show that subordinates focus their calling efforts on the edges of their territory, and specifically near boundaries with neighbouring groups that have potential breeding partners (unrelated individuals of the opposite sex). In contrast to prospecting, calling individuals showed no body mass loss associated with this behaviour, suggesting that calling from within the group may provide a 'cheap' advertisement strategy. Additionally, we show that subordinates use information regarding the composition of neighbouring groups to target the greatest number of potential mating partners.

  13. Recent improvements in PIE-techniques at the IFE hot-laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenssen, Haakon Kristian

    1999-01-01

    The PIE-techniques at the IFE nuclear fuel section are continuously improved through upgrading of equipment and methods, e.g. image handling techniques and components utilised in data acquisition and editing techniques. To improve the quality or spatial resolution of neutron radiographs the normal technique was complemented with another method. The dysprosium foil/X-ray film technique is now supplemented with a track-etch recorder consisting of a cellulose nitrate film. For further examination the cellulose nitrate film can be digitised to allow electronic image treatment. Promising results were obtained with this technique on neutron radiographs, namely higher spatial resolution compared to the normal technique, high contrast and sharp neutron radiography images. The traditional one-axial profilometry of fuel rods were modified so that diameter/bow measurements are possible at several angular orientations during one acquisition sequence. This extension is very useful in several ways, for instance the built-in data symmetry of the method is used to check the correctness of the measurement results. Diameter and bow measurements give in addition detailed and complete information of canning irregularities and fuel rod profiles. PIE data are collected and compiled in an image file. Inspection and examination of the file information is possible through an ideal user-interface, i.e. Adobe photoshop software with navigator possibilities. An example incorporating PIE data acquired from a fuel rod exposed in a loss of coolant experiment is utilised for illustration of the user-interface and some of its possibilities (author) (ml)

  14. Proceedings of 2008 KAERI/JAEA joint seminar on advanced irradiation and PIE technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Woo-Seog; Ishihara, Masahiro

    2008-12-01

    Under the Arrangement for Cooperation in the field of peaceful uses of Nuclear Energy between the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), the 2008 KAERI-JAEA Joint Seminar on Advanced Irradiation and PIE (post-irradiation examination) Technologies has been held at KAERI in Daejeon, Korea, from November 5 to 7, 2008. This seminar was organized by the PIE and Radwaste Division, Research Reactor Engineering Division, and HANARO Management Division in KAERI. It was also the first time to hold the seminar under the agreement signed September 4, 2008. This triennial seminar is the sixth in series of bilateral exchange of irradiation technologies. Since the first joint seminar on Post Irradiation Examination Technology between JAERI and KAERI held at JAERI Oarai center, Japan in 1992, it has been a good model of international cooperation program between KAERI and JAEA in the field of neutron irradiation uses. At the fifth seminar in 2005, irradiation technology field was included to the joint seminar, moreover in this time it is expanded to the research reactor management field for covering whole areas of irradiation using in research reactors. The seminar was divided into three technical sessions; the sessions addressed the general topics of 'research reactor management', 'advanced irradiation technology' and 'post-irradiation examination technology'. Total 46 presentations were made, and active information exchange was done among participants. This proceeding is containing the papers or manuscripts presented in the 2008 KAERI-JAEA Joint Seminar on Advanced Irradiation and PIE Technologies. The 46 of the presented papers indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  15. Damping in LMFBR pipe systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Barta, D.A.; Lindquist, M.R.; Renkey, E.J.; Ryan, J.A.

    1983-06-01

    LMFBR pipe systems typically utilize a thicker insulation package than that used on water plant pipe systems. They are supported with special insulated pipe clamps. Mechanical snubbers are employed to resist seismic loads. Recent laboratory testing has indicated that these features provide significantly more damping than presently allowed by Regulatory Guide 1.61 for water plant pipe systems. This paper presents results of additional in-situ vibration tests conducted on FFTF pipe systems. Pipe damping values obtained at various excitation levels are presented. Effects of filtering data to provide damping values at discrete frequencies and the alternate use of a single equivalent modal damping value are discussed. These tests further confirm that damping in typical LMFBR pipe systems is larger than presently used in pipe design. Although some increase in damping occurred with increased excitation amplitude, the effect was not significant. Recommendations are made to use an increased damping value for both the OBE and DBE seismic events in design of LMFBR pipe systems

  16. Dynamic experiments on cracked pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, M.; Brunet, G.; Buland, P.

    1991-01-01

    In order to apply the leak before break concept to piping systems, the behavior of cracked pipes under dynamic, and especially seismic loading must be studied. In a first phase, an experimental program on cracked stainless steel pipes under quasi-static monotonic loading has been conducted. In this paper, the dynamic tests on the same pipe geometry are described. These tests have been performed on a shaking table with a mono frequency input signal. The main parameter of the tests is the frequency of excitation versus the frequency of the system

  17. Water hammer in elastic pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, J.; Tiselj, I.

    2002-01-01

    One dimensional two-fluid six-equation model of two-phase flow, that can be found in computer codes like RELAP5, TRAC, and CATHARE, was upgraded with additional terms, which enable modelling of the pressure waves in elastic pipes. It is known that pipe elasticity reduces the propagation velocity of the shock and other pressure waves in the piping systems. Equations that include the pipe elasticty terms are used in WAHA code, which is being developed within the WAHALoads project of 5't'h EU research program.(author)

  18. Energy use in the bread, cake, pastry, and pie baking industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cleland, A.C.; Earle, M.D.; Serrallach, G.F.

    1980-05-01

    A survey was carried out to determine energy consumption in the bread, cake, pastry, and pie baking industry. Information was obtained from 11 bread bakeries. Energy use in the bread bakeries over the period 1977/78 was found to average 2.45 MJ/kg of which 0.46 MJ/kg was electricity and the rest oven and boiler fuels. Process flow charts are shown. The purposes for which electricity are used are described. An energy consumption analysis is presented and energy conservation measures are described. (MCW)

  19. Diseño y manufactura de pie Protésico

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Martin, John Alexander; Parra Piñeros, Luis Alberto; Pinzón Pinzón, Cesar Agusto; Bejarano Peña, Oscar Heli; Romero Gutiérrez, Jairo Alberto; García Benavides, Pedro Eladio

    2017-01-01

    El término prótesis hace referencia al dispositivo que sustituye o compensa la pérdida de un miembro perdido, para el caso objeto de estudio, se da en una prótesis de miembro inferior, en el caso de una amputación de miembros inferiores a nivel transtibial, el pie es el elemento ausente más significativo ya que asume la estabilidad mínima del cuerpo del paciente, además de interferir en el balance intrínseco del cuerpo humano. Por lo anteriormente descrito uno de los pilares más importantes d...

  20. Plastics pipe couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, J.B.

    1980-07-01

    A method is described of making a pipe coupling of the type comprising a plastics socket and a resilient annular sealing member secured in the mouth thereof, in which the material of at least one component of the coupling is subjected to irradiation with high energy radiation whereby the material is caused to undergo cross-linking. As examples, the coupling may comprise a polyethylene or plasticised PVC socket the material of which is subjected to irradiation, and the sealing member may be moulded from a thermoplastic elastomer which is subjected to irradiation. (U.K.)

  1. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system

  2. Heat pipe and method of production of a heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The heat pipe consists of a copper pipe in which a capillary network or wick of heat-conducting material is arranged in direct contact with the pipe along its whole length. Furthermore, the interior space of the tube contains an evaporable liquid for pipe transfer. If water is used, the capillary network consists of, e.g., a phosphorus band network. To avoid contamination of the interior of the heat pipe during sealing, its ends are closed by mechanical deformation so that an arched or plane surface is obtained which is in direct contact with the network. After evacuation of the interior space, the remaining opening is closed with a tapered pin. The ratio wall thickness/tube diameter is between 0.01 and 0.6. (TK/AK) [de

  3. The relationship of family characteristics and bipolar disorder using causal-pie models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-C; Kao, C-F; Lu, M-K; Yang, Y-K; Liao, S-C; Jang, F-L; Chen, W J; Lu, R-B; Kuo, P-H

    2014-01-01

    Many family characteristics were reported to increase the risk of bipolar disorder (BPD). The development of BPD may be mediated through different pathways, involving diverse risk factor profiles. We evaluated the associations of family characteristics to build influential causal-pie models to estimate their contributions on the risk of developing BPD at the population level. We recruited 329 clinically diagnosed BPD patients and 202 healthy controls to collect information in parental psychopathology, parent-child relationship, and conflict within family. Other than logistic regression models, we applied causal-pie models to identify pathways involved with different family factors for BPD. The risk of BPD was significantly increased with parental depression, neurosis, anxiety, paternal substance use problems, and poor relationship with parents. Having a depressed mother further predicted early onset of BPD. Additionally, a greater risk for BPD was observed with higher numbers of paternal/maternal psychopathologies. Three significant risk profiles were identified for BPD, including paternal substance use problems (73.0%), maternal depression (17.6%), and through poor relationship with parents and conflict within the family (6.3%). Our findings demonstrate that different aspects of family characteristics elicit negative impacts on bipolar illness, which can be utilized to target specific factors to design and employ efficient intervention programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Pie waste - A component of food waste and a renewable substrate for producing ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyar, Margaret; da Costa Sousa, Leonardo; Jayanthi, Singaram; Balan, Venkatesh

    2017-04-01

    Sugar-rich food waste is a sustainable feedstock that can be converted into ethanol without an expensive thermochemical pretreatment that is commonly used in first and second generation processes. In this manuscript we have outlined the pie waste conversion to ethanol through a two-step process, namely, enzyme hydrolysis using commercial enzyme products mixtures and microbial fermentation using yeast. Optimized enzyme cocktail was found to be 45% alpha amylase, 45% gamma amylase, and 10% pectinase at 2.5mg enzyme protein/g glucan produced a hydrolysate with high glucose concentration. All three solid loadings (20%, 30%, and 40%) produced sugar-rich hydrolysates and ethanol with little to no enzyme or yeast inhibition. Enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation process mass balance was carried out using pie waste on a 1000g dry weight basis that produced 329g ethanol at 20% solids loading. This process clearly demonstrate how food waste could be efficiently converted to ethanol that could be used for making biodiesel by reacting with waste cooking oil. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enfermedad de mano, pie y boca en un hospital del Callao, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton José Max Rodríguez-Zúñiga

    Full Text Available La enfermedad de mano, pie y boca (EMPB es una enfermedad exantemática viral, causada principalmente por Coxsackie A16, con una sintomatología típica consistente en fiebre; exantema pápulo-vesicular en manos, pies y genitales; y un enantema ulceroso en boca. En el verano del 2016 se presentó una diversidad de casos en un hospital del Callao en niños y adultos, con una sintomatología compatible con EMPB; el diagnóstico fue clínico, se aplicó terapia de soporte con resolución final de síntomas. En la última década se han presentado reportes en algunos países con una afectación atípica causada por el Coxsackie A6, produciendo lesiones más extensas y en adultos. Sin embargo, el diagnóstico sigue siendo clínico, solo necesitando confirmación virológica en casos atípicos o cuando el diagnóstico no es claro. La importancia de este reporte radica en describir los casos del Callao ocurridos en el verano del 2016, para servir de apoyo a los profesionales de la salud en el diagnóstico y manejo de pacientes con similar sintomatología.

  6. Stuffed Turkey and Pumpkin Pie: In, Through and Out of American Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Kohn

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the meanings embedded in the production, consumption, and symbolic positioning of turkey and pumpkin pie, foods closely associated with the American ritual feast of Thanksgiving. An analysis of turkey and pumpkin pie recipes used and adapted by first- and second-generation immigrants in north America, and by north Americans living abroad, throws into relief complex relations between food production, food consumption and the complexities of lived and often multiple sociocultural identifications. Through sharing the experiences, memories and associations evoked by individuals in the production of holiday recipes, I argue that ideas about ‘tradition’ and a desire to celebrate family and community through the ritual of baking, serving and consuming a ‘standard’ Thanksgiving holiday meal allow one to feel part of an imagined global American community. At the same time these details demonstrate celebration of individual and familial distinctiveness that is traced to (sometimes contested memories of childhood and/or ethnic background, as well as to exploration, innovation and experience in the world at large through travel, migration and imagination.

  7. Local survival of pied flycatcher males and females in a pollution gradient of a Cu smelter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eeva, T.; Hakkarainen, H.; Belskii, E.

    2009-01-01

    Survival is one of the most central population measures when the effects of the pollution are studied in natural bird populations. However, only few studies have actually measured rigorous survival estimates on adult birds. In recent years there has been a methodological advance in survival analyses by mark-recapture models. We modelled local survival (including mortality and emigration) with the program MARK in a population of a small insectivorous passerine bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca), around a point source of heavy metals. The local survival of females in the polluted area was about 50% lower than in the other areas. Males, however, survived relatively well in the heavily polluted area, but showed somewhat lower survival in the moderately polluted area. Different pollution effects between two sexes might be due to pollution-related differences in reproductive effort in females and males, and/or more intensive uptake of heavy metals by laying females. - Female pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) show decreased local survival around a copper smelter.

  8. The PIES2012 Code for Calculating 3D Equilibria with Islands and Stochastic Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticello, Donald; Reiman, Allan; Raburn, Daniel

    2013-10-01

    We have made major modifications to the PIES 3D equilibrium code to produce a new version, PIES2012. The new version uses an adaptive radial grid for calculating equilibrium currents. A subset of the flux surfaces conform closely to island separatrices, providing an accurate treatment of the effects driving the neoclassical tearing mode. There is now a set of grid surfaces that conform to the flux surfaces in the interiors of the islands, allowing the proper treatment of the current profiles in the islands, which play an important role in tearing phenomena. We have verified that we can introduce appropriate current profiles in the islands to suppress their growth, allowing us to simulate situations where islands are allowed to grow at some rational surfaces but not others. Placement of grid surfaces between islands is guided by the locations of high order fixed points, allowing us to avoid spectral polution and providing a more robust, and smoother convergence of the code. The code now has an option for turning on a vertical magnetic field to fix the position of the magnetic axis, which models the horizontal feedback positioning of a tokamak plasma. The code has a new option for using a Jacobian-Free Newton Krylov scheme for convergence. The code now also contains a model that properly handles stochastic regions with nonzero pressure gradients. Work supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  9. PIE on Safety-Tested Loose Particles from Irradiated Compact 4-4-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunn, John D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gerczak, Tyler J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Morris, Robert Noel [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baldwin, Charles A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Montgomery, Fred C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Post-irradiation examination (PIE) is being performed in support of tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel development and qualification for High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGRs). This work is sponsored by the Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) through the Advanced Reactor Technologies (ART) Office under the Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Development and Qualification (AGR) Program. The AGR-1 experiment was the first in a series of TRISO fuel irradiation tests initiated in 2006. The AGR-1 TRISO particles and fuel compacts were fabricated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in 2006 using laboratory-scale equipment and irradiated for 3 years in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to demonstrate and evaluate fuel performance under HTGR irradiation conditions. Post-irradiation examination was performed at INL and ORNL to study how the fuel behaved during irradiation, and to test fuel performance during exposure to elevated temperatures at or above temperatures that could occur during a depressurized conduction cooldown event. This report summarizes safety testing and post-safety testing PIE conducted at ORNL on loose particles extracted from irradiated AGR-1 Compact 4-4-2.

  10. Impact analyses after pipe rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, R.C.; Chuang, T.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Two of the French pipe whip experiments are reproduced with the computer code WIPS. The WIPS results are in good agreement with the experimental data and the French computer code TEDEL. This justifies the use of its pipe element in conjunction with its U-bar element in a simplified method of impact analyses

  11. Mechanical Behaviour of Lined Pipe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilberink, A.

    2011-01-01

    Installing lined pipe by means of the reeling installation method seems to be an attractive combination, because it provides the opportunity of eliminating the demanding welds from the critical time offshore and instead preparing them onshore. However, reeling of lined pipe is not yet proven

  12. Pulsed TIG welding of pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killing, U.

    1989-01-01

    The present study investigates into the effects of impulse welding parameters on weld geometry in the joint welding of thin-walled sheets and pipes (d=2.5 mm), and it uses random samples of thick-walled sheets and pipes (d=10 mm), in fixed positions. (orig./MM) [de

  13. Técnica de Imhäuser en el pie zambo : resultados a medio y largo plazo

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Gutiérrez, C.; Núñez Batalla, Daniel; Pena Vázquez, J.; Antuña Antuña, S.; González Méndez, J.; López Fernández, P; Paz Jiménez, José

    1996-01-01

    Se revisan un total de 60 pies con equinovaro congénito pertenecientes a 48 pacientes, todos con un seguimiento superior a 5 años. En todos los casos se realizó un tratamiento combinado: ortopédico (manipulaciones y enyesados desde el nacimiento) y quirúrgico (correcciones según el método de Imhäuser modificado). Se valoró morfológica, funcional y radiográficamente cada caso. En la valoración global sólo 1 caso fue considerado malo, 13 regulares (21,6%), 6 por pies planos valgo...

  14. A proposal for laminated pie mechanical construction of a toroidal magnet for the far detector for the MINOS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, T.; Guarino, V.; Petereit, E.; Schoessow, P.; Thompson, K.

    1996-01-01

    This proposal describes an alternative to the reference design for the construction of the toroidal magnet for the detector for the MINOS experiment. This design proposes to construct the steel planes from several steel sheets and laminate them into the required thickness of four centimeters. The 8 meter planes are constructed by cutting all of the steel plates to the same size, which is pie a pie shaped segment of either 30 or 22.5 degrees each. All of the plates in the construction are identical, which is conducive to rapid production and lower cost. The advantages of the proposed laminated construction over the reference design are listed in this paper

  15. Functional capability of piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terao, D.; Rodabaugh, E.C.

    1992-11-01

    General Design Criterion I of Appendix A to Part 50 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations requires, in part, that structures, systems, and components important to safety be designed to withstand the effects of earthquakes without a loss of capability to perform their safety function. ne function of a piping system is to convey fluids from one location to another. The functional capability of a piping system might be lost if, for example, the cross-sectional flow area of the pipe were deformed to such an extent that the required flow through the pipe would be restricted. The objective of this report is to examine the present rules in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, and potential changes to these rules, to determine if they are adequate for ensuring the functional capability of safety-related piping systems in nuclear power plants

  16. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-01

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept

  17. Waste pipe calculus extensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    The waste pipe calculus provides a rapid method, using Laplace transforms, to calculate the transport of a pollutant such as nuclear waste, by a network of one-dimensional flow paths. The present note extends previous work as follows: (1) It provides an alternate approximation to the time-domain function (inverse Laplace transform) for the resulting transport. This algebraic approximation may be viewed as a simpler and more approximate model of the transport process. (2) It identifies two scalar quantities which may be used as summary consequence measures of the waste transport (or inversely, waste retention) system, and provides algebraic expressions for them. (3) It includes the effects of radioactive decay on the scalar quantity results, and further provides simplifying approximations for the cases of medium and long half-lives. This algebraic method can be used for quick approximate analyses of expected results, uncertainty and sensitivity, in evaluating selection and design choices for nuclear waste disposal systems

  18. Solar chemical heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.; Levitan, R.; Rosin, H.; Rubin, R.

    1991-08-01

    The performance of a solar chemical heat pipe was studied using CO 2 reforming of methane as a vehicle for storage and transport of solar energy. The endothermic reforming reaction was carried out in an Inconel reactor, packed with a Rh catalyst. The reactor was suspended in an insulated box receiver which was placed in the focal plane of the Schaeffer Solar Furnace of the Weizman Institute of Science. The exothermic methanation reaction was run in a 6-stage adiabatic reactor filled with the same Rh catalyst. Conversions of over 80% were achieved for both reactions. In the closed loop mode the products from the reformer and from the metanator were compressed into separate storage tanks. The two reactions were run either separately or 'on-line'. The complete process was repeated for over 60 cycles. The overall performance of the closed loop was quite satisfactory and scale-up work is in progress in the Solar Tower. (authors). 35 refs., 2 figs

  19. Subsea pipe dream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcombe, Mark

    1988-09-22

    The Gulf of Mexico is famous today mainly for the ferocity of its hurricanes. But for anyone in the oil industry, it is also known for the vast array of oil pipelines that criss-cross its stormy waters, and for the large number of pipeline-laying barges which install them. Soon many of these vessels could be steaming to British waters - not to escape the weather, but to cash in on a bonanza of pipe-laying activity which could soon take place offshore northern Europe. The construction of new pipelines off the UK, Norway and Netherlands will, however, present a new range of challenges for pipeline designers and builders. First and foremost is the Piper Alpha platform disaster, which could saddle the UK offshore industry with a Pound 500 million-plus bill for the installation of emergency shutdown valves (ESVs) on existing lines.

  20. Superconducting pipes and levitating magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Yan; Rizzato, Felipe B

    2006-12-01

    Motivated by a beautiful demonstration of the Faraday and the Lenz laws in which a small neodymium magnet falls slowly through a conducting nonferromagnetic tube, we consider the dynamics of a magnet falling coaxially through a superconducting pipe. Unlike the case of normal conducting pipes, in which the magnet quickly reaches the terminal velocity, inside a superconducting tube the magnet falls freely. On the other hand, to enter the pipe the magnet must overcome a large electromagnetic energy barrier. For sufficiently strong magnets, the barrier is so large that the magnet will not be able to penetrate it and will be levitated over the mouth of the pipe. We calculate the work that must done to force the magnet to enter a superconducting tube. The calculations show that superconducting pipes are very efficient at screening magnetic fields. For example, the magnetic field of a dipole at the center of a short pipe of radius a and length L approximately > a decays, in the axial direction, with a characteristic length xi approximately 0.26a. The efficient screening of the magnetic field might be useful for shielding highly sensitive superconducting quantum interference devices. Finally, the motion of the magnet through a superconducting pipe is compared and contrasted to the flow of ions through a trans-membrane channel.

  1. "A New Kind of Rule": The Subversive Narrator in "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" and "The Pied Piper of Hamelin."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, William

    1986-01-01

    Compares "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland" to "The Pied Piper of Hamelin," noting that both: (1) were begun for the amusement of specific children; (2) use a subterranean journey as a device; (3) are critical of social authority; and (4) have problematic endings. (SRT)

  2. Slow improvements of metal exposure, health- and breeding conditions of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) after decreased industrial heavy metal emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, A.M.M.; Nyholm, N.E.I.

    2011-01-01

    The environment around metal industries, such as smelters, is often highly contaminated due to continuous deposition of metals. We studied nest box breeding populations of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) in a well-studied pollution gradient from a sulfide ore smelter in Northern Sweden, after reduced aerial metal emissions (by 93-99%) from the smelter. The deposition of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc (based on moss samples) reflected the reduced emissions fairly well. However, nestling pied flycatchers had similar concentrations of these elements and mercury in tissues (bone, liver and blood) and feces in the 2000s, as in the 1980s, when the emissions were substantially higher. The exposure to high metal concentrations in the close vicinity of the smelter resulted in inhibited ALAD activities, depressed hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and increased mortality of nestlings. Our results indicate that in the highly contaminated environment around the smelter, nestlings reflected the slowly cycling soil pool, rather than the atmospheric deposition, and the concentration in soils plays an important role for the response of pied flycatchers to reduced atmospheric deposition. - Highlights: → Pied flycatchers were studied in a pollution gradient from a sulfide smelter. → Metal emissions from the smelter have decreased substantially. → Nestling birds still had high metal concentrations in tissues. → Health and survival rates of nestlings were negatively affected. → Recovery of birds is not expected in the near future.

  3. Slow improvements of metal exposure, health- and breeding conditions of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) after decreased industrial heavy metal emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, A.M.M., E-mail: asa.berglund@emg.umu.se; Nyholm, N.E.I.

    2011-09-15

    The environment around metal industries, such as smelters, is often highly contaminated due to continuous deposition of metals. We studied nest box breeding populations of pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) in a well-studied pollution gradient from a sulfide ore smelter in Northern Sweden, after reduced aerial metal emissions (by 93-99%) from the smelter. The deposition of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc (based on moss samples) reflected the reduced emissions fairly well. However, nestling pied flycatchers had similar concentrations of these elements and mercury in tissues (bone, liver and blood) and feces in the 2000s, as in the 1980s, when the emissions were substantially higher. The exposure to high metal concentrations in the close vicinity of the smelter resulted in inhibited ALAD activities, depressed hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and increased mortality of nestlings. Our results indicate that in the highly contaminated environment around the smelter, nestlings reflected the slowly cycling soil pool, rather than the atmospheric deposition, and the concentration in soils plays an important role for the response of pied flycatchers to reduced atmospheric deposition. - Highlights: {yields} Pied flycatchers were studied in a pollution gradient from a sulfide smelter. {yields} Metal emissions from the smelter have decreased substantially. {yields} Nestling birds still had high metal concentrations in tissues. {yields} Health and survival rates of nestlings were negatively affected. {yields} Recovery of birds is not expected in the near future.

  4. Loop Heat Pipe Startup Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2016-01-01

    A loop heat pipe must start successfully before it can commence its service. The startup transient represents one of the most complex phenomena in the loop heat pipe operation. This paper discusses various aspects of loop heat pipe startup behaviors. Topics include the four startup scenarios, the initial fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir that determines the startup scenario, factors that affect the fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir, difficulties encountered during the low power startup, and methods to enhance the startup success. Also addressed are the pressure spike and pressure surge during the startup transient, and repeated cycles of loop startup and shutdown under certain conditions.

  5. Leachate storage transport tanker loadout piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    This report shows the modifications to the W-025 Trench No. 31 leachate loadout discharge piping, and also the steps involved in installing the discharge piping, including dimensions and welding information. The installation of the discharge pipe should be done in accordance to current pipe installation standards. Trench No. 31 is a radioactive mixed waste land disposal facility

  6. Determination of the pipe stemming load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowin, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    A mechanical model for the emplacement pipe system is developed. The model is then employed to determine the force applied to the surface collar of the emplacement pipe, the pipe-stemming load, and the stress along the emplacement pipe as a function of stemming height. These results are presented as integrals and a method for their numerical integration is given

  7. Determination of Secondary Encasement Pipe Design Pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEDESCHI, A.R.

    2000-10-26

    This document published results of iterative calculations for maximum tank farm transfer secondary pipe (encasement) pressure upon failure of the primary pipe. The maximum pressure was calculated from a primary pipe guillotine break. Results show encasement pipeline design or testing pressures can be significantly lower than primary pipe pressure criteria.

  8. Fernando González: caminando por su novela Viaje a pie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO LUIS GIRALDO GUTIÉRREZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fernando González, ícono de la tradición literaria antioqueña, ha hecho que hoy en día las profundas y polémicas ideas sobre la realidad de su época lo presenten como un escritor con alta sensibilidad social, política y un constante renegar religioso. “Caminar” por la obra Viaje a pie , es precisamente eso: recorrer los senderos que él transitó en un tiempo. En el presente artículo se busca conocer la concepción que el autor tiene sobre la geografía, el amor, el desamor, la familia, la política y la religión, procurando así una caracterización del pensador envigadeño, la contextualización de los hechos y escenarios presentes en la obra referenciada.

  9. Status of irradiation testing and PIE of MOX (Pu-containing) fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimayuga, F.C.; Zhou, Y.N.; Ryz, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes AECL's mixed oxide (MOX) fuel-irradiation and post-irradiation examination (PIE) program. Post-irradiation examination results of two major irradiation experiments involving several (U, Pu)O 2 fuel bundles are highlighted. One experiment involved bundles irradiated to burnups ranging fro 400 to 1200 MWh/kgHe in the Nuclear Power Demonstration (NPD) reactor. The other experiment consisted of several (U, Pu)O 2 bundles irradiated to burnups of up to 500 Mwh/kgHe in the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor. Results of these experiments demonstrate the excellent performance of CANDU MOX fuel. This paper also outlines the status of current MOX fuel irradiation tests, including the irradiation of various (U, Pu)O 2 bundles. The strategic importance of MOX fuel to CANDU fuel-cycle flexibility is discussed. (author)

  10. Nitrogen heat pipe for cryocooler thermal shunt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenger F.C.; Hill, D.D.; Daney, D.E.

    1996-01-01

    A nitrogen heat pipe was designed, built and tested for the purpose of providing a thermal shunt between the two stages of a Gifford-McMahan (GM) cryocooler during cooldown. The nitrogen heat pipe has an operating temperature range between 63 and 123 K. While the heat pipe is in this temperature range during the system cooldown, it acts as a thermal shunt between the first and second stage of the cryocooler. The heat pipe increases the heat transfer to the first stage of the cryocooler, thereby reducing the cooldown time of the system. When the heat pipe temperature drops below the triple point, the nitrogen working fluid freezes, effectively stopping the heat pipe operation. A small heat leak between cryocooler stages remains because of axial conduction along the heat pipe wall. As long as the heat pipe remains below 63 K, the heat pipe remains inactive. Heat pipe performance limits were measured and the optimum fluid charge was determined

  11. Pipe restraints for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keever, R.E.; Broman, R.; Shevekov, S.

    1976-01-01

    A pipe restraint for nuclear power plants in which a support member is anchored on supporting surface is described. Formed in the support member is a semicylindrical wall. Seated on the semicylindrical wall is a ring-shaped pipe restrainer that has an inner cylindrical wall. The inner cylindrical wall of the pipe restrainer encircles the pressurized pipe. In a modification of the pipe restraint, an arched-shaped pipe restrainer is disposed to overlie a pressurized pipe. The ends of the arch-shaped pipe restrainer are fixed to support members, which are anchored in concrete or to a supporting surface. A strap depends from the arch-shaped pipe restrainer. The pressurized pipe is supported by the depending strap

  12. Effect of Farm on Productive and Reproductive Performance in Sows of Prestice Black-pied Pig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Nevrkla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate productive and reproductive performance of Prestice Black‑Pied sows including losses of piglets from birth to weaning in conditions of two farms. The experiment involved one hundred sows of Prestice Black‑Pied pig from the 1st to the 7th parity (50 from farm A and 50 from farm B. The evaluation of productive parameters revealed a highly statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.001 between gilts of the observed farms in percentage of lean meat. Backfat thickness was 0.19 cm lower in gilts from the farm A, which is a very highly statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.001. The evaluation of reproductive performance showed, that age at the time of the first insemination and farrowing was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05 in gilts from the farm A compared to gilts from the farm B by 38 days on average. The analysis also indicates that there was no significant difference in length of gestation, total number of piglets and numbers of live-born and reared piglets between the sows of the evaluated farms. A highly statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.01 was found in number of stillborn piglets. Interval length was significantly longer (P ≤ 0.05 in sows from the farm A, by 14.29 days. The evaluation of losses of piglets revealed a significant difference (P ≤ 0.05 between the farms in favor of piglets from the farm A.

