WorldWideScience

Sample records for preplant soil fumigation

  1. Preplanting tall fescue grass for controlling Meloidogyne incognita in a young peach orchard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preplant fumigant nematicides have traditionally been used to control Meloidogyne spp. in peach in the southeastern United States. The current preplant nematicides recommended for managing Meloidogyne spp. in peach include the soil fumigants, 1,3-dichloropropene and metam sodium. Because the econo...

  2. Introduction to Soil Fumigant Management Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil fumigant pesticide labels require users to prepare a site-specific fumigation management plan (FMP) before the application begins. EPA has developed templates that outline the elements required by the labels.

  3. Environmental Impacts from Pesticide Use: A Case Study of Soil Fumigation in Florida Tomato Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Houston

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The search for alternative fumigants has been ongoing since the 1992 Parties of the Montreal Protocol classified methyl bromide as a Class I controlled substance with an ozone depletion potential (ODP of 0.7 and destined it for phase-out. This paper focuses on the hazards from fumigants proposed as alternatives for pre-plant soil fumigation in tomato production. We use the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ developed by Kovach et al. to estimate the hazards from methyl bromide and the proposed alternative fumigants to workers, consumers, beneficial arthropods, birds, fish, and bees. Our findings indicate that iodomethane 98/2 has the lowest EIQ index value and field use rating, and is the alternative with the lowest relative risk. Among environmental categories, workers and beneficial arthropods experience the highest relative risks from the proposed tomato fumigants, and fish and consumers the least risks.

  4. Soil resilience and yield performance in a vineyard established after intense pre-planting earthworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Edoardo; Valboa, Giuseppe; Gagnarli, Elena; Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Priori, Simone; Simoni, Sauro; Storchi, Paolo; Perria, Rita; Vignozzi, Nadia; Agnelli, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Conventional earthworks undertaken before vine plantation may severely compromise soil functions and vine production, as a consequence of a decline of soil fertility caused by loss of organic matter and biological activity, along with changes in chemical and physical features of the topsoil due to the upset of the soil profile. This research was aimed at assessing the effects of conventional pre-planting earthworks on soil fertility and vine yield performance under organic farming. To this purpose, grape yield and quality along with soil chemical, physical and biological properties, were monitored over seven years in a young vineyard established in 2010 after soil leveling and deep ploughing, and in parallel in an older vineyard planted in 2000 after similar earthworks under the same soil and environment conditions. The vineyards (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Sangiovese) were located in the Chianti Classico district (Tuscany, Italy) on a stony calcareous soil classified as Cambic Skeletic Calcisol (loamic, aric) (WRB, 2014). Fertilization was based on annual applications of compost and shredded plant residues. According to the ordinary farming system, the older vineyard was kept free from grass covering during the first four years of growth by periodic tillage, in order to prevent nutritional competition, while in the following years it was managed by natural grass covering on alternate inter-rows. In the younger vineyard, grass covering needed to be postponed because of a delay in the vine development and grape yield induced by poor soil fertility. The results showed significant differences between the two vineyard, with the younger exhibiting lower total organic carbon (0.4 - 0.6 % vs 0.6 - 1.1 %), lower total nitrogen (0.07 - 0.11 % vs 0.10 - 0.15 %) and higher carbonate contents (32 - 38 % vs 21 -30 % total CaCO3), with no clear trend of recovery over time. Pre-planting earthworks also affected the structure and diversity of microbial and microarthropod communities

  5. Field evaluation of a new plastic film (vapor safe) to reduce fumigant emissions and improve distribution in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ruijun; Gao, Suduan; Ajwa, Husein; Sullivan, David; Wang, Dong; Hanson, Bradley D

    2011-01-01

    Preplant soil fumigation is an important pest management practice in coastal California strawberry production regions. Potential atmospheric emissions of fumigants from field treatment, however, have drawn intensive environmental and human health concerns; increasingly stringent regulations on fumigant use have spurred research on low-emission application techniques. The objectives of this research were to determine the effects of a new low-permeability film, commonly known as totally impermeable film (TIF), on fumigant emissions and on fumigant distribution in soil. A 50/50 mixture of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP) was shank-applied at 314 kg ha in two location-separate field plots (0.4 ha each) in Ventura County, California, in fall 2009. One plot was surface-covered with standard polyethylene (PE) film, and the other was covered with TIF immediately after fumigant application. Data collection included emissions, soil-gas phase concentration profile, air concentration under the film, and soil residuals of the applied fumigants. Peak emission flux of 1,3-D and CP from the TIF field was substantially lower than from the PE field. Total through-film emission loss was 2% for 1,3-D and emission surge compared with the PE field, while CP emissions were fairly low in both fields. Higher concentrations and a more uniform distribution in the soil profile for 1,3-D and CP were observed under the TIF compared with the PE film, suggesting that the TIF may allow growers to achieve satisfactory pest control with lower fumigant rates. The surging 1,3-D emissions after film-cutting could result in high exposure risks to workers and bystanders and must be addressed with additional mitigation measures.

  6. Herbicidal Activity of Coumarin When Applied as a Pre-plant Incorporated into Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir-Hossein NAZEMI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to having a short half-life and novel site of action, the herbicidal potential of natural compounds are lionized. Coumarin is a secondary metabolite from Lavandula sp., family Lamiacae. The impact of eight concentrations of coumarin (0, 100, 200, 400, 800, 1600, 3200 and 6400 ppm were separately used as a pre-plant incorporated into soil on six plant species under greenhouse conditions. Generally, coumarin had phytotoxic effect against all plant species. The phytotoxic effect was concentration-dependent. The high concentrations could inhibit the emergence of seedlings (probably by stopping germination of seeds. Based on ED50 parameter, the ranking of plant species for tolerance to coumarin was S. halepense > Z. mays > C. album > A. retroflexus > E. cruss-gali > P. oleracea. Based on selectivity index, coumarin at a concentration of 365.69 ppm can control P. oleracea without damaging Z. mays, whereas any concentration it cannot control other weeds without damaging Z. mays.

  7. Post fumigation recovery of soil microbial community structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil fumigants have been extensively used to control target soil-borne pathogens and weeds for the past few decades. It is known that the fumigants with broad biocidal activity can affect both target and non-target soil organisms, but the recovery of soil microbial communities are unknown until rece...

  8. Emission of fumigants from soil and dispersion in air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den F.

    1992-01-01

    In the Netherlands, soil fumigants are used on a large scale for nematode control in arable farming. After injecting the fumigant into the soil, a fraction of the dosage of 1,3-dichloropropene and methyl isothiocyanate (formed from metham-sodium) diffuses up to the soil surface and escapes

  9. Improving seedling growth in longleaf pine plantations with nematicidal soil fumigants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehle, J L

    1969-07-01

    In-row, preplanting fumigation with DD and DBCP in a longleaf pine plantation was evaluated for nematode control, improved seedling survival, and early and uniform release of seedlings from the grass stage. Only DD significantly lowered the nematode population during the first growing season. DBCP not only failed to control nematodes, but was phytotoxic. Fumigation had little effect on seedling survival. Seedlings in rows fumigated with DD started height growth earlier and produced taller trees after 5 years than those in nonfumigated rows.

  10. A micro spot injection system for studing the effects of carbonation on fumigant dispersion in soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumigant transport to deep soils is needed to control plant parasitic nematodes and soil borne pathogens for perennial crops. Using carbonated fumigants and carbon dioxide (CO2)-pressurized fumigant injection systems may achieve this target when compared to conventional fumigation systems pressurize...

  11. Changes in microorganisms populations in the soil after fumigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meszka, B; Chałańska, A; Sobiczewski, P; Bryk, H; Malusa, E; Slusarski, C

    2011-01-01

    Soil fumigation with dazomet, metam sodium, chloropicrin and chloropicrin + 1.3 D resulted in significant decrease of fungi and increase of bacteria populations in trials carried out in four farms located in different areas. Depending on the farm and the active substance applied, the fungi population was decreased by 1.4- to 3500-fold in comparison to control. Metam sodium and chloropicrin showed the best efficacy, both of them almost totally eliminated the fungi from the soil environment.The total number of bacteria was increased by the chemical fumigation with all tested products. While the population of fluorescent Pseudomonads in all treated plots increased from 2- to 100-fold, depending on the farm, the number of Bacillus spp. was not changed or decreased compared with non fumigated soil.The nematology analysis of the soil indicated that any chemical fumigant significantly limited the population of plant parasitic nematodes, which number was, anyway, below the damage threshold. However, in most cases dazomet and metam sodium reduced the total number of all nematodes present in the soil.The fumigation with chloropicrin and 1,3 D at dose of 30 g/m2 resulted in an increase of the total number of all nematodes in soil.

  12. Buffer Zone Requirements for Soil Fumigant Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updated pesticide product labels require fumigant users to establish a buffer zone around treated fields to reduce risks to bystanders. Useful information includes tarp testing guidance and a buffer zone calculator.

  13. Community Outreach and Education on Soil Fumigants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on how outreach programs can help address the risk of bystander exposure by educating community members about fumigants, buffer zones, how to recognize warning signs, and how to respond appropriately in case of an incident.

  14. Effect of organic amendments on Douglas-fir transplants grown in fumigated versus non-fumigated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabil Khudduri

    2010-01-01

    We transplanted one-year old Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) seedlings into compost-amended soil that had either been spring-fumigated with a methyl bromide/chloropicrin combination or left unfumigated. Seedling nutrient, pathology, morphology, and packout measurements were significantly better for those transplanted into fumigated rather than non-...

  15. Lower Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Anhydrous Ammonia Application Prior to Soil Freezing in Late Fall Than Spring Pre-Plant Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenuta, Mario; Gao, Xiaopeng; Flaten, Donald N; Amiro, Brian D

    2016-07-01

    Fall application of anhydrous ammonia in Manitoba is common but its impact on nitrous oxide (NO) emissions is not well known. A 2-yr study compared application before freeze-up in late fall to spring pre-plant application of anhydrous ammonia on nitrous oxide (NO) emissions from a clay soil in the Red River Valley, Manitoba. Spring wheat ( L.) and corn ( L.) were grown on two 4-ha fields in 2011 and 2012, respectively. Field-scale flux of NO was measured using a flux-gradient micrometeorological approach. Late fall treatment did not induce NO emissions soon after application or in winter likely because soil was frozen. Application time did alter the temporal pattern of emissions with late fall and spring pre-plant applications significantly increasing median daily NO flux at spring thaw and early crop growing season, respectively. The majority of emissions occurred in early growing season resulting in cumulative emissions for the crop year being numerically 33% less for late fall than spring pre-plant application. Poor yield in the first year with late fall treatment occurred because of weed and volunteer growth with delayed planting. Results show late fall application of anhydrous ammonia before freeze-up increased NO emissions at thaw and decreased emissions for the early growing season compared to spring pre-plant application. However, improved nitrogen availability of late fall application to crops the following year is required when planting is delayed because of excessive moisture in spring.

  16. Response of soil organisms to dimethyl disulfide fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    After the commonly used soil fumigant methyl bromide (MeBr) was phased out in the United States, alternatives to MeBr such as dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) which is known to have broad pest control spectrum, is increasingly used. However, effectiveness of DMDS has been mainly investigated to study targe...

  17. Bacterial oxidation of methyl bromide in fumigated agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L.G.; Connell, T.L.; Guidetti, J.R.; Oremland, R.S.

    1997-01-01

    The oxidation of [14C]methyl bromide ([14C]MeBr) to 14CO2 was measured in field experiments with soils collected from two strawberry plots fumigated with mixtures of MeBr and chloropicrin (CCI3NO2). Although these fumigants are considered potent biocides, we found that the highest rates of MeBr oxidation occurred 1 to 2 days after injection when the fields were tarped, rather than before or several days after injection. No oxidation of MeBr occurred in heat-killed soils, indicating that microbes were the causative agents of the oxidation. Degradation of MeBr by chemical and/or biological processes accounted for 20 to 50% of the loss of MeBr during fumigation, with evasion to the atmosphere inferred to comprise the remainder. In laboratory incubations, complete removal of [14C]MeBr occurred within a few days, with 47 to 67% of the added MeBr oxidized to 14CO2 and the remainder of counts associated with the solid phase. Chloropicrin inhibited the oxidation of MeBr, implying that use of this substance constrains the extent of microbial degradation of MeBr during fumigation. Oxidation was by direct bacterial attack of MeBr and not of methanol, a product of the chemical hydrolysis of MeBr. Neither nitrifying nor methane-oxidizing bacteria were sufficiently active in these soils to account for the observed oxidation of MeBr, nor could the microbial degradation of MeBr be linked to cooxidation with exogenously supplied electron donors. However, repeated addition of MeBr to live soils resulted in higher rates of its removal, suggesting that soil bacteria used MeBr as an electron donor for growth. To support this interpretation, we isolated a gram-negative, aerobic bacterium from these soils which grew with MeBr as a sole source of carbon and energy.

  18. Soil microbial community structure and target organisms under different fumigation treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several high-value crop producers in California rely heavily on soil fumigants to control key diseases, nematodes, weeds and volunteer crops. Fumigants with broad biocidal activity can affect both target and non-target soil organisms. The ability of non-target soil organisms to recover after fumigat...

  19. Interaction between nitrification, denitrification and nitrous oxide production in fumigated soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Dongdong; Wang, Qiuxia; Mao, Liangang; Ma, Taotao; Li, Yuan; Ouyang, Canbin; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2015-02-01

    Soil fumigation can increase mineral nitrogen due to the mineralization of soil microbial biomass killed during the fumigation, and as a result nitrous oxide (N2O) emission would increase. In addition, a fumigant's impact on soil nitrification and denitrification would also alter the dynamics of N2O production in fumigated soils. Laboratory incubation studies were conducted to quantify the dynamic changes in N2O production following various fumigant treatments, and to determine the interaction between nitrification, denitrification and N2O production in fumigated soils. Results showed a substantial increase in NH4+-N and dissolved amino acids (DAA) during 7 days fumigation at 1WAF (week after fumigation). The application of fumigants caused significant inhibition of nitrification. However the results relating to potential denitrification were quite different. The rates of potential denitrification in chloropicrin (Pic) and dazomet (DZ) treatments at 1WAF were 3.5 and 5.6 times higher than the untreated control. Potential denitrification was greatly stimulated after Pic and DZ fumigation. The N2O production rates in Pic and DZ fumigated soil were significantly higher than the untreated control at 1WAF in the tested soil type. The cumulative N2O emissions in Pic and DZ fumigated soil were also significantly higher than the untreated control, but there were no significant differences among 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) and untreated control. A positive relationship between N2O production and potential denitrification (PDN) was observed (r = 0.951, P products of Pic and DZ would be available for microbial-aided denitrification reactions as nitrogen sources leading to N2O production, indicating that Pic and DZ degradation stimulated denitrification activity responsible for soil N2O production.

  20. Effect of anaerobic soil disinfestation and vermicompost on soilborne phytopathogenic agents under tree-crop nursery conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) is a fumigation-independent management strategy for controlling soilborne pathogens. Walnut nurseries currently employ preplant fumigation to control soilborne phytopathogens and weeds, and may be amenable to use ASD instead. We investigated the potential of ASD a...

  1. Effects of fumigation with metam-sodium on soil microbial biomass, respiration, nitrogen transformation, bacterial community diversity and genes encoding key enzymes involved in nitrogen cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Huang, Bin; Wang, Qiuxia; Li, Yuan; Fang, Wensheng; Han, Dawei; Yan, Dongdong; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2017-11-15

    Metam-sodium (MS) is widely used as a soil pre-plant fumigant as methyl bromide is phased out of agriculture. However, the information about how fumigation with MS affects the soil microbial community is still limited. In this study, a 66-day-long experiment was conducted to ascertain the effects of MS on soil substrate-induced respiration (SIR), microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN), NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N concentrations, as well as the abundance of the total bacteria and fungi and the expression of genes involved in nitrogen cycling. In addition, 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing was used to investigate the effect of MS on the soil bacterial community. The half-lives of high and low doses of methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) are 10.51h and 9.93h, respectively. MS caused a short-term inhibition of SIR, MBN; had an accumulation effect on NH4(+)-N concentration in the short term; reduced the abundance of the total bacteria and fungi; and suppressed the expression of the nifH, AOA-amoA, anammox bacteria, nosZ, nirS, and narG. In addition, under the influence of MS, soil bacterial diversity decreased significantly in the long term, bacterial community structure was affected, and there was a shift in the predominant population; for example, some genera, such as Paenibacillus and Luteimonas, significantly increased in number. These changes in bacterial flora may be closely related to the growth of crops. Our study provides useful information for environmental safety assessments of MS in China. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Responses of soil microeukaryotic communities to short-term fumigation-incubation revealed by MiSeq amplicon sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin eChen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In soil microbiology, there is a ‘paradox’ of soil organic carbon (SOC mineralization, which is that even though chloroform fumigation destroys majority of the soil microbial biomass, SOC mineralization continues at the same rate as in the non-fumigated soil during the incubation period. Soil microeukaryotes as important SOC decomposers, however, their community-level responses to chloroform fumigation are not well understood. Using the 18S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we analyzed the composition, diversity and C-metabolic functions of a grassland soil and an arable soil microeukaryotic community in response to fumigation followed by a 30-day incubation. The grassland and arable soil microeukaryotic communities were dominated by the fungal Ascomycota (80.5–93.1% of the fungal sequences, followed by the protistan Cercozoa and Apicomplexa. In the arable soil fungal community, the predominance of the class Sordariomycetes was replaced by the class Eurotiomycetes after fumigation at days 7 and 30 of the incubation. Fumigation changed the microeukaryotic α-diversity in the grassland soil at days 0 and 7, and β-diversity in the arable soil at days 7 and 30. Network analysis indicated that after fumigation fungi were important groups closely related to other taxa. Most phylotypes (especially Sordariomycetes, Dothideomycetes, Coccidia and uncultured Chytridiomycota were inhibited, and only a few were positively stimulated by fumigation. Despite the inhibited Sordariomycetes, the fumigated communities mainly consisted of Eurotiomycetes and Sordariomycetes (21.9% and 36.5% relative frequency, respectively, which are able to produce hydrolytic enzymes associated with SOC mineralization. Our study suggests that fumigation not only decreases biomass size, but modulates the composition and diversity of the soil microeukaryotic communities, which are capable of driving SOC mineralization by release of hydrolytic enzymes during short-term fumigation-incubation.

  3. Impact of Soil Fumigation Practices on Soil Nematodes and Microbial Biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Zhi-Ping; YU Yong-Li; CHEN Guo-Kang; R. DAWSON

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to understand the impact of methyl bromide (MB) (CH3Br) and its alternatives on both free-living and root-knot nematodes in the soil. A randomized complete block experiment with six treatments and 4 replicates (each replicate in a separate greenhouse) was established in Qingzhou, Shandong Province, China. In addition to MB and untreated control (CK) treatments there were four alternative soil fumigation practices including MB+virtually impermeable films (VIF), metam sodium (MS), MS +VIF and soil solarization combined with selected biological control agents (SS+BCA). Two tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) cultivars, cv. Maofen-802 from the Xian Institute of Vegetable Science, China, and cv. AF179 Brillante from the Israeli Hazera Quality Seeds, were selected as test crops. The results indicated that Rhabditidae was the most dominant population with percentage abundance as high as 85% of the total number of identified free-living nematodes, followed by that of Cephalobidae. Methyl bromide and its alternatives except for the non-chemical SS+BCA treatment controlled the target pest, root-knot nematodes. Also, the impact of the three chemical alternatives on free-living nematode number and functional group abundance was similar to the impact associated with a typical methyl bromide application. Chemical fumigation practices, especially that with MB, significantly reduced the number of nematodes in the soil and simultaneously significantly reduced the number of nematode genera thereby reducing nematode diversity. All the four soil chemical fumigation activities decreased soil microbial biomass and had an obvious initial impact on microorganism biomass. Furthermore, both plant-parasitic and fungivore nematodes were positively correlated with soil microbial biomass.

  4. Integrated Impacts of environmental factors on the degradation of fumigants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Yates, S. R.

    2007-12-01

    Volatilization of fumigants has been concerned as one of air pollution sources. Fumigants are used to control nematodes and soil-born pathogens for a pre-plant treatment to increase the production of high-cash crops. One of technologies to reduce the volatilization of fumigants to atmosphere is to enhance the degradation of fumigants in soil. Fumigant degradation is affected by environmental factors such as moisture content, temperature, initial concentration of injected fumigants, and soil properties. However, effects of each factor on the degradation were limitedly characterized and integrated Impacts from environmental factors has not been described yet. Degradation of 1,3- dichloropropene (1,3-D) was investigated in various condition of temperatures (20-60 °C), moisture contents (0 ¡V 30 %) and initial concentrations (0.6 ¡V 60 mg/kg) with Arlington sandy loam soil. Abiotic and biotic degradation processes were distinguished using two sterilization methods with HgCl2 and autoclave and impacts of environmental factors were separately assessed for abiotic and biotic degradations. Initially, degradation rates (k) of cis and trans 1,3-D isomers were estimated by first-order kinetics and modified depending on impacts from environmental factors. Arrhenius equation and Walker¡¦s equation which were conventionally used to describe temperature and moisture effects on degradation were assessed for integrated impacts from environmental factors and logarithmical correlation was observed between initial concentrations of applied fumigants and degradation rates. Understanding integrated impacts of environmental factors on degradation will help to design more effective emission reduction schemes in various conditions and provide more practical parameters for modeling simulations.

  5. Determining breakthrough of the soil fumigant chloropicrin from 120 mg XAD-4 sorbent tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, D. J.; Zheng, W.; Yates, S. R.

    The emission to the atmosphere of soil fumigants such as chloropicrin represents a potentially important human exposure pathway. Commonly, determining the air concentration of fumigants is carried out by pumping air through sorbent tubes which chemically retain the fumigant. In order to obtain an accurate measurement, it is essential that the fumigant does not break through the sorbent tubes, since this would result in an underestimation. Using a simple apparatus, we tested the potential for chloropicrin breakthrough from 120 mg XAD-4 sorbent tubes. The effects of chloropicrin loading (0.33 and 3.3 mg) and air flow rate (50 and 1000 mL min -1) on the transport of chloropicrin through six XAD-4 tubes (connected in series) were examined over time periods ranging from 1 to 360 min. The higher flow rate led to rapid and high breakthrough of the chloropicrin, especially at the longer time periods. At 360 min, all six tubes together retained only 46-54% (depending on initial loading) of the added chloropicrin. At the lower flow rate, essentially all of the added chloropicrin was always retained on the first two tubes. The effect of flow rate was greater than that of initial chloropicrin loading and sampling time. It is concluded that when 120 mg XAD-4 tubes are used in soil fumigant emission studies, it should be at low flow rates only and always with at least one back-up tube.

  6. Calibration of KE C Value in Acidic Red Soils with Fumigation-Extraction Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Commonly used KEC value (0.45) of the fumigation-extraction (FE) method was obtained on the basis of temperate neutral soils. To ascertain its applicability to acidic red soils widespread in southern China and other subtropical regions, the KEC value was investigated based on 8 acidic red soils by in situ labelling of native soil microorganisms using 14C-labelled glucose. Realistic KEC value for red soils could be obtained by in situ 14C-labelling as long as an incubation period of 72 h is adopted after addition of 14C glucose to soil. The single KEC values for the eight red soils ranged from 0.27 to 0.35 and averaged 0.31. Lower KEC value obtained in red soils probably resulted from different soil quality, compared with other types of soil,which causes possible changes in microbial community structure and extractability of cellular component.Microbial biomass C contents of the eight red soils measured using a unique and constant KEC value of 0.45 decreased by 22.2%~40% in comparison to those using variable KEC values. The results suggest that microbial biomass C would be significantly underestimated using the present KEC value and a calibration of the KEC value is necessary for red soils.``

  7. Strain IMB-1, a novel bacterium for the removal of methyl bromide in fumigated agricultural soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Hancock T.L.; Costello, A.M.; Lidstrom, M.E.; Oremland, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    A facultatively methylotrophic bacterium, strain IMB-1, that has been isolated from agricultural soil grows on methyl bromide (MeBr), methyl iodide, methyl chloride, and methylated amines, as well as on glucose, pyruvate, or acetate. Phylogenetic analysis of its 16S rRNA gene sequence indicates that strain IMB-1 classes in the alpha subgroup of the class Proteobacteria and is closely related to members of the genus Rhizobium. The ability of strain IMB-1 to oxidize MeBr to CO2 is constitutive in cells regardless of the growth substrate. Addition of cell suspensions of strain IMB-1 to soils greatly accelerates the oxidation of MeBr, as does pretreatment of soils with low concentrations of methyl iodide. These results suggest that soil treatment strategies can be devised whereby bacteria can effectively consume MeBr during field fumigations, which would diminish or eliminate the outward flux of MeBr to the atmosphere.

  8. Fumigant distribution in forest nursery soil under water seal and plastic film after application of dazomet, metam-sodium and chloropicrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong Wang; Stephen W. Fraedrich; Jennifer Juzwik; Kurt Spokas; Yi Zhang; William C. Koskinen

    2006-01-01

    Adequate concentration, exposure time and distribution uniformity of activated fumigant gases are prerequisites for successful soil fumigation. Field experiments were conducted to evaluate gas phase distributions of methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) and chloropicrin (CP) in two forest-tree nurseries. Concentrations of MITC and CP in soil air were measured from replicated...

  9. Catalytic degradation of the soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene in aqueous biochar slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jiaolong; Cheng, Yuxiao; Sun, Mingxing; Yan, Lili; Shen, Guoqing

    2016-11-01

    Biochar has been explored as a cost-effective sorbent of contaminants, such as soil fumigant. However, contaminant-loaded biochar probably becomes a source of secondary air pollution. In this study, biochars developed from cow manure and rice husk at 300°C or 700°C were used to investigate the catalytic degradation of the soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) in aqueous biochar slurry. Results showed that the adsorption of 1,3-D on the biochars was influenced by Langmuir surface monolayer adsorption. The maximum adsorption capacity of cow manure was greater than that of rice husk at the same pyrolysis temperature. Batch experiments revealed that 1,3-D degradation was improved in aqueous biochar slurry. The most rapid 1,3-D degradation occurred on cow manure-derived biochar produced at 300°C (C-300), with t1/2=3.47days. The degradation efficiency of 1,3-D on C-300 was 95.52%. Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) in biochars were detected via electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) techniques. Dissolved organic matter (DOM) and hydroxyl radical (·OH) in biochars were detected by using a fluorescence spectrophotometer coupled with a terephthalic acid trapping method. The improvement of 1,3-D degradation efficiency may be attributed to EPFRs and DOM in aqueous biochar slurry. Our results may pose implications in the development of effective reduction strategies for soil fumigant emission with biochar. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of Soil fumigation by Methyl Bromide and Methyl Iodide on Rhizosphere and Phyllosphere Microbial Community Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhizosphere and phyllosphere microbial communities were evaluated on roots and leaves of growth chamber-grown lettuce (Lactuca sativa (L.) cv. Green Forest) plants by culture-dependent and -independent methods after soil fumigation. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) with 16S rRNA primer...

  11. Atmospheric emissions of methyl isothiocyanate and chloropicrin following soil fumigation and surface containment treatment in bare-root forest nurseries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.; Spokas, K.; Zhang, Y. [Minnesota Univ., St. Paul, MN (United States). Dept. of Soil, Water, and Climate; Juzwik, J. [USDA Forest Service, North Central Research Station, St. Paul, MN (United States); Fraedrich, S.W. [USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Athens, GA (United States); Koskinen, W.C. [USDA Agricultural Research Service, Soil and Water Management Unit, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Bare-root forest nurseries are commonly fumigated to manage pests such as fungal pathogens, nematodes, weeds and insects. Methyl bromide was among the most commonly used fumigants in the 1990s, but it has been found to contribute to the depletion of the ozone layer. Two possible alternatives for soil fumigation are methylisothiocyanate (MITC) and chloropicrin (CP). However, the surface transport of MITC emission has been known to cause seedling damage in adjacent fields at numerous bare-root forest-tree nurseries. In this study, air emissions of MITC and CP were measured after fumigation at nurseries in Wisconsin and Georgia. Four treatments were tested in combinations of 2 fumigants (dazomet or combined application of CP and metam sodium) and 2 surface containment treatments (Tarp or water seal). Less than 5 per cent of the applied equivalent of MITC was lost through surface treatment over a 2-week period. Lower emissions were observed with the water seal. Cumulative emissions of CP accounted for 10 to 22 per cent of the applied CP. Within 1 week following all treatments, more than 70 per cent of total cumulative emissions of MITC or CP occurred. It was concluded that any one of these surface containment treatments can be used at nurseries to reduce the risk of MITC emissions that could harm humans or damage seedling crops in adjacent fields. 44 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  12. Quantification of Fusarium oxysporum in fumigated soils by a newly developed real-time PCR assay to assess the efficacy of fumigants for Fusarium wilt disease in strawberry plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Mao, Liangang; Yan, Dongdong; Ma, Taotao; Shen, Jin; Guo, Meixia; Wang, Qiuxia; Ouyang, Canbin; Cao, Aocheng

    2014-11-01

    Two soil fumigants, chloropicrin (CP) and dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), were used to control Fusarium wilt disease (FWD) which caused large economic losses in strawberries. The fumigants were evaluated alone and in combination in a laboratory study and in strawberry greenhouses. Laboratory tests found that combinations of CP and DMDS indicated a positive synergistic activity on Fusarium oxysporum. A newly developed quantitative assay for F. oxysporum involving real-time PCR was used successfully to evaluate F. oxysporum control by the fumigants; it provided similar results to the selective medium but was less time-consuming and less labor intensive. Greenhouse trials revealed that the combination of CP and DMDS successfully suppressed the incidence of FWD and sharply reduced the population density of F. oxysporum, which significantly increased fruit branch number and maintained a good strawberry yield, higher than methyl bromide (MB) treatment. All of the treatments provided significantly better results than the non-treated control. This study confirms that the newly developed real-time PCR quantitative assay for F. oxysporum was suitable for the control efficacy evaluation of soil fumigants and that the novel fumigant combination of CP and DMDS offers a promising effective alternative to MB for the control of F. oxysporum in strawberry greenhouses. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Soil [N] modulates soil C cycling in CO2-fumigated tree stands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieleman, W. I. J.; Luyssaert, S.; Rey, A.

    2010-01-01

    Under elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, soil carbon (C) inputs are typically enhanced, suggesting larger soil C sequestration potential. However, soil C losses also increase and progressive nitrogen (N) limitation to plant growth may reduce the CO2 effect on soil C inputs with time. We com...

  14. Fact Sheet in English and Spanish: What Residents in Agricultural Communities Should Know About Soil Fumigants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about fumigant gas from treated fields (often covered with plastic tarps), some chemical and trade names of these agricultural products, signs and symptoms of pesticide exposure, and how to avoid or report or treat pesticide illness.

  15. The impact of biofumigation and chemical fumigation methods on the structure and function of the soil microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omirou, Michalis; Rousidou, Constantina; Bekris, Fotios; Papadopoulou, Kalliope K; Menkissoglou-Spiroudi, Urania; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G

    2011-01-01

    Biofumigation (BIOF) is carried out mainly by the incorporation of brassica plant parts into the soil, and this fumigation activity has been linked to their high glucosinolate (GSL) content. GSLs are hydrolyzed by the endogenous enzyme myrosinase to release isothiocyanates (ITCs). A microcosm study was conducted to investigate the effects induced on the soil microbial community by the incorporation of broccoli residues into soil either with (BM) or without (B) added myrosinase and of chemical fumigation, either as soil application of 2-phenylethyl ITC (PITC) or metham sodium (MS). Soil microbial activity was evaluated by measuring fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis and soil respiration. Effects on the structure of the total microbial community were assessed by phospholipid fatty acid analysis, while the impact on important fungal (ascomycetes (ASC)) and bacterial (ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB)) guilds was evaluated by denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Overall, B, and to a lesser extent BM, stimulated microbial activity and biomass. The diminished effect of BM compared to B was particularly evident in fungi and Gram-negative bacteria and was attributed to rapid ITC release following the myrosinase treatment. PITC did not have a significant effect, whereas an inhibitory effect was observed in the MS-treated soil. DGGE analysis showed that the ASC community was temporarily altered by BIOF treatments and more persistently by the MS treatment, while the structure of the AOB community was not affected by the treatments. Cloning of the ASC community showed that MS application had a deleterious effect on potential plant pathogens like Fusarium, Nectria, and Cladosporium compared to BIOF treatments which did not appear to inhibit them. Our findings indicate that BIOF induces changes on the structure and function of the soil microbial community that are mostly related to microbial substrate availability changes derived from the soil amendment with fresh

  16. Effects of soil type, moisture content, redox potential and methyl bromide fumigation on Kd values of radio-selenium in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, D J; Moore, J; Shaw, G

    2008-07-01

    Understanding the processes that determine the solid-liquid partitioning (K(d) value) of Se is of fundamental importance in assessing the risk associated with the disposal of radio-selenium-containing waste. Using a mini-column (rather than batch) approach, K(d) values for (75)Se were determined over time in relation to soil moisture content (field capacity or saturated), redox potential and methyl bromide fumigation (used to disrupt the soil microbial population) in three contrasting soil types: clay loam, organic and sandy loam. The K(d) values were generally in the range 50-500 L kg(-1), with mean soil K(d) increasing with increasing organic matter content. Saturation with water lowered the measured redox potentials in the soils. However, only in the sandy loam soil did redox potential become negative, and this led to an increase in (75)Se K(d) value in this soil. Comparison of the data with the Eh-pH stability diagram for Se suggested that such strong reduction may have been consistent with the formation of the insoluble Se species, selenide. These findings, coupled with the fact that methyl bromide fumigation had no discernible effect on (75)Se K(d) value in the sandy loam soil, suggest that geochemical, rather than microbial, processes controlled (75)Se partitioning. The inter-relations between soil moisture content, redox potential and Se speciation should be considered in the modelling and assessment of radioactive Se fate and transport in the environment.

  17. The Effects of Fungicide, Soil Fumigant, Bio-Organic Fertilizer and Their Combined Application on Chrysanthemum Fusarium Wilt Controlling, Soil Enzyme Activities and Microbial Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuang; Chen, Xi; Deng, Shiping; Dong, Xuena; Song, Aiping; Yao, Jianjun; Fang, Weimin; Chen, Fadi

    2016-04-21

    Sustained monoculture often leads to a decline in soil quality, in particular to the build-up of pathogen populations, a problem that is conventionally addressed by the use of either fungicide and/or soil fumigation. This practice is no longer considered to be either environmentally sustainable or safe. While the application of organic fertilizer is seen as a means of combating declining soil fertility, it has also been suggested as providing some control over certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Here, a greenhouse comparison was made of the Fusarium wilt control efficacy of various treatments given to a soil in which chrysanthemum had been produced continuously for many years. The treatments comprised the fungicide carbendazim (MBC), the soil fumigant dazomet (DAZ), the incorporation of a Paenibacillus polymyxa SQR21 (P. polymyxa SQR21, fungal antagonist) enhanced bio-organic fertilizer (BOF), and applications of BOF combined with either MBC or DAZ. Data suggest that all the treatments evaluated show good control over Fusarium wilt. The MBC and DAZ treatments were effective in suppressing the disease, but led to significant decrease in urease activity and no enhancement of catalase activity in the rhizosphere soils. BOF including treatments showed significant enhancement in soil enzyme activities and microbial communities compared to the MBC and DAZ, evidenced by differences in bacterial/fungi (B/F) ratios, Shannon-Wiener indexes and urease, catalase and sucrase activities in the rhizosphere soil of chrysanthemum. Of all the treatments evaluated, DAZ/BOF application not only greatly suppressed Fusarium wilt and enhanced soil enzyme activities and microbial communities but also promoted the quality of chrysanthemum obviously. Our findings suggest that combined BOF with DAZ could more effectively control Fusarium wilt disease of chrysanthemum.

  18. Effects of soil type, moisture content, redox potential and methyl bromide fumigation on K{sub d} values of radio-selenium in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashworth, D.J. [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom)], E-mail: daniel.ashworth@ars.usda.gov; Moore, J. [Centre for Environmental Policy, Imperial College London, Silwood Park, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 7PY (United Kingdom); Shaw, G. [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-15

    Understanding the processes that determine the solid-liquid partitioning (K{sub d} value) of Se is of fundamental importance in assessing the risk associated with the disposal of radio-selenium-containing waste. Using a mini-column (rather than batch) approach, K{sub d} values for {sup 75}Se were determined over time in relation to soil moisture content (field capacity or saturated), redox potential and methyl bromide fumigation (used to disrupt the soil microbial population) in three contrasting soil types: clay loam, organic and sandy loam. The K{sub d} values were generally in the range 50-500 L kg{sup -1}, with mean soil K{sub d} increasing with increasing organic matter content. Saturation with water lowered the measured redox potentials in the soils. However, only in the sandy loam soil did redox potential become negative, and this led to an increase in {sup 75}Se K{sub d} value in this soil. Comparison of the data with the Eh-pH stability diagram for Se suggested that such strong reduction may have been consistent with the formation of the insoluble Se species, selenide. These findings, coupled with the fact that methyl bromide fumigation had no discernible effect on {sup 75}Se K{sub d} value in the sandy loam soil, suggest that geochemical, rather than microbial, processes controlled {sup 75}Se partitioning. The inter-relations between soil moisture content, redox potential and Se speciation should be considered in the modelling and assessment of radioactive Se fate and transport in the environment.

  19. Effect of pre-planting irrigation, maize planting pattern and nitrogen on weed seed bank population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmati, E; Vazan, S; Oveisi, M

    2011-01-01

    Pre-planting irrigation and planting patterns are important factors in weed management that effect on seed bank. Additionally, the nitrogen is the most important factor in plant growth that affects weed-crop competition and ultimately, seed rain into the soil. A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of nitrogen application rates, pre-planting irrigation and maize planting patterns on weed seed bank population. Experimental factors were nitrogen rates at 4 levels (200, 300, 400 and 500 kg per hectare) as main plot; and pre-planting irrigation at 2 levels (irrigation before planting plus weeding emerged seedlings and, irrigation after sowing), and maize planting patterns (one-row and two-row planting of maize with same density per square of row length) that were assigned in a factorial arrangement to the sub plots. Soil samples were taken at the beginning of the season (before planting of maize) and at the end of the season (after harvest) at depth of 0-5 cm in the fixed quadrates (60 cm x 60 cm). The weed seeds were extracted from the soil samples and were identified using standard methods. The majority of weed seed bank populations included 6 weed species: Portulaca oleracea, Chenopodium album, Amaranthus retroflexus, Sorghum halepense, Daturea stramonium, Xanthium strumarium. Results showed that population of weed seed bank increased significantly with increasing nitrogen rate. The increasing rate was different between one-row and two-row planting patterns. The parameters indicated that seed bank population was much higher in a one row planting pattern of maize. With two-row planting, seed bank was decreased by 34, 26, 20 and 5% at 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg N/ha, respectively. Pre-planting irrigation was also found an effective implement to reduce the weed seed bank. When pre-planting irrigation was applied, seed bank was decreased by 57, 43, 34 and 9% at 200, 300, 400 and 500 kg N/ha. Increasing nitrogen because of weed's better growth and higher seed

  20. 控制土壤熏蒸剂散发损失的技术研究进展%Research Progresses in Reducing Fumigants Emissions in Soil Fumigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张成蕾; 曹坳程; 王秋霞

    2012-01-01

    The research progress in reducing fumigants emissions was summarized in this paper. The effects and problems of the physical ways, such as plastic films covering, irrigation, drip chemigation, deep application and new formulation, and chemical ways, such as organic matter and fertilizer amendment, in reducing fumigant emission were introduced with many case research. The more effective way to reduce fiimigant emission may be the combination of the physical and chemical ways.%概述了控制土壤熏蒸剂散发损失技术的新进展:介绍了塑料薄膜覆盖、土壤水分控制、滴灌、增加施药深度、新剂型开发等物理方法及有机物料添加、化肥施用等化学方法抑制土壤熏蒸剂散失的研究概况,提出物理和化学方法相结合可更好地控制熏蒸剂的散发损失.

  1. Effects of 4 Fumigants on Soil Microbial Characteristics%4种熏蒸剂对土壤微生物特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张腾; 燕平梅; 李园; 郭美霞; 曹坳程

    2013-01-01

    In order to research the effects of 4 kinds of soil fumigation such as the 1,3-dichloropropylene, dimethyl disulfide, metham sodium and formic acid methyl ester on the soil microbes characteristics after fumigation a week, and the experiments determined the quantity changes of soil microbial bacteria, fungi and actinomyces with dilution plate method through the indoor culture experiments. Soil microbial biomass nitrogen was determined by fumigation extraction-ninhydrin method; soil respiration was known by absorbed directly method; catalase activity was determined by permanganate titration; the activity of dehydrogenase and amylase were measured by ultraviolet spectrophotometric method. The results showed that, after fumigation 7 days 4 kinds of soil fumigation all significantly reduced the number of soil bacteria and actinomyces and microbial biomass nitrogen, but it had less effects on fungi. Also 1,3-dichloropropylene and metham sodium could significantly inhibited soil respiration. Among this, the effects of metham sodium on soil enzyme activity were most significant. Thus, 4 kinds of soil fumigation all took some effects on soil microorganism and metham sodium had the most significant, the next was dimethyl disulfide, but 1,3-dichloropropylene and formic acid methyl had some significant on microbial populations and microbial biomass nitrogen.%为了研究1,3-二氯丙烯、二甲基二硫、威百亩、甲酸甲酯4种土壤熏蒸剂处理7天对土壤微生物特性的影响.通过室内培养试验,采用稀释平板法测定土壤微生物细菌、放线菌和真菌的数量变化;熏蒸提取-茚三酮法测定土壤微生物生物量氮;直接吸收法测定土壤基底呼吸作用及基底诱导呼吸作用;高锰酸钾滴定法测定土壤过氧化氢酶活性及紫外分光光度法测定土壤中脱氢酶和淀粉酶活性.结果表明:按照熏蒸剂与土壤质量比为25 mg/kg的浓度胁迫条件下,熏蒸结束7天后4种熏蒸剂均显著

  2. Effect of plastic tarps over raised-beds and potassium thiosulfate in furrows on chloropicrin emissions from drip fumigated fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ruijun; Gao, Suduan; McDonald, Jason A; Ajwa, Husein; Shem-Tov, Shachar; Sullivan, David A

    2008-06-01

    Plastic tarps are commonly used in raised bed strawberry production to minimize emissions of preplant soil fumigants and are left in place throughout the growing season as part of the standard cultural practices. Soil amendments with chemicals such as thiosulfate (S2O3(2-)) can reduce fumigant emissions. A field study was conducted near Santa Maria, CA to determine the effects of low density polyethylene (LDPE) and virtually impermeable film (VIF) over raised-beds and applying potassium thiosulfate (KTS) in furrows on reducing chloropicrin (CP) emissions from a strawberry field. Four fields (or treatments) were tested with 224 kg ha(-1) CP drip-applied threecm under the soil surface. The CP flux from bed tops and furrows and gas-phase concentrations under the tarps were monitored for five d. The CP emission flux and concentration under tarp were highest immediately following application. Diurnal temperature change affected CP concentration and emission fluxes (higher values during the day and lower at night). Slightly higher CP cumulative emission occurred using LDPE tarp (19%) compared to VIF (17%). Normalized flux (CP emission flux from the beds divided by CP concentration under the tarp) being estimated from field measurement was slightly higher for LDPE than VIF indicating different tarp permeability in the field. Because of extremely low emissions from the furrows (emission loss), KTS application to furrow treatments did not show further emission reductions than non-KTS treatments. This indicates that emission reduction should focus on the tarp above raised-beds when fumigant was drip-applied near bed-surface.

  3. Suppression on plant-parasitic nematodes using a soil fumigation strategy based on ammonium bicarbonate and its effects on the nematode community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lanxi; Ruan, Yunze; Yang, Xiujuan; Wang, Kang; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-12-01

    Banana production is severely hindered by plant-parasitic nematodes in acidic, sandy soil. This study investigated the possibility of applying a novel fumigation agent based on ammonium bicarbonate as a strategy for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes under sealed conditions. Moreover, its effects on the nematode community in pot and field experiments were also measured using morphology and feeding-habit based classification and the PCR-DGGE method. Results showed that a mixture (LAB) of lime (L) and ammonium bicarbonate (AB) in suitable additive amounts (0.857 g kg(-1) of L and 0.428 g kg(-1) of AB) showed stronger nematicidal ability than did the use of AB alone or the use of ammonium hydroxide (AH) and calcium cyanamide (CC) with an equal nitrogen amount. The nematode community was altered by the different fumigants, and LAB showed an excellent plant-parasitic nematicidal ability, especially for Meloidogyne and Rotylenchulus, as revealed by morphology and feeding-habit based classification, and for Meloidogyne, as revealed by the PCR-DGGE method. Fungivores and omnivore-predators were more sensitive to the direct effects of the chemicals than bacterivores. This study explored a novel fumigation agent for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes based on LAB and provides a potential strategy to ensure the worldwide development of the banana industry.

  4. Suppression on plant-parasitic nematodes using a soil fumigation strategy based on ammonium bicarbonate and its effects on the nematode community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Lanxi; Ruan, Yunze; Yang, Xiujuan; Wang, Kang; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    Banana production is severely hindered by plant-parasitic nematodes in acidic, sandy soil. This study investigated the possibility of applying a novel fumigation agent based on ammonium bicarbonate as a strategy for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes under sealed conditions. Moreover, its effects on the nematode community in pot and field experiments were also measured using morphology and feeding-habit based classification and the PCR-DGGE method. Results showed that a mixture (LAB) of lime (L) and ammonium bicarbonate (AB) in suitable additive amounts (0.857 g kg−1 of L and 0.428 g kg−1 of AB) showed stronger nematicidal ability than did the use of AB alone or the use of ammonium hydroxide (AH) and calcium cyanamide (CC) with an equal nitrogen amount. The nematode community was altered by the different fumigants, and LAB showed an excellent plant-parasitic nematicidal ability, especially for Meloidogyne and Rotylenchulus, as revealed by morphology and feeding-habit based classification, and for Meloidogyne, as revealed by the PCR-DGGE method. Fungivores and omnivore-predators were more sensitive to the direct effects of the chemicals than bacterivores. This study explored a novel fumigation agent for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes based on LAB and provides a potential strategy to ensure the worldwide development of the banana industry. PMID:26621630

  5. Totally impermeable film (TIF) reduces emissions in perennial crop fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orchard/vineyard replanting for fruit trees, nut trees, and grapevines in many situations still depends on soil fumigation for control of soil-borne pests and replanting diseases in California. Perennial tree and grapevine nurseries also rely heavily on soil fumigation to meet the state’s requiremen...

  6. The effects of soil fumigation on pine seedling production, weeds, foliar and soil nutrients, a soilborne microorganisms at a south Georgia (U.S.A.) forest tree nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen W. Fraedrich; L. David Dwinell

    2003-01-01

    Pine seedling production and pest problems were evaluated in plots fumigated with methyl bromide and nonfumigated plots over a 6-year period at a Georgia nursery. Fumigation increased bed densities for loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) in 1996 and slash pine (Pinus elliotii Engelm. var. elliottii) in 1998;...

  7. DripFume: A Visual Basic Program For Simulating Distribution And Atmospheric Volatilization Of Soil Fumigants Applied Through Drip Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Windows-based graphical user interface program (DripFume) was developed in MS Visual Basic (VB) to utilize a two-dimensional multi-phase finite element pesticide transport model to simulate distribution and emission of volatile fumigant chemicals when applied through drip irrigation or shank injec...

  8. FIBRE FLAX PREPLANT TREATMENT BASED ON SEED PELLETING AND ELECTROTECHNICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spiridonov A. B.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The method of fibre flax preplant seed treatment that includes pelleting in bionanosuspension and influence of electrophysical fields on the pellet is described in the article. Due to given treatment technology it is possible to increase the crop capacity and engineering performance of the flax production

  9. Evaluation of Totally Impermeable Film for Fumigant Emissions Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions from soil fumigation are stringently regulated for environmental safety concerns. Low permeability films can be used to reduce fumigant and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions and to allow for smaller buffer zones. A large-scale field trial was conducted in Ventura, CA, to determine ...