  13. Degradation of song in a species using nesting holes: the Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene M. Lampe

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The habitat, but also the nest hole of a hole-nesting species, will degrade the song during transmission. We investigated how the sounds degrade in a sound transmission experiment with the song of the Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca (Muscicapidae. Ten different song elements were transmitted to microphones placed inside and outside a nest box. On average, song degradation was much greater inside than outside the nest boxes, especially with respect to excess attenuation and blurring of the song elements. Being inside a nest box therefore strongly reduces a Pied Flycatcher's possibility of detecting and recognizing songs or eavesdropping on singing interactions.O habitat, mas também a cavidade do ninho de uma espécie nidificando em ocos, provoca uma degradação do som durante sua transmissão. Pesquisamos como os sons são degradados num experimento de transmissão sonora usando o canto do pássaro Ficedula hypoleuca (Muscicapidae. Dez elementos diferentes do canto foram enviados para microfones colocados dentro e fora de uma caixa de nidificação. Em média, a degradação do canto foi muito maior dentro do que fora do ninho, particularmente no que diz respeito ao excesso de atenuação e à borrada dos elementos do canto. Estar dentro de uma cavidade de nidificação, portanto, reduz fortemente a capacidade da espécie de detectar e reconhecer cantos ou de interceptar interações vocais.

  14. POPULATION ANALYSIS OF THE LOCAL ENDANGERED PŘEŠTICE BLACK-PIED PIG BREED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Krupa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The pedigree analysis of the local endangered Přeštice Black-Pied pig breed (n=19 289 was performed. Animals born within the period 2012-2014 were assumed as the reference population (n=1 374. The pedigree completeness index reached 100% for four generations back. The 100 % of the genetic pool was explained by 66 ancestors. Although all animals of the reference population were inbred, 57% of them had inbreeding less than five percent. Average inbreeding, co-ancestry coefficient and rate of inbreeding reached 4.93%, 13.48% and 1.29% in reference population, respectively. The effective population size calculated by four different methods varied from 32 to 91 animals in 2014. Average generation interval, average family size for sire and dam parents was 2.5, 17.46 and 6.5 animals, respectively. Total number of founders, effective number of founders, effective number of founders’ genomes and effective number of non-founders genomes reached values 299, 98.05, 21.92 and 28.23 founders, respectively. The average genetic diversity (GD loss was 13.71% in reference population. The GD loss has increased within the last three year period mainly due to the random genetic drift (77.6% and by unequal contribution of founders (22.4%. The Preštice Black-Pied breed is highly endangered with GD loss. Mating of closely related animals has to be prevented in breeding and mating program of this breed.

  15. B Plant process piping replacement feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howden, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Reports on the feasibility of replacing existing embedded process piping with new more corrosion resistant piping between cells and between cells and a hot pipe trench of a Hanford Site style canyon facility. Provides concepts for replacement piping installation, and use of robotics to replace the use of the canyon crane as the primary means of performing/supporting facility modifications (eg, cell lining, pipe replacement, equipment reinstallation) and operational maintenenace

  16. Flow induced vibrations of piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, R.J.; Axisa, F.

    1977-01-01

    In order to design the supports of piping systems, estimations of the vibrations induced by the fluid conveyed through the pipes are generally needed. For that purpose it is necessary to calculate the model parameters of liquid containing pipes. In most computer codes, fluid effects are accounted for just by adding the fluid mass to the structure. This may lead to serious errors. This paper presents a method to take into account these effects, by solving a coupled mechanical-acoustical problem: the computer code TEDEL of the C.E.A /D.E.M.T. System, based on the finite-elements method, has been extended to calculate simultaneously the pressure fluctuations in the fluid and the vibrations of the pipe. By this way the mechanical-acoustical coupled eigenmodes of any piping system can be obtained. These eigenmodes are used to determine the response of the system to various sources. Equations have been written in the hypohesis that acoustical wave lengths remain large compared to the diameter of the pipe. The method has been checked by an experiment performed on the GASCOGNE loop at D.E.M.T. The piping system under test consists of a tube with four elbows. The circuit is ended at each extremity by a large vessel which performs acoustical isolation by generating modes for the pressure. Excitation of the circuit is caused by a valve located near the downstream vessel. This provides an efficient localised broad band acoustical source. The comparison between the test results and the calculations has shown that the low frequency resonant characteristics of the pipe and the vibrational amplitude at various flow-rates can be correctly predicted

  17. Social suppliers: Exploring the cultural contours of the performance and image enhancing drug (PIED) market among bodybuilders in the Netherlands and Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Katinka; Mulrooney, Kyle J D

    2017-02-01

    This paper explores the understudied phenomenon of performance and image enhancing drug (PIED) markets by examining the structure and formation of the market for PIEDs among bodybuilders in the Netherlands and Belgium. This article specifically seeks to account for individual reasons and motivations for dealing PIEDs within these bodybuilding subcultures. Understanding illicit PIED markets is important for policy decisions as knowledge on the production and distribution of these substances may assist in designing law enforcement efforts, harm reduction initiatives and treatment options. This article draws on two years of fieldwork in various bodybuilding settings, 47 semi-structured interviews with individuals who are directly or indirectly involved in the PIED market and 64 PIED dealing cases initiated by criminal justice agencies in the Netherlands and Belgium. The data indicates that PIED dealing groups and individuals are often driven by motivations stemming from their social and cultural embeddedness in the bodybuilding subculture. Specifically, these PIED dealers are 'over-socialized' into the structure and culture of bodybuilding and follow the cultural scripts that come with their group affiliation and organization. As a result of the cultural context in which these transactions occur, PIED dealing networks among bodybuilders in the Netherlands and Belgium are more likely to consist of friends or 'friends of friends' tied together by threads of collective meaning found within the bodybuilding subculture. We argue that efforts seeking to explain the structure, formation and motivations of illicit PIED dealing must learn to appreciate how culture mediates structural forces and thereby influences individual and collective action. Policy makers, health care professionals and other relevant parties should consider a plurality of factors (social, economic and cultural) when designing and evaluating PIED-related interventions such as law enforcement efforts, harm

  18. Heat pipe turbine vane cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langston, L.; Faghri, A. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and an uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

  19. Reliability analysis of stiff versus flexible piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop a technical basis for flexible piping designs which will improve piping reliability and minimize the use of pipe supports, snubbers, and pipe whip restraints. The current study was conducted to establish the necessary groundwork based on the piping reliability analysis. A confirmatory piping reliability assessment indicated that removing rigid supports and snubbers tends to either improve or affect very little the piping reliability. The authors then investigated a couple of changes to be implemented in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.61 and RG 1.122 aimed at more flexible piping design. They concluded that these changes substantially reduce calculated piping responses and allow piping redesigns with significant reduction in number of supports and snubbers without violating ASME code requirements. Furthermore, the more flexible piping redesigns are capable of exhibiting reliability levels equal to or higher than the original stiffer design. An investigation of the malfunction of pipe whip restraints confirmed that the malfunction introduced higher thermal stresses and tended to reduce the overall piping reliability. Finally, support and component reliabilities were evaluated based on available fragility data. Results indicated that the support reliability usually exhibits a moderate decrease as the piping flexibility increases. Most on-line pumps and valves showed an insignificant reduction in reliability for a more flexible piping design

  20. Piping inspection round robin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heasler, P.G.; Doctor, S.R.

    1996-04-01

    The piping inspection round robin was conducted in 1981 at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to quantify the capability of ultrasonics for inservice inspection and to address some aspects of reliability for this type of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The round robin measured the crack detection capabilities of seven field inspection teams who employed procedures that met or exceeded the 1977 edition through the 1978 addenda of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section 11 Code requirements. Three different types of materials were employed in the study (cast stainless steel, clad ferritic, and wrought stainless steel), and two different types of flaws were implanted into the specimens (intergranular stress corrosion cracks (IGSCCs) and thermal fatigue cracks (TFCs)). When considering near-side inspection, far-side inspection, and false call rate, the overall performance was found to be best in clad ferritic, less effective in wrought stainless steel and the worst in cast stainless steel. Depth sizing performance showed little correlation with the true crack depths

  1. A satisfação do cliente : estudo do caso do franchising de fast-food King Pie na Cidade de Maputo em Moçambique

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Vânia Raquel Raimundo

    2014-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado em Gestão/MBA apresentada à Universidade Aberta O presente trabalho tem por objectivo central, estudar a satisfação dos clientes da empresa King Pie na Cidade de Maputo. O King Pie é uma cadeia sul-africana de fast-food, que em Moçambique opera em regime de franchising, estando presente no mercado local desde o ano de 2004. Neste momento, o King Pie dispõe quatro (4) estabelecimentos localizados na Cidade de Maputo com dois (2) investidores no país que detêm o direi...

  2. Automated ultrasonic pipe weld inspection. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karl Deutsch, W.A.; Schulte, P.; Joswig, M.; Kattwinkel, R.

    2006-01-01

    This article contains a brief overview on automated ultrasonic welded inspection for various pipe types. Some inspection steps might by carried out with portable test equipment (e.g. pipe and test), but the weld inspection in all internationally relevant specification must be automated. The pipe geometry, the production process, and the pipe usage determine the number of required probes. Recent updates for some test specifications enforce a large number of ultrasonic probes, e.g. the Shell standard. Since seamless pipes are sometimes replaced by ERW pipes and LSAW pipes (in both cases to save production cost), the inspection methods change gradually between the various pipe types. Each testing system is unique and shows its specialties which have to be discussed by supplier, testing system user and final customer of the pipe. (author)

  3. Pipe line construction for reactor containment buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Masataka; Yoshinaga, Toshiaki

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the missile phenomenon caused by broken fragments due to pipe whip phenomenon in a portion of pipe lines connected to a reactor containment from prevailing to other portions. Constitution: Various pipe lines connected to the pressure vessel are disposed at the outside of the containments and they are surrounded with a plurality of protection partition walls respectively independent from each other. This can eliminate the effect of missile phenomena upon pipe rupture from prevailing to the pipe lines and instruments. Furthermore this can afford sufficient spaces for the pipe lines, as well as for earthquake-proof supports. (Horiuchi, T.)

  4. Development of new damping devices for piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hiroe

    1991-01-01

    An increase of the damping ratio is known to be very effective for the seismic design of a piping system. Increasing the damping ratio and reducing the seismic response of the piping system, the following three types of damping devices for piping systems are introduced: (1) visco-elastic damper, (2) elasto-plastic damper and (3) compact dynamic damper. The dynamic characteristics of these damping devices were investigated by the component test and the applicability of them to the piping system was confirmed by the vibration test using a three dimensional piping model. These damping devices are more effective than mechanical snubbers to reduce the vibration of the piping system. (author)

  5. Flow induced vibrations of piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, R.J.; Axisa, F.

    1977-01-01

    In order to design the supports of piping systems, estimations of the vibrations induced by the fluid conveyed through the pipes are generally needed. For that purpose it is necessary to calculate the model parameters of liquid containing pipes. In most computer codes, fluid effects are accounted for just by adding the fuid mass to the structure. This may lead to serious errors.- Inertial effects from the fluid are not correctly evaluated especially in the case of bended or of non-uniform section pipes. Fluid boundary conditions are simply ignored. - In many practical problems fluid compressibility cannot be negelcted, even in the low frequencies domain which corresponds to efficient excitation by turbulent sources of the flow. This paper presents a method to take into account these efects, by solving a coupled mechanical acoustical problem: the computer code TEDEL of the C.E.A./D.E.M.T. System, based on the finite-elements method, has been extended to calculate simultaneously the pressure fluctuations in the fluid and the vibrations of the pipe. (Auth.)

  6. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-01-01

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs

  7. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-06-16

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs.

  8. Microcomputer generated pipe support calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankinson, R.F.; Czarnowski, P.; Roemer, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The cost and complexity of pipe support design has been a continuing challenge to the construction and modification of commercial nuclear facilities. Typically, pipe support design or qualification projects have required large numbers of engineers centrally located with access to mainframe computer facilities. Much engineering time has been spent repetitively performing a sequence of tasks to address complex design criteria and consolidating the results of calculations into documentation packages in accordance with strict quality requirements. The continuing challenges of cost and quality, the need for support engineering services at operating plant sites, and the substantial recent advances in microcomputer systems suggested that a stand-alone microcomputer pipe support calculation generator was feasible and had become a necessity for providing cost-effective and high quality pipe support engineering services to the industry. This paper outlines the preparation for, and the development of, an integrated pipe support design/evaluation software system which maintains all computer programs in the same environment, minimizes manual performance of standard or repetitive tasks, and generates a high quality calculation which is consistent and easily followed

  9. Effect of shed rooftype and babassu pie on the productive characteristics of meat quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordane de Oliveira Borges

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the effects of shed roof(SR typeand the inclusion of babassu pie (BP in rations on the productive characteristics ofmeat quailsfrom days 14 to 28 and days14 to 40. We studied 896 meatquails. The experimental design was completely randomized with a 4x4 factorial arrangement, using four types of shedroofs (fiber cement, ceramic, straw, and painted fiber cement and four rations (with 0, 5, 10, and 15% inclusion of babassu pie. The performance variables evaluated from 14 to 28 and 14 to 40 days included food intake (FI, g/bird, mean weight gain (WG, g/bird, food conversion (FC, g/g, mean live weight on day 28 (MW28, g/bird, mean live weight on day 40 (MW40, g/bird, and energy efficiency (EF; g Mcal. After slautherthe birds on day 40, we measured the carcass weight (CW and the carcass yield (CY, %, obtained for the breast (BY, legs (LGY, and wings (WINGY. We also obtained the relative weight of the heart (HRW, liver (LRW, gizzard (GRW, and intestine (IRW. To compare the economic efficiency between the experimental rations, we analyzed the cost of ration per kg of carcass (CC and determined the gross margin (GM. Between day 14 and day 28, we found that the use of SR influenced the FI28, WG28, and the MW28 of the quails (p 0.05, but it linearly improved WG28, FC28, MW28, and EF28. Between days 14 and 40, we found that SR influenced the WG40, FC40, MW40, and EF40 of the quails (p < 0.05 and that a BP increased the FI40, WG40, and MW40 in a quadratic manner. SR and BP did not affect the CW, BY, WINGY, LGY, HRW, LRW,or IRW. However, BP influenced MGRW, which increased linearly with the inclusion of BP. We concluded that a ceramic roof provides better environmental conditions than do other shed roofs. The inclusion of BP improved the performance characteristics, and it was technically feasible to include up to 15% BP in the rations of meat quails. Based on the current cost analysis, however, the inclusion of BP is economically

  10. Flexibility of trunnion piping elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, G.D.; Chao, Y.J.

    1987-01-01

    Flexibility factors and stress indices for piping component such as straight pipe, elbows, butt-welding tees, branch connections, and butt-welding reducers are contained in the code, but many of the less common piping components, like the trunnion elbow, do not have flexibility factors or stress indices defined. The purpose of this paper is to identify the in-plane and out-of-plane flexibility factors in accordance with code procedures for welded trunnions attached to the tangent centerlines of long radius elbows. This work utilized the finite element method as applicable to plates and shells for calculating the relative rotations of the trunnion elbow-ends for in-plane and out-of-plane elbow moment loadings. These rotations are used to derive the corresponding in-plane and out-of-plane flexibility factors. (orig./GL)

  11. Pipe Lines – External Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Babor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Two areas of corrosion occur in pipe lines: corrosion from the medium carried inside the pipes; corrosion attack upon the outside of the pipes (underground corrosion. Electrolytic processes are also involved in underground corrosion. Here the moisture content of the soil acts as an electrolyte, and the ions required to conduct the current are supplied by water-soluble salts (chlorides, sulfates, etc. present in the soil. The nature and amount of these soluble materials can vary within a wide range, which is seen from the varying electrical conductivity and pH (varies between 3 and 10. Therefore the characteristics of a soil will be an important factor in under-ground corrosion.

  12. Enhanced seismic criteria for piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touboul, F. . E-mail francoise.touboul@cea.fr; Blay, N.; Sollogoub, P.; Chapuliot, S.

    2006-01-01

    In situ or laboratory experiments have shown that piping systems exhibit satisfactory seismic behavior. Seismic motion is not severe enough to significantly damage piping systems unless large differential motions of anchorage are imposed. Nevertheless, present design criteria for piping are very severe and require a large number of supports, which creates overly rigid piping systems. CEA, in collaboration with EDF, FRAMATOME and IRSN, has launched a large R and D program on enhanced design methods which will be less severe, but still conservative, and compatible with defect justification during operation. This paper presents the background of the R and D work on this matter, and CEA proposed equations. Our approach is based on the difference between the real behavior (or the best estimated computed one) with the one supposed by codified methods. Codified criteria are applied on an elastically calculated behavior that can be significantly different from the real one: the effect of plasticity may be very meaningful, even with low incursion in the plastic domain. Moreover, and particularly in piping systems, the elastic follow-up effect affects stress distribution for both seismic and thermal loads. For seismic load, we have proposed to modify the elastic moment limitation, based on the interpretation of experimental results on piping systems. The methods have been validated on more industrial cases, and some of the consequences of the changes have been studied: modification of the drawings and of the number of supports, global displacements, forces in the supports, stability of potential defects, etc. The basic aim of the studies undertaken is to make a decision on the stress classification problem, one that is not limited to seismic induced stresses, and to propose simplified methods for its solution

  13. Effect of the enriched filter pie with natural phosphate and microorganisms on soil and plant in a Vermelho-Distrófico Latossolo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leónides Castellanos González

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to evaluate the use of filter pie and phosphate rock enriched with biofertilizer microorganisms on the population of microorganisms and phosphorus tenor in the soil and on plants. The experiment was conducted in a vegetation house with corn plants with Latossolo Red-Distrófico, containing seven treatments disposed in an entirely randomized design, where the treatments were: soil samples and filter pie with additions of phosphate of Araxá rock enriched with microorganisms coming from Biopack (1, Embrafos (2 and Azotofos (3, and without enrichment with microorganisms (4, and three controls, soil just with filter pie (5, soil just with phosphate rock (6 and only soil (7, with three repetitions. Height, stem diameter and number of leaves for plants were evaluated at 14, 28 and 42 days. At the 45 days the dry matters of leafs and roots were evaluated, as the same as populations of the microorganisms and phosphorus tenor in the soil and in the aerial part of the plant. The tenor of soluble phosphorus in the soil and accumulated phosphorous in the aerial part of corn plan were increased by the treatments with filter pie but not higher with filter pie enriched with biofertilizers, so its use isn’t justified. The pie treatments increase the fungus, total and solubilizers bacterial populations in the soil, provoking an increase of the height, diameter, number of leaves and dry matter of corn plants in a Red-Distrófico Latossolo.

  14. Introduction to Loop Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Loop Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. This course will discuss operating principles and performance characteristics of a loop heat pipe. Topics include: 1) pressure profiles in the loop; 2) loop operating temperature; 3) operating temperature control; 4) loop startup; 4) loop shutdown; 5) loop transient behaviors; 6) sizing of loop components and determination of fluid inventory; 7) analytical modeling; 8) examples of flight applications; and 9) recent LHP developments.

  15. Seismic design of piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anglaret, G.; Beguin, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper deals with the method used in France for the PWR nuclear plants to derive locations and types of supports of auxiliary and secondary piping systems taking earthquake in account. The successive steps of design are described, then the seismic computation method and its particular conditions of applications for piping are presented. The different types of support (and especially seismic ones) are described and also their conditions of installation. The method used to compare functional tests results and computation results in order to control models is mentioned. Some experiments realised on site or in laboratory, in order to validate models and methods, are presented [fr

  16. Energy absorbers as pipe supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlafallah, M.Z.; Lee, H.M.

    1985-01-01

    With the exception of springs, pipe supports currently in use are designed with the intent of maintaining their rigidity under load. Energy dissipation mechanisms in these pipe supports result in system damping on the order presented by Code Case N-411 of ASME Section III code. Examples of these energy dissipation mechanisms are fluids and gaps in snubbers, gaps in frame supports, and friction in springs and frame supports. If energy absorbing supports designed in accordance with Code Case N-420 are used, higher additional damping will result

  17. Relating the effects of protein type and content in increased-protein cheese pies to consumers' perception of satiating capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcano, J; Varela, P; Fiszman, S

    2015-02-01

    Since proteins have been shown to have the highest satiation-inducing effects of all the macronutrients, increasing the protein level is one of the main strategies for designing foods with enhanced satiating capacity. However, few studies analyze the effect that protein addition has on the texture and flavor characteristics of the target food item to relate it to the expected satiating capacity it elicits. The present work studied cheese pies with three levels of soy and whey proteins. Since the protein level altered the rheological behavior of the batters before baking and the texture of the baked pies, the feasibility of adding several protein levels for obtaining a range of final products was investigated. A check-all-that-apply questionnaire containing 32 sensory and non-sensory characteristics of the samples was given to consumers (n = 131) who also scored the perceived samples' satiating capacity. The results showed that the type and content of protein contributed distinctive sensory characteristics to the samples that could be related to their satiating capacity perception. Harder and drier samples (high protein levels) were perceived as more satiating with less perceptible sweet and milky cheese pie characteristic flavors. Soy contributed an off-flavour. These results will contribute to a better understanding of the interrelation of all these factors, aiding the development of highly palatable solid foods with enhanced satiating capacities.

  18. The Perceived Invalidation of Emotion Scale (PIES): Development and psychometric properties of a novel measure of current emotion invalidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Melissa J; Veilleux, Jennifer C

    2018-05-24

    Emotion invalidation is theoretically and empirically associated with mental and physical health problems. However, existing measures of invalidation focus on past (e.g., childhood) invalidation and/or do not specifically emphasize invalidation of emotion. In this article, the authors articulate a clarified operational definition of emotion invalidation and use that definition as the foundation for development of a new measure of current perceived emotion invalidation across a series of five studies. Study 1 was a qualitative investigation of people's experiences with emotional invalidation from which we generated items. An initial item pool was vetted by expert reviewers in Study 2 and examined via exploratory factor analysis in Study 3 within both college student and online samples. The scale was reduced to 10 items via confirmatory factor analysis in Study 4, resulting in a brief but psychometrically promising measure, the Perceived Invalidation of Emotion Scale (PIES). A short-term longitudinal investigation (Study 5) revealed that PIES scores had strong test-retest reliability, and that greater perceived emotion invalidation was associated with greater emotion dysregulation, borderline features and symptoms of emotional distress. In addition, the PIES predicted changes in relational health and psychological health over a 1-month period. The current set of studies thus presents a psychometrically promising and practical measure of perceived emotion invalidation that can provide a foundation for future research in this burgeoning area. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Acciones educativas de prevención del pie diabético Educational actions to prevent diabetic foot complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Vejerano García

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available La Diabetes Mellitus y sus complicaciones son causas de hospitalización, invalidez y afectación económica. Este trabajo hace referencia a la experiencia camagüeyana en prevención, seguimiento y control del pie diabético. Dicha experiencia demostró que la pobre educación para prevenir las complicaciones del pie diabético, se convierte en un factor de riesgo sociocultural modificable. Una consulta de mayor alcance como la Clínica del Pie Diabético, pone al territorio en condiciones ventajosas para atender la transición epidemiológica de la diabetes y sus complicaciones.Diabetes Mellitus and its complications are causes of hospitalization, disability, and financial problems. This paper deals with the experience in prevention, monitoring, and control of diabetic foot in the province of Camagüey. This experience proved that a poor education in the prevention of diabetic foot complications is a modifiable sociocultural risk factor. As an example of more comprehensive consultation, the Diabetic Foot Clinic has benefitted the territory in the assistance of Diabetes Mellitus and its complications.

  20. Research program plan: piping. Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagins, M.; Strosnider, J.

    1985-07-01

    Regulatory issues related to piping can be divided into the three areas of pipe cracking, postulated design basis pipe breaks, and design of piping for seismic and other dynamic loads. The first two of these issues are in the domain of the Materials Engineering Branch (MEBR), while the last of the three issues is the responsibility of the Mechanical/Structural Engineering Branch. This volume of the MEBR Research Plan defines the critical aspects of the pipe cracking and postulated design basis pipe break issues and identifies those research efforts and results necessary for their resolution. In general, the objectives of the MERB Piping Research Program are to provide experimentally validated analytic techniques and appropriate material properties characterization methods and data to support regulatory activities related to evaluating and ensuring piping integrity

  1. Performance evaluation of buried pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of geometric and mechanical parameters characterizing the soil structure interaction developed in a buried pipe installation located under roads/highways. The drainage pipes or culverts installed ...

  2. Review of nuclear piping seismic design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slagis, G.C.; Moore, S.E.

    1994-01-01

    Modern-day nuclear plant piping systems are designed with a large number of seismic supports and snubbers that may be detrimental to plant reliability. Experimental tests have demonstrated the inherent ruggedness of ductile steel piping for seismic loading. Present methods to predict seismic loads on piping are based on linear-elastic analysis methods with low damping. These methods overpredict the seismic response of ductile steel pipe. Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code stresses limits for piping systems that are based on considerations of static loads and hence are overly conservative. Appropriate stress limits for seismic loads on piping should be incorporated into the code to allow more flexible piping designs. The existing requirements and methods for seismic design of piping systems, including inherent conservations, are explained to provide a technical foundation for modifications to those requirements. 30 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  3. Failure Analysis Of Industrial Boiler Pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsir, Muhammad; Soedardjo, B.; Arhatari, Dewi; Andryansyah; Haryanto, Mudi; Triyadi, Ari

    2000-01-01

    Failure analysis of industrial boiler pipe has been done. The tested pipe material is carbon steel SA 178 Grade A refer to specification data which taken from Fertilizer Company. Steps in analysis were ; collection of background operation and material specification, visual inspection, dye penetrant test, radiography test, chemical composition test, hardness test, metallography test. From the test and analysis result, it is shown that the pipe failure caused by erosion and welding was shown porosity and incomplete penetration. The main cause of failure pipe is erosion due to cavitation, which decreases the pipe thickness. Break in pipe thickness can be done due to decreasing in pipe thickness. To anticipate this problem, the ppe will be replaced with new pipe

  4. Corrosion of Spiral Rib Aluminized Pipe : [Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Large diameter, corrugated steel pipes are a common sight in the culverts that run alongside many Florida roads. Spiral-ribbed aluminized pipe (SRAP) has been widely specified by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) for runoff drainage. Th...

  5. Corrosion of Spiral Rib Aluminized Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    Large diameter, corrugated steel pipes are a common sight in the culverts that run alongside many Florida roads. Spiral-ribbed aluminized pipe (SRAP) has been widely specified by the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) for runoff drainage. Th...

  6. Laboratory exercises on oscillation modes of pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeberli, Willy

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes an improved lab setup to study the vibrations of air columns in pipes. Features of the setup include transparent pipes which reveal the position of a movable microphone inside the pipe; excitation of pipe modes with a miniature microphone placed to allow access to the microphone stem for open, closed, or conical pipes; and sound insulation to avoid interference between different setups in a student lab. The suggested experiments on the modes of open, closed, and conical pipes, the transient response of a pipe, and the effect of pipe diameter are suitable for introductory physics laboratories, including laboratories for nonscience majors and music students, and for more advanced undergraduate laboratories. For honors students or for advanced laboratory exercises, the quantitative relation between the resonance width and damping time constant is of interest.

  7. Placental immune editing switch (PIES): learning about immunomodulatory pathways from a unique case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchud, Miguel H.; Tresserra, Francesc; Xu, Wenjie; Warren, Sarah; Cusido, Maite; Zantop, Bernat; Zenclussen, Ana Claudia; Cesano, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis of this work is that, in order to escape the natural immune surveillance mechanisms, cancer cells and the surrounding microenvironment might express ectopically genes that are physiologically present in the placenta to mediate fetal immune-tolerance. These natural “placental immune-editing switch” mechanisms (PIES) may represent the result of millions of years of mammalian evolution developed to allow materno-fetal tolerance. Here, we introduce genes of the immune regulatory pathways that are either similarly over- or under-expressed in tumor vs normal tissue. Our analysis was carried out in primary breast cancer with metastatic homolateral axillary lymph nodes as well as placenta tissue (both uterine decidual tissue and term placenta tissue) from a pregnant woman. Gene expression profiling of paired non-self and self tissues (i.e. placenta/uterus; breast cancer/normal breast tissue; metastatic lymphnode/normal lymphnode tissue) was performed using the PanCancer Immune gene panel, a 770 Nanostring gene expression panel. Our findings reveal overlapping in specific immune gene expression in placenta and cancer tissue, suggesting that these genes might play an important role in maintaining immune tolerance both physiologically (in the placenta) and pathologically (in the cancer setting). PMID:27852037

  8. Inferred residual gaps for IFA-527 rods, compared to PIE measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanning, D.D.

    1983-05-01

    The NRC-sponsored assembly IFA-527 contained six xenon-filled rods, each instrumented with fuel thermocouples at each end. Five of the six rods contained stable UO 2 fuel pellets with a fabricated diametral gap size of 230 microns. The rods were unique among instrumented test rods in that their lifetime peak powers were quite low (less than 20 kW/m). The assembly was removed at low exposure (about 2 MWd/kgM) due to pressure seal failures. The prefailure measured fuel temperatures in the five identical rods were quite similar, and indicated an effective fuel relocation of about 30 to 35 percent of the as-fabricated gap. Examination of rod cross sections in PIE, however, reveals virtually no reduction in the as-fabricated gap. In an attempt to reconcile these two observations, it is demonstrated that pellet eccentricity could account for the inferred effective relocation for these xenon-filled rods. That analysis is extended to an estimate of the proper effective relocation value for low-powered He-filled rods

  9. Sex-Specific Associations between Telomere Dynamics and Oxidative Status in Adult and Nestling Pied Flycatchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Arrabé, Jimena; Monaghan, Pat; Cantarero, Alejandro; Boner, Winnie; Pérez-Rodríguez, Lorenzo; Moreno, Juan

    Oxidative stress can contribute to an acceleration of telomere erosion, leading to cellular senescence and aging. Increased investment in reproduction is known to accelerate senescence, generally resulting in reduced future reproductive potential and survival. To better understand the role played by oxidative status and telomere dynamics in the conflict between maintenance and reproduction, it is important to determine how these factors are related in parents and their offspring. We investigated the relationship between oxidative status and telomere measurements in pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca). Total antioxidant status (TAS) in plasma, total levels of glutathione in red blood cells (RBCs), and oxidative damage in plasma lipids (malondialdehyde [MDA]) were assessed in both parents and nestlings. Telomeres were measured in RBCs in adults. Our results showed sex differences in oxidative variables in adults that are likely to be mediated by sex steroids, with testosterone and estrogens increasing and reducing, respectively, the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. We found a negative association between telomere length (TL) and MDA in adults in the previous season. Moreover, TL was positively associated with TAS in females, while telomere shortening (ΔTL) correlated positively with MDA in males in the current year. These associations could be reflecting differences between sexes in reproductive physiology. We found a positive correlation between parental ΔTL and nestling MDA, an example of how parental physiological aging could affect offspring quality in terms of oxidative stress that highlights the constraints imposed by higher rates of ΔTL during reproduction and rearing.

  10. Does the Circular Economy Grow the Pie? The Case of Rebound Effects From Smartphone Reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Makov

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The environmental benefits of the circular economy (CE are often taken for granted. There are, however, reasons to believe that rebound effects may counteract such benefits by increasing overall consumption or “growing the pie.” In this study, we focus on two main rebound mechanisms: (1 imperfect substitution between “re-circulated” (recycled, reused, etc. and new products and (2 re-spending due to economic savings. We use the case study of smartphone reuse in the US to quantify, for the first time, rebound effects from reuse. Using a combination of life cycle assessment, sales statistics, consumer surveying, consumer demand modeling, and environmentally-extended input-output analysis, we quantify the magnitude of this rebound effect for life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions. We find a rebound effect of 29% on average, with a range of 27–46% for specific smartphone models. Moreover, when exploring how rebound might play out in other regions and under different consumer behavior patterns, we find that rebound effects could be higher than 100% (backfire effect. In other words, we estimate that about one third, and potentially the entirety, of emission savings resulting from smartphone reuse could be lost due to the rebound effect. Our results thus suggest that there are grounds to challenge the premise that CE strategies, and reuse in particular, always reduce environmental burdens.

  11. Analysis of Municipal Pipe Network Franchise Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Sun; Haichuan, Tian; Feng, Xu; Huixia, Zhou

    Franchise institution of municipal pipe network has some particularity due to the characteristic of itself. According to the exposition of Chinese municipal pipe network industry franchise institution, the article investigates the necessity of implementing municipal pipe network franchise institution in China, the role of government in the process and so on. And this offers support for the successful implementation of municipal pipe network franchise institution in China.

  12. Apparatus for measuring total flow in pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, H.

    1986-01-01

    To obtain a sample representative of the total flow in a pipe over a given period a Pitot tube is located in the pipe and connected to a collector outside the pipe. The collector is pressurised to a pressure substantially equal to the static head of the flow in the pipe via a line. Liquid is discharged from a collector to a container which is vented to atmosphere. (author)

  13. Review: heat pipe heat exchangers at IROST

    OpenAIRE

    E. Azad

    2012-01-01

    The use of the heat pipe as a component in a heat recovery device has gained worldwide acceptance. Heat pipes are passive, highly reliable and offer high heat transfer rates. This study summarizes the investigation of different types of heat pipe heat recovery systems (HPHRSs). The studies are classified on the basis of the type of the HPHRS. This research is based on 30 years of experience on heat pipe and heat recovery systems that are presented in this study. Copyright , Oxford University ...

  14. Radiation transmission pipe thickness measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Yasuhiko

    2010-01-01

    Fuji Electric Systems can be measured from the outer insulation of the transmission Characteristics and radiation detection equipment had been developed that can measure pipe wall thinning in plant and running, the recruitment of another three-beam calculation method by pipe thickness measurement system was developed to measure the thickness of the pipe side. This equipment has been possible to measure the thickness of the circumferential profile of the pipe attachment by adopting automatic rotation. (author)

  15. Seismic analysis of nuclear piping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, S.K.; Pillai, K.R.V.; Nandakumar, S.

    1975-01-01

    To illustrate seismic analysis of nuclear power plant piping, a simple piping system running between two floors of the reactor building is assumed. Reactor building floor response is derived from time-history method. El Centre earthquake (1940) accelerogram is used for time-history analysis. The piping system is analysed as multimass lumped system. Behaviour of the pipe during the said earthquake is discussed. (author)

  16. PIPE STRESS and VERPIP codes for stress analysis and verifications of PEC reactor piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesari, F.; Ferranti, P.; Gasparrini, M.; Labanti, L.

    1975-01-01

    To design LMFBR piping systems following ASME Sct. III requirements unusual flexibility computer codes are to be adopted to consider piping and its guard-tube. For this purpose PIPE STRESS code previously prepared by Southern-Service, has been modified. Some subroutine for detailed stress analysis and principal stress calculations on all the sections of piping have been written and fitted in the code. Plotter can also be used. VERPIP code for automatic verifications of piping as class 1 Sct. III prescriptions has been also prepared. The results of PIPE STRESS and VERPIP codes application to PEC piping are in section III of this report

  17. 46 CFR 61.15-5 - Steam piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam piping. 61.15-5 Section 61.15-5 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-5 Steam piping. (a) Main steam piping shall be subjected to a... removed and the piping thoroughly examined. (b) All steam piping subject to pressure from the main boiler...

  18. 46 CFR 154.660 - Pipe welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe welding. 154.660 Section 154.660 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.660 Pipe welding. (a) Pipe welding must meet Part 57 of this chapter. (b) Longitudinal butt welds...

  19. 49 CFR 195.424 - Pipe movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe movement. 195.424 Section 195.424... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.424 Pipe movement. (a) No operator may move any line pipe, unless... in the line section involved are joined by welding unless— (1) Movement when the pipeline does not...

  20. 49 CFR 236.712 - Brake pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.712 Brake pipe. A pipe running from the engineman's brake valve through the train, used for the transmission of air under... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake pipe. 236.712 Section 236.712 Transportation...

  1. Smoking water pipe is injurious to lungs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivapalan, Pradeesh; Ringbæk, Thomas; Lange, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the pulmonary consequences of water pipe smoking. Smoking water pipe affects the lung function negatively, is significantly associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and increases the risk of lung infections. Case reports suggest that regular smokers of water pipe...

  2. Leachate storage transport tanker loadout piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    This report contains schematic drawings for the pipe fittings for the Hanford waste tanks. Included are the modifications to the W-025 trench number-sign 31 leachate loadout piping, and also the modifications to the tanker trailers. The piping was modified to prevent spillage to the environment. The tankers were modified for loading and unloading purposes

  3. Nuclear class 1 piping stress analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, J.C.R.; Maneschy, J.E.; Mariano, L.A.; Tamura, M.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear class 1 piping stress analysis, according to the ASME code, is presented. The TRHEAT computer code has been used to determine the piping wall thermal gradient. The Nupipe computer code was employed for the piping stress analysis. Computer results were compared with the allowable criteria from the ASME code. (Author) [pt

  4. PPOOLEX experiments with two parallel blowdown pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laine, J.; Puustinen, M.; Raesaenen, A. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))

    2011-01-15

    This report summarizes the results of the experiments with two transparent blowdown pipes carried out with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through either one or two vertical transparent blowdown pipes to the condensation pool. Five experiments with one pipe and six with two parallel pipes were carried out. The main purpose of the experiments was to study loads caused by chugging (rapid condensation) while steam is discharged into the condensation pool filled with sub-cooled water. The PPOOLEX test facility is a closed stainless steel vessel divided into two compartments, dry well and wet well. In the experiments the initial temperature of the condensation pool water varied from 12 deg. C to 55 deg. C, the steam flow rate from 40 g/s to 1 300 g/s and the temperature of incoming steam from 120 deg. C to 185 deg. C. In the experiments with only one transparent blowdown pipe chugging phenomenon didn't occur as intensified as in the preceding experiments carried out with a DN200 stainless steel pipe. With the steel blowdown pipe even 10 times higher pressure pulses were registered inside the pipe. Meanwhile, loads registered in the pool didn't indicate significant differences between the steel and polycarbonate pipe experiments. In the experiments with two transparent blowdown pipes, the steamwater interface moved almost synchronously up and down inside both pipes. Chugging was stronger than in the one pipe experiments and even two times higher loads were measured inside the pipes. The loads at the blowdown pipe outlet were approximately the same as in the one pipe cases. Other registered loads around the pool were about 50-100 % higher than with one pipe. The experiments with two parallel blowdown pipes gave contradictory results compared to the earlier studies dealing with chugging loads in case of multiple pipes. Contributing

  5. Spinning pipe gas lens revisited

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The graded index (GRIN-like) medium generated by gas inside a heated steel pipe when rotated about its longitudinal axis has the ability to focus a laser beam. While the effective focal length of such a system has previously been studied...

  6. Residual stress in polyethylene pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poduška, Jan; Hutař, Pavel; Kučera, J.; Frank, A.; Sadílek, J.; Pinter, G.; Náhlík, Luboš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, SEP (2016), s. 288-295 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015069; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1601 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : polyethylene pipe * residual stress * ring slitting method * lifetime estimation Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 2.464, year: 2016

  7. Automatic welding machine for piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Koyama, Takaichi; Iizuka, Tomio; Ito, Yoshitoshi; Takami, Katsumi.

    1978-01-01

    A remotely controlled automatic special welding machine for piping was developed. This machine is utilized for long distance pipe lines, chemical plants, thermal power generating plants and nuclear power plants effectively from the viewpoint of good quality control, reduction of labor and good controllability. The function of this welding machine is to inspect the shape and dimensions of edge preparation before welding work by the sense of touch, to detect the temperature of melt pool, inspect the bead form by the sense of touch, and check the welding state by ITV during welding work, and to grind the bead surface and inspect the weld metal by ultrasonic test automatically after welding work. The construction of this welding system, the main specification of the apparatus, the welding procedure in detail, the electrical source of this welding machine, the cooling system, the structure and handling of guide ring, the central control system and the operating characteristics are explained. The working procedure and the effect by using this welding machine, and the application to nuclear power plants and the other industrial field are outlined. The HIDIC 08 is used as the controlling computer. This welding machine is useful for welding SUS piping as well as carbon steel piping. (Nakai, Y.)

  8. Heat pipe heat storage performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caruso, A; Pasquetti, R [Univ. de Provence, Marseille (FR). Inst. Universitaire des Systemes; Grakovich, L P; Vasiliev, L L [A.V. Luikov Heat and Mass Transfer Inst. of the BSSR, Academy of Sciences, Minsk (BY)

    1989-01-01

    Heat storage offers essential thermal energy saving for heating. A ground heat store equipped with heat pipes connecting it with a heat source and to the user is considered in this paper. It has been shown that such a heat exchanging system along with a batch energy source meets, to a considerable extent, house heating requirements. (author).

  9. Integrated piping structural analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motoi, Toshio; Yamadera, Masao; Horino, Satoshi; Idehata, Takamasa

    1979-01-01

    Structural analysis of the piping system for nuclear power plants has become larger in scale and in quantity. In addition, higher quality analysis is regarded as of major importance nowadays from the point of view of nuclear plant safety. In order to fulfill to the above requirements, an integrated piping structural analysis system (ISAP-II) has been developed. Basic philosophy of this system is as follows: 1. To apply the date base system. All information is concentrated. 2. To minimize the manual process in analysis, evaluation and documentation. Especially to apply the graphic system as much as possible. On the basis of the above philosophy four subsystems were made. 1. Data control subsystem. 2. Analysis subsystem. 3. Plotting subsystem. 4. Report subsystem. Function of the data control subsystem is to control all information of the data base. Piping structural analysis can be performed by using the analysis subsystem. Isometric piping drawing and mode shape, etc. can be plotted by using the plotting subsystem. Total analysis report can be made without the manual process through the reporting subsystem. (author)

  10. Pipe Leak Detection Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has determined that one of the nation’s biggest infrastructural needs is the replacement or rehabilitation of the water distribution and transmission systems. The institution of more effective pipe leak detection technology will im...

  11. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of drainage pipes. The co-authors emphasize that the use of ice compared to other methods of pipe cleaning has a number of advantages due to the relative simplicity and cheapness of the process, economical efficiency and lack of environmental risk. The equipment for performing ice cleaning is presented, its technological options, terms of cleansing operations, as well as the volumes of disposed pollution per unit length of the water supply and drainage pipelines. It is noted that ice cleaning requires careful planning in the process of cooking ice and in the process of its supply in the pipe. There are specific requirements to its quality. In particular, when you clean drinking water system the ice applied should be hygienically clean and meet sanitary requirements.In pilot projects, in particular, quantitative and qualitative analysis of sediments adsorbed by ice is conducted, as well as temperature and the duration of the process. The degree of pollution of the pipeline was estimated by the volume of the remote sediment on 1 km of pipeline. Cleaning pipelines using ice can be considered one of the methods of trenchless technologies, being a significant alternative to traditional methods of cleaning the pipes. The method can be applied in urban pipeline systems of drinking water supply for the diameters of 100—600 mm, and also to diversion collectors. In the world today 450 km of pipelines are subject to ice cleaning method.Ice cleaning method is simple

  12. The Preference of Keeping the Intermediary /y/(ی in Prepositional Construction and Its Attachment to the Silent» h«.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Irani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract   One of the problems of Persian writing is the question of writing and including the noun or adjective "Prepositional" construction sign in words the written form of which end in a silent » h « which is in fact a short vowel equivalent to /e/ (kasra ـِـ .The difference between the two ways of writing the intermediary consonant /y/( ی at the end of the word with a last silent » h « , completely as « ی » or with the sign « ء» on the silent » h « is rooted in the controversy between the traditional and modern approaches of writing.   The present study is about to study into the following subjects: an analysis and criticism of both the above approaches, a survey of the history of the intermediary /y/( ی , recognizing its phonetic significance and its role in making and adding new syllables, and finally a conclusion about the more convenient way to write it. It is possible that the outcome of the present study will provide us with a unique form of writing of the case in different texts like books, articles, newspapers, journals and electronic texts.

  13. Piping engineering for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curto, N.; Schmidt, H.; Muller, R.

    1988-01-01

    In order to develop piping engineering, an adequate dimensioning and correct selection of materials must be secured. A correct selection of materials together with calculations and stress analysis must be carried out with a view to minimizing or avoiding possible failures or damages in piping assembling, which could be caused by internal pressure, weight, temperature, oscillation, etc. The piping project for a nuclear power plant is divided into the following three phases. Phase I: Basic piping design. Phase II: Final piping design. Phase III: Detail engineering. (Author)

  14. System and Method for Traversing Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Jodi (Inventor); Pettinger, Ross (Inventor); Azimi, Shaun (Inventor); Magruder, Darby (Inventor); Ridley, Justin (Inventor); Lapp, Anthony (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A system and method is provided for traversing inside one or more pipes. In an embodiment, a fluid is injected into the one or more pipes thereby promoting a fluid flow. An inspection device is deployed into the one or more pipes at least partially filled with a flowing fluid. The inspection device comprises a housing wherein the housing is designed to exploit the hydrokinetic effects associated with a fluid flow in one or more pipes as well as maneuver past a variety of pipe configurations. The inspection device may contain one or more sensors capable of performing a variety of inspection tasks.

  15. Caracterización clínico epidemiológica de pacientes afectados por pie diabético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dania Núñez Álvarez

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el pie diabético constituye un problema de salud en los pacientes portadores de diabetes mellitus y se registra como la primera causa de amputación no traumática de los miembros. El conocimiento de sus particularidades clínico-epidemiológicas resulta de sumo interés. Objetivo: caracterizar clínica y epidemiológicamente a los pacientes con pie diabético neuroinfeccioso en el Hospital "Dr. Joaquín Castillo Duany" de Santiago de Cuba. Método: se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo. El universo estuvo constituido por 96 pacientes diagnosticados con pie diabético durante el periodo comprendido entre el 2011 y el 2015. Se emplearon variables demográficas y relacionadas con factores de riesgo generales y específicos del pie diabético. Resultados: el pie diabético predominó entre la cuarta y sexta décadas de vida (24,7 % y en pacientes del sexo femenino (59,7 %. La diabetes mellitus tipo 2 estuvo representada en el 52,5 %. Mientras el factor de riesgo general de pie diabético más frecuente fue la obesidad (56,7 %, la neuropatía diabética, como factor de riesgo específico se presentó en el 98,9 % de los enfermos estudiados. Conclusiones: el pie diabético predominó en la cuarta y sexta décadas de la vida y en el sexo femenino. El mayor porcentaje de los pacientes era portador de diabetes mellitus tipo 2. La obesidad, la neuropatía diabética periférica, el sobrepeso, y la hiperglucemia constituyeron los factores de riesgo prevalecientes.

  16. Meaningful call combinations and compositional processing in the southern pied babbler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engesser, Sabrina; Ridley, Amanda R.; Townsend, Simon W.

    2016-01-01

    Language’s expressive power is largely attributable to its compositionality: meaningful words are combined into larger/higher-order structures with derived meaning. Despite its importance, little is known regarding the evolutionary origins and emergence of this syntactic ability. Although previous research has shown a rudimentary capability to combine meaningful calls in primates, because of a scarcity of comparative data, it is unclear to what extent analog forms might also exist outside of primates. Here, we address this ambiguity and provide evidence for rudimentary compositionality in the discrete vocal system of a social passerine, the pied babbler (Turdoides bicolor). Natural observations and predator presentations revealed that babblers produce acoustically distinct alert calls in response to close, low-urgency threats and recruitment calls when recruiting group members during locomotion. On encountering terrestrial predators, both vocalizations are combined into a “mobbing sequence,” potentially to recruit group members in a dangerous situation. To investigate whether babblers process the sequence in a compositional way, we conducted systematic experiments, playing back the individual calls in isolation as well as naturally occurring and artificial sequences. Babblers reacted most strongly to mobbing sequence playbacks, showing a greater attentiveness and a quicker approach to the loudspeaker, compared with individual calls or control sequences. We conclude that the sequence constitutes a compositional structure, communicating information on both the context and the requested action. Our work supports previous research suggesting combinatoriality as a viable mechanism to increase communicative output and indicates that the ability to combine and process meaningful vocal structures, a basic syntax, may be more widespread than previously thought. PMID:27155011

  17. Possible roles for corticosterone and critical size in the fledging of nestling pied flycatchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, M; Bacon, W; Long, D; Cowie, R J

    2001-01-01

    Our study was designed to see whether corticosterone (B) rises abruptly in the blood of nestling pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) at the time they fledge, as reported recently for kestrels, and if so, why. We measured the growth and blood levels of B and selected nutrients of nestlings in broods of five, seven, and nine chicks during 1998 and 1999. In half of the broods, we clipped selected wing and tail feathers of both parents with the intention of making it more difficult for them to provide their chicks with food. We collected blood samples when the chicks were six to 10 d old (period of rapid growth) and 15 d of age or older (0-5 d before fledging). B increased substantially several days before the chicks left the nest and then declined somewhat. We found no differences in rates of growth or blood levels of B, nutrients, and hematocrit as a function of either brood size or parental handicapping. Nestlings within a day of fledging appear to have been food deprived in 1998; their glucose was significantly reduced, and B, free fatty acids, and glycerol were significantly elevated compared to levels in chicks 1-4 d younger. Such changes did not occur in 1999. Blood levels of B were significantly correlated with brood size near the day of fledging, but not earlier, in both years of the study. It was possible to predict the day on which chicks would leave the nest, using their wing length when 12 d old. These results suggest that high blood levels of B associated with food restriction and sibling competition induce chicks to fledge, provided they have reached a critical size, and that the importance of fasting, sibling competition, and B may vary from year to year.

  18. Improvements in PIE-techniques at the IFE hot-laboratory. 'Neutron radiography, three dimensional profilometry and image compilation of PIE data for visualization in an image based user-interface'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenssen, H.K.; Oberlaender, B.C.

    2002-01-01

    The PIE-techniques used at IFE are continuously improved through upgrading of equipment and methods, e.g. image handling techniques and components utilized in data acquisition and editing techniques. To improve the quality or spatial resolution of neutron radiographs the normal technique was complemented with another method, i.e. the dysprosium foil/X ray film technique is supplemented with a track-etch recorder consisting of a cellulose nitrate film. For further examination of the neutron radiographs the cellulose nitrate film can be digitized to allow electronic image treatment. Promising results were obtained with this technique on neutron radiographs, namely higher spatial resolution compared to the normal technique, high contrast and sharp neutron radiography images. The traditional uniaxial profilometry of fuel rods was modified so that diameter/bow measurements are possible at several angular orientations during one acquisition sequence. This extension is very useful in several ways, for instance the built-in data symmetry of the method is used to check the correctness of the measurement results. Diameter and bow measurements give information of cladding irregularities and fuel rod profiles. Implementation of electronic image handling techniques is particularly useful in PIE when data are collected and compiled in an image file. Inspection and examination of the file contents (examination results) are possible through an ideal user-interface, i.e. Adobe Photoshop software with navigator possibilities. Examples incorporating PIE data acquired from neutron radiography, visual inspection and ceramography are utilized for illustration of the user-interface and some of its possibilities. (author)

  19. Uso del método de Ilizarov en pie bot pediátrico. [Use of the Ilizarov method in pediatric clubfoot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Fiscina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Introducción El objetivo de tratamiento del pie Bot está enfocado en lograr un pie plantígrado, indoloro y  que permita el uso del calzado habitual. El objetivo del trabajo fue medir la incidencia de recidiva luego de obtenida la corrección de la deformidad en pacientes con pie bot tratados con tutor de Ilizarov, y  analizar los factores pronósticos asociados. Material y Método Cohorte retrospectiva de factores pronóstico. Se trató con este método a 48 pacientes (70 pies desde 1988. Se excluyeron los pacientes con falta de corrección de la deformidad en el momento de retirar el tutor (deformidad residual o corrección incompleta. La variable de estudio fue la recidiva. Resultados El 77% de los 70 pies eran idiopáticos. Solo 18 pies no habían sido tratados. Todos eran pacien- tes pediátricos. El promedio de edad en el momento de la cirugía era de 7,9 años. Se incluyeron tres grupos de pacientes: tratados con Ilizarov solo (40,2%, en combi- nación con cirugía de partes blandas (38,5% y asociado con osteotomías (21,3%. El seguimiento promedio posoperatorio fue de 10,6 años (de 5,5 a 22. En el 71% de los pies, los resultados fueron pobres, la deformidad recidivó en un promedio de 38 meses, y fueron necesarias cirugías complementarias para lograr un pie plantígrado. Conclusión Presentamos una importante casuística con seguimiento alejado de pie bot recidivado o inveterado, con una alta recidiva de la deformidad (71%. No encontramos diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los subgrupos estudiados (edad, diagnóstico, trata- mientos previos y procedimientos asociados. Actualmente no consideramos a esta técnica de primera elección, pues nuestros resultados fueron poco alentadores.

  20. Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.

    1994-01-04

    An improved evaporator section is described for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes. 1 figure.

  1. Development of LBB Piping Evaluation Diagram for APR 1000 Main Steam Line Piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J. S.; Jeong, I. L.; Park, C. Y.; Bai, S. Y.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the piping evaluation diagram (PED) to assess the applicability of Leak-Before- Break(LBB) for APR 1000 main steam line piping. LBB-PED of APR 1000 main steam line piping is independent of its piping geometry and has a function of the loads applied in piping system. Also, in order to evaluate LBB applicability during construction process with only the comparative evaluation of material properties between actually used and expected, the expected changes of material properties are considered in the LBB-PED. The LBB-PED, therefore, can be used for quick LBB evaluation of APR 1000 main steam line piping of both design and construction

  2. Methods for Analyzing Pipe Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1989-01-01

    to formulate the flow equations in terms of pipe discharges than in terms of energy heads. The behavior of some iterative methods is compared in the initial phase with large errors. It is explained why the linear theory method oscillates when the iteration gets close to the solution, and it is further...... demonstrated that this method offers good starting values for a Newton-Raphson iteration....

  3. Experiments in turbulent pipe flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torbergsen, Lars Even

    1998-12-31

    This thesis reports experimental results for the mean velocity and turbulence statistics in two straight pipe sections for bulk Reynolds numbers in the range 22000 to 75000. The flow was found consistent with a fully developed state. Detailed turbulence spectra were obtained for low and moderate turbulent Reynolds number. For the pipe centre line location at R{sub {lambda}} = 112, a narrow range in the streamwise power spectrum applied to the -5/3 inertial subrange. However this range was influenced both by turbulence production and viscous dissipation, and therefore did not reflect a true inertial range. The result indicates how the intermediate range between the production and dissipative scales can be misinterpreted as an inertial range for low and moderate R{sub {lambda}}. To examine the universal behaviour of the inertial range, the inertial scaling of the streamwise power spectrum is compared to the inertial scaling of the second order longitudinal velocity structure function, which relate directly by a Fourier transform. Increasing agreement between the Kolmogorov constant C{sub K} and the second order structure function scaling constant C{sub 2} was observed with increasing R{sub {lambda}}. The result indicates that a true inertial range requires several decades of separation between the energy containing and dissipative scales. A method for examining spectral anisotropy is reported and applied to turbulence spectra in fully developed pipe flow. It is found that the spectral redistribution from the streamwise to the two lateral spectra goes primarily to the circumferential component. Experimental results are reported for an axisymmetric contraction of a fully developed pipe flow. 67 refs., 75 figs., 9 tabs.

  4. Hot Leg Piping Materials Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V. Munne

    2006-01-01

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) the reactor outlet piping was recognized to require a design that utilizes internal insulation (Reference c). The initial pipe design suggested ceramic fiber blanket as the insulation material based on requirements associated with service temperature capability within the expected range, very low thermal conductivity, and low density. Nevertheless, it was not considered to be well suited for internal insulation use because its very high surface area and proclivity for holding adsorbed gases, especially water, would make outgassing a source of contaminant gases in the He-Xe working fluid. Additionally, ceramic fiber blanket insulating materials become very friable after relatively short service periods at working temperatures and small pieces of fiber could be dislodged and contaminate the system. Consequently, alternative insulation materials were sought that would have comparable thermal properties and density but superior structural integrity and greatly reduced outgassing. This letter provides technical information regarding insulation and materials issues for the Hot Leg Piping preconceptual design developed for the Project Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP)

  5. Device for storing drilling pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolasinski, A; Wedrychowicz, J

    1981-02-16

    The patented device contains a profiled arch 14 (see figure) installed in the upper part of the drilling rig 15. On base 16 of the drilling unit, there is bin 1 which is installed on frame 2 to which it is hinge connected with the help of pin 3. On the other side, the bin rests on rollers 4 which are attached to lever 5 of lifting mechanism 6. Bin 1 is a series of parallel-arranged guides rigidly connected by transverse beams. Frame 2 contains the collapsible support 10. During operation of the device, the hydraulic lifter 6 with the help of frame 5 and rollers 4 lifts bin 1 with drilling pipes installed on it, giving it an angle of 4/sup 0/ in relation to the plane of frame 2. The collapsible support 10 is installed in a vertical position and holds bin 1. This position of bin 1 is the most suitable for movement of the vertically installed drilling pipes on the guides. The distinguishing feature of the patented device is the possibility of convenient arrangement of the drilling pipes on the guides of bin 1. Because of this, the time spent on lifting and lowering the drill apparatus is considerably reduced.

  6. Pipe and hose decontamination apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    A pipe and hose decontamination apparatus is disclosed using freshly filtered high pressure Freon solvent in an integrated closed loop to remove radioactive particles or other contaminants from items having a long cylindrical geometry such as hoses, pipes, cables and the like. The pipe and hose decontamination apparatus comprises a chamber capable of accomodating a long cylindrical work piece to be decontaminated. The chamber has a downward sloped bottom draining to a solvent holding tank. An entrance zone, a cleaning zone and an exit drying zone are defined within the chamber by removable partitions having slotted rubber gaskets in their centers. The entrance and exit drying zones contain a horizontally mounted cylindrical housing which supports in combination a plurality of slotted rubber gaskets and circular brushes to initiate mechanical decontamination. Solvent is delivered at high pressure to a spray ring located in the cleaning zone having a plurality of nozzles surrounding the work piece. The solvent drains into a solvent holding tank located below the nozzles and means are provided for circulating the solvent to and from a solvent cleaning, distilling and filter unit

  7. Innovative technology summary report: Pipe Explorertrademark system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Pipe Explorertrademark system, developed by Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. (SEA), under contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center, has been used to transport various characterizing sensors into piping systems that have been radiologically contaminated. DOE's nuclear facility decommissioning program must characterize radiological contamination inside piping systems before the pipe can be recycled, remediated, or disposed. Historically, this has been attempted using hand-held survey instrumentation, surveying only the accessible exterior portions of pipe systems. Various measuring difficulties, and in some cases, the inability to measure threshold surface contamination values and worker exposure, and physical access constraints have limited the effectiveness of traditional survey approaches. The Pipe Explorertrademark system provides a viable alternative. The heart of the system is an air-tight membrane, which is initially spooled inside a canister. The end of the membrane protrudes out of the canister and attaches to the pipe being inspected. The other end of the tubular membrane is attached to the tether and characterization tools. When the canister is pressurized, the membrane inverts and deploys inside the pipe. The characterization detector and its cabling is attached to the tethered end of the membrane. As the membrane is deployed into the pipe, the detector and its cabling is towed into the pipe inside the protective membrane; measurements are taken from within the protective membrane. Once the survey measurements are completed, the process is reversed to retrieve the characterization tools

  8. Captive breeding and reintroduction of the oriental pied hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris) in Khao Kheow Open Zoo, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyarat, Rattanawat; Kongprom, Urarikha; Manathamkamon, Darika; Wanpradab, Sunan; Sangarang, Satean

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses two related issues of the captive breeding and reintroduction of the Oriental pied hornbill (Anthracoceros albirostris) in order to increase its population in the natural habitats. Oriental pied hornbills were bred in Khao Kheow Open Zoo. Three pairs were separated and kept in breeding cages. Females occupied artificial nests between February and April 2005-2007. Eggs were laid and incubated between February and March each year from 2005 to 2007. Nestlings hatched in late March and left the nest in late April 2005-2007. Each breeding pair was fed with approximately 400 g of food each day. All three pairs reproduced resulting in mature offspring of seven in 2005, six in 2006, and five in 2007. Four of sixteen 3-year-old birds were randomly selected and equipped with a GPS receiver on their backs. Activities of the birds attached and unattached with GPS were not significantly different. The first two birds (one female, one male with GPS) were reintroduced on August 5, 2006, and another nine birds (four birds with GPS) were reintroduced on December 26, 2006. The average home range of these reintroduced birds was 0.13 km(2) . Their foods consisted of wild plants and animals in the home range. The first reintroduced pair was able to breed naturally by laying and hatching eggs in an artificial nest. Two juveniles left the nest in April 2008. These results indicate that both captive breeding and reintroduction are potentially important ways to increase the population of the Oriental pied hornbill in natural habitats. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Estudio preliminar. Patologías digitales más frecuentes en el pie de la bailaora de flamencoe

    OpenAIRE

    José Manuel Castillo López; Joaquín Pérez Rendón; Cristina Algaba Guisado

    2010-01-01

    Este estudio tiene como objetivos, en primer lugar, dar a conocer las principales deformidades digitales de los pies, asociadas -por su alta incidencia- a la práctica profesional del baile flamenco femenino. Así como, poner de manifiesto la necesidad de llevar a cabo estudios de mayor magnitud para determinar si existe una relación estadísticamente significativa entre la práctica del baile flamenco con las deformidades y patologías podológicas descritas, y la importancia de la investigación e...