  10. Surface water seal application to minimize volatilization loss of methyl isothiocyanate from soil columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Catherine R; Nelson, Shad D; Stratmann, Jerry E; Ajwa, Husein A

    2010-06-01

    Metam-sodium (MS, sodium methyldithiocarbamate) has been identified as a promising alternative chemical to replace methyl bromide (MeBr) in soil preplant fumigation. One degradation product of MS in soil is the volatile gas methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) which controls soilborne pests. Inconsistent results associated with MS usage indicate that there is a need to determine cultural practices that increase pest control efficacy. Sealing the soil surface with water after MS application may be a sound method to reduce volatilization loss of MITC from soils and increase the contact time necessary for MITC to control pests. The objective of this research was to develop a preliminary soil surface water application amount that would potentially inhibit the off-gassing rate of MITC. Off-gassing rate was consistently reduced with increasing water seal application. The application of a 2.5-3.8 cm water seal provided significantly lower (71-74% reduction in MITC volatilization) total fumigant loss compared with no water seal. The most favorable reduction in MITC off-gassing was observed in the 2.5 cm water seal. This suggests that volatilization of MITC-generating compounds can be highly suppressed using adequate surface irrigation following chemical application in this soil type (sandy clay loam), based on preliminary bench-scale soil column studies. .

  11. Optimizing preplant irrigation for maize under limited water in the high plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to inadequate irrigation capacity, some farmers in the United States High Plains apply preplant irrigation to buffer the crop between irrigation events during the cropping season. The purpose of the study was to determine preplant irrigation amount and irrigation capacity combinations that optim...

  12. Optimizing preplant irrigation for maize under limited water in the High Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to inadequate well capacities, many farmers cannot meet inseason crop evapotranspiration demands. Some farmers apply preplant (preseason) irrigation to buffer the crop between irrigation or rainfall events during the season. A simulation study was conducted to assess the effect of preplant irrig...

  13. Effects of application strategies of fumigant and nonfumigant nematicides on cantaloupe grown in deep sand soils in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamill, J E; Dickson, D W

    2005-09-01

    A 2-year study was conducted in which three treatment tactics of oxamyl (at planting application, application every 2 weeks, and rescue applications, as determined by crop symptoms) were compared to fumigant treatments with methyl bromide, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), and 1,3-D plus chloropicrin for management of Meloidogyne spp. In 2002, treatments that included 1,3-D produced higher yields as determined both by number and weight of marketable fruit. All treatment tactics relying solely on oxamyl, at planting, scheduled treatments, and rescue, were not different from untreated controls for both marketable yield and number of fruit. Gall ratings in 2002 were lowest for 1,3-D at the 112-liters/ha rate, followed by 1,3-D at 84 liters/ha with and without oxamyl. All treatments of oxamyl, except when combined with 1,3-D, had gall ratings not different from untreated plots. In 2004, treatments of methyl bromide and 1,3-D plus chloropicrin had the highest total number of both marketable fruit and highest marketable yields. All treatment strategies relying solely on oxamyl had yields equivalent to the untreated controls. Mean root-gall ratings were lowest for methyl bromide plus chloropicrin and 1,3-D plus chloropicrin treatments. Root-gall ratings for all treatment tactics relying solely on oxamyl were not different from untreated controls.

  14. Enhanced degradation of the volatile fumigant-nematicides 1,3-d and methyl bromide in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, L T

    1998-03-01

    The use of the gaseous funaigant-nematicide methyl bromide in agriculture is scheduled to be phased out in the year 2001.1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-D) in combination with chloropicrin and an herbicide is considered to be a viable alternative to methyl bromide for some crops. 1,3-Dichloropropene consists of two isomers, cis- and trans-l,3-D. A number of soil bacteria have been shown to initially degrade 1,3-D or one of its isomers, cis-l,3-D, via hydrolysis. Until recently, the degradation of cis- and trans-l,3-D in soils was considered to exhibit similar kinetics, witla their degradation rates increasing with increases in soil temperature. Enhanced degradation of 1,3-D in soil from a site in Florida with a history of repeated annual applications of 1,3-D was observed in 1994. Biological hydrolysis was involved in the initial degradation of cis- and trans-l,3-D. The two isomers were degraded at different rates, with the trans isomer being degraded more rapidly than the cis isomer. Cis- and trans-l,3-D in soil from the control site were degraded at a similar rate but more slowly than in the enhanced soil. Methyl bromide in soils can be degraded through chemical hydrolysis and methylation to soil organic matter. Some methanotrophic bacteria and ammonia-oxidation bacteria during the oxidation of their primary substrates (methane and ammonia) also have the capacity to cooxidize methyl bromide to formaldehyde and bromide ion. It was recently observed that degradation of methyl bromide was stimulated in methanotrophic soils and in soils treated with ammonium sulfate. Soil methanotrophic bacteria and soil nitrifiers are apparently responsible for cooxidation of methyl bromide in methanotrophic and ammonia treated soils, respectively.

  15. Quo Vadis the fumigants?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Fumigation is the most widely used procedure to control stored product pests to prevent economic and quality losses by providing various application methods and penetration capability into the treated commodity. However, most of the available fumigants have limitations in use due to various reasons. Methyl bromide (MB), according to Montreal Protocol, is scheduled to be phased out worldwide by 2015. Sulphuryl fluoride (SF) is known to have limited efficiency on egg stages of insects. Reported...

  16. Accelerated degradation of metam-sodium in soil and consequences for root-disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triky-Dotan, Shachaf; Austerweil, Miriam; Steiner, Bracha; Peretz-Alon, Yitzhak; Katan, Jaacov; Gamliel, Abraham

    2009-04-01

    We studied the development of accelerated degradation (AD) of methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) following repeated applications of its parent compound, metam-sodium (MS). Laboratory studies and four sets of field experiments were conducted during 2002-04 in three commercial fields in Israel. Repeated applications of MS to the three soils in the laboratory under controlled conditions demonstrated AD of MITC in some soils. In a peanut field, MS significantly reduced the incidence of Pythium pod rot and improved pod quality after a single application but its effectiveness was greatly reduced after two applications. In a second experiment, MS was significantly effective after a single application in controlling Verticillium wilt in potato but its efficacy diminished after three consecutive applications. In an additional experiment, fumigation with MS following single or double applications was more effective in reducing Verticillium wilt severity of potato compared with triple applications. Soils which did not develop AD of MITC were also recorded. Preplant MS fumigation of melon fields was effective at reducing sudden wilt following a single and two consecutive applications. Our study shows that development of AD of MITC might occur following repeated applications of MS in commercial fields. The data on MITC dissipation in soil following repeated MS applications under controlled conditions indicate the chemical's potential loss of activity under regular agricultural practices and the need for a management strategy to prevent such a development.

  17. Effect of Preplant Irrigation, Nitrogen Fertilizer Application Timing, and Phosphorus and Potassium Fertilization on Winter Wheat Grain Yield and Water Use Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob T. Bushong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Preplant irrigation can impact fertilizer management in winter wheat. The objective of this study was to evaluate the main and interactive effects of preplant irrigation, N fertilizer application timing, and different N, P, and K fertilizer treatments on grain yield and WUE. Several significant two-way interactions and main effects of all three factors evaluated were observed over four growing seasons for grain yield and WUE. These effects could be described by differences in rainfall and soil moisture content among years. Overall, grain yield and WUE were optimized, if irrigation or adequate soil moisture were available prior to planting. For rain-fed treatments, the timing of N fertilizer application was not as important and could be applied before planting or topdressed without much difference in yield. The application of P fertilizer proved to be beneficial on average years but was not needed in years where above average soil moisture was present. There was no added benefit to applying K fertilizer. In conclusion, N and P fertilizer management practices may need to be altered yearly based on changes in soil moisture from irrigation and/or rainfall.

  18. Effect of Irrigation and Preplant Nitrogen Fertilizer Source on Maize in the Southern Great Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob T. Bushong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the demand for maize increasing, production has spread into more water limited, semiarid regions. Couple this with the increasing nitrogen (N fertilizer costs and environmental concerns and the need for proper management practices has increased. A trial was established to evaluate the effects of different preplant N fertilizer sources on maize cultivated under deficit irrigation or rain-fed conditions on grain yield, N use efficiency (NUE, and water use efficiency (WUE. Two fertilizer sources, ammonium sulfate (AS and urea ammonium nitrate (UAN, applied at two rates, 90 and 180 kg N ha−1, were evaluated across four site-years. Deficit irrigation improved grain yield, WUE, and NUE compared to rain-fed conditions. The preplant application of a pure ammoniacal source of N fertilizer, such as AS, had a tendency to increase grain yields and NUE for rain-fed treatments. Under irrigated conditions, the use of UAN as a preplant N fertilizer source performed just as well or better at improving grain yield compared to AS, as long as the potential N loss mechanisms were minimized. Producers applying N preplant as a single application should adjust rates based on a reasonable yield goal and production practice.

  19. Predicting pre-planting risk of Stagonospora nodorum blotch in winter wheat using machine learning models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pre-planting factors have been associated with the late-season severity of Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), caused by the fungal pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum, in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). The relative importance of these factors in the risk of SNB has not been determined and this know...

  20. Pathology smorgasboard: Biocontrol, pathogen movement, and recent fumigation results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research on soilborne pathogens, disease control, and new forest diseases of interest were presented at the Western Forest and Conservation Nursery Association meeting in 2016. Research topics included reduced-rate soil fumigation, Pythium diversity and biocontrol, pathogen movement among nurseries,...

  1. Efficacy of Fumigant and Nonfurmigant Nematicides for Control of Meloidogyne arenaria on Peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, D W; Hewlett, T E

    1988-10-01

    Three tests were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of fumigant and nonfumigant nematicides for control of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 on peanut. Methyl bromide, 1,3-D, methyl isothiocyanate, and methyl isothiocyanate mixtures were applied 7 or 8 days preplant either broadcast or in-the-row. Aldicarb, ethoprop, fenamiphos, and F5145 were applied at different rates and by different methods at-plant or at early flowering. Of the 32 treatments evaluated, only seven resulted in yield increases (P = 0.05), although early season vigor was high in all treated plots. During the latter one-third of the growing season, however, nematode control was not adequate in most treatments resulting in heavy peg, pod, and root infection by M. arenaria.

  2. 78 FR 56225 - Information Collection Request Submitted to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment Request; Soil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... AGENCY Information Collection Request Submitted to OMB for Review and Approval; Comment Request; Soil...) for review and approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: ``Soil Fumigant Risk... measures necessary for reregistration eligibility for certain soil fumigant chemicals are...

  3. Predicting Pre-planting Risk of Stagonospora nodorum blotch in Winter Wheat Using Machine Learning Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Lucky K; Cowger, Christina; Gross, Kevin; Ojiambo, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Pre-planting factors have been associated with the late-season severity of Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), caused by the fungal pathogen Parastagonospora nodorum, in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum). The relative importance of these factors in the risk of SNB has not been determined and this knowledge can facilitate disease management decisions prior to planting of the wheat crop. In this study, we examined the performance of multiple regression (MR) and three machine learning algorithms namely artificial neural networks, categorical and regression trees, and random forests (RF), in predicting the pre-planting risk of SNB in wheat. Pre-planting factors tested as potential predictor variables were cultivar resistance, latitude, longitude, previous crop, seeding rate, seed treatment, tillage type, and wheat residue. Disease severity assessed at the end of the growing season was used as the response variable. The models were developed using 431 disease cases (unique combinations of predictors) collected from 2012 to 2014 and these cases were randomly divided into training, validation, and test datasets. Models were evaluated based on the regression of observed against predicted severity values of SNB, sensitivity-specificity ROC analysis, and the Kappa statistic. A strong relationship was observed between late-season severity of SNB and specific pre-planting factors in which latitude, longitude, wheat residue, and cultivar resistance were the most important predictors. The MR model explained 33% of variability in the data, while machine learning models explained 47 to 79% of the total variability. Similarly, the MR model correctly classified 74% of the disease cases, while machine learning models correctly classified 81 to 83% of these cases. Results show that the RF algorithm, which explained 79% of the variability within the data, was the most accurate in predicting the risk of SNB, with an accuracy rate of 93%. The RF algorithm could allow early assessment of

  4. Suppression of Fusarium wilt of cucumber by ammonia gas fumigation via reduction of Fusarium population in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Mei, Zhong; Zhang, Xu; Xue, Chao; Zhang, Chenzhi; Ma, Tengfei; Zhang, Shusheng

    2017-01-01

    Cucumber plants subjected to consecutive monoculture for 9 years were found to suffer from severe Fusarium wilt disease, caused by the soil-borne fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cucumerinum J. H. Owen. In the present study, greenhouse experiments were performed to evaluate the influence of ammonia gas fumigation on Fusarium wilt suppression, fungal abundance and fungal community composition. Results showed that ammonia gas fumigation remarkably reduced disease incidence from 80% to 27%, resulting in a four-fold increase in yield, compared to the control. Total fungal abundance declined dramatically after fumigation and reached the lowest level at day 32, at 243 times lower than the control. Moreover, fumigation significantly increased soil fungal diversity, though it also decreased considerably coinciding with cucumber growth. Fumigation also significantly altered soil fungal community composition, relative to the control. Fusarium was strongly inhibited by fumigation in both relative abundance (3.8 times lower) and targeted quantification (a decrease of 167 fold). Collectively, the application of ammonia gas fumigation to control Fusarium wilt of cucumber resulted in a re-assembly of the fungal community to resemble that of a non-disease conducive consortium. Additional strategies, such as bioorganic fertilizer application, may still be required to develop sustainable disease suppression following fumigation. PMID:28230182

  5. Nitric oxide fumigation for postharvest pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitric oxide fumigation is effective against all arthropod pests at various life stages tested. Nine insect pests at various life stages and bulb mites were subjected to nitric oxide fumigation treatments under ultralow oxygen conditions of =50 ppm O2 in 1.9L glass jars as fumigation chambers. The ...

  6. IMPACT OF PREPLANTING FERTILIZATION ON THE LEAF NUTRIENT CONTENT OF YOUNG SOUR CHERRY TREES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. KRISHKOV

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of seven variants of organic and mineral preplanting fertilization on the content of the main macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg in the leaves of sour cherry trees, Erdi Bötermö cv., grafted on two types of rootstocks - seedling forms of Mahaleb (IK-M9 and Droganyellow bigarreau. The investigation was carried out during the period 2001-2003 in an experimental orchard at the Institute of Agriculture, Kyustendil. There was no significant effect of the different preplanting fertilization variants on leaf nitrogen content. The trees on rootstock Droganyellow bigarreau responded more pronouncedly to phosphorous and potassium fertilization, which corresponded to the higher leaf phosphorous and potassium content, compared to those on IK-M9. In all variants, there was a trend for a higher calcium concentration in the leaves of the trees on Droganyellow bigarreau. Leaf magnesium level decreased over experimental years, which was more strongly manifested by the trees on Droganyellow bigarreau, whereas in the variants on the Mahaleb rootstock it was of higher values.

  7. Fumigation success for California facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Robert

    2010-02-01

    As Robert Hacker, at the time director of facilities management at the St John's Regional Medical Center in Oxnard, California, explains, the hospital, one of the area's largest, recently successfully utilised a new technology to eliminate mould, selecting a cost and time-saving fumigation process in place of the traditional "rip and tear" method. Although hospital managers knew the technology had been used extremely effectively in other US buildings, this was reportedly among the first ever healthcare applications.

  8. Reducing injury of lettuce from phosphine fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low temperature fumigation with pure phosphine free of ammonia has been used in recent years for postharvest pest control on some fresh fruits and vegetables. However, long fumigation treatments cause injuries to lettuce. It is unknown what factors contributed to the injuries. It is important to min...

  9. Integrating ecosystem services into crop protection and pest management: Case study with the soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene and its use in tomato production in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, Samantha; Alix, Anne; Knowles, Steve; Wheeler, James; Tescari, Enzo; Alvarez, Lara; Nicolette, Joseph; Rockel, Mark; Burston, Peter; Quadri, Giorgia

    2016-10-01

    Ecosystems provide the conditions for producing food, regulating water, and providing wildlife habitats; these, among others, are known as ecosystem services (ESs). Food production is both economically and culturally important to southern European farmers, particularly in Italy where farmers grow flavorsome tomatoes with passion and pride. Growers rely on pesticides for crop protection, the potential environmental impact of which is often questioned by regulators and other stakeholders. The European regulatory system for the approval of pesticides includes a thorough evaluation of risks to the environment and is designed to be protective of ecosystems. The consideration of ESs in environmental decision making is a growing trend, and the present case study provides an example of how ESs evaluation could be used to enhance agricultural practices and regulatory policy for crop protection. By attacking plant roots, nematodes may affect the growth and yield of fruit and vegetable crops, and the income earned by farmers at harvest time. Available solutions include chemical treatments such as 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), physical treatments (solarization), and biological treatments (biofumigation). In order to characterize the risks and benefits associated with the use of 1,3-D in crop protection, ESs and socioeconomic analyses were applied to its use in the control of nematodes in tomato cultivation in southern Italy. The present study confirmed the benefits of 1,3-D to tomato production in Italy, with significant positive effects on production yields and farm income when compared to limited and transient potential impacts on services such as soil function. It was confirmed that 1,3-D allows farm income to be maintained and secures tomato production in these regions for the future. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2016;12:801-810. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  10. Anaerobic soil disinfestation impact on soil nutrients dynamics and nitrous oxide emissions in fresh-market tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) is proposed as a pre-plant, non-chemical soil disinfestation technique to control several soilborne phytosanitary issues. Limited information is available on the impact of ASD on soil fertility, plant growth, and potential nutrient loss. The objectives of the curr...

  11. Effects of fumigant nematicides on yield and quality of paste tomatoes grown in southwestern ontario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, L B; Olthof, T H; Potter, J W

    1992-12-01

    Field trials were conducted at the Delhi Research Station, Ontario, Canada, on a Fox loamy sand soil during 1987 and 1988 to evaluate the effects of row application of the fumigants Telone II, Telone C-17, Vorlex Plus, and Vorlex Plus CP on the yield and quality of paste tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Ferry Morse 6203). The four fumigants were equally effective in controlling the natural field populations of root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus penetrans Cobb). A significant reduction in marketable red fruit yield due to different nematode densities at time of transplanting was observed in 1988. Fumigation did not significantly affect the yield of nonmarketable fruit, the relative maturation rate, or the processing quality in either year.

  12. Integration of apple rootstock genotype with reduced Brassica seed meal application rates for replant disease control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pre-plant soil application of Brassica seed meal (SM) formulations can provide fumigant level control of apple replant disease. However, due to high cost of the SM treatment relative to non-tarped soil fumigation, reduced application rates would likely accelerate commercial adoption of this technolo...

  13. Improving fumigant efficiency by deep application and totally impermeable film covering raised-beds for strawberry production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coastal California (CA) is the primary productive strawberry region where strawberry is mainly grown in raised-beds covered by polyethylene (PE). Over 55% of raised-bed production systems have fumigants applied directly through irrigation drip-tapes, which are buried near soil surface for soil-b...

  14. Effects of CO2 dissolution on phase distribution and degradation of dimethyl disulfide in soils under grape production

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) is a fumigant recently registered in parts of U.S. The fumigant has high pesticidal activity, but lower volatility compared to other fumigants, leading to less soil dispersion. This study assessed the use of CO2 as a propellant to improve soil dispersion and dif...

  15. 46 CFR 147A.11 - Person in charge of fumigation; before fumigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... number of the fumigation company; (3) The dates and times of fumigation; (4) The characteristics of the... must be made under § 147A.21(a)(1); (2) No persons or domestic animals are in the space that is to be...)(i) of this section; and (iii) In accordance with 49 CFR 173.9(c) or section 8.10 of the...

  16. Carbon dioxide fumigation for controlling bed bugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlu; Lü, Lihua; Xu, Ming

    2012-09-01

    We investigated the potential of carbon dioxide (CO2) fumigation as a method for controlling bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. The effect of bed bug developmental stage, temperature, and CO2 concentration on the minimum time to kill 100% of bed bugs was determined. The minimum CO2 concentration lethal to all bed bug stages was approximately 30% with 24 h exposure time at 25 degrees C. The minimum fumigation time required to kill 100% of eggs using 100% CO2 at 20, 25, and 30 degrees C were 3, 7, and 8 h, respectively; the minimum fumigation time to kill 100% of adult males/nymphs were 8, 13, and 14 h, respectively. The minimum time to kill 100% of adult males/nymphs using 50 and 70% CO2 at 25 degrees C were 18 and 16 h, respectively. We found that eggs were not completely killed after 24 h fumigation when the CO2 concentration was lower than 80%. Thus, bed bug eggs were more susceptible to 100% CO2 fumigation than nymphs and adult males but more tolerant than nymphs and adult males with lower CO2 concentration (50-80%). There were no significant differences among nymphs, adult males, and adult females in their susceptibility to 100% CO2 fumigation. A 24 h fumigation in sealed 158 liter (42 gallon) heavy duty garbage bags filled 90% full with fabric materials and/or boxes and 1,350 g dry ice per bag was sufficient to kill all stages of bed bugs hidden in the materials at room temperature (23-24 degrees C). Sealed heavy duty garbage bags maintained > or = 94% CO2 for at least 24 h. Custom-made double zipper plastic bags (122 x 183 cm) were also used to evaluate the effectiveness of CO2 fumigation for controlling bed bugs. Each bag was filled with fabric and boxes to 50-90% full. Bed bugs were hidden in various locations of each bag. CO2 was introduced into the bags through a CO2 cylinder. CO2 fumigation lasting 24-48 h was sufficient to kill all stages of bed bugs at room temperature, depending on the quantity of materials placed in each bag and whether CO2 was

  17. Effects of fumigation sterilization to potato growth and soil microorganism of the continuous cropping soils%熏蒸灭菌对连作马铃薯生长发育及土壤微生物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨桂丽; 童娟; 张丽; 马琨; 宋乃平

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the effect of sterilized soil on the potato growth and soil microorganism community function diversity. The experiment was carried out by potted culture with sterilized potato continuous cropping soil,which were seperately sampled from the fields from potato normal rotation and different continuous cropping period.The result showed that the characteristics of photosynthetic parameters were complicated under the condition of sterilized continuous cropping soil. The photosynthetic characteristics may be affected by nonstomatal limitation and the stomata conductance were decreased owning to the absence of soil water content, which may be the main influential factor. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the potato leaves were increased under the continuous cropping, but the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (POD) were obviously decreased when the continuous cropping soil were sterilized. The harmful soil environment factors to potato growth were changed. Soil microorganism function diversity in potato rhizosphere soils were also influenced by continuous cropping. The average color change rate(AWCD) of Biolog Ecoplate were significant increased in the five and ten years continuous cropping period when the soil were sterilized. Compared with no sterilized soil, the AWCD were separately increased 30. 9%- 41.6% and 2. 7% - 12.8%. There are still have more high carbon substrate utilization ability and soil microorganism carbon substrate using function diversity. But the diversity of soil microbial community function to carbon substrate utilization have the trendency of gradually decline under the condition of continuous cropping.%采用土壤熏蒸灭菌的方法,分析了连作土壤灭菌对盆栽马铃薯生长发育及根际土壤微生物功能多样性的影响.结果表明:土壤熏蒸灭菌对马铃薯主要光合特征参数影响规律较复杂,连作时间长短对叶片光合能力有显著影响;连作土壤熏蒸灭

  18. Root removal to improve disease management in replanted Washington red raspberry fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington leads the nation in the production of red raspberries for processing. Soilborne pathogens are a production constraint in this $61 million industry with growers relying on preplant soil fumigation for their management. However, current fumigation methods can be ineffective, leading to repl...

  19. Effect of environmental conditions on the permeability of low density polyethylene film and totally impermeable film to methyl isothiocyanate fumigant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wensheng; Cao, Aocheng; Yan, Dongdong; Han, Dawei; Li, Jun; Liu, Xiaoman; Li, Yuan; Ouyang, Chanbin; Wang, Qiuxia

    2017-12-01

    Fumigant methyl isothiocyanate (MITC) is a very promising alternative to methyl bromide, providing effective control of soil borne disease. However, there is a significant volatilization of MITC following fumigation because of its high application rates and high vapor pressure. Covering the soil surface with plastic tarps is a common approach used for restricting fumigant emissions to the atmosphere. To minimize atmospheric emissions of MITC by tarping, we determined the effect of temperature, humidity, and fumigant mixtures on the permeability to MITC of low density polyethylene film (LDPE) and totally impermeable film (TIF), using static sealed chambers. The results showed that temperature had the largest impact on the mass transfer coefficient (MTC) of MITC across LDPE film; the permeability increased 8.8 times when temperature was raised from 5°C to 35°C. There was a small increase in tarp permeability with increasing relative humidity below 75%, but it was little difference in MTC values between 75% and 100% relative humidity. The permeability of TIF to MITC is much lower than that of LDPE. TIF is much more sensitive to the ambient conditions; both temperature and humidity can drastically alter the MTC of MITC across TIF. Fumigant mixtures of MITC did not have a significant impact on the MTC across the LDPE film. The results of this study will contribute to establishing guidance on the appropriate environmental conditions for using tarping films to reduce MITC emission and achieve adequate pest control. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Chlorine Dioxide Fumigation of Subway Materials ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report This bench scale study observed that a six (6) log reduction in viable spores of a suitable B. anthracis surrogate can be obtained for subway infrastructure materials by ClO2 fumigation if the temperature is at or above 24 °C combined with RH greater than 75%. No six log reduction in viable spores was observed at realistic (winter) temperatures in a subway environment (11-13 °C and 70-80% RH) for periods of fumigation that are otherwise efficacious at 24 °C/ 75% RH.

  1. Rice weevil response to basil oil fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil oil, Ocimum basilicum L., is a volatile plant essential oil that is known to have insecticidal activity against stored product pests such as rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.). Basil oil was diluted in acetone and applied to a sponge held inside a tea strainer for fumigations in containers wi...

  2. Methyl Iodide Fumigation of Bacillus anthracis Spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Mark; Kane, Staci R; Wollard, Jessica R

    2015-09-01

    Fumigation techniques such as chlorine dioxide, vaporous hydrogen peroxide, and paraformaldehyde previously used to decontaminate items, rooms, and buildings following contamination with Bacillus anthracis spores are often incompatible with materials (e.g., porous surfaces, organics, and metals), causing damage or residue. Alternative fumigation with methyl bromide is subject to U.S. and international restrictions due to its ozone-depleting properties. Methyl iodide, however, does not pose a risk to the ozone layer and has previously been demonstrated as a fumigant for fungi, insects, and nematodes. Until now, methyl iodide has not been evaluated against Bacillus anthracis. Sterne strain Bacillus anthracis spores were subjected to methyl iodide fumigation at room temperature and at 550C. Efficacy was measured on a log-scale with a 6-log reduction in CFUs being considered successful compared to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency biocide standard. Such efficacies were obtained after just one hour at 55 °C and after 12 hours at room temperature. No detrimental effects were observed on glassware, PTFE O-rings, or stainless steel. This is the first reported efficacy of methyl iodide in the reduction of Bacillus anthracis spore contamination at ambient and elevated temperatures.

  3. Effect of AMmonium Fixation on Estimation of Soil Microbial Biomass Nitrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YINSHI-XUE; FENGKE; 等

    1994-01-01

    The effect of ammonium fixation on the estimation of soil microbial biomass N was studied by the standard fumigation-incubation(FI) and fumigation-extraction (FE) methods,NO3-N content of fumigated soil changed little during incubation,while the fixed NH4+ in soils capable of fixing NH4+ increased with the increase of K2SO4-extractable NH4-N.one day fumigation increased both extractable NH4+ and fixed NH4+,However,prolonged fumigation gave no further increase.One day fumigation caused significant loss of NO3-N,while prolonged fumigation caused no further loss.For soils tested,the net increases of fixed NH4+ in fumigated soil equaled to 0-94% of NH4-N flush measured by the FI metod,and 1-74% of extractable N measured by the FE method.depending on different soils.It is concluded that the ammonium fixation was one of the processes taking place in soils during fumigation as well as incubation ofter fumigation and should not be neglected in the estimation of microbial biomass nitrogen by either FI or FE method.

  4. Anaerobic soil disinfestation reduces survival and infectivity of Phytophthora nicotianae chlamydospores in pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora nicotianae is the principal causal agent of root and crown rot disease of pepper plants in Extremadura (western Spain), a spring-summer crop in this region. Preplant soil treatment by anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) may effectively control plant pathogens in many crop production sys...

  5. Grass pea (Lthyrus sativum L.) as pre-plant organic fertilizer for conventionally tilled winter wheat: effects on yield and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sources of organic nitrogen (N) for the southern Great Plains (SGP) - and methods of their use – need testing to find ways to counter the rising cost of N fertilizer. This study investigated the cool-season pulse grass pea (Lathyrus sativum L.) (GP) as a pre-plant N source for continuous, convention...

  6. Interactive effect of organic amendment and environmental factors on degradation of 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ruijun; Gao, Suduan; Ajwa, Husein; Hanson, Bradley D; Trout, Thomas J; Wang, Dong; Guo, Mingxin

    2009-10-14

    Soil organic matter is an important factor affecting the fate of soil fumigants; therefore, the addition of organic amendments to surface soils could reduce fumigant emissions by accelerating fumigant degradation. Experiments were conducted to determine the degradation of fumigants [a mixture of cis- and trans-1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin (CP), a similar composition as in Telone C35] in soils with organic amendment under a range of soil moisture, temperature, sterilization, and texture conditions. Degradation of the fumigants followed availability-adjusted first-order or pseudo-first-order kinetics with slower degradation of 1,3-D than CP. Increasing soil water content from 5 to 17.5% (w/w) slightly increased the degradation of 1,3-D, but not that of CP. Five different organic amendments at 5% (w/w) increased fumigant degradation 1.4-6.3-fold in this study. The degradation of both fumigants was accelerated with increasing amount of organic material (OM). Little interaction between soil moisture and OM was observed. Autoclave sterilization of soils did not reduce degradation of either fumigant; however, increasing the incubation temperature from 10 to 45 degrees C accelerated fumigant degradation 5-14 times. Soil texture did not affect 1,3-D degradation, but CP degraded more rapidly in finer-textured soil. These results suggest that OM type and rate and soil temperature are the most important factors affecting the degradation of 1,3-D and CP.

  7. SO2对中亚热带两种森林土壤氮净转化速率的短期影响%Short-term Effect of SO2 Fumigation on Soil Net Nitrogen Transformation Rates for Castanopsis carlesii and Cunninghamia lanceolata Forests of Northern Fujian, Mid-subtropics of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱祥妹; 李任超; 陆建芳; 马红亮; 高人

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] The impact of simulated SO2 deposition on soil nitrogen transformation rates was investigated for the two forests of Castanopsis carksii(CAC) and Cunninghamia lanceolata (CUL) in Northern Fujian, the Mid-subtropical area of China. [ Method] Soil was fumigated with three levels of SO2(0(CK) , 40 (LS)、80 (HS) mg S/kg dry soil) and incubated for 72 hours in Laboratory under the conditions of 30℃ of room temperature and 60% WHC of soil water content and the concerned nitrogen transformation indicators were measured. [ Result] The results showed that for the two forested soils after 10 h SO2 fumigation, HS treatment significantly reduced the soil pH value (P < 0. 05) , and continued for at least 24 h, but the reduction of pH value for the LS treatment was not significant, indicating that the forested soils had some of the buffer capacity to SO2 acidification. The sulfur treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased organic nitrogen mineralization in early 24 h incubation, but thereafter did not show the effect; sulfur treatment also had positive trend of soil nitrogen mineralization for CUL, but only significant for HS in the early 24 h (P < 0.05). Sulfur treatment influence on the two forested soils nitrification rates showed different dynamic characteristics. For CAS, LS significantly improved nitrification (P < 0.05) in early 24 h, but HS had no pronounced effect in the whole incubation; in contrast, for CUL forest, the influence only appeared in the late period of 48 - 72 h. The two forest soil presented in the early 24 h significant negative correlation between pH value and net mineralization rate, and reduced pH value had inhibition tendency to soil nitrification in the early 48 h for CAC soil with lower pH value(4. 50) , but for CUL soil with relatively higher pH (5. 58) had positive trend to soil net nitrification. [ Conclusion] The influencing mechanism of SO2 deposition to soil nitrogen transformation may be different from that of other common

  8. Response of light brown apple moth to oxygenated phosphine fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The light brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), poses a serious threat to California agriculture and is currently quarantined by several major trading partners. Fumigation is the only tool to assure pest-free postharvest vegetable and fruit products. However, current fumigants for ...

  9. Nitric oxide as a potent fumigant for postharvest pest control

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a great demand for safe and effective alternative fumigants to replace methyl bromide and other toxic fumigants for pest control. Nitric oxide, a common signal molecule in biological systems, was found to be effective and safe to control insects under ultralow oxygen conditions. Fumigatio...

  10. Impact of sulphur fumigation on the chemistry of ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Ying; Kong, Ming; Zhang, Wei; Long, Fang; Zhou, Jing; Zhou, Shan-Shan; Xu, Jin-Di; Xu, Jun; Li, Song-Lin

    2018-01-15

    Ginger (Zingiberis Rhizoma), a commonly-consumed food supplement, is often sulphur-fumigated during post-harvest handling, but it remains unknown if sulphur fumigation induces chemical transformations in ginger. In this study, the effects of sulphur fumigation on ginger chemicals were investigated by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS)-based metabolomics. The results showed that sulphur fumigation significantly altered the holistic chemical profile of ginger by triggering chemical transformations of certain original components. 6-Gingesulphonic acid, previously reported as a naturally-occurring component in ginger, was revealed to be a sulphur fumigation-induced artificial derivative, which was deduced to be generated by electrophilic addition of 6-shogaol to sulphurous acid. Using UHPLC-QTOF-MS/MS extracting ion analysis with 6-gingesulphonic acid as a characteristic chemical marker, all the commercial ginger samples inspected were determined to be sulphur-fumigated. The research outcomes provide a chemical basis for further comprehensive safety and efficacy evaluations of sulphur-fumigated ginger. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. PRE-PLANTING TREATMENTS WITH PHOSPHITE-BASED PRODUCTS AGAINST DIFFERENT FOLIAR AND SOIL-BORNE PATHOGENS OF VEGETABLE CROPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardi, G; Demarchi, S; Ramon, I; Gullino, M L; Garibaldi, A

    2015-01-01

    Fifteen experimental trials were carried out under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the efficacy of preventative treatments based on phosphite salts on the following pathosystems: tomato/Phytophthora nicotianae, zucchini/P. capsici, lettuce/Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. Iactucae, rocket/Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani, wild rocket/Plectosphaerella cucumerina and basii/Peronospora belbahrii. The possible use of phosphite salts in nursery cultivation systems is considered in comparison with chemical fungicides. Phosphites-based products reduced 66-88% and 56-72% the severity of Phytophthora crown root rot of tomato and zucchini, respectively. Four application with the phosphites-based products provided a disease reduction of Fusarium wilt of lettuce from of 33 to 83% and of 45 to 68% on cultivated rocket. These products provide the most constant results when applied in three treatments against Plectosphaerella cucumerina with a disease reduction ranging between 34%-82%. Phosphite-based products showed results statistically similar to mefenoxam when tested against downy mildew of basil. Their contribution to disease management can be very interesting, because they can complement other control measures.

  12. Methyl Bromide Commodity Fumigation Buffer Zone Lookup Tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Product labels for methyl bromide used in commodity and structural fumigation include requirements for buffer zones around treated areas. The information on this page will allow you to find the appropriate buffer zone for your planned application.

  13. Life without methyl bromide: the Italian experience in replacing the fumigant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullino, M L; Clini, C; Garibaldi, A

    2005-01-01

    Methyl bromide (MB) has been the most widely used chemical for the fumigation of soil, commodities, buildings and furniture for over seventy years. Since January 1st 2005, it has been phased-out in industrialized countries, where only critical uses are allowed, because of international regulatory measures designed to reduce substances that potentially deplete the stratospheric ozone layer. Italy ranked second in the world, after USA, in MB consumption, due to the importance of horticultural crop production. In order to replace the use of MB, research in Italy was aimed at: a) reducing the use of MB and its emission (short-term goal); b) developing alternative pest control methods, based on available technologies (mid-term goal); c) developing new MB alternatives (mid- and long-term goal). Italian growers switched to other fumigants, applied at reduced dosages, lowering their environmental impact and risk of worker exposure. Moreover, the adoption of non-chemical alternatives slowly but steadily increased as a result of the many activities (demonstration trials, seminars, etc.) carried out in the country. The gradual shift to MB alternatives over a 10 year period, as well as the use of half rates of MB under virtually impermeable plastic films (VIFs), has generally prevented the feared loss of competitiveness of Italian horticulture. Extension in cooperation with the fumigation companies was able to provide growers with a range of methods for soil disinfestation. The experience gained in Italy and how it can help developing countries to define strategies and training programmes needed to comply with the Montreal Protocol is discussed.

  14. Improvement of phosphine fumigation by the use of Speedbox

    OpenAIRE

    Kostyukovsky, M.; Trostanetsky, A.; Yasinov, G.; Menasherov, M; Hazan, T.

    2010-01-01

    Today, phosphine is turning to be a major fumigant for controlling insects in stored products. However, few limitations, such as low temperatures and relatively long exposure time, limit the phosphine use. In order to improve phosphine application, a special devise, containing a heater and a ventilator, called "Speedbox" has been developed by Detia Degesch GmbH Germany. For studying the effectiveness of phosphine fumigation using Speedbox, we have conducted two kinds of experiments: one in a ...

  15. Effects of phosphine fumigation on survivorship of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), eggs were subjected to regular and oxygenated phosphine fumigations at different temperatures to compare their susceptibilities to the two different fumigation methods and determine effective treatments in laboratory tests. LBAM eggs wer...

  16. [Effects of tillage at pre-planting of winter wheat and summer maize on leaf senescence of summer maize].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xia; Zhang, Ji-wang; Ren, Bai-zhao; Fan, Xia; Dong, Shu-ting; Liu, Peng; Zhao, Bin

    2015-05-01

    This study explored the effects of different tillage treatments at pre-planting winter wheat and summer maize on leaf senescence physiological characteristics of summer maize in double cropping system. Zhengdan 958 was used as experimental material. Three tillage treatments, including rotary tillage before winter wheat seeding and no-tillage before summer maize seeding (RN), mold- board plow before winter wheat seeding and no-tillage before summer maize seeding (MN), and moldboard plow before winter wheat seeding and rotary tillage before summer maize seeding (MR), were designed to determine the effects of different tillage treatments on leaf area (LA) , leaf area reduction, photosynthetic pigments content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in ear leaves of summer maize after tasselling (VT). LA of MN and MR were higher than that of RN from VT to 40 days after tasseling (VT + 40) and LA reduction of MR was the highest after VT + 40. As for MR, MN and NT, the photosynthetic pigments content got the maximum value at 20 days after tasselling (VT + 20) and then decreased, following the change of unimodal curve. At VT + 20, the contents of chlorophyll a in MR and MN were increased by 11.4% and 9.7%, the contents of chlorophyll b in MR and MN were increased by 14.9% and 15.9%, compared with RN. The soluble protein content in ear leaves decreased following the growth process in all treatments, and that of MR and MN remained 11.5% and 24.4% higher than that of RN from VT to VT + 40. SOD, CAT and POD activities of three treatments got the maximum values at VT + 20 and then decreased, following the change of unimodal curve. MDA content increased following the growth process in all treatments and that of RN always remained at high levels. Grain yields of MN and MR were 24.0% and 30.6% greater than that of RN, respectively. Grain yield of MR was 5.2% higher than that of MN. In conclusion, the ability of

  17. THE EFFECT OF FUMIGATION TREATMENT TOWARDS AGAVE CANTALA ROXB FIBRE STRENGTH AND MORPHOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    MUSA BONDARIS PALUNGAN; RUDY SOENOKO; YUDY SURYA IRAWAN; ANINDITO PURNOWIDODO

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to reveal the morphology, physical properties and strength of the king pineapple leaf fibre (Agave Cantala Roxb) after fumigation treatment. The king pineapple leaf fibres (KPLF) before and after the fumigation treatment are then separated into groups. The fumigation treatment on KPLF is given in different durations, and the smoke comes from burning coconut shells. Before and after fumigation, the surface morphology, chemical content, and functional group cha...

  18. Efeito do pré-plantio com plantas medicinais e aromáticas no controle de Plasmodiophora brassicae The effect of pre-plantation with medicinal plants in the Plasmodiophora brassicae control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionete Hasse

    2007-03-01

    have collaborated to inoculum dissemination. Aiming to control this disease with the lowest environmental impact, the present study verified the effect of pre-plantation medicinal and aromatic plants in the reduction of Plasmodiophora brassicae inoculum. Two experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions at 'Ciências Agrárias' sector at ´Universidade Federal do Paraná', from June to November 2003 as well as from July to December 2004. The experiment was installed in a completely randomized design with nine treatments and six replications. Medicinal and aromatic plants used in the treatments were mint (Mentha piperita L.; basil (Ocimum basilicum L.; bardana (Arctium minus Hill; calêndula (Calendula officianalis L.; chive (Allium fistulosum L.; parsley (Petroselinum hortense Hoffm and salvia (Salvia officinalis L.. As control samples, inoculation and infested soil, both inactive, were used. Pots with 3 kg of steam-sterilized soil were used, and as an inoculum of P. brassicae 2,5 g of galls were used per pot. Rudbeckia (Eruca sativa Mill was the susceptible host. Forty days after rudbeckia plantation, fresh foliar mass, the incidence and disease severity index were determined. The greater fresh foliar mass and lower severity index were obtained in the 2003 experiment with the treatment pre-plantation of "bardana", parsley, mint, basil and chive.

  19. 40 CFR 180.521 - Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fumigants for grain-mill machinery... Tolerances § 180.521 Fumigants for grain-mill machinery; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Fumigants may be safely used in or on grain-mill machinery in accordance with the following prescribed...

  20. Response of cucurbit rootstocks for grafted melon (Cucumis melo) to southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are an important re-emerging pest of melon (Cucumis melo), due largely to the loss of methyl bromide as a pre-plant soil fumigant. Melon is highly susceptible to southern RKN, Meloidogyne incognita, which causes severe root galling and reduced melon fruit yields. Cucurbit...

  1. Incidence of Agrobacterium tumefaciens biovar 1 in and on ‘Paradox’ (Juglans hindsii x Juglans regia) walnut seed collected from commercial nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The walnut rootstock Paradox (Juglans hindsii (Jeps) Rehder x J. regia L.) is susceptible to Agrobacterium tumefaciens (7) which often results in a high incidence of crown gall in nursery or walnut production orchards. Though A. tumefaciens is susceptible to the commonly used preplant soil fumigant...

  2. Distribution and longevity of Pratylenchus penetrans in the red raspberry production system

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the major production constraints on the production of red raspberries in the Pacific Northwest is the presence of the root lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans. Current management of this nematode relies heavily on pre-plant soil fumigation, however regulations have made the practice more d...

  3. Effectiveness analysis of fumigation strategy in dengue disease prevention program (Case study: Jakarta province, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustine, D.; Mahatma, Y.; Aldila, D.

    2015-03-01

    Mathematical model of dengue disease with fumigation intervention for mosquito population will discussed in this article. Interaction between human and mosquitoes population will based on SIR-SI host-vector model. Side effect of fumigation where mosquito capable to developed a resistance to fumigation will be accommodated in to the model. Equilibrium points and basic reproductive ratio as the endemic criteria will be shown analytically. Some numerical results are shown to give a back up reasoning for analytical result. We conclude that resistance of mosquitoes to fumigation intervention play an important role in fumigation strategy.

  4. Measurements on hydrocyanic acid absorbed by citrus tissues during fumigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, E.T.; Sinclair, W.B.; Lindgren, D.L.

    1942-05-01

    Methods for the accurate determination of hydrocyanic acid (HCN) and studies of factors affecting the recovery of HCN from fumigated citrus tissues have been previously reported. This study is concerned with the results of the application of the principles derived from the earlier studies to further laboratory experiments, performed in conjunction with the fumigation studies of citrus trees under orchard conditions. The effect of certain factors, such as oil sprays, the locality in which the trees were grown, and the temperature, age, and moisture content of citrus tissues at time of fumigation, have been studied in relation to the absorption and retention of HCN under both laboratory and field conditions. The comparative amounts of absorption and lengths of time of retention of HCN have also been studied in relation to maturity of leaves and fruits and in relation to their injurious or noninjurious effects. The results of laboratory experiments cannot always be applied directly to the solution of orchard fumigation problems, but they may serve as a basis for the formulation of field experiments. The trees, leaves, and fruits used in the experiments described in this study were of the Valencia-orange variety (Citrus sinensis Osbeck). 13 references, 9 figures, 11 tables.

  5. Essential oils as fumigants for bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Petri dish assays, fumigation of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with various essential oils resulted in mortality that approached or equaled 100%, after 5 days. However, when bed bugs were exposed to the same essential oils in sealed, comme...

  6. Managing Phytophthora crown and root rot on tomato by pre-plant treatments with biocontrol agents, resistance inducers, organic and mineral fertilizers under nursery conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna GILARDI

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Five trials were carried out under greenhouse conditions to test the efficacy of spray programmes based on biocontrol agents, phosphite-based fertilizers and a chemical inducer of resistance (acibenzolar-S-methyl, phosethyl-Al to control crown and root rot of tomato incited by Phytophthora nicotianae. The best disease control, under high disease pressure resulting from artificial inoculation, was obtained with three pre-plant leaf sprays at 7 d intervals with acibenzolar-S-methyl and with two mineral phosphite-based fertilizers. The disease reduction achieved was similar to that obtained with a single application of azoxystrobin and metalaxyl-M. Phosetyl-Al and the biocontrol agents Glomus spp. + Bacillus megaterium + Trichoderma, B. subtilis QST713, B. velezensis IT45 and the mixture T. asperellum ICC012 + T. gamsii ICC080 provided a partial disease control. Brassica carinata pellets did not control the disease.

  7. Effects of phosphine fumigation on survivorship of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Biao; Liu, Samuel S; Simmons, Gregory; Walse, Spencer S; Myers, Scott W

    2013-08-01

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), eggs were subjected to phosphine fumigations under normal atmospheric and elevated oxygen levels in laboratory-scale chamber experiments to compare their susceptibilities to the two different fumigation methods. In fumigations conducted under atmospheric oxygen at 5 and 10 degrees C, egg survivorship decreased with increase in phosphine concentration but then increased at a concentration of 3,000 ppm; this increase was significant at 10 degrees C. Based on egg survivorship data, phosphine fumigations conducted in a 60% oxygen atmosphere were significantly more effective than those conducted under atmospheric oxygen conditions. Oxygenated phosphine fumigations at 5 and 10 degrees C killed all 1,998 and 2,213 E. postvittana eggs treated, respectively, after 72 h of exposure. These results indicate the great potential of oxygenated phosphine fumigation for the control of E. postvittana eggs.

  8. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on harvested lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2012-06-01

    Low temperature regular phosphine fumigations under the normal oxygen level and oxygenated phosphine fumigations under superatmospheric oxygen levels were compared for efficacy against the aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley), and effects on postharvest quality of romaine and head lettuce. Low temperature regular phosphine fumigation was effective against the aphid. However, a 3 d treatment with high phosphine concentrations of > or = 2,000 ppm was needed for complete control of the aphid. Oxygen greatly increased phosphine toxicity and significantly reduced both treatment time and phosphine concentration for control of N. ribisnigri. At 1,000 ppm phosphine, 72 h regular fumigations at 6 degrees C did not achieve 100% mortality of the aphid. The 1,000 ppm phosphine fumigation under 60% O2 killed all aphids in 30 h. Both a 72 h regular fumigation with 2,200 ppm phosphine and a 48 h oxygenated fumigation with 1,000 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 were tested on romaine and head lettuce at 3 degrees C. Both treatments achieved complete control of N. ribisnigri. However, the 72 h regular fumigation resulted in significantly higher percentages of lettuce with injuries and significantly lower lettuce internal quality scores than the 48 h oxygenated phosphine fumigation. Although the oxygenated phosphine fumigation also caused injuries to some treated lettuce, lettuce quality remained very good and the treatment is not expected to have a significant impact on marketability of the lettuce. This study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation was more effective and less phytotoxic for controlling N. ribisnigri on harvested lettuce than regular phosphine fumigation and is promising for practical use.