  10. Comparison of ATF and TJ-II stellarator equilibria as computed by the 3-D VMEC and PIES codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.L.; Monticello, D.A.; Reiman, A.H.; Hirshman, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    A comparison is made of results from the PIES code, which determines the equilibrium properties of three-dimensional toroidal configurations by direct integration along the magnetic field lines, with those from the VMEC code, which uses an energy minimization in a flux representation to determine the equilibrium configuration, for two devices: the ATF stellarator at Oak Ridge and the TJ-11 heliac which is being built in Madrid. The results obtained from the two codes are in good agreement, providing additional validation for the codes

  11. Analytical studies of blowdown thrust force and dynamic response of pipe at pipe rupture accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Noriyuki

    1985-01-01

    The motion of a pipe due to blowdown thrust when the pipe broke is called pipe whip. In LWR power plants, by installing restraints, the motion of a pipe when it broke is suppressed, so that the damage does not spread to neighboring equipment by pipe whip. When the pipe whip of a piping system in a LWR power plant is analyzed, blowdown thrust and the dynamic response of a pipe-restraint system are calculated with a computer. The blowdown thrust can be calculated by using such physical quantities as the pressure, flow velocity, density and so on in the system at the time of blowdown, obtained by the thermal-fluid analysis code at LOCA. The dynamic response of a piping-restraint system can be determined by the stress analysis code using finite element method taking the blowdown thrust as an external force acting on the piping. In this study, the validity of the analysis techniques was verified by comparing with the experimental results of the measurement of blowdown thrust and the pipe whip of a piping-restraint system, carried out in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. Also the simplified analysis method to give the maximum strain on a pipe surface is presented. (Kako, I.)

  12. Fabrication of a multi-walled metal pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamune, Koji; Toda, Saburo; Ishida, Ryuichi; Hatanaka, Tatsuo.

    1969-01-01

    In concentrically arranged metal pipes for simulated fuel elements in the form of a multi-walled pipe, their one end lengthens gradually in the axial direction from inner and outer pipes toward a central pipe for easy adjustment of deformation which occurs when the pipes are drawn. A plastic electrical insulator is disposed between adjacent pipes. Each end of the pipes is equipped with an annular flexible stopper which is allowed to travel in the axial direction so as to prevent the insulator from falling during drawing work. At the other end, all pipes are constricted and joined to each other to thereby form the desired multi-walled pipe. (Mikami, T.)

  13. Lightweight Heat Pipes Made from Magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, John N.; Zarembo, Sergei N.; Eastman, G. Yale

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium has shown promise as a lighter-weight alternative to the aluminum alloys now used to make the main structural components of axially grooved heat pipes that contain ammonia as the working fluid. Magnesium heat-pipe structures can be fabricated by conventional processes that include extrusion, machining, welding, and bending. The thermal performances of magnesium heat pipes are the same as those of equal-sized aluminum heat pipes. However, by virtue of the lower mass density of magnesium, the magnesium heat pipes weigh 35 percent less. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, magnesium heat pipes could also be attractive as heat-transfer devices in terrestrial applications in which minimization of weight is sought: examples include radio-communication equipment and laptop computers.

  14. Resolution of concerns in auxiliary feedwater piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain, R.A.; Testa, M.F.

    1994-01-01

    Auxiliary feedwater piping systems at pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plants have experienced unanticipated operating conditions during plant operation. These unanticipated conditions have included plant events involving backleakage through check valves, temperatures in portions of the auxiliary feedwater piping system that exceed design conditions, and the occurrence of unanticipated severe fluid transients. The impact of these events has had an adverse effect at some nuclear stations on plant operation, installed plant components and hardware, and design basis calculations. Beaver Valley Unit 2, a three loop pressurized water reactor nuclear plant, has observed anomalies with the auxiliary feedwater system since the unit went operational in 1987. The consequences of these anomalies and plant events have been addressed and resolved for Beaver Valley Unit 2 by performing engineering and construction activities. These activities included pipe stress, pipe support and pipe rupture analysis, the monitoring of auxiliary feedwater system temperature and pressure, and the modification to plant piping, supports, valves, structures and operating procedures

  15. Pipe support optimization in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, A.B.; Kalyanam, N.

    1984-01-01

    A typical 1000 MWe nuclear power plant consists of 80,000 to 100,000 feet of piping which must be designed to withstand earthquake shock. For the required ground motion, seismic response spectra are developed for safety-related structures. These curves are used in the dynamic analysis of piping systems with pipe-stress analysis computer codes. To satisfy applicable Code requirements, the piping systems also require analysis for weight, thermal and possibly other lasting conditions. Bechtel Power Corporation has developed a design program called SLAM (Support Location Algorithm) for optimizing pipe support locations and types (rigid, spring, snubber, axial, lateral, etc.) while satisfying userspecified parameters such as locations, load combinations, stress and load allowables, pipe displacement and cost. This paper describes SLAM, its features, applications and benefits

  16. Carcass Traits and Meat Quality of Prestice Black-Pied Pig Breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Matoušek

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate fattening performance, carcass value and meat quality in pigs of Prestice Black-Pied breed in relation to slaughter weight (SW and gender (barrows and gilts, resp.. Pigs were divided into weight categories: SW1 (75 to 99.9 kg, SW2 (100 to 109.9 kg and SW3 (110 to 130 kg and all individual traits were analyzed by the general linear model procedure (SAS 9.3. Average SW of each weight group was as follows: SW1 94.2 kg, SW2 105.8 kg, and SW3 115.2 kg. Differences among average backfat thickness of 36.07 mm in SW1, 40.16 mm in SW2, and 43.21 mm in SW3 were significant (p<0.01. Lean meat content was 48.94% (SW1, 48.78% (SW2, and 48.76% (SW3. Pigs were slaughtered at average weight of 105.7 kg for barrows and 104.4 kg for gilts. Average backfat thickness for barrows was 40.90 mm and 38.72 mm for gilts (significant difference p<0.05. Lean meat content was 48.75% in barrows and 48.91% in gilts. The values of pH45, characterizing the meat of very good quality. The loin in SW3 was darker than the muscles of SW1 and SW2. Drip loss was the lowest in SW1 (1.96%, compared to the highest drip loss in SW3 (2.59%. Content of intramuscular fat was 2.68% in SW3, 2.79% in SW2, and SW1 had the lowest content 2.47%. The values of pH45, colour lightness and drip loss were similar in both genders. However barrows had higher intramuscular fat content by 0.31% than gilts (p<0.05.

  17. Vortex wake, downwash distribution, aerodynamic performance and wingbeat kinematics in slow-flying pied flycatchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muijres, Florian T; Bowlin, Melissa S; Johansson, L Christoffer; Hedenström, Anders

    2012-02-07

    Many small passerines regularly fly slowly when catching prey, flying in cluttered environments or landing on a perch or nest. While flying slowly, passerines generate most of the flight forces during the downstroke, and have a 'feathered upstroke' during which they make their wing inactive by retracting it close to the body and by spreading the primary wing feathers. How this flight mode relates aerodynamically to the cruising flight and so-called 'normal hovering' as used in hummingbirds is not yet known. Here, we present time-resolved fluid dynamics data in combination with wingbeat kinematics data for three pied flycatchers flying across a range of speeds from near hovering to their calculated minimum power speed. Flycatchers are adapted to low speed flight, which they habitually use when catching insects on the wing. From the wake dynamics data, we constructed average wingbeat wakes and determined the time-resolved flight forces, the time-resolved downwash distributions and the resulting lift-to-drag ratios, span efficiencies and flap efficiencies. During the downstroke, slow-flying flycatchers generate a single-vortex loop wake, which is much more similar to that generated by birds at cruising flight speeds than it is to the double loop vortex wake in hovering hummingbirds. This wake structure results in a relatively high downwash behind the body, which can be explained by the relatively active tail in flycatchers. As a result of this, slow-flying flycatchers have a span efficiency which is similar to that of the birds in cruising flight and which can be assumed to be higher than in hovering hummingbirds. During the upstroke, the wings of slowly flying flycatchers generated no significant forces, but the body-tail configuration added 23 per cent to weight support. This is strikingly similar to the 25 per cent weight support generated by the wing upstroke in hovering hummingbirds. Thus, for slow-flying passerines, the upstroke cannot be regarded as inactive

  18. 46 CFR 119.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 119.430 Section 119... INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.430 Engine exhaust pipe installation. (a) The design of all... an exhaust pipe. (b) Exhaust gas must not leak from the piping or any connections. The piping must be...

  19. Alkali Metal Heat Pipe Life Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Robert S.

    2004-01-01

    One approach to fission power system design uses alkali metal heat pipes for the core primary heat-transfer system. Heat pipes may also be used as radiator elements or auxiliary thermal control elements. This synopsis characterizes long-life core heat pipes. References are included where information that is more detailed can be found. Specifics shown here are for demonstration purposes and do not necessarily reflect current Nasa Project Prometheus point designs. (author)

  20. Leak before break piping evaluation diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabi, R.J.; Peck, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Traditionally Leak Before Break (LBB) has been applied to the evaluation of piping in existing nuclear plants. This paper presents a simple method for evaluating piping systems for LBB during the design process. This method produces a piping evaluation diagram (PED) which defines the LBB requirements to the piping designer for use during the design process. Several sets of LBB analyses are performed for each different pipe size and material considered in the LBB application. The results of this method are independent of the actual pipe routing. Two complete LBB evaluations are performed to determine the maximum allowable stability load, one evaluation for a low normal operating load, and the other evaluation for a high normal operating load. These normal operating loads span the typical loads for the particular system being evaluated. In developing the allowable loads, the appropriate LBB margins are included in the PED preparation. The resulting LBB solutions are plotted as a set of allowable curves for the maximum design basis load, such is the seismic load versus the normal operating load. Since the required margins are already accounted for in the LBB PED, the piping designer can use the diagram directly with the results of the piping analysis and determine immediately if the current piping arrangement passes LBB. Since the LBB PED is independent of pipe routing, changes to the piping system can be evaluated using the existing PED. For a particular application, all that remains is to confirm that the actual materials and pipe sizes assumed in creating the particular design are built into the plant

  1. Experimental analytical study on heat pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, K.A.R.; Liu, C.Y.; Murcia, N.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical model is developed for optimizing the thickness distribution of the porous material in heat pipes. The method was used to calculate, design and construct heat pipes with internal geometrical changes. Ordinary pipes are also constructed and tested together with the modified ones. The results showed that modified tubes are superior in performance and that the analytical model can predict their performance to within 1.5% precision. (Author) [pt

  2. Ice plugging of pipes using liquid nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twigg, R.J.

    1987-03-01

    This report presents a study on the ice plugging of pipe using liquid nitrogen, and is based on a literature review and on discussions with individuals who use the technique. Emphasis is placed on ferritic alloys, primarily carbon steels, in pipe sized up to 60 cm in diameter and on austenitic stainless steels in pipe sizes up to 30 cm in diameter. This technique is frequently used for leak testing in nuclear facilities

  3. Piping reliability improvement through passive seismic supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltus, R.; Rubbers, A.

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear plants designed in the 1970's were equipped with large quantities of snubbers in auxiliary piping systems. The experience revealed a poor performance of snubbers during periodic inspection, while non-nuclear facility piping survived through strong earthquakes. Consequently, seismic design rules evolved towards more realistic criteria and passive dynamic supports were developed to reduce snubber quantities. These solutions improve the pipe reliability during normal operation while reducing the radiation exposure in a sample line is presented with the impact on pipe stresses compared to the results obtained with passive supports named Limit Stops. (author)

  4. Earthquake free design of pipe lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Chizuko; Sakurai, Akio

    1974-01-01

    Long structures such as cooling sea water pipe lines of nuclear power plants have a wide range of extent along the ground surface, and are incurred by not only the inertia forces but also forces due to ground deformations or the seismic wave propagation during earthquakes. Since previous reports indicated the earthquake free design of underground pipe lines, it is discussed in this report on behaviors of pipe lines on the ground during earthquakes and is proposed the aseismic design of pipe lines considering the effects of both inertia forces and ground deformations. (author)

  5. Internal ultrasonic inspection of flexible pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltzersen, O. (IKU Petroleumsforskning A/S, Trondheim (Norway) Norwegian Inst. of Tech., Trondheim (Norway). Div. of Petroleum Engineering and Applied Geophysics); Waag, T.I. (IKU Petroleumsforskning A/S, Trondheim (Norway))

    1993-10-01

    Methods for internal ultrasonic inspection of flexible pipe have been investigated through experiments with a short sample of Coflexip pipe. Ultrasonic backscatter methods using normal and non-normal incidence have been used for qualitative high contrast ultrasonic imaging of the inner surface of the pipe. Analysis of the internal cross-section has been performed based on the use of a non-contact ultrasonic caliper, and processing procedures which enable calculation of, and compensation for, eccentricity of the tool in the pipe. The methods developed can be used to quantitatively estimate the thickness of the internal carcass, and perform high resolution topographic mapping of the inner surface. (Author)

  6. Gas lensing in a heated spinning pipe

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mafusire, C

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available ; and (II) the aberrations introduced to the laser are a function of the distance from the edge of the pipe, as well as the speed of the pipe spin- ning. This is because of the turbulence near the pipe wall. The speed of the pipe will be used...- merically. This work forms the basis for an extended study of the dynamics of beam propa- gation through turbulent systems, and in particular, the following aspects will be explored in future work: (I) Using the recent advances in lasers beam propagation...

  7. Heat pipes in modern heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, Leonard L.

    2005-01-01

    Heat pipes are very flexible systems with regard to effective thermal control. They can easily be implemented as heat exchangers inside sorption and vapour-compression heat pumps, refrigerators and other types of heat transfer devices. Their heat transfer coefficient in the evaporator and condenser zones is 10 3 -10 5 W/m 2 K, heat pipe thermal resistance is 0.01-0.03 K/W, therefore leading to smaller area and mass of heat exchangers. Miniature and micro heat pipes are welcomed for electronic components cooling and space two-phase thermal control systems. Loop heat pipes, pulsating heat pipes and sorption heat pipes are the novelty for modern heat exchangers. Heat pipe air preheaters are used in thermal power plants to preheat the secondary-primary air required for combustion of fuel in the boiler using the energy available in exhaust gases. Heat pipe solar collectors are promising for domestic use. This paper reviews mainly heat pipe developments in the Former Soviet Union Countries. Some new results obtained in USA and Europe are also included

  8. Development of bore tools for pipe inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Taguchi, Kou; Ito, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    In the International Thermonuclear Reactor (ITER), replacement and maintenance on in-vessel components requires that all cooling pipes connected be cut and removed, that a new component be installed, and that all cooling pipes be rewelded. After welding is completed, welded area must be inspected for soundness. These tasks require a new work concept for securing shielded area and access from narrow ports. Tools had to be developed for nondestructive inspection and leak testing to evaluate pipe welding soundness by accessing areas from inside pipes using autonomous locomotion welding and cutting tools. A system was proposed for nondestructive inspection of branch pipes and the main pipe after passing through pipe curves, the same as for welding and cutting tool development. Nondestructive inspection and leak testing sensors were developed and the basic parameters were obtained. In addition, the inspection systems which can move inside pipes and conduct the nondestructive inspection and the leak testing were developed. In this paper, an introduction will be given to the current situation concerning the development of nondestructive inspection and leak testing machines for the branch pipes. (author)

  9. Piping vibrations measured during FFTF startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.

    1981-03-01

    An extensive vibration survey was conducted on the Fast Flux Test Facility piping during the plant acceptance test program. The purpose was to verify that both mechanical and flow induced vibration amplitudes were of sufficiently low level so that pipe and pipe support integrity would not be compromised over the plant design lifetime. Excitation sources included main heat transport sodium pumps, reciprocating auxiliary system pumps, EM pumps, and flow oscillations. Pipe sizes varied from one-inch to twenty-eight-inches in diameter. This paper describes the test plan; the instrumentation and procedures utilized; and the test results

  10. Asymptotic scalings of developing curved pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Jesse; Chen, Kevin; Stone, Howard

    2015-11-01

    Asymptotic velocity and pressure scalings are identified for the developing curved pipe flow problem in the limit of small pipe curvature and high Reynolds numbers. The continuity and Navier-Stokes equations in toroidal coordinates are linearized about Dean's analytical curved pipe flow solution (Dean 1927). Applying appropriate scaling arguments to the perturbation pressure and velocity components and taking the limits of small curvature and large Reynolds number yields a set of governing equations and boundary conditions for the perturbations, independent of any Reynolds number and pipe curvature dependence. Direct numerical simulations are used to confirm these scaling arguments. Fully developed straight pipe flow is simulated entering a curved pipe section for a range of Reynolds numbers and pipe-to-curvature radius ratios. The maximum values of the axial and secondary velocity perturbation components along with the maximum value of the pressure perturbation are plotted along the curved pipe section. The results collapse when the scaling arguments are applied. The numerically solved decay of the velocity perturbation is also used to determine the entrance/development lengths for the curved pipe flows, which are shown to scale linearly with the Reynolds number.

  11. Phosphorus sources (P plus filter pie with or without azotofos on the available P in the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maikel Abreu Jiménez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the investigation was to evaluate the effect of four phosphorus sources plus filter pie with or without the biofertilizer Azotofos on the available phosphorus in the soil at different moments after the treatment. An experiment in factorial design 4(2+1 was established, being the four phosphorus sources: rock phosphate, natural phosphate, triple phosphate and Cuban phosphoric rock; two sources of the organic compound to base filter cake enriched with Azotofos microorganisms, only filter cake (without enrichment and a control treatment (without filter pie, neither Azotofos, with three repetitions. The evaluations of the tenor of available P (Bray-2 were carried out at the 30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 days after the installation of the experiment. The tenor of P (Bray-2 was influenced by the sources of P and the enrichment with biofertilizantes (factorial increasing the tenor of available P in front of the control. The triple superphosphate promoted the higher tenors in P in the soil at 60 and 90 days after its application, independently of the presence or not of the organic compound enriched with P solubilizing microorganisms, although this effect didn’t stay stable at the time.

  12. PIE technology on mechanical tests for HTTR core component and structural materials developed at Research Hot Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kizaki, Minoru; Honda, Junichi; Usami, Kouji; Ouchi, Asao; Oeda, Etsuro; Matsumoto, Seiichiro

    2001-02-01

    The high temperature engineering test reactor (HTTR) with the target operation temperature of 950degC established the first criticality on November, 1998 based on a large amount of R and D results on fuel and materials. In such R and D works, the development of reactor materials are one of the key issues from the view point of reactor environments such as extremely high temperature, neutron irradiation and so on for the HTTR. The Research Hot Laboratory (RHL) had carried out much kind of post irradiation examinations (PIEs) on core component and pressure vessel materials for during more than a quarter century. And obtained data played an important role in development, characterization and licensing of those materials for the HTTR. This paper describes the PIE technology developed at RHL and typical results on mechanical tests such as elevated temperature tensile and creep rupture tests for Hasteloy-X, Incolloy 800H and so on, and Charpy impact, J IC fracture toughness, K Id fracture toughness and small punch tests for normalized and tempered 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel from historical view. In addition, an electrochemical test technique established for investigating the irradiation embrittlement mechanism on 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel is also mentioned. (author)

  13. Stress analysis of piping systems and piping supports. Documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusitschka, Erwin

    1999-01-01

    The presentation is focused on the Computer Aided Tools and Methods used by Siemens/KWU in the engineering activities for Nuclear Power Plant Design and Service. In the multi-disciplinary environment, KWU has developed specific tools to support As-Built Documentation as well as Service Activities. A special application based on Close Range Photogrammetry (PHOCAS) has been developed to support revamp planning even in a high level radiation environment. It comprises three completely inter-compatible expansion modules - Photo Catalog, Photo Database and 3D-Model - to generate objects which offer progressively more utilization and analysis options. To support the outage planning of NPP/CAD-based tools have been developed. The presentation gives also an overview of the broad range of skills and references in: Plant Layout and Design using 3D-CAD-Tools; evaluation of Earthquake Safety (Seismic Screening); Revamps in Existing Plants; Inter-disciplinary coordination of project engineering and execution fields; Consulting and Assistance; Conceptual Studies; Stress Analysis of Piping Systems and Piping Supports; Documentation; Training and Supports in CAD-Design, etc. All activities are performed to the greatest extent possible using proven data-processing tools. (author)

  14. This is not a Pipe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Just, Sine Nørholm

    2016-01-01

    or unwilling to listen to, let alone engage with, emotionally guided bottom-up participation. Using an illustrative case of a Danish public debate over an alleged ban on liquorice pipes, this article argues that the disconnect between invitation and participation may be explained by the fact...... that representatives of (national and European) political institutions tend to rely on a simplified version of deliberative democracy. This implies privileging rational truth claims at the expense of emotional truthfulness. Connecting invitation and participation, it is argued, requires a reconciliation of rationality...

  15. Heat Pipe with Axial Wick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Jay H. (Inventor); Holmes, Rolland (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A heat pipe has an evaporator portion, a condenser portion, and at least one flexible portion that is sealingly coupled between the evaporator portion and the condenser portion. The flexible portion has a flexible tube and a flexible separator plate held in place within the flexible tube so as to divide the flexible tube into a gas-phase passage and a liquid-phase artery. The separator plate and flexible tube are configured such that the flexible portion is flexible in a plane that is perpendicular to the separator plate.

  16. Literature review and experimental investigation of heat pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsch, W. O.; Schoenhals, R. J.; Viskanta, R.; Winter, E. R. F.

    1971-01-01

    Tests on heat pipes determine operational limits, external boundary conditions, noncondensable gas effects, startup behavior, and geometric configurations. Experiment consists of design, construction, and testing of an apparatus for measuring wick properties, conventional heat pipes and coplanar heat pipes.

  17. Best practices for quality management of stormwater pipe construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Stormwater pipe systems are integral features of transportation construction projects. Pipe culverts : direct stormwater away from roadway structures and towards designated discharge areas. The improper : installation of a pipe culvert can result in ...

  18. CONTECH(R) A-2000 polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Determine the effectiveness and long-term durability of the Contech A-2000 PVC pipe : in an irrigation application. This type of pipe may prove to be a viable alternative to : reinforced concrete pipe (RCP).

  19. Development of Pipe Holding Mechanism for Pipe Inspection Robot Using Flexible Pneumatic Cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Kyujun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A pipe inspection robot is useful to reduce the inspection cost. In the previous study, a novel pipe inspection robot using a flexible pneumatic cylinder that can move forward along to the pipe by changing the robot’s body naturally was proposed and tested. In this paper, to improve its mobility for a corner of a pipe, the thin pipe holding mechanism using pneumatic bellows was proposed and tested. As a result of its driving test, the holding performance of the mechanism was confirmed.

  20. Piping reliability model development, validation and its applications to light water reactor piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, H.H.

    1983-01-01

    A brief description is provided of a three-year effort undertaken by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the piping reliability project. The ultimate goal of this project is to provide guidance for nuclear piping design so that high-reliability piping systems can be built. Based on the results studied so far, it is concluded that the reliability approach can undoubtedly help in understanding not only how to assess and improve the safety of the piping systems but also how to design more reliable piping systems

  1. Flat flexible polymer heat pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshman, Christopher; Li, Qian; Liew, Li-Anne; Yang, Ronggui; Bright, Victor M; Lee, Y C

    2013-01-01

    Flat, flexible, lightweight, polymer heat pipes (FPHP) were fabricated. The overall geometry of the heat pipe was 130 mm × 70 mm × 1.31 mm. A commercially available low-cost film composed of laminated sheets of low-density polyethylene terephthalate, aluminum and polyethylene layers was used as the casing. A triple-layer sintered copper woven mesh served as a liquid wicking structure, and water was the working fluid. A coarse nylon woven mesh provided space for vapor transport and mechanical rigidity. Thermal power ranging from 5 to 30 W was supplied to the evaporator while the device was flexed at 0°, 45° and 90°. The thermal resistance of the FPHP ranged from 1.2 to 3.0 K W −1 depending on the operating conditions while the thermal resistance for a similar-sized solid copper reference was a constant at 4.6 K W −1 . With 25 W power input, the thermal resistance of the liquid–vapor core of the FPHP was 23% of a copper reference sample with identical laminated polymer material. This work shows a promising combination of technologies that has the potential to usher in a new generation of highly flexible, lightweight, low-cost, high-performance thermal management solutions. (paper)

  2. Heat-pipe thermionic reactor concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm Pedersen, E.

    1967-01-01

    Main components are reactor core, heat pipe, thermionic converter, secondary cooling system, and waste heat radiator; thermal power generated in reactor core is transported by heat pipes to thermionic converters located outside reactor core behind radiation shield; thermionic emitters are in direct...

  3. Failure analysis on a chemical waste pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambler, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    A failure analysis of a chemical waste pipe illustrates how nuclear technology can spin off metallurgical consultant services. The pipe, made of zirconium alloy (Zr-2.5 wt percent Nb, UNS 60705), had cracked in several places, all at butt welds. A combination of fractography and metallography indicated delayed hydride cracking

  4. Advanced industrial ceramic heat pipe recuperators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strumpf, H.J.; Stillwagon, T.L.; Kotchick, D.M.; Coombs, M.G.

    1988-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of an investigation involving the use of ceramic heat pipe recuperators for high-temperature heat recovery from industrial furnaces. The function of the recuperator is to preheat combustion air with furnace exhaust gas. The heat pipe recuperator comprises a bundle of individual ceramic heat pipes acting in concert, with a partition separating the air and exhaust gas flow streams. Because each heat pipe is essentially an independent heat exchanger, the failure of a single tube does not compromise recuperator integrity, has only a minimal effect on overall heat exchanger performance and enables easier replacement of individual heat pipes. In addition, the heat pipe acts as an essentially isothermal heat transfer device, leading to a high thermodynamic efficiency. Cost estimates developed for heat pipe recuperator systems indicate favorable payback periods. Laboratory studies have demonstrated the feasibility of fabricating the required ceramic tubes, coating the inside of the tubes with CVD tungsten, and sealing the heat pipe with an electron-beam-welded or vacuum-brazed end cap.

  5. 75 FR 877 - Drill Pipe From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ... Pipe From China AGENCY: International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of antidumping and... States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of drill pipe, provided for in subheadings... Government of China. Unless the Department of Commerce extends the time for initiation pursuant to sections...

  6. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe...

  7. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is...

  8. 46 CFR 182.455 - Fuel piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... system is of nickel-copper or copper-nickel. When making tube connections, the tubing must be cut square...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.455 Fuel piping. (a) Materials and workmanship. The materials and construction of fuel lines, including pipe, tube, and hose, must comply with the...

  9. Detecting pipe bursts by monitoring water demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Van der Roer, M.; Sperber, V.

    2012-01-01

    An algorithm which compares measured and predicted water demands to detect pipe bursts was developed and tested on three data sets of water demand and reported pipe bursts of three years. The algorithm proved to be able to detect bursts where the water loss exceeds 30% of the average water demand in

  10. Pipe failure probability - the Thomas paper revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydell, B.O.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Almost twenty years ago, in Volume 2 of Reliability Engineering (the predecessor of Reliability Engineering and System Safety), a paper by H. M. Thomas of Rolls Royce and Associates Ltd. presented a generalized approach to the estimation of piping and vessel failure probability. The 'Thomas-approach' used insights from actual failure statistics to calculate the probability of leakage and conditional probability of rupture given leakage. It was intended for practitioners without access to data on the service experience with piping and piping system components. This article revisits the Thomas paper by drawing on insights from development of a new database on piping failures in commercial nuclear power plants worldwide (SKI-PIPE). Partially sponsored by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI), the R and D leading up to this note was performed during 1994-1999. Motivated by data requirements of reliability analysis and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), the new database supports statistical analysis of piping failure data. Against the background of this database development program, the article reviews the applicability of the 'Thomas approach' in applied risk and reliability analysis. It addresses the question whether a new and expanded database on the service experience with piping systems would alter the original piping reliability correlation as suggested by H. M. Thomas

  11. Laser-GMA Hybrid Pipe Welding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    Investigation of varying laser power. The welded pipe is shown, with close -ups of the rootside reinforcement and macro sections...68 Figure 44. Investigation of varying laser stand-off. The welded pipe is shown, along with close -ups of backside...conventional beveled joints. With appropriate joint configuration and preparation, deep keyhole penetration provided by the laser and additional filler

  12. Heat Pipes Reduce Engine-Exhaust Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D. F.

    1986-01-01

    Increased fuel vaporization raises engine efficiency. Heat-pipe technology increased efficiency of heat transfer beyond that obtained by metallic conduction. Resulted in both improved engine operation and reduction in fuel consumption. Raw material conservation through reduced dependence on strategic materials also benefit from this type of heat-pipe technology. Applications result in improved engine performance and cleaner environment.

  13. Water driven turbine/brush pipe cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werlink, Rudy J. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Assemblies are disclosed for cleaning the inside walls of pipes and tubes. A first embodiment includes a small turbine with angled blades axially mounted on one end of a standoff support. An O-ring for stabilizing the assembly within the pipe is mounted in a groove within the outer ring. A replaceable circular brush is fixedly mounted on the opposite end of the standoff support and can be used for cleaning tubes and pipes of various diameters, lengths and configurations. The turbine, standoff support, and brush spin in unison relative to a hub bearing that is fixedly attached to a wire upstream of the assembly. The nonrotating wire is for retaining the assembly in tension and enabling return of the assembly to the pipe entrance. The assembly is initially placed in the pipe or tube to be cleaned. A pressurized water or solution source is provided at a required flow-rate to propel the assembly through the pipe or tube. The upstream water pressure propels and spins the turbine, standoff support and brush. The rotating brush combined with the solution cleans the inside of the pipe. The solution flows out of the other end of the pipe with the brush rotation controlled by the flow-rate. A second embodiment is similar to the first embodiment but instead includes a circular shaped brush with ring backing mounted in the groove of the exterior ring of the turbine, and also reduces the size of the standoff support or eliminates the standoff support.

  14. Mechanized ultrasonic inspection of austenitic pipe systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressler, K.; Luecking, J.; Medenbach, S.