  9. Toxicity of phosphine fumigation against Bactrocera tau at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Liu, Tao; Li, Baishu; Zhang, Fanhua; Dong, Shujun; Wang, Yuejin

    2014-04-01

    Bactrocera tau (Walker) is one of the most harmful pests to fruits and vegetables. To counteract this pest, the development of phytosanitary treatment is required to comply with the pest regulation requirements of certain countries. This study investigated the toxicity of phosphine fumigation against B. tau under low temperature conditions. Different growth stages (eggs and instars) of B. tau were exposed to 1.07 mg/liter phosphine for 1-10 d at 5 degrees C, and compared with unfumigated flies at 5 degrees C. The results showed that tolerance to cold treatment alone or phosphine fumigation at low temperatures generally increased with the stage of insect development. However, eggs incubated for 12 h at 25 degrees C represented the most tolerant growth stage to phosphine fumigation at 5 degrees C. Furthermore, 8.56- to 2.18-d exposure periods were required to achieve 99% mortality with a range of phosphine concentrations from 0.46 to 3.81 mg/liter. C0.62 t = k expression was obtained from the LT99 values, indicating that the exposure time was more important than the phosphine concentration.

  10. Efficacy of Nitric Oxide Fumigation for Controlling Codling Moth in Apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Biao Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO fumigation under ultralow oxygen (ULO conditions was studied for its efficacy in controlling codling moth and effects on postharvest quality of apples. NO fumigation was effective against eggs and larvae of different sizes on artificial diet in 48 h treatments. Small larvae were more susceptible to nitric oxide than other stages at 0.5% NO concentration. There were no significant differences among life stages at 1.0% to 2.0% NO concentrations. In 24 h treatments of eggs, 3.0% NO fumigation at 2 °C achieved 100% egg mortality. Two 24 h fumigation treatments of infested apples containing medium and large larvae with 3.0% and 5.0% NO resulted in 98% and 100% mortalities respectively. Sound apples were also fumigated with 5.0% NO for 24 h at 2 °C to determine effects on apple quality. The fumigation treatment was terminated by flushing with nitrogen and had no negative impact on postharvest quality of apples as measured by firmness and color at 2 and 4 weeks after fumigation. This study demonstrated that NO fumigation was effective against codling moth and safe to apple quality, and therefore has potential to become a practical alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for control of codling moth in apples.

  11. Efficacy of Nitric Oxide Fumigation for Controlling Codling Moth in Apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Biao; Yang, Xiangbing; Simmons, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) fumigation under ultralow oxygen (ULO) conditions was studied for its efficacy in controlling codling moth and effects on postharvest quality of apples. NO fumigation was effective against eggs and larvae of different sizes on artificial diet in 48 h treatments. Small larvae were more susceptible to nitric oxide than other stages at 0.5% NO concentration. There were no significant differences among life stages at 1.0% to 2.0% NO concentrations. In 24 h treatments of eggs, 3.0% NO fumigation at 2 °C achieved 100% egg mortality. Two 24 h fumigation treatments of infested apples containing medium and large larvae with 3.0% and 5.0% NO resulted in 98% and 100% mortalities respectively. Sound apples were also fumigated with 5.0% NO for 24 h at 2 °C to determine effects on apple quality. The fumigation treatment was terminated by flushing with nitrogen and had no negative impact on postharvest quality of apples as measured by firmness and color at 2 and 4 weeks after fumigation. This study demonstrated that NO fumigation was effective against codling moth and safe to apple quality, and therefore has potential to become a practical alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for control of codling moth in apples. PMID:27918417

  12. Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily Moghaddas; Ken Hubbert

    2014-01-01

    When managing for resilient forests, each soil’s inherent capacity to resist and recover from changes in soil function should be evaluated relative to the anticipated extent and duration of soil disturbance. Application of several key principles will help ensure healthy, resilient soils: (1) minimize physical disturbance using guidelines tailored to specific soil types...

  13. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic vs. mineral soil horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Karen M; Janos, David P; Nichols, Scott; Bowman, David M J S

    2015-01-01

    Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer vs. mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT) followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations.

  14. Eucalyptus obliqua seedling growth in organic versus mineral soil horizons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen eBarry

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus obliqua, the most widespread timber tree in Tasmania, is a pioneer after fire which can eliminate the organic layer of forest soil, exposing the underlying mineral soil. We compared seedling growth, mycorrhiza formation, and mineral nutrient limitation in organic layer versus mineral soil. We grew E. obliqua seedlings separately in pots of organic layer and mineral soil in a glasshouse. Additional treatments of organic soil only, involved fully crossed methyl-bromide fumigation and fertilization. Fertilization comprised chelated iron for 121 days after transplant (DAT followed by soluble phosphorus. At 357 DAT, whole plant dry weight was three times greater in ambient organic than in mineral soil. In organic soil, fumigation halved ectomycorrhiza abundance and reduced seedling growth at 149 DAT, but by 357 DAT when negative effects of fumigation on seedling growth had disappeared, neither fumigation nor fertilization affected mycorrhiza abundance. Iron fertilization diminished seedling growth, but subsequent phosphorus fertilization improved it. E. obliqua seedlings grow much better in organic layer soil than in mineral soil, although phosphorus remains limiting. The prevalent forestry practice of burning to mineral soil after timber harvest exposes a poor growth medium likely only partially compensated by fire-induced mineral soil alterations.

  15. Working with anaerobic soil disinfestation for control of key soil-borne pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) has been shown to be effective in reducing Verticillium dahliae in soil and to be able to provide marketable fruit yields compatible to fumigation in California strawberry systems. However the effect of ASD on charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina in Cali...

  16. Anaerobic soil disinfestation impact on nutrient dynamics in fresh-market tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) is considered a promising sustainable alternative to chemical soil fumigation (CSF). Suitable for both organic and conventional growing systems. The soil amendment with organic material and its anaerobic decomposition cause a temporary variation of the soil redox...

  17. Surprises perilous: toxic health hazards for employees unloading fumigated shipping containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisser, Alexandra M; Budnik, Lygia T; Hampel, Eva; Baur, Xaver

    2011-08-01

    The fumigation of freight containers to protect transported goods from fungal and pest infestation has increased worldwide in the last five years due to international regulations requiring fumigation or heat treatment of wooden packaging material and dunnage. We have found in 2008 that every sixth container and its contents do retain harmful concentrations of various fumigants and chemicals, representing a significant health risk for port and transport workers, customs officials, warehousemen, store employees and consumers. The shipping documents of these containers did not provide any information about the fumigation procedure or the used fumigant. We report here the cases of 26 patients introduced to our outpatient clinic with presumed intoxication to fumigants, or with symptoms due to inhaling the air out of fumigated containers. All patients were examined from 2007 to 2010 according to a standardized comprehensive diagnostic program. We were able to confirm the diagnosis based on typical symptoms and extensive clinical examination; by laboratory analysis we identified ethylene dichloride, methyl bromide, phosphine and methylene chloride. The predominant symptoms were headaches, concentration and memory problems, dizziness and nausea, irritation of the skin and mucous membranes and a reduced ability to do exercise. In addition to the neurological and neuropsychological impairments our analyses verified the development of reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) in 14 of 26 patients with long lasting symptoms due to their contact with fumigants. Intoxications with fumigants are serious and could be avoided. These systematical explored cases show the sustainable impact for health and socio-economic wellbeing. These findings also emphasize the necessity for international standards on permitted fumigants, appropriate labeling in the shipping documents and handling of fumigated containers.

  18. Phosphine fumigation and residues in dry-cured ham in commercial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y; Abbar, S; Phillips, T W; Schilling, M W

    2015-09-01

    Dry-cured hams often become infested with ham mites (Tyrophagus putrescentiae) during the aging process. Methyl bromide has been used to fumigate dry cured ham plants and is the only available fumigant that is effective at controlling ham mite infestations. However, methyl bromide will eventually be phased out of all industries. This research was designed to determine the efficacy of phosphine fumigation at controlling ham mites and red-legged beetles and any impact of phosphine fumigation on the sensory quality and safety of dry cured hams. Fumigation trials were conducted in simulated ham aging houses and commercial ham aging houses. Mite postembryonic mortality was 99.8% in the simulated aging houses and >99.9% in commercial aging houses three weeks post fumigation. Sensory tests with trained panelists indicated that there were no detectable differences (P > 0.05) between phosphine fumigated and control hams. In addition, residual phosphine concentration was below the legal limit of 0.01 ppm in ham slices that were taken from phosphine fumigated hams.

  19. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on harvested lettuce

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laboratory study was conducted to compare phosphine fumigations under the normal and superatmospheric oxygen levels on toxicity against Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) and effects on postharvest quality of romaine and head lettuce. Low temperature phosphine fumigation was effective against the aphi...

  20. Efficacy and residue analysis of nitric oxide fumigation of strawberries for control of Drosophila suzukii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been demonstrated as an effective fumigant against various insect pests on postharvest products under ultralow oxygen (ULO) conditions. NO showed efficacy against all life stages of insect pests with varied fumigation time and temperature, and had feasible cost-effectiveness to...

  1. Experimental study on the effect of gaseous and particulate emission from an ethanol fumigated diesel engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on a four-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine with 10% and 20% of the engine load taken up by fumigation ethanol injected into the air intake of each cylinder, to investigate the gaseous, particulate mass (PM) emissions, and number concentration and size distribution of the engine under five engine loads at the maximum torque engine speed of 1800 r/min. The experimental results show that at low engine loads, the brake thermal efficiency (BTE) decreases with increase in fumigation ethanol; but at high engine loads, the BTE is not significantly changed by fumigation ethanol. Fumigation ethanol can effectively decrease in brake specific nitrogen oxides (BSNOx), particulate mass and number emissions but significantly increase in brake specific hydrocarbon (BSHC), brake specific carbon monoxide (BSCO) and proportion of BSNO/BSNO2. Also, the geometrical mean diameter of the particles (GMD) increases with increase in engine load but the diameter is not changed by fumigation ethanol in all cases.

  2. Integration of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) residues with a pre-plant herbicide enhances weed suppression in broad bean (Vicia faba)

    OpenAIRE

    Alsaadawi,I.S; KHALIQ,A.; A.A Al-Temimi; Matloob,A

    2011-01-01

    Field trial was conducted with the aim of utilizing allelopathic crop residues to reduce the use of synthetic herbicides in broad bean (Vicia faba) fields. Sunflower residue at 600 and 1,400 g m-2 and Treflan (trifluralin) at 50, 75 and 100% of recommended dose were incorporated into the soil alone or in combination with each other. Untreated plots were maintained as a control. Herbicide application in plots amended with sunflower residue had the least total weed count and biomass, which was ...

  3. Effects of phosphine fumigation on the quality of soybean seeds.

    OpenAIRE

    Krzyzanowski,Francisco Carlos; Lorini,Irineu; França-Neto,José de Barros; Henning,Ademir Assis

    2013-01-01

    Fumigation is a technique employed to eliminate insect pests in stored seeds by using gas. The aim of the experiment was to evaluate the effect of the gas phosphine on germination and on vigor (accelerated aging and seedling length) of soybean seeds. Soybean seeds of two cultivars with two vigor levels were used. Each treatment was replicated four times and each experimental unit consisted of two kilograms of seeds, which were placed in individual 1 m³ gas-tight capacity chambers with phosphi...

  4. Resistance of Lasioderma serricorne (Coleoptera: Anobiidae) to Fumigation with Phosphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sağlam, Özgür; Edde, Peter A; Phillips, Thomas W

    2015-10-01

    Lasioderma serricorne (F.) is a serious pest of stored products that is known to be resistant to the fumigant pesticide gas phosphine. This study investigated resistance in populations from the southeastern United States, and determined if a recommended treatment schedule could kill resistant insects. A laboratory assay for adult insects was developed that used a discriminating concentration of 50 ppm phosphine applied to insects for 20 h at 25°C followed by 7 d of recovery in air. Survivors were classified as resistant. L. serricorne from six different field populations associated with stored tobacco were surveyed with the assay and all had resistant individuals. Four populations had greater than 90% of their insects resistant. Two industry-recommended treatment schedules were evaluated in laboratory fumigations against mixed life stage cultures of the four most resistant populations: the first at 200 ppm for 4 d at 25°C for controlling phosphine-susceptible L. serricorne and the second at 600 ppm for 6 d at 25°C intended to control phosphine-resistant beetles. The four populations with the highest frequency of resistant individuals from the field sampling study were not controlled by the "normal" treatment intended for susceptible insects. The higher concentration treatment greatly reduced beetle progeny from mixed-stage colony jars, but there were substantial numbers of surviving adults from all four highly resistant populations that represented unacceptable levels of control.

  5. [PH3 residues in hazelnuts, soybeans and wheat following phosphine fumigation with non-constant concentrations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, S; Wohlgemuth, R

    1985-02-01

    In model tests hazelnuts, soy beans and wheat were fumigated with phosphine (PH3) at non constant concentrations. The influence of different concentration characteristics on the fumigation and the decomposition of phosphine residues was investigated in accordance with the fumigation technique. At the beginning the concentration increases, and after attaining the maximum gradually decreases to zero. The level of residues during the fumigation as well as the behaviour of residues during the storage of the fumigated products was monitored with a gas chromatographic method. The residues correlate with the concentration of phosphine, they also pass through a peak. The rate of decomposition of residues which had been formed in the phase of increasing concentration is greater than the rate of residues of equal magnitude which had been formed during the decreasing phase. When the concentration is even the maximum residue occurs later than the maximum concentration; when there is a steep trend both maximums coincide. This behaviour can be explained by the sorption and diffusion of phosphine. A comparison is made with the phosphine concentration which occurs during fumigation in practice. The parameters which produce a constant concentration trend with only one maximum and a non constant trend with an often increasing and decreasing concentration are discussed. The different behaviour of residues in these cases is described. Conclusions are drawn for the practice of fumigation.

  6. THE EFFECT OF FUMIGATION TREATMENT TOWARDS AGAVE CANTALA ROXB FIBRE STRENGTH AND MORPHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUSA BONDARIS PALUNGAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to reveal the morphology, physical properties and strength of the king pineapple leaf fibre (Agave Cantala Roxb after fumigation treatment. The king pineapple leaf fibres (KPLF before and after the fumigation treatment are then separated into groups. The fumigation treatment on KPLF is given in different durations, and the smoke comes from burning coconut shells. Before and after fumigation, the surface morphology, chemical content, and functional group character of KPLF were observed by SEM, XRD, and FTIR, respectively. While the physical characteristics were identified by measuring fibre density, moisture content and fibre strength were tested by a single fibre tensile strength test. The results show that chemical contents of KPLF were cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, accounting for as much as 55.8%, 21.27%, and 7.66%, respectively. After fumigation, the KPLF surface morphology becomes rough and grooved, the fibre density increased, and the single fibre tensile strength increased notably at the base of the king pineapple leaf. With the tensile strength increase and a rough and grooved KPLF surface morphology due to fumigation, fumigated KPLF would have the potential to be used as a strengthened composite.

  7. [Investigation on formation mechanism of secologanic acid sulfonates in sulfur-fumigated buds of Lonicera japonica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ai-Li; Gao, Hui-Min; Chen, Liang-Mian; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Min

    2014-05-01

    To investigate formation mechanism of secologanic acid sulfonates in sulfur-fumigated buds of Lonicera japonica, secologanic acid was enriched and purified from the sun-dried buds of L. japonica by various column chromatography on macroporus resin HPD-100, silica gel and ODS. The stimulation experiments of sulfur-fumigation process were carried out using secologanic acid reacted with SO2 in the aqueous solution. The reaction mechanism could be involved in the esterification or addition reaction. The present investigation provides substantial evidences for interpreting formation pathway of secologanic acid sulfonates in sulfur-fumigated buds of L. japonica.

  8. Comparison of Fumigant and Nonfumigant Nematicides for control of Meloidogyne chitwoodi on Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, G D

    1989-10-01

    The fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) effectively controlled Meloidogyne chitwoodi on Russet Burbank potato, Solanum tuberosum. There was a maximum of 4% infected and galled tubers from the 1,3-D treatment after 2,028 degree-days with a base temperature of 5 C (DD5). This compared to 66% infected and galled tubers in aldicarb at-plant treated plots. Soil temperature, as determined by DD5, and timing of chemical applications affected the nematicidal activity on M. chitwoodi (P < 0.05). Aldicarb was most effective when applied postplant (PP) during the nematode reproductive cycle. After 1,684 DD5 of growth, there were 59, 26, 22, and 6% infected and galled tubers from untreated control plots and aldicarb treatments of 2.1 g/m row at 600 DD5, 2.1 g/m row at 1,228 DD5, and 1.3 g/m row at 600 DD5 plus 2.1 g/m row at 1,228 DD5, respectively. No aldicarb treatments were effective over a growing period of 2,028 DD5; 34% of the tubers were infected and galled following the most effective aldicarb treatment (1.3 g/m row at 504 DD5 plus 2.1 g/m row at 996 DD5).

  9. A new approach to ozone plant fumigation: The Web-O3-Fumigation. Isoprene response to a gradient of ozone stress in leaves of Quercus pubescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricoli D

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The innovative Web-O3-Fumigation (WOF is a suitable technique to study O3 effects in plants. Through WOF, a very high dose of O3 fumigation may be obtained at the level of selected leaves, while allowing a gradient of ozone stress in branches at different distance from branch directly fumigated with O3 diffusing from perforated Teflon tubes. We used WOF to study the impact of O3 on the emission of isoprene, a putatively powerful antioxidant, in leaves of Quercus pubescens. In our experiment we produced with WOF: i approximately 300 ppb O3 on the leaves of the branch directly exposed to the pollutant; ii approximately 190 ppb on the leaves of the branches distant less than 30 cm from the treated branch; iii a summer ambient O3 concentration (100 ppb on the leaves of the branches distant more than 30 cm from the branch directly fumigated. High O3 concentrations induced a long-lasting inhibition of photosynthesis and isoprene emission in leaves which were directly fumigated. However, isoprene emission was stimulated by intermediate O3 concentration 288 hours after the end of the treatment. Isoprene stimulation, and the activation of the related antioxidant mechanism, may therefore be dependent on the O3 concentration and may be different in plant canopies depending on their exposure to the pollutant

  10. A new approach to ozone plant fumigation: The Web-O3-Fumigation. Isoprene response to a gradient of ozone stress in leaves of Quercus pubescens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinelli P

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The innovative Web-O3-Fumigation (WOF is a suitable technique to study O3 effects in plants. Through WOF, a very high dose of O3 fumigation may be obtained at the level of selected leaves, while allowing a gradient of ozone stress in branches at different distance from branch directly fumigated with O3 diffusing from perforated Teflon tubes. We used WOF to study the impact of O3 on the emission of isoprene, a putatively powerful antioxidant, in leaves of Quercus pubescens. In our experiment we produced with WOF: i approximately 300 ppb O3 on the leaves of the branch directly exposed to the pollutant; ii approximately 190 ppb on the leaves of the branches distant less than 30 cm from the treated branch; iii a summer ambient O3 concentration (100 ppb on the leaves of the branches distant more than 30 cm from the branch directly fumigated. High O3 concentrations induced a long-lasting inhibition of photosynthesis and isoprene emission in leaves which were directly fumigated. However, isoprene emission was stimulated by intermediate O3 concentration 288 hours after the end of the treatment. Isoprene stimulation, and the activation of the related antioxidant mechanism, may therefore be dependent on the O3 concentration and may be different in plant canopies depending on their exposure to the pollutant

  11. Fumigant toxicities of essential oils and two monoterpenes against potato tuber moth (Phthorimaea operculella Zeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayoub Ghaleb

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The potato tuber moth (PTM is the major economic pest of potato. Different approaches were tried to prevent and control this pest including natural pesticides and synthetic fumigants.

  12. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Treatment Longer than 8 Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  13. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Treatment 8 Hours or Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  14. Ethylene Oxide Commerical Sterilization and Fumigation Operations National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this document is to provide implementation materials to assist in conducting complete and efficient inspections at ethylene oxide commercial sterilization and fumigation operations to determine compliance with the NESHAP

  15. Granular Nematicides as Adjuncts to Fumigants for Control of Cotton Root-knot Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgenson, E C

    1979-04-01

    Growth and yield of cotton were best with combinations of fumigants and organophosphate and carbamate nematicides. Organophosphates or carbamates used alone did not give season-long control of root-knot nematodes. Long-term control was poor because the temporary sublethal effects of these materials diminished soon enough lhat the nematodes could reproduce. The nematodes survived the treatments and a year of nonhost culture, and damaged a susceptible host crop 2 years after treatment. No such damage occurred in plots treated with fumigant, fumigant plus organophosphate, or fumigant plus carbamate. Treatment of seed and treatment of cotton, either in furrow at planting or sidedressing at midseason, with organophosphate and carbamate nematicides resulted in little or no yield increase, because nematode control was only minimal and temporary; or in a yield decrease, because the toxicity of the materials was manifested when nematode populations were low.

  16. Fumigation with carbonyl sulfide: a model for the interaction of concentration, time and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, G L.; Morton, R

    2001-10-01

    The new fumigant carbonyl sulfide offers an alternative to both methyl bromide and phosphine as a grain fumigant. Separate mathematical models for levels of kill, based on quantitative toxicological studies were developed for adults and eggs of the rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae (L.). These models suggest that fumigation exposure times for carbonyl sulfide will be a compromise between those of methyl bromide (typically 24h) and phosphine (7-10d) to achieve a very high kill of all developmental stages. S. oryzae eggs were more difficult to kill with carbonyl sulfide fumigation than the adults. At 30 degrees C, a 25gm(-3) fumigation killed 99.9% of adults in less than 1d, but took 4d to kill the same percentage of eggs. Models were generated to describe the mortality of adults at 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 degrees C. From these models it is predicted that fumigation with carbonyl sulfide for 1-2d at 30gm(-3) will kill 99.9% of adults. Furthermore the models illustrate that fumigations with concentrations below 10gm(-3) are unlikely to kill all adult S. oryzae. Significant variation was observed in the response of eggs to the fumigant over the temperature range of 10 to 30 degrees C. Models were generated to describe the mortality of eggs at 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 degrees C. As the temperature was reduced below 25 degrees C, the time taken to achieve an effective fumigation increased. Extrapolating from the models, a 25gm(-3) fumigation to control 99.9% of S. oryzae eggs will take 95h (4d) at 30 degrees C, 77h (3.2d) at 25 degrees C, 120h (5d) at 20 degrees C, 174h (7.5d) at 15 degrees C and about 290h (11d) at 10 degrees C. The role of temperature in the time taken to kill eggs with carbonyl sulfide cannot be ignored. In order to achieve the desired level of kill of all developmental stages, the fumigation rates need to be set according to the most difficult life stage to kill, in this instance, the egg stage.

  17. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs on lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Samuel S; Liu, Yong-Biao; Simmons, Gregory S

    2014-08-01

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), is a quarantined pest in most countries. Its establishment in California and potential spread to other parts of the state and beyond make it urgent to develop effective postharvest treatments to control the pest on fresh commodities. Fumigation with cylindered phosphine at low temperature has emerged to be a practical methyl bromide alternative treatment for postharvest pest control on fresh commodities. However, its use to control E. postvittana eggs on sensitive commodities such as lettuce is problematic. E. postvittana eggs are tolerant of phosphine and long phosphine treatment also injures lettuce. In the current study, E. postvittana eggs were subjected to oxygenated phosphine fumigations to develop an effective treatment at a low storage temperature of 2 degrees C. In addition, soda lime as a CO2 absorbent was tested to determine its effects in reducing and preventing injuries to lettuce associated with phosphine fumigations. Three-day fumigation with 1,000 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 achieved 100% mortality of E. postvittana eggs in small-scale laboratory tests. In the presence of the CO2 absorbent, a 3-d large-scale fumigation of lettuce with 1,700 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 resulted in a relative egg mortality of 99.96% without any negative effect on lettuce quality. The 3-d fumigation treatment without the CO2 absorbent, however, resulted in significant injuries to lettuce and consequential quality reductions. The study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation has the potential to control E. postvittana eggs and the CO2 absorbent has the potential to prevent injuries and quality reductions of lettuce associated with long-term oxygenated phosphine fumigation.

  18. Fumigation with phosphine under gas-proof sheets (ODNRI Bulletin No. 26)

    OpenAIRE

    Friendship, R

    1989-01-01

    Although fumigation with phosphine is a simple technique, results, in terms of insect mortality, are often unsatisfactory. This is because complete insect control can only be achieved if an insecticidal concentration of phosphine is maintained for a sufficient length of time. Where multiple fumigations with phosphine have failed to meet these criteria insect resistance to phosphine has become established. This bulletin describes the formulations, equipment, application techniques and safety c...

  19. Fumigant toxicity of five essential oils rich in ketones against Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky)

    OpenAIRE

    Herrera, J. M.; M.P Zunino; Y Massuh; R.P Pizzollito; J.S Dambolena; N.A Gañan; Zygadlo, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) and individual compounds act as fumigants against insects found in stored products. In fumigant assays, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky adults were treated with essential oils derived from Aphyllocladus decussatus Hieron, Aloysia polystachya Griseb, Minthostachys verticillata Griseb Epling and Tagetes minuta L , which are rich in ketones and their major components: a- thujone, R-carvone, S-carvone, (-) menthone, R (+) pulegone and E-Z- ocimenone. M. verticillata oil was th...

  20. Competitiveness of gamma irradiation with fumigation for chestnuts associated with quarantine and quality security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kwon, Yong-Jung; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2004-09-01

    Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and methyl bromide (MeBr) fumigation were determined for fresh chestnut on mortality of pests and quality stability. Chestnut was exposed to both irradiation at 0-10 kGy and MeBr fumigation in commercial conditions, and then subjected to the corresponding study during storage at 5°C for 6 months. Pests with quarantine importance for chestnut were found Curculio sikkimensis Heller and Dichocrocis punctiferalis Guenee, which showed 100% mortality by MeBr at the 3rd day after fumigation and by irradiation at 0.5 kGy in about 4 weeks. Sprouting was controlled for 6 months with treatments of 0.25 kGy or more and of MeBr, but rotting rate dramatically increased from 2 months after fumigation. Irradiation over 1 kGy as well as fumigation significantly caused changes in the color of stored chestnut. Considering the cumulative mortality of chestnut pests, irradiation at the range of 0.5 kGy is recommendable as one of alternatives to MeBr fumigation for both quarantine and sprout control purposes.

  1. Competitiveness of gamma irradiation with fumigation for chestnuts associated with quarantine and quality security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, J.-H. E-mail: jhkwon@knu.ac.kr; Kwon, Y.-J.; Byun, M.-W.; Kim, K.-S

    2004-10-01

    Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and methyl bromide (MeBr) fumigation were determined for fresh chestnut on mortality of pests and quality stability. Chestnut was exposed to both irradiation at 0-10 kGy and MeBr fumigation in commercial conditions, and then subjected to the corresponding study during storage at 5 deg. C for 6 months. Pests with quarantine importance for chestnut were found Curculio sikkimensis Heller and Dichocrocis punctiferalis Guenee, which showed 100% mortality by MeBr at the 3rd day after fumigation and by irradiation at 0.5 kGy in about 4 weeks. Sprouting was controlled for 6 months with treatments of 0.25 kGy or more and of MeBr, but rotting rate dramatically increased from 2 months after fumigation. Irradiation over 1 kGy as well as fumigation significantly caused changes in the color of stored chestnut. Considering the cumulative mortality of chestnut pests, irradiation at the range of 0.5 kGy is recommendable as one of alternatives to MeBr fumigation for both quarantine and sprout control purposes.

  2. Element analysis and characteristic identification of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. using microwave digestion-inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry combined with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Lou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sulfur-fumigation may induce chemical transformation of traditional Chinese medicines leading to harmful effects following patient ingestion. For quality control, it is urgently needed to develop a reliable and efficient method for sulfur-fumigation identification. Materials and Methods: The spectrochemical identification of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. was carried out to evaluate inorganic elements and organic components. The concentrations of 12 elements, including Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, Li, Mg, Sr, Pb, As, Cd, Hg, and S of samples were determined by microwave digestion - inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES. Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR was used for the study of chemical group characteristic reactions after sulfur-fumigation. Results: The concentrations of Fe, Mg, Hg, and S elements showed significant differences between non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. The characteristic stretching vibrations of some groups in FTIR spectra, such as -OH, -S = O and -S-O, provided the identification basis for the discrimination of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. Conclusion: The application of microwave digestion - ICP-AES was successfully used in combination with FTIR to authenticate and evaluate the quality of medicinal Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. Further applications of this technique should be explored.

  3. Element analysis and characteristic identification of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. using microwave digestion-inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry combined with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yajing; Cai, Hao; Liu, Xiao; Tu, Sicong; Pei, Ke; Zhao, Yingying; Cao, Gang; Li, Songlin; Qin, Kunming; Cai, Baochang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sulfur-fumigation may induce chemical transformation of traditional Chinese medicines leading to harmful effects following patient ingestion. For quality control, it is urgently needed to develop a reliable and efficient method for sulfur-fumigation identification. Materials and Methods: The spectrochemical identification of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. was carried out to evaluate inorganic elements and organic components. The concentrations of 12 elements, including Zn, Mn, Cu, Fe, Li, Mg, Sr, Pb, As, Cd, Hg, and S of samples were determined by microwave digestion - inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Meanwhile, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) was used for the study of chemical group characteristic reactions after sulfur-fumigation. Results: The concentrations of Fe, Mg, Hg, and S elements showed significant differences between non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. The characteristic stretching vibrations of some groups in FTIR spectra, such as -OH, -S = O and -S-O, provided the identification basis for the discrimination of non-fumigated and sulfur-fumigated Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. Conclusion: The application of microwave digestion - ICP-AES was successfully used in combination with FTIR to authenticate and evaluate the quality of medicinal Fritillaria thunbergii Miq. Further applications of this technique should be explored. PMID:24914306

  4. Effect of deep injection on field-scale emissions of 1,3-dichloropropene and chloropicrin from bare soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, S. R.; Ashworth, D. J.; Zheng, W.; Knuteson, J.; van Wesenbeeck, I. J.

    2016-07-01

    Fumigating soil is important for the production of many high-value vegetable, fruit, and tree crops, but fumigants are toxic pesticides with relatively high volatility, which can lead to significant atmospheric emissions. A field experiment was conducted to measure emissions and subsurface diffusion of a mixture of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin after shank injection to bare soil at 61 cm depth (i.e., deep injection). Three on-field methods, the aerodynamic (ADM), integrated horizontal flux (IHF), and theoretical profile shape (TPS) methods, were used to obtain fumigant flux density and cumulative emission values. Two air dispersion models (CALPUFF and ISCST3) were also used to back-calculate the flux density using air concentration measurements surrounding the fumigated field. Emissions were continuously measured for 16 days and the daily peak emission rates for the five methods ranged from 13 to 33 μg m-2 s-1 for 1,3-D and 0.22-3.2 μg m-2 s-1 for chloropicrin. Total 1,3-D mass lost to the atmosphere was approximately 23-41 kg ha-1, or 15-27% of the applied active ingredient and total mass loss of chloropicrin was <2%. Based on the five methods, deep injection reduced total emissions by approximately 2-24% compared to standard fumigation practices where fumigant injection is at 46 cm depth. Given the relatively wide range in emission-reduction percentages, a fumigant diffusion model was used to predict the percentage reduction in emissions by injecting at 61 cm, which yielded a 21% reduction in emissions. Significant reductions in emissions of 1,3-D and chloropicrin are possible by injecting soil fumigants deeper in soil.

  5. Effects of insecticidal essential oil fumigations on physiological changes in cut Dendrobium Sonia orchid flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarongsak Pumnuan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated essential oil (EO formulas with high insecticidal properties, but low physiological impacts on cut Dendrobium Sonia orchid flower. Fumigation toxicities of EOs from 18 medicinal plants at 2.0 and 3.0 µl/L air were examined against adults of thrips (Frankliniella schultzei and larvae of mealybug (Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi. The effective EO mixtures, optimal concentrations fumigation and air circulation periods were investigated. Then, field experiments were conducted, and changes in L*, a* and b* values, percentages of weight loss and anthocyanin contents of the EOfumigated flower were observed and compared to the methyl bromide and control fumigations. The results showed that clove and cinnamon demonstrated high insecticidal properties against the insects (>85% mortality and low physiological changes in the flower. In particular, fumigations with 2.0 µl/L air of a mixture between clove and cinnamon EOs (1:3 for 3 hr with 15- min air circulation demonstrated the highest thrips and mealybug mortalities (92.2 and 74.6%, respectively. The EO fumigation formula presented less impact on color change and anthocyanin content than methyl bromide fumigation which showed higher reduction of anthocyanin content (22.9 mg/100g FW when compared to the control (13.6 mg/100g FW. The percentages of weight loss in the flower fumigated with EO, control and methyl bromide were about 10.4, 7.9 and 14.8%, respectively. In general, applications of EO at higher concentrations resulted in higher insect mortalities and more impacts on physiological changes which involved anthocyanin degradation and higher percentages of weight loss. Further studies might consider applications of clove and cinnamon EO formulas via other methods. In addition, revisions of the EO mixture can also be examined in order to obtain the most effective and environment friendly insect management approach.

  6. Changes of volatile composition during fumigating process of Liangzhou fumigated vinegar%凉州熏醋熏醅前后挥发性成分的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩庆辉; 贠建民; 宋勇强; 文玉

    2012-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取技术(SPME)和气质联用技术(GC-MS)相结合的方法对凉州熏醋熏醅前后的挥发性成分进行了分析。结果表明,凉州熏醋熏醅前后的挥发性成分分别为58种和57种,主要包括醇类、酸类、酯类、醛类、酮类、杂环类、烃类七大类化合物;凉州熏醋在熏醅前的主要挥发性成分为乙酸铵(18.223%)、乙酸乙酯(15.853%)、乙酸(15.236%)、3-羟基-2-丁酮(19.532%)等;熏醅后为乙酸铵(49.959%)、乙酸乙酯(5.352%)、3-羟基-2-丁酮(9.530%)、糠醛(12.007%)等。初步探明了凉州熏醋熏醅前、后主要挥发性成分的变化。%The volatile components of Liangzhou fumigated vinegar before and after fumigating were inspected by headspace solid phase micro-extraction(SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrum(GC-MS) technique.The results showed that 58 and 57 kinds of compounds existed in two samples respectively,the major compounds were alcohols,acids,esters,aldehydes,ketones,herterocylics and alkanes in both materials.The major volatile compounds of liangzhou fumigated materials before fumigating were ammonium acetate(18.223%),ethyl acetate(15.853%),acetic acid(15.236%) and 3-hydroxybu-2-tanone(19.532%).The compounds after fumigating were ammonium acetate(49.959%),ethyl,acetate(5.352%),3-hydroxybu-2-tanone(9.530%),furfural(12.007%).Preliminary proved the changes of flavor substancesin roasted materials of liangzhou fumigated vinegar before and after fumigating.

  7. Soil suppressiveness against the disease complex of the soybean cyst nematode and sudden death syndrome of soybean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Andreas; Xing, Lijuan

    2011-07-01

    The ecology of the complex of soybean cyst nematode (SCN) and sudden death syndrome (SDS) of soybean was investigated under soybean monoculture in two field experiments from 2003 to 2007. Initially, susceptible soybean 'Spencer' was planted while inoculating Fusarium virguliforme into nonfumigated or preseason-fumigated plots (methyl bromide, MB, at 450 kg/ha), and SCN and SDS were monitored. In one field, SCN population densities declined in nonfumigated but increased in fumigated plots. After years of limited SDS in 2003 and 2004, SDS developed later in nonfumigated than fumigated plots. In 2006 in the greenhouse, nondisturbed or disturbed soil cores (10-cm diameter, 30-cm depth) from field plots received two two-level factors: (i) nonfumigated or fumigated (1,070 kg/ha MB); and (ii) noninoculated or inoculated with 9,000 second-stage juveniles of SCN. At harvest, nonfumigated cores from nonfumigated plots had fewer nematodes and less SDS regardless of disturbance or inoculation than the corresponding fumigated cores and any cores from fumigated plots. In the second field, SCN became detectable after 2003 during the monoculture in nonfumigated plots and lagged in fumigated plots; both treatments had low levels of SDS. Exploiting the suppressiveness of the first field could allow for biological control of SDS and SCN in soybean production.

  8. Bioreactors for removing methyl bromide following contained fumigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L.G.; Baesman, S.M.; Oremland, R.S.

    2003-01-01

    Use of methyl bromide (MeBr) as a quarantine, commodity, or structural fumigant is under scrutiny because its release to the atmosphere contributes to the depletion of stratospheric ozone. A closed-system bioreactor consisting of 0.5 L of a growing culture of a previously described bacterium, strain IMB-1, removed MeBr (> 110 ??mol L-1) from recirculating air. Strain IMB-1 grew slowly to high cell densities in the bioreactor using MeBr as its sole carbon and energy source. Bacterial oxidation of MeBr produced CO2 and hydrobromic acid (HBr), which required continuous neutralization with NaOH for the system to operate effectively. Strain IMB-1 was capable of sustained oxidation of large amounts of MeBr (170 mmol in 46 d). In an open-system bioreactor (10-L fermenter), strain IMB-1 oxidized a continuous supply of MeBr (220 ??mol L-1 in air). Growth was continuous, and 0.5 mol of MeBr was removed from the air supply in 14 d. The specific rate of MeBr oxidation was 7 ?? 10-16 mol cell-1 h-1. Bioreactors such as these can therefore be used to remove large quantities of contaminant MeBr, which opens the possibility of biodegradation as a practical means for its disposal.

  9. Anaerobic soil disinfestation disease control performance in strawberry as influenced by environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability of the California strawberry industry is challenged by soil-borne diseases caused by Fusarium oxysporum (Fo), Macrophomina phaseolina (Mp) and Verticillium dahliae (Vd). Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) has been studied as a non-fumigant measure for control of these diseases. This ...

  10. Diffusion and adsorption of the nematicide 1,3-dichloropropene in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leistra, M.

    1972-01-01

    After soil fumigation the concentration of the nematicidal compounds cis and trans 1,3-dichloropropene at various depths in the soil was estimated by electron-capture gas-chromatography. The coefficients for the distribution of the compounds over

  11. Low temperature phosphine fumigation of pre-chilled iceberg lettuce under insulation cover for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumigation of chilled iceberg lettuce under an insulation cover was studied to develop economical alternatives to conduct low temperature phosphine fumigation for control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), on exported lettuce. Vacuum cooled commercial iceberg lettuce o...

  12. Chloropicrin Emission Reduction by Soil Amendment with Biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuxia; Yan, Dongdong; Liu, Pengfei; Mao, Liangang; Wang, Dong; Fang, Wensheng; Li, Yuan; Ouyang, Canbin; Guo, Meixia; Cao, Aocheng

    2015-01-01

    Biochar has sorption capacity, and can be used to enhance the sequestration of volatile organic contaminants such as pesticides in soil. Chloropicrin (CP) is an important soil fumigant for the production of many fruit and vegetable crops, but its emissions must be minimized to reduce exposure risks and air pollution. The objective of this study was to determine the capacity of biochar to adsorb CP and the effect of biochar amendments to soil on CP emission, concentration in the soil gas phase, degradation in soil and CP bioactivity for controlling soil borne pests. CP emission and concentration in the soil air phase were measured from packed soil columns after fumigant injection at 20-cm depth and application of selected doses of biocharto the surface 5 cm soil. Laboratory incubation and fumigation experiments were conducted to determine the capacity of biochar to adsorb CP, the effects on CP degradation and, separately, CP’s bioactivity on soil borne pests in soil amended with biochar. Biochar amendment at 2% to 5% (w/w) greatly reduced total CP emission losses by 85.7% - 97.7% compared to fumigation without biochar. CP concentrations in the soil gas-phase, especially in the top 5 cm of soil, were reduced within 48 h following application. The half-life of CP decreased from 13.6 h to 6.4 h as the biochar rate increased from 0% to 5%. CP and its metabolite (dichloronitromethane) both degraded more rapidly in pure biochar than in soil. The biochar used in the present study had a maximum adsorption capacity for CP of less than 5 mg g-1. There were no negative effects on pathogen and nematode control when the biochar used in this study was less than 1% (on a weight basis) in soil. Biochar amendment to soil reduced the emissions of CP. CP concentrations in the top 5 cm of soil gas-phase were reduced. CP degradation was accelerated with the addition of biochar. The biochar used in the present study had a low adsorption capacity for CP. There were no negative effects

  13. Illness associated with exposure to methyl bromide-fumigated produce--California, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    Methyl bromide (MeBr) is a toxic gas used to fumigate agricultural fields and some produce. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) requires MeBr fumigation of grapes imported from Chile to prevent invasion by the Chilean false red mite, Brevipalpus chilensis. In 2010, two workers were exposed intermittently to MeBr over several months as part of their job inspecting produce at a cold-storage facility in Carson, California. Both workers had disabling neurologic symptoms (e.g., ataxia, memory difficulties, and dizziness) and elevated serum bromide concentrations. An environmental investigation revealed the potential for MeBr to accumulate in enclosed areas during the transportation and storage of fumigated grapes. Some MeBr air concentrations measured at a single point in time exceeded current 8-hour exposure limits, suggesting that exposure in confined areas could result in poisoning. Possible measures for facilities managers to consider to reduce postfumigation MeBr exposures include 1) increased aeration time, 2) reduction of packaging that might absorb MeBr or limit aeration, and 3) changes in the stacking of pallets to improve air flow. Facilities should monitor air MeBr levels if they store MeBr-fumigated commodities in enclosed spaces entered by workers. Clinicians should consider occupational and environmental exposures in their differential diagnosis, and workers who might become exposed to fumigants should be informed of the health hazards related to these pesticides.

  14. [Progress of sulfur fumigation and modern processing technology of Chinese traditional medicines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tu-Lin; Shan, Xin; Li, Lin; Mao, Chun-Qin; Ji, De; Yin, Fang-Zhou; Lang, Yong-Ying

    2014-08-01

    Infestation, moldy and other phenomenon in the processing and storage of Chinese herbal medicines is a problem that faced in the production of Chinese traditional medicine. The low productivity of traditional processing methods can not guarantee the quality of Chinese herbal medicines. Sulfur fumigation is the first choice of grassroots to process the Chinese herbal medicine with its low cost and easy operation. Sulfur fumigation can solve some problems in the processing and storage of Chinese herbal medicines, but modern pharmacological studies show that long-term use of Chinese traditional medicine which is fumigated by sulfur can cause some serious harm to human liver, kidney and other organs. This paper conducts a review about the application history of sulfur fumigation, its influence to the quality of Chinese herbal medicines as well as domestic and foreign limits to sulfur quantity, and a brief introduction of the status of modern processing technologies in the processing of food and some Chinese herbal medicines, the problems ex- isting in the Chinese herbal medicines processing, which can provide a reference basis for the further research, development and application of investigating alternative technologies of sulfur fumigation.

  15. Nosocomial infections in ambulances and effectiveness of ambulance fumigation techniques in Saudi Arabia. Phase I study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrazeeni, Daifallah; Al Sufi, Mohammed S

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate infection control and the incidence of bacterial pathogens in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) ambulances in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The effectiveness of fumigation techniques used for these ambulances to minimize the spread of infection to transported patients and pre-hospital care providers was also assessed. Based on previous literature review indicating a higher propensity of microbial load, 3 areas within the ambulance, such as, stretcher handle, oxygen flow meter knob, and interior handle of the rear door were selected for specimen collection. Swab samples were collected both in the day and night shift, after the intended disinfection and cleaning (before and after fumigation). Micro-organisms were identified using standard procedures. This phase-I study was conducted at the Emergency Medical Services Department, Prince Sultan Bin AbdulAziz College of Emergency Medical Services, Al Malaz, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between October and November 2013, wherein a total of 10 ambulances from the Saudi Red Crescent Authority in Riyadh were selected for inclusion in the study. The specimens from all 10 ambulances showed similar results. In post disinfection and before fumigation, swab samples showed positive cultures that grew moderate to large quantities of environmental and skin flora. However, almost all organisms were susceptible to the fumigation technique. This study confirms the importance of evaluating the frequency and efficiency of various fumigation techniques as an ambulance is a potential reservoir for microbial transmission to patients and staff.

  16. Nosocomial infections in ambulances and effectiveness of ambulance fumigation techniques in Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrazeeni, Daifallah; Al Sufi, Mohammed S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate infection control and the incidence of bacterial pathogens in Emergency Medical Service (EMS) ambulances in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The effectiveness of fumigation techniques used for these ambulances to minimize the spread of infection to transported patients and pre-hospital care providers was also assessed. Methods: Based on previous literature review indicating a higher propensity of microbial load, 3 areas within the ambulance, such as, stretcher handle, oxygen flow meter knob, and interior handle of the rear door were selected for specimen collection. Swab samples were collected both in the day and night shift, after the intended disinfection and cleaning (before and after fumigation). Micro-organisms were identified using standard procedures. This phase-I study was conducted at the Emergency Medical Services Department, Prince Sultan Bin Abdulaziz College of Emergency Medical Services, Al Malaz, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between October and November 2013, wherein a total of 10 ambulances from the Saudi Red Crescent Authority in Riyadh were selected for inclusion in the study. Results: The specimens from all 10 ambulances showed similar results. In post disinfection and before fumigation, swab samples showed positive cultures that grew moderate to large quantities of environmental and skin flora. However, almost all organisms were susceptible to the fumigation technique. Conclusion: This study confirms the importance of evaluating the frequency and efficiency of various fumigation techniques as an ambulance is a potential reservoir for microbial transmission to patients and staff. PMID:25399212

  17. Browning inhibition and quality preservation of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) by essential oils fumigation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mengsha; Feng, Lifang; Jiang, Tianjia

    2014-04-15

    The effect of essential oil fumigation treatment on browning and postharvest quality of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) was evaluated upon 16 days cold storage. Button mushrooms were fumigated with essential oils, including clove, cinnamaldehyde, and thyme. Changes in the browning index (BI), weight loss, firmness, percentage of open caps, total phenolics, ascorbic acid, microbial activity and activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), and peroxidase (POD) were measured. The results indicated that all essential oils could inhibit the senescence of mushrooms, and the most effective compound was cinnamaldehyde. Fumigation treatment with 5 μl l⁻¹ cinnamaldehyde decreased BI, delayed cap opening, reduced microorganism counts, promoted the accumulation of phenolics and ascorbic acid. In addition, 5 μl l⁻¹ cinnamaldehyde fumigation treatment inhibited the activities of PPO and POD, and increased PAL activity during the storage period. Thus, postharvest essential oil fumigation treatment has positive effects on improving the quality of button mushrooms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 40 CFR 180.522 - Fumigants for processed grains used in production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... (2) Methyl bromide is used to fumigate corn grits and cracked rice in the production of fermented... production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for residues. 180.522 Section 180.522 Protection of... production of fermented malt beverage; tolerances for residues. (a) General. Fumigants for processed...

  19. Oxygenated Phosphine Fumigation for Control of Light Brown Apple Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Eggs on Cut-Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Samuel S; Liu, Yong-Biao; Simmons, Gregory S

    2015-08-01

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), eggs were subjected to oxygenated phosphine fumigation treatments under 70% oxygen on cut flowers to determine efficacy and safety. Five cut flower species: roses, lilies, tulips, gerbera daisy, and pompon chrysanthemums, were fumigated in separate groups with 2,500 ppm phosphine for 72 h at 5°C. Egg mortality and postharvest quality of cut flowers were determined after fumigation. Egg mortalities of 99.7-100% were achieved among the cut flower species. The treatment was safe to all cut flowers except gerbera daisy. A 96-h fumigation treatment with 2,200 ppm phosphine of eggs on chrysanthemums cut flowers also did not achieve complete control of light brown apple moth eggs. A simulation of fumigation in hermetically sealed fumigation chambers with gerbera daisy showed significant accumulations of carbon dioxide and ethylene by the end of 72-h sealing. However, oxygenated phosphine fumigations with carbon dioxide and ethylene absorbents did not reduce the injury to gerbera daisy, indicating that it is likely that phosphine may directly cause the injury to gerbera daisy cut flowers. The study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation is effective against light brown apple moth eggs. However, it may not be able to achieve the probit9 quarantine level of control and the treatment was safe to most of the cut flower species.

  20. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs on cut-flowers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana, eggs were subjected to oxygenated phosphine fumigation treatments on cut flowers to determine efficacy and safety. Five cut flower species: roses, lilies, tulips, gerbera daisy, and pompon chrysanthemums, were fumigated in separate groups with 2500 ppm ...

  1. Pure phosphine fumigation treatment at low temperature for postharvest control of western flower thrips on lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. exported lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberries often harbor western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), a quarantined pest in Taiwan, and therefore require quarantine treatment. Pure phosphine fumigation at a low temperature of 2°C was studied as an alternative fumigant to meth...

  2. Distribution and chemical fate of 36Cl-chlorine dioxide gas during the fumigation of tomatoes and cantaloupe

    Science.gov (United States)

    The distribution and chemical fate of 36Cl-ClO2 gas subsequent to fumigation of tomatoes or cantaloupe was investigated as was major factors that affect the formation of chloroxyanion byproducts. Approximately 22% of the generated 36Cl-ClO2 was present on fumigated tomatoes after a 2-hour exposure t...

  3. Nitric oxide as a fumigant for postharvest pest control and its safety to postharvest quality of fresh products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitric oxide fumigation under ultralow oxygen atmospheres was discovered recently to be effective for pest control. It is effective against all life stages of insects and mites and against both external and internal feeders. Nitric oxide fumigation comes with additional but acceptable costs associ...

  4. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and phosphine fumigation on the quality of white ginseng

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, J.-H. J.-H.; Byun, M.-W. M.-W.; Kim, K.-S. K.-S.; Kang, I.-J. I.-J.

    2000-03-01

    The hygienic, physicochemical, and organoleptic qualities of white ginseng were monitored during 6 months under accelerated conditions (40°C, 90% r.h.) by observing its microbial populations, disinfestation, and some quality attributes following either gamma irradiation at 2.5-10 kGy or commercial phosphine (PH 3) fumigation. In a comparative study, both treatments were found to be effective for disinfecting the stored samples. Phosphine showed no appreciable decontaminating effects on microorganisms contaminated including coliforms, while 5 kGy irradiation was sufficient to control all microorganisms related to the quality of the packed samples. Irradiation at 5 kGy caused negligible changes in physicochemical attributes of the samples, such as ginsenosides, amino acids, fatty acids, and organoleptic properties, whereas phosphine fumigation was found detrimental to sensory flavor ( Pphosphine-, and 2.5-5 kGy-treated samples. Accordingly, irradiation at phosphine fumigation for white ginseng.

  5. Residue formations of phosphorus hydride polymers and phosphorus oxyacids during phosphine gas fumigations of stored products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, Jason W; Byers, Loran E; Plunkett, Susan E; Faustini, Daryl L

    2006-01-11

    With the extent of international usage and the critical role phosphine gas (PH3) plays in commercial pest control, identification of the residual components deposited during fumigation is mandatory. It has been postulated that these infrequent residues are primarily composed of phosphoric acid or reduced forms of phosphoric acid [hypophosphorous acid (H3PO2) and phosphorous acid (H3PO3)], due to the oxidative degradation of phosphine. Using environmental scanning electron microscopy, gas phase Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, the structural elucidation and formation mechanism of the yellow amorphous polyhydric phosphorus polymers (P(x)H(y)) that occur in addition to the lower oxyacids of phosphorus in residues deposited during PH3 fumigations of select tobacco commodities are explored. This research determined that nitric oxide gas (or nitrogen dioxide) initiates residue formation of phosphorus hydride polymers and phosphorus oxyacids during PH3 fumigations of stored products.

  6. Acupuncture plus Chinese Medicinal Fumigation and Washing for Edema of the Stroke-affected Limb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Bin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of acupuncture plus Chinese medicinal fumigation and washing in treating edema of the affected limb in post-stroke hemiplegia. Methods: Two hundred patients with edema of the stroke-affected limb from our hospital were randomized into two groups according to their visiting sequence. In the observation group, 100 subjects were intervened by acupuncture plus Chinese medicinal fumigation and washing in addition to oral administration of diuretics, while the other 100 subjects in the control group were only given diuretics. The therapeutic efficacy was evaluated after successive 2-week treatments. Results: The total effective rate was 90.0% in the observation group, significantly higher than 66.0% in the control group, indicating that there was a significant difference in comparing the overall therapeutic effect (P Conclusion: Acupuncture plus Chinese medicinal fumigation and washing in addition to oral administration of diuretics is effective in treating edema of the affected limb in post-stroke hemiplegia.

  7. Clinical Observation of Chinese Herbal Fumigation plus Mulberry Stick Beating for Heel Pain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Qing-he; Shen Zhi-fang; Yan Yu-qin; Zhu Gao-feng

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical efficacy of Chinese herbal fumigation plus beating with mulberry stick in treating heel pain. Methods: Sixty patients with heel pain were randomized into a treatment group and a control group, 30 in each group. The treatment group was intervened by Chinese herbal fumigation plus beating with mulberry stick, and the control group was by orally taking Diclofenac Sodium Sustained Release Tablets plus external use of She Xiang Zhen Tong Gao (Moschus Analgesic Plaster). After one treatment course, the visual analogue scale (VAS) was used to observe the change of pain, and the clinical efficacies were also evaluated. Results: After intervention, the improvement of VAS score in the treatment group was more significant than that in the control group (P Conclusion:Chinese herbal fumigation plus beating with mulberry stick can produce a higher clinical efficacy than orally taking Diclofenac Sodium Sustained Release Tablets in treating heel pain.

  8. Managing for soil health can suppress pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Hodson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A “healthy” soil can be thought of as one that functions well, both agronomically and ecologically, and one in which soil biodiversity and crop management work in synergy to suppress pests and diseases. UC researchers have pioneered many ways of managing soil biology for pest management, including strategies such as soil solarization, steam treatment and anaerobic soil disinfestation, as well as improvements on traditional methods, such as reducing tillage, amending soil with organic materials, and cover cropping. As managing for soil health becomes more of an explicit focus due to restrictions on the use of soil fumigants, integrated soil health tests will be needed that are validated for use in California. Other research needs include breeding crops for disease resistance and pest suppressive microbial communities as well as knowledge of how beneficial organisms influence plant health.

  9. Performance of phosphine in fumigation of bagged paddy rice in indoor and outdoor stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, S; Muralidharan, N

    2001-10-01

    Phosphine fumigation trials were carried out on bag-stacks of paddy rice to study the differences in gas loss rates and concentration-time (Ct) products achieved during the treatment of indoor and outdoor stacks. Stacks (89-132t) were fumigated singly under 250&mgr;m thick polyethylene sheeting, which was sealed with a double layer of sand-snakes to the concrete floor. Phosphine was applied as an aluminium phosphide formulation and the fumigations continued for 7 days. In the first experiment, stacks of paddy rice with moisture contents ranging from 12.2 to 13.7% were held in either indoor or in outdoor storage and subjected to fumigation at the rate of 2, 3 or 4g of phosphine/tonne. The outdoor stacks held relatively low levels of phosphine with Ct products for the indoor stacks of 135, 171 and 294gh/m(3), respectively, whilst the corresponding values for the outdoor stacks were 70, 85 and 166gh/m(3) only. The average gas loss rate was 14.5% per day for the indoor stacks and 29.5% for the outdoor stacks. In the second experiment, old stacks of paddy rice inside a godown, one each with grains at 8.8 and 9.8% moisture content, were fumigated at 3g phosphine/tonne. Release of phosphine was delayed and fumigant sorption was less and therefore higher Ct products of 204 and 216gh/m(3) were achieved. In the stacks built outdoors, the resident infestations of Rhyzopertha dominica, Cryptolestes sp. and Oryzaephilus surinamensis were completely controlled despite lower Ct products. On the other hand, in the stacks of old paddy, R. dominica survived the treatment. Subsequent testing showed that the population had a degree of resistance to phosphine.

  10. Control of the northern fowl mite on inanimate objects by fumigation: laboratory studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerwinkle, K R; Devaney, J A

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to determine the efficacies of phosphine, methyl bromide, and sulfur dioxide as fumigants for the northern fowl mite, Ornithonyssus sylviarum (Canestrini and Fanzago), on inanimate objects. We were able to demonstrate that either methyl bromide or sulfur dioxide could kill all physiological forms of mites within 24 hr, which would be desirable for field use. Prosphine gas, released from Phostoxin pellets, had an LD95 of 18 hr for motile forms of the mites; however, it took 30 hr to kill the mite eggs. Therefore, it would be an unsuitable fumigant for practical field usage.

  11. The use of phytochemicals as fumigants for the control of stored product insect pests

    OpenAIRE

    Eli Shaaya; Moshe Kostyukovsky

    2011-01-01

    The current study is aimed to evaluate the potential use of the known isothyiocyanates, as compared to a new isothyiocyanate (ITC) isolated from Eruca sativa (salad rocket) as fumigants for the control of stored product insects. The biological activity of methyl iodide (CH3I), carbon disulphide (CS2), benzaldehyde (C7H6O) and essential oils were also evaluated. The toxicity of the various fumigants was assessed against adults and larvae of a number of major stored product insects. ITCs are kn...

  12. Efficacy of Nitric Oxide Fumigation for Controlling Codling Moth in Apples

    OpenAIRE

    Yong-Biao Liu; Xiangbing Yang; Gregory Simmons

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) fumigation under ultralow oxygen (ULO) conditions was studied for its efficacy in controlling codling moth and effects on postharvest quality of apples. NO fumigation was effective against eggs and larvae of different sizes on artificial diet in 48 h treatments. Small larvae were more susceptible to nitric oxide than other stages at 0.5% NO concentration. There were no significant differences among life stages at 1.0% to 2.0% NO concentrations. In 24 h treatments of eggs, 3....

  13. Proteomic analysis of Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler responds to COS fumigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Li, Li; Qu, Haixia; Zhan, Guoping; Liu, Bo; Wang, Yuejin

    2010-01-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is a new fumigant which has been a potential alternative to methyl bromide and phosphine in many applications. In this study, we investigated the fungitoxicity of COS towards the pathogen of pear black spot disease Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissler (A. alternata). Moreover, proteomic analysis and RT-PCR was performed and our results showed that during the fumigation, the regulation of 21 proteins in protein expression and mRNA accumulation levels is involved, which respond to growth inhibition caused by COS. These results provide new clues for the mechanism of the fungitoxicity of COS.

  14. Photosynthetic recovery in Arctic caribou forage lichens following a long-term field sulfur dioxide fumigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, T.J.; Nash, T.H. III; Olafsen, A.G.

    1983-01-01

    The gross photosynthetic response of Cladonia stellaris, cladonia rangiferina, and Cetraria cucullata was monitored during three growing seasons subsequent to a long-term, in situ SO/sub 2/ fumigation conducted in 1978 at Anaktuvuk Pass, AK. The lichen vegetation which had experienced the greatest SO/sub 2/stress during the 1978 fumigation remained photosynthetically inactive. Significant photosynthetic recovery was discovered in the test species which had experienced sublethal concentrations of SO/sub 2/; however, their photosynthetic capacities remained less than controls.

  15. Comparative study on intestinal metabolism and absorption in vivo of ginsenosides in sulphur-fumigated and non-fumigated ginseng by ultra performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry based chemical profiling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, He; Shen, Hong; Xu, Jun; Xu, Jin-Di; Zhu, Ling-Ying; Wu, Jie; Chen, Hu-Biao; Li, Song-Lin

    2015-04-01

    Our previous study indicated that sulphur-fumigation of ginseng in post-harvest handling processes could induce chemical transformation of ginsenosides to generate multiple ginsenoside sulphur derivatives. In this study, the influence of sulphur-fumigation on intestinal metabolism and absorption in vivo of ginsenosides in ginseng was sequentially studied. The intestinal metabolic and absorbed profiles of ginsenosides in rats after intra-gastric (i.g.) administration of sulphur-fumigated ginseng (SFG) and non-fumigated ginseng (NFG) were comparatively characterized by a newly established ultra performance liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization negative (ESI-) mode. A novel strategy based on the characteristic product ions and fragmentation pathways of different types of aglycones (saponin skeletons) and glycosyl moieties was proposed and successfully applied to rapid structural identification of ginsenoside sulphur derivatives and relevant metabolites. In total, 18 ginsenoside sulphur derivatives and 26 ginsenoside sulphur derivative metabolites in the faeces together with six ginsenoside sulphur derivatives in the plasma were identified in the SFG-administrated group but not in the NFG-administrated group. The results clearly demonstrated that the intestinal metabolic and absorbed profiles of ginsenosides in sulphur-fumigated and non-fumigated ginseng were quite different, which inspired that sulphur-fumigation of ginseng should not be recommended before the bioactivity and toxicity of the ginsenoside sulphur derivatives were systematically evaluated. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Low temperature phosphine fumigation for postharvest control of western flower thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2008-12-01

    U.S. exported lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberries often harbor western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a quarantined pest in Taiwan, and therefore require quarantine treatment. Fumigation with diluted pure phosphine at a low temperature of 2 degrees C was studied to control western flower thrips and to determine effects on the quality of the treated products. Total thrips control was achieved in > or = 18-h fumigation treatments with > or = 250 ppm phosphine. One day fumigation treatment with 1,000 ppm phosphine was tested on lettuce and broccoli. One-day fumigation treatments with 500 ppm and 1,000 ppm phosphine were tested on asparagus and strawberry. Visual quality of lettuce, broccoli, and asparagus was evaluated after 2-wk posttreatment storage. Strawberry quality was evaluated immediately after fumigation and after 1-wk posttreatment storage. For all the products, there were no significant differences between the treatments and the controls in postharvest quality, and there were no injuries caused by the fumigation treatments. Therefore, phosphine fumigation at low temperature was promising for postharvest control of western flower thrips on lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberry.

  17. Study on the effects of sulfur fumigation on chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Hang-ju.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan; Hao, Li-Juan; Zhu, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Qi-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Xian; Song, Xiao-mei

    2014-04-15

    The traditional after-harvesting drying method of C. morifolium cv. Hang-ju (HJ) is sun drying, but recently sulfur fumigation is increasingly used as a cheap and convenient method. However, the effects of sulfur fumigation on chemical constituents and potential activities of HJ were unknown. A comprehensively comparison of the chemical profiles between non-fumigated HJ (NHJ) and sulfur-fumigated HJ (SHJ) was conducted by HPLC fingerprints analysis and the discrepant peaks were identified or tentatively assigned by HPLC-ESI/MS(n). Dramatic chemical changes were found that the contents of 4 flavonoid aglycones remarkably increased while those of 7 glycosides significantly reduced which suggested that sulfur-fumigation induced flavonoid glycosides transformed into aglycons by hydrolysis reaction. A significant loss of hydroxycinnamoylquinic acids showed the sulfur fumigation was a destructive effect on HJ. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to rapidly discriminate NHJ and SHJ samples. By ICP-OES analysis, it was found that the residue of sulfur of SHJ were three times higher than NHJ (p<0.05). The antioxidant activity of NHJ and SHJ were evaluated by DPPH and FRAP assay, and the results showed that NHJ had much stronger antioxidant activities than SCF (p<0.05). Combining the results of chemical analysis, residue of sulfur and pharmacological evaluation, it showed that the sulfur fumigation was a destructive effect on HJ.

  18. Exposure of Brown Recluse and Brown Widow Spiders (Araneae: Sicariidae, Theridiidae) to a Commercial Sulfuryl Fluoride Fumigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, Richard S; Hoddle, Mark S; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Thoms, Ellen

    2014-10-01

    The body of pesticide research on spiders is sparse with most studies using topical or residual applications to assess efficacy. Data on the effects of fumigation on spider survivorship are scarce in the scientific literature. In this study, we exposed adult male and female brown recluse spiders, Loxosceles reclusa Gertsch & Mulaik, and female brown widow spiders, Latrodectus geometricus C. L. Koch, to a commercial fumigation event using sulfuryl fluoride directed at termite control. General consensus from the pest control industry is that fumigation is not always effective for control of spiders for a variety of reasons, including insufficient fumigant dosage, particularly, for contents of egg sacs that require a higher fumigant dosage for control. We demonstrated that a sulfuryl fluoride fumigation with an accumulated dosage of 162 oz-h per 1,000 ft(3) at 21°C over 25 h (≈1.7 × the drywood termite dosage) directed at termites was sufficient to kill adult brown recluse and brown widow spiders. The effectiveness of commercial fumigation practices to control spiders, and particularly their egg sacs, warrants further study. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  19. Fumigation Fanatic Life,liberty and log bug spray for China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MATT; YOUNG

    2006-01-01

    Roy Richardson, an American fumigation entrepreneur with a hint of nutty professor, recently read that the largest furniture retailer in the world is Wal-Mart Stores Inc. Incredulous, thinking, "I wouldn't go to Wal-Mart for furniture," he read on, learning that China,its major supplier, has become the furniture-making capital of the world.

  20. Residential proximity to agricultural fumigant use and IQ, attention and hyperactivity in 7-year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunier, Robert B; Bradman, Asa; Castorina, Rosemary; Holland, Nina T; Avery, Dylan; Harley, Kim G; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2017-10-01

    Our objective was to examine the relationship between residential proximity to agricultural fumigant use and neurodevelopment in 7-year old children. Participants were living in the agricultural Salinas Valley, California and enrolled in the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children Of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study. We administered the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (4th Edition) to assess cognition and the Behavioral Assessment System for Children (2nd Edition) to assess behavior. We estimated agricultural fumigant use within 3, 5 and 8km of residences during pregnancy and from birth to age 7 using California's Pesticide Use Report data. We evaluated the association between prenatal (n = 285) and postnatal (n = 255) residential proximity to agricultural use of methyl bromide, chloropicrin, metam sodium and 1,3-dichloropropene with neurodevelopment. We observed decreases of 2.6 points (95% Confidence Interval (CI): -5.2, 0.0) and 2.4 points (95% CI: -4.7, -0.2) in Full-Scale intelligence quotient for each ten-fold increase in methyl bromide and chloropicrin use within 8km of the child's residences from birth to 7-years of age, respectively. There were no associations between residential proximity to use of other fumigants and cognition or proximity to use of any fumigant and hyperactivity or attention problems. These findings should be explored in larger studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Fumigation with Phosphine for Postharvest Insect Control on Lettuce, Broccoli, and Strawberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. exported lettuce, broccoli, and strawberries often harbor western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), a quarantined pest in Taiwan, and therefore require quarantine treatment. Pure phosphine fumigation at a low temperature of 2°C was studied as an alternative to methyl bromide to contro...

  2. LOW TEMPERATURE PHOSPHINE FUMIGATION FOR POSTHARVEST PEST CONTROL ON FRESH VEGETABLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. exported lettuce, broccoli, asparagus, and strawberries often harbor western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), a quarantined pest in Taiwan, and therefore require quarantine treatment. Fumigation with pure phosphine at a low temperature of 2°C was studied to control western flower t...

  3. Review of the toxicology of carbonyl sulfide, a new grain fumigant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomaeus, Andrew R; Haritos, Victoria S

    2005-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is a new grain fumigant which has been developed to replace methyl bromide, being phased out due to its ozone depletion properties, and to supplement phosphine gas which is experiencing increased insect resistance. Treatment of commodities with COS, a highly effective fumigant, results in residues that are near or indistinguishable to natural background levels of this compound. COS is a naturally occurring gas, being the predominant sulfur moiety in the atmosphere, occurs naturally in food and is a normal by-product of mammalian aerobic metabolism. COS has low acute inhalational toxicity but with a steep dose response curve; COS is neither genotoxic nor a developmental toxicant but does reversibly impair male fertility. Prolonged, repeated exposure to COS is likely to present similar neurotoxicity hazards to that of the structurally and toxicologically related compound carbon disulfide. Although the occupational risks presented by COS as a fumigant of bulk grain are significant, these are, as they have been for a considerable time for phosphine and methyl bromide, manageable by good occupational safety practices. Consideration may need to be given to scrubbing of ventilated COS and its breakdown product hydrogen sulfide, at the completion of fumigation to minimise worker and bystander exposure. In terms of classical regulatory toxicology studies, the available database for COS is deficient in many aspects and registration in most jurisdictions will depend on sound scientific argument built upon the totality of the existing scientific data as there are strong arguments supporting the registration of this compound.

  4. Carbon tetrachloride/carbon disulfide exposures in grain fumigation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, D.E.; White, K.L.; Deer, H.; Alexander, G.

    1986-03-01

    The use of 80/20 compounds as liquid-fumigant mixtures in the grain-handling industry was considered. Worker exposures to carbon tetrachloride and carbon disulfide were measured at representative facilities throughout the industry. Work practices that may contribute to high exposure levels were cited. Approximately equal amounts of liquid fumigants and solid formulations of phosphine are used throughout the industry. As spraying is done on a sporadic basis, it does not appear likely to present a major problem such as might be encountered in continuous exposure situations. The authors conclude that grain workers do not appear to be an ideal study group for a neurotoxicity morbidity study due to the fact that the physical distance between study sites and the small number of workers at each site makes it difficult logistically. A concerted effort throughout the grain industry to educate those workers in the grain-handling portions of that industry toward the safe handling of fumigants should go far in alleviating any problems arising from exposure to fumigants.

  5. FREEZING TOLERANCE AND BIOCHEMICAL-CHANGES IN WHEAT SHOOTS AS AFFECTED BY H2S FUMIGATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuiver, C.E.E.; De Kok, Luit J.; Kuiper, P.J.C.

    1992-01-01

    Fumigation of winter wheat with H2S during low temperature acclimation substantially reduced the development of freezing tolerance of the leaves. After 6 weeks of low temperature exposure (3-degrees-C), the freezing tolerance was increased by 6 and 2-degrees-C at 0 and 0.25-mu-l l-1 H2S, respectivel

  6. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma risk and insecticide, fungicide and fumigant use in the Agricultural Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farming and pesticide use have previously been linked to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and multiple myeloma (MM). We evaluated agricultural use of specific insecticides, fungicides, and fumigants and risk of NHL and NHL-subtypes (including CLL an...

  7. Postharvest Control of Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia fructigena in Apples by Gamma Irradiation Combined with Fumigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Wonsu; Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Kim, Bong-Su; Lee, Byeong-Ho; Jeon, Yongho

    2016-08-01

    To extend the shelf life of apples in South Korea, we evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation alone or gamma irradiation combined with fumigation on the control of postharvest decay caused by Botrytis cinerea and Monilinia fructigena. An irradiation dose of 1.0 kGy caused the maximal inhibition of B. cinerea and M. fructigena spore germination. The gamma irradiation dose required to reduce the spore germination by 90% was 0.76 and 0.78 kGy for B. cinerea and M. fructigena, respectively. Inhibition of conidial germination of both fungal pathogens occurred at a greater level at the doses of 0.2 to 1.0 kGy compared with the nontreated control; 0.2 kGy caused 90.5 and 73.9% inhibition of B. cinerea and M. fructigena, respectively. Treatment in vitro with the ecofriendly fumigant ethanedinitrile had a greater effect compared with the nontreated control. The in vitro antifungal effects of the gamma irradiation and fumigation treatments allowed us to further study the effects of the combined treatments. Interestingly, when irradiation was combined with fumigation, the percentage of disease inhibition increased more at lower (<0.4 kGy) than at higher doses of irradiation, suggesting that the combined treatments reduced the necessary irradiation dose in phytosanitary irradiation processing under storage conditions.

  8. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma risk and insecticide, fungicide and fumigant use in the Agricultural Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farming and pesticide use have previously been linked to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and multiple myeloma (MM). We evaluated agricultural use of specific insecticides, fungicides, and fumigants and risk of NHL and NHL-subtypes (including CLL an...

  9. Tractor-mounted, GPS-based spot fumigation system manages Prunus replant disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our research goal was to use recent advances in global positioning system (GPS) and computer technology to apply just the right amount of fumigant where it is most needed (i.e., in a small target treatment zone in and around each tree replanting site) to control Prunus replant disease (PRD). We deve...

  10. Deep drip fumigation in totally impermeable film tarped raised-beds production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarping raised-beds with totally impermeable film (TIF) and applying fumigant to deeper depths may help strawberry growers to achieve pest control and emission reduction targets, but no field data are available to optimize these methods in the raised-bed production system. Under the support of Natio...

  11. Fumigant emission reduction using vaporsafe totally impermeable film in large field applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    The phase-out of methyl bromide has forced most growers to the use of alternative fumigants, particularly 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin. These alternatives, however, are tightly regulated due to potential exposure and their negative impact on air quality. Two ambient air monitoring st...

  12. FREEZING TOLERANCE AND BIOCHEMICAL-CHANGES IN WHEAT SHOOTS AS AFFECTED BY H2S FUMIGATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuiver, C.E.E.; De Kok, Luit J.; Kuiper, P.J.C.

    1992-01-01

    Fumigation of winter wheat with H2S during low temperature acclimation substantially reduced the development of freezing tolerance of the leaves. After 6 weeks of low temperature exposure (3-degrees-C), the freezing tolerance was increased by 6 and 2-degrees-C at 0 and 0.25-mu-l l-1 H2S,

  13. Elm leaf beetle performance on ozone-fumigated elm. Forest Service research paper (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barger, J.H.; Hall, R.W.; Townsend, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    Leaves (1986) from elm hybrids ('Pioneer', 'Homestead', '970') previously fumigated in open-top chambers with ozone or with charcoal-filtered air (CFA) were evaluated for water and nitrogen content or were fed to adult elm leaf beetles (ELB), Xanthogaleruca = (Pyrrhalta) luteola (Muller), to determine host suitability for beetle fecundity and survivorship. ELB females fed ozone-fumigated leaves laid significantly fewer eggs than females fed CFA-fumigated leaves. Leaf nitrogen or water content was unaffected. Hybrid '970' (1988) was fumigated with CFA or with ozone concentrations to determine effects on ELB fecundity, leaf consumption, and survivorship. Significantly fewer eggs were laid at the higher concentration of ozone. Because higher levels of ozone are found in urban areas and because municipalities often replace American elms, Ulmus americana L., with Dutch elm disease-resistant elm hybrids that are susceptible to ELB defoliation, it is important to explore the relationships between ozone sensitivity of elm and susceptibility to ELB herbivory before recommending replacement use of these elms to municipal arborists. The study was conducted to determine whether ozone pollution influences host quality of elm for ELB and how ELB fecundity, leaf consumption rate, and survivorship are affected.

  14. Impact of Alkaline Dust Pollution on Soil Microbial Biomass Carbon

    OpenAIRE

    Kara, Ömer; Bolat, İlyas

    2007-01-01

    The effect of alkaline dust pollution emitted from Bartın cement plant on the soil microbial biomass carbon was investigated using the chloroform fumigation-extraction (CFE) method. Microbial biomass C (Cmic) values ranged from 157.82 to 1201.51 µg g-1 soils in the polluted area and from 726.70 to 1529.14 µg g-1 soils in the control area. Soils polluted with alkaline cement dust resulted in significant reductions in Cmic levels compared to control soils. Microbial biomass C correlated negativ...

  15. Impact of Alkaline Dust Pollution on Soil Microbial Biomass Carbon

    OpenAIRE

    KARA, Ömer; Bolat, İlyas

    2014-01-01

    The effect of alkaline dust pollution emitted from Bartın cement plant on the soil microbial biomass carbon was investigated using the chloroform fumigation-extraction (CFE) method. Microbial biomass C (Cmic) values ranged from 157.82 to 1201.51 µg g-1 soils in the polluted area and from 726.70 to 1529.14 µg g-1 soils in the control area. Soils polluted with alkaline cement dust resulted in significant reductions in Cmic levels compared to control soils. Microbial biomass C correlated negativ...

  16. Efficacy of fumigation with Trans-cinnamaldehyde and eugenol in reducing Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis on embryonated egg shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyaya, Indu; Yin, Hsin-Bai; Nair, Meera S; Chen, Chi-Hung; Upadhyay, Abhinav; Darre, Michael J; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of two GRAS (generally regarded as safe)-status, plant-derived antimicrobials (PDAs), namely trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) and eugenol (EUG) applied as a fumigation treatment in reducing SE on embryonated egg shells. Egg shells of day-old embryonated eggs were spot inoculated with a 4-strain mixture of SE (∼6.5 log CFU/egg) and subjected to fumigation with the aforementioned PDAs (0 or 1% concentration) for 20 minutes in a hatching incubator. SE on the shell and embryo was enumerated on days 1, 3, 6, 9, 13, 16 and 18. On day 13, the eggs were re-inoculated, followed by fumigation treatment for 20 minutes. Since the two PDAs were dissolved in ethanol (final concentration 0.04%), eggs fumigated with ethanol were included as a control.Approximately 6 log CFU/egg of SE were recovered from the shell of untreated, inoculated eggs on days 1 and 13. The fumigation of embryonated egg shells with the two PDAs was more effective in reducing SE on the shell and embryo compared to controls (P < 0.05). On day 18, the eggs fumigated with ethanol were SE positive on the shell, whereas no pathogen was detected on eggs subjected to fumigation with TC and EUG. Similarly, although the embryos of eggs subjected to fumigation with ethanol yielded 1 log CFU/egg of SE on day 18, the embryos of TC and EUG treated eggs were devoid of the pathogen. This study demonstrated that TC and EUG dissolved in 0.04% ethanol could potentially be used as a fumigation treatment for reducing SE on embryonated egg shell, however, quality traits of eggs, including the hatchability need to be ascertained.

  17. FUMIGATION TOXICITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS AGAINST Rhyzopertha dominica (F. IN STORED MAIZE GRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALDEANY NÚBIA DE SOUZA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Rhyzopertha dominica F. (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae is a primary pest of stored grains in many regions of the world. In this work we evaluated the fumigant activity of essential oils of Ocimum basilicum L., Citrus aurantium L., Mentha spicata L. and Croton pulegiodorus Baill on adult R. dominica in stored maize. Tests were conducted to determine lethals concentrations (CL50 and CL100 and mortality (fumigation.The fumigation test was done in containers made of glass containing 10 individuals of R. dominica, where essential oils were applied at different concentrations: O. basilicum and M. spicata (5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40μL/L of air, C. aurantium (10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60μL/L of air and C. pulegiodorus (0, 20, 30, 50, 70 and 90μL/L of air. After 48 hours of exposure to the oils the percentage of insect mortality was evaluated. According to LC50 and LC100 the toxicity of essential oils decreased in the following order: O. basilicum> M. spicata> C. pulegiodorus> C. aurantium. The essential oil of O. basilicum exhibited strong fumigant toxicity against R. dominica adults, with a LC50 value of 17.67 μL/L air and LC100 value of 27.15 μL/ L air. The C. aurantium essential oil required higher concentrations than O. basilicum, M. spicata and C. pulegiodorus to kill insects. However, all oils evaluated presented fumigating property to promote the control of R. dominica and demonstrated potential use in the management of this coleoptera.

  18. Nutritional and toxicological effects of long-term ingestion of phosphine-fumigated diet by the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrol Telle, A M; de Saint Blanquat, G; Derache, R; Hollande, E; Periquet, B; Thouvenot, J P

    1985-11-01

    The fumigation of stored foodstuffs with phosphine (PH3) is likely to become widely used in the future because of its technological efficiency and the rapid desorption of the fumigant. In a long-term feeding study of a phosphine-fumigated diet, rats were monitored for weight gain, food intake, plasma chemistry, haematology and urinary changes. Histopathological studies, including organ-weight determinations, were carried out after treatment of the rats for 1 and 2 yr. The results show that ingestion of a phosphine-fumigated diet by the rat for 2 yr does not cause any marked modification of growth, food intake, nitrogen balance, body composition, functional behaviour or the incidence or type of tumours.

  19. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, No Stack, More than 8 Hours

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  20. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Horizontal Stacks, 8 Hours or Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  1. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, No Stack, 8 Hours or Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  2. Laboratory research on the efficacy of chlorine dioxide fumigation for the remediation of mold-contaminated buildings--conference paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this project was to determine the efficacy ofCl02 fumigation to inactivate viable mold, mycotoxins, and allergens on building materials. Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus versicolor, Aspergillus Jumigatus, Chaetomium globosum, and Stachybotrys chartarum were indivi...

  3. [A semiempirical mathematical model for assessment of PH3 residues as exemplified by phosphine-fumigated hazelnuts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, S; Reichmuth, C; Wohlgemuth, R

    1984-01-01

    A mathematical model for the calculation of residues of PH3 in fumigated hazelnuts in dependence on dosage, fumigation- and storage time is discussed. The model is based on the physical process of the diffusion of a gas out of a sphere. An empirical dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the residue levels can be observed. Adequate agreement is obtained between calculated and experimental values.

  4. Evaluation of the efficacy of the methyl bromide fumigation schedule against Mexican fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in citrus fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallman, Guy J; Thomas, Donald B

    2011-02-01

    Methyl bromide fumigation is widely used as a phytosanitary treatment. Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of several fruit, including citrus (Citrus spp.), exported from Texas, Mexico, and Central America. Recently, live larvae have been found with supposedly correctly fumigated citrus fruit. This research investigates the efficacy of the previously approved U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service treatment schedule: 40 g/m3 methyl bromide at 21-29.4 degrees C for 2 h. Tolerance ofA. ludens to methyl bromide in descending order when fumigated in grapefruit (Citrus X paradisi Macfad.) is third instar > second instar > first instar > egg. Two infestation techniques were compared: insertion into fruit of third instars reared in diet and oviposition by adult A. ludens into fruit and development to the third instar. Inserted larvae were statistically more likely to survive fumigation than oviposited larvae. When fruit were held at ambient temperature, 0.23 +/- 0.12% of larvae were still observed to be moving 4 d postfumigation. Temperatures between 21.9 and 27.2 degrees C were positively related to efficacy measured as larvae moving 24 h after fumigation, pupariation, and adult emergence. Coating grapefruit with Pearl Lustr 2-3 h before fumigation did not significantly affect the proportion of third instars moving 24 h after fumigation, pupariating, or emerging as adults. In conclusion, fumigation with 40 g/m3 methyl bromide for 2 h at fruit temperatures >26.7 degrees C is not found to be inefficacious for A. ludens. Although a few larvae may be found moving >24 h postfumigation, they do not pupariate.

  5. Ethyl Formate Fumigation of Dry and Semidry Date Fruits: Experimental Kinetics, Modeling, and Lethal Effect on Carob Moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessi, Haithem; Bellagha, Sihem; Lebdi, Kaouthar Grissa; Bikoba, Veronique; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

    2015-06-01

    Ethyl formate (EF) was studied as a fumigant agent with the objective to replace methyl bromide (MB) for date fruit disinfestations. Date fruits Phoenix dactylifera 'Deglet Nour' with different initial moisture content (16% for dry dates, 20% for semidry dates, and a mixture of the two types) were separately fumigated with EF at different concentrations: 28.6, 57.3, 85.9, and 114.6 g/m3 for 2 h. Experimental data of EF sorption during fumigation was successfully fitted to Peleg's model. This model allows the prediction of the effects of date moisture content and EF concentration on sorption behavior. Samples with different moisture content showed similar EF sorption behavior. Dates were artificially infested with carob moth (Ectomyelois ceratoniae (Zeller)) at different life stages. Eggs, third- and fifth-instars, and pupae were exposed to 28.6, 57.3, 85.9, and 114.6 g/m3 EF for 2 h. Among these life stages, fifth-instars were the most resistant to EF fumigation. A 2-h fumigation with 114.6 g/m3 EF provided complete control of eggs, third-instars, and pupae of carob moth, and generated 91.6% mortality of fifth-instars. A longer fumigation time or higher EF concentration may provide complete control of all life stages of carob moth.

  6. Insight into anaerobic soil disinfestation through the lense of molecular biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research has shown that application of anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) controls soilborne plant pathogens as effectively as methyl bromide (MeBr) fumigation. Vegetable yields from ASD-treated fields were comparable or exceeded those from fields treated with MeBr in two field trials. Th...

  7. ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF PREPLANT TREATING OF SEEDS WITH INDUSTRIAL ALTERNATING ELECTROMAGNETIC FREQUENCY (EMF PF 50 HZ ON THE GERMINATION ENERGY OF MIDRIPENING SPRING BARLEY SEEDS OF THE VARIETIES OF VAKULA, VIKONT, RATNIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zholobova M. V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of physical factors for preplant stimulation of seeds increases vigor, germination and improves the yield of agricultural products. One of the effective ways to improve seed grain quality is to impact on the seeds using physical factors, in particular, an alternating electromagnetic field of industrial frequency of 50 Hz (EMF of IF of 50 Hz. We studied the impact of EMF of IF of 50 Hz on the energy germination of mid-ripening spring barley seeds of promising varieties Vakula, Vikont, Ratnik. Carrying out the experimental studies we used a laboratory setup with annular pole points of rectangular cross section. Our disperse analysis resulted in data on germinative energy of seeds of spring barley varieties Vakula, Vikont, Ratnik, which showed that while treating seeds of spring barley by an alternating electromagnetic field of industrial frequency of 50Hz, we obtained the best values of germinative energy of seeds of Variety Vikont with a mode of processing being equal to W = 16%, T = 2 c, L = 0,03 m

  8. Fumigation of wheat using liquid ethyl formate plus methyl isothiocyanate in 50-tonne farm bins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yonglin; Lee, Byungho; Mahon, Daphne; Xin, Ni; Head, Matthew; Reid, Robin

    2008-04-01

    Australian Standard White wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (a marketing grade with mixed grain hardness),with a moisture content of 12.5% was fumigated with a new ethyl formate formulation (95% ethyl formate plus 5% methyl isothiocyanate) identified and developed by Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization Entomology, Canberra, Australia. Wheat was fumigated with the formulation at a calculated application rate of 80 g/m3 in two 50-tonne sealed metal vertical silos located at Fisherman Islands, Queensland, Australia. Access was gained through the top of the silo where the application of the formulation was completed within a few minutes by pouring it onto the top of the wheat. After 2 h of recirculation, using a 0.5-kW fan, the in-bin concentrations of ethyl formate achieved equilibrium with a concentration variation wheat germination and seed color compared with untreated controls.

  9. Efficiency of ethylene dichloride and carbon tetrachloride mixture for fumigation of important animal feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Khalsa

    1964-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been found that animal feeds like crushed barley, crushed gram and wheat bran can be effectively disinfested by fumigation with 3:1 mixture of ethylene dichloride and carbon tetrachloride at a dosage of 2.5 gallons per 1,000 cuft. The lowest average atmospheric temperatures, at which the fumigation for 48 hours and for 72 hours was found effective, were 28.6 and 24.15 degree celcius respectively. It was also found that the order of susceptibility of the three test insects, viz. Tribolium castaneum Herbst, Trogoderma granerium Everts and Latheticus oryzae Watrh and their various stages varied considerably. in all cases, adults and pupae were found to be more susceptible than larvae.

  10. Effects of ozone fumigation on epiphytic macrolichens: ultrastructure, CO2 gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidegger, C; Schroeter, B

    1995-01-01

    The lichen species Anaptychia ciliaris, Collema nigrescens, Evernia prunastri, Hypogymnia bitteri, Lobaria pulmonaria, Pseudevernia furfuracea and Usnea rigida s.l. were fumigated with site-relevant concentrations (for Central Europe) of ozone over 80 days (180 microg m(-3) during daytime, 80 microg m(-3) during the night). Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements revealed a significant reduction of Fv/Fm after ozone fumigation in five of the species investigated, indicating severe stress on photosystem II due to ozone. The physiological impairment paralleled our fine structural investigations, revealing a significantly higher percentage of collapsed photobiont cells. This indicates that the effects of ambient ozone concentrations under experimental conditions included biophysical and physiological, as well as structural impairment in the lichens studied.

  11. The relation between phosphine sorption and terminal gas concentrations in successful fumigation of food commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Palvai Vanitha; Rajashekar, Yellappa; Begum, Khamrunissa; Leelaja, Bhadravathi Chandrappa; Rajendran, Somiahnadar

    2007-01-01

    Owing to increased tolerance and the development of resistance in stored product insects to the fumigant phosphine, in recent years there has been a shift in the target terminal concentration from 100 ppm (100 mL m(-3)) to a higher level of 1000 ppm to achieve 100% insect mortality in 7 day commodity treatments. Therefore, there is a need to investigate whether the revised target concentration could be achieved for food commodities fumigated with phosphine at the standard dose of 2 g m(-3) for 7 days under airtight conditions at > or = 25 degrees C. When different types of food commodity (total 74) were fumigated (300 g per replicate) with phosphine at 2 g m(-3) for 7 days, the terminal gas concentrations in the free space of the commodities varied from 0 to > 2000 ppm. In chambers containing no substrate, a 1417 ppm concentration was recorded. Paddy rice, most of the oilseeds, shelled tree nuts, butter beans, cardamom, green gram splits, coriander powder, rice bran and cocoa powder were more sorptive (> or =60%), such that the target concentration of 1000 ppm was not achieved at the end of 7 days. For these commodities, increased doses of 3-6 g m(-3) were required to attain 1000 ppm. In-shell almonds, green cardamom, in-shell peanuts, leaf tea, tamarind pulp and sunflower seeds were exceptionally sorptive (>90%), so that 0, 41, 112, 168, 203 and 217 ppm respectively were noted at the end of 7 days; the dose must exceed 6 g m(-3) for effective fumigation of these commodities.

  12. Low-temperature methyl bromide fumigation of emerald ash borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in ash logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Alan V; Elder, Peggy; Fraser, Ivich

    2011-02-01

    Ash (Fraxinus spp.) logs, infested with fully developed, cold-acclimated larval and prepupal emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), were fumigated with methyl bromide (MeBr) at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C for 24 h. Concentrations X time dosages of MeBr obtained were 1579 and 1273 g-h/m3 (24-h exposure) at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C after applied doses of 112 and 96 g/m3, respectively. MeBr concentrations were simultaneously measured with a ContainIR infrared monitor and Fumiscope thermal conductivity meter calibrated for MeBr to measure the effect of CO2 on Fumiscope concentration readings compared with the infrared (IR) instrument. The presence of CO2 caused false high MeBr readings. With the thermal conductivity meter, CO2 measured 11.36 g/m3 MeBr per 1% CO2 in clean air, whereas the gas-specific infrared ContainIR instrument measured 9.55% CO2 as 4.2 g/m3 MeBr (0.44 g/m3 per 1% CO2). The IR instrument was 0.4% as sensitive to CO2 as the thermal conductivity meter. After aeration, fumigated and control logs were held for 8 wk to capture emerging beetles. No A. planipennis adults emerged from any of the fumigated logs, whereas 262 emerged from control logs (139 and 123/m2 at 4.4 and 10.0 degrees C, respectively). An effective fumigation dose and minimum periodic MeBr concentrations are proposed. The use of a CO2 scrubber in conjunction with nonspecific thermal conductivity instruments is necessary to more accurately measure MeBr concentrations.

  13. Life stage and resistance effects in modelling phosphine fumigation of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.)

    OpenAIRE

    Thorne, J.; Fulford, G.; Ridley, A.; Schlipalius, D.; P. Collins

    2010-01-01

    Resistance to phosphine in insect pests of stored grain is a serious problem and there is a world-wide need for the development of sustainable resistance management strategies. Here we introduce results from a new mathematical model of resistance development that includes all life stages, rates of oviposition, natural mortality and mortality under fumigation in relation to resistant genotype. The example we discuss is phosphine resistance in the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica where ...

  14. Enhanced ozone strongly reduces carbon sink strength of adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) - Resume from the free-air fumigation study at Kranzberg Forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyssek, R., E-mail: matyssek@wzw.tum.d [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Wieser, G. [Dept. Alpine Timberline Ecophysiology, Federal Office and Research Centre for Forests, Rennweg 1, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Ceulemans, R. [Dept. of Biology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Wilrijk (Belgium); Rennenberg, H. [Tree Physiology, Institute of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 53, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Pretzsch, H. [Forest Growth and Yield Sciences, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Haberer, K. [Tree Physiology, Institute of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology, University of Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 53, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Loew, M.; Nunn, A.J. [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Werner, H. [Ecoclimatology (formerly: Bioclimatology and Air Pollution Research), Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Wipfler, P. [Forest Growth and Yield Sciences, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Osswald, W. [Phytopathology of Woody Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Nikolova, P. [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Hans-Carl-von-Carlowitz-Platz 2, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Hanke, D.E. [Dept. Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, Cambridge CB2 3EA (United Kingdom); Kraigher, H. [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Forest Biology, Ecology and Technology, Vecna pot 2, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Tausz, M. [Dept. of Forest and Ecosystem Science, Melbourne School of Land and Environment, Water Street, Creswick Vic 3363 (Australia)

    2010-08-15

    Ground-level ozone (O{sub 3}) has gained awareness as an agent of climate change. In this respect, key results are comprehended from a unique 8-year free-air O{sub 3}-fumigation experiment, conducted on adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) at Kranzberg Forest (Germany). A novel canopy O{sub 3} exposure methodology was employed that allowed whole-tree assessment in situ under twice-ambient O{sub 3} levels. Elevated O{sub 3} significantly weakened the C sink strength of the tree-soil system as evidenced by lowered photosynthesis and 44% reduction in whole-stem growth, but increased soil respiration. Associated effects in leaves and roots at the gene, cell and organ level varied from year to year, with drought being a crucial determinant of O{sub 3} responsiveness. Regarding adult individuals of a late-successional tree species, empirical proof is provided first time in relation to recent modelling predictions that enhanced ground-level O{sub 3} can substantially mitigate the C sequestration of forests in view of climate change. - Empirical proof corroborates substantial mitigation of carbon sequestration in the tree-soil system of a forest site under enhanced O{sub 3} impact for adult beech.

  15. Comparative effects of gamma irradiation and phosphine fumigation on the quality of white ginseng

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, J.-H.Joong-Ho; Byun, M.-W.Myung-Woo; Kim, K.-S.Kang-Soo; Kang, I.-J.Il-Jun

    2000-03-01

    The hygienic, physicochemical, and organoleptic qualities of white ginseng were monitored during 6 months under accelerated conditions (40 deg. C, 90% r.h.) by observing its microbial populations, disinfestation, and some quality attributes following either gamma irradiation at 2.5-10 kGy or commercial phosphine (PH{sub 3}) fumigation. In a comparative study, both treatments were found to be effective for disinfecting the stored samples. Phosphine showed no appreciable decontaminating effects on microorganisms contaminated including coliforms, while 5 kGy irradiation was sufficient to control all microorganisms related to the quality of the packed samples. Irradiation at 5 kGy caused negligible changes in physicochemical attributes of the samples, such as ginsenosides, amino acids, fatty acids, and organoleptic properties, whereas phosphine fumigation was found detrimental to sensory flavor (P<0.01). Quality deterioration occurred in the commercially-packed samples was in the following order: the control, 10 kGy-, phosphine-, and 2.5-5 kGy-treated samples. Accordingly, irradiation at <5 kGy was found to be an effective alternative to phosphine fumigation for white ginseng. (author)

  16. Is fumigation enough for air conditioning units in operation theatres and Intensive care units?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anasua Deb

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Strict asepsis is necessary in operating theatres (OT and intensive care units (ICU as the patients undergo invasive procedures. The filters of contaminated air conditioning (AC units provide a niche for proliferation of fungi and production of fungal spores. Methods: The routine procedure for maintenance of sterile atmosphere in our hospital, i.e. fumigation and mopping walls with disinfectants often fail to address these fungal spores of the AC filters. We therefore carried out a surveillance of the ACs in ICUs and OTs to find the level of contamination with fungal spores and also to improvise on intervention strategies to tackle the problem. Over 3 months period, 34 ACs from 7 OTs and 2 ICUs were screened by taking 2 swabs from each AC which were then tested for the presence of fungal spores as per standard methods. Results: The contamination rate was 88.2% before fumigation and 76.9% after fumigation. The fungal spore contamination rate was reduced to 20% (1 out of 5 ACs after servicing of the ACs was done. Aspergillus spp. was the most common fungal isolate. Conclusion: Based on the observations, we recommend regular servicing of the ACs as well as wet mopping of the ducts with sporicidal solution at regular intervals. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(5.000: 1583-1589

  17. Efficacy of Fumigant Nematicides to Control Hoplolaimus columbus on Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noe, J P

    1990-10-01

    Four rates of methyl bromide (Mbr) (16.8, 33.6, 67,2, and 134.4 kg a.i./ha) and one rate of 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) (28.1 liters a.i./ha) were evaluated over 2 years for control of Hoplolaimus columbus on cotton. All nematicide treatments were applied through a tarpless subsoiler-bedder prior to planting cotton, Gossypium hirsutum cv. Dehapine 90. Nematode population densities were monitored before and after treatment, at midseason, and at harvest, and yields were measured at maturity. Soil fertility variables (pH, P, K, Ca, Mg) were measured for each plot. Cotton yields were significantly increased by treatment with 1,3-D in 1988 and by all nematicidal treatments in 1989. Levels of nematode control varied from year to year among treatments. The responses of H. columbus numbers to rate of Mbr were best described by quadratic regression models. Levels of soil calcium and magnesium were significant factors in a multiple regression model relating a measure of control efficacy to rates of Mbr.