    1999-01-01

    The contribution explains the system of standard testing methods elaborated by ABB ZAQ GmbH for inspection of austenitic plant components. The inspection tasks explained in greater detail are basic materials testing (straight pipes, bends, and pipe specials), and inspection of welds and dissimilar welds. The techniques discussed in detail are those for detection and sizing of defects. (orig./CB) [de

  15. Backward erosion piping : Initiation and progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Beek, V.M.

    2015-01-01

    Backward erosion piping is an internal erosion mechanism during which shallow pipes are formed in the direction opposite to the flow underneath water-retaining structures as a result of the gradual removal of sandy material by the action of water. It is an important failure mechanism in both dikes

  16. CAPD Software Development for Automatic Piping System Design: Checking Piping Pocket, Checking Valve Level and Flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ari Satmoko; Edi Karyanta; Dedy Haryanto; Abdul Hafid; Sudarno; Kussigit Santosa; Pinitoyo, A.; Demon Handoyo

    2003-01-01

    One of several steps in industrial plant construction is preparing piping layout drawing. In this drawing, pipe and all other pieces such as instrumentation, equipment, structure should be modeled A software called CAPD was developed to replace and to behave as piping drafter or designer. CAPD was successfully developed by adding both subprogram CHKUPIPE and CHKMANV. The first subprogram can check and gives warning if there is piping pocket in the piping system. The second can identify valve position and then check whether valve can be handled by operator hand The main program CAPD was also successfully modified in order to be capable in limiting the maximum length of straight pipe. By limiting the length, piping flexibility can be increased. (author)

  17. Secondary pipe rupture at Mihama unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajime Ito; Takehiko Sera

    2005-01-01

    The secondary system pipe rupture occurred on August 9, 2004, while Mihama unit 3 was operating at the rated thermal power. The rupture took place on the condensate line-A piping between the No.4 LP heater and the deaerator, downstream of an orifice used for measuring the condensate flux. The pipe is made of carbon steel, and normally has 558.8 mm diameter and 10 mm thickness. The pipe wall had thinned to 0.4 mm at the point of minimum thickness. It is estimated that the disturbed flow of water downstream of the orifice caused erosion/corrosion and developed wall thinning, leading to a rupture at the thinnest section under internal pressure, about 1MPa. Observation of the pipe internal surface revealed a scale-like pattern typical in this kind of phenomenon. Eleven workers who were preparing for an annual outage that was to start from August 14 suffered burn injuries, of who five died. Since around 1975, we, Kansai Electric, have been checking pipe wall thickness while focusing on the thinning of carbon steel piping in the secondary system. Summarizing the results from such investigation and reviewing the latest technical knowledge including operating experience from overseas utilities, we compiled the pipe thickness management guideline for PWR secondary pipes, 1990. The pipe section that ruptured at the Mihama unit 3 should have been included within the inspection scopes according to the guideline but was not registered on the inspection list. It had not been corrected for almost thirty years. As the result, this pipe section had not been inspected even once since the beginning of the plant operation, 1976. It seems that the quality assurance and maintenance management had not functioned well regarding the secondary system piping management, although we were responsible for the safety of nuclear power plants as licensee. We will review the secondary system inspection procedure and also improve the pipe thickness management guideline. And also, we would replace

  18. Inspection technology for high pressure pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Eum, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R.; Moon, Soon S.; Jang, Jong H

    2000-02-01

    Various kinds of defects are likely to be occurred in the welds of high pressure pipes in nuclear power plants. Considering the recent accident of Zuruga nuclear power plant in Japan, reasonable policy is strongly requested for the high pressure pipe integrity. In this study, we developed the technologies to inspect pipe welds automatically. After development of scanning robot prototype in the first research year, we developed and implemented the algorithm of automatic tracking of the scanning robot along the weld line of the pipes. We use laser slit beam on weld area and capture the image using digital camera. Through processing of the captures image, we finally determine the weld line automatically. In addition, we investigated a new technology on micro systems for developing micro scanning robotic inspection of the pipe welds. The technology developed in this study is being transferred to the industry. (author)

  19. Heat pipe nuclear reactor for space power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koening, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    A heat-pipe-cooled nuclear reactor has been designed to provide 3.2 MWth to an out-of-core thermionic conversion system. The reactor is a fast reactor designed to operate at a nominal heat-pipe temperature of 1675 K. Each reactor fuel element consists of a hexagonal molybdenum block which is bonded along its axis to one end of a molybdenum/lithium-vapor heat pipe. The block is perforated with an array of longitudinal holes which are loaded with UO2 pellets. The heat pipe transfers heat directly to a string of six thermionic converters which are bonded along the other end of the heat pipe. An assembly of 90 such fuel elements forms a hexagonal core. The core is surrounded by a thermal radiation shield, a thin thermal neutron absorber, and a BeO reflector containing boron-loaded control drums.

  20. IPIRG programs - advances in pipe fracture technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkowski, G.; Olson, R.; Scott, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the advances made in fracture control technology as a result of the research performed in the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program. The findings from numerous experiments and supporting analyses conducted to investigate the behavior of circumferentially flawed piping and pipe systems subjected to high-rate loading typical of seismic events are summarized. Topics to be discussed include; (1) Seismic loading effects on material properties, (2) Piping system behavior under seismic loads, (3) Advances in elbow fracture evaluations, and (4) open-quotes Realclose quotes piping system response. The presentation for each topic will be illustrated with data and analytical results. In each case, the state-of-the-art in fracture mechanics prior to the first IPIRG program will be contrasted with the state-of-the-art at the completion of the IPIRG-2 program

  1. Ultrasonic guided waves in eccentric annular pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattanayak, Roson Kumar; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Rajagopal, Prabhu

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of using ultrasonic guided waves to rapidly inspect tubes and pipes for possible eccentricity. While guided waves are well established in the long range inspection of structures such as pipes and plates, studies for more complex cross sections are limited and analytical solutions are often difficult to obtain. Recent developments have made the Semi Analytical Finite Element (SAFE) method widely accessible for researchers to study guided wave properties in complex structures. Here the SAFE method is used to study the effect of eccentricity on the modal structures and velocities of lower order guided wave modes in thin pipes of diameters typically of interest to the industry. Results are validated using experiments. The paper demonstrates that even a small eccentricity in the pipe can strongly affect guided wave mode structures and velocities and hence shows potential for pipe eccentricity inspection

  2. IPIRG programs - advances in pipe fracture technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkowski, G.; Olson, R.; Scott, P. [Batelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the advances made in fracture control technology as a result of the research performed in the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program. The findings from numerous experiments and supporting analyses conducted to investigate the behavior of circumferentially flawed piping and pipe systems subjected to high-rate loading typical of seismic events are summarized. Topics to be discussed include; (1) Seismic loading effects on material properties, (2) Piping system behavior under seismic loads, (3) Advances in elbow fracture evaluations, and (4) {open_quotes}Real{close_quotes} piping system response. The presentation for each topic will be illustrated with data and analytical results. In each case, the state-of-the-art in fracture mechanics prior to the first IPIRG program will be contrasted with the state-of-the-art at the completion of the IPIRG-2 program.

  3. Pipe supports and anchors - LMFBR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.

    1983-06-01

    Pipe design and support design can not be treated as separate disciplines. A coordinated design approach is required if LMFBR pipe system adequacy is to be achieved at a reasonable cost. It is particularly important that system designers understand and consider those factors which influence support train flexibility and thus the pipe system dynamic stress levels. The system approach must not stop with the design phase but should continue thru the erection and acceptance test procedures. The factors that should be considered in the design of LMFBR pipe supports and anchors are described. The various pipe support train elements are described together with guidance on analysis, design and application aspects. Post erection acceptance and verification test procedures are then discussed

  4. Solar heat-pipe wick modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andraka, C.E.

    1999-07-01

    Stirling-cycle engines have been identified as a promising technology for the conversion of concentrated solar energy into usable electrical power. In previous experimental work, the author has demonstrated that a heat pipe receiver can significantly improve system performance over a directly-illuminated heater head. The design and operating conditions of a heat pipe receiver differ significantly from typical laboratory heat pipes. New wick structures have been developed to exploit the characteristics of the solar generation system. Typically, these wick structures allow vapor generation within the wick. Conventional heat pipe models do not handle this enhancement, yet it can more than double the performance of the wick. In this study, the author developed a steady-state model of a boiling-enhanced wick for a solar heat pipe receiver. The model is used for design-point calculations and is written in FORTRAN90. Some limited comparisons have been made with actual test data.

  5. Nuclear piping system damping data studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Arendts, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    A programm has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to study structural damping data for nuclear piping systems and to evaluate if changes in allowable damping values for structural seismic analyses are justified. The existing pipe damping data base was examined, from which a conclusion was made that there were several sets of data to support higher allowable values. The parameters which most influence pipe damping were identified and an analytical investigation demonstrated that increased damping would reduce the required number of seismic supports. A series of tests on several laboratory piping systems was used to determine the effect of various parameters such as types of supports, amplitude of vibration, frequency, insulation, and pressure on damping. A multiple regression analysis was used to statistically assess the influence of the various parameters on damping, and an international pipe damping data bank has been formed. (orig.)

  6. Chemical laser exhaust pipe design research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yunqiang; Huang, Zhilong; Chen, Zhiqiang; Ren, Zebin; Guo, Longde

    2016-10-01

    In order to weaken the chemical laser exhaust gas influence of the optical transmission, a vent pipe is advised to emissions gas to the outside of the optical transmission area. Based on a variety of exhaust pipe design, a flow field characteristic of the pipe is carried out by numerical simulation and analysis in detail. The research results show that for uniform deflating exhaust pipe, although the pipeline structure is cyclical and convenient for engineering implementation, but there is a phenomenon of air reflows at the pipeline entrance slit which can be deduced from the numerical simulation results. So, this type of pipeline structure does not guarantee seal. For the design scheme of putting the pipeline contract part at the end of the exhaust pipe, or using the method of local area or tail contraction, numerical simulation results show that backflow phenomenon still exists at the pipeline entrance slit. Preliminary analysis indicates that the contraction of pipe would result in higher static pressure near the wall for the low speed flow field, so as to produce counter pressure gradient at the entrance slit. In order to eliminate backflow phenomenon at the pipe entrance slit, concerned with the pipeline type of radial size increase gradually along the flow, flow field property in the pipe is analyzed in detail by numerical simulation methods. Numerical simulation results indicate that there is not reflow phenomenon at entrance slit of the dilated duct. However the cold air inhaled in the slit which makes the temperature of the channel wall is lower than the center temperature. Therefore, this kind of pipeline structure can not only prevent the leak of the gas, but also reduce the wall temperature. In addition, compared with the straight pipe connection way, dilated pipe structure also has periodic structure, which can facilitate system integration installation.

  7. Rapportering om going concern i den nye revisionspåtegning – særlige forhold for PIE-virksomheder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seehausen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler særlige forhold for PIE-virksomheder, dvs. virksomheder af interesse for offentligheden, vedrørende going concern. Artikel skal læses i sammenhæng med min generelle artikel vedr. rapportering om going concern i den nye revisionspåtegning, idet denne artikel også er relevant...

  8. Song degradation in the hole-nesting pied flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca: Implications for polyterritorial behaviour in contrasting habitat-types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lampe, Helene M.; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Pedersen, Simon Boel

    2007-01-01

    In the hole-nesting pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, a male may become polyterritorial after attracting a primary female. However, the female may recognize her mate's song and attack other females that associate with him. Differences in sound degradation amongst different habitats and within ...

  9. Heat pipes for temperature control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groll, M.

    1978-01-01

    Heat pipes have known for years as effective constructional elements for temperature control. With the aid of special techniques (gas, liquid, steam, and voltage control), special operating characteristics can be obtained, e.g. variable heat conduction or diode behaviour. Their main field of application is in spacecraft technology and in nuclear technology in the isothermalisation of irradiation capsules. The different control techniques are presented and critically evaluated on the basis of characteristic properties like heat transfer capacity, volume and mass requirements, complexity of structure and production, reliability, and temperature control characteristics. Advantages and shortcomings of the different concepts are derived and compared. The state of the art of these control techniques is established on the basis of four development levels. Finally, the necessity and direction of further R + D activities are discussed, and suggestions are made for further work. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Destabilizing turbulence in pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnen, Jakob; Song, Baofang; Scarselli, Davide; Budanur, Nazmi Burak; Riedl, Michael; Willis, Ashley P.; Avila, Marc; Hof, Björn

    2018-04-01

    Turbulence is the major cause of friction losses in transport processes and it is responsible for a drastic drag increase in flows over bounding surfaces. While much effort is invested into developing ways to control and reduce turbulence intensities1-3, so far no methods exist to altogether eliminate turbulence if velocities are sufficiently large. We demonstrate for pipe flow that appropriate distortions to the velocity profile lead to a complete collapse of turbulence and subsequently friction losses are reduced by as much as 90%. Counterintuitively, the return to laminar motion is accomplished by initially increasing turbulence intensities or by transiently amplifying wall shear. Since neither the Reynolds number nor the shear stresses decrease (the latter often increase), these measures are not indicative of turbulence collapse. Instead, an amplification mechanism4,5 measuring the interaction between eddies and the mean shear is found to set a threshold below which turbulence is suppressed beyond recovery.

  11. Does a rival’s song elicit territorial defense in a tropical songbird, the Pied Bush Chat (Saxicola caprata?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navjeevan Dadwal

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of bird song and the way in which it is delivered has been argued to be adapted mainly for territorial defense. We performed a field experiment with the combination of playbacks and a model to test how much song actually relates to increased territorial defense in the territorial tropical songbird, the Pied Bush Chat, during breeding season (Feb–May, 2015 at Haridwar, Himalayan Foothills, India. As expected, the results of the experiment indicated that song was the major cue used by territory holders to cope with rival intrusions. The song rate was particularly escalated during simulated territorial interactions when the model was presented with a playback song of conspecifics. Behaviors such as restlessness (perch change, the height of perch, and distance from the model appeared to be of relatively lesser importance. To our knowledge, no avian species from the Indian subcontinent has been studied to provide evidence that song can escalate aggressive response by a territory owner.

  12. Estratificación de riesgo en pie diabético Risk stratification in diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor González de la Torre

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El pie diabético es una complicación crónica de la diabetes mellitus y constituye una problemática sanitaria al conllevar un enorme gasto económico a los servicios sanitarios y provocar a las personas que lo padecen y a su entorno familiar enormes repercusiones emocionales. La educación sanitaria en el cuidado de los pies de los diabéticos, así como la cuantificación del riesgo son aspectos que el enfermero debe incorporar en los planes de cuidados de los pacientes diabéticos. La detección de los posibles factores de riesgo es un paso previo imprescindible para estos cometidos. Este estudio tiene como finalidad analizar la presencia de determinados factores de riesgo en pie diabético en la población diabética del Centro de Salud de Triana, con el objetivo de poder realizar, así, una estratificación del riesgo. Para ello, se optó por la realización de un estudio observacional descriptivo. La muestra analizada estaba constituida por 96 sujetos diabéticos pertenecientes a dicho centro de salud. Para la recogida de datos se utilizó un sistema de tres niveles consistente en entrevista, exploración física y consulta de registros disponibles (a través de las historias clínicas de los sujetos. Los datos se registraron en un formulario de recogida de datos para pie diabético. Se determinó la existencia de factores de riesgo, analizando las relaciones entre éstos y permitiendo la estratificación del riesgo en la población estudiada.The diabetic foot is a chronic complication of diabetes mellitus and constitutes a sanitary problem which causes not only enormous expenses for the sanitary system but also provokes emotional repercussions for the person who suffers the illness and for the family. The sanitary education in taking care of the feet of diabetics and the identification of the health risk are both aspects that the nurse must include in the healthcare planning of diabetic patients. The detection of the possible risk

  13. Emission computer tomography on a Dodewaard mixed oxide fuel pin. Comparative PIE work with non-destructive and destructive techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buurveld, H.A.; Dassel, G.

    1993-12-01

    A nondestructive technique as well as a destructive PIE technique have been used to verify the results obtained with a newly 8-e computer tomography (GECT) system. Multi isotope Scanning (MIS), electron probe micro analysis (EPMA) and GECT were used on a mixed oxide (MOX) fuel rod from the Dodewaard reactor with an average burnup of 24 MWd/kg fuel. GECT shows migration of Cs to the periphery of fuel pellets and to radial cracks and pores in the fuel, whereas MIS shows Cs migration to pellet interfaces. The EPMA technique appeared not to be useful to show migration of Cs but, it shows the distribution of fission products from Pu. EPMA clearly shows the distribution of fission products from Pu, but did not reveal the Cs-migration. (orig./HP)

  14. Pipe rupture test results: 4-inch pipe whip tests under PWR LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Ueda, Shuzo; Isozaki, Toshikuni; Kato, Rokuro; Kurihara, Ryoichi; Yano, Toshikazu; Miyazono, Shohachiro

    1982-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of 4-inch pipe whip tests (RUN No. 5506, 5507, 5508 and 5604) under the PWR LOCA conditions. The dynamic behaviors of the test pipe and restraints were studied in the tests. In the tests, the gap between the test pipe and the restraints was kept at the constant value of 8.85 mm and the overhang length was varied from 250 mm to 650 mm. The dynamic behaviors of the test pipe and the restraint were made clear by the outputs of strain gages and the measurements of residual deformations. The data of water hammer in subcooled water were also obtained by the pressure transducers mounted on the test pipe. The main conclusions obtained from the tests are as follows. (1) The whipping of pipe can be prevented more effectively as the overhang length becomes shorter. (2) The load acting on the restraint-support structure becomes larger as the overhang length becomes shorter. (3) The restraint farther from the break location does not limit the pipe movement except for the first impact when the overhang length is long. (4) The ultimate moment M sub(u) of the pipe at the restraint location can be used to predict the plastic collapse of the whipping pipe. (5) The restraints slide along the pipe axis and are subjected to bending moment, when the overhang length is long. (author)

  15. Casing free district heating pipes; Mantelfria fjaerrvaermeroer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saellberg, Sven-Erik; Nilsson, Stefan [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that polyurethane insulation (PUR foam) on district heating pipes acts as protection against water if it is of good quality, i.e. free from cracks, cavities and other defects. On the other hand water vapour easily diffuses through PUR foam. However this is not a problem as long as the steel pipe is warmer than the surface layer, since the high temperature will prevent the vapour from condensating. What will happen with the insulation of a casing free district heating pipe where the ground water level occasionally reaches above the pipe has not been studied in detail. The current project has studied to what extent moisture enters the PUR foam insulation of two approximately one meter long district heating pipes without casing which have been in the ground for four years. Occasionally, the ground-water has entirely covered the pipes. In addition, the foam has been studied with respect to damage from the surrounding backfill material. Test specimens were taken out of the casing free pipes and were analysed with respect to moisture content. Additional measurements were done with a moisture indicator, and the electric resistance between the steel pipes and the four surveillance wires in each pipe was measured. The results from the various measurement techniques were the compared. The results show that the PUR foam remains dry as long as the service pipe is hot if no defects, such as crack and cavities, are present. Close to the service pipe, the foam actually dries out over time. The moisture content of the middle layer remains more or less constant. Only the colder parts on the outside exhibit an increase in moisture content. It was also seen that defects may lead to water ingress with subsequent humidification of the foam. However, the damaged foam area is limited. This is not the case for a regular pipe with a vapour tight casing, where experience show that moisture tend to spread along the pipe. The pipes were buried in sand and no

  16. New portable pipe wall thickness measuring technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascente, Joseph E.

    1998-03-01

    One of the biggest inspection challenges facing many of the process industries; namely the petrochemical, refining, fossil power, and pulp and paper industries is: How to effectively examine their insulated piping? While there are a number of failure mechanisms involved in various process piping systems, piping degradation through corrosion and erosion are by far the most prevalent. This degradation can be in the form of external corrosion under insulation, internal corrosion through a variety of mechanisms, and internal erosion caused by the flow of the product through the pipe. Refineries, chemical plants and electrical power plants have MANY thousands of miles of pipe that are insulated to prevent heat loss or heat absorption. This insulation is often made up of several materials, with calcium based material being the most dense. The insulating material is usually wrapped with an aluminum or stainless steel outer wrap. Verification of wall thickness of these pipes can be accomplished by removing the insulation and doing an ultrasound inspection or by taking x- rays at a tangent to the edge of the pipe through the insulation. Both of these processes are slow and expensive. The time required to obtain data is measured in hours per meter. The ultrasound method requires that the insulation be plugged after the inspection. The surface needs to be cleaned or the resulting data will not be accurate. The tangent x-ray only shows two thicknesses and requires that the area be roped off because of radiation safety.

  17. Modelling of fiberglass pipe destruction process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. К. Николаев

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with important current issue of oil and gas industry of using tubes made of high-strength composite corrosion resistant materials. In order to improve operational safety of industrial pipes it is feasible to use composite fiberglass tubes. More than half of the accidents at oil and gas sites happen at oil gathering systems due to high corrosiveness of pumped fluid. To reduce number of accidents and improve environmental protection we need to solve the issue of industrial pipes durability. This problem could be solved by using composite materials from fiberglass, which have required physical and mechanical properties for oil pipes. The durability and strength can be monitored by a fiberglass winding method, number of layers in composite material and high corrosion-resistance properties of fiberglass. Usage of high-strength composite materials in oil production is economically feasible; fiberglass pipes production is cheaper than steel pipes. Fiberglass has small volume weight, which simplifies pipe transportation and installation. In order to identify the efficiency of using high-strength composite materials at oil production sites we conducted a research of their physical-mechanical properties and modelled fiber pipe destruction process.

  18. Heat pipes to reduce engine exhaust emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D. F. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A fuel combustor is presented that consists of an elongated casing with an air inlet conduit portion at one end, and having an opposite exit end. An elongated heat pipe is mounted longitudinally in the casing and is offset from and extends alongside the combustion space. The heat pipe is in heat transmitting relationship with the air intake conduit for heating incoming air. A guide conduit structure is provided for conveying the heated air from the intake conduit into the combustion space. A fuel discharge nozzle is provided to inject fuel into the combustion space. A fuel conduit from a fuel supply source has a portion engaged in heat transfer relationship of the heat pipe for preheating the fuel. The downstream end of the heat pipe is in heat transfer relationship with the casing and is located adjacent to the downstream end of the combustion space. The offset position of the heat pipe relative to the combustion space minimizes the quenching effect of the heat pipe on the gaseous products of combustion, as well as reducing coking of the fuel on the heat pipe, thereby improving the efficiency of the combustor.

  19. Piping system damping data at higher frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    Research has been performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) to determine best-estimate damping values for dynamic analyses of nuclear piping systems excited in the 20 to 100 Hz frequency range. Vibrations in this frequency range are typical of fluid-induced transients, for which no formal pipe damping guidelines exist. The available data found in the open literature and the USNRC/INEL nuclear piping damping data bank were reviewed, and a series of tests on a straight 3-in. (76-mm) piping system and a 5-in. (127-mm) system with several bends and elbows were conducted as part of this research program. These two systems were supported with typical nuclear piping supports that could be changed from test to test during the series. The resulting damping values were ≥ those of the Pressure Vessel Research Committee (PVRC) proposal for unisulated piping. Extending the PVRC damping curve from 20 to 100 Hz at 3% of critical damping would give a satisfactory representation of the test data. This position has been endorsed by the PVRC Technical Committee on Piping Systems. 14 refs

  20. Turbulent Heat Transfer in Curved Pipe Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Changwoo; Yang, Kyung-Soo

    2013-11-01

    In the present investigation, turbulent heat transfer in fully-developed curved pipe flow with axially uniform wall heat flux has been numerically studied. The Reynolds numbers under consideration are Reτ = 210 (DNS) and 1,000 (LES) based on the mean friction velocity and the pipe radius, and the Prandtl number (Pr) is 0.71. For Reτ = 210 , the pipe curvature (κ) was fixed as 1/18.2, whereas three cases of κ (0.01, 0.05, 0.1) were computed in the case of Reτ = 1,000. The mean velocity, turbulent intensities and heat transfer rates obtained from the present calculations are in good agreement with the previous numerical and experimental results. To elucidate the secondary flow structures due to the pipe curvature, the mean quantities and rms fluctuations of the flow and temperature fields are presented on the pipe cross-sections, and compared with those of the straight pipe flow. To study turbulence structures and their influence on turbulent heat transfer, turbulence statistics including but not limited to skewness and flatness of velocity fluctuations, cross-correlation coefficients, an Octant analysis, and turbulence budgets are presented and discussed. Based on our results, we attempt to clarify the effects of Reynolds number and the pipe curvature on turbulent heat transfer. This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2010-0008457).

  1. Structural integrity assessment of piping components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwaha, H.S.; Chattopadhyay, J.

    2008-01-01

    Integrity assessment of piping components is very essential for safe and reliable operation of power plants. Over the last several decades, considerable work has been done throughout the world to develop a methodology for integrity assessment of pipes and elbows, appropriate for the material involved. However, there is scope of further development/improvement of issues, particularly for pipe bends, that are important for accurate integrity assessment of piping. Considering this aspect, a comprehensive Component Integrity Test Program was initiated in 1998 at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), India. In this program, both theoretical and experimental investigations were undertaken to address various issues related to the integrity assessment of pipes and elbows. Under the experimental investigations, fracture mechanics tests have been conducted on pipes and elbows of 200-400 mm nominal bore (NB) diameter with various crack configurations and sizes under different loading conditions. Tests on small tensile and three point bend specimens, machined from the tested pipes, have also been done to evaluate the actual stress-strain and fracture resistance properties of pipe/elbow material. The load-deflection curve and crack initiation loads predicted by non-linear finite element analysis matched well with the experimental results. The theoretical collapse moments of throughwall circumferentially cracked elbows, predicted by the recently developed equations, are found to be closer to the test data compared to the other existing equations. The role of stress triaxialities ahead of crack tip is also shown in the transferability of J-Resistance curve from specimen to component. The cyclic loading and system compliance effect on the load carrying capacity of piping components are investigated and new recommendations are made. (author)

  2. Response of buried pipes to missile impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vardanega, C.; Cremonini, M.G.; Mirone, M.; Luciani, A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents the methodology and results of the analyses carried out to determine an effective layout and the dynamic response of safety related cooling water pipes, buried in backfill, for the Alto Lazio Nuclear Power Plant in Italy, subjected to missile impact loading at the backfill surface. The pipes are composed of a steel plate encased in two layers of high-quality reinforced concrete. The methodology comprises three steps. The first step is the definition of the 'free-field' dynamic response of the backfill soil, not considering the presence of the pipes, through a dynamic finite element direct integration analysis utilizing an axisymmetric model. The second step is the pipe-soil interaction analysis, which is conducted by utilizing the soil displacement and stress time-histories obtained in the previous steps. Soil stress time-histories, combined with the geostatic and other operational stresses (such as those due to temperature and pressure), are used to obtain the actions in the pipe walls due to ring type deformation. For the third step, the analysis of the beam type response, a lumped parameter model is developed which accounts for the soil stiffness, the pipe characteristics and the position of the pipe with respect to the impact area. In addition, the effect of the presence of large concrete structures, such as tunnels, between the ground surface and the pipe is evaluated. The results of the structural analyses lead to defining the required steel thickness and also allow the choice of appropriate embedment depth and layout of redundant lines. The final results of the analysis is not only the strength verification of the pipe section, but also the definition of an effective layout of the lines in terms of position, depth, steel thickness and joint design. (orig.)

  3. Fatigue analysis of aluminum drill pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Ribeiro Plácido

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental program was performed to investigate the fundamental fatigue mechanisms of aluminum drill pipes. Initially, the fatigue properties were determined through small-scale tests performed in an optic-mechanical fatigue apparatus. Additionally, full-scale fatigue tests were carried out with three aluminum drill pipe specimens under combined loading of cyclic bending and constant axial tension. Finally, a finite element model was developed to simulate the stress field along the aluminum drill pipe during the fatigue tests and to estimate the stress concentration factors inside the tool joints. By this way, it was possible to estimate the stress values in regions not monitored during the fatigue tests.

  4. Heat pipes theory, design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reay, David; Kew, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Heat Pipes, 6th Edition, takes a highly practical approach to the design and selection of heat pipes, making it an essential guide for practicing engineers and an ideal text for postgraduate students. This new edition has been revised to include new information on the underlying theory of heat pipes and heat transfer, and features fully updated applications, new data sections, and updated chapters on design and electronics cooling. The book is a useful reference for those with experience and an accessible introduction for those approaching the topic for the first time. Contains all informat

  5. Forensic characterization of HDPE pipes by DSC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajwan, Madhuri; Aggarwal, Saroj; Singh, R B

    2008-03-05

    The melting behavior of 28 high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe samples manufactured and supplied by 13 different manufacturers in India was examined by 'differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)' to find out if this parameter could be used in differentiating between these HDPE pipe samples which are chemically the same and being manufactured by different manufacturer. The results indicate that the melting temperature may serve as the useful criteria for differentiating HDPE (i) pipe samples from different sources and (ii) samples of different diameter from the same source.

  6. Vacuum pipe for e+e- interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoard, C.T.

    1982-10-01

    The design, fabrication and testing of the beryllium vacuum chamber within the Mark II detector at SLAC is described. The Be chamber encloses one interaction point of the PEP circulating ring and is a part of its beam pipe. The Be chamber is captured within the Secondary Vertex Detector (SVD), a drift chamber, which is in turn centered in the Mark II drift chamber. Both ends of the beryllium pipe are brazed to aluminum/stainless transitions for connection to stainless steel bellows. A concentric radiation-screen liner of titanium foil runs the full length of the beryllium pipe

  7. Pipe crawlers: Versatile adaptations for real applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hapstack, M.; Talarek, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    A problem at the Savannah River Site requires the unique application of a pipe crawler. A number of stainless steel pipes buried in concrete require ultrasonic inspection of the heat affected zones of the welds for detection of flaws or cracks. The paper describes the utilization of an inch-worm motion pipe crawler which negotiates a 90 degree reducing elbow with significant changes in diameter and vertical sections before entering the area of concern. After a discussion of general considerations and problem description, special requirements to meet the objectives and the design approach regarding the tractor, control system, instrument carriage, and radiation protection are discussed. 2 refs., 11 figs. (MB)

  8. Pipe whip analysis using the TEDEL code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, D.; Hoffmann, A.

    1985-02-01

    In view of their abundance, piping systems are one of the main components in power industries and in particular in nuclear power plants. They must be designed for normal as well as faulted conditions, for safety requirements. The prediction of the dynamic behaviour of the free pipe requires accounting for several nonlinearities. For this purpose, a beam type finite element program (TEDEL) has been used. The aim of this paper is to enlight the main features of this program, when applied to pipe whip analysis. An example of application to a real case will also be presented

  9. Subprogram Calculating The Distance Between Pipe And Plane For Automatic Piping System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satmoko, Ari

    2001-01-01

    DISTLNPL subprogram was created using Auto LISP software. This subprogram is planned to complete CAPD (Computer Aided Piping Design) software being developed. The CAPD works under the following method: suggesting piping system line and evaluating whether any obstacle allows the proposed line to be constructed. DISTLNPL is able to compute the distance between pipe and any equipment having plane dimension such as wall, platform, floors, and so on. The pipe is modeled by using a line representing its axis, and the equipment is modeled using a plane limited by some lines. The obtained distance between line and plane gives information whether the pipe crosses the equipment. In the case of crashing, the subprogram will suggest an alternative point to be passed by piping system. So far, DISTLNPL has not been able to be accessed by CAPD yet. However, this subprogram promises good prospect in modeling wall, platform, and floors

  10. Reliability of piping system components. Volume 4: The pipe failure event database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, R; Erixon, S [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Tomic, B [ENCONET Consulting GmbH, Vienna (Austria); Lydell, B [RSA Technologies, Visat, CA (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Available public and proprietary databases on piping system failures were searched for relevant information. Using a relational database to identify groupings of piping failure modes and failure mechanisms, together with insights from published PSAs, the project team determined why, how and where piping systems fail. This report represents a compendium of technical issues important to the analysis of pipe failure events, and statistical estimation of failure rates. Inadequacies of traditional PSA methodology are addressed, with directions for PSA methodology enhancements. A `data driven and systems oriented` analysis approach is proposed to enable assignment of unique identities to risk-significant piping system component failure. Sufficient operating experience does exist to generate quality data on piping failures. Passive component failures should be addressed by today`s PSAs to allow for aging analysis and effective, on-line risk management. 42 refs, 25 figs.