  18. Clinical Observation of Herbal Fumigation in Knee Osteoarthritis%中药熏蒸治疗膝骨性关节炎临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何丹丹; 陈志煌; 林常

    2011-01-01

    目的 客观评价中药熏蒸对膝骨性关节炎(KOA)的临床疗效.方法 将患者80例随机分为非熏蒸常规治疗组(非熏组)与中药熏蒸治疗组(熏蒸组),均予西医常规处理,熏蒸组加用中药熏蒸治疗,20d后评效.结果 熏蒸组总有效率高于非熏组,且膝关节休息痛、上下楼痛、肿胀、僵硬及关节活动度改善明显优于非熏组.结论 中药熏蒸疗法可明显缓解KOA的临床症状,具有改善膝关节功能的作用.%Objective: To evaluate the clinical curative effect of the herbal fumigation on knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Methods: 60 patients were divided randomly into the conventional treatment group (non-fumigation group) and the herbal fumigation treatment group (fumigation group). Besides that western routine therapies were used in 2 groups, the fumigation group was added the herbal fumigation treatment. The clinical effect of 2 groups were e-valuated in 2 groups. Results: The total effective rate of the fumigation group was higher than that of the non- fumigation group. Improvements in the fumigation group were significantly better than those in the non-fumigation group such as the rest pain, the motion pain, the break tenderness in knee joint, the joint mobility, the morning stiffness and the ability to walk. Conclusion: The herbal fumigation can obviously alleviate knee osteoarthritis symptoms and improve the knee function.

  19. Effects of phosphine and methyl bromide fumigation on the volatile flavor profile and sensory quality of dry cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekhon, R K; Schilling, M W; Phillips, T W; Aikins, M J; Hasan, M M; Corzo, A; Mikel, W B

    2010-10-01

    In separate experiments, randomized complete block designs with three replications were utilized to evaluate the effects of phosphine (PH(3)) (0, 200 and 1000ppm for 48h) and methyl bromide (MB) (0, 4, 8, 16, and 32mg/L for 48h) fumigation concentration on the volatile flavor compound concentrations in dry cured ham. Minimal differences existed (P>0.05) in the presence and concentration of aroma active compounds in both PH(3) and MB fumigated hams but sulfur and oxidation compounds were more prevalent (Pfumigated treatments when compared to the control. As phosphine fumigation concentration increased, the residual concentration of phosphine also increased in the hams (Pphosphine allowed in stored food products (0.01ppm) in the United States. A triangle test (n=56) indicated that consumers could not discriminate (P>0.75) between the control hams and those that were fumigated with PH(3). Minimal aroma/flavor differences existed among MB, PH3 and control hams, and dry cured ham that was fumigated with PH(3) was safe for consumption based on residual phosphine concentrations in the meat tissue.

  20. Fumigant Toxicity of Lamiaceae Plant Essential Oils and Blends of Their Constituents against Adult Rice Weevil Sitophilus oryzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Woong Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available To find a new and safe alternative to conventional insecticides, we evaluated the fumigant toxicity of eight Lamiaceae essential oils and their constituents against the adult rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae. Of the eight species tested, hyssop (Hyssopus offcinalis, majoram (Origanum majorana, and Thymus zygis essential oils showed strong fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae adults at 25 mg/L air concentration. Constituents of active essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detector (FID and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 13, 15, and 17 compounds were identified from hyssop, majoram, and Thymus zygis essential oils, respectively. Pinocamphone and isopinocamphone were isolated by open column chromatography. Among the test compounds, pinocamphone and isopinocamphone showed the strongest fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae. Sabinene hydrate, linalool, α-terpineol, and terpinen-4-ol exhibited 100% fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae at 3.9 mg/L air concentration. The measured toxicity of the artificial blends of the constituents identified in hyssop, majoram, and Thymus zygis oils indicated that isopinocamphone, terpine-4-ol, and linalool were major contributors to the fumigant toxicity of the artificial blend, respectively.

  1. Fumigant Toxicity of Lamiaceae Plant Essential Oils and Blends of Their Constituents against Adult Rice Weevil Sitophilus oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Woong; Lee, Hyo-Rim; Jang, Myeong-Jin; Jung, Chan-Sik; Park, Il-Kwon

    2016-03-16

    To find a new and safe alternative to conventional insecticides, we evaluated the fumigant toxicity of eight Lamiaceae essential oils and their constituents against the adult rice weevil Sitophilus oryzae. Of the eight species tested, hyssop (Hyssopus offcinalis), majoram (Origanum majorana), and Thymus zygis essential oils showed strong fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae adults at 25 mg/L air concentration. Constituents of active essential oils were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to flame ionization detector (FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 13, 15, and 17 compounds were identified from hyssop, majoram, and Thymus zygis essential oils, respectively. Pinocamphone and isopinocamphone were isolated by open column chromatography. Among the test compounds, pinocamphone and isopinocamphone showed the strongest fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae. Sabinene hydrate, linalool, α-terpineol, and terpinen-4-ol exhibited 100% fumigant toxicity against S. oryzae at 3.9 mg/L air concentration. The measured toxicity of the artificial blends of the constituents identified in hyssop, majoram, and Thymus zygis oils indicated that isopinocamphone, terpine-4-ol, and linalool were major contributors to the fumigant toxicity of the artificial blend, respectively.

  2. Evaluation of the influence of sulfur fumigation on the pharmacokinetics of four active ingredients in Si Wu Tang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Ke; Cai, Hao; Liu, Xiao; Tu, Sicong; Cao, Gang; Li, Huan; Zhao, Yingying; Song, Xiaoqing; Lou, Yajing; Qiao, Fengxian; Cai, Baochang

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur fumigation may induce the decrease or the chemical transformation of some active ingredients of traditional Chinese medicines in vitro. Whether sulfur fumigation can cause the pharmacokinetic changes of the active ingredients in vivo is related to the efficacy and the safety of Chinese medicines' application clinically. A sensitive, specific, and accurate method for the simultaneous determination of paeoniflorin, ferulic acid, senkyunolide A, and senkyunolide I in rat plasma by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry was developed to evaluate the influence of sulfur fumigation to Si Wu Tang for the first time. Each compound was extracted from plasma samples by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate, and the chromatographic separation was accomplished on an Agilent Extend C18 column with a linear gradient elution. The mass spectrometric detection and analysis were performed by using an AB Sciex triple quadrupole 5500 mass spectrometer in multiple reaction monitoring mode. The validated method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of four compounds in rats after oral administration of sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Si Wu Tang. The results provided a meaningful basis for evaluating the affection of sulfur fumigation to the clinical application and the efficacy of Si Wu Tang. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Expression of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes in avocados fumigated with thyme oil vapours and control of anthracnose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill, Malick; Sivakumar, Dharini; Beukes, Mervyn; Korsten, Lise

    2016-03-01

    Thyme oil (TO) fumigation (96μll(-1)) to cv. Hass and Ryan avocados significantly reduced anthracnose incidence compared to prochloraz and the untreated control. Also, enhanced activities of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase were noted in both cultivars. TO fumigation induced the expression of both β-1,3-glucanase and chitinase genes in naturally infected fruit of both cultivars, during storage at 7 or 7.5°C for up to 21d and during subsequent simulated market shelf conditions at 20°C for 5d. However, the impact of TO fumigation on the β-1,3-glucanase gene expression was higher in both cultivars. Higher gene regulation and β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase activities were observed in cv. Ryan compared to Hass. Although TO fumigation significantly reduced anthracnose incidence in both naturally infected cultivars, the inhibitory effect was slightly higher in cv. Ryan than Hass. Thus, postharvest TO fumigation had positive effects on enhancing anthracnose disease resistance during storage and also gave a residual effect during the simulated shelf life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Radiocesium storage in soil microbial biomass of undisturbed alpine meadow soils and its relation to {sup 137}Cs soil-plant transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemmer, Michael [Institute of Soil Research, University of Agricultural Sciences, Gregor-Mendel-Strasse 33, 1180 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: michael.stemmer@boku.ac.at; Hromatka, Angelika [Department of Environmental Research, ARC Seibersdorf Research GmbH, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria); Lettner, Herbert [Institute of Physics and Biophysics, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunner Strasse 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Strebl, Friederike [Department of Environmental Research, ARC Seibersdorf Research GmbH, 2444 Seibersdorf (Austria)

    2005-07-01

    This study focuses on radiocesium storage in soil microbial biomass of undisturbed alpine meadow sites and its relation to the soil-to-plant transfer. Soil and plant samples were taken in August 1999 from an altitude transect (800-1600 m.a.s.l.) at Gastein valley, Austria. Soil samples were subdivided into 3-cm layers for analyses of total, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-extractable and microbially stored {sup 137}Cs. Microbial biomass was measured by the fumigation extraction method, and fungal biomass was quantified using ergosterol as biomarker molecule. In general, the quantity of {sup 137}Cs stored in the living soil microbial biomass was relatively small. At the high-altitude meadows, showing high amounts of fungal biomass, microbially stored {sup 137}Cs amounted to 0.64 {+-} 0.14 kBq m{sup -2} which corresponds to about 1.2-2.7% of the total {sup 137}Cs soil inventory. At lower altitudes, microbial {sup 137}Cs content was distinctly smaller and in most cases not measurable at all using the fumigation extraction method. However, a positive correlation between the observed soil-to-plant aggregated transfer factor, microbially stored {sup 137}Cs and fungal biomass was found, which indicates a possible role of fungal biomass in the storage and turnover of {sup 137}Cs in soils and in the {sup 137}Cs uptake by plants.

  5. Enhanced ozone strongly reduces carbon sink strength of adult beech (Fagus sylvatica)--resume from the free-air fumigation study at Kranzberg Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyssek, R; Wieser, G; Ceulemans, R; Rennenberg, H; Pretzsch, H; Haberer, K; Löw, M; Nunn, A J; Werner, H; Wipfler, P; Osswald, W; Nikolova, P; Hanke, D E; Kraigher, H; Tausz, M; Bahnweg, G; Kitao, M; Dieler, J; Sandermann, H; Herbinger, K; Grebenc, T; Blumenröther, M; Deckmyn, G; Grams, T E E; Heerdt, C; Leuchner, M; Fabian, P; Häberle, K-H

    2010-08-01

    Ground-level ozone (O(3)) has gained awareness as an agent of climate change. In this respect, key results are comprehended from a unique 8-year free-air O(3)-fumigation experiment, conducted on adult beech (Fagus sylvatica) at Kranzberg Forest (Germany). A novel canopy O(3) exposure methodology was employed that allowed whole-tree assessment in situ under twice-ambient O(3) levels. Elevated O(3) significantly weakened the C sink strength of the tree-soil system as evidenced by lowered photosynthesis and 44% reduction in whole-stem growth, but increased soil respiration. Associated effects in leaves and roots at the gene, cell and organ level varied from year to year, with drought being a crucial determinant of O(3) responsiveness. Regarding adult individuals of a late-successional tree species, empirical proof is provided first time in relation to recent modelling predictions that enhanced ground-level O(3) can substantially mitigate the C sequestration of forests in view of climate change.

  6. Reducing CO2 accumulation and its phytotoxicity to lettuce with absorbent in hermetic storage as a simulation of long-term fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceberg and romaine lettuce were subjected to hermetic storage as a simulation of long-term fumigation without a fumigant to determine: 1) effects of long hermetic storage on atmosphere composition and postharvest quality of lettuce, and 2) whether the negative effects can be prevented by scrubbing ...

  7. Development of an activated carbon-based electrode for the capture and rapid electrolytic reductive debromination of methyl bromide from post-harvest fumigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to concerns surrounding its ozone depletion potential, there is a need for technologies to capture and destroy methyl bromide (CH3Br) emissions from post-harvest fumigations applied to control agricultural pests. Previously we described a system in which CH3Br fumes vented from fumigation chambe...

  8. Improved fumigation process for stored foodstuffs by using phosphine in sealed chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formato, Andrea; Naviglio, Daniele; Pucillo, Gian Pio; Nota, Giorgio

    2012-01-11

    In this paper we present an innovative device designed and constructed to improve the fumigation process for stored foodstuffs with the use of phosphine gas in sealed chambers. The device allowed a considerable reduction in phosphine production time (from about 5 to 7 days for traditional systems to 2 days for the equipment considered), maintaining the system below the inflammability threshold, and at the same time achieving the total exhaustion of aluminum (or magnesium) phosphide so as to avoid toxic residues at the end of the process. With the standard device currently available on the market, after the normal 5-7 day fumigating period, the powder residue contains as much as 1-2% (w/w) of phosphide. Thus the residues, according to current legislation, have to be considered toxic and harmful. To overcome this disadvantage, appropriate modifications were made to the cylindrical tray used for the fumigation process: a nebulizer was installed, which has the function of increasing the moisture of the air spreading around the phosphide pellets and allowing a more rapid reaction with phosphide. Moreover, the cylindrical tray was also heated by means of an electrical resistance, and temperature was checked by a thermostat, so as to always obtain the same efficiency, independently of outside temperature, for both hot and cold periods, since reaction speed depends on the system temperature considered. In addition, a control device for air saturation allows condensation processes to be avoided. Using the modified cylindrical tray we performed tests to determine the best values of humidity and temperature for the process concerned, avoiding phosphine concentrations that might result in a fire hazard, and the remixing of phosphide pellets inside the cylindrical tray. Our experimental data allowed us to obtain a mathematical model used to gain an insight into the process in question.

  9. Inhalation of phosphine gas following a fire associated with fumigation of processed pistachio nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Michael; Fong, Harvard; Sánchez, Martha E; Roisman, Rachel; Nonato, Yvette; Mehler, Louise

    2013-01-01

    On December 10, 2009, a fumigation stack containing aluminum phosphide became soaked with rain water and caught fire at a pistachio processing plant in Kern County, California. Untrained plant personnel responding to the fire had exposure to pyrolysis by-products, particulates, and extinguisher ingredients. Ten workers taken for medical evaluation had respiratory and nonspecific systemic symptoms consistent with exposure to phosphine gas. Six of the 10 workers had respiratory distress, indicated by chest pain, shortness of breath, elevated respiratory rate, or decreased oxygen saturation. Recommendations are made for the management of similar illnesses and prevention of similar exposures.

  10. Alternative fumigants to methyl bromide for the control of pest infestation in grain and dry food products

    OpenAIRE

    Shaaya, E.; Kostyukovsky, M.

    2010-01-01

    The primary aim of the current study is to evaluate the potential use of the known isothyiocyanates (ITC) as compared to a new ITC isolated from Eruca sativa (salad rocket) as fumigants for the control of stored products insects. The biological activity of methyl iodide (CH₃I), carbon disulphide (CS₂), benzaldehyde (C₇H₆0) and essential oils were also evaluated. The toxicity of the various fumigants was assessed against adults and larvae of a number of major stored-product insects. ITCs are p...

  11. Remediation of methyl iodide in aqueous solution and soils amended with thiourea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Papiernik, Sharon K; Guo, Mingxin; Yates, Scott R

    2004-02-15

    Methyl iodide (MeI) is considered a very promising fumigant alternative to methyl bromide (MeBr) for controlling soil-borne pests. Because atmospheric emission of highly volatile fumigants contributes to air pollution, feasible strategies to reduce emissions are urgently needed. In this study, thiourea (a nitrification inhibitor) was shown to accelerate the degradation of MeI in soil and water. In aqueous solution, the reaction between MeI and thiourea was independent of pH, although the rate of MeI hydrolysis increased in alkaline solution. Substantial increases in the rate of MeI dissipation were observed in thiourea-amended soils. Transformation of MeI by thiourea in aqueous solution was by a single chemical reaction process, while MeI degradation in thiourea-amended soil apparently involved a catalytic mechanism. The electron delocalization between the thiourea molecule and the surfaces of soil particles is energetically favorable and would increase the nucleophilic reactivity of the thiono group toward MeI, resulting in an enhancement of the dissipation rate. The soil half-life for MeI was reduced from >300 h for unamended soils to only a few hours in soil or sand amended with thiourea at a 2:1 molar ratio (thiourea:MeI). The MeI transformation rate in thiourea-amended soil increased with increasing soil temperature and decreasing soil moisture. Therefore, spraying thiourea on the soil surface to form a "reactive surface barrier" may be an effective and innovative strategy for controlling fumigant emissions to the atmosphere and for improving environmental protection.

  12. Carbon Monoxide Fumigation Improved the Quality, Nutrients, and Antioxidant Activities of Postharvest Peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoying Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peaches (Prunus persica cv. Yanhong were fumigated with carbon monoxide (CO at 0, 0.5, 5, 10, and 20 μmol/L for 2 hours. The result showed that low concentration CO (0.5–10 μmol/L might delay the decrease of firmness and titrable acid content, restrain the increase of decay incidence, and postpone the variation of soluble solids content, but treating peaches with high concentration CO (20 μmol/L demonstrated adverse effects. Further research exhibited that exogenous CO could induce the phenylalnine ammonialyase activity, maintain nutrient contents such as Vitamin C, total flavonoid, and polyphenol, and enhance antioxidant activity according to reducing power and 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl hydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Treating peaches with appropriate concentration CO was beneficial to the quality, nutrients, and antioxidant activity of postharvest peaches during storage time. Therefore, CO fumigation might probably become a novel method to preserve postharvest peach and other fruits in the future.

  13. Chemical constituents and fumigant toxicity of essential oil from Carum copticum against two stored product beetles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BIBI ZAHRA SAHAF; SAEID MOHARRAMIPOUR; MOHAMMAD HADI MESHKATALSADAT

    2007-01-01

    Plant secondary metabolites play an important role in plant-insect interactions and therefore such compounds may have insecticidal or antifeedant activity against insects. Carum copticum C. B. Clarke (Apiaceae) is one of these plants that have medicinal effects on humans. The chemical composition of the essential oil from dry seeds of C. copticum was studied by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Thymol (41.34%), α-terpinolene (17.46%) and ρ-cymene (11.76%) were found to be the major constituents of the oil. In fumigant toxicity tests with the essential oil against adults of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) at 27 +-1℃ and 60%+-5% RH, it was observed that S. oryzae (LC50= 0.91 μL/L) were significantly susceptible than T. castaneum (LC50= 33.14 μL/L). The mortalities of the insect species reached 100% at concentrations higher than 185.2 μL/L and 12-h exposure time. The findings indicate the strong insecticidal activity of C. copticum oil and its potential role as a fumigant for storedproduct insects.

  14. Fumigant and repellent properties of sesquiterpene-rich essential oil from Teucrium polium subsp. capitatum (L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abbas Khani; Monireh Heydarian

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To test fumigant and repellent properties of sesquiterpene-rich essential oil from Teucrium polium subsp.capitatum(L.).Methods:The fumigant toxicity test was performed at(27±1)℃,(65±5)% relative humidity, and under darkness condition and24 h exposure time.The chemical composition of the isolated oils was examined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.Results:The major compounds wereα-cadinol(46.2%), caryophyllene oxide(25.9%), α muurolol epi(8.1%), cadalene(3.7%) and longiverbenone(2.9%).In all cases, considerable differences in mortality of insect to essential oil vapor were observed in different concentrations and exposure times.Callosobruchus maculatus(C. maculates)(LC50=148.9 μL/L air) was more susceptible to the tested plant product thanTeucrium castaneum(T. castaneum) (LC50=360.2 μL/L air) based onLC50 values.In the present investigation, the concentration of3 μL /mL acetone showed60% and52% repellency againstT. casteneumandC. maculatus adults, respectively.Conclusions:The results suggests that sesquiterpene-rich essential oils from the tested plant could be used as a potential control agent for stored-product insects.

  15. Effect of Low-Temperature Phosphine Fumigation on the Survival of Bactrocera correcta (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Li, Li; Zhang, Fanhua; Gong, Shaorun; Li, Tianxiu; Zhan, Guoping; Wang, Yuejin

    2015-08-01

    This laboratory-based study examined the effects of low-temperature phosphine fumigation on the survival of the eggs and larvae of the guava fruit fly, Bactrocera correcta (Bezzi). Individual flies at different developmental stages, from 6-h-old eggs to third instars, were exposed to 0.92 mg/liter phosphine for 1-7 d at 5°C. We found that 12-h-old eggs and third instars were the most tolerant to phosphine. Increasing phosphine concentrations from 0.46 to 4.56 mg/liter increased mortality in these two stages. However, increased exposure times were required to achieve equal mortality rates in 12-h-old eggs and third instars when phosphine concentrations were ≥4.56 and ≥3.65 mg/liter, respectively. C(n)t = k expression was obtained at 50, 90, and 99% mortality levels, and the toxicity index (n) ranged from 0.43 to 0.77 for the two stages. The synergistic effects of a controlled atmosphere (CA) with elevated CO(2) levels were also investigated, and we found that a CO(2) concentration between 10% and 15% under CA conditions was optimal for low-temperature phosphine fumigation.

  16. The use of phytochemicals as fumigants for the control of stored product insect pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Shaaya

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The current study is aimed to evaluate the potential use of the known isothyiocyanates, as compared to a new isothyiocyanate (ITC isolated from Eruca sativa (salad rocket as fumigants for the control of stored product insects. The biological activity of methyl iodide (CH3I, carbon disulphide (CS2, benzaldehyde (C7H6O and essential oils were also evaluated. The toxicity of the various fumigants was assessed against adults and larvae of a number of major stored product insects. ITCs are known to have high toxicity and only very low concentrations are needed for the control of stored product insects. Eruca sativa is used worldwide as a food supplement. Methylthio butyl ITC, the main bioactive component in this plant has high toxicity against insects, but lower mammalian toxicity as compared to other active ITCs. This makes this compound a potential candidate for insect control. Comparative studies with CH3I, CS2 and C7H6O showed that the first was the most active compound against stored product insects followed by the second and third. C7H6O was found active, but very sorptive; therefore it was less effective against insects. The activity of a large number of essential oils (EOs isolated from aromatic plants was also evaluated.

  17. Fumigant toxicity of five essential oils rich in ketones against Sitophilus zeamais (Motschulsky

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M Herrera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils (EOs and individual compounds act as fumigants against insects found in stored products. In fumigant assays, Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky adults were treated with essential oils derived from Aphyllocladus decussatus Hieron, Aloysia polystachya Griseb, Minthostachys verticillata Griseb Epling and Tagetes minuta L , which are rich in ketones and their major components: a- thujone, R-carvone, S-carvone, (- menthone, R (+ pulegone and E-Z- ocimenone. M. verticillata oil was the most toxic ( LC50: 116.6 µl /L air characterized by a high percentage of menthone (40.1% and pulegone (43.7%. All ketones showed insecticidal activity against S. zeamais. However, pulegone (LC50: 11.8 µl/L air, R- carvone (LC50: 17.5 µl/L air, S-carvone (LC50: 28.1 µl/L air and E-Z-ocimenone (LC50: 42.3 µl/L air were the most toxic. These ketones are a,b-unsaturated carbonyl. This feature could play a fundamental role in the increase of insecticidal activity against S. zeamais.

  18. Fumigant antifungal activity of Myrtaceae essential oils and constituents from Leptospermum petersonii against three Aspergillus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunae; Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-09-03

    Commercial plant essential oils obtained from 11 Myrtaceae plant species were tested for their fumigant antifungal activity against Aspergillus ochraceus, A. flavus, and A. niger. Essential oils extracted from Leptospermum petersonii at air concentrations of 56 × 10(-3) mg/mL and 28 × 10(-3) mg/mL completely inhibited the growth of the three Aspergillus species. However, at an air concentration of 14 × 10(-3) mg/mL, inhibition rates of L. petersonii essential oils were reduced to 20.2% and 18.8% in the case of A. flavus and A. niger, respectively. The other Myrtaceae essential oils (56 × 10(-3) mg/mL) only weakly inhibited the fungi or had no detectable affect. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis identified 16 compounds in L. petersonii essential oil. The antifungal activity of the identified compounds was tested individually by using standard or synthesized compounds. Of these, neral and geranial inhibited growth by 100%, at an air concentration of 56 × 10(-3) mg/mL, whereas the activity of citronellol was somewhat lover (80%). The other compounds exhibited only moderate or weak antifungal activity. The antifungal activities of blends of constituents identified in L. petersonii oil indicated that neral and geranial were the major contributors to the fumigant and antifungal activities.

  19. Active monoterpene ketones isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis with fumigant and contact action against Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Park, Jun-Hwan; Chung, Namhyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2014-08-01

    The acaricidal activities of an active material derived from Rosmarinus officinalis oil and its relative monoterpene ketones were determined using fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays against Tyrophagus putrescentiae and were compared with that of a commercial acaricide (benzyl benzoate). The active component of R. officinalis oil, isolated by silica gel column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, was identified as camphor, based on various spectroscopic analyses. In the fumigant toxicity bioassay, camphor (2.25 μg/cm(3)) was 5.58 times more active than benzyl benzoate (12.56 μg/cm(3)) against T. putrescentiae, followed by (+)-camphor (3.89 μg/cm(3)) and (-)-camphor (5.61 μg/cm(3)). In the contact toxicity bioassay, camphor (1.34 μg/cm(2)) was 6.74 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (9.03 μg/cm(2)) against T. putrescentiae, followed by (+)-camphor (2.23 μg/cm(2)) and (-)-camphor (2.94 μg/cm(2)). These results indicate that camphor and its derivatives are very useful as potential control agents against stored food mites regardless of the application method.

  20. Fumigation of bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae): effective application rates for sulfuryl fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Thomas W; Aikins, Michael J; Thoms, Ellen; Demark, Joe; Wang, Changlu

    2014-08-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), has resurged recently as a domestic pest in North America with very limited options for decisive control. We report efficacy studies with sulfuryl fluoride (SF) toward use as a structural fumigant to control bed bugs. Laboratory studies were conducted in which eggs, adults, and nymphs from a pesticide susceptible laboratory population were fumigated for 24 h using SF at 99.8% purity in airtight, 3.8-liter glass containers under two temperatures, 25 degrees C and 15 degrees C. Bed bugs were placed in separate ventilated glass vials and wrapped in mattress padding before fumigation. The gas concentration within each jar was determined using quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Dose-response trials using eggs of known age (48-96 h) were conducted at five or six target concentrations measured as concentration x time accumulated dosages (g-h/m3) and one untreated control at each temperature. Each target dose was replicated in four different fumigation containers (replicates), with at least 32 eggs per replicate. The number of hatched and unhatched eggs postfumigation, and number of live and dead nymphs that resulted from hatched eggs, were evaluated daily for at least 1 wk after egg hatch. The lethal accumulated dosage (LAD99) for bed bug eggs was 69.1 (95% fiducial limits [FLs] of 62.9-79.5) g-h/m3 at 25 degrees C and 149.3 (95% FLs of 134.4-177.9) g-h/m3 at 15 degrees C. Confirmatory trials with dosages of 1.5x the LAD99 were conducted at 25 degrees C and 1.5x the threshold mortality dose at 15 degrees C with at least 15 adults, 13 late-instar nymphs and 79 eggs of known age per replicate. At 25 degrees C, a target dosage of 103.7 g-h/m3 resulted in 100% mortality of adults and late-instar nymphs. Nymphs emerged and survived from two of 439 eggs treated with SF dosages that were 6-7 g-h/m3 less than the target dosage. No nymphs emerged from eggs fumigated with dosages > 97.9 g-h/m3 in the

  1. Effect of dairy manure rate and the stabilization time of amended soils on atrazine degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Paula; Briceño, Gabriela; Candia, Maribel; Mora, Maria de la Luz; Demanet, Rolando; Palma, Graciela

    2009-10-01

    The application rate of liquid cow manure (LCM) in the field and the stabilization time of amended soils before application of pre-plant herbicides are factors that determine their efficiency. This study includes evaluation of residual atrazine (2-chloro-4-ethylamino-6-isopropylamino-1,3,5-triazine) in soil and amended soils with equivalent rate of 100,000; 200,000; and 300,000 L ha(-1) of LCM and the effect of pre-incubation time of amended soils on atrazine degradation. The study was carried out under controlled conditions using an Andisol with previous historical application of atrazine. The respiratory activity and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) studies indicated that the time necessary for stabilization of amended soils is over 20-30 d. During the measurement of respiratory and FDA activity, no significant differences were observed when atrazine was applied. The half-life of atrazine ranged from 5 to 8d and the relative distribution of degradation products seem to be affected by the application of LCM. The pre-incubation time of amended soil and LCM dose would not affect atrazine degradation rate, when the soil has a history of herbicide application. However, repeated applications of LCM in a long period of time could change the soil pH and increase the content of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) which could further contribute to a faster degradation of atrazine. Both effects would reduce the effectiveness of atrazine in weed control.

  2. Distribution and chemical fate of ³⁶Cl-chlorine dioxide gas during the fumigation of tomatoes and cantaloupe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D J; Ernst, W; Giddings, J M

    2014-12-03

    The distribution and chemical fate of (36)Cl-ClO2 gas subsequent to fumigation of tomatoes or cantaloupe was investigated as were major factors that affect the formation of chloroxyanion byproducts. Approximately 22% of the generated (36)Cl-ClO2 was present on fumigated tomatoes after a 2 h exposure to approximately 5 mg of (36)Cl-ClO2. A water rinse removed 14% of the radiochlorine while tomato homogenate contained ∼63% of the tomato radioactivity; 24% of the radiochlorine was present in the tomato stem scar area. Radioactivity in tomato homogenate consisted of (36)Cl-chloride (≥80%), (36)Cl-chlorate (5 to 19%), and perchlorate (0.5 to 1.4%). In cantaloupe, 55% of the generated (36)Cl-ClO2 was present on melons fumigated with 100 mg of (36)Cl-ClO2 for a 2 h period. Edible cantaloupe flesh contained no detectable radioactive residue (LOQ = 0.3 to 0.4 μg/g); >99.9% of radioactivity associated with cantaloupe was on the inedible rind, with <0.1% associated with the seed bed. Rind radioactivity was present as (36)Cl-chloride (∼86%), chlorate (∼13%), and perchlorate (∼0.6%). Absent from tomatoes and cantaloupe were (36)Cl-chlorite residues. Follow-up studies have shown that chlorate and perchlorate formation can be completely eliminated by protecting fumigation chambers from light sources.

  3. Detection of Sulfur-Fumigated Paeoniae Alba Radix in Complex Preparations by High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song-Lin Li

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Detection of sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Alba Radix (PAR in different complex preparations is challenging due to the relatively lower content of PAR and interference from more complicated components in complex preparations with different multiple constituent herbs. In this study, a high performance liquid chromatography- triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for detecting sulfur-fumigated PAR in different complex preparations. Paeoniflorin, the major component of PAR, and paeoniflorin sulfonate, the characteristic artifact transformed from paeoniflorin during sulfur-fumigation of PAR, were used as chemical markers. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM scan was employed to maximize sensitivity and selectivity. Through optimizing full mass scan and daughter ion scan conditions, two mass transitions were selected and employed respectively for unequivocal identification of paeoniflorin and paeoniflorin sulfonate. The detection limits for paeoniflorin and paeoniflorin sulfonate using MRM were much lower than those detected with UV 270 nm. Paeoniflorin and paeoniflorin sulfonate could be simultaneously detected in different commercial PAR-containing complex preparations without interference of other components using the established method, indicating that the newly established method was selective and sensitive enough for screening sulfur-fumigated PAR in commercial complex preparations.

  4. Postharvest Disease Control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium expansum on Stored Apples by Gamma Irradiation Combined with Fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Wonsu; Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Kim, Bong-Su; Lee, Byeong-Ho; Jeon, Yongho

    2016-01-01

    To study the control of postharvest decay caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium expansum, gamma irradiation alone or in combination with fumigation was evaluated to extend the shelf life of apples in South Korea. An irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy resulted in the maximum inhibition of C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum spore germination. The gamma irradiation dose required to reduce the spore germination by 90% was 0.22 and 0.35 kGy for C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum, respectively. Microscopic observations revealed that when the fungal spores were treated with gamma irradiation (4.0 kGy), conidial germination was stopped completely resulting in no germ tube formation in C. gloeosporioides. Treatment with the eco-friendly fumigant ethanedinitrile had a greater antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum in comparison with the non-treated control under in vitro conditions. The in vitro antifungal effects of the gamma irradiation and fumigation treatments allowed us to further study the effects of the combined treatments to control postharvest decay on stored apples. Interestingly, when apples were treated with gamma irradiation in combined with fumigation, disease inhibition increased more at lower (< 0.4 kGy) than at higher doses of irradiation, suggesting that combined treatments reduced the necessary irradiation dose in phytosanitary irradiation processing under storage conditions. PMID:27721696

  5. Acute and chronic sulfur dioxide fumigation of Pi{tilde n}on pine seeds and seedlings: Data compilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trujillo, M.L.; Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Gladney, E.S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Bowker, R.G. [Alma Coll., MI (US). Dept. of Biology

    1993-09-01

    Pi{tilde n}on pine germinating seeds, emergent seedlings, and one-year-old seedlings were exposed to sulfur dioxide under both acute and chronic exposure conditions. These fumigations were conducted in order to determine the potential for damage to pi{tilde n}on pine in southwestern national parks and monuments where there is potential for exposure to elevated sulfur dioxide concentrations from smelters and power plants. Injury was apparent only in acute fumigations of one-year-old seedlings at ambient sulfur dioxide concentrations of greater than 3 ppm. Chronic fumigations were conducted only a ambient concentrations of 0.2 ppm. Pi{tilde n}on pine resistance was evidenced by lack of effect of fumigation on biomass and growth parameters. Growth rate data for both experimental and control seedlings were fit to a linear growth model with a correlation (r{sup 2} = 0.95). The results of this study agree with other data in the literature and indicate that damage from elevated sulfur dioxide concentrations in southwestern national parks and monuments is much more likely for other, more sensitive, species than for pi{tilde n}on pine.

  6. 40 CFR 180.123 - Inorganic bromide residues resulting from fumigation with methyl bromide; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... on dog food, resulting from fumigation with methyl bromide. (ii) 125 parts per million for residues... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.123 Inorganic bromide residues resulting from... residues of inorganic bromides (calculated as Br) in or on the following food commodities which have been...

  7. Postharvest Disease Control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium expansum on Stored Apples by Gamma Irradiation Combined with Fumigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonsu Cheon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To study the control of postharvest decay caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium expansum, gamma irradiation alone or in combination with fumigation was evaluated to extend the shelf life of apples in South Korea. An irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy resulted in the maximum inhibition of C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum spore germination. The gamma irradiation dose required to reduce the spore germination by 90% was 0.22 and 0.35 kGy for C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum, respectively. Microscopic observations revealed that when the fungal spores were treated with gamma irradiation (4.0 kGy, conidial germination was stopped completely resulting in no germ tube formation in C. gloeosporioides. Treatment with the eco-friendly fumigant ethanedinitrile had a greater antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum in comparison with the non-treated control under in vitro conditions. The in vitro antifungal effects of the gamma irradiation and fumigation treatments allowed us to further study the effects of the combined treatments to control postharvest decay on stored apples. Interestingly, when apples were treated with gamma irradiation in combined with fumigation, disease inhibition increased more at lower (< 0.4 kGy than at higher doses of irradiation, suggesting that combined treatments reduced the necessary irradiation dose in phytosanitary irradiation processing under storage conditions.

  8. Enhanced fumigant toxicity of p-cymene against Frankliniella occidentalis by simultaneous application of elevated levels of carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janmaat, A.F.; Kogel, de W.J.; Woltering, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    The fumigant toxicity of the essential oil component p-cymene was assessed against Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. F occidentalis adult females, first- and second-instar larvae and eggs were exposed for 2, 24 and 48h to combinations of three p-cymene doses and two carbon dioxide

  9. Enhanced fumigant toxicity of p-cymene against Frankliniella occidentalis by simultaneous application of elevated levels of carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janmaat, A.F.; Kogel, de W.J.; Woltering, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    The fumigant toxicity of the essential oil component p-cymene was assessed against Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. F occidentalis adult females, first- and second-instar larvae and eggs were exposed for 2, 24 and 48h to combinations of three p-cymene doses and two carbon dioxide l

  10. Thiol accumulation and cysteine desulfhydrase activity in H2S-fumigated leaves and leaf homogenates of cucurbit plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schütz, Bärbel; De Kok, Luit J.; Rennenberg, Heinz

    1991-01-01

    Fumigation of both, cucurbit plants and cucurbit leaf homogenates with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) resulted in an increase in soluble thiol, mainly glutathione and cysteine. In leaf homogenates this increase was counteracted or prevented by the addition at 1 mM of inhibitors of pyridoxalphosphate depende

  11. Postharvest Disease Control of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium expansum on Stored Apples by Gamma Irradiation Combined with Fumigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Wonsu; Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Kim, Bong-Su; Lee, Byeong-Ho; Jeon, Yongho

    2016-10-01

    To study the control of postharvest decay caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Penicillium expansum, gamma irradiation alone or in combination with fumigation was evaluated to extend the shelf life of apples in South Korea. An irradiation dose of 2.0 kGy resulted in the maximum inhibition of C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum spore germination. The gamma irradiation dose required to reduce the spore germination by 90% was 0.22 and 0.35 kGy for C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum, respectively. Microscopic observations revealed that when the fungal spores were treated with gamma irradiation (4.0 kGy), conidial germination was stopped completely resulting in no germ tube formation in C. gloeosporioides. Treatment with the eco-friendly fumigant ethanedinitrile had a greater antifungal activity against C. gloeosporioides and P. expansum in comparison with the non-treated control under in vitro conditions. The in vitro antifungal effects of the gamma irradiation and fumigation treatments allowed us to further study the effects of the combined treatments to control postharvest decay on stored apples. Interestingly, when apples were treated with gamma irradiation in combined with fumigation, disease inhibition increased more at lower (< 0.4 kGy) than at higher doses of irradiation, suggesting that combined treatments reduced the necessary irradiation dose in phytosanitary irradiation processing under storage conditions.

  12. Soil solarization reduces arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as a consequence of weed suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, P R; Ivors, K L; Pinkerton, J N

    2001-12-01

    Soil solarization, the process of heating soil by covering fields with clear plastic, is a promising method to reduce populations of soilborne pests and weeds without the use of pesticides. However, the destruction of beneficial organisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi also may occur, thereby reducing positive effects of solarization. We compared the effects of solarization and chemical fumigants on the survival of indigenous AM fungi in 1995 and 1996. The infectivity of AM fungi was monitored before and after solarization using a greenhouse bioassay with Sorghum bicolor L. for both years. AM colonization of roots was also monitored in the field 8 months after solarization in 1995. Weed densities were measured 8 months after treatment in 1996. Solarization increased the average daily soil temperature 6-10°C and the maximum soil temperature reached by 10-16°C (5-20 cm depth). Solarization did not reduce the infectivity of AM fungi immediately after the solarization period in either year, as determined by the greenhouse bioassay. Infectivity was greatly reduced in solarized plots 8 months after solarization (over winter) in both years as assessed in the field (1995) or with the greenhouse bioassay (1996). Fumigation with metam sodium at 930 l ha(-1) (350 kg active ingredient ha(-1)) reduced the infectivity of AM fungi in both years, and fumigation with methyl bromide at 800 kg ha(-1) eliminated infection by AM fungi. Solarization was as effective as methyl bromide and metam sodium at 930 l ha(-1) in controlling winter annual weeds measured 8 months after treatment. Solarization apparently reduced AM fungi in soil indirectly by reducing weed populations that maintained infective propagules over the winter. Fumigation with metam sodium or methyl bromide directly reduced AM fungi in soil.

  13. The effects of methyl bromide alternatives on soil and seedling microbial populations, weeds, and seedling morphology in Oregon and Washington forest tree nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six fumigant treatments were evaluated at two forest tree nurseries in Oregon and one forest tree nursery in Washington for their effects on soil microbial populations, weeds, and seedling morphology during a 2-year study. Fusarium commune, F. oxysporum, Gibberella fujikuroi complex, P. irregulare,...

  14. Fumigant and Repellent Activity of Limonene Enantiomers Against Tribolium confusum du Val.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacrinò, A; Campolo, O; Laudani, F; Palmeri, V

    2016-10-01

    The use of pesticides, as carried out in the last 50 years, caused several negative environmental and human health consequences, leading to the development of alternative techniques to control pests, such as the use of compounds of plant origin. In this study, we assessed the fumigant and repellent activity of both the enantiomers of limonene, a monoterpene usually found in many plant species, against Tribolium confusum du Val. We tested both molecules at different doses, air temperatures, and in absence and presence of flour. R-(+)-limonene resulted more effective than S-(-)-limonene; indeed, it was able to reach 100% of efficacy at a concentration of 85 mg/L air when tested at different temperatures without flour. Data showed a positive relationship between efficacy and temperature, and a negative effect of the presence of debris on the bioactivity of limonene. Furthermore, repellency trials reported a higher activity of R-(+)-limonene compared to the other enantiomer.

  15. Controlled environment fumigation chambers for the study of reactive air pollutant effects on plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, N. J.; Lucas, P. W.; Nicholas Hewitt, C.

    The design and construction of eight 1-m 3 fumigation chambers for exposing plants to reactive air pollutants at low concentrations are reported. Teflon surfaces are used where possible to minimize the adsorption, absorption, desorption and chemical reaction of the pollutants. A purified ambient air supply, to which metered quantities of gaseous pollutants are added, is used to give two air changes per minute at constant, low, pollutant concentrations. Comparative analysis of the chambers indicates that conditions may be maintained with a significant degree of precision, i.e. temperature ±0.3°C, RH ±6%, light intensity ±5 μmol m -2 s -1. Boundary layer analysis from models of cherry tree ( Prunus avium) leaves indicate that the minimum conductance value within these chambers is 2 cm s -1.

  16. Le mode d'action des nématicides non-fumigants

    OpenAIRE

    CAVELIER, Alain

    1987-01-01

    Passant en revue la plupart des études réalisées en vingt ans (1966-1986) sur le mode d’action des nématicides non-fumigants, l’auteur s’efforce de mettre au jour la progression des connaissances des effets biologiques et biochimiques des anticholinestérasiques (organo-phosphorés, carbamates) d’une part et des benzimidazoles d’autre part. Au travers d’approches, d’objectifs et de méthodologies extrêmement variés, l’activité des toxiques sur les stades successifs du développement des néma...

  17. Investigations of fine root and mycorrhizal development of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) in the upper soil layers of the open-top chambers at Edelmannshof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kottke, I.; Qian, M. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Botanisches Inst.

    1997-12-01

    Fine root density and mycorrhizal development of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karts.) were investigated after one sampling date in the OTC-experimental plots Edelmannshof. No disturbance of development by stress from soil or fumigation treatments could be found. Surprisingly, the mycorrhizas of two trees fumigated by ambient air revealed higher FDA-hydrolysing activity than the mycorrhizas of the four trees fumigated by filtered air. This finding correlates to the higher leaching rate in the unfiltered air and may have compensated the loss by higher uptake rate of cations. This may explain why no deficiency of nutrients was found in the ambient air chambers. The probing date in early spring, however, may also have influenced the actual activity of the mycorrhizas of the different trees. (orig.)

  18. Fumigant, contact, and repellent activities of essential oils against the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuegui; Li, Qian; Shen, Litao; Yang, Jizhi; Cheng, Huabao; Jiang, Surong; Jiang, Chunxian; Wang, Haijian

    2014-05-30

    The fumigant, contact, and repellent activities of four essential oils extracted from Citrus limonum (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Litsea cubeba (Laurales: Lauraceae), Cinnamomum cassia, and Allium sativum L. (Asparagales: Alliaceae) against 6th instars and adults of the darkling beetle, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), one of the main pests of materials and products of Juncus effuses L. (Poales: Juncaceae) during the storage period, were assayed, and chemical ingredients were analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in this study. While the major ingredients found in C. limonum and C. cassia were limonene and (E)-cinnamaldehyde, the main constituents of L. cubea were D-limonene, (E)-3,7-dimethyl-,2,6-octadienal, (Z)-3,7-dimethyl,2 ,6-octadienal, and diallyl disulphide (18.20%), while the main constituents of and A. sativum were di-2-propenyl trisulfide and di-2-propenyl tetrasulfide. The fumigation activities of A. sativum and C. limonum on A. diaperinus adults were better than those of the other two essential oilss. The toxicities of A. sativum and C. limonum were almost equitoxic at 96 hr after treatment. Essential oils from Allium sativum and L. cubeba also showed good contact activities from 24 hr to 48 hr, and toxicities were almost equitoxic 48 hr posttreatment. The repellent activities of A. sativum and L. cubeba oils on 6th instars were also observed, showing repellence indexes of 90.4% and 88.9% at 12 hr after treatment, respectively. The effects of A. sativum on AChE activity of 6th instars of A. diaperinus were strongest compared to the other essential oils, followed by C. limonum, L. cubeba, and C. cassia. These results suggest that the essential oils of C. limonum and A. sativum could serve as effective control agents of A. diaperinus.

  19. CYLINDER PRESSURE VARIATIONS OF THE FUMIGATED HYDROGEN-DIESEL DUAL FUEL COMBUSTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonthum Wongchai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylinder pressure is one of the main parameters of diesel engine combustion affecting several changes in exhaust gas emission composition and amount as well as engine useful power, specifically when alternative fuels are used. One among other alternative fuels for diesel engine is hydrogen that can be used as fumigated reagent with air prior to intake to engine in order to substitute the main fossil diesel. In this study, experimental investigation was accomplished using a single cylinder diesel engine for agriculture running on different ratios of hydrogen-to-diesel. Cylinder pressure traces corresponding to the crank angle positions were indicated and analyzed for maximum cylinder pressure and their coefficient of variation. The regression analysis is used to find the correlations between hydrogen percentage and the maximum cylinder pressure as well as its coefficient of variation. When higher hydrogen percentages were added, the combustion shifted toward later crank angles with the maximum cylinder pressure decreased and eminent effects at higher load and speed. The plots of hydrogen percentage against the coefficient of variation of the maximum cylinder pressure (COVPmax show the increase in variation of maximum cylinder pressure when the hydrogen percentage increased for all conditions tested. Gaseous hydrogen fumigated prior to intake to the engine reduced maximum cylinder pressure from the combustion while increasing the values of COVPmax. The maximum pressure-hydrogen percentage correlations and the COVPmax-hydrogen percentage correlations show better curve fittings by second order (n = 2 correlation compared to the first order (n = 1 correlation for all the test conditions.

  20. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 5 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  1. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 10 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  2. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks , 8 Hours or Less, 5 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  3. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 50 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  4. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 50 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  5. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, More than 8 hours, 10 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  6. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks , 8 Hours or Less, 25 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  7. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 25 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  8. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, More than 8 Hours, 25 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  9. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, More than 8 hours, 25 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  10. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks, More than 8 hours, 50 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  11. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Attached Vertical Stacks , 8 Hours or Less, 10 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  12. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 50 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  13. Methyl Bromide Buffer Zone Distances for Commodity and Structural Fumigation: Active Aeration, Open Area Vertical Stacks, 8 Hours or Less, 10 Foot Stack Height

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document contains buffer zone tables required by certain methyl bromide commodity fumigant product labels that refer to Buffer Zone Lookup Tables located at epa.gov/pesticide-registration/mbcommoditybuffer on the label.

  14. Fumigant toxicity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of 4 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Kim, Junheon; Kang, Jaesoon; Koh, Sang-Hyun; Ahn, Young-Joon; Kang, Kyu-Suk; Park, Il-Kwon

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of 4 Asteraceae plant essential oils and their constituents against the Japanese termite Reticulitermes speratus Kolbe. Fumigant toxicity varied with plant essential oils or constituents, exposure time, and concentration. Among the tested essential oils, those from Chamaemelum nobile exhibited the strongest fumigant toxicity, followed by those from Santolina chamaecyparissus, Ormenis multicaulis, and Eriocephalus punctulatus at 2 days after treatment. In all, 15, 24, 19, and 9 compounds were identified in the essential oils from C. nobile, E. punctulatus, O. multicaulis, and S. chamaecyparissus, respectively, by using gas chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, or open-column chromatography. The identified compounds were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, trans-pinocarveol, caryophyllene oxide, sabinene hydrate, and santolina alcohol showed strong fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity of the identified compounds from C. nobile, E. punctulatus, O. multicaulis, and S. chamaecyparissus essential oils were tested to determine the mode of their action. The IC50 values of (+)-α-pinene, (-)-limonene, (-)-α-pinene, β-pinene, and β-phellandrene against Japanese termite AChE were 0.03, 0.13, 0.41, 0.42, and 0.67mg/mL, respectively. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluating systemic semi-selective chemicals for the management of apple replant disease in fumigated and non-fumigated orchards systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple Replant Disease (ARD) is a phenomenon where apple trees are stunted when replanted onto old apple soil, as the result of apple monoculture resulting in soil microbial changes where pathogenic and parasitic organism s predominate. The main soilborne organisms that cause ARD include oomycetes, f...