  11. Characterization of radioactive contamination inside pipes with the Pipe Explorer{sup trademark} system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W.; Cramer, E. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s nuclear facility decommissioning program needs to characterize radiological contamination inside piping systems before the pipe can be recycled, remediated, or disposed. Historically, this has been attempted using hand held survey instrumentation, surveying only the accessible exterior portions of pipe systems. Difficulty, or inability of measuring threshold surface contamination values, worker exposure, and physical access constraints have limited the effectiveness of this approach. Science and Engineering associates, Inc. under contract with the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center has developed and demonstrated the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system, which uses an inverting membrane to transport various characterization sensors into pipes. The basic process involves inverting (turning inside out) a tubular impermeable membrane under air pressure. A characterization sensor is towed down the interior of the pipe by the membrane.

  12. Ultrasonic testing with the phased array method at the pipe connection inner edges in pipings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brekow, G.; Wuestenberg, H.; Hesselmann, H.; Rathgeb, W.

    1991-01-01

    Ultrasonic testing with the phased array method at the pipe connection inner edges in pipings. The pipe connection inner corner tests in feedwater lines to the main coolant pipe were carried out by Preussen-Elektra in cooperation with Siemens KWU and the BAM with the ultrasonic phased array method. The testing plan was developed by means of a computed model. For a trial of the testing plan, numerous ultrasonic measurements with the phased array method were carried out using a pipe test piece with TH-type inner edges, which was a 1:1 model of the reactor component to be tested. The data measured at several test notches in the pipe connection inner edge area covered by a plating of 6 mm were analyzed. (orig./MM) [de

  13. Reliability of piping system components. Volume 4: The pipe failure event database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, R.; Erixon, S.; Tomic, B.; Lydell, B.

    1996-07-01

    Available public and proprietary databases on piping system failures were searched for relevant information. Using a relational database to identify groupings of piping failure modes and failure mechanisms, together with insights from published PSAs, the project team determined why, how and where piping systems fail. This report represents a compendium of technical issues important to the analysis of pipe failure events, and statistical estimation of failure rates. Inadequacies of traditional PSA methodology are addressed, with directions for PSA methodology enhancements. A 'data driven and systems oriented' analysis approach is proposed to enable assignment of unique identities to risk-significant piping system component failure. Sufficient operating experience does exist to generate quality data on piping failures. Passive component failures should be addressed by today's PSAs to allow for aging analysis and effective, on-line risk management. 42 refs, 25 figs

  14. Study on pressure pulsation and piping vibration of complex piping of reciprocating compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Bin; Feng Quanke; Yu Xiaoling

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary research on the piping vibration and pressure pulsation of reciprocating compressor piping system. On the basis of plane wave theory, the calculation of gas column natural frequency and pressure pulsation in complex pipelines is done by using the transfer matrix method and stiffness matrix method, respectively. With the discretization method of FEM, a mathematical model for calculating the piping vibration and stress of reciprocating compressor piping system is established, and proper boundary conditions are proposed. Then the structural modal and stress of the piping system are calculated with CAESAR II. The comparison of measured and calculated values found that the one dimensional wave equation can accurately calculate the natural frequency and pressure pulsation in gas column of piping system for reciprocating compressor. (authors)

  15. 46 CFR 153.280 - Piping system design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping system design. 153.280 Section 153.280 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.280 Piping system design. (a) Each cargo piping system must meet...

  16. 49 CFR 192.321 - Installation of plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation of plastic pipe. 192.321 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.321 Installation of plastic pipe. (a) Plastic pipe must be installed below ground level except as provided by paragraphs (g) and (h) of this section. (b) Plastic pipe that is...

  17. 49 CFR 192.121 - Design of plastic pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of plastic pipe. 192.121 Section 192.121... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.121 Design of plastic pipe. Subject to the limitations of § 192.123, the design pressure for plastic pipe is determined by either of the...

  18. 49 CFR 192.277 - Ductile iron pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ductile iron pipe. 192.277 Section 192.277 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Ductile iron pipe. (a) Ductile iron pipe may not be joined by threaded joints. (b) Ductile iron pipe may...

  19. 49 CFR 192.125 - Design of copper pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of copper pipe. 192.125 Section 192.125... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.125 Design of copper pipe. (a) Copper... hard drawn. (b) Copper pipe used in service lines must have wall thickness not less than that indicated...

  20. 46 CFR 182.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 182.430 Section 182... 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.430 Engine exhaust pipe... equipment might come in contact with an exhaust pipe. (b) Exhaust gas must not leak from the piping or any...

  1. Investigation on vibrational evaluation criteria for small-bore pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Takashi; Maekawa, Akira; Takahashi, Tsuneo; Kato, Minoru; Torigoe, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    The well-known organization such as API and SwRI in USA developed criteria for piping vibrational evaluation. These criteria are targeted for main pipes, but not branch pipes with small bore. In this study, applicability of criteria of API and SwRI to branch pipes was investigated. Vibration test using piping system with small bore branch pipe was conducted and amplitudes of vibrational stress and displacement were measured for various exciting force. In comparison of the measurements with the two criteria, though the criteria of API and SwRI were applicable to small bore branch pipe, they made too conservative evaluation. (author)

  2. Technical considerations for flexible piping design in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.C.; Chou, C.K.

    1985-01-01

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop a technical basis for flexible piping designs which will improve piping reliability and minimize the use of pipe supports, snubbers, and pipe whip restraints. The current study was conducted to establish the necessary groundwork based on the piping reliability analysis. A confirmatory piping reliability assessment indicated that removing rigid supports and snubbers tends to either improve or affect very little the piping reliability. A couple of changes to be implemented in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.61 and RG 1.122 aimed at more flexible piping design were investigated. It was concluded that these changes substantially reduce calculated piping responses and allows piping redesigns with significant reduction in number of supports and snubbers without violating ASME code requirements

  3. Alpha detection in pipes using an inverting membrane scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kendrick, D.T.; Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Characterization of surface alpha emitting contamination inside enclosed spaces such as piping systems presents an interesting radiological measurement challenge. Detection of these alpha particles from the exterior of the pipe is impossible since the alpha particles are completely absorbed by the pipe wall. Traditional survey techniques, using hand-held instruments, simply can not be used effectively inside pipes. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. is currently developing an enhancement to its Pipe Explorer{trademark} system that will address this challenge. The Pipe Explorer{trademark} uses a unique sensor deployment method where an inverted tubular membrane is propagated through complex pipe runs via air pressure. The inversion process causes the membrane to fold out against the pipe wall, such that no part of the membrane drags along the pipe wall. This deployment methodology has been successfully demonstrated at several DOE sites to transport specially designed beta and gamma, scintillation detectors into pipes ranging in length up to 250 ft.

  4. Evaluation of clamp effects on LMFBR piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.L.

    1980-01-01

    Loop-type liquid metal breeder reactor plants utilize thin-wall piping to mitigate through-wall thermal gradients due to rapid thermal transients. These piping loops require a support system to carry the combined weight of the pipe, coolant and insulation and to provide attachments for seismic restraints. The support system examined here utilizes an insulated pipe clamp designed to minimize the stresses induced in the piping. To determine the effect of these clamps on the pipe wall a non-linear, two-dimensional, finite element model of the clamp, insulation and pipe wall was used to determine the clamp/pipe interface load distributions which were then applied to a three-dimensional, finite element model of the pipe. The two-dimensional interaction model was also utilized to estimate the combined clamp/pipe stiffness

  5. Effect of pipe rupture loads inside containment in the break exclusionary piping outside containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, G.

    1987-01-01

    The plant design for protection against piping failures outside containment should make sure that fluid system piping in containment penetration areas are designed to meet the break exclusionary provisions contained in the BTP MEB 3-1. According to these provisions, following a piping failure (main steam line) inside containment, the part of the flued head connected to the piping outside containment, should not exceed the ASME Code stress limits for the appropriate load combinations. A finite element analysis has been performed to evaluate the stress level in this area. (orig./HP)

  6. The insitu lining of cooling water piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, W.K.; Oxner, K.B.

    1994-01-01

    The internal corrosion of cooling water piping as well as other industrial piping is becoming an increasing problem to system reliability. There are various alternatives being offered as solutions to the problem including water treatment, coatings, and piping replacement. The in-place lining of these pipes is becoming increasingly popular as a cost-effective method to control corrosion. A cured-in-place plastic composite system can be installed with minimal dismantling or excavation. This paper will examine case histories of the installations of this lining system in power plants at three (3) locations in the United States and one in France. It will also summarize testing that has been performed on the lining system and tests that are currently being performed

  7. Mesoproterozoic diamondiferous ultramafic pipes at Majhgawan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tial melt depletion prior to subsequent metaso- matic enrichment ... diferous ultramafic pipes (considered in this paper to belong to ...... at the Department of Earth Sciences, University of .... Int. Kimberlite Conference, Victoria, British Columbia,.

  8. On the shakedown analysis of welded pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tianbai; Chen Haofeng; Chen Weihang; Ure, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the shakedown analysis of welded pipes subjected to a constant internal pressure and a varying thermal load. The Linear Matching Method (LMM) is applied to investigate the upper and lower bound shakedown limits of the pipes. Individual effects of i) geometry of weld metal, ii) ratio of inner radius to wall thickness and iii) all material properties of Weld Metal (WM), Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and Parent Material (PM) on shakedown limits are investigated. The ranges of these variables are chosen to cover the majority of common pipe configurations. Corresponding individual influence functions on the shakedown limits are generated. These are then combined to allow the creation of a safety shakedown envelope, which can be used for the design of any welded pipes within the specified ranges. The effect of temperature-dependent yield stress (in PM, HAZ and WM) on these shakedown limits is also investigated.

  9. Degradation mechanisms of small scale piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartonicek, J.; Koenig, G.; Blind, D.

    1996-01-01

    Operational experience shows that many degradation mechanisms can have an effect on small-scale piping systems. We can see from the analyses carried out that the degradation which has occurred is primarily linked with the fact that these piping systems were classified as being of low safety relevance. This is mainly due to such components being classified into low safety relevance category at the design stage, as well as to the low level of operational monitoring. Since in spite of the variety of designs and operational modes the degradation mechanisms detected may be attributed to the piping systems, we can make decisive statements on how to avoid such degradation mechanisms. Even small-scale piping systems may achieve guaranteed integrity in such cases by taking the appropriate action. (orig.) [de

  10. High Energy Vibration for Gas Piping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gary Y. H.; Chan, K. B.; Lee, Aylwin Y. S.; Jia, ShengXiang

    2017-07-01

    In September 2016, a gas compressor in offshore Sarawak has its rotor changed out. Prior to this change-out, pipe vibration study was carried-out by the project team to evaluate any potential high energy pipe vibration problems at the compressor’s existing relief valve downstream pipes due to process condition changes after rotor change out. This paper covers high frequency acoustic excitation (HFAE) vibration also known as acoustic induced vibration (AIV) study and discusses detailed methodologies as a companion to the Energy Institute Guidelines for the avoidance of vibration induced fatigue failure, which is a common industry practice to assess and mitigate for AIV induced fatigue failure. Such detailed theoretical studies can help to minimize or totally avoid physical pipe modification, leading to reduce offshore plant shutdown days to plant shutdowns only being required to accommodate gas compressor upgrades, reducing cost without compromising process safety.

  11. Titanium Heat Pipe Thermal Plane, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II program is to complete the development of the titanium heat pipe thermal plane and establish all necessary steps for production of this...

  12. Laser-GMA Hybrid Pipe Welding System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reutzel, Edward W; Kern, Ludwig; Sullivan, Michael J; Tressler, Jay F; Avalos, Juan

    2007-01-01

    The combination of laser welding with conventional gas metal arc welding technology offers substantial increases in production rate of joining pipe through single-pass joining compared to multi-pass...

  13. Closed loop solar chemical heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.; Levitan, R.; Rosin, H.; Rubin, R.

    1991-01-01

    The system used for the closed loop operation of the solar chemical heat pipe comprises a reformer, heated by the solar furnace, a methanator and a storage assembly containing a compressor and storage cylinders. (authors). 7 figs

  14. Evaluation of pipe weld NDE indications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasse, M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the evaluation of non-destructive examination (NDE) indications in pipe welds. The evaluation procedure is described in a practical engineer's view and examples are also given. (author)

  15. 78 FR 62614 - Guttman Energy, Inc., PBF Holding Company LLC v. Buckeye Pipe Line Company, L.P., Laurel Pipe...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. OR14-4-000] Guttman Energy, Inc., PBF Holding Company LLC v. Buckeye Pipe Line Company, L.P., Laurel Pipe Line Company, L.P... complaint against Buckeye Pipe Line Company L.P. and Laurel Pipe Line Company L.P. (Respondents) challenging...

  16. BWR pipe crack remedies evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shack, W.J.; Kassner, T.F.; Maiya, P.S.; Park, J.Y.; Ruther, W.; Kuzay, T.; Rybicki, E.F.; Stonesifer, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    Piping in light-water-reactor power systems has been affected by several types of environmental degradation. This paper presents results from studies of (1) stress corrosion crack growth in fracture mechanics specimens of modified Type 347 SS and Type 304/308L SS weld overlay material, (2) heat-to-heat variations in stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of Types 316NG and 347 SS, (3) SCC of sensitized Type 304 SS in water with cupric ion or organic acid impurities, (4) electrochemical potential (ECP) measurements under gamma irradiation, (5) SCC of ferritic steels, (6) strain-controlled fatigue of Type 316NG SS in air at ambient temperature, and (7) through-wall residual stress measurements and finite-element calculation of residual stresses in weldments treated by a mechanical stress improvement process (MSIP). Fracture-mechanics crack-growth-rate tests on Type 316NG SS have shown that transgranular cracking can occur even in high purity environments, whereas no crack growth was observed in Type 347 SS even in impurity environments. In tests on weld overlay specimens, no cracks penetrated into the overlay even in impurity environments. Instead, the cracks branched when they approached the overlay, and then grew parallel to interface. In SCC tests on sensitized Type 304 SS, cupric ions at concentrations greater than ∼1 ppm were found to be deleterious, whereas organic acids at this concentration were not detrimental. Tests on several ferritic steels indicate a strong correlation between the sulfur content of the steels and susceptibility to SCC. External gamma radiation fields produced a large positive shift in the ECP of Type 304 SS at low dissolved-oxygen concentrations (<5 ppb), whereas in the absence of an external gamma field there was no difference in the ECP values of irradiated and nonirradiated material. Fatigue data for Type 316NG SS are consistent with the ASME code mean curve at high strains, but fall below the curve at low strains. Calculations of the

  17. Ringshaped grid for supporting of pipes of a heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This heat exchanger furnishes a ring-shaped grid in which pipes can be ordered in a circular formation, as opposed to the conventional triangular ordering. In this structure the pipes are arranged in concentric circles. This means that each new row of pipes has an equal number of more pipes than the row directly inside, meaning that all the pipes in each row are equidistant from the center and form an equal surface for better heat exchange

  18. UOE Pipe Manufacturing Process Simulation: Equipment Designing and Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delistoian, Dmitri; Chirchor, Mihael

    2017-12-01

    UOE pipe manufacturing process influence directly on pipeline resilience and operation capacity. At present most spreaded pipe manufacturing method is UOE. This method is based on cold forming. After each technological step appears a certain stress and strain level. For pipe stress strain study is designed and constructed special equipment that simulate entire technological process.UOE pipe equipment is dedicated for manufacturing of longitudinally submerged arc welded DN 400 (16 inch) steel pipe.

  19. Analysis of Fracture Behaviour of Multilayer Pipes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nezbedová, E.; Knésl, Zdeněk; Vlach, B.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 5 (2007), s. 207-212 ISSN 1465-8011. [Plastic Pipes /13./. Washington, D. C., 02.10.2006-05.10.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/07/1284 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : multi-layer pipes Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.431, year: 2007

  20. Feedback regarding leaks in pipe work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerville, C.; Boudouin, E.

    2011-01-01

    Contaminated effluent from nuclear medicine departments is stored in decay tanks before being discharged via the sewage system. Generally speaking, these tanks are located outside hospital wards, within the hospital's maintenance rooms. Pipes leading from the evacuation points (e.g. toilets in isolation wards) to the tanks may nonetheless pass through various other parts of the hospital premises (wards, corridors, offices, etc.). Should a leak occur in any of these pipes, this may impact on the public, workers or the environment. (author)

  1. Seismic analysis of piping with nonlinear supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barta, D.A.; Huang, S.N.; Severud, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    The modeling and results of nonlinear time-history seismic analyses for three sizes of pipelines restrained by mechanical snubbes are presented. Numerous parametric analyses were conducted to obtain sensitivity information which identifies relative importance of the model and analysis ingredients. Special considerations for modeling the pipe clamps and the mechanical snubbers based on experimental characterization data are discussed. Comparisions are also given of seismic responses, loads and pipe stresses predicted by standard response spectra methods and the nonlinear time-history methods

  2. Development of a simplified piping support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, J.; Anderson, P.H.; Tang, Y.K.; Kassawara, R.P.; Tang, H.T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental and analytical studies for developing a simplified piping support system (SPSS) for nuclear power piping in place of snubbers. The basic concept of the SPSS is a passive seismic support system consisting of limit stops. Large gaps are provided to allow for free thermal expansion during normal plant operation while preventing excessive displacement during a seismic event. The results are part of a research and development program sponsored by EPRI. (orig./HP)

  3. Development of a simplified piping support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, J.; Anderson, P.H.; Tang, Y.K.; Kassawara, R.P.; Tang, H.T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experimental and analytical studies for developing a simplified piping support system (SPSS) for nuclear power piping in place of snubbers. The basic concept of the SPSS is a passive seismic support system consisting of limit stops. Large gaps are provided to allow for free thermal expansion during normal plant operation while preventing excessive displacement during a seismic event. The results are part of a research and development program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute

  4. Depressurized pipes decontamination by using circulation foam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damerval, Frederique; Belz, Jacques; Renouf, Marjorie; Janneau, Patrice

    2012-09-01

    Decontamination of pipes remains a necessity in order to reduce the radiation level during maintenance or dismantling operations but it is not so easy to do it, especially in case of a long pipe network. To achieve this operation, the use of chemistry is one of the more relevant methods; moreover, the liquid waste production still remains an issue that it can be avoided by the use of decontamination foams. (authors)

  5. Cooling Acoustic Transcucer with Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-19

    circuits to a heat sink. [0009] In Kan et al (United States Patent No. 6,528,909), a spindle motor assembly is disclosed which has a shaft with an...integral heat pipe. The shaft with the integral heat pipe improves the thermal conductively of the shaft and the spindle motor assembly. The shaft ...2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] It is known in the art that transducers, designed to project acoustic power, are often limited by the

  6. Cooling Acoustic Transducer with Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-29

    a heat sink. [0009] In Kan et al (United States Patent No. 6,528,909), a spindle motor assembly is disclosed which has a shaft with an integral...heat pipe. The shaft with the integral heat pipe improves the thermal conductively of the shaft and the spindle motor assembly. The shaft includes...Description of the Prior Art [0004] It is known in the art that transducers, designed to project acoustic power, are often limited by the build

  7. Pressure piping systems examination. 2. ed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-01

    This Code is Part 13 of the IP Model Code of Safe Practice in the Petroleum Industry. Its purpose is to provide a guide to safe practices in the in-service examination and test of piping systems used in the petroleum and chemical industries. The Code gives general requirements regarding the provision and maintenance of adequate documentation, in-service examination, the control of modifications and repairs, examination frequency, protective devices and testing of piping systems. (author)

  8. Piping dynamic analysis by the synthesis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezler, P.; Curreri, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Since piping systems are a frequent source of noise and vibrations, their efficient dynamic analysis is imperative. As an alternate to more conventional analyses methods, an application of the synthesis method to piping vibrations analyses is demonstrated. Specifically, the technique is illustrated by determining the normal modes and natural frequencies of a composite bend from the normal mode and natural frequency data of two component parts. A comparison of the results to those derived for the composite bend by other techniques is made

  9. Vortex induced vibrations in gapped restrainted pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, P. de A.A.; Loula, A.F.D.

    1984-01-01

    The vortex induced vibration problem of gapped restrained piping is solved numerically. The model proposed by Skop-Griffin is used to describe the pipe-fluid interaction. The variational formulation is obtained modeling the gapped restraints as non-linear elastic springs. The regularized problem is solved using a finite element discretization for the spatial domain. In the time domain a finite difference discretization is used for the lift coefficient equatin and a Newmark discretization for the equation of motion. (Author) [pt

  10. Diffusion pipes at PNP switching transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachelarie, D.; Postolache, C.; Gaiseanu, F.

    1976-01-01

    The appearance of the ''diffusion pipes'' greatly affects the fabrication of the PNP high-frequency/very-fast-switching transistors. A brief review of the principal problems connected to the presence of these ''pipes'' is made. A research program is presented which permitted the fabrication of the PNP switching transistors at ICCE-Bucharest, with transition frequency fsub(T) = 1.2 GHz and storage time tsub(s) = 4.5 ns. (author)

  11. Corrections to the 148Nd method of evaluation of burnup for the PIE samples from Mihama-3 and Genkai-1 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Kenya; Mochizuki, Hiroki

    2006-01-01

    The value of the burnup is one of the most important parameters of samples taken by post-irradiation examination (PIE). Generally, it is evaluated by the Neodymium-148 method. Precise evaluation of the burnup value requires: (1) an effective fission yield of 148 Nd; (2) neutron capture reactions of 147 Nd and 148 Nd; (3) a conversion factor from fissions per initial heavy metal to the burnup unit GWd/t. In this study, the burnup values of the PIE data from Mihama-3 and Genkai-1 PWRs, which were taken by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, were re-evaluated using more accurate corrections for each of these three items. The PIE data were then re-analyzed using SWAT and SWAT2 code systems with JENDL-3.3 library. The re-evaluation of the effective fission yield of 148 Nd has an effect of 1.5-2.0% on burnup values. Considering the neutron capture reactions of 147 Nd and 148 Nd removes dependence of C/E values of 148 Nd on the burnup value. The conversion factor from FIMA(%) to GWd/t changes according to the burnup value. Its effect on the burnup evaluation is small for samples having burnup of larger than 30 GWd/t. The analyses using the corrected burnup values showed that the calculated 148 Nd concentrations and the PIE data is approximately 1%, whereas this was 3-5% in prior analyses. This analysis indicates that the burnup values of samples from Mihama-3 and Genkai-1 PWRs should be corrected by 2-3%. The effect of re-evaluation of the burnup value on the neutron multiplication factor is an approximately 0.6% change in PIE samples having the burnup of larger than 30 GWd/t. Finally, comparison between calculation results using a single pin-cell model and an assembly model is carried out. Because the results agreed with each other within a few percent, we concluded that the single pin-cell model is suitable for the analysis of PIE samples and that the underestimation of plutonium isotopes, which occurred in the previous analyses, does not result from a geometry

  12. Análisis de los factores influyentes en la prevalencia de las úlceras de pie en pacientes en hemodiálisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Jesús Lechuga Domínguez

    Full Text Available Resumen Introducción Los pacientes en tratamiento renal sustitutivo con terapia de hemodiálisis, tienen elevado riesgo de sufrir úlceras en los pies, debido a la presencia de numerosos factores de riesgo asociados. Objetivos El presente estudio, se plantea como objetivo principal establecer la prevalencia de úlceras en los pies, en los pacientes que realizan tratamiento con hemodiálisis en el Hospital San Rafael de A Coruña. Como objetivo secundario, valorar los factores de riesgo de ulceración del pie. Material y Método Se realiza un estudio descriptivo transversal, en el que incluyen a los 131 pacientes con insuficiencia renal crónica (IRC en tratamiento con hemodiálisis, que cumplen los criterios de inclusión. Se ha marcado como variable principal del estudio la presencia o ausencia de úlcera en el pie. Se valora el estado vascular, con la palpación de pulsos y con registro de sonido doppler de las arterias pedia y tibial posterior, además se realiza el cálculo del índice tobillo brazo (ITB. Se valora el estado neurológico, tras la exploración de la sensibilidad protectora con monofilamento y de la sensibilidad profunda con diapasón graduado. Resultados El 10,7% de los pacientes del estudio tienen úlcera activa en el pie. No se logra palpar pulso en la arteria pedia en un 43,5% de los pacientes y en la arteria tibial posterior en un 60% de la muestra estudiada. El 25% de los pacientes presenta un valor de ITB, por debajo de 0,90 y un 13,5% presenta arterias no compresibles. Presentan alteración de sensibilidad profunda un 48,9% de los pacientes y alteración de la sensibilidad protectora un 44,3%. Conclusión La prevención primaria a través de protocolos estandarizados de exploración del pie en las unidades de hemodiálisis, podrá minimizar la posibilidad de ulceraciones que comprometan la calidad de vida de los pacientes. Sistemáticamente habrá que realizar una valoración vascular, neurológica y de alteraciones

  13. Corrections to the {sup 148}Nd method of evaluation of burnup for the PIE samples from Mihama-3 and Genkai-1 reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suyama, Kenya [Fuel Cycle Facility Safety Research Group, Nuclear Safety Research Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)]. E-mail: suyama.kenya@jaea.go.jp; Mochizuki, Hiroki [Japan Research Institute, Limited, 16 Ichiban-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0082 (Japan)

    2006-03-15

    The value of the burnup is one of the most important parameters of samples taken by post-irradiation examination (PIE). Generally, it is evaluated by the Neodymium-148 method. Precise evaluation of the burnup value requires: (1) an effective fission yield of {sup 148}Nd; (2) neutron capture reactions of {sup 147}Nd and {sup 148}Nd; (3) a conversion factor from fissions per initial heavy metal to the burnup unit GWd/t. In this study, the burnup values of the PIE data from Mihama-3 and Genkai-1 PWRs, which were taken by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, were re-evaluated using more accurate corrections for each of these three items. The PIE data were then re-analyzed using SWAT and SWAT2 code systems with JENDL-3.3 library. The re-evaluation of the effective fission yield of {sup 148}Nd has an effect of 1.5-2.0% on burnup values. Considering the neutron capture reactions of {sup 147}Nd and {sup 148}Nd removes dependence of C/E values of {sup 148}Nd on the burnup value. The conversion factor from FIMA(%) to GWd/t changes according to the burnup value. Its effect on the burnup evaluation is small for samples having burnup of larger than 30 GWd/t. The analyses using the corrected burnup values showed that the calculated {sup 148}Nd concentrations and the PIE data is approximately 1%, whereas this was 3-5% in prior analyses. This analysis indicates that the burnup values of samples from Mihama-3 and Genkai-1 PWRs should be corrected by 2-3%. The effect of re-evaluation of the burnup value on the neutron multiplication factor is an approximately 0.6% change in PIE samples having the burnup of larger than 30 GWd/t. Finally, comparison between calculation results using a single pin-cell model and an assembly model is carried out. Because the results agreed with each other within a few percent, we concluded that the single pin-cell model is suitable for the analysis of PIE samples and that the underestimation of plutonium isotopes, which occurred in the previous

  14. Elastic-plastic dynamic behavior of guard pipes due to sudden opening of longitudinal cracks in the inner pipe and crash to the guard pipe wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theuer, E.; Heller, M.

    1979-01-01

    Integrity of guard pipes is an important parameter in the design of nuclear steam supply systems. A guard pipe shall withstand all kinds of postulated inner pipe breaks without failure. Sudden opening of a crack in the inner pipe and crash of crack borders to the guard pipe wall represent a shock problem where complex phenomena of dynamic plastification as well as dynamic behavior of the entire system have to be taken in consideration. The problem was analyzed by means of Finite Element computation using the general purpose program MARC. Equation of motion was resolved by direct integration using the Newmark β-operator. Analysis shows that after 1,2 m sec crack borders touch the guard pipe wall for the first time. At this moment a considerable amount of local plastification appears in the inner pipe wall, while the guard pipe is nearly unstressed. After initial touching, the crack borders begin to slip along the guard pipe wall. Subsequently, a short withdrawal of the crack borders and a new crash occur, while the inner pipe rolls along the guard pipe wall. The analysis procedure described is suitable for designing numerous guard pipe geometries as well as U-Bolt restraint systems which have to withstand high-energy pipe rupture impact. (orig.)

  15. Microstructural characterization of pipe bomb fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, Otto; Oxley, Jimmie; Smith, James; Platek, Michael; Ghonem, Hamouda; Bernier, Evan; Downey, Markus; Cumminskey, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Recovered pipe bomb fragments, exploded under controlled conditions, have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy, optical microscopy and microhardness. Specifically, this paper examines the microstructural changes in plain carbon-steel fragments collected after the controlled explosion of galvanized, schedule 40, continuously welded, steel pipes filled with various smokeless powders. A number of microstructural changes were observed in the recovered pipe fragments: deformation of the soft alpha-ferrite grains, deformation of pearlite colonies, twin formation, bands of distorted pearlite colonies, slip bands, and cross-slip bands. These microstructural changes were correlated with the relative energy of the smokeless powder fillers. The energy of the smokeless powder was reflected in a reduction in thickness of the pipe fragments (due to plastic strain prior to fracture) and an increase in microhardness. Moreover, within fragments from a single pipe, there was a radial variation in microhardness, with the microhardness at the outer wall being greater than that at the inner wall. These findings were consistent with the premise that, with the high energy fillers, extensive plastic deformation and wall thinning occurred prior to pipe fracture. Ultimately, the information collected from this investigation will be used to develop a database, where the fragment microstructure and microhardness will be correlated with type of explosive filler and bomb design. Some analyses, specifically wall thinning and microhardness, may aid in field characterization of explosive devices.

  16. Analysis of a piping system for requalification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, B.J.; Tang, Yu.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the global stress analysis required for the seismic/structural requalification of a reactor secondary piping system in which minor defects (flaws) were discovered during a detailed inspection. The flaws in question consisted of weld imperfections. Specifically, it was necessary to establish that the stresses at the flawed sections did not exceed the allowables and that the fatigue life remained within acceptable limits. At the same time the piping system had to be qualified for higher earthquake loads than those used in the original design. To accomplish these objectives the nominal stress distributions in the piping system under the various loads (dead load, thermal load, wind load and seismic load) were determined. First a best estimate finite element model was developed and calculations were performed using the piping analysis modules of the ANSYS Computer Code. Parameter studies were then performed to assess the effect of physically reasonable variations in material, structural, and boundary condition characteristics. The nominal stresses and forces so determined, provided input for more detailed analyses of the flawed sections. Based on the reevaluation, the piping flaws were judged to be benign, i.e., the piping safety margins were acceptable inspite of the increased seismic demand. 13 refs

  17. Computer simulation of LMFBR piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A-Moneim, M.T.; Chang, Y.W.; Fistedis, S.H.