  16. Off-site air monitoring following methyl bromide chamber and building fumigations and evaluation of the ISCST air dispersion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, T.; Swgawa, R.; Wofford, P. [Cal EPA, Sacramento, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Pesticide Regulation`s preliminary risk characterization of methyl bromide indicated an inadequate margin of safety for several exposure scenarios. Characterization of the air concentrations associated with common methyl bromide use patterns was necessary to determine specific scenarios that result in an unacceptable margin of safety. Field monitoring data were used in conjunction with the Industrial Source Complex, Short Tenn (ISCST) air dispersion model to characterize air concentrations associated with various types of methyl bromide applications. Chamber and building fumigations were monitored and modelled. For each fumigation the emission rates, chamber or building specifications and on-site meteorological data were input into the ISCST model. The model predicted concentrations were compared to measured air concentrations. The concentrations predicted by the ISCST model reflect both the pattern and magnitude of the measured concentrations. Required buffer zones were calculated using the ISCST output.

  17. Synergistic neurotoxicity of carbon tetrachloride/carbon disulfide (80/20 fumigants) and other pesticides in grain storage workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, H A; Levine, R L; Matthews, C G; Sauter, S; Chapman, L

    1986-01-01

    Neurophysiologic, neurobehavioral, and neuropsychologic profiles in 17 grain storage workers, 1 grain inspector, and 4 malting laboratory workers are described. The effects of CS2 toxicity as seen in viscose rayon workers as well as in experimental animals is remarkably similar to the clinical profile of our grain storage workers. CS2 use explains the dysfunction of peripheral axons, auditory nerve, the optic nerve, and the extrapyramidal system, as well as altered behavior and cognition changes. The signs and symptoms in these workers seem to be dose-related and we note that workers separated out from the areas where fumigation took place reported improvement not seen by fellow workers who continued the fumigant treatment routine. Likewise, malting laboratory workers exposed only to the grain dust from 3 to 7 years showed only minimal symptoms. Though a number of mechanism have been suggested for the alteration of neuropsychological function, the chelating ability of DDC derived from CS2 and its ability to markedly increase copper and zinc within the central nervous system suggests a mechanism of toxicity analogous to copper intoxication as in Wilson's Disease and may explain the production of extrapyramidal symptoms in these patients. Chelation of copper might prove therapeutic in CS2 poisoning. It is obvious that both basic and clinical research will be necessary to sort out the questions raised. We applaud the EPA's decision to ban the use of 80/20 fumigants and also methyl bromide, and trust that similar toxic substances be carefully studied before their selection for replacing these previous toxic agents. We further decry the technique of re-introducing grain dust into the food chain rather than destroying it, since the dust contains very high residues of fumigant material. We speculate on the possible role of CS2 and other pesticides in the food chain and the incidence of Parkinsonian symptoms in these patients and the general public.

  18. Deposition of carbonyl sulphide to soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluczewski, S. M.; Brown, K. A.; Bel, J. N. B.

    Carbonyl sulphide (COS) is a trace constituent of the atmosphere and is also the main form in which 35S is released from CO 2-cooled nuclear reactors. Measurements of its deposition velocity ( Vg) are therefore important for validating radiological dose models and for interpreting the role of COS in the global S cycle. The Vg of [ 35S]COS to thin layers of several contrasting soils was measured in a through-flow fumigation system. Deposition velocity was not significantly affected by soil type, although deposition to moist soil was significantly greater ( P dried soils, mean values being 5.71 × 10 -6 ms -1 and 3.06 × 10 -6 ms -1, respectively. The results obtained are about three orders of magnitude smaller than published Vg values for SO 2 to similar soils, which suggests that uptake by soils is not a major sink for atmospheric COS. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that deposition to soil of [ 35S]COS from nuclear reactors is unlikely to contribute significantly to radiation dose from the food chain pathway. The reduction in Vg observed in heat-treated soils indicates a microbial involvement in uptake. However, it seems unlikely that microbial metabolism is the rate-controlling step, since stimulation of the microflora by the addition of nutrients did not increase COS deposition.

  19. A new strategy for Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) control with community participation using a new fumigant formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harburguer, Laura; Beltrán, Gaston; Goldberg, Lucila; Goldberg, Laura; Zerba, Eduardo; Licastro, Susana; Masuh, Héctor

    2011-05-01

    Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever are mosquito-borne viral diseases that coincide with the distribution of Aedes aegypti (L.), the primary vector in the tropical and semitropical world. With no available vaccine, controlling the dengue vector is essential to avoid epidemics. This study evaluates the efficacy of a new smoke-generating formulation containing pyriproxyfen and permethrin in Puerto Libertad, Misiones, Argentina. A fumigant tablet (FT) was applied inside the houses by the community members and compared with a professional application. A treatment combining the application of fumigant tablets indoors and ultralow volume fumigation outdoors was also assessed. The community perceptions and practices about dengue disease and the acceptance of this new nonprofessional FT were evaluated through surveys. Results show >90% adult emergence inhibition and 100% adult mortality with these treatments. More than 80% of the residents applied the FT and preferred participating in a vector control program by using a nonprofessional mosquito control tool, instead of attending meetings and workshops promoting cultural changes.

  20. Effects of ozone fumigation treatment on the removal of residual difenoconazole from strawberries and on their quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heleno, Fernanda F; de Queiroz, Maria Eliana L R; Neves, Antônio Augusto; Freitas, Romenique S; Faroni, Lêda Rita A; De Oliveira, André Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The effect of ozone fumigation on the reduction of difenoconazole residue on strawberries was studied. Strawberries were immersed in 1.0 L of aqueous solution containing 400 μL of the commercial product (250 g L(-1) of difenoconazole) for 1 min. Then, they were dried and exposed to ozone gas (O3) at concentrations of 0.3, 0.6 and 0.8 mg L(-1) for 1 h. The ozone fumigation treatments reduced the difenoconazole residue on strawberries to concentrations below 0.5 mg kg(-1), which corresponds to a 95% reduction. The strawberries treated with ozone and the control group, which was not treated with ozone, were stored at 4°C for 10 days. Some characteristics of the fruit were monitored throughout this period. Among these, pH, weight loss and total color difference did not change significantly (P > 0.05). The fumigation with ozone significantly affected the soluble solids, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid content (vitamin C) of the strawberries preventing a sharp reduction of these parameters during storage.

  1. Fumigant toxicity of cassia and cinnamon oils and cinnamaldehyde and structurally related compounds to Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Young Eun; Kim, Soon-Il; Bang, Hea-Son; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2011-06-10

    The toxicity of two cassia oils, four cinnamon oils and (E)-cinnamaldehyde and (E)-cinnamic acid and 34 structurally related compounds to adult Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer) collected from a poultry house was examined using a vapour-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with those of dichlorvos, a conventional acaricide. The cassia and cinnamon oils (cinnamon technical, cinnamon #500, cassia especial, cassia true, cinnamon bark and cinnamon green leaf) exhibited good fumigant toxicity (LD(50), 11.79-26.40 μg cm(-3)). α-Methyl-(E)-cinnamaldehyde (LD(50), 0.45 μg cm(-3)) and (E)-cinnamaldehyde (0.54 μg cm(-3)) were the most toxic compounds and the toxicity of these compounds was comparable to that of dichlorvos (0.30 μg cm(-3)). Potent fumigant toxicity was also observed in allyl cinnamate, ethyl-α-cyanocinnamate, (E)-2-methoxylcinnamic acid and (Z)-2-methoxylcinnamic acid (LD(50), 0.81-0.92 μg cm(-3)). Structure-activity relationships indicate that structural characteristics, such as types of functional groups and carbon skeleton rather than vapour pressure parameter, appear to play a role in determining toxicity. The essential oils and compounds described merit further study as potential acaricides for the control of D. gallinae populations as fumigants with contact action due to global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic acaricides in the agricultural environment.

  2. Contact and fumigant activities of constituents of Foeniculum vulgare fruit against three coleopteran stored-product insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D H; Ahn, Y J

    2001-03-01

    The insecticidal activities of materials derived from the fruit of fennel, Foeniculum vulgare, against adults of Sitophilus oryzae, Callosobruchus chinensis and Lasioderma serricorne were examined using direct contact application and fumigation methods. The biologically active constituents of the Foeniculum fruits were characterized as the phenylpropenes (E)-anethole and estragole, and the monoterpene (+)-fenchone, by spectroscopic analysis. Responses varied with insect species, compound, dose and exposure time. In a filter paper diffusion test, estragole at 0.168 mg cm-2 caused 91% mortality to S oryzae adults within 1 day after treatment (DAT), whereas (+)-fenchone and (E)-anethole gave over 90% mortality at 2 and 4 DAT, respectively. Against C chinensis adults, all test compounds revealed potent insecticidal activities at 0.021 mg cm-2 at 2 DAT. Against L serricorne adults at 0.105 mg cm-2, (E)-anethole gave 100% mortality at 1 DAT, whereas 90 and 60% mortality at 4 DAT was achieved with estragole and (+)-fenchone, respectively. In a fumigation test, the compounds were much more effective against adults of S oryzae, C chinensis and L serricorne in closed cups than in open ones, indicating that the insecticidal activity of test compounds was largely attributable to fumigant action. As naturally occurring insect-control agents, the F vulgare fruit-derived materials described could be useful for managing field populations of S oryzae, C chinensis and L serricorne.

  3. Contact and fumigant toxicities of calamusenone isolated from Acorus gramineus rhizome against adults of Sitophilus zeamais and Rhizopertha dominica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Zhang Huang; Hong-Xia Hua; Shi-Guang Li; Chang-Ju Yang

    2011-01-01

    Calamusenone [3,8-dimethyl-5-(l-methylethylidene)- 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8-octa-hydroazulene-6-one, C15H220] from Acorus gramineus Soland rhizome was tested in the laboratory for its insecticidal activities against adults of Sitophilus zeamais Motsch. and Rhizopertha dominica (Fab.), using dry film contact and fumigation methods. Responses varied with insect species, dosage and exposure time. In the dry film contact experiment, the highest insecticidal effects of calamusenone against S. zeamais and R. dominica adults were produced at 170.32 μg/cm2 after treatment for 72 h, with 96.2% and 98.7% mortalities, respectively. The median lethal concentration (LC50) (72 h) values of calamusenone against S. zeamais and R. dominica adults were 67.00 μg/cm2 and 77.30 μg/cm2, respectively. As a potential fumigant, calamusenone showed moderate insecticidal effect on the adults of S. zeamais and R. dominica in fumigation experiment, with their LC50 (120 h) values of 125.7μzL/L and 93.64μL/L respectively. Calamusenone isolated from A. gramineus rhizome showed promise as a novel pesticide candidate for stored-product pest control.

  4. Nitrogen fractions in the microbial biomass in soils of southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A.O. Camargo

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of nitrogen compounds with ninhydrin can be used as an indicator of cytoplasmic materials released from microbial cells killed by fumigation. Total-N, ninhydrin-reactive-N (NR-N, ammonium-N (A-N, and α-amino-N in the microbial biomass of soils from the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were determined, in 1996, in 0.5 mol L-1 K2SO4 extracts of fumigated and non-fumigated soils. Total-N varied from 20.3 to 104.4 mg kg-1 and the ninhydrin-reactive-N corresponded, in average, to 27% of this. The ninhydrin-reactive-N was made up of 67% ammonium-N and 33% aminoacids with the amino group at the α-carbon position. It was concluded that colorimetric analysis of NR-N and A-N may be used as a direct measure of microbial N in soil. This simple and rapid procedure is adequate for routine analyses.

  5. On-board conversion of alcohols to ethers for fumigation in compression ignition engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armbruster, H.; Stucki, S. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland). Laboratorium of Energy and Material Cycles; Olsson, E.; Gjirja, S. [Chalmers University, Goteborg (Sweden). Combustion Engine Research Centre

    2003-07-01

    Fumigation of dimethyl ether (DME) is an interesting option for using methanol as a fuel in compression ignition engines. In this concept, a fraction of the methanol used as a fuel is catalytically converted on-board to DME and water, and the products of the conversion are introduced into the engine via the combustion air. With an optimized engine the performance as well as emissions are comparable with those obtained when running the engine on alcohol with polyethylene glycol as ignition improver. The methanol conversion has been tested with different catalysts under various conditions. Because of its superior thermal stability and the low costs, {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been selected as the most promising catalyst for converting methanol to DME in sufficient rates for an on-board application. The chemical kinetics and the mass transfer limitations of the {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst used for the methanol dehydration were evaluated. The rate-determining step of the catalytic reaction is found to be the reaction of adsorbed intermediates (the Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism); mass transfer is limited by Knudsen diffusivity. The kinetic data were used to design a catalytic converter for fuel processing on-board. Providing DME for fumigation in a 180 kW engine will require approximately 0.7 kg of catalyst. The compact catalyst is necessary for an efficient and fast start-up of the process. The transient behaviour (cold/warm start-up; load changes) of a fixed-bed reactor with {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been estimated using simplified models, which show that the cold start problem should be manageable in less than 1 min. With the hot gas of a methanol burner in front of the fixed bed or a bifunctional catalyst, the catalyst bed can be heated to 250{sup o}C and the reaction of methanol to DME started within 25 s. This is an acceptable time for cold-starting an engine in heavy-duty vehicles. (author)

  6. Original Article. Efficacy of electrospun bionanofibers as fumigant pesticides in foodstuff storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahvaisi Somaye

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils as alternative synthetic pesticides for pest management of foodstuffs have recently received increased attention. Controlled and slow release formulations of essential oils are used to enhance their efficiency. Two volatile essential oils of Mentha piperita L. and Salvia officinalis L. were investigated for release rate and mortality percentage by fumigant toxicity against 1st instar larvae of Plodia interpunctella. Electrospinning was used to incorporate various concentrations of essential oils in nanofibers. The essential oils can be released from the nanofibers for long periods of time, from several days to several weeks. Poly(lactic acid was used as a green polymer carrier and the essential oils were incorporated into the nanofibers (8-15v/v% PLA. Insecticidal bioassay revealed that oil-loaded nanofibers (NFOs were more toxic than pure essential oils (PEOs against tested larvae. The LC50 and LT50 of NFOs were 1.2 and 4 times, respectively, more than PEOs. Our results indicated that PEOs completely lost their insecticidal activity after 14 days, whereas at the same period, NFOs had an average of 93% mortality when applied against P. interpunctella. Therefore, it can be concluded that nanofibers improved the persistence of the oil. This study presents S. officinalis has more toxicity and M. piperita had more persistence for controlling the larvae of indian meal moth.

  7. Photosynthesis, chloroplast pigments, and antioxidants in Pinus canariensis under free-air ozone fumigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Then, Ch. [Federal Research and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape, Unit of Alpine Timberline Ecophysiology, Rennweg 1, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Ecophysiology of Plants, Department of Ecology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Life Science Center Weihenstephan, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Herbinger, K. [Institute for Plant Sciences, University of Graz, Schubertstr. 51, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Luis, V.C. [Fundacion Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterraneo (CEAM) Dpto, Restauracion Forestal, University of Alicante, Department of Ecology, Faculty of Sciences, Ap 99, Ctra. San Vicente del Raspeig s/n, San Vicente del Raspeig 03690, Alicante (Spain); Heerdt, C. [Ecoclimatology, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Matyssek, R. [Ecophysiology of Plants, Department of Ecology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Life Science Center Weihenstephan, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Wieser, G. [Federal Research and Training Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape, Unit of Alpine Timberline Ecophysiology, Rennweg 1, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)], E-mail: gerhard.wieser@uibk.ac.at

    2009-02-15

    High O{sub 3} levels, driving uptake and challenging defense, prevail on the Canary Islands, being associated with the hot and dry summers of the Mediterranean-type climate. Pinus canariensis is an endemic conifer species that forms forests across these islands. We investigated the effects of ozone on photosynthesis and biochemical parameters of P. canariensis seedlings exposed to free-air O{sub 3} fumigation at Kranzberg Forest, Germany, where ambient O{sub 3} levels were similar to those at forest sites in the Canary Islands. The twice-ambient O{sub 3} regime (2xO{sub 3}) neither caused visible injury-like chlorotic or necrotic spots in the needles nor significantly affected violaxanthin, antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin levels and the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle. In parallel, stomatal conductance for water vapour, net photosynthesis, intercellular CO{sub 2} concentration, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, as well as antioxidant levels were hardly affected. It is concluded that presently prevailing O{sub 3} levels do not impose severe stress on P. canariensis seedlings. - Twice-ambient ozone does not significantly affect the physiological behavior of Pinus canariensis seedlings.

  8. Simultaneous ozone fumigation and fluoranthene sprayed as mists negatively affected cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Eissa, Fawzy; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2010-07-01

    Ozone (O(3)) fumigated at 120 microg L(-1) for 12 hd(-1) was combined with 10 microM fluoranthene, and other treatments, including Mannitol solution to investigate the interaction of the two pollutants on tomato plant (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). Using ten treatments including Mannitol solution and a control, exposure experiment was conducted for 34 d inside six growth chambers used for monitoring the resulted ecophysiological changes. Visible foliar injury, chlorophyll a fluorescence, leaf pigment contents, CO(2) uptake and water vapor exchange were monitored in tomato. Ozone or fluoranthene independently affected some ecophysiological traits of the tomato. In addition, simultaneous treatments with the duo had increased (additive) negative effects on the photosynthesis rate (A(max)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), chlorophyll pigment contents (Chl a, Chl b and Chl((a+b))) and visible foliar symptoms. Contrarily, alleviation of the negative effects of O(3) on the leaf chlorophyll a fluorescence variables by fluoranthene occurred. Mannitol solution, which functioned as a reactive oxygen species scavenger was able to mitigate some negative effects of the two pollutants on the tomato plants.

  9. Changes of main secondary metabolites in leaves of Ginkgo biloba in response to ozone fumigation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Xingyuan; HUANG Wei; CHEN Wei; DONG Tian; LIU Changbing; CHEN Zhenju; XU Sheng; RUAN Yanan

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effect of elevated O3 on the accumulation of main secondary metabolites in leaves of Ginkgo biloba L., four-year-old trees were exposed in open-top chambers with ambient air and the air with twice ambient O3 concentration in Shenyang in 2006.Elevated O3 increased the concentrations of terpenes, but decreased the concentrations of phenolics in G.biloba leaves.The results showed that secondary compounds from G.biloba leaves responded to the elevated O3 exposure in a different way when compared to previous studies which showed elevated O3 increased the concentrations of phenolics but had no effect on the terpenes in leaves of other deciduous trees.Furthermore, reduced synthesis of phenolics may decrease the resistance of G.biloba to O3 and other environmental factors.On the other hand, the induced synthesis of terpenes may enhance the antioxidant abilities in G.biloba leaves at the end of O3 fumigation.

  10. Control of Meloidogyne chitwoodi in Potato with Fumigant and Nonfumigant Nematicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, R E; Hamm, P B; Williams, R E; Swanson, W H

    2000-12-01

    During 1993-94, several fumigant and nonfumigant nematicides were tested alone and in combination at various rates for control of Columbia root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne chitwoodi) in potato. Ethoprop, oxamyl, or metam sodium alone did not adequately reduce tuber infection. Metam sodium plus ethoprop reduced culled tubers to 3%, and metam sodium plus 2 or 3 foliar applications of oxamyl reduced culls to

  11. Multi-component analysis in sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Angelicae Sinensis Radix by single marker quantitation and chemometric discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajing Lou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A new method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of ferulic acid, senkyunolide A, and Z-ligustilide in Angelicae Sinensis Radix before and after sulfur-fumigation using quantitative analysis of multi-components by a single marker (QAMS. Materials and Methods: The feasibility and accuracy of QAMS were checked by the external standard method, and various high-performance liquid chromatographic instruments and chromatographic conditions were investigated to verify its applicability. Using ferulic acid as the internal reference substance, and the contents of senkyunolide A and Z-ligustilide were calculated according to relative correction factors by high-performance liquid chromatography. Meanwhile, the influence of sulfur-fumigation on these chemical components in Angelicae Sinensis Radix were evaluated and discriminated by chromatographic fingerprint and chemometrics. Results: There was no significant difference observed between the QAMS method and the external standard method. Furthermore, sulfur-fumigation reduced the contents of ferulic acid, senkyunolide A, and Z-ligustilide in Angelicae Sinensis Radix by some degree, and the sun-drying and sulfur-fumigation processing could be easily discriminated by chromatographic fingerprint and chemometrics. Conclusion: QAMS is a convenient and accurate approach to analyzing multi-component when reference substances are unavailable, simultaneously, chemometrics is an effective way to discriminate sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Angelicae Sinensis Radix.

  12. Evaluation of the Influence of Sulfur-Fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba on the Quality of Si Wu Tang by Chromatographic and Chemometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Ke; Cai, Hao; Duan, Yu; Qiao, Feng-Xian; Tu, Si-Cong; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Xiao-Li; Song, Xiao-Qing; Fan, Kai-Lei; Cai, Bao-Chang

    2016-01-01

    An accurate and reliable method of high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint combining with multi-ingredient determination was developed and validated to evaluate the influence of sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba on the quality and chemical constituents of Si Wu Tang. Multivariate data analysis including hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis, which integrated with high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint and multi-ingredient determination, was employed to evaluate Si Wu Tang in a more objective and scientific way. Interestingly, in this paper, a total of 37 and 36 peaks were marked as common peaks in ten batches of Si Wu Tang containing sun-dried Paeoniae Radix Alba and ten batches of Si Wu Tang containing sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba, respectively, which indicated the changed fingerprint profile of Si Wu Tang when containing sulfur-fumigated herb. Furthermore, the results of simultaneous determination for multiple ingredients showed that the contents of albiflorin and paeoniflorin decreased significantly (P < 0.01) and the contents of gallic acid and Z-ligustilide decreased to some extent at the same time when Si Wu Tang contained sulfur-fumigated Paeoniae Radix Alba. Therefore, sulfur-fumigation processing may have great influence on the quality of Chinese herbal prescription.

  13. 浅谈磷化氢环流熏蒸技术的应用%DISCUSSION ON APPLICATION OF PHOSPHINE RECIRCULATION FUMIGATION TECHNOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张来林; 赵英杰; 李昭; 卢凤桐; 谭永清

    2001-01-01

    本文简要介绍了磷化氢环流熏蒸技术的发展概况和系统组成,对环流熏蒸系统配套的产气形式、设备分类、设计、安全性、操作管理以及仓房的气密性等问题进行了阐述.%The development of phosphine recirculation fumigation technology and its system constitution were briefly introduced in this paper.Some problems of necessary accessories to fumigation technology such as phosphine generation method,classification and design of recirculation fumigation equipment,safety,operation management and gas tightness of warehouse were discussed as well.

  14. Effect of Chinese Herbal Fumigation Combined with Tuina on Vertigo and Concentrations of Endothelin and Calcitonin Gene-related Peptide in Patients with Vertebral Artery Cervical Spondylosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Cheng-fei; Liu Xiao-an; Ding Yun

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of Chinese herbal fumigation combined with three-step tuina manipulation on concentration of endothelin (ET) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and vertigo in patients with vertebral artery cervical spondylosis (VACS). Methods:A total of 120 eligible cases were randomly allocated into an observation group and a control group, 60 in each group. Cases in the observation group were treated with Chinese herbal fumigation combined with three-step tuina manipulation, whereas cases in the control group were treated with oral Flunarizine Hydrochloride Capsules. Results: After treatment, vertigo in both groups was alleviated; there were intra-group significant differences in ET decrease and CGRP increase (P Conclusion: Chinese herbal fumigation combined with three-step tuina manipulation can regulate the levels of ET and CGRP and improve vertigo in patients with VACS. Its therapeutic efficacy is superior to oral Flunarizine Hydrochloride Capsules.

  15. Treatment of rheumatic disease by Chinese drugs fumigation and steaming%中药薰蒸治疗风湿性疾病84例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈鹰; 康贤通; 毛婷丽

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To observe therapeutic effect of fumigation and steaming with Chinese drugs in the rheumatic diseases.METHODS:Drugs removing rheumatic disease,warming channels and dispersing cold,activating blood circulation were used for fumigation and steaming treatment in 84 cases with rheumatic diseases,once a day,20 min each time,10 times as a treatment course. Among them,4 cases received treatment for 2 and 3 course of treatment respectively.RESULTS:18 cases were corrected completely,64 were improved,2 showed no improvement,and total effective rate was 98% . CONCLUSION:Through hot and therapeutic effect of drugs,lesions can be managed directly in fumigation and steaming treatment.

  16. Qualitative analysis of a sulfur-fumigated Chinese herbal medicine by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography and high-resolution time of flight mass spectrometry using colorized fuzzy difference data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hao; Cao, Gang; Zhang, Hong-Yan

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the chemical transformation of volatile compounds in sulfur-fumigated Radix Angelicae Sinensis. A comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) and high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HR-TOF/MS) with colorized fuzzy difference (CFD) method was used to investigate the effect of sulfur-fumigation on the volatile components from Radix Angelicae Sinensis. Twenty-five compounds that were found in sun-dried samples disappeared in sulfur-fumigated samples. Seventeen volatile components including two sulfur-containing compounds were newly generated for the first time in volatile oils of sulfur-fumigated Radix Angelicae Sinensis. The strategy can be successfully applied to rapidly and holistically discriminate sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Radix Angelicae Sinensis. GC×GC-HR-TOF/MS based CFD is a powerful and feasible approach for the global quality evaluation of Radix Angelicae Sinensis as well as other herbal medicines.

  17. A purge and trap technique to capture volatile compounds combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry to investigate the effect of sulfur-fumigation on Radix Angelicae Dahuricae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Gang; Li, Qinglin; Zhang, Jida; Cai, Hao; Cai, Baochang

    2014-09-01

    Sulfur-fumigation is known to reduce volatile compounds that are the main active components in herbs used in herbal medicine. We investigated changes in chemical composition between sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated Radix Angelicae Dahuricae using a purge and trap technique to capture volatile compounds, and two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry for identification. Using sun-dried Radix Angelicae Dahuricae samples as a reference, the results showed that 73 volatile compounds, including 12 sulfide compounds, were found to be present only in sulfur-fumigated samples. Furthermore, 32 volatile compounds that were found in sun-dried Radix Angelicae Dahuricae samples disappeared after sulfur-fumigation. The proposed method can be applied to accurately discriminate sulfur-fumigated Radix Angelicae Dahuricae from different commercial sources.

  18. Effects of Tillage Practices on Soil Penetration Resistance, Technical Parameters and Wheat Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.j Afzali

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of tillage practices (with different depths on soil penetration resistance, technical parameters and grain yield of wheat crop. The experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications for two years. Treatments included: moldboard plow fallowed by two passes of disc harrow and leveler (CT, two passes of disc harrow plus leveler (RT, subsoiler fallowed by two passes of disc harrow and leveler (S1D and subsoiler fallowed by rotivator (S1R. The results showed that soil compaction and penetration resistance increased at the end of growth stages because of irrigation operations and cohesion force of soil particles. However due to increasing of cumulative infiltration, it can be concluded that subsoiler caused the formation of micro cracks in different depths of soil. From technical indices viewpoint comparing to CT treatment, S1D and S1R treatments saved fuel consumption up to 2.2 and 10.44 lit ha 1 and tillage operation time up to 0.58 and 1.54 h ha-1, respectively. The result of grain yield assessment showed an increase of 8.5% in grain yield after replacing moldboard plow with annual subsoiling. Subsoiling has advantages such as, good technical indices, elimination of preplanting irrigation and fewer operations in planting time. Finally, subsoiling increased grain yield by 22% as compared to reduced tillage practice

  19. Fungal responses to elevated temperature and soil nitrogen availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, S.; Geyer, K.; Morrison, E. W.; Frey, S. D.

    2016-12-01

    The soil microbial community controls decomposition of organic residues which constitute a large portion of soil organic matter. Microbial growth is impacted by global changes such as warming and soil nitrogen (N) availability. Carbon use efficiency (CUE) is an important parameter that influences soil C dynamics by partitioning organic matter between soil C and CO2 pools. This research focuses on the growth of different fungal species' exposed to varying temperatures and N availabilities, while quantifying respiration (CO2 flux) and microbial growth. To assess individual fungal isolates, we constructed a sterilized artificial soil medium to mimic a sandy loam soil by mixing 70% sand, 20% silt, and 10% clay. Several fungal species of the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were individually grown in this media at different temperatures (15 and 25°C) and N levels. Soil respiration was measured over the incubation period. Fungal biomass was estimated by chloroform fumigation extraction and qPCR of the fungal ITS region. Our results indicate that fungi were able to grow effectively and reproducibly in the artificial soil medium, demonstrating that using an artificial soil is an effective method for assessing individual species responses. Temperature and N availability had a positive affect on C mineralization and biomass. CUE varied among fungal species and, in general, declined with temperature.

  20. A study of the properties of chlorine dioxide gas as a fumigant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaki, Yasufumi; Matsuura, Ayumi; Uekusa, Masashi; Ito, Yoshihiro; Hayashi, Toshiaki

    2016-07-29

    Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a strong oxidant that possesses an antimicrobial activity. We demonstrated here that ClO2 gas is easily generated by mixing 3.35% sodium chlorite solution (Purogene) and 85% phosphoric acid at a 10:1 volume ratio without using an expensive machine. In a test room (87 m(3)), experiments were carried out using various amounts of sodium chlorite solution (0.25 ml/m(3) to 20.0 ml/m(3)). The gas concentration increased in a sodium chlorite volume-dependent manner and reached peak values of from 0.8 ppm to 40.8 ppm at 2 h-3 h, and then gradually decreased. No differences in gas concentrations were observed between 0.1 and 2.5 m above the floor, indicating that the gas was evenly distributed. Under high-humidity (approximately 80% relative humidity), colony formation of both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was completely inhibited by ClO2 gas exposure at 1.0 ml/m(3) sodium chlorite solution (mean maximal concentration of 3.0 ppm). Exposure at 4.0 ml/m(3) sodium chlorite solution (mean maximal concentration of 10.6 ppm) achieved complete inactivation of Bacillus atrophaeus spores. In contrast, without humidification, the efficacy of ClO2 gas was apparently attenuated, suggesting that the atmospheric moisture is indispensable. Delicate electronic devices (computer, camera, etc.) operated normally, even after being subjected to more than 20 times of fumigation. Considering that our method for gas generation is simple, reproducible, and highly effective at decontaminating microbes, our approach is expected to serve as an inexpensive alternative method for cleaning and disinfecting animal facilities.

  1. Modelling mortality of a stored grain insect pest with fumigation: probit, logistic or Cauchy model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Mingren; Renton, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Computer simulation models can provide a relatively fast, safe and inexpensive means to judge and weigh the merits of various pest control management options. However, the usefulness of such simulation models relies on the accurate estimation of important model parameters, such as the pest mortality under different treatments and conditions. Recently, an individual-based simulation model of population dynamics and resistance evolution has been developed for the stored grain insect pest Rhyzopertha dominica, based on experimental results showing that alleles at two different loci are involved in resistance to the grain fumigant phosphine. In this paper, we describe how we used three generalized linear models, probit, logistic and Cauchy models, each employing two- and four-parameter sub-models, to fit experimental data sets for five genotypes for which detailed mortality data was already available. Instead of the usual statistical iterative maximum likelihood estimation, a direct algebraic approach, generalized inverse matrix technique, was used to estimate the mortality model parameters. As this technique needs to perturb the observed mortality proportions if the proportions include 0 or 1, a golden section search approach was used to find the optimal perturbation in terms of minimum least squares (L2) error. The results show that the estimates using the probit model were the most accurate in terms of L2 errors between observed and predicted mortality values. These errors with the probit model ranged from 0.049% to 5.3%, from 0.381% to 8.1% with the logistic model and from 8.3% to 48.2% with the Cauchy model. Meanwhile, the generalized inverse matrix technique achieved similar results to the maximum likelihood estimation ones, but is less time consuming and computationally demanding. We also describe how we constructed a two-parameter model to estimate the mortalities for each of the remaining four genotypes based on realistic genetic assumptions.

  2. Fumigant toxicity of plant essential oils against Camptomyia corticalis (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Ran; Haribalan, Perumalsamy; Son, Bong-Ki; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2012-08-01

    The toxicity of 98 plant essential oils against third instars of cecidomyiid gall midge Camptomyia corticalis (Loew) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was examined using a vapor-phase mortality bioassay. Results were compared with that of a conventional insecticide dichlorvos. Based on 24-h LC50 values, all essential oils were less toxic than dichlorvos (LC50, 0.027 mg/cm3). The LC50 of caraway (Carum carvi L.) seed, armoise (Artemisia vulgaris L.), clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf], niaouli (Melaleuca viridiflora Gaertner), spearmint (Mentha spicata L.), cassia especial (Cinnamomum cassia Nees ex Blume), Dalmatian sage (Salvia offcinalis L.), red thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), bay [Pimenta racemosa (P. Mill.) J.W. Moore], garlic (Allium sativum L.), and pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium L.) oils is between 0.55 and 0.60 mg/cm3. The LC50 of cassia (C. cassia, pure and redistilled), white thyme (T. vulgaris), star anise (Illicium verum Hook.f.), peppermint (Mentha X piperita L.), wintergreen (Gaultheria procumbens L.), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume) bark, sweet marjoram (Origanum majorana L.), Roman chamomile [Chamaemelum nobile (L.) All.], eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.),Virginian cedarwood (Juniperus virginiana L.), pimento berry [Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr.], summer savory (Satureja hortensis L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), and coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) oils is between 0.61 and 0.99 mg/cm3. All other essential oils tested exhibited low toxicity to the cecidomyiid larvae (LC50, >0.99 mg/cm3). Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on the active essential oils as potential larvicides for the control of C. corticalis populations as fumigants with contact action.

  3. A successful case on traditional Chinese fumigation-soaking therapy in treating diabetic peripheral neuropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongfang Liu; Huayang Wu; Lizhong Zhang; Jinxi Zhao

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the scheme of inducing the diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DNP) symptoms by combine Chinese traditional medicine with modern medicine. METHODS: Patient hospitalized on April 1, 2005. Main symptoms in hospitalization: His bilateral fingers and toe tips felt stabbing pain, numb, cold, assuming a type of sock set which alleviated after he had a rest and aggravated after exercise. He had also got the symptom of dizziness, asthenia, eating little food, very thin bowel and body pain which had influence on his sleeping. Physical examination in hospital: The bilateral lower limbs which got a hyperpathia did not swell. The bilateral dorsum pedis artery pulsation was atlenuarive. The skin temperature was not high. Other nerve system examination had been discovered abnormal. Diagnosis: Traditional Chinese medical diagnosis: Xiaokebing (blood stasis for insufficiency of qi, blockage of meridian and collaterals). Modern medical diagnosis: Diabetes type 2, DNP, diabetic lower limbs artery obliteration, diabetic foot (0 level), diabetic retinopathy, coronary atherosclerotic heart disease, hypertension, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary emphysema. Carried on the former therapy plan that continued to use insulin to control blood glucose, depressed blood pressure and total plasma lipoprotein etc. Meanwhile used the therapy of bilateral feet medicinal bath (Sanling 30 g, Ezhu 30 g, Ruxiang 30 g, Moyao 30 g, Zhichuanwu 30 g, Zhicaowu 30 g, Weilingxian 30 g, Mugua 30 g, Sangzhi 30 g), boiled in water, 1 dose everyday, soak feet twice a day, 20-30 minutes once, < 37 ℃. RESULTS: Seven days later, the pain of bilateral feet alleviated obviously, and the bilateral dorsum pedis artery pulsation enhanced. Blood glucose and total plasma lipoprotein had no changes. CONCLUSION: The symptoms of DNP such as pain, coldness, numbness of the lower limbs can be induced by combining feet medicinal bath (fumigation-soaking) treatment with modern medicine.

  4. Quantitative comparison of caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids in Chrysanthemum morifolium flowers and their sulfur-fumigated products by three-channel liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liangmian; Kotani, Akira; Kusu, Fumiyo; Wang, Zhimin; Zhu, Jingjing; Hakamata, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    For the determination of seven caffeoylquinic acids [neochlorogenic acid (NcA), cryptochlorogenic acid (CcA), chlorogenic acid (CA), caffeic acid (CfA), isochlorogenic acid A (Ic A), isochlorogenic acid B (Ic B), isochlorogenic acid C (Ic C)] and two flavonoids [luteolin 7-O-glucoside (LtG) and luteolin (Lt)], a three-channel liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (LC-3ECD) method was established. Chromatographic peak heights were proportional to each concentration, ranging from 2.5 to 100 ng/mL for NcA, CA, CcA, and CfA, and ranging from 2.5 to 250 ng/mL for LtG, Ic B, Ic A, Ic C, and Lt, respectively. The present LC-3ECD method was applied to the quantitative analysis of caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids in four cultivars of Chrysanthemum morifolium flowers and their sulfur-fumigated products. It was found that 60% of LtG and more than 47% of caffeoylquinic acids were lost during the sulfur fumigation processing. Sulfur fumigation showed a destructive effect on the C. morifolium flowers. In addition, principle component analyses (PCA) were performed using the results of the quantitative analysis of caffeoylquinic acids and flavonoids to compare the "sameness" and "differences" of these analytes in C. morifolium flowers and the sulfur-fumigated products. PCA score plots showed that the four cultivars of C. morifolium flowers were clearly classified into four groups, and that significant differences were also found between the non-fumigated C. morifolium flowers and the sulfur-fumigated products. Therefore, it was demonstrated that the present LC-3ECD method coupled with PCA is applicable to the variation analysis of different C. morifolium flower samples.

  5. EFFECT OF WATER AVAILABILITY ON SOIL MICROBIAL BIOMASS IN SECONDARY FOREST IN EASTERN AMAZONIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Gabrig Turbay Rangel-Vasconcelos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil microbial biomass (SMB plays an important role in nutrient cycling in agroecosystems, and is limited by several factors, such as soil water availability. This study assessed the effects of soil water availability on microbial biomass and its variation over time in the Latossolo Amarelo concrecionário of a secondary forest in eastern Amazonia. The fumigation-extraction method was used to estimate the soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen content (SMBC and SMBN. An adaptation of the fumigation-incubation method was used to determine basal respiration (CO2-SMB. The metabolic quotient (qCO2 and ratio of microbial carbon:organic carbon (CMIC:CORG were calculated based on those results. Soil moisture was generally significantly lower during the dry season and in the control plots. Irrigation raised soil moisture to levels close to those observed during the rainy season, but had no significant effect on SMB. The variables did not vary on a seasonal basis, except for the microbial C/N ratio that suggested the occurrence of seasonal shifts in the structure of the microbial community.

  6. Soil microbial community response to hexavalent chromium in planted and unplanted soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipsilantis, Ioannis; Coyne, Mark S

    2007-01-01

    Theories suggest that rapid microbial growth rates lead to quicker development of metal resistance. We tested these theories by adding hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] to soil, sowing Indian mustard (Brassica juncea), and comparing rhizosphere and bulk soil microbial community responses. Four weeks after the initial Cr(VI) application we measured Cr concentration, microbial biomass by fumigation extraction and soil extract ATP, tolerance to Cr and growth rates with tritiated thymidine incorporation, and performed community substrate use analysis with BIOLOG GN plates. Exchangeable Cr(VI) levels were very low, and therefore we assumed the Cr(VI) impact was transient. Microbial biomass was reduced by Cr(VI) addition. Microbial tolerance to Cr(VI) tended to be higher in the Cr-treated rhizosphere soil relative to the non-treated systems, while microorganisms in the Cr-treated bulk soil were less sensitive to Cr(VI) than microorganisms in the non-treated bulk soil. Microbial diversity as measured by population evenness increased with Cr(VI) addition based on a Gini coefficient derived from BIOLOG substrate use patterns. Principal component analysis revealed separation between Cr(VI) treatments, and between rhizosphere and bulk soil treatments. We hypothesize that because of Cr(VI) addition there was indirect selection for fast-growing organisms, alleviation of competition among microbial communities, and increase in Cr tolerance in the rhizosphere due to the faster turnover rates in that environment.

  7. Influence of Lime and Phosphate on Nodulation of Soil-Grown Trifolium subterraneum L. by Indigenous Rhizobium trifolii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendras, A S; Bottomley, P J

    1987-09-01

    Previous research had identified four serogroups of Rhizobium trifolii indigenous to the acidic Abiqua soil (fine, mixed, mesic Cumulic Ultic Haploxeroll). Nodulation of subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) by two of the serogroups, 6 and 36, was differentially influenced by an application of CaCO(3) which raised the pH of the soil from 5.0 to 6.5. These studies were designed to characterize this phenomenon more comprehensively. Liming the soil with either CaCO(3), Ca(OH)(2), MgO, or K(2)CO(3) significantly (P = 0.05) increased the percent nodule occupancy by serogroup 36, whereas the percent nodule occupancy by serogroup 6 was decreased, but the decrease was significant (P = 0.05) only after application of either CaCO(3) or Ca(OH)(2). Application of KH(2)PO(4) (25 mg of P kg of soil), which did not change soil pH, also significantly (P = 0.05) increased the percent nodule occupancy by serogroup 36. Application of KH(2)PO(4) in combination with Ca(OH)(2) produced the same increase in nodule occupancy by serogroup 36 as did individual application of the two materials. Soil populations of serogroup 36 consistently, and in the majority of cases significantly (P = 0.05), outnumbered those of serogroup 6 before planting and after harvest regardless of soil treatment or the outcome of nodulation. Soil chemical and plant analyses provided no evidence that liming was simulating phosphate addition by increasing the availability and subsequent uptake of soil P(i) by the subclover plants. Liming did, however, result in a significant transformation (30 to 50 mg of P kg of soil) of P(i) from the residual soil P(i) fraction into an NaOH-extractable organic P fraction during the preplant equilibration period.

  8. Soil fatigue and its specificity towards pepper plants in greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mar Guerrero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to confirm the depressive effect on pepper plants grown in non-disinfected soils and to ascertain the possible specificity of fatigue with the goal of establishing strategies for disinfecting soils with a broad spectrum of fumigants. Soil samples were taken from six greenhouses that had been used for different numbers of years to grow a monoculture of pepper and which received different disinfestation treatments (methyl bromide, 1,3-dichloropropene+chloropicrin, biosolarization and one which received no treatment. Every soil sample was splitted in three fractions. The first fraction was disinfested with methyl bromide (MB, the second with steam at 120ºC by autoclaving (A, and the third was not disinfected (ND. Pepper plants were cultivated in pots. Celery and lettuce were also cultivated in the same conditions to ascertain the degree to which soil fatigue was specific. In 87.5% of the 16 soil variants, the plants cultivated in the disinfected soil fractions (MB or A were higher than those grown in the non-disinfected fractions. However, in the case of celery and lettuce, the plants cultivated in ND were higher than those cultivated in MB or A. The results show that the fatigue accumulated in the soil of the pepper monoculture was highly specific towards this crop, suggesting that rotation with other crops is an advisable agronomic practice in order to recover the soil productive capacity.

  9. Fumigant Toxicity of Phenylpropanoids Identified in Asarum sieboldii Aerial Parts to Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae) and Coboldia fuscipes (Diptera: Scatopsidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jee Hwan; Perumalsamy, Haribalan; Sankarapandian, Karuppasamy; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2015-06-01

    Lycoriella ingenua (Dufour) (Diptera: Sciaridae) and Coboldia fuscipes (Meigen) (Diptera: Scatopsidae) are two of the most economically important insect pests of cultivated mushrooms. The toxicities to the fly larvae of the three phenylpropanoids (methyleugenol, myristicin, and safrole) from aerial parts of Asarum sieboldii Miquel (Aristolochiaceae) were compared with those of the currently available carbamate insecticide benfuracarb. In a contact+fumigant mortality bioassay with L. ingenua and C. fuscipes larvae, methyleugenol (1.46 and 2.33 µg/cm2) was the most toxic compound, followed by safrole (2.03 and 2.59 µg/cm2) and myristicin (3.59 and 4.96 µg/cm2), based on 24-h LC50 values. The phenylpropanoids were less toxic than benfuracarb (LC50, 0.75 and 0.55 µg/cm2). In vapor-phase mortality tests with the larvae, the phenylpropanoids were consistently more toxic in closed versus open containers, indicating that the effect of the compounds was largely a result of vapor action. Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in the agricultural environment justify further studies on A. sieboldii plant-derived products as potential fumigants for the control of mushroom fly populations in mushroom houses and mushroom compost.

  10. Fumigant antifungal activity of Corymbia citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus essential oils and citronellal against three fungal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Raimundo Wagner de S; Ootani, Marcio A; Ascencio, Sérgio Donizeti; Ferreira, Talita P S; Dos Santos, Manoel M; dos Santos, Gil R

    2014-01-01

    Corymbia citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus essential oils samples were analyzed by GC and GC-MS and their qualitative and quantitative compositions established. The main component of essential oils of C. citriodora and C. nardus was citronellal, at 61.78% and 36.6%, respectively. The essential oils and citronellal were tested for their fumigant antifungal activity against Pyricularia (Magnaporthe) grisea, Aspergillus spp., and Colletotrichum musae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ranged from 100 to 200 ppm for the essential oils and 25 to 50 mg · mL(-1) for citronellal. The contact assay using the essential oils and citronellal showed growth inhibition of the three fungal species. However, a concentration of 1.47 mg · mL(-1) only reduced the inhibition of Aspergillus growth to 90% at 14 days of exposure. For the fumigant assay, 0.05, 0.11, and 0.23 mg · mL(-1) of essential oils and citronellal drastically affected growth of P. grisea, Aspergillus spp., and C. musae. Harmful effects on the sporulation and germination of the three fungi were seen, and there was complete inhibition at 0.15 mg · mL(-1) with both oils and citronellal. This showed that the crude component of essential oils of C. citriodora and C. nardus markedly suppressed spore production, germination, and growth inhibition of P. grisea, Aspergillus spp., and Colletotrichum musae.

  11. Fumigant Antifungal Activity of Corymbia citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus Essential Oils and Citronellal against Three Fungal Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Wagner de S. Aguiar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corymbia citriodora and Cymbopogon nardus essential oils samples were analyzed by GC and GC-MS and their qualitative and quantitative compositions established. The main component of essential oils of C. citriodora and C. nardus was citronellal, at 61.78% and 36.6%, respectively. The essential oils and citronellal were tested for their fumigant antifungal activity against Pyricularia (Magnaporthe grisea, Aspergillus spp., and Colletotrichum musae. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC ranged from 100 to 200 ppm for the essential oils and 25 to 50 mg·mL−1 for citronellal. The contact assay using the essential oils and citronellal showed growth inhibition of the three fungal species. However, a concentration of 1.47 mg·mL−1 only reduced the inhibition of Aspergillus growth to 90% at 14 days of exposure. For the fumigant assay, 0.05, 0.11, and 0.23 mg·mL−1 of essential oils and citronellal drastically affected growth of P. grisea, Aspergillus spp., and C. musae. Harmful effects on the sporulation and germination of the three fungi were seen, and there was complete inhibition at 0.15 mg·mL−1 with both oils and citronellal. This showed that the crude component of essential oils of C. citriodora and C. nardus markedly suppressed spore production, germination, and growth inhibition of P. grisea, Aspergillus spp., and Colletotrichum musae.

  12. Fumigation of a laboratory-scale HVAC system with hydrogen peroxide for decontamination following a biological contamination incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, K M; Calfee, M W; Wood, J P; Mickelsen, L; Attwood, B; Clayton, M; Touati, A; Delafield, R

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate hydrogen peroxide vapour (H2 O2 ) for its ability to inactivate Bacillus spores within a laboratory-scale heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) duct system. Experiments were conducted in a closed-loop duct system, constructed of either internally lined or unlined galvanized metal. Bacterial spores were aerosol-deposited onto 18-mm-diameter test material coupons and strategically placed at several locations within the duct environment. Various concentrations of H2 O2 and exposure times were evaluated to determine the sporicidal efficacy and minimum exposure needed for decontamination. For the unlined duct, high variability was observed in the recovery of spores between sample locations, likely due to complex, unpredictable flow patterns within the ducts. In comparison, the lined duct exhibited a significant desorption of the H2 O2 following the fumigant dwell period and thus resulted in complete decontamination at all sampling locations. These findings suggest that decontamination of Bacillus spore-contaminated unlined HVAC ducts by hydrogen peroxide fumigation may require more stringent conditions (higher concentrations, longer dwell duration) than internally insulated ductwork. These data may help emergency responders when developing remediation plans during building decontamination. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Non-hodgkin lymphoma risk and insecticide, fungicide and fumigant use in the agricultural health study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C R Alavanja

    Full Text Available Farming and pesticide use have previously been linked to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL, chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL and multiple myeloma (MM. We evaluated agricultural use of specific insecticides, fungicides, and fumigants and risk of NHL and NHL-subtypes (including CLL and MM in a U.S.-based prospective cohort of farmers and commercial pesticide applicators. A total of 523 cases occurred among 54,306 pesticide applicators from enrollment (1993-97 through December 31, 2011 in Iowa, and December 31, 2010 in North Carolina. Information on pesticide use, other agricultural exposures and other factors was obtained from questionnaires at enrollment and at follow-up approximately five years later (1999-2005. Information from questionnaires, monitoring, and the literature were used to create lifetime-days and intensity-weighted lifetime days of pesticide use, taking into account exposure-modifying factors. Poisson and polytomous models were used to calculate relative risks (RR and 95% confidence intervals (CI to evaluate associations between 26 pesticides and NHL and five NHL-subtypes, while adjusting for potential confounding factors. For total NHL, statistically significant positive exposure-response trends were seen with lindane and DDT. Terbufos was associated with total NHL in ever/never comparisons only. In subtype analyses, terbufos and DDT were associated with small cell lymphoma/chronic lymphocytic leukemia/marginal cell lymphoma, lindane and diazinon with follicular lymphoma, and permethrin with MM. However, tests of homogeneity did not show significant differences in exposure-response among NHL-subtypes for any pesticide. Because 26 pesticides were evaluated for their association with NHL and its subtypes, some chance finding could have occurred. Our results showed pesticides from different chemical and functional classes were associated with an excess risk of NHL and NHL subtypes, but not all members of any single class of pesticides

  14. Occupational use of insecticides, fungicides ~and fumigants and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and nultiplc myeloma in the Agricultural Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farming and exposure to pesticides have been linked to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and multiple myeloma (MM) in previous studies. We evaluated use of insecticides, fungicides and fumigants and risk of NHL, including MM and other NHL sub-types in the Agricultural Health Study, a ...

  15. PERENNIAL CROP NURSERIES TREATED WITH METHYL BROMIDE AND ALTERNATIVE FUMIGANTS: EFFECTS ON WEED SEED VIABILITY, WEED DENSITIES, AND TIME REQUIRED FOR HAND WEEDING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed control provided by alternative fumigants to methyl bromide (MeBr) needs to be tested in perennial crop nurseries in California because MeBr is being phased out in accordance with the Montreal Protocol, few herbicides are registered for perennial nursery use, and costs of other control measures...

  16. Occupational use of insecticides, fungicides ~and fumigants and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and nultiplc myeloma in the Agricultural Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farming and exposure to pesticides have been linked to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), and multiple myeloma (MM) in previous studies. We evaluated use of insecticides, fungicides and fumigants and risk of NHL, including MM and other NHL sub-types in the Agricultural Health Study, a ...

  17. Activated carbons from end-products of tree nut and tree fruit production as sorbents for removing methyl bromide in ventilation effluent from postharvest chamber fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    End-products of tree nuts and tree fruits grown in California, USA were evaluated for the ability to remove methyl bromide from the ventilation effluent of postharvest chamber fumigations. Activated carbon sorbents from walnut and almond shells as well as peach and prune pits were prepared using dif...

  18. Development of an Activated Carbon-Based Electrode for the Capture and Rapid Electrolytic Reductive Debromination of Methyl Bromide from Postharvest Fumigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanqing; Liu, Chong; Cui, Yi; Walse, Spencer S; Olver, Ryan; Zilberman, David; Mitch, William A

    2016-10-18

    Due to concerns surrounding its ozone depletion potential, there is a need for technologies to capture and destroy methyl bromide (CH3Br) emissions from postharvest fumigations applied to control agricultural pests. Previously, we described a system in which CH3Br fumes vented from fumigation chambers could be captured by granular activated carbon (GAC). The GAC was converted to a cathode by submergence in a high ionic strength solution and connection to the electrical grid, resulting in reductive debromination of the sorbed CH3Br. The GAC bed was drained and dried for reuse to capture and destroy CH3Br fumes from the next fumigation. However, the loose GAC particles and slow kinetics of this primitive electrode necessitated improvements. Here, we report the development of a cathode containing a thin layer of small GAC particles coating carbon cloth as a current distributor. Combining the high sorption potential of GAC for CH3Br with the conductivity of the carbon cloth current distributor, the cathode significantly lowered the total cell resistance and achieved 96% reductive debromination of CH3Br sorbed at 30% by weight to the GAC within 15 h at -1 V applied potential vs standard hydrogen electrode, a time scale and efficiency suitable for postharvest fumigations. The cathode exhibited stable performance over 50 CH3Br capture and destruction cycles. Initial cost estimates indicate that this technique could treat CH3Br fumes at ∼$5/kg, roughly one-third of the cost of current alternatives.

  19. Diversity and Dynamics of Soil Free-Living Nematode Populations in a Mediterranean Agroecosystem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Wen-Ju; I.LAVIAN; S.PEN-MOURATOV; Y.STEINBERGER

    2005-01-01

    To determine the effect of agricultural management on the dynamics and functional diversity of soil nematode communities in a carrot field at Kibbutz Ramat Hakovesh, Israel, soil samples from 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm depths were collected during the growing season of carrot. Indices were used to compare and assess the response of soil free-living nematode communities to agricultural management. Eighteen nematode families and 20 genera were observed during the growing period, with Cephalobus, Rhabditidae, Aphelenchus, Tylenchus, and Dorylaimus being the dominant genera/families.During the planting, mid-season and post-harvest periods the total number of nematodes at both depths was significantly lower (P < 0.01) in the carrot treatment than in the control plots, while during the harvest period at both depths total nematodes and bacterivores were significantly higher in the treatment plots (P < 0.01). The values of the maturity index (MI) at both depths were found to be significantly lower in the treatment plots than in the control plots during the pre-planting period (P < 0.05). Overall, WI, MI and PPI were found to be more sensitive indicators than other ecological indices for assessing the response of nematode communities to agricultural management in a Mediterranean agroecosystem.

  20. Insecticidal Activity of Melaleuca alternifolia Essential Oil and RNA-Seq Analysis of Sitophilus zeamais Transcriptome in Response to Oil Fumigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Min; Xiao, Jin-Jing; Zhou, Li-Jun; Liu, Yang; Wu, Xiang-Wei; Hua, Ri-Mao; Wang, Gui-Rong; Cao, Hai-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Background The cereal weevil, Sitophilus zeamais is one of the most destructive pests of stored cereals worldwide. Frequent use of fumigants for managing stored-product insects has led to the development of resistance in insects. Essential oils from aromatic plants including the tea oil plant, Melaleuca alternifolia may provide environmentally friendly alternatives to currently used pest control agents. However, little is known about molecular events involved in stored-product insects in response to plant essential oil fumigation. Results M. alternifolia essential oil was shown to possess the fumigant toxicity against S. zeamais. The constituent, terpinen-4-ol was the most effective compound for fumigant toxicity. M. alternifolia essential oil significantly inhibited the activity of three enzymes in S. zeamais, including two detoxifying enzymes, glutathione S-transferase (GST), and carboxylesterase (CarE), as well as a nerve conduction enzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Comparative transcriptome analysis of S. zeamais through RNA-Seq identified a total of 3,562 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), of which 2,836 and 726 were up-regulated and down-regulated in response to M. alternifolia essential oil fumigation, respectively. Based on gene ontology (GO) analysis, the majority of DEGs were involved in insecticide detoxification and mitochondrial function. Furthermore, an abundance of DEGs mapped into the metabolism pathway in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database were associated with respiration and metabolism of xenobiotics, including cytochrome P450s, CarEs, GSTs, and ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters). Some DEGs mapped into the proteasome and phagosome pathway were found to be significantly enriched. These results led us to propose a model of insecticide action that M. alternifolia essential oil likely directly affects the hydrogen carrier to block the electron flow and interfere energy synthesis in

  1. Novel characterization of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae before and after the sulfur-fumigation process by combining high performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint and multi-ingredients determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Liu, Jingjing; Cai, Hao; Li, Songlin; Ma, Xiaoqing; Lou, Yajing; Qin, Kunming; Guan, Hongyue; Cai, Baochang

    2014-07-01

    Harmful sulfur-fumigation processing method is abused during Radix Angelicae Dahuricae preparation. However, the analytical technique characterizing Radix Angelicae Dahuricae before and after the sulfur-fumigation process is absent. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique was adopted to develop methods combining finger-print analysis and multi-ingredients simultaneous determination for quality evaluation of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae before and after the sulfur-fumigation process. The chromatographic fingerprint method was established for qualitative analysis coupled with statistical cluster analysis basing on Euclidean distance. Additionally, a determination method was developed for quantitative analysis, which was able to assay the concentrations of the major coumarins including imperatorin, isoimperatorin, xanthotoxin, xanthotoxol, isoimpinellin, oxypeucedanin, and bergapten in Radix Angelicae Dahuricae simultaneously. The separations of the two methods were both achieved on a Hypersil octadecylsilyl C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) at 35°C under different strategic gradient elution programs. The detection wavelength was set at 254 nm all the time. Method validation data indicated that the methods were both reliable and applicable. They were then used to assay different Radix Angelicae Dahuricae samples collected from good agricultural practice (GAP) bases and local herbal markets. The successful application demonstrated that the combination of HPLC fingerprint and simultaneous quantification of multi-ingredients offers an efficient approach for quality evaluation of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae before and after the sulfur-fumigation process. In order to discriminate Radix Angelicae Dahuricae before and after the sulfur-fumigation process, oxypeucedanin, and xanthotoxol were the most sensitive biomarkers and should be determined.

  2. Novel characterization of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae before and after the sulfur-fumigation process by combining high performance liquid chromatographic fingerprint and multi-ingredients determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Liu, Jingjing; Cai, Hao; Li, Songlin; Ma, Xiaoqing; Lou, Yajing; Qin, Kunming; Guan, Hongyue; Cai, Baochang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Harmful sulfur-fumigation processing method is abused during Radix Angelicae Dahuricae preparation. However, the analytical technique characterizing Radix Angelicae Dahuricae before and after the sulfur-fumigation process is absent. Materials and Methods: The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique was adopted to develop methods combining finger-print analysis and multi-ingredients simultaneous determination for quality evaluation of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae before and after the sulfur-fumigation process. The chromatographic fingerprint method was established for qualitative analysis coupled with statistical cluster analysis basing on Euclidean distance. Additionally, a determination method was developed for quantitative analysis, which was able to assay the concentrations of the major coumarins including imperatorin, isoimperatorin, xanthotoxin, xanthotoxol, isoimpinellin, oxypeucedanin, and bergapten in Radix Angelicae Dahuricae simultaneously. The separations of the two methods were both achieved on a Hypersil octadecylsilyl C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) at 35°C under different strategic gradient elution programs. The detection wavelength was set at 254 nm all the time. Method validation data indicated that the methods were both reliable and applicable. They were then used to assay different Radix Angelicae Dahuricae samples collected from good agricultural practice (GAP) bases and local herbal markets. Results: The successful application demonstrated that the combination of HPLC fingerprint and simultaneous quantification of multi-ingredients offers an efficient approach for quality evaluation of Radix Angelicae Dahuricae before and after the sulfur-fumigation process. Conclusion: In order to discriminate Radix Angelicae Dahuricae before and after the sulfur-fumigation process, oxypeucedanin, and xanthotoxol were the most sensitive biomarkers and should be determined. PMID:25210323

  3. Discriminating impacts of geomorphological and human factors on vineyard soil erosion (Burgundy, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevigny, Emmanuel; Quiquerez, Amélie; Petit, Christophe; Curmi, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    The Burgundy vineyards have been recognized for the high diversity of Terroirs, controlled by complex interactions between natural features, historical parameters and soil management practices. Vineyards are known to undergo substantial soil loss in comparison with other types of agricultural land. Hydric erosion on vineyards is controlled by complex interactions of natural and anthropogenic factors leading to intra-plot spatial heterogeneities of topsoil at a scale of a metre. Studying the relationship between soils and their degradation is crucial in this situation where soil sustainability is threatened. This study explores the relative influences of historical and present-day anthropogenic factors and geomorphological processes controlling soil erosion on vineyard hillslopes. The selected area was located in the Monthelie vineyard (Côte de Beaune, France) where intensive erosion occurred during high-intensity rainfall events. Soil erosion quantification was performed at a square-metre scale using dendrogeomorphology. This method is based on the measurement of the unearthing of the stock located on the vine plants, considered as a passive marker of soil-surface vertical displacement since the year of plantation. The obtained maps, together with various complementary datasets, such as geological and geomorphological data, but also historical documents (cadastral plans, cadastral matrices and old aerial photographs) allow landscape evolution to be assessed. The combination of all these data shows that spatial distribution and intensity of erosion are controlled mainly by lithology and slope value. However, our study highlights that the sediment dynamics in this vineyard plot is highly related to historical former plot limits and present-day management practices. Nonetheless, quantification of sediment dynamic for the last decade reveals that the impacts of historical structures are disappearing gradually, in response to present-day management practices and

  4. Fumigant Toxicity of Petroselinum Crispum L. (Apiaceae Essential Oil on Trialeurodes Vaporariorum (Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae Adults Under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodi Leila

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is one of the most harmful, world-wide known pests of greenhouse crops and ornamental plants. This insect feeds on plant sap, produces honeydew, and transmits plant viruses, while causing quantitative and qualitative damage to plants. For controlling this pest in greenhouses, plant essential oils are used as an alternative to chemical insecticidal. So in this study, fumigant toxicity of Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae plant oil on the abovementioned adult pest was investigated. Dry seeds were ground and subjected to hydrodistillation using a modified Clevenger-type apparatus and the resulting oil contained myristicin (42.65%, β-phellandrene (21.83%, p-1,3,8-menthatriene (9.97%, and β-myrcene (4.25%. All bioassay tests were conducted at 27±2°C, 65±5% relative humidity (RH and at a photoperiod of 16 : 8 h (light : dark. This research was performed in a completely randomised design with six treatments (five different concentrations of essential oils plus the control. Each concentration included three replicates and each replicate consisted of 20 adult pests. The results showed that the aforementioned essential oil showed significant mortality of adults 24 h after exposure. The value LC50 of the mentioned plant oil on T. vaporariorum was 2.41 μl/l air. And mortality percentage showed higher sensitivity of T. vaporariorum against the application of the essential oil. The value LT50 estimated for T. vaporariorum in a concentration of 2.41 μl/l air was 8.17 h. The fumigant toxicity of this essential oil had an ordered relationship with the concentration and time exposure. The results of this research showed that the mentioned plant oil had appropriate insecticidal effects on these greenhouse pests. The findings showed that P. crispum oil had a high impact on the above-mentioned pest, and its use is suggested because of its high potential fumigant toxicity. The oil of P. crispum may be

  5. Influence of Lime and Phosphate on Nodulation of Soil-Grown Trifolium subterraneum L. by Indigenous Rhizobium trifolii†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almendras, Angela S.; Bottomley, Peter J.

    1987-01-01

    Previous research had identified four serogroups of Rhizobium trifolii indigenous to the acidic Abiqua soil (fine, mixed, mesic Cumulic Ultic Haploxeroll). Nodulation of subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) by two of the serogroups, 6 and 36, was differentially influenced by an application of CaCO3 which raised the pH of the soil from 5.0 to 6.5. These studies were designed to characterize this phenomenon more comprehensively. Liming the soil with either CaCO3, Ca(OH)2, MgO, or K2CO3 significantly (P = 0.05) increased the percent nodule occupancy by serogroup 36, whereas the percent nodule occupancy by serogroup 6 was decreased, but the decrease was significant (P = 0.05) only after application of either CaCO3 or Ca(OH)2. Application of KH2PO4 (25 mg of P kg of soil−1), which did not change soil pH, also significantly (P = 0.05) increased the percent nodule occupancy by serogroup 36. Application of KH2PO4 in combination with Ca(OH)2 produced the same increase in nodule occupancy by serogroup 36 as did individual application of the two materials. Soil populations of serogroup 36 consistently, and in the majority of cases significantly (P = 0.05), outnumbered those of serogroup 6 before planting and after harvest regardless of soil treatment or the outcome of nodulation. Soil chemical and plant analyses provided no evidence that liming was simulating phosphate addition by increasing the availability and subsequent uptake of soil Pi by the subclover plants. Liming did, however, result in a significant transformation (30 to 50 mg of P kg of soil−1) of Pi from the residual soil Pi fraction into an NaOH-extractable organic P fraction during the preplant equilibration period. PMID:16347431

  6. Effect of forest and soil type on microbial biomass carbon and respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habashi, Hashem

    2016-09-01

    The aim of study was to evaluate the variation of soil microbial biomass carbon (Cmic) and microbial respiration (MR) in three types soil (Chromic Cambisols, Chromic Luvisols and Eutric Leptosols) of mixed beech forest (Beech- Hornbeam and Beech- Maple). Soil was randomly sampled from 0-10 cm layer (plant litter removed), 90 soil samples were taken. Cmic determined by the fumigation-extraction method and MR by closed bottle method. Soil Corg, Ntot and pH were measured. There are significant differences between the soil types concerning the Cmic content and MR. These parameters were highest in Chromic Cambisols following Chromic Luvisols, while the lowest were in Eutric Leptosols. A similar trend of Corg and Ntot was observed in studied soils. Two-way ANOVA indicated that soil type and forest type have significantly effect on the most soil characteristics. Chromic Cambisols shows a productive soil due to have the maximum Cmic, MR, Corg and Ntot. In Cambisols under Beech- Maple forest the Cmic value and soil C/N ratio were higher compared to Beech-Hornbeam (19.5 and 4.1 mg C g-1, and 16.3 and 3.3, respectively). This fact might be indicated that Maple litter had more easy decomposable organic compounds than Hornbeam. According to regression analysis, 89 and 68 percentage of Cmic variability could explain by soil Corg and Ntot respectively.

  7. Wildfire effects on biological properties of soils in forest-steppe ecosystems of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Maksimova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Soils affected by forest wildfires in 2010 in Russia were studied on postfire and mature plots near the Togljatty city, Samara region. Soil biological properties and ash composition dynamics were investigated under the forest fire affect: a place of local forest fire, riding forest fire and unaffected site by fire-control (mature during 3 yr of restoration. Soil samples were collected at 0–15 cm. Soil biological properties was measured by the fumigation method. The analytical data obtained shows that wildfires lead to serious changes in a soil profile and soil chemistry of upper horizons. Wildfires change a chemical composition of soil horizons and increase their ash-content. Fires lead to accumulation of biogenic elements' content (P and K in the solum fine earth. Calcium content is increased as a result of fires that leads to an alkaline pH of the solum. The values of nutrients decreased as a result of leaching out with an atmospheric precipitation during the second year of restoration. Thus, when the upper horizons are burning the ash arriving on a soil surface enrich it with nutrients. The mature (unaffected by fire soils is characterized by the greatest values of soil microbial biomass in the top horizon and, respectively, the bigger values of basal respiration whereas declining of the both parameters was revealed on postfire soils. Nevertheless this influence does not extend on depth more than 10 cm. Thus, fire affect on the soil were recognized in decreasing of microbiological activity.

  8. Performance characteristics of a diesel engine using low- and medium-energy gases as a fuel supplement (fumigation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monford, L. G.

    1976-01-01

    The use of low- and medium-energy gases derived from solid waste is investigated. Gases that simulate those gases that could be derived from refuse were injected into the air inlet of a 298-kilowatt (400 horsepower) diesel engine as a fuel supplement. This process is called fumigation. Three different gases with thermal-energy contents of 6.11 MJ/cu m (164 Btu/cu ft), 18.1 MJ/cu m (485 Btu/cu ft), and 18.8 MJ/cu m (505 Btu/cu ft, respectively, were used at rates ranging as high as 20 percent of the normal fuel oil energy at four different engine load points. The test results indicated approximately 100 percent gas energy utilization with no observable deleterious effect on the engine.

  9. Advances in understanding ozone impact on forest trees: messages from novel phytotron and free-air fumigation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyssek, R; Karnosky, D F; Wieser, G; Percy, K; Oksanen, E; Grams, T E E; Kubiske, M; Hanke, D; Pretzsch, H

    2010-06-01

    Recent evidence from novel phytotron and free-air ozone (O3) fumigation experiments in Europe and America on forest tree species is highlighted in relation to previous chamber studies. Differences in O3 sensitivity between pioneer and climax species are examined and viewed for trees growing at the harsh alpine timberline ecotone. As O3 apparently counteracts positive effects of elevated CO2 and mitigates productivity increases, response is governed by genotype, competitors, and ontogeny rather than species per se. Complexity in O3 responsiveness increased under the influence of pathogens and herbivores. The new evidence does not conflict in principle with previous findings that, however, pointed to a low ecological significance. This new knowledge on trees' O3 responsiveness beyond the juvenile stage in plantations and forests nevertheless implies limited predictability due to complexity in biotic and abiotic interactions. Unravelling underlying mechanisms is mandatory for assessing O3 risks as an important component of climate change scenarios.

  10. FUMIGANT EFFICACY OF 1,8-CINEOLE AND EUGENOL ON THE PUPAL STAGE OF TRIBOLIUM CASTANEUM (HERBST (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Liška

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The fumigant efficacy of 1,8-cineole and eugenol compounds was tested on the pupal stage of the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst. Effects of those compounds were determined as mortality as well as impact on development of treated male and female pupae. Also differences in sensitivity to the tested compounds between sexes of T. castaneum pupae were assessed. Compounds were tested at 3 doses rate 0.34, 0.86 and 1.71 ml L-1 vol. at 30±1°C and 70±10% r.h. during 48 h. Compounds toxicity was expressed in two action modes: lethal, and as an impediment to normal metamorphosis of pupae into adult stage, forming "adultoids" and deformed adults (at both sexes. Male pupae were generally more sensitive to both tested compounds. Overall, better efficiency was performed with 1,8-cineole, while eugenol had not accomplished promising effect on the tested pupae.

  11. Effectiveness of Sulfuryl Fluoride Fumigation for the Control of Phosphine-Resistant Grain Insects Infesting Stored Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opit, George P; Thoms, Ellen; Phillips, Thomas W; Payton, Mark E

    2016-04-01

    A field experiment was conducted in eight 13.6-MT steel bins containing 6.8 MT each of wheat to assess efficacy of sulfuryl fluoride or SF fumigant to control phosphine-resistant and susceptible Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Approximately 400 adults of each type of beetle were added to each bin. Additionally, muslin bags containing immature stages and adults, with their respective diets, were also placed in bins. Four bins were fumigated with SF and others were untreated control bins. The SF dosages in treated bins ranged from 1,196–1,467 mg-h/liter. Mortality of adults in each bag was assessed 5 d postfumigation; diet minus adults was incubated in a jar, and number of adults counted after 8 wk. No significant change occurred in number of insect-damaged kernels in SF-treated bins. In trier samples from SF-treated bins, R. dominica numbers declined from 24 prefumigation to 0 at 3- and 6-wk postfumigation; T. castaneum numbers were unchanged. In WBII traps from SF-treated bins, numbers R. dominica and T. castaneum declined from 25 and 33, respectively, prefumigation to 0 or near 0 at 3- and 6-wk postfumigation. Mortalities of resistant and susceptible adult R. dominica, and adult and large larvae of T. castaneum in SF-treated bags was 100%. For all four types of beetles, adult numbers in jars associated with SF-treated bins were 0 or near 0. Results show SF is effective against all life stages of phosphine-resistant R. dominica and T. castaneum, and can be used for phosphine resistance management.

  12. 三种不同熏蒸方式对储粮害虫防治效果比较%CONTROL EFFECT OF THREE DIFFERENT KINDS OF FUMIGATION MODES AGAINST STORED GRAIN INSECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兰芳; 凌建

    2011-01-01

    At the same warehouse types and grain quality, the control effects have been investigated and com-pared by three fumigation modes, such as phosphine recirculation fumigation under film, natural deliques-cence on the surface of grain bulk and natural deliquescence under film. The fumigation doses decreased 1/ 3 by natural deliquescence under film than before, the optimum scheme of fumigation has also been select-ed.%相同的仓型、粮质条件,采用磷化铝膜下环流、粮面自然潮解、粮面膜下自然潮解(一次投该仓用药总量的2/3)三种熏蒸方法,比较其防治效果,优选出最佳熏蒸方案.

  13. Decomposition of Straw in Soil after Stepwise Repeated Additions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse Holst

    1979-01-01

    of laboratory incubation, following the first repeated application, by determination of the total amount of labelled C in the soils and labelled C in the soil amino acids. The overall pattern of decomposition was similar whether the soil was amended with one or with several successive applications. Four years...... after the first repeated addition of labelled straw the soils were subjected to a number of “stress” treatments: addition of unlabelled glucose, air-drying, oven-drying, grinding and fumigation with vapour of chloroform, respectively. The CO2 that developed during the first 10 days after the treatments...... accounted for 2.6% of the labelled C in the soil amended with one repeated addition, and 1.0% in the soil amended with 4 repeated additions. The increase in the evolution of labelled CO2-C caused by the stress treatments ranged from 0.3 to 1.7% of the labelled C in the soil: air-drying had the least effect...

  14. [Effects of colistin sulfate residue on soil microbial community structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yi; Peng, Jin-Ju; Chen, Jin-Jun; Fan, Ting-Li; Sun, Yong-Xue

    2014-06-01

    By using fumigation extraction and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) methods, the change of characteristics of soil microbial community structure caused by residue of colistin sulfate (CS) was studied. The results showed that the CS (w(cs) > or = 5 mg x kg(-1)) had a significant effect on the microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and it was dose-dependent where MBC decreased with the increase of CS concentration in soil. The MBC in soil decreased by 52. 1% when the CS concentration reached 50 mg x kg(-1). The total PLFA of soil in each CS treatment was significantly decreased during the sampling period compared with the control group and showed a dose-dependent relationship. The soil microbial community structure and diversity in the low CS group (w(cs) = 0.5 mg x kg(-1)) were not significantly different from the control group on 7th and 49th day. However, they were significantly different on 21st and 35th day especially in the high CS group (w(cs) = 50 mg x kg(-1)). It was concluded that CS could change the structure of soil microorganisms and varied with time which might be caused by the chemical conversion and degradation of CS in soil.

  15. Heterotrophic components of soil respiration in pastures and forests in southwestern Amazonia, Acre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Atlas Davidson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present data on soil microbial biomass and heterotrophic respiration in pastures, mature and secondary forests, in order to elucidate their contribution to total CO2 flux from soil to atmosphere. The research was conducted in Southwestern Amazonia, Acre State, Brazil. Microbial biomass was estimated using a variation of the traditional fumigation-extraction method and heterotrophic respiration was measured using respirometry flasks attached to an infrared gas analyzer. Soil microbial biomass and heterotrophic respiration did not differ statistically among pastures, mature and secondary forests. These laboratory results indicate that higher CO2 fluxes from pasture soils measured in situ are probably due to higher root respiration by pasture grasses.

  16. Relationship Between Soil Microbial Biomass C and N and Mineralizable Nitrogen in Some Arable Soils on Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUJIANBIN; LISHENGXIU

    1998-01-01

    The chloroform fumigation-incubation metho was used to measur the soil microbial biomass C(SMBC) and N(SMBN) in 16 loessial soils sampled from Ansai,Yongshou and Yangling in Shaanxi Province.The SMBC ontents in the soils ranged from 75.9 to 301.0μg C g-1 with an average of 206.μgCg-1,accounting for 1.36%-6.24% of the total soil organic C with an average of 3.07%,and the SMBN contents from 0.51 to 68.40μg Ng-1 with an average of 29.4μg N g-1,accounting for 0.20%-5.65% of the total N in the soils with an average of 3.36%.A close relationship was found between SMBC and SMBN,and they both were positively correlated with total organic C, total N,NaOH hydrolizable N and mineralizable N.These results confirmed tha soil microbial biomass had a comparative role in nutrient cycles of soils.

  17. Efeito residual de herbicidas em pré-plantio do feijoeiro, em dois sistemas de aplicação em plantio direto e sua viabilidade econômica Economic viability of residual herbicides in dry bean pre-planting under two aplication methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Cobucci

    2004-12-01

    pre-planting of common beans. The study was conducted in Santo Antônio de Goiás, Brazil, in 1999/2000 on three t ha-1 of dry biomass. The 60 treatments were applied on the top of the weed plants (Commelina benghalensis and Bidens pilosa disposed as a 2x10x3 factorial, with split-plots in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. The first factor consisted of the desiccation systems in the area (Integrated Control System (ICS and Apply and Sow. ICS consisted of sulfosate (720 g ha-1 applied 20 days before planting and paraquat 200 g ha-1 added to the residual herbicides and applied immediately after sowing. Apply and Sow consisted of (sulfosate 720 g ha-1 added to the residual herbicides, applied five days before sowing. The second factor consisted of the residual herbicides applied in g ha-1, sulfentrazone (200 and 300, dimethenamid (900 and 1.125; clomazone (360; pendimethalin (2.500, s-metolachlor (768 and 1152, diclosulan (12,45 and check; and the third factor consisted of the doses of the post-emergence herbicides: imazamox (15 + bentazon (240, imazamox (30 + bentazon (480 and the check. The results showed that the residual herbicides applied in the ICS and Apply and Plant systems reduced the initial growth of Bidens pilosa, but only the herbicides diclosulan and sulfentrazone showed the same effect on Euphorbia heterophylla. The use of residual herbicides in pre-planting was economically viable reducing the amount of herbicides applied in pre-emergence, except for dimethenamid and s-metolachlor.

  18. THE APPLICATION RESEARCH OF RECIRCULATION FUMIGATION IN HORIZONTAL VENTILATION SYSTEM%环流熏蒸在横向通风系统中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈邦灶; 王飞

    2016-01-01

    Horizontal recirculation fumigation was adopt to early indica rice under film by using mobile recircula‐tion device combined with horizontal ventilation system in warehouse ,to explore the technical features ,op‐eration technology and application effect of the recirculation fumigation in warehouse within the horizontal ventilation system . Experiments show s that using horizontal velitation system can make phosphine gases a‐chieve the minimum and maximum concentration ratio of 0 .6 within 3 hours after the end of recirculation fumigation application , it also can quickly and evenly make an effective concentration of phosphine gases in grain bulk , grately alleviate working intensity , enhance the effect of fumigation and emergency manage‐ment ability .%对平房仓储藏的早籼稻谷采用移动式环流装置结合横向通风系统进行膜下横向环流熏蒸,探究平房仓环流熏蒸在横向通风系统中的技术特点、操作工艺和应用效果。试验表明,利用横向通风系统可使P H3气体在结束环流施药后3 h内,达到最低与最高浓度比0.6的要求,可以在粮堆内快速而均匀地形成有效浓度,大幅减轻劳动强度,增强熏蒸效果和应急情况的处理。

  19. 烯丙基异硫氰酸酯的熏蒸毒力研究%FUMIGATION ACTIVITY OF THE ALLYL ISOTHIOCYANATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春武; 谢令德; 陈雅群; 何君; 贺艳萍

    2012-01-01

    以玉米象和赤拟谷盗作为实验对象,采用熏蒸方式对烯丙基异硫氰酸酯的毒力进行测定.结果表明,烯丙基异硫氰酸酯对所研究的两种害虫有较好的快速致死作用,同时研究发现在相同熏蒸时间内烯丙基异硫氰酸酯对玉米象熏蒸的LC50和LC99均小于对赤拟谷盗的LC50和LC99,这说明烯丙基异硫氰酸酯对玉米象的熏蒸效果比对赤拟谷盗的好.%Chosing Si tophilus zesmais (Motschulsky) and Tribolium castaneun (Herbst) as experimental objects, the toxicity for the allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is tested systematically by fumigation method. The result demonstrates that the allyl isothiocyanate presents rapid lethal effect against both of the two types of insects. The research also shows that both the LC50 and the LC99 of the fumigation of the allyl isothiocyanate to the Sitophilus zeamais are less than those of the allyl isothiocyanate to the Tribolium castaneum exposuring the same fumigating time, which indicates that the fumigating effect of the allyl isothiocyanate to the Sitophilus zeamais is more effective than that of the allyl isothiocyanate to the Tribolium castaneum.

  20. Fumigation effects of two fumigates on different development stages of the gypsy moth%2种不同熏蒸剂对舞毒蛾不同虫态的杀灭效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞峰; 程瑜; 杨菲; 康芬芬; 魏亚东

    2013-01-01

    为判断溴甲烷和硫酰氟对舞毒蛾不同虫态的杀灭效果,在25℃下,分别在经过气密性检测的熏蒸桶内投入16、20、24、32 g/m3的溴甲烷和40、56、72、88 g/m3的硫酰氟,熏蒸处理舞毒蛾卵、幼虫、蛹和成虫4.5h.结果表明,经过4.5h熏蒸,杀灭舞毒蛾卵、1龄幼虫、蛹和成虫的溴甲烷浓度分别为32、20、24和16 g/m3,杀灭上述虫态硫酰氟浓度分别为88、56、72和40 g/m3.本文结果表明,舞毒蛾卵为最耐受溴甲烷和硫酰氟熏蒸的虫态,在目前口岸实际熏蒸处理中应充分考虑熏蒸剂对舞毒蛾卵的杀灭效果.%In order to determine the fumigation effects of methyl bromide (MB) and sulfuryl fluoride (SF) on different development stages of the gypsy moth Lymantria dispar L.,the killing effects were tested in the laboratory at 25 ℃ and 16,20,24 and 32 g/m3of MB,and 40,56,72 and 88 g/m3 of SF,respectively,for 4.5 h.The results showed that the adults,larvae,pupae and eggs could be completely killed after treated with 16,20,24 and 32 g/m3 of MB and 40,56,72 and 88 g/m3 of SF,respectively,at 25 ℃ for 4.5 h.These results showed that the egg was the most tolerant stage against MB and SF,which should be taken into consideration in port fumigation treatments.

  1. 膜下环流熏蒸在高大平房仓的应用%RECIRCULATION FUMIGATION UNDER FILM IN LARGE HORIZONTAL WAREHOUSE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖新华; 郭谊; 林镇清; 陈健璋; 任宏霞

    2011-01-01

    The technology of recirculation fumigation under film could solve the problems of poor airtightness of large horizontal warehouse and poor effect of fumigation. The test improved has the control effect, lowered the dosage of fumigants, saved the cost. Phosphine in grain bulks realized the fast and even distribution. It also had lots of advantages, such as the longest time for effect phosphine concentration maintenance, the maximum CT value, the best persistance of phosphine concentration and excellent effect of pests control.%采用磷化铝动态潮解膜下环流熏蒸较好地解决了高大平房仓气密性不足、熏蒸效果不理想的问题.试验证明不仅提高了防治效果,降低了熏蒸药剂量,节省了费用,还能使磷化氢气体在粮堆内实现快速均匀分布,具有PH3有效浓度维持时间最长、CT值最大、PH3浓度的连续性和杀虫效果最好的优点.

  2. Fluoranthene fumigation and exogenous scavenging of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) in evergreen Japanese red pine seedlings (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et. Zucc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2008-06-01

    Generation of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) such as O(2)(-), H(2)O(2), and *OH is known to be a major mechanism of damage in biological systems. This study investigated and compared effectiveness of scavenging ROI generated in fluoranthene (FLU) pre-fumigated Japanese red pine seedlings. Three kinds of eco-physiological assessments were used to express the impact of the different fumigants used inside the green house. Gas exchange measurements showed negative changes induced by 10 microM FLU on Japanese pine seedlings during a 10 d exposure period whilst no negative change was found during a 5 d exposure period. Moreover, during a 14 d FLU exposure incorporating ROI scavengers, results revealed that chlorophyll fluorescence, needle chemical contents and needle dry mass per unit area of the seedlings were affected. The negative effects of FLU on the conifer were dependent on both the dose and period of FLU fumigation. Peroxidase (PERO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and mannitol (MANN) were all effective scavengers of ROI. MANN scavenged *OH, the most lethal of the ROI. For practicable use, MANN is more economical, and may be the best ROI scavenger among the three considered. It can be concluded that efficient scavenging of ROI in biological systems is important to mitigate the negative effects of FLU on Japanese red pine trees.

  3. Application of Near-Infrared Hyperspectral Imaging to Detect Sulfur Dioxide Residual in the Fritillaria thunbergii Bulbus Treated by Sulfur Fumigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan He

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur-fumigated Chinese medicine is a common issue in the process of Chinese medicines. Detection of sulfur dioxide (SO2 residual content in Fritillaria thunbergii Bulbus is important to evaluate the degree of sulfur fumigation and its harms. It helps to control the use of sulfur fumigation in Fritillaria thunbergii Bulbus. Near-infrared hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI was explored as a rapid, non-destructive, and accurate technique to detect SO2 residual contents in Fritillaria thunbergii Bulbus. An HSI system covering the spectral range of 874–1734 nm was used. Partial least squares regression (PLSR was applied to build calibration models for SO2 residual content detection. Successive projections algorithm (SPA, weighted regression coefficients (Bw, random frog (RF, and competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS were used to select optimal wavelengths. PLSR models using the full spectrum and the selected optimal wavelengths obtained good performance. The Bw-PLSR model was applied on a hyperspectral image to form a prediction map, and the results were satisfactory. The overall results in this study indicated that HSI could be used as a promising technique for on-line visualization and monitoring of SO2 residual content in Fritillaria thunbergii Bulbus. Detection and visualization of Chinese medicine quality by HSI provided a new rapid and visual method for Chinese medicine monitoring, showing great potential for real-world application.

  4. 五株土壤细菌所产抑菌挥发性物质的生物活性评估及其应用%Bioactive evaluation and application of antifungal volatiles generated by five soil bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玮玮; 赵丽静; 王超; 慕卫; 刘峰

    2009-01-01

    To study the bioactivity and application potential of antifungal volatile organic compounds (VOCs)from soil bacteria,the volatiles generated by five bacteria were determined by SPME-GC-MS (Solid Phase Microextraction-Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry)and their bioactivity was given further confirmation with commercially available compounds in sealed plates.Further,the application of these volatile-producing bacteria for the biological control of two main diseases on cucumber caused by Sclerotinia sclerrotium and Sphaerotheca fuliginea,respectively treated by soil and direct fumigation,was investigated in greenhouse.In total,21-31 and 12 compounds were detected from bacterial TSB-YE cultures and TSB-YE medium controls,respectively,which covered a wide range of alkyl,aldehyde,alcohol,ketone,fatty acid,amine,oxime,phenol and heterocyclics.Of the 20 candidate compounds assayed for antifungal activity in sealed plates,furfural,benzaldehyde,1-octanol,1-octen-3-ol,3,7-dimethyl-1,6-octadien-3-ol,2-ethyl-1-hexanol exhibited complete inhibition against S.sclerotiorum at a lowest treatment dosage of 0.01 g.Mixing the autoclaved soil with bacteria caused a higher control effect (28.57%-71.43%)on S.sclerrotium than those of bottom layer treatments,and an obvious growth promotion of cucumber seedlings was shown.When applied directly as fumigation,these volatiles could significantly inhibit the disease severity of powdery mildew on the fumigating seedlings.

  5. Factors affecting the efficacy of non-fumigant nematicides for controlling root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakou, Ioannis O; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Anastasiades, Ioannis; Tsiropoulos, Nicholas G; Georgiadou, Athena

    2005-10-01

    Second-stage juveniles (J2) and egg masses of root-knot nematodes as well as root debris heavily infected by the latter were exposed for different periods of time to six different doses of the nematicides cadusafos and fenamiphos. The efficacy of the nematicides increased significantly with increasing exposure time. Both nematicides were more effective against J2, although they could not provide acceptable control of J2 inside egg masses or heavily galled root debris. The effect of different application strategies on the efficacy and persistence of certain nematicides was also assessed in a field study. Cadusafos, fenamiphos, fosthiazate and oxamyl were applied in field micro-plots either as a single full dose at the time of crop establishment or as multiple reduced-rate applications at 14-day intervals throughout the cropping period, and their efficacy and persistence were determined using bioassays and analytical studies. Fosthiazate was the most efficient nematicide studied, and this was mainly attributed to its long soil persistence. Oxamyl also provided adequate nematode control for the first 48-56 days after its application, regardless of the application method used and its relatively rapid field dissipation. Fenamiphos and cadusafos failed to provide adequate nematode control, although cadusafos was the most persistent of the nematicides tested. The failure of fenamiphos to provide adequate nematode control was mainly attributed to its rapid degradation by soil micro-organisms, which were stimulated after its repeated low-rate application at 14-day intervals. In contrast cadusafos failure was attributed to the inability of the nematicide to reduce nematode populations even at relatively high concentrations in soil.

  6. Research on the phosphine fumigation technology against codling moth%苹果蠹蛾磷化氢熏蒸技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘涛; 李丽; 李柏树; 张凡华; 王跃进

    2011-01-01

    In order to determine whether phosphine could be used to control codling moth ( Lepidoptera Tortrici-dae) in apples, phosphine fumigation at several concentrations, exposure times and temperatures were performed, and the quality of fumigated apples were further measured in this study. Our results show that the test pest could be completely killed after 0. 76mg/l phosphine fumigation for 96h at 251 , but the surface injury occurred during the storage; 100% mortality could be achieved after 3.04mg/l phosphine fumigation for 264h at 5°C, while no surface injury occurred. Further quality analysis show that there weren' t significant change on the inner quality of all the apples fumigated at 5°C after 14 days storage. These results indicated that phosphine was effective to kill the codling moth while its adverse effect on the quality of apples could be greatly reduced at low temperature, so control of codling moth using phosphine was achievable.%为了明确磷化氢熏蒸技术在苹果蠹蛾检疫处理中的应用可能,本文在常温和低温条件下分别使用不同剂量磷化氢对苹果中的苹果蠹蛾幼虫进行了熏蒸,并测定了不同条件磷化氢熏蒸对苹果品质的影响.结果表明,25℃下0.76mg/L磷化氢熏蒸96h虽然能完全杀灭苹果中的苹果蠹蛾幼虫,但是会产生药害;5℃下3.04mg/L磷化氢熏蒸264h可完全杀灭苹果中的苹果蠹蛾幼虫,且无药害;进一步的品质测定结果表明,5℃不同剂量磷化氢熏蒸264h的苹果在室温贮藏14d后,其失重率、糖度、酸度等品质指标均无明显变化.本文的结果表明,磷化氢低温熏蒸能在保持苹果品质的同时有效杀灭其中的苹果蠹蛾幼虫,因而在苹果的检疫处理中极具应用前景.

  7. Effects of Fumigant and Nonfumigant Nematicides on Pratylenchus penetrans and Yield of Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthof, T H

    1989-10-01

    In 1984-85 metham-sodium and the combination of 1,3-dichloropropene plus aldicarb decreased (P = 0.05) soil population densities of Pratylenchus penetrans at planting, midseason, and at harvest relative to the untreated control. These treatments increased (P = 0.05) marketable potato tuber yield from 27% to 46% in 1984 and from 23% to 37% in 1985, as compared with the control. In 1984 oxamyl (10% granular and 24% liquid) applied immediately after planting increased (P = 0.05) only the total yield; oxamyl applied 2 weeks after planting failed to control P. penetrans and to increase total or marketable yields. Oxamyl (10 G) applied 2 weeks after planting decreased (P = 0.05) Pf. In 1985 oxamyl (10 G) reduced (P = 0.05) P. penetrans population densities at midseason and harvest, whereas oxamyl (24 L) reduced only harvest population densities. In 1985 neither formulation of oxamyl increased tuber yield.

  8. Soils - NRCS Web Soil Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Web Soil Survey (WSS) provides soil data and information produced by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. It is operated by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation...

  9. Weed seed inactivation in soil mesocosms via biosolarization with mature compost and tomato processing waste amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achmon, Yigal; Fernández-Bayo, Jesús D; Hernandez, Katie; McCurry, Dlinka G; Harrold, Duff R; Su, Joey; Dahlquist-Willard, Ruth M; Stapleton, James J; VanderGheynst, Jean S; Simmons, Christopher W

    2017-05-01

    Biosolarization is a fumigation alternative that combines passive solar heating with amendment-driven soil microbial activity to temporarily create antagonistic soil conditions, such as elevated temperature and acidity, that can inactivate weed seeds and other pest propagules. The aim of this study was to use a mesocosm-based field trial to assess soil heating, pH, volatile fatty acid accumulation and weed seed inactivation during biosolarization. Biosolarization for 8 days using 2% mature green waste compost and 2 or 5% tomato processing residues in the soil resulted in accumulation of volatile fatty acids in the soil, particularly acetic acid, and >95% inactivation of Brassica nigra and Solanum nigrum seeds. Inactivation kinetics data showed that near complete weed seed inactivation in soil was achieved within the first 5 days of biosolarization. This was significantly greater than the inactivation achieved in control soils that were solar heated without amendment or were amended but not solar heated. The composition and concentration of organic matter amendments in soil significantly affected volatile fatty acid accumulation at various soil depths during biosolarization. Combining solar heating with organic matter amendment resulted in accelerated weed seed inactivation compared with either approach alone. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. [Impact of tillage practices on microbial biomass carbon in top layer of black soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bing-jie; Jia, Shu-xia; Zhang, Xiao-ping; Liang, Ai-zhen; Chen, Xue-wen; Zhang, Shi-xiu; Liu, Si-yi; Chen, Sheng-long

    2015-01-01

    A study was conducted on a long-term (13 years) tillage and rotation experiment on black soil in northeast China to determine the effects of tillage, time and soil depth on soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC). Tillage systems included no tillage (NT), ridge tillage (RT) and mould-board plough (MP). Soil sampling was done at 0-5, 5-10 and 10-20 cm depths in June, August and September, 2013, and April, 2014 in the corn phase of corn-soybean rotation plots. MBC content was measured by the chloroform fumigation extraction (CFE) method. The results showed that the MBC content varied with sampling time and soil depth. Soil MBC content was the lowest in April for all three tillage systems, and was highest in June for MP, and highest in August for NT and RT. At each sampling time, tillage system had a significant effect on soil MBC content only in the top 0-5 cm layer. The MBC content showed obvious stratification under NT and RT with a higher MBC content in the top 0-5 cm layer than under MP. The stratification ratios under NT and RT were greatest in September when they were respectively 67.8% and 95.5% greater than under MP. Our results showed that soil MBC contents were greatly affected by the time and soil depth, and were more apparently accumulated in the top layer under NT and RT.

  11. Tree and stand growth of mature Norway spruce and European beech under long-term ozone fumigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretzsch, Hans, E-mail: h.pretzsch@lrz.tum.d [Chair for Forest Growth and Yield Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Dieler, Jochen [Chair for Forest Growth and Yield Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Matyssek, Rainer [Chair for Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Wipfler, Philip [Chair for Forest Growth and Yield Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    In a 50- to 70-year-old mixed stand of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Germany, tree cohorts have been exposed to double ambient ozone (2xO{sub 3}) from 2000 through 2007 and can be compared with trees in the same stand under the ambient ozone regime (1xO{sub 3}). Annual diameter growth, allocation pattern, stem form, and stem volume were quantified at the individual tree and stand level. Ozone fumigation induced a shift in the resource allocation into height growth at the expense of diameter growth. This change in allometry leads to rather cone-shaped stem forms and reduced stem stability in the case of spruce, and even neiloidal stem shapes in the case of beech. Neglect of such ozone-induced changes in stem shape may lead to a flawed estimation of volume growth. On the stand level, 2xO{sub 3} caused, on average, a decrease of 10.2 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in European beech. - Ozone effects on tree growth and stem shape were investigated for Norway spruce and European beech; the study reveals species-specific reaction patterns in growth rate and allometry under ozone exposure.