    1977-01-01

    Integrity of piping systems is one of the main concerns of the safety issues of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). Hypothetical core disruptive accidents (HCDA) and water-sodium interaction are two examples of sources of high pressure pulses that endanger the integrity of the heat transport piping systems of LMFBRs. Although plastic wall deformation attenuates pressure peaks so that only pressures slightly higher than the pipe yield pressure propagate along the system, the interaction of these pulses with the different components of the system, such as elbows, valves, heat exchangers, etc.; and with one another produce a complex system of pressure pulses that cause more plastic deformation and perhaps damage to components. A generalized piping component and a tee branching model are described. An optional tube bundle and interior rigid wall simulation model makes such a generalized component model suited for modelling of valves, reducers, expansions, and heat exchangers. The generalized component and the tee branching junction models are combined with the pipe-elbow loop model so that a more general piping system can be analyzed both hydrodynamically and structurally under the effect of simultaneous pressure pulses

  18. Flexible heat pipes with integrated bioinspired design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report the facile fabrication and performance evaluation of flexible heat pipes that have integrated bioinspired wick structures and flexible polyurethane polymer connector design between the copper condenser and evaporator. Inside the heat pipe, a bioinspired superhydrophilic strong-base-oxidized copper mesh with multi-scale micro/nano-structures was used as the wicking material and deionized water was selected as working fluid. Thermal resistances of the fabricated flexible heat pipes charged with different filling ratios were measured under thermal power inputs ranging from 2 W to 12 W while the device was bent at different angles. The fabricated heat pipes with a 30% filling ratio demonstrated a low thermal resistance less than 0.01 K/W. Compared with the vertically oriented straight heat pipes, bending from 30° up to 120° has negligible influence on the heat-transfer performance. Furthermore, repeated heating tests indicated that the fabricated flexible heat pipes have consistent and reliable heat-transfer performance, thus would have important applications for advanced thermal management in three dimensional and flexible electronic devices.

  19. Flow conditions of fresh mortar and concrete in different pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, Stefan; Haugan, Lars; Hammer, Tor Arne; Kalogiannidis, Evangelos

    2009-01-01

    The variation in fresh concrete flow rate over the pipe cross section was investigated on differently coloured and highly flowable concrete mixes flowing through pipes of different materials (rubber, steel, acryl). First, uncoloured (gray) concrete was poured through the pipe and the pipe blocked. Similar but coloured (black) concrete was then poured into the pipe filled with gray concrete, flowing after the gray concrete for a while before being blocked and hardened. The advance of the colouring along the pipe wall (showing boundary flow rate) was observed on the moulded concrete surface appearing after removing the pipe from the hardened concrete. The shapes of the interfaces between uncoloured and coloured concrete (showing variation of flow rate over the pipe cross section) were observed on sawn surfaces of concrete half cylinders cut along the length axes of the concrete-filled pipe. Flow profiles over the pipe cross section were clearly seen with maximum flow rates near the centre of the pipe and low flow rate at the pipe wall (typically rubber pipe with reference concrete without silica fume and/or stabilizers). More plug-shaped profiles, with long slip layers and less variation of flow rate over the cross section, were also seen (typically in smooth acrylic pipes). Flow rate, amount of concrete sticking to the wall after flow and SEM-images of pipe surface roughness were observed, illustrating the problem of testing full scale pumping.

  20. Development of pipe layout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Tokumasu, Shinji; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Besho, Hiromi; Sakano, Tatuo.

    1986-01-01

    In the plant design carried out so far, the process up to final drawings has been the repetition of the correction of drawings. This is because the space as the object of design is finite, and it is difficult to lay many pipes efficiently. Especially in nuclear power plants, the quantity of materials required for ensuring the safety and quality control is enormous, and only the skilled engineers having rich experience have become unable to deal with it. The model engineering using plastic models has been adopted, but still there are problems. In order to solve this problem, the development of the system for unitarily managing the various design information of plants with a computer, checking up various design with this information, automatically outputting design drawings and management data, and heightening the quality of design, synchronizing the progress, increasing the speed and saving the labor of design was carried out. This system is versatile and can be used for all plants. The emphasis in the development was placed on compact data structure, rapid picture processing and easy operation. The present status of design and the automation, the basic design of the system, the function of the system, the internal expression of models, the method of picture processing, and the results of application are reported. (Kako, I.)

  1. Cesium heat-pipe thermostat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, F.; Song, D.; Sheng, K.; Wu, J. [Changcheng Institute of Metrology and Measurement, 100095, Beijing (China); Yi, X. [China National South Aviation industry CO., LTD., 412002, Hunan (China); Yu, Z. [Dalian Jinzhou Institute of Measurement and Testing, 116100, Liaoning (China)

    2013-09-11

    In this paper the authors report a newly developed Cesium Heat-Pipe Thermostat (Cs HPT) with the operation range of 400 °C to 800 °C. The working medium is cesium (Cs) of 99.98% purity and contains no radioisotope. A Cs filing device is developed which can prevent Cs being in contact with air. The structural material is stainless steel. A 5000 h test has been made to confirm the compatibility between cesium and stainless steel. The Cs HPT has several thermometer wells of 220mm depth with different diameters for different sizes of thermometers. The temperature uniformity of the Cs HPT is 0.06 °C to 0.20 °C. A precise temperature controller is used to ensure the temperature fluctuation within ±0.03 °C. The size of Cs HPT is 380mm×320mm×280mm with foot wheels for easy moving. The thermostat has been successfully used for the calibration of industrial platinum resistance thermometers and thermocouples.

  2. Pipe rupture and steam/water hammer design loads for dynamic analysis of piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, B.R. Jr.; Baschiere, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The design of restraints and protection devices for nuclear Class I and Class II piping systems must consider severe pipe rupture and steam/water hammer loadings. Limited stress margins require that an accurate prediction of these loads be obtained with a minimum of conservatism in the loads. Methods are available currently for such fluid transient load development, but each method is severely restricted as to the complexity and/or the range of fluid state excursions which can be simulated. This paper presents a general technique for generation of pipe rupture and steam/water hammer design loads for dynamic analysis of nuclear piping systems which does not have the limitations of existing methods. Blowdown thrust loadings and unbalanced piping acceleration loads for restraint design of all nuclear piping systems may be found using this method. The technique allows the effects of two-phase distributed friction, liquid flashing and condensation, and the surrounding thermal and mechanical equipment to be modeled. A new form of the fluid momentum equation is presented which incorporates computer generated fluid acceleration histories by inclusion of a geometry integral termed the 'force equivalent area' (FEA). The FEA values permit the coupling of versatile thermal-hydraulic programs to piping dynamics programs. Typical applications of the method to pipe rupture problems are presented and the resultant load histories compared with existing techniques. (Auth.)

  3. An in-pipe mobile micromachine using fluid power. A mechanism adaptable to pipe diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Yokota, Shinichi; Takahashi, Ken

    2000-01-01

    To realize micro maintenance robots for small diameter pipes of nuclear reactors and so on, high power in-pipe mobile micromachines have been required. The authors have proposed the bellows microactuator using fluid power and have tried to apply the actuators to in-pipe mobile micromachines. In the previous papers, some inchworm mobile machine prototypes with 25 mm in diameter are fabricated and the traveling performances are experimentally investigated. In this paper, to miniaturize the in-pipe mobile machine and to make it adaptable to pipe diameters, firstly, a simple rubber-tube actuator constrained with a coil-spring is proposed and the static characteristics are investigated. Secondly, a supporting mechanism which utilizes a toggle mechanism and is adaptable to pipe diameters is proposed and the supporting forces are investigated. Finally, an in-pipe mobile micromachine for pipe with 4 - 5 mm in diameter is fabricated and the maximum traveling velocity of 7 mm/s in both ahead and astern movements is experimentally verified. (author)

  4. Pipe Crawler internal piping characterization system. Deactivation and decommissioning focus area. Innovative Technology Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-02-01

    Pipe Crawler reg-sign is a pipe surveying system for performing radiological characterization and/or free release surveys of piping systems. The technology employs a family of manually advanced, wheeled platforms, or crawlers, fitted with one or more arrays of thin Geiger Mueller (GM) detectors operated from an external power supply and data processing unit. Survey readings are taken in a step-wise fashion. A video camera and tape recording system are used for video surveys of pipe interiors prior to and during radiological surveys. Pipe Crawler reg-sign has potential advantages over the baseline and other technologies in areas of cost, durability, waste minimization, and intrusiveness. Advantages include potentially reduced cost, potential reuse of the pipe system, reduced waste volume, and the ability to manage pipes in place with minimal disturbance to facility operations. Advantages over competing technologies include potentially reduced costs and the ability to perform beta-gamma surveys that are capable of passing regulatory scrutiny for free release of piping systems

  5. New assessment of feed water piping in GKN I including optimisation of piping supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaiss, W.; Heil, C.; Baier, B.; Manke, A.

    2003-01-01

    The quality of nuclear power plant components and piping is specified according to the then current state of knowledge. In operation, the quality can be reduced by ageing phenomena, so in-service quality assessment is constantly required. The contribution discusses the individual aspects of reassessment and its technical procedure, using the example of a feedwater pipe in the GKN I containment. (orig.) [de

  6. Evaluación integral de la sensibilidad en los pies de las personas con diabetes mellitus tipo 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rivas Acuña

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Actualmente la diabetes mellitus tipo 2 es considerada una epidemia en el mundo, es uno de los problemas de mayor trascendencia, por su alta prevalencia como por su enorme repercusión social y económica, por tal motivo el propósito del estudio fue evaluar de manera integral la sensibilidad en los pies de las personas con diabetes mellitus tipo 2, de Villahermosa, Tabasco, México. Materiales y Métodos: El diseño fue descriptivo correlacional, la muestra fue de 198 personas. Se utilizó el Test del Michigan Neuropathy Screening con monofilamento de Semme Weinstein, Diapasón, temperatura frío/calor y reflejo Aquileo. Resultados y Discusión: El sexo femenino predominó con un 70.2% y el 29.8% hombres, el promedio de edad fue 56.44 años y 12.34 años promedio con la enfermedad. El 46% registró síntomas neuropáticos moderados, 26.3% graves; el 65.7% riesgo de neuropatía positiva (40.9% mujeres y 24.8% hombres, 41.1% con pérdida de sensibilidad moderada y 29.3% sensibilidad normal; el 74.7% tiene un control glucémico deficiente. Los factores de riesgo detectados con mayor prevalencia fueron helomas, hiperqueratosis y deformidades. Conclusiones: Existe una correlación significativa entre la pérdida de la sensibilidad con los años con la enfermedad, con la hiperglucemia y síntomas de neuropatía, la pérdida de sensibilidad en mujeres es de moderada a grave y en los hombres la pérdida de la sensibilidad es moderada. Cómo citar este artículo: Rivas V, Mateo Y, García H, Martínez A, Magaña M, Carrillo R.  Evaluación integral de la sensibilidad en los pies de las personas con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Rev Cuid. 2017; 8(1:1423-32. http://dx.doi.org/10.15649/cuidarte.v8i1.348

  7. Fracturas Fisarias Salter-Harris VI de Tobillo y Pie. [Salter-Harris VI fractures of the foot and ankle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Javier Masquijo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción Las fracturas Salter-Harris VI (SHVI son lesiones que se caracterizan por presentar ablación del anillo pericondral. Son infrecuentes en niños pero potencialmente devastadoras. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el mecanismo de producción, el tratamiento y los resultados funcionales de estas lesiones localizadas en el pie y el tobillo. Material y métodos Se analizaron retrospectivamente todos los pacientes con lesiones SHVI de tobillo y pie tratadas entre Enero de 2010 y Enero de 2013. Se documentaron datos demográficos, clasificación, mecanismo de lesión, tipo de lesiones asociadas y número de cirugías que requirieron. Los pacientes fueron evaluados funcionalmente con el score de AOFAS y radiográficamente para determinar la viabilidad de la fisis, acortamiento del miembro o deformidad angular. Resultados Se analizaron 5 fracturas en 4 pacientes (3 masculinos y 1 femenino. La edad promedio al momento de la lesión fue de 7.5 años (rango, 6  a 10 años. El seguimiento promedio fue de 26.2 meses (rango, 12 - 37 meses. De acuerdo a la subclasificación de Peterson 3 pertenecían al grupo A, 1 al B y 1 al C. 3 lesiones se produjeron como consecuencia de accidentes de moto y 2 por auto versus peatón. Todos los casos se acompañaron de pérdida de sustancia, el 75% presentaba lesiones en más de un hueso y el 50% lesiones tendinosas asociadas. Cada paciente requirió un promedio de 3.2 cirugías (rango, 2 a 5. El score AOFAS promedio fue de 79.8 puntos (rango, 62 – 100 puntos. Radiográficamente, solo el 40% de las fisis afectadas permanecían viables al último control. Conclusión Las fracturas SHVI se acompañan de una gran variedad de lesiones asociadas, requieren múltiples cirugías y suelen producir un cierre precoz de la fisis y algún grado de discapacidad.  Se requieren medidas de prevención para evitar la exposición de los niños a este tipo de lesiones. El tratamiento temprano es fundamental para

  8. Analysis of pipe stress using CAESAR II code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitandung, Y.B.; Bandriyana, B.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of this piping stress with the purpose of knowing stress distribution piping system in order to determine pipe supports configuration. As an example of analysis, Gas Exchanger to Warm Separator Line was chosen with, input data was firstly prepared in a document, i.e. piping analysis specification that its content named as pipe characteristics, material properties, operation conditions, guide equipment's and so on. Analysis result such as stress, load, displacement and the use support type were verified based on requirements in the code, standard, and regularities were suitable with piping system condition analyzed. As the proof that piping system is in safety condition, it can be indicated from analysis results (actual loads) which still under allowable load. From the analysis steps that have been done CAESAR II code fulfill requirements to be used as a tool of piping stress analysis as well as nuclear and non nuclear installation piping system

  9. Development of bore tools for pipe welding and cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Akira; Takiguchi, Yuji

    1998-01-01

    In the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), in-vessel components replacement and maintenance requires that connected cooling pipes be cut and removed beforehand and that new components be installed to which cooling pipes must be rewelded. All welding must be inspected for soundness after completion. These tasks require a new task concept for ensuring shielded areas and access from narrow ports. Thus, it became necessary to develop autonomous locomotion welding and cutting tools for branch and main pipes to weld pipes by in-pipe access; a system was proposed that cut and welded branch and main pipes after passing inside pipe curves, and elemental technologies developed. This paper introduces current development in tools for welding and cutting branch pipes and other tools for welding and cutting the main pipe. (author)

  10. Development of bore tools for pipe welding and cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Akira; Takiguchi, Yuji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    In the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), in-vessel components replacement and maintenance requires that connected cooling pipes be cut and removed beforehand and that new components be installed to which cooling pipes must be rewelded. All welding must be inspected for soundness after completion. These tasks require a new task concept for ensuring shielded areas and access from narrow ports. Thus, it became necessary to develop autonomous locomotion welding and cutting tools for branch and main pipes to weld pipes by in-pipe access; a system was proposed that cut and welded branch and main pipes after passing inside pipe curves, and elemental technologies developed. This paper introduces current development in tools for welding and cutting branch pipes and other tools for welding and cutting the main pipe. (author)

  11. Small pipe characterization system (SPCS) conceptual design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.O.; Ferrante, T.A.; McKay, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are many facilities that have been identified for Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D). As processes are terminated or brought off-line, facilities are placed on the inactive list, and facility managers and site contractors are required to assure a safe and reliable decommissioning and transition of these facilities to a clean final state. Decommissioning of facilities requires extensive reliable characterization, decontamination and in some cases dismantlement. Characterization of piping systems throughout the DOE complex is becoming more and more necessary. In addition to decommissioning activities, characterization activities are performed as part of surveillance and maintenance (S&M). Because of the extent of contamination, all inactive facilities require some type of S&M. These S&M activities include visual assessment, equipment and material accounting, and maintenance. The majority of the inactive facilities have piping systems 3 inches or smaller that are inaccessible because they are contaminated, imbedded in concrete, or run through hot cells. Many of these piping systems have been inactive for a number of years and there exists no current system condition information or the historical records are poor and/or missing altogether. Many of these piping systems are placed on the contaminated list, not because of known contamination, but because of the risk of internal contamination. Many of the piping systems placed on the contamination list may not have internal contamination. Because there is a potential however, they are treated as such. The cost of D&D can be greatly reduced by identifying and removing hot spot contamination, leaving clean piping to be removed using conventional methods. Accurate characterization of these piping systems is essential before, during and after all D&D activities.

  12. Small pipe characterization system (SPCS) conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.O.; Ferrante, T.A.; McKay, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    Throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex there are many facilities that have been identified for Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D). As processes are terminated or brought off-line, facilities are placed on the inactive list, and facility managers and site contractors are required to assure a safe and reliable decommissioning and transition of these facilities to a clean final state. Decommissioning of facilities requires extensive reliable characterization, decontamination and in some cases dismantlement. Characterization of piping systems throughout the DOE complex is becoming more and more necessary. In addition to decommissioning activities, characterization activities are performed as part of surveillance and maintenance (S ampersand M). Because of the extent of contamination, all inactive facilities require some type of S ampersand M. These S ampersand M activities include visual assessment, equipment and material accounting, and maintenance. The majority of the inactive facilities have piping systems 3 inches or smaller that are inaccessible because they are contaminated, imbedded in concrete, or run through hot cells. Many of these piping systems have been inactive for a number of years and there exists no current system condition information or the historical records are poor and/or missing altogether. Many of these piping systems are placed on the contaminated list, not because of known contamination, but because of the risk of internal contamination. Many of the piping systems placed on the contamination list may not have internal contamination. Because there is a potential however, they are treated as such. The cost of D ampersand D can be greatly reduced by identifying and removing hot spot contamination, leaving clean piping to be removed using conventional methods. Accurate characterization of these piping systems is essential before, during and after all D ampersand D activities

  13. Round dance in pipes; Runddans i roer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steensen, Anders J.

    2004-07-01

    On the offshore production plants, oil, water, and gas are separated from the well streams. The oil is sold on the market while the gas is in part exported, in part reinjected into the wells in large quantities to sustain the pressure in the reservoirs. The water is cleaned, some is pumped to the sea and some returned to the reservoir. Although these processes may seem straightforward, they cause a great deal of worry since there are so many complex processing and pipe systems taking up space. Pipes vibrate and make noise, most often because of pressure fluctuations created by the flowing liquid and gas. Or vortices form inside the pipe that make the whole pipe drone. In the offshore activities, these phenomena can be very annoying; on the Statfjord B platform people baulked at entering the area where the produced water treatment system was standing. A new system had to be developed since existing equipment would take up too much space. In the new system, a pipe section is installed in the pipeline that makes the gas/liquid mixture spin rapidly as in a centrifuge. The gas collects along the centre of the pipe and is tapped off. The principle can also be used to separate liquid from gas. In many gas treatment systems, liquid accumulation, or carry over, is detrimental. But gas dehydrators are usually dimensioned for a minimal content of liquid in the gas. Important features of these new pipe-based separators are that they are small, remove bottlenecks in the production, and are straightforward to install. But operators who live with the problems every day are very sceptical about the new separators and should be given the opportunity to test them on land before they are installed in the field.

  14. Heat transfer capability analysis of heat pipe for space reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huaqi; Jiang Xinbiao; Chen Lixin; Yang Ning; Hu Pan; Ma Tengyue; Zhang Liang

    2015-01-01

    To insure the safety of space reactor power system with no single point failures, the reactor heat pipes must work below its heat transfer limits, thus when some pipes fail, the reactor could still be adequately cooled by neighbor heat pipes. Methods to analyze the reactor heat pipe's heat transfer limits were presented, and that for the prevailing capillary limit analysis was improved. The calculation was made on the lithium heat pipe in core of heat pipes segmented thermoelectric module converter (HP-STMC) space reactor power system (SRPS), potassium heat pipe as radiator of HP-STMC SRPS, and sodium heat pipe in core of scalable AMTEC integrated reactor space power system (SAIRS). It is shown that the prevailing capillary limits of the reactor lithium heat pipe and sodium heat pipe is 25.21 kW and 14.69 kW, providing a design margin >19.4% and >23.6%, respectively. The sonic limit of the reactor radiator potassium heat pipe is 7.88 kW, providing a design margin >43.2%. As the result of calculation, it is concluded that the main heat transfer limit of HP-STMC SRPS lithium heat pipe and SARIS sodium heat pipe is prevailing capillary limit, but the sonic limit for HP-STMC SRPS radiator potassium heat pipe. (authors)

  15. The IPIRG-1 pipe system fracture tests: Experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, P.; Olson, R.J.; Wilkowski, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the First International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-1) program, six dynamic pipe system experiments were conducted. The objective of these experiments was to generate experimental data to assess analysis methodologies for characterizing the fracture behavior of circumferentially cracked pipe in a representative piping system subjected to combined inertial and displacement-controlled stresses. A unique experimental facility was designed and constructed. The pipe system evaluated was an expansion loop with over 30 m (100 feet) of 16-inch nominal diameter Schedule 100 pipe. The experimental facility was equipped with special hardware to ensure that system boundary conditions could be appropriately modeled. The test matrix involved one uncracked and five cracked dynamic pipe system experiments. The uncracked-pipe experiment was conducted to evaluate the piping system damping and natural frequency characteristics. The cracked-pipe experiments were conducted to evaluate the fracture behavior, piping system response, and fracture stability characteristics of five different materials. All cracked-pipe experiments were conducted at PWR conditions. Material characterization efforts provided the tensile and fracture toughness properties of the different pipe materials at various strain rates and temperatures. Key results from the six pipe system experiments and material characterization efforts are presented. Detailed analyses will be published in a companion paper

  16. Modeling of pulsating heat pipes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Givler, Richard C.; Martinez, Mario J.

    2009-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of a computer model that describes the behavior of pulsating heat pipes (PHP). The purpose of the project was to develop a highly efficient (as compared to the heat transfer capability of solid copper) thermal groundplane (TGP) using silicon carbide (SiC) as the substrate material and water as the working fluid. The objective of this project is to develop a multi-physics model for this complex phenomenon to assist with an understanding of how PHPs operate and to be able to understand how various parameters (geometry, fill ratio, materials, working fluid, etc.) affect its performance. The physical processes describing a PHP are highly coupled. Understanding its operation is further complicated by the non-equilibrium nature of the interplay between evaporation/condensation, bubble growth and collapse or coalescence, and the coupled response of the multiphase fluid dynamics among the different channels. A comprehensive theory of operation and design tools for PHPs is still an unrealized task. In the following we first analyze, in some detail, a simple model that has been proposed to describe PHP behavior. Although it includes fundamental features of a PHP, it also makes some assumptions to keep the model tractable. In an effort to improve on current modeling practice, we constructed a model for a PHP using some unique features available in FLOW-3D, version 9.2-3 (Flow Science, 2007). We believe that this flow modeling software retains more of the salient features of a PHP and thus, provides a closer representation of its behavior.

  17. Characterization of radioactive contamination inside pipes with the Pipe Explorer trademark system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendrick, D.T.; Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W.; Cramer, E.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's nuclear facility decommissioning program needs to characterize radiological contamination inside piping systems before the pipe can be recycled, remediated, or disposed. Science and Engineering associates, Inc. under contract with the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center has developed and demonstrated the Pipe Explorer trademark system, which uses an inverting membrane to transport various characterization sensors into pipes. The basic process involves inverting (turning inside out) a tubular impermeable membrane under air pressure. A characterization sensor is towed down the interior of the pipe by the membrane. Advantages of this approach include the capability of deploying through constrictions in the pipe, around 90 degrees bends, vertically up and down, and in slippery conditions. Because the detector is transported inside the membrane (which is inexpensive and disposable), it is protected from contamination, which eliminates cross-contamination. Characterization sensors that have been demonstrated with the system thus far include: gamma detectors, beta detectors, video cameras, and pipe locators. Alpha measurement capability is currently under development. A remotely operable Pipe Explorer trademark system has been developed and demonstrated for use in DOE facilities in the decommissioning stage. The system is capable of deployment in pipes as small as 2-inch-diameter and up to 250 feet long. This paper describes the technology and presents measurement results of a field demonstration conducted with the Pipe Explorer trademark system at a DOE site. These measurements identify surface activity levels of U-238 contamination as a function of location in drain lines. Cost savings to the DOE of approximately $1.5 million dollars were realized from this one demonstration

  18. Multiple blowdown pipe experiments with the PPOOLEX facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puustinen, M.; Laine, J.; Raesaenen, A.

    2011-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of the experiments with two steel blowdown pipes carried out with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through the blowdown pipes to the condensation pool. The main purpose of the experiment series was to study chugging phenomena (rapid condensation) while steam is discharged through two parallel blowdown pipes into the condensation pool filled with sub-cooled water. Particularly, the aim was to study if the pipe material (polycarbonate) used in the earlier experiment series with two blowdown pipes has had an effect on the general chugging behaviour and measured loads. In the experiments the initial temperature of the pool water was 20 deg. C. The steam flow rate ranged from 220 g/s to 2 350 g/s and the temperature of incoming steam from 148 deg. C to 207 deg. C. The formation and collapse of steam bubbles and the movement of the steam/water interface inside the pipes was non-synchronous. There could be even a 70 ms time difference between the occurrences of steam bubble collapses at the outlets of the two pipes. There was no clear pattern in which pipe the steam bubble first starts to collapse. Several successive bubbles could collapse first in either pipe but then the order changed for a single or several cycles. High pressure loads were measured inside the blowdown pipes due to rapid condensation of the steam volumes in the pipes and resulting water hammer effects. The loads seemed to be higher in pipe 1 than in pipe 2. An explanation for this could be a possible unequal distribution of steam flow between the two pipes. The pipe material has an effect on the condensation phenomena inside the blowdown pipes. A huge difference in the measured pressure curves inside the pipes could be observed compared to the experiments with the polycarbonate pipes. With the same test conditions the amplitude of the

  19. Multiple blowdown pipe experiments with the PPOOLEX facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puustinen, M.; Laine, J.; Raesaenen, A. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))

    2011-03-15

    This report summarizes the results of the experiments with two steel blowdown pipes carried out with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through the blowdown pipes to the condensation pool. The main purpose of the experiment series was to study chugging phenomena (rapid condensation) while steam is discharged through two parallel blowdown pipes into the condensation pool filled with sub-cooled water. Particularly, the aim was to study if the pipe material (polycarbonate) used in the earlier experiment series with two blowdown pipes has had an effect on the general chugging behaviour and measured loads. In the experiments the initial temperature of the pool water was 20 deg. C. The steam flow rate ranged from 220 g/s to 2 350 g/s and the temperature of incoming steam from 148 deg. C to 207 deg. C. The formation and collapse of steam bubbles and the movement of the steam/water interface inside the pipes was non-synchronous. There could be even a 70 ms time difference between the occurrences of steam bubble collapses at the outlets of the two pipes. There was no clear pattern in which pipe the steam bubble first starts to collapse. Several successive bubbles could collapse first in either pipe but then the order changed for a single or several cycles. High pressure loads were measured inside the blowdown pipes due to rapid condensation of the steam volumes in the pipes and resulting water hammer effects. The loads seemed to be higher in pipe 1 than in pipe 2. An explanation for this could be a possible unequal distribution of steam flow between the two pipes. The pipe material has an effect on the condensation phenomena inside the blowdown pipes. A huge difference in the measured pressure curves inside the pipes could be observed compared to the experiments with the polycarbonate pipes. With the same test conditions the amplitude of the

  20. Probabilistic analyses of failure in reactor coolant piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    LLNL is performing probabilistic reliability analyses of PWR and BWR reactor coolant piping for the NRC Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. Specifically, LLNL is estimating the probability of a double-ended guillotine break (DEGB) in the reactor coolant loop piping in PWR plants, and in the main stream, feedwater, and recirculation piping of BWR plants. In estimating the probability of DEGB, LLNL considers two causes of pipe break: pipe fracture due to the growth of cracks at welded joints (direct DEGB), and pipe rupture indirectly caused by the seismically-induced failure of critical supports or equipment (indirect DEGB)

  1. An inspection of pipe by snake robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Trebuňa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with development and application of snake robot for inspection pipes. The first step involves the introduction of a design of mechanical and electrical parts of the snake robot. Next, the analysis of the robot locomotion is introduced. For the curved pipe, potential field method is used. By this method, the system is able to generate path for the head and rear robot, linking the environment with obstacles, which are represented by the walls of the pipe. Subsequently, the solution of potential field method is used in inverse kinematic model, which respects tasks as obstacle avoidance, joint limit avoidance, and singularity avoidance. Mentioned approach is then tested on snake robot in provisional pipe with rectangular cross section. For this research, software Matlab (2013b is used as the control system in cooperation with the control system of robot, which is based on microcontrollers. By experiments, it is shown that designed robot is able to pass through straight and also curved pipe.

  2. Thinned pipe management program of Korean NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.H.; Kim, T.R.; Jeon, S.C.; Hwang, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    Wall thinning of carbon steel pipe components due to Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) is one of the most serious threats to the integrity of steam cycle systems in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). If the thickness of a pipe component is reduced below the critical level, it cannot sustain stress and consequently results in leakage or rupture. In order to minimize the possibility of excessive wall thinning, Thinned Pipe Management Program (TPMP) has been set up and being implemented to all Korean NPPs. Important elements of the TPMP include the prediction of the FAC rate for each component based on model analysis, prioritization of pipe components for inspection, thickness measurement, calculation of wear and wear rate for each component. Additionally, decision making associated with replacement or continuous service for thinned pipe components and establishment of long-term strategic management plan based on diagnosis of plant condition regarding overall wall thinning also are essential part of the TPMP. From pre-service inspection data, it has been found that initial thickness is varies, which influences wear and wear rate calculations. (author)

  3. NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, X.; Zhang, J. T.; Merlone, A.; Duan, Y.; Wang, W.

    2013-09-01

    Gas controlled heat pipes (GCHPs) provide a uniform, stable and reproducible temperature zone to calibrate thermometers and thermocouples, and to realize defining fixed points using a calorimetric method. Therefore, to perform such investigations, a GCHP furnace using sodium as its working fluid was constructed at the National Institute of Metrology (NIM), China. Also, investigations into the thermal characteristics of the NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe were carried out. The temperature stability over 5 hours was better than ±0.25 mK while controlling the pressure at 111250 Pa. The temperature uniformity within 14 cm from the bottom of the thermometer well was within 0.3 mK. While keeping the pressure stable at the same value, 17 temperature determinations were performed over 14 days, obtaining a temperature reproducibility of 1.27 mK. Additionally, the NIM gas controlled sodium heat pipe was compared with the sodium heat pipe produced by INRiM. The temperature in the INRiM sodium heat pipe operating at 111250 Pa was determined, obtaining a difference of 21 mK with respect to the NIM GCHP. This difference was attributed to sodium impurities, pressure controller capabilities and reproducibility, and instabilities of high temperature standard platinum resistance thermometers (HTSPRTs). Further investigations will be carried out on extending the pressure/temperature range and connecting both GCHPs to the same pressure line.

  4. Development of FBR piping bellows joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukimori, Kazuyuki; Iwata, Koji

    1991-01-01

    Reduction of construction cost is one of the most important problems to realize a FBR (Fast Breeder Reactor) Plant. Significant reduction of the construction cost of a reactor building, related equipments and facilities can be expected by shortening the length of its long cooling pipes. Since the bellows has a great capacity for absorbing thermal expansion displacement, application of bellows expansion joints is considered as the most influential measure for reduction of the piping length. To confirm technological possibilities of application and practical use of bellows joints in the main piping systems, extensive R and D's, development of various methods for evaluating the strength of bellows, establishment of inspection and maintenance techniques, studies on safety logic, etc., were carried out by PNC from 1983 to 1988. Through these studies, technological possibilities of bellows joints were confirmed and the results were summarized in the 'Structural Design Guide for Class 1 Piping Bellows Expansion Joints of Fast Breeder Reactor for Elevated Temperature Service' and the 'Inspection and Maintenance Standards of Piping bellows expansion Joints'. (author)

  5. Metallized ceramic vacuum pipe for particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, B.L.; Featherby, M.

    1990-01-01

    A ceramic vacuum chamber segment in the form of a long pipe of rectangular cross section has been assembled from standard shapes of alumina ceramic using glass bonding techniques. Prior to final glass bonding, the internal walls of the pipe are metallized using an electroplating technology. These advanced processes allow for precision patterning and conductivity control of surface conducting films. The ability to lay down both longitudinal and transverse conductor patterns separated by insulating layers of glass give the accelerator designer considerable freedom in tailoring longitudinal and transverse beam pipe impedances. Assembly techniques of these beam pipes are followed through two iterations of semi-scale pipe sections made using candidate materials and processes. These demonstrate the feasibility of the concepts and provide parts for electrical characterization and for further refinement of the approach. In a parallel effort, a variety of materials, joining processes and assembly procedures have been tried to assure flexibility and reliability in the construction of 10-meter long sections to any required specifications

  6. LWR primary coolant pipe rupture test rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshitoshi, Shyoji

    1978-01-01

    The rupture test rig for primary coolant pipes is constructed in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute to verify the reliability of the primary coolant pipes for both PWRs and BWRs. The planned test items consisted of reaction force test, restraint test, whip test, jet test and continuous release test. A pressure vessel of about 4 m 3 volume, a circulating pump, a pressurizer, a heater, an air cooler and the related instrumentation and control system are included in this test rig. The coolant test condition is 160 kg/cm 2 g, 325 deg C for PWR test, and 70 kg/cm 2 g, saturated water and steam for BWR test, 100 ton of test load for the ruptured pipe bore of 8B Schedule 160, and 20 lit/min. discharge during 20 h for continuous release of coolant. The maximum pit internal pressure was estimated for various pipe diameters and time under the PWR and BWR conditions. The spark rupturing device was adopted for the rupture mechanics in this test rig. The computer PANAFACOM U-300 is used for the data processing. This test rig is expected to operate in 1978 effectively for the improvement of reliability of LWR primary coolant pipes. (Nakai, Y.)

  7. Pipe Decontamination Involving String-Foam Circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turchet, J.P.; Estienne, G.; Fournel, B.

    2002-01-01

    Foam applications number for nuclear decontamination purposes has recently increased. The major advantage of foam decontamination is the reduction of secondary liquid wastes volumes. Among foam applications, we focus on foam circulation in contaminated equipment. Dynamic properties of the system ensures an homogeneous and rapid effect of the foam bed-drifted chemical reagents present in the liquid phase. This paper describes a new approach of foam decontamination for pipes. It is based on an alternated air and foam injections. We called it 'string-foam circulation'. A further reduction of liquid wastes is achieved compared to continuous foam. Secondly, total pressure loss along the pipe is controlled by the total foam length in the pipe. It is thus possible to clean longer pipes keeping the pressure under atmospheric pressure value. This ensures the non dispersion of contamination. This study describes experimental results obtained with a neutral foam as well with an acid foam on a 130 m long loop. Finally, the decontamination of a 44 meters pipe is presented. (authors)

  8. Nuclear power plant piping damping parametric effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    The present NRC guidelines for structural damping to be used in the dynamic stress analyses of nuclear power plant piping systems are generally considered to be overly conservative. As a result, plant designers have in many instances used a considerable number of seismic supports to keep stresses calculated by large scale piping computer codes below the allowable limits. In response to this problem, the NRC and EG and G Idaho are engaged in programs to evaluate piping system damping, in order to provide more realistic and less conservative values to be used in seismic analyses. To generate revised guidelines, solidly based on technical data, new experimental data need to be generated and assessed, and the parameters which influence piping system damping need to be quantitatively identified. This paper presents the current state-of-the-art knowledge in the United States on parameters which influence piping system damping. Examples of inconsistencies in the data and areas of uncertainty are explained. A discussion of programs by EG and G Idaho and other organizations to evaluate various effects is included, and both short and long range goals of the program are outlined

  9. Imperative, irony and smuggling of the pie in the sky. Somenotes on the poem Do Jeruszalaim by Jerzy Ficowski

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Czwordon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The poem Do Jeruszalaim combines different original poetical solutionsapplied in the collection of poems Odczytanie popiołów and rememberingthe experience of Shoah. The language of the poem becomes a toolemployed in a “smuggling” of unsaved Jews, being done “belatedly”,into the world of the living. Complicated, unspectacular by design,constructional operations are finely tuned with the semantics of the escape(flight and are to lay a false trail, to rescue a human being in theintricacies of the poem, somewhere between the sheer physics of theescape and the possibilities offered by words. A particularly interestingplace is given to the phraseological units used in the poems such as“a handful of pies in the sky” that simultaneously recall futility of theaction but somehow suggest a “smuggling” the act of life-giving activity.The activities carried out in the language of the poem functionin a ceaseless (and self-augmenting strain between the two contradictions.They are: the imperative of memory, impractical (and unfeasibleact of saving human “after-being” and the protest against the abyssmalnothingness of Shoah on the one hand, and irony of the futility of these“vindications from non-existence” as being only verbal, on the other.

  10. Foveolar Müller Cells of the Pied Flycatcher: Morphology and Distribution of Intermediate Filaments Regarding Cell Transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zueva, Lidia; Golubeva, Tatiana; Korneeva, Elena; Makarov, Vladimir; Khmelinskii, Igor; Inyushin, Mikhail

    2016-04-01

    Specialized intermediate filaments (IFs) have critical importance for the clearness and uncommon transparency of vertebrate lens fiber cells, although the physical mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Recently, an unusual low-scattering light transport was also described in retinal Müller cells. Exploring the function of IFs in Müller cells, we have studied the morphology and distribution pattern of IFs and other cytoskeletal filaments inside the Müller cell main processes in the foveolar part of the avian (pied flycatcher) retina. We found that some IFs surrounded by globular nanoparticles (that we suggest are crystallines) are present in almost every part of the Müller cells that span the retina, including the microvilli. Unlike IFs implicated in the mechanical architecture of the cell, these IFs are not connected to any specific cellular membranes. Instead, they are organized into bundles, passing inside the cell from the endfeet to the photoreceptor, following the geometry of the processes, and repeatedly circumventing numerous obstacles. We believe that the presently reported data effectively confirm that the model of nanooptical channels built of the IFs may provide a viable explanation of Müller cell transparency.

  11. Effects of pollution on land snail abundance, size and diversity as resources for pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeva, Tapio; Rainio, Kalle; Suominen, Otso

    2010-09-01

    Passerine birds need extra calcium during their breeding for developing egg shells and proper growth of nestling skeleton. Land snails are an important calcium source for many passerines and human-induced changes in snail populations may pose a severe problem for breeding birds. We studied from the bird's viewpoint how air pollution affects the shell mass, abundance and diversity of land snail communities along a pollution gradient of a copper smelter. We sampled remnant snail shells from the nests of an insectivorous passerine, the pied flycatcher, Ficedula hypoleuca, to find out how the availability of land snails varies along the pollution gradient. The total snail shell mass increased towards the pollution source but declined abruptly in the vicinity of the smelter. This spatial variation in shell mass was evident also within a single snail species and could not be wholly explained by spatially varying snail numbers or species composition. Instead, the total shell mass was related to their shell size, individuals being largest at the moderately polluted areas. Smaller shell size suggests inferior growth of snails in the most heavily polluted area. Our study shows that pollution affects the diversity, abundance (available shell mass) and individual quality of land snails, posing reproductive problems for birds that rely on snails as calcium sources during breeding. There are probably both direct pollution-related (heavy metal and calcium levels) and indirect (habitat change) effects behind the observed changes in snail populations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Las notas al pie en la traducción de Fifty Shades (Footnotes in the Translation of Fifty Shades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinia Valverde Jara

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el recurso de las notas a pie de página insertas en la traducción independiente de literatura comercial en versión digital, de la trilogía Fifty Shades of Grey, Fifty Shades Darker y Fifty Shades Freed, de E. L. James. Se examina el grado de influencia de esos elementos extratextuales, y se concluye que todos ellos, organizados en un complejo proceso de traducción, en especial los del contexto de llegada, condicionan la estrategia traductológica. Abstract This study examines the use of footnotes as a translation strategy in the independent translation of commercial literature in digital format, based on the trilogy written by E. L. James, Fifty Shades of Grey, Fifty Shades Darker and Fifty Shades Freed. The analysis measures the influence of these extratextual elements within the complex translation process, specifically those of the target language context, and it is concluded that they condition the translation strategies used.

  13. Structural analysis program of plant piping system. Introduction of AutoPIPE V8i new feature. JSME PPC-class 2 piping code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motohashi, Kazuhiko

    2009-01-01

    After an integration with ADLPipe, AutoPIPE V8i (ver.9.1) became the structural analysis program of plant piping system featured with analysis capability for the ASME NB Class 1 and JSME PPC-Class 2 piping codes including ASME NC Class 2 and ASME ND Class 3. This article described analysis capability for the JSME PPC-Class 2 piping code as well as new general features such as static analysis up to 100 thermal, 10 seismic and 10 wind load cases including different loading scenarios and pipe segment edit function: join, split, reverse and re-order segments. (T. Tanaka)

  14. Experimental Investigation on Corrosion of Cast Iron Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mohebbi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that corrosion is the predominant mechanism for the deterioration of cast iron pipes, leading to the reduction of pipe capacity and ultimate collapse of the pipes. In order to assess the remaining service life of corroded cast iron pipes, it is imperative to understand the mechanisms of corrosion over a long term and to develop models for pipe deterioration. Although many studies have been carried out to determine the corrosion behavior of cast iron, little research has been undertaken to understand how cast iron pipes behave over a longer time scale than hours, days, or weeks. The present paper intends to fill the gap regarding the long-term corrosion behaviour of cast iron pipes in the absence of historical data. In this paper, a comprehensive experimental program is presented in which the corrosion behaviour of three exservice pipes was thoroughly examined in three simulated service environments. It has been found in the paper that localised corrosion is the primary form of corrosion of cast iron water pipes. It has also been found that the microstructure of cast irons is a key factor that affects the corrosion behaviour of cast iron pipes. The paper concludes that long-term tests on corrosion behaviour of cast iron pipes can help develop models for corrosion-induced deterioration of the pipes for use in predicting the remaining service life of the pipes.

  15. Piping in need of a facelift

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    The LS1 offers a good opportunity to renovate/consolidate the CERN piping system. This is actually one of this year’s objectives set by CERN's Director-General as the state of several pressurised pipe networks has become a matter of significant concern. The ageing infrastructure makes it essential to perform in-depth inspections and repairs on several networks, which are easier to perform when most systems are down.   We are advising each Department/Group concerned to take a series of actions to ensure that their pipelines comply with personal, environmental and operational safety requirements: an inventory of ageing installations to allow a long-term replacement plan to be drawn up; immediate repair in the event of major signs of deterioration; investigation and repair/mitigation measures to prevent leaks; marking and, if necessary, mechanical protection of pipes located in thoroughfares and exposed to vehicles or people. Help needed, questions? Do not hesitate to contact us ...

  16. Control of pipe vibrations; Schwingungsminderung bei Rohrleitungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinambari, G.R. [FH Bingen, Fachrichtung Umweltschutz, und IBS Ingenieurbuero fuer Schall- und Schwingungstechnik GmbH, Frankenthal (Germany); Thorn, U. [IBS Ingenieurbuero fuer Schall- und Schwingungstechnik GmbH, Frankenthal (Germany)

    2005-06-01

    Following commissioning of a new vacuum system for the refinery of MiRO Mineraloelraffinerie Oberrhein GmbH and Co. KG, vibrations occurred in the furnace exhaust pipes. As these had to be regarded as critical for the fatigue strength of the pipes, the pipes' vibration response in the critical frequency range was investigated immediately by means of a vibration analysis, and appropriate measures for vibration control were elaborated. All investigations, and the installation of the hydraulic vibration dampers, took place with the system operating. The effectiveness of the measures taken was checked by means of measurements following installation. The measures succeeded in attenuating the vibrations to a level at which, empirically, damage need no longer be expected. This paper illustrates the procedure for developing the vibration control measures and the essential results of the investigations. (orig.)

  17. Wall thinning of piping in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Joji; Inada, Fumio; Morita, Ryo; Kawai, Noboru; Yoneda, Kimitoshi

    2005-01-01

    Major mechanisms causing wall thinning of piping in power plants are flow accelerated corrosion (FAC), cavitation erosion and droplet erosion. Their fundamental aspects are reviewed on the basis of literature data. FAC is chemical process and it is affected by hydrodynamic factors, temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen concentration and chemical composition of materials. On the other hand, cavitation erosion and droplet erosion are mechanical process and they are mainly affected by hydrodynamic factors and mechanical properties of materials. Evaluation codes for FAC and mitigation methods of FAC and the erosion are also described. Wall thinning of piping is one of public concerns after an accident of a pipe failure at Mihama Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3, Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., in August 2004. This paper gives comprehensive understanding of the wall thinning mechanism. (author)

  18. Nuclear power plant piping damping parametric effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    The NRC and EG and G Idaho are engaged in programs to evaluate piping-system damping, in order to provide realistic and less conservative values to be used in seismic analyses. To generate revised guidelines, solidly based on technical data, new experimental data need to be generated and assessed, and the parameters which influence piping-system damping need to be quantitatively identified. This paper presents the current state-of-the-art knowledge in the United States on parameters which influence piping-system damping. Examples of inconsistencies in the data and areas of uncertainty are explained. A discussion of programs by EG and G Idaho and other organizations to evaluate various effects are included, and both short-and long-range goals of the program are outlined

  19. Failure analysis on a ruptured petrochemical pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harun, Mohd [Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation Malaysia, Bangi, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Shamsudin, Shaiful Rizam; Kamardin, A. [Univ. Malaysia Perlis, Jejawi, Arau (Malaysia). School of Materials Engineering

    2010-08-15

    The failure took place on a welded elbow pipe which exhibited a catastrophic transverse rupture. The failure was located on the welding HAZ region, parallel to the welding path. Branching cracks were detected at the edge of the rupture area. Deposits of corrosion products were also spotted. The optical microscope analysis showed the presence of transgranular failures which were related to the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and were predominantly caused by the welding residual stress. The significant difference in hardness between the welded area and the pipe confirmed the findings. Moreover, the failure was also caused by the low Mo content in the stainless steel pipe which was detected by means of spark emission spectrometer. (orig.)

  20. Performance testing of a hydrogen heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alario, J.; Kosson, R.

    1980-01-01

    Test results are presented for a reentrant groove heat pipe with hydrogen working fluid. The heat pipe became operational between 20 and 30 K after a cooldown from 77 K without any difficulty. Steady-state performance data taken over a 19 to 23 K temperature range indicated the following: (1) maximum heat transport capacity 5.4 W-m (2) static wicking height 1.42 cm and (3) overall heat pipe conductance 1.7 W/C. These data agreed remarkably well with extrapolations made from comparable ammonia test results. The maximum heat transport capacity is 9.5% larger than the extrapolated value, but the static wicking height is the same. The overall conductance is 29% of the ammonia value, which is close to the ratio of liquid thermal conductivities (24%). Also, recovery from a completely frozen condition was accomplished within 5 min by simply applying an evaporater heat load of 1.8 W

  1. Analytical and numerical modeling for flexible pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Geng

    2011-12-01

    The unbonded flexible pipe of eight layers, in which all the layers except the carcass layer are assumed to have isotropic properties, has been analyzed. Specifically, the carcass layer shows the orthotropic characteristics. The effective elastic moduli of the carcass layer have been developed in terms of the influence of deformation to stiffness. With consideration of the effective elastic moduli, the structure can be properly analyzed. Also the relative movements of tendons and relative displacements of wires in helical armour layer have been investigated. A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model has been presented to predict the response of flexible pipes under axial force and torque. Further, the friction and contact of interlayer have been considered. Comparison between the finite element model and experimental results obtained in literature has been given and discussed, which might provide practical and technical support for the application of unbonded flexible pipes.

  2. Inelastic analysis of SNR-300 piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebel, H [INTERATOM, Bergisch Gladbach (Germany); Di Luna, L J; Moy, G [Teledyne Engineering Services, Waltham, MA (United States)

    1983-05-01

    This paper investigates plasticity, creep, and elastic follow-up effects on a full size hot primary piping system of the German fast breeder reactor prototype, the SNR-300. A large model (327 elements, 419 nodes) of straight pipe, special elbow and hanger elements of the general purpose finite element program, MARC-CDC, is used to predict piping behavior for a heat-up, sodium loading-unloading-reloading cycle and other significant operating conditions. Included in this work are many time-dependent solution increments for a 5,000 hour creep period. Creep strains and relaxed stress results, after 5,000 hours, for the complete model are used with uniaxial and biaxial models and results to extrapolate conclusions for a 100,000 hour operating life. (author)

  3. Heat pipes for ground heating and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, L L

    1988-01-01

    Different versions of heat pipe ground heating and cooling devices are considered. Solar energy, biomass, ground stored energy, recovered heat of industrial enterprises and ambient cold air are used as energy and cold sources. Heat pipe utilization of air in winter makes it possible to design accumulators of cold and ensures deep freezing of ground in order to increase its mechanical strength when building roadways through the swamps and ponds in Siberia. Long-term underground heat storage systems are considered, in which the solar and biomass energy is accumulated and then transferred to heat dwellings and greenhouses, as well as to remove snow from roadways with the help of heat pipes and solar collectors.

  4. Pipe-flange detection with GPR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonomo, Néstor; De la Vega, Matías; Martinelli, Patricia; Osella, Ana

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes an application of the ground penetrating radar (GPR) method for detecting pipe flanges. A case history is described in which GPR was successfully used to locate pipe flanges along an 8 km metal pipeline, using a fixed-offset methodology, from the ground surface. Summaries of numerical simulations and in situ tests, performed before the definitive prospecting to evaluate the feasibility of detection, are included. Typical GPR signals are analysed and several examples shown. Constant-time sections of data volumes and migration are evaluated with the goal of distinguishing flange signals from rock signals in unclear situations. The applied methodology was effective for detecting the pipe flanges in relatively short times, with accuracies below 10 cm in the horizontal direction and 20 cm in the vertical direction

  5. Inelastic analysis of SNR-300 piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebel, H.; Di Luna, L.J.; Moy, G.

    1983-01-01

    This paper investigates plasticity, creep, and elastic follow-up effects on a full size hot primary piping system of the German fast breeder reactor prototype, the SNR-300. A large model (327 elements, 419 nodes) of straight pipe, special elbow and hanger elements of the general purpose finite element program, MARC-CDC, is used to predict piping behavior for a heat-up, sodium loading-unloading-reloading cycle and other significant operating conditions. Included in this work are many time-dependent solution increments for a 5,000 hour creep period. Creep strains and relaxed stress results, after 5,000 hours, for the complete model are used with uniaxial and biaxial models and results to extrapolate conclusions for a 100,000 hour operating life. (author)

  6. Development of solutions to benchmark piping problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, M; Chang, T Y; Prachuktam, S; Hartzman, M

    1977-12-01

    Benchmark problems and their solutions are presented. The problems consist in calculating the static and dynamic response of selected piping structures subjected to a variety of loading conditions. The structures range from simple pipe geometries to a representative full scale primary nuclear piping system, which includes the various components and their supports. These structures are assumed to behave in a linear elastic fashion only, i.e., they experience small deformations and small displacements with no existing gaps, and remain elastic through their entire response. The solutions were obtained by using the program EPIPE, which is a modification of the widely available program SAP IV. A brief outline of the theoretical background of this program and its verification is also included.

  7. Heat pipe with PCM for electronic cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Ying-Che; Cho, Hung-Pin; Chang, Chih-Chung; Chen, Sih-Li

    2011-01-01

    This article experimentally investigates the thermal performances of a heat pipe with phase change material for electronic cooling. The adiabatic section of heat pipe is covered by a storage container with phase change material (PCM), which can store and release thermal energy depending upon the heating powers of evaporator and fan speeds of condenser. Experimental investigations are conducted to obtain the system temperature distributions from the charge, discharge and simultaneous charge/discharge performance tests. The parameters in this study include three kinds of PCMs, different filling PCM volumes, fan speeds, and heating powers in the PCM cooling module. The cooling module with tricosane as PCM can save 46% of the fan power consumption compared with the traditional heat pipe.

  8. Residual stress improvement for pipe weld by means of induction heating pre-flawed pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umemoto, T.; Yoshida, K.; Okamoto, A.

    1980-01-01

    The intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) has been found in type 304 stainless steel piping of several BWR plants. It is already well known that IGSCC is most likely to occur when three essential factors, material sensitization, high tensile stress and corrosive environment, are present. If the welding residual stress is sufficiently high (200 to approximately 400 MPa) in the inside piping surface near the welded joint, then it may be one of the biggest contributors to IGSCC. If the residual stress is reduced or reversed by some way, the IGSCC will be effectively mitigated. In this paper a method to improve the residual stress named IHSI (Induction Heating Stress Improvement) is explained. IHSI aims to improve the condition of residual stress in the inside pipe surface using the thermal stress induced by the temperature difference in pipe wall, that is produced when the pipe is heated from the outside surface by an induction heating coil and cooled on the inside surface by water simultaneously. This method becomes more attractive when it can be successfully applied to in-service piping which might have some pre-flaw. In order to verify the validity of IHSI for such piping, some experiments and calculations using finite element method were conducted. These results are mainly discussed in this paper from the view-points of residual stress, flaw behaviour during IHSI and material deterioration. (author)

  9. Pipe rupture test results; 6 in. pipe whip test under BWR LOCA conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Ryoichi; Yano, Toshikazu; Ueda, Shuzo; Isozaki, Toshikuni; Miyazaki, Noriyuki; Kato, Rokuro; Miyazono, Shohachiro

    1983-02-01

    A series of pipe rupture tests has been performed in JAERI to demonstrate the safety of the primary coolant circuits in the event of pipe rupture, in nuclear power plants. The present report summarizes the results of 6 in. pipe whip tests (RUN 5605, 5606), under BWR LOCA conditions (285 0 C, 6.8 MPa), which were performed in August, 1981. The test pipe is made of Type 304 stainless steel and its outer diameter is 6 in. and its thickness is 11.1 mm. The restraints are made of Type 304 stainless steel and its diameter is 16.0 mm. Two restraints were set on the restraint support with clearance of 100 mm. Overhang length was varied as the parameter in these tests and was 300 mm or 700 mm. The following results are obtained. (1) The deformations of a pipe and restraints are limited effectively by shorter overhang length of 300. However, they become larger when the overhang length is 700 mm, and the pipe deforms especially at the setting point of restraints. (2) Velocity at the free end of pipe becomes about 30 m/sec just after the break. However, velocity at the setting point of restraint becomes about only 4 m/sec just after the break. (3) It seems from the comparison between the 4 in. tests and 6 in. tests that the maximum restraint force of 6 in. tests is about two times as large as that of 4 in. tests. (author)

  10. Desempenho de cordeiros alimentados com inclusão de torta de macaúba na dieta Performance of lambs fed with macauba pie inclusion in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Alves de Azevedo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o consumo de nutrientes e o desempenho produtivo e econômico de ovinos confinados da raça Santa Inês, alimentados com dietas com diferentes taxas de inclusão de torta de macaúba. Os animais (24 foram distribuídos em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, nos tratamentos com 0, 100, 200 e 300 g kg-1 de torta de macaúba na matéria seca da dieta, em seis repetições, durante 60 dias de confinamento. A adição de torta de macaúba a taxas crescentes à dieta aumentou linearmente o consumo de proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, fibra em detergente neutro e a conversão alimentar. Não houve diferença no consumo de matéria seca, ganho médio diário e ganho de peso vivo total com a adição da torta. O tratamento com inclusão de 100 g kg-1 apresentou a melhor relação custo:benefício na avaliação das receitas bruta e líquida obtidas com a venda dos animais vivos e abatidos. A adição da torta de macaúba em até 300 g kg-1 da dieta não altera o desempenho produtivo dos animais, entretanto, a inclusão de 100 g kg-1 proporciona melhor retorno econômico.The objective of this work was to evaluate the nutrient uptake and the productive and economic performance of confined Santa Inês lambs fed diets with different levels of macauba pie inclusion . The animals (24 were distributed in a randomized block design, in treatments with 0, 100, 200 and 300 g kg-1 macauba pie in the diet dry matter, with six replicates during 60 days of confinement. The addition of macauba pie at increasing rates to the diet linearly increased the intake of crude protein, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber and feed conversion. There was no difference in dry matter intake, average daily gain and total live weight gain with the macauba pie addition. Diet with 100 g kg-1 macauba pie inclusion showed the best cost:benefit ratio in the evaluation of gross and net revenues from the sale of live and slaughtered animals. The addition

  11. An elevator for lifting and turning pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melnikov, S.P.; Borchenkov, G.I.; Komarov, V.N.; Lebedev, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    An elevator is proposed for lifting and turning pipes, which includes a body and a bushing hinged to it with projections and a shank with a threaded adapter and cams which interact with the projections of the bushing. In order to increase the operational safety of the device through ensuring the capability of eliminating drops in the torque from the shank to the body when raising and extracting drill pipes, the body is equipped with eccentric cams rigidly connected to it, while the shank is equipped with a ring movable connected with it. The eccentric cams are installed between the bushing and the body with the capability of interacting with the shank ring.

  12. Design analysis of liquid metal pipe supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolin, L.L.; LaSalle, F.R.

    1979-02-01

    Design guidelines pertinent to liquid metal pipe supports are presented. The numerous complex conditions affecting the support stiffness and strength are addressed in detail. Topics covered include modeling of supports for natural frequency and stiffness calculations, support hardware components, formulas for deflection due to torsion, plate bending, and out-of-plane flexibility. A sample analysis and a discussion on stress analysis of supports are included. Also presented are recommendations for design improvements for increasing the stiffness of pipe supports and which were utilized in the FFTF system

  13. BOA: Pipe asbestos insulation removal robot system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.; Schnorr, W.

    1995-01-01

    The BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to the high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal extremely costly and highly inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee

  14. Corrosion Surveillance In Pipe By Computed Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen The Man; Dao Duy Dung; Dang Thu Hong; Le Duc Thinh; Ha Hong Thu; Nguyen Trong Nghia

    2014-01-01

    Computed Radiography (CR) is a technique of digital industrial radiology which is developed to replace conventional radiography. With a CR system, the detection of the outer and inner wall surface of the pipe is done usually by edge detection and filter algorithms of the profile line at the position under investigation. Applying in industries, radiographic examination shall be performed in accordance with a written procedure. This paper summarizes collected knowledge and experimental results to establish a procedure for radiography applications in monitoring corrosion in small bore pipes. (author)

  15. Design and analysis for piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterkel, H.-P.; Cutrim, J.H.C.

    1981-01-01

    The procedure and the typical techniques that are used in NUCLEN for the design and the calculation of the piping of Nuclear Plants. The classification system are generically described and the analysis techniques which are used for the design and verification of the piping systems, i.e. pressure design for the dimensioning of the wallthicknesses, temperature and dead weight analysis together with determination of support points, are shown. The techniques of dynamic design and analyses are described for earthquake and pressure impulse loadings. (Author) [pt

  16. Piping stress analysis with personal computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revesz, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The growing market of the personal computers is providing an increasing number of professionals with unprecedented and surprisingly inexpensive computing capacity, which if using with powerful software, can enhance immensely the engineers capabilities. This paper focuses on the possibilities which opened in piping stress analysis by the widespread distribution of personal computers, on the necessary changes in the software and on the limitations of using personal computers for engineering design and analysis. Reliability and quality assurance aspects of using personal computers for nuclear applications are also mentioned. The paper resumes with personal views of the author and experiences gained during interactive graphic piping software development for personal computers. (orig./GL)

  17. Reconfigurable manufacturing execution system for pipe cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Y. H.; Xie, J. Y.

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a reconfigurable manufacturing execution system (RMES) filling the gap between enterprise resource planning and resource layer for pipe-cutting production with mass customisation and rapid adaptation to dynamic market, which consists of planning and scheduling layer and executive control layer. Starting from customer's task and process requirements, the cutting trajectories are planned under generalised mathematical model able to reconfigure in accordance with various intersecting types' joint, and all tasks are scheduled by nesting algorithm to maximise the utilisation rate of rough material. This RMES for pipe cutting has been effectively implemented in more than 100 companies.

  18. Magnet fall inside a conductive pipe: motion and the role of the pipe wall thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoso, G; Ladera, C L; Martin, P [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon BolIvar, Apdo. 89000, Caracas 1080 (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)], E-mail: clladera@usb.ve, E-mail: pmartin@usb.ve

    2009-07-15

    Theoretical models and experimental results are presented for the retarded fall of a strong magnet inside a vertical conductive non-magnetic tube. Predictions and experimental results are in good agreement modelling the magnet as a simple magnetic dipole. The effect of varying the pipe wall thickness on the retarding magnetic drag is studied for pipes of different materials. Conductive pipes of thinner walls produce less dragging force and the retarded fall of the magnet is seen to consist of an initial transient accelerated regime followed by a stage of uniform motion. Alternative models of the magnet field are also presented that improve the agreement between theory and experiments.

  19. Piping data retrieval system (PDRS): An integrated package to aid piping layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyas, K.N.; Sharma, A.; Susandhi, R.; Basu, S.

    1986-01-01

    An integrated package to aid piping layout has been developed and implemented on PDP-11/34 system at Hall 7. The package allows various equipments to be modelled, consisting of primitive equipment components. The equipment layout for the plant can then be reproduced in the form of drawings such as plan, elevation, isometric or perspective. The package has the built in function to perform hidden line removal among equipments. Once the equipment layout is finalised, the package aids in superimposing the piping as per the specified pipe routine. The report discusses the general capabilities and the major input requirements for the package. (author)

  20. 46 CFR 194.20-19 - Piping and electrical requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Storerooms § 194.20-19 Piping and electrical requirements. (a) Piping, electrical equipment, and wiring shall... storeroom itself. (b) The electrical installation shall be in accordance with the applicable requirements of...