  12. Effects of sulphur dioxide on the development of fungal diseases of winter barley in an open-air fumigation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansfield, P.J.; Bell, J.N.B.; Wheeler, B.E.J. (Imperial Coll., Ascot (UK)); McLeod, A.R. (National Power Technology and Environmental Centre, Leatherhead (UK))

    1991-01-01

    The development of fungal diseases was monitored through three consecutive growing seasons (1984-1985, 1985-1986 and 1986-1987) on field plots of winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. 'Igri' exposed to sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) concentrations in the range 0.005-0.048 microliter l{sup {minus}1} using an open-air fumigation system. In each season the incidence and severity of powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis D.C. ex Merat f.sp. hordei Em. Marchal) increased and leaf blotch (Rhynchosporium secalis Oudem J.J. Davis) decreased in plots exposed to elevated levels of SO{sub 2} (0.014-0.048 microliter l{sup {minus}1} SO{sub 2}) compared with control plots exposed to background levels of 0.005-0.009 microliter l{sup {minus}1} SO{sub 2}. The apparent infection rate of powdery mildew was also greater in SO{sub 2}-treated plots. The effects of SO{sub 2} exposure on eyespot (Pseudocercosporella herpotrichoides (Fron) Deighton) and black ear moulds (Cladosporium and Alternaria spp.) were variable. Sharp eyespot (Rhizoctonia cerealis van der Hoeven), Fusarium foot rot, brown rust (Puccinia hordei Otth.), Septoria nodorum Berk., net blotch (Pyrenophora teres Sacc.) and Botrytis spp. infection on the ear were all apparently unaffected by SO{sub 2}. 3 figs., 36 refs., 4 tabs.

  13. Mitochondrial uncouplers act synergistically with the fumigant phosphine to disrupt mitochondrial membrane potential and cause cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valmas, Nicholas; Zuryn, Steven; Ebert, Paul R

    2008-10-30

    Phosphine is the most widely used fumigant for the protection of stored commodities against insect pests, especially food products such as grain. However, pest insects are developing resistance to phosphine and thereby threatening its future use. As phosphine inhibits cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and reduces the strength of the mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsi(m)), we reasoned that mitochondrial uncouplers should act synergistically with phosphine. The mitochondrial uncouplers FCCP and PCP caused complete mortality in populations of both wild-type and phosphine-resistant lines of Caenorhabditis elegans simultaneously exposed to uncoupler and phosphine at concentrations that were individually nonlethal. Strong synergism was also observed with a third uncoupler DNP. We have also tested an alternative complex IV inhibitor, azide, with FCCP and found that this also caused a synergistic enhancement of toxicity in C. elegans. To investigate potential causes of the synergism, we measured DeltaPsi(m), ATP content, and oxidative damage (lipid hydroperoxides) in nematodes subjected to phosphine-FCCP treatment and found that neither an observed 50% depletion in ATP nor oxidative stress accounted for the synergistic effect. Instead, a synergistic reduction in DeltaPsi(m) was observed upon phosphine-FCCP co-treatment suggesting that this is directly responsible for the subsequent mortality. These results support the hypothesis that phosphine-induced mortality results from the in vivo disruption of normal mitochondrial activity. Furthermore, we have identified a novel pathway that can be targeted to overcome genetic resistance to phosphine.

  14. Sublethal effect of pyriproxyfen released from a fumigant formulation on fecundity, fertility, and ovicidal action in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harburguer, Laura; Zerba, Eduardo; Licastro, Susana

    2014-03-01

    Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever are mosquito-borne viral diseases that coincide with the distribution of Aedes aegypti (L.), the primary vector in the tropical and semitropical world. With no available vaccine, controlling the dengue vector is essential to prevent epidemics. The effects of the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen on Ae. aegypti adults that survived a treatment with a sublethal dose were investigated in the laboratory, including effects on their reproductive potential. Pyriproxyfen was released from a fumigant formulation at a dose causing 20 or 40% emergence inhibition (%EI). Females were dissected before and after blood feeding and the basal follicle number was counted. There were no differences between the control and treated group on the basal follicle number for both doses used. Fertility and fecundity were reduced at a concentration of EI40 but no at EI20. There was no ovicidal effect of pyriproxyfen by immersion of eggs in treated water neither when the females laid their eggs on a pyriproxyfen-treated surface. This work shows that sublethal doses of pyriproxyfen can have effects on fertility and fecundity ofAe. aegypti females, which together with its larvicidal activity could contribute to an overall decrease in a given population.

  15. Advances in understanding ozone impact on forest trees: Messages from novel phytotron and free-air fumigation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyssek, R., E-mail: matyssek@wzw.tum.d [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Karnosky, D.F. [Michigan Technological University, School of Forest Resources and Environmental Sciences, Houghton, MI 49931-129 (United States); Wieser, G. [Federal Research and Trainings Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape, Dept. of Alpine Timberline Ecophysiology, Rennweg 1, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Percy, K. [K.E. Percy Air Quality Effects Consulting Ltd., 207-230 Wilson Drive, Fort McMurray, Alberta T9H 0A4 (Canada); Oksanen, E. [Faculty of Biosciences, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN 80101 Joensuu (Finland); Grams, T.E.E. [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Kubiske, M. [Institute for Applied Ecosystem Studies, US Forest Service, Northern Research Station, 5985 Hwy K, Rhinelander, WI 54501 (United States); Hanke, D. [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, CB2 3EA (United Kingdom); Pretzsch, H. [Forest Yield Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Recent evidence from novel phytotron and free-air ozone (O{sub 3}) fumigation experiments in Europe and America on forest tree species is highlighted in relation to previous chamber studies. Differences in O{sub 3} sensitivity between pioneer and climax species are examined and viewed for trees growing at the harsh alpine timberline ecotone. As O{sub 3} apparently counteracts positive effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and mitigates productivity increases, response is governed by genotype, competitors, and ontogeny rather than species per se. Complexity in O{sub 3} responsiveness increased under the influence of pathogens and herbivores. The new evidence does not conflict in principle with previous findings that, however, pointed to a low ecological significance. This new knowledge on trees' O{sub 3} responsiveness beyond the juvenile stage in plantations and forests nevertheless implies limited predictability due to complexity in biotic and abiotic interactions. Unravelling underlying mechanisms is mandatory for assessing O{sub 3} risks as an important component of climate change scenarios. - Novel phytotron and free-air O{sub 3} exposure studies on forest trees communicate sensitivity to be governed by genotype, ontogeny and biotic agents rather than species per se.

  16. [Characteristics of soil microbial biomass and community composition in three types of plantations in southern subtropical area of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Xia; Shi, Zuo-Min; Luo, Da; Liu, Shi-Rong; Lu, Li-Hua

    2013-07-01

    By using fumigation-extraction method and phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) analysis, this paper studied the characteristics of soil microbial biomass and community composition in the Erythrophleum fordii, Castanopsis hystrix, and Pinus massoniana plantations in south subtropical China. The soil microbial biomass, total PLFAs, bacterial PLFAs, and fungal PLFAs in the plantations were significantly affected by the plantation type and season, and the soil microbial biomass, total PLFAs, and individual PLFA signatures were higher in dry season than in rainy season. The C. hystrix plantation had the highest soil microbial biomass carbon and total PLFAs, while the E. fordii plantation had the highest soil microbial biomass nitrogen. There was a significant positive correlation between the soil pH and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) PLFA (16:1omega5c). The soil total PLFAs, gram-positive bacterial PLFAs, saprophytic fungal PLFA (18:2omega6,9c), and the ratio of gram-positive to gram-negative bacterial PLFAs were significantly positively correlated with soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus, suggesting that the soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus contents were the most important nutrient factors affecting the numbers and types of the soil microorganisms. In addition, the ectomycorrhizae fungal PLFA (18:1omega9c) and AMF PLFA were significantly correlated with the soil C/N ratio.

  17. Persistence, distribution, and emission of Telone C35 injected into a Florida sandy soil as affected by moisture, organic matter, and plastic film cover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J E; Ou, L T; Allen, L H; McCormack, L A; Vu, J C; Dickson, D W

    2004-05-01

    With the phase-out of methyl bromide scheduled for 2005, alternative fumigants are being sought. This study of Telone C35, a mixture of (Z)- and (E)-1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) with chloropicirin (CP), focuses on its emissions, distribution, and persistence in Florida sandy soil in microplots with different soil-water and organic matter carbon (C) content with and without two different plastic film mulches. The addition of CP did not affect the physical behavior of the isomers of 1,3-D. Slower subsurface dispersion and longer residence time of the mixed fumigant occurred at higher water content. An increase in the percent organic carbon in the soil led to a more rapid decrease for chloropicirin than for 1,3-dichloropene isomers. The use of a virtually impermeable film (VIF) for soil cover provided a more even distribution and longer persistence under all the conditions studied in comparison to polyethylene (PE) film cover or no cover. The conditions of near field capacity water content, low organic matter, and a virtually impermeable film cover yielded optimum conditions for the distribution, emission control, and persistence of Telone C35 in a Florida sandy soil.

  18. Effect of Ammonium Fixation on Determination of N Mineralized from Soil Microbial Biomass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YINSHIXUE; LIANGYONGCHAO; 等

    1997-01-01

    Two soils with relatively high(Soil 1)and low(Soil 2) ammonium fixation capacities were used in this study to examiune the effect of ammonium fixation on the determination of N mineralized from soil microbial biomass.Organism suspension was quantitatively introduced to Soil 1 at various rates.Both fumigation-incubation (FI) and fumigation-extraction (FE) methods were used to treat the soil.The amount of fixed NH4+ increased with increasing rate of organism-N addition.A close correlation was found between the amount of fixed ammonium and th rate of organism-m addition.The net increases of fixed NH4+-N were equivalent to 38% and 12% of the added organism-N for FI and FE treatments,rspectively,in this specific soil.To provide isotopic evidence,15N-labelled organism-N was added to Soils 1 and 2 at 121.4 mg N kg-1.In FI treatment,22 and 3mg N kg-1 of labelled N were found in the fraction of fixed NH4+-N in Soile 1 and 2 respectively;while in FE treatment,9 mg N kg-1 of labelled N was found in the fraction of fixed NH4+-N in Soil 1 only.There was no labelled N in the fraction of fixed NH4+-N in Soil 2.In all of the unfumigated (check) soils,there was little or no labelled N in the fixed fractions,probably because the organism-N added was easily mineralized and nitrified.A mean of 0.64 for KN value,the fraction of N mineralized in the killed microbial biomass,as obtained with inclusion of the net increase of fixed NH4+-N,The corresponding value calculated with exclusion of the net increase of ficed NH4+-N was 0.46 ,It was concluded that ammonium fixation was a problem in deterination of KN,particularly for soils with a high ammonium fixation capacity, Results also showed that microbial biomass N measurement by FFE method was less affected by ammonium process than that by FI method.

  19. Effects of silvicultural techniques on the diversity of microorganisms in forest soil and their possible participation in biological control of Armillaria and Heterobasidion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwaśna Hanna

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Effects of different pre-planting soil preparations and post-harvest wood debris applications in a clear-cut Scots pine plantation, on the abundance, diversity, and activity of culturable microorganisms were investigated. The investigation was done 9 years after the re-plantings had been done. This formed part of an investigation of silvicultural practices for conservation and the biological control of Armillaria and Heterobasidion in northern temperate forests (Poland. The treatments being compared, were expected to have altered the soil’s physical and chemical properties, and consequently, its biological properties. Only soft-rot microfungi from the Ascomycota and Zygomycota were detected in the soil. Fungi, including those antagonistic to Armillaria and Heterobasidion, were more abundant after shallow ploughing than after deep ploughing or ridging, and where chipped rather than coarse wood debris was left on the soil surface or incorporated. Scots pine trees had the most biomass and the least mortality after ridging and leaving coarse wood debris on the surface (associated with only a relatively moderate abundance of fungi.

  20. Soil friability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2011-01-01

    has been found but it is not possible to identify a specific lower critical level of organic matter across soil types. Sustainable management of soil requires continuous and adequate inputs of organic matter to sustain or improve soil friability. Intensive tillage and traffic in unfavorable conditions...... for optimal friability. There is a strong need to get more detailed knowledge about effects of soil water content on soil friability and especially to be able to quantify the least limiting water range for soil friability and therefore soil tillage. A strong relationship between organic matter and friability...

  1. Control of Heterodera carotae, Ditylenchus dipsaci, and Meloidogyne javanica with Fumigant and Nonfumigant Nematicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, N; Elia, F; Brandonisio, A

    1986-07-01

    Five field trials were conducted in Italy in 1983 and 1984 to test the efficacy of isazofos and benfuracarb in controlling Heterodera carotae on carrot, Ditylenchus dipsaci on onion, and Meloidogyne javanica on tomato. Methyl isothiocyanate (MIT) was tested against H. carotae and M. javanica. Single (10 kg a.i./ha) and split (5 + 5 kg a.i./ha) applications of isazofos gave yield increases of carrot and onion similar to those obtained with DD (300 liters/ha) and aldicarb (10 kg a.i./ha). Population densities of H. carotae in carrot roots at harvest and of M. javanica in tomato roots 2 months after transplanting were also suppressed by isazofos. Benfuracarb (10 kg a.i./ha increased onion yields in a field infested with D. dipsaci, but it was not effective against H. carotae or M. javanica. The efficacy of MIT at 400 and 600 liters/ha was similar to that of MIT + DD (Di-Trapex) at 300 liters/ha. Both nematicides inhibited hatch of H. carotae eggs and decreased the soil population density of M. javanica.

  2. Resilience of soil microbial and nematode communities after biofumigant treatment with defatted seed meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocali, Stefano; Landi, Silvia; Curto, Giovanna; Elisabetta, Dallavalle; Infantino, Alessandro; Colzi, Claudia; d'Errico, Giada; Roversi, Pio Federico; D'Avino, Lorenzo; Lazzeri, Luca

    2015-04-01

    The use of alternative biocidal compounds to replace chemical pesticides after the Directive 2009/128/EC has raised renewed interest in the biofumigation technique. In particular, the defatted seed meals (DSM) derived from brassicaceae plant tissues with high glucosinolate content represent an efficient practice to control soil-born plant pathogens and pests that can be applied in synergy to catch crop green manures. For a wider and safer application of this technique, the impacts on non-target soil microorganisms and free-living nematodes have to be investigated in more depth. In this pot-scale experiment a naturally nematode-infected soil was amended with a glucosinolate-containing DSM from Brassica carinata (CAR), a non-glucosinolate-containing DSM from sunflower (SUN) and the metham-sodium fumigant (VAP). Tomato plants were transplanted and checked for the presence of pests and/or pathogens and plant vigour. The response of soil microbial communities was assessed through 454-pyrosequencing analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal 18S rRNA genes, whereas nematode indices were applied to assess their community structure 0, 10, 32 and 62 days after the treatments. Significant shifts were observed among both bacterial and fungal communities, whereas various changes of nematode communities occurred depending on the nematode family. Similar changes initially occurred in both bacterial and fungal community structure in response to DSM and VAP amendments, but after 62 days fungal communities were more strongly shaped by VAP fumigation than bacteria. The non-biofumigant SUN treatment added organic matter into the soil inducing significant changes in microbial communities, but it was not effective against M. incognita root infestation. Although the free-living nematode structure was negatively influenced by all treatments, B. carinata DMS proved the best compromise between efficiency to control M. incognita and environmental impact. These results confirmed the

  3. Soil microbial communities as suitable bioindicators of trace metal pollution in agricultural volcanic soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parelho, Carolina; dos Santos Rodrigues, Armindo; do Carmo Barreto, Maria; Gonçalo Ferreira, Nuno; Garcia, Patrícia

    2015-04-01

    Summary: The biological, chemical and physical properties of soil confer unique characteristics that enhance or influence its overall biodiversity. The adaptive character of soil microbial communities (SMCs) to metal pollution allows discriminating soil health, since changes in microbial populations and activities may function as excellent indicators of soil pollutants. Volcanic soils are unique naturally fertile resources, extensively used for agricultural purposes and with particular physicochemical properties that may result in accumulation of toxic substances, such as trace metals (TM). In our previous works, we identified priority TM affecting agricultural Andosols under different agricultural land uses. Within this particular context, the objectives of this study were to (i) assess the effect of soil TM pollution in different agricultural systems (conventional, traditional and organic) on the following soil properties: microbial biomass carbon, basal soil respiration, metabolic quotient, enzymatic activities (β-glucosidase, acid phosphatase and dehydrogenase) and RNA to DNA ratio; and (ii) evaluate the impact of TM in the soil ecosystem using the integrated biomarker response (IBR) based on a set of biochemical responses of SMCs. This multi-biomarker approach will support the development of the "Trace Metal Footprint" for different agricultural land uses in volcanic soils. Methods: The study was conducted in S. Miguel Island (Azores, Portugal). Microbial biomass carbon was measured by chloroform-fumigation-incubation-assay (Vance et al., 1987). Basal respiration was determined by the Jenkinson & Powlson (1976) technique. Metabolic quotient was calculated as the ratio of basal respiration to microbial biomass C (Sparkling & West, 1988). The enzymatic activities of β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase were determined by the Dick et al. (1996) method and dehydrogenase activity by the Rossel et al. (1997) method. The RNA and DNA were co-extracted from the same

  4. Differentiating intracellular from extracellular alkaline phosphatase activity in soil by sonication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuping Qin

    Full Text Available Differentiating intracellular from extracellular enzyme activity is important in soil enzymology, but not easy. Here, we report on an adjusted sonication method for the separation of intracellular from extracellular phosphatase activity in soil. Under optimal sonication conditions [soil:water ratio  =  1/8 (w/v and power density  =  15 watt ml(-1], the activity of alkaline phosphomonoesterase (phosphatase in a Haplic Cambisol soil increased with sonication time in two distinct steps. A first plateau of enzyme activity was reached between 60 and 100 s, and a second higher plateau after 300 s. We also found that sonication for 100 s under optimal conditions activated most (about 80% of the alkaline phosphatase that was added to an autoclaved soil, while total bacteria number was not affected. Sonication for 300 s reduced the total bacteria number by three orders of magnitude but had no further effects on enzyme activity. Our results indicate that the first plateau of alkaline phosphatase activity was derived from extracellular enzymes attached to soil particles, and the second plateau to the combination of extracellular and intracellular enzymes after cell lysis. We conclude that our adjusted sonication method may be an alternative to the currently used physiological and chloroform-fumigation methods for differentiating intracellular from extracellular phosphatase activity in soil. Further testing is needed to find out whether this holds for other soil types.

  5. Differentiating intracellular from extracellular alkaline phosphatase activity in soil by sonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shuping; Hu, Chunsheng; Oenema, Oene

    2013-01-01

    Differentiating intracellular from extracellular enzyme activity is important in soil enzymology, but not easy. Here, we report on an adjusted sonication method for the separation of intracellular from extracellular phosphatase activity in soil. Under optimal sonication conditions [soil:water ratio  =  1/8 (w/v) and power density  =  15 watt ml(-1)], the activity of alkaline phosphomonoesterase (phosphatase) in a Haplic Cambisol soil increased with sonication time in two distinct steps. A first plateau of enzyme activity was reached between 60 and 100 s, and a second higher plateau after 300 s. We also found that sonication for 100 s under optimal conditions activated most (about 80%) of the alkaline phosphatase that was added to an autoclaved soil, while total bacteria number was not affected. Sonication for 300 s reduced the total bacteria number by three orders of magnitude but had no further effects on enzyme activity. Our results indicate that the first plateau of alkaline phosphatase activity was derived from extracellular enzymes attached to soil particles, and the second plateau to the combination of extracellular and intracellular enzymes after cell lysis. We conclude that our adjusted sonication method may be an alternative to the currently used physiological and chloroform-fumigation methods for differentiating intracellular from extracellular phosphatase activity in soil. Further testing is needed to find out whether this holds for other soil types.

  6. Study on Phosphine Fumigation Effects on Late Indica Rice of Different Water Contents%磷化氢对不同含水量晚籼稻谷的熏蒸效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭兴海; 郭均钧

    2012-01-01

    针对不同含水量晚籼稻谷对磷化氢的吸附性差异开展试验研究,探讨磷化氢对不同含水量晚籼稻谷环流熏蒸有效浓度的维持时间,精准施药,取得理想的熏蒸效果,指导科学实施磷化氢环流熏蒸具有现实意义。%According to the test and study of the adsorption difference of phosphine on late indica rice grain with different water content, examine the circulation fumigation effective concentration time of maintaining the water content of late indi- ca rice in different phosphine, and spray medicine accurately,to achieve the desired effect of fumigation,and it has the practical significance of guiding scientific implementation of phosphine circulation fumigation.

  7. Distribution and Longevity of Pratylenchus penetrans in the Red Raspberry Production System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroese, Duncan R; Weiland, Jerry E; Zasada, Inga A

    2016-12-01

    One of the major constraints on the production of red raspberries in the Pacific Northwest is the presence of the root-lesion nematode Pratylenchus penetrans. Current management of this nematode relies heavily on preplant soil fumigation; however, regulations have made the practice more difficult and expensive. Additional issues with soil fumigation include lack of efficacy at deeper soil depths and potential inability to penetrate raspberry root material that remains in the field during fumigation which may harbor P. penetrans. To address these issues, two field experiments were conducted in northwestern Washington. In the first experiment, the residency time of P. penetrans in root material from the previous raspberry crop, which was terminated with or without the use of herbicides, was monitored over time. Pratylenchus penetrans was found in root material from 6 to 8 mon after the crop was terminated, and herbicide application did not reduce P. penetrans residency time compared to untreated root material. In a second experiment, the vertical distribution of P. penetrans at three different times during the field establishment process (pre- and postfumigation, and at planting) was determined at two locations. Both locations had detectable prefumigation P. penetrans populations at all depths. However, postfumigation populations showed a different distribution pattern between locations. The location with coarser soil had populations located mainly at shallower depths with a maximum of 44 P. penetrans/100 g soil at 16 to 30 cm deep, whereas the location with finer soil had populations located mainly at deeper depths with a maximum of 8 P. penetrans/100 g soil at 76 to 90 cm deep. At planting, distribution tended to equilibrate among depths at both locations, but the overall population pattern across depth at each location was similar to that observed at postfumigation. Understanding more about the residency time and distribution of this nematode may provide growers

  8. Fumigant and repellent properties of essential oils and component compounds against permethrin-resistant Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae) from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toloza, Ariel Ceferino; Zygadlo, Julio; Cueto, Gastón Mougabure; Biurrun, Fernando; Zerba, Eduardo; Picollo, María Inés

    2006-09-01

    The repeated use of permethrin and other insecticides for the control of head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer (Anoplura: Pediculidae), during past decades has resulted in the development of marked levels of resistance. Thus, new alternative insecticides are needed for the control of head lice. We studied the fumigant and repellent properties of essential oils from 16 native and exotic plants in Argentina, and 21 chemical components against permethrin-resistant head lice from Argentina. With a direct vapor-exposure bioassay, the most effective oil was from the native Myrcianthes cisplatensis Cambess (Myrtaceae) with a time to 50% knockdown (KT50) of 1.3 min, followed by exotic species, Eucalyptus cinerea F.V. Muell., Eucalyptus viminalis Labill., and Eucalyptus saligna Smith. with KT50 values of 12.0, 14.9, and 17.4 min, respectively. The most effective components were 1,8-cineole and anisole, with KT50 values of 11.1 and 12.7 min, respectively. Regression analysis of KT50 values and vapor pressures and water-partition coefficients for the essential oil components revealed that the most effective fumigants were among the more volatile components. Repellency assays indicated that the essential oil from Mentha pulegium L. and its benzyl alcohol component were the most effective repellents, having repellency indices of 75.5 and 57.8%, respectively. Thus, some Argentinean plants contain essential oils and components that function as fumigants or as repellents and thereby show potential for development of new control products for head lice.

  9. Susceptibility of Two Strains of the Confused Flour Beetle (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Following Phosphine Structural Mill Fumigation: Effects of Concentration, Temperature, and Flour Deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulicky, R; Stejskal, V; Frydova, B; Athanassiou, C G

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated phosphine efficacy against two strains of the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), one laboratory strain, with no previous exposure to phosphine, and one field strain, originated from the flour mill on which we performed the fumigation. The standard Detia Degesh Phosphine Resistance Kit showed that the adults of the field strain of T. confusum required 4.4 × longer time to be knocked down than the laboratory strain. In order to assess the efficacy of phosphine in the field against these strains, aluminium phosphide (AlP) was applied in a flour mill in Czech Republic, in 2014. In this application, temperature among the six floors of the flour mill varied between 20 and 30°C, relative humidity (RH) between 44 and 78%, and phosphine concentration-time-products (CtP) between 24 and 38 g.m(-3).h(-1). Moreover, the insects were bioassayed in dishes that contained either no commodity or 1, 3, and 5 cm of flour. Nevertheless, despite these variations, all adults and larvae from both strains were dead, regardless of the floor, the quantity of the commodity, and the conditions prevailing. However, larval emergence from eggs that were used in the bioassays for both strains was recorded in some of the locations tested. In addition, larval emergence was negatively correlated with both temperature and RH. At the same time, emergence was generally similar between strains. The results of the present study illustrate that highly visible dead adults and larvae after the application of phosphine falsely imply good fumigation efficacy, given that a considerable number of eggs are very likely to survive in a wider range of conditions, and the concomitant larval emergence may result in rapid population grown right after the fumigation.

  10. Fumigant Toxicity of Essential Oils from Basil and Spearmint Against Two Major Pyralid Pests of Stored Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliopoulos, P A; Hassiotis, C N; Andreadis, S S; Porichi, A-E E

    2015-04-01

    The fumigant activity of essential oil vapors distilled from sweet basil Ocimum basilicum L. and spearmint Mentha spicata L. (Lamiaceae) were tested against two major stored products pests Ephestia kuehniella (Zeller) and Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Various oil doses (0.5, 2.5, 5, 50, 250, 500, 1,000, and 1,500 µl/liter air), for an exposure period of 24 h, were tested. The essential oils were subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and revealed that the major compounds were for spearmint oil carvone (67.1%) and limonene (+1,8 cineole; 14.3%) and for basil oil linalool (45.9%), 1,8 cineole (16.7%) and eugenol (10.3%). Apart from a few exceptions, no significant differences in insecticidal action were observed between basil and spearmint oil. Both oils were highly effective against adult moths, given that notable mortality (>80%) was recorded after exposure to low doses such as 2.5 µl/liter. Noteworthy, egg mortality was also recorded, reaching 73-79% for basil and 56-60% for spearmint. Toxicity data indicated that larvae and pupae were the most tolerant stages in all cases. Larval mortality never exceeded 21 and 18%, for basil and spearmint, respectively, irrespective of moth species. Basil and spearmint oils displayed mortalities as high as 38 and 28% in pupae. Lethal doses (LD50 and LD99) values were estimated via probit analysis. Developmental stage proved to be a significant factor, whereas the effect of oil species on insect mortality was insignificant. With the exception of adult individuals, basil and spearmint oils did not show satisfactory overall insecticidal activity against E. kuehniella and P. interpunctella.

  11. A Meta-Analysis of Impact of Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation on Pest Suppression and Yield of Horticultural Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utsala Shrestha

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD is a proven but relatively new strategy to control soil borne pests of horticultural crops through anaerobic decomposition of organic soil amendments. The ASD technique has primarily been used to control soil borne pathogens; however, this technique has also shown potential to control plant parasitic nematodes and weeds. ASD can utilize a broad range of carbon (C amendments and optimization may improve efficacy across environments. In this context, a meta-analysis using a random-effects model was conducted to determine effect sizes of the ASD effect on soil borne pathogens (533 studies, plant parasitic nematodes (91 studies, and weeds (88 studies compared with unamended controls. Yield response to ASD was evaluated (123 studies compared to unamended and fumigated controls. We also examined moderator variables for environmental conditions and amendments to explore the impact of these moderators on ASD effectiveness on pests and yield. Across all pathogen types with the exception of Sclerotinia spp., ASD studies show suppression of bacterial, oomycete and fungal pathogens (59% to 86%. Pathogen suppression was effective under all environmental conditions (50% to 94% and amendment types (53% to 98%, except when amendments applied at rates less than 0.3 kg m-2. The ASD effect ranged from 15% to 56% for nematode suppression and 32% to 81% for weed suppression, but these differences were not significant. Significant nematode moderators included study type, soil type, sampling depth, incubation period, and use of mixed amendments. Weed suppression due to ASD showed significant heterogeneity for all environmental conditions, confirming that these studies do not share a common effect size. Total crop yield was not reduced by ASD when compared to a fumigant control and yield was significantly higher (30% compared to an unamended control, suggesting ASD as a feasible option to maintain yield without chemical soil fumigants

  12. A Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation on Pest Suppression and Yield of Horticultural Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Utsala; Augé, Robert M; Butler, David M

    2016-01-01

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) is a proven but relatively new strategy to control soil borne pests of horticultural crops through anaerobic decomposition of organic soil amendments. The ASD technique has primarily been used to control soil borne pathogens; however, this technique has also shown potential to control plant parasitic nematodes and weeds. ASD can utilize a broad range of carbon (C) amendments and optimization may improve efficacy across environments. In this context, a meta-analysis using a random-effects model was conducted to determine effect sizes of the ASD effect on soil borne pathogens (533 studies), plant parasitic nematodes (91 studies), and weeds (88 studies) compared with unamended controls. Yield response to ASD was evaluated (123 studies) compared to unamended and fumigated controls. We also examined moderator variables for environmental conditions and amendments to explore the impact of these moderators on ASD effectiveness on pests and yield. Across all pathogen types with the exception of Sclerotinia spp., ASD studies show suppression of bacterial, oomycete and fungal pathogens (59 to 94%). Pathogen suppression was effective under all environmental conditions (50 to 94%) and amendment types (53 to 97%), except when amendments were applied at rates less than 0.3 kg m(-2). The ASD effect ranged from 15 to 56% for nematode suppression and 32 to 81% for weed suppression, but these differences were not significant. Significant nematode moderators included study type, soil type, sampling depth, incubation period, and use of mixed amendments. Weed suppression due to ASD showed significant heterogeneity for all environmental conditions, confirming that these studies do not share a common effect size. Total crop yield was not reduced by ASD when compared to a fumigant control and yield was significantly higher (30%) compared to an unamended control, suggesting ASD as a feasible option to maintain yield without chemical soil fumigants. We

  13. Soil properties, soil functions and soil security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, Laura; Gimona, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Soil plays a crucial role in the ecosystem functioning such as food production, capture and storage of water, carbon and nutrients and in the realisation of a number of UN Sustainable Developments Goals. In this work we present an approach to spatially and jointly assess the multiple contributions of soil to the delivery of ecosystem services within multiple land-use system. We focussed on the modelling of the impact of soil on sediment retention, carbon storage, storing and filtering of nutrients, habitat for soil organisms and water regulation, taking into account examples of land use and climate scenarios. Simplified models were used for the single components. Spatialised Bayesian Belief networks were used for the jointly assessment and mapping of soil contribution to multiple land use and ecosystem services. We integrated continuous 3D soil information derived from digital soil mapping approaches covering the whole of mainland Scotland, excluding the Northern Islands. Uncertainty was accounted for and propagated across the whole process. The Scottish test case highlights the differences in roles between mineral and organic soils and provides an example of integrated study assessing the contributions of soil. The results show the importance of the multi-functional analysis of the contribution of soils to the ecosystem service delivery and UN SDGs.

  14. Study on the quarantine fumigation technology of Phytophthora sojae%大豆疫霉检疫熏蒸处理技术初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽; 刘涛; 张凡华; 任放; 王跃进

    2013-01-01

    Soybean Phytophthora root rot (PPR) that cause by Phytophthora sojae is one of the most serious diseases in the main soybean production area all over the world. In this manuscript, we analyzed the fungitoxicity of methyl bromide, propylene oxide, methyl iodide and carbonyl sulfide, their influences on the quality of soybean were also determined. Our results confirmed the efficacy of the four fumigants against Phytophthora sojae, their EC99 values were methyl bromide 21.24mg/L, propylene oxide 33.21 mg/L, methyl iodide 4.64 mg/L and carbonyl sulfide 46. 73mg/L for 24h fumigation at 20℃. Moreover, quality analysis results showed that there were not significant differences between untreated and treated soybeans after 30d storage, indicating that fumigation with tested fumigants would be the candidates for control of Phytophthora sojae, especially methyl iodide.%大豆疫霉根腐病(Soybean Phytophthora root rot,简称PPR)由大豆疫霉(Phytophthora sojae Kaufmann&Gerdemann)引发,在世界大豆主产区广泛发生,危害严重.为有效防控大豆疫霉根腐病跨境传播,本文测定了溴甲烷、环氧丙烷、碘甲烷和氧硫化碳4种熏蒸剂对大豆疫霉的毒力及其致死剂量对大豆品质的影响.结果表明,20℃下,4种熏蒸剂均有一定杀菌效果,熏蒸24h的EC99分别为:溴甲烷21.24mg/L、环氧丙烷33.21 mg/L、碘甲烷4.64 mg/L、氧硫化碳46.73 mg/L.大豆品质测定结果表明,致死剂量的4种熏蒸剂熏蒸后,大豆粗脂肪、粗蛋白等等主要品质指标无显著变化.本研究为进境大豆携带大豆疫霉的检疫处理提供了候选技术,碘甲烷在带菌大豆检疫处理中的应用前景值得关注.

  15. Arbuscular-mycorrhizal networks inhibit Eucalyptus tetrodonta seedlings in rain forest soil microcosms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Janos

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus tetrodonta, a co-dominant tree species of tropical, northern Australian savannas, does not invade adjacent monsoon rain forest unless the forest is burnt intensely. Such facilitation by fire of seedling establishment is known as the "ashbed effect." Because the ashbed effect might involve disruption of common mycorrhizal networks, we hypothesized that in the absence of fire, intact rain forest arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM networks inhibit E. tetrodonta seedlings. Although arbuscular mycorrhizas predominate in the rain forest, common tree species of the northern Australian savannas (including adult E. tetrodonta host ectomycorrhizas. To test our hypothesis, we grew E. tetrodonta and Ceiba pentandra (an AM-responsive species used to confirm treatments separately in microcosms of ambient or methyl-bromide fumigated rain forest soil with or without severing potential mycorrhizal fungus connections to an AM nurse plant, Litsea glutinosa. As expected, C. pentandra formed mycorrhizas in all treatments but had the most root colonization and grew fastest in ambient soil. E. tetrodonta seedlings also formed AM in all treatments, but severing hyphae in fumigated soil produced the least colonization and the best growth. Three of ten E. tetrodonta seedlings in ambient soil with intact network hyphae died. Because foliar chlorosis was symptomatic of iron deficiency, after 130 days we began to fertilize half the E. tetrodonta seedlings in ambient soil with an iron solution. Iron fertilization completely remedied chlorosis and stimulated leaf growth. Our microcosm results suggest that in intact rain forest, common AM networks mediate belowground competition and AM fungi may exacerbate iron deficiency, thereby enhancing resistance to E. tetrodonta invasion. Common AM networks-previously unrecognized as contributors to the ashbed effect-probably help to maintain the rain forest-savanna boundary.

  16. Arbuscular-Mycorrhizal Networks Inhibit Eucalyptus tetrodonta Seedlings in Rain Forest Soil Microcosms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janos, David P.; Scott, John; Aristizábal, Catalina; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2013-01-01

    Eucalyptus tetrodonta, a co-dominant tree species of tropical, northern Australian savannas, does not invade adjacent monsoon rain forest unless the forest is burnt intensely. Such facilitation by fire of seedling establishment is known as the "ashbed effect." Because the ashbed effect might involve disruption of common mycorrhizal networks, we hypothesized that in the absence of fire, intact rain forest arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) networks inhibit E. tetrodonta seedlings. Although arbuscular mycorrhizas predominate in the rain forest, common tree species of the northern Australian savannas (including adult E. tetrodonta) host ectomycorrhizas. To test our hypothesis, we grew E. tetrodonta and Ceiba pentandra (an AM-responsive species used to confirm treatments) separately in microcosms of ambient or methyl-bromide fumigated rain forest soil with or without severing potential mycorrhizal fungus connections to an AM nurse plant, Litsea glutinosa. As expected, C. pentandra formed mycorrhizas in all treatments but had the most root colonization and grew fastest in ambient soil. E. tetrodonta seedlings also formed AM in all treatments, but severing hyphae in fumigated soil produced the least colonization and the best growth. Three of ten E. tetrodonta seedlings in ambient soil with intact network hyphae died. Because foliar chlorosis was symptomatic of iron deficiency, after 130 days we began to fertilize half the E. tetrodonta seedlings in ambient soil with an iron solution. Iron fertilization completely remedied chlorosis and stimulated leaf growth. Our microcosm results suggest that in intact rain forest, common AM networks mediate belowground competition and AM fungi may exacerbate iron deficiency, thereby enhancing resistance to E. tetrodonta invasion. Common AM networks–previously unrecognized as contributors to the ashbed effect–probably help to maintain the rain forest–savanna boundary. PMID:23460899

  17. Response of soil nematodes, rotifers and tardigrades to three levels of season-long sulfur dioxide exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leetham, J.W.; McNary, T.J.; Dodd, J.L.; Lauenroth, W.K.

    1982-05-01

    Soil nematode, rotifer, and tardigrade populations were sampled in field plots of native northern mixed prairie in southeastern Montana from 1977 to 1979. The field plots were exposed to season-long fumigation with controlled low-levels of SO/sub 2/ throughout the growing seasons (April-October). Two field sites were used, one fumigated for five seasons (1975-1979) and the other for four (1976-1979). Seasonal average SO/sub 2/ concentrations ranged from control (< 1 pphm) to approximately 7 pphm. Soil fauna were sampled by taking soil cores and extracting them by the Baermann wet funnel technique.Total counts were made for tardigrades and rotifers while nematodes were divided into three groups - stylet bearers (Tylenchida-Dorylimida), non-stylet bearers, and the predatory Mononchida. Consistent trends of substantial reductions in tardigrade populations occurred in all treated plots in all years; however, statistical significance was achieved only in 1979 when sample size and individual core size were substantially increased. Tardigrades were found to be restricted almost completely to the surface two centimeters of the soil profile. Significant population reductions in the treated plots of both sites were found for non-stylet bearing nematodes in 1977 only. Stylet bearing types and predaceous Mononchida appeared unaffected by the SO/sub 2/ as were the soil rotifers, although slight but consistent trends of reduction in rotifers occurred in the highest treatments in 1977 and 1978. Both nematodes and rotifers were distributed primarily in the 0 to 10 cm layer of the soil profile but not restricted to the soil surface as much as the tardigrades. Implications of the responses to SO/sub 2/ and vertical distributions of the three groups are discussed.

  18. Short term recovery of soil physical, chemical, micro- and mesobiological functions in a new vineyard under organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, E. A. C.; Agnelli, A. E.; Fabiani, A.; Gagnarli, E.; Mocali, S.; Priori, S.; Simoni, S.; Valboa, G.

    2014-12-01

    Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation can severely upset soil profile properties. As a result, soil features in the root environment are often much more similar to those of the underlying substratum than those of the original profile. The time needed to recover the original soil functions is ecologically relevant and may strongly affect vine phenology and grape yield, particularly under organic viticulture. The general aim of this work was to investigate soil resilience after vineyard pre-planting earthworks. In particular, an old and a new vineyard, established on the same soil type, were compared over a five year period for soil chemical, physical, micro and mesobiological properties. The investigated vineyards (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Sangiovese) were located in the Chianti Classico district (Central Italy), on stony and calcareous soils and were not irrigated. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011, after equivalent earthwork practices carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed and fertilized only with compost every autumn (1000 kg ha-1 per year). The new vineyard was cultivated by periodic tillage, while the old vineyard was managed with alternating grass-covered and tilled inter-rows. Soil samples were collected at 0-15 cm depth from the same plots of the new and old vineyards, during the springtime from 2010 to 2014. The old vineyard was sampled in both the tilled and the grass-covered swaths. According to the results from physical and chemical analyses, the new vineyard, during the whole 2010-2014 period, showed lower TOC, N, C/N and EC values, along with higher silt and total CaCO3 contents than the old vineyard, suggesting still evolving equilibrium conditions. The microarthropod analysis showed significantly different abundances and communities' structures, in relation to both

  19. Soil formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, van N.; Buurman, P.

    1998-01-01

    Soil Formation deals with qualitative and quantitative aspects of soil formation (or pedogenesis) and the underlying chemical, biological, and physical processes. The starting point of the text is the process - and not soil classification. Effects of weathering and new formation of minerals, mobilis

  20. A facile, solvent vapor-fumigation-induced, self-repair recrystallization of CH3NH3PbI3 films for high-performance perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Weidong; Yu, Tao; Li, Faming; Bao, Chunxiong; Gao, Hao; Yi, Yong; Yang, Jie; Fu, Gao; Zhou, Xiaoxin; Zou, Zhigang

    2015-03-12

    A high-quality CH3NH3PbI3 film is crucial in the manufacture of a high-performance perovskite solar cell. Here, a recrystallization process via facile fumigation with DMF vapor has been successfully introduced to self-repair of CH3NH3PbI3 films with poor coverage and low crystallinity prepared by the commonly used one-step spin-coating method. We found that the CH3NH3PbI3 films with dendritic structures can spontaneously transform to the uniform ones with full coverage and high crystallinity by adjusting the cycles of the recrystallization process. The mesostructured perovskite solar cells based on these repaired CH3NH3PbI3 films showed reproducible optimal power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 11.15% and average PCE of 10.25±0.90%, which are much better than that of devices based on the non-repaired CH3NH3PbI3 films. In addition, the hysteresis phenomenon in the current-voltage test can also be effectively alleviated due to the quality of the films being improved in the optimized devices. Our work proved that the fumigation of solvent vapor can modify metal organic perovskite films such as CH3NH3PbI3. It offers a novel and attractive way to fabricate high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  1. Localized ozone fumigation system for studying ozone effects on photosynthesis, respiration, electron transport rate and isoprene emission in field-grown Mediterranean oak species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velikova, V.; Tsonev, T. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. of Plant Physiology; Pinelli, P.; Alessio, G.A.; Loreto, F. [CNR Inst. de Biologia Agroambiental e Forestale, Rome (Italy)

    2005-12-01

    Although ozone typically forms in highly populated and industrialized areas of the world, its presence in rural areas indicates that it can also be formed by interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic precursors. Ozone concentrations often rise above phytotoxic thresholds, resulting in reduced plant productivity and visible damage to foliage. This study examined the effects of acute and prolonged ozone exposure on some physiological traits of Mediterranean vegetation. A localized ozone fumigation system was used on single leaves in an oak canopy that was not in an enclosed system. The main objectives were to determine if primary and secondary metabolism of Mediterranean oak are sensitive to acute and prolonged, but not chronic, super-ambient or high ozone. Another objective was to determine if leaf ontogeny plays a role in establishing ozone sensitivities in the plant canopy. The study provided evidence that Mediterranean oak are generally resistant to short-term high ozone exposure, because no permanent damage was noted during the 3-day long fumigation. Carbon assimilation of current-year leaves was temporarily affected by exposure to high ozone, but recovery was quick and may have involved increasing resistance to carbon dioxide diffusion and photochemical damage. The fact that biochemical stress markers were influenced only by high ozone concentrations indicates that biochemical changes occurred in the absence of large physiological changes, but may affect the long-term development and performance of leaves exposed to ozone stress. 40 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  2. Soil metagenomics and tropical soil productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Karen A Garrett

    2009-01-01

    This presentation summarizes research in the soil metagenomics cross cutting research activity. Soil metagenomics studies soil microbial communities as contributors to soil health.C CCRA-4 (Soil Metagenomics)

  3. Soil microbiology and soil health assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil scientists have long recognized the importance of soil biology in ecological health. In particular, soil microbes are crucial for many soil functions including decomposition, nutrient cycling, synthesis of plant growth regulators, and degradation of synthetic chemicals. Currently, soil biologis...

  4. Soils - Volusia County Soils (Polygons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Soils: 1:24000 SSURGO Map. Polygon boundaries of Soils in Volusia County, downloaded from SJRWMD and created by NRCS and SJRWMD. This data set is a digital version...

  5. Fumigant Toxicity of some Essential Oils on Adults of some Stored-Product Pests Toxicidad Fumigante de Algunos Aceites Esenciales sobre Adultos de algunas Plagas de Productos Almacenados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mahmoudvand

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant materials with insecticidal properties have been traditionally used for generations in some parts of the world. In this study, fumigant toxicity of some essential oils extracted from Rosmarinus officinalis L., Mentha pulegium L., Zataria multiflora, and Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck var. hamlin on adults of stored-product pests, including Tribolium castaneum, Sitophilus granarius, Callosobruchus maculatus, and Plodia interpunctella were investigated. Pure essential oils were used in glass vials for the bioassay. LC50 values of Citrus sinensis var. hamlin against T. castaneum, S. granarius, and C. maculatus were 391.28, 367.75, and 223.48 µL L-1 air after 24 h, 362.40, 20.45, and 207.17 µL L-1 air after 48 h, respectively. Furthermore, LC50 values of the fumigant test of C. sinensis and M. pulegium essential oils against S. granarius were 0.038 and 367.75 µL L-1 air after 24 h, 0.025 and 320.45 µL L-1 air after 48 h, respectively. On the other hand, LC50 values of R. officinalis and Z. multiflora on P. interpunctella moths were 0.93 and 1.75 µL L-1 after 24 h. Results showed that among tested essential oils, C. sinensis var. hamlin had good fumigant toxicity on T. castaneum, S. granarius, and C. maculatus. In addition, M. pulegium essential oil was stronger than C. sinensis var. hamlin on S. granarius. Results also indicated that both Z. multiflora and R. officinalis had fumigant toxicity on P. interpunctella adults. In summary, results indicated that these essential oils have good fumigant toxicity on stored-product pests.Materiales vegetales con propiedades insecticidas han sido usados tradicionalmente por generaciones en algunas partes del mundo. En este estudio se estudió la toxicidad fumigante de algunos aceites esenciales extraídos desde Rosmarinus officinalis L., Mentha pulegium L., Zataria multiflora y Citrus sinensis (L. Osbeck var. hamlin sobre adultos de plagas de productos almacenados, incluyendo Tribolium castaneum

  6. The importance of plant-soil interactions for N mineralisation in different soil types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Conor; Paterson, Eric; Baggs, Elizabeth; Morley, Nicholas; Wall, David; Schulte, Rogier

    2013-04-01

    The last hundred years has seen major advancements in our knowledge of nitrogen mineralisation in soil, but key drivers and controls remain poorly understood. Due to an increase in the global population there is a higher demand on food production. To accommodate this demand agriculture has increased its use of N based fertilizers, but these pose risks for water quality and GHG emissions as N can be lost through nitrate leaching, ammonia volatilization, and denitrification processes (Velthof, et al., 2009). Therefore, understanding the underlying processes that determine the soils ability to supply N to the plant is vital for effective optimisation of N-fertilisation with crop demand. Carbon rich compounds exuded from plant roots to the rhizosphere, which are utilized by the microbial biomass and support activities including nutrient transformations, may be a key unaccounted for driver of N mineralisation. The main aim of this study was to study the impact of root exudates on turnover of C and N in soil, as mediated by the microbial community. Two soil types, known to contrast in N-mineralisation capacity, were used to determine relationships between C inputs, organic matter mineralisation (priming effects) and N fluxes. 15N and 13C stable isotope approaches were used to quantify the importance of rhizosphere processes on C and N mineralisation. Gross nitrogen mineralisation was measured using 15N pool dilution. Total soil CO2 efflux was measured and 13C isotope partitioning was applied to quantify SOM turnover and microbial biomass respiration. Also, 13C was traced through the microbial biomass (chloroform fumigation) to separate pool-substitution effects (apparent priming) from altered microbial utilisation of soil organic matter (real priming effects). Addition of labile carbon resulted in an increase in N-mineralisation from soil organic matter in both soils. Concurrent with this there was an increase in microbial biomass size, indicating that labile C elicited

  7. Soil pollution and soil protection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, de F.A.M.; Visser-Reijneveld, M.I.

    1996-01-01

    This book was compiled from lecture handouts prepared for the international postgraduate course on soil quality, entitled 'Soil Pollution and Soil Protection' given jointly by the universities of Wageningen (The Netherlands), Gent and Leuven (Belgium), under the auspices of the international

  8. Soil infiltrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehler, M.R.

    1990-09-18

    This patent describes an infiltrometer useful for field testing soil permeability. It comprises: a large reservoir having an open bottom resting on the soil; a small reservoir having an open bottom resting on the soil, the small reservoir being positioned within the large reservoir; the small reservoir comprising a relatively large receptacle adjacent the soil and a relatively small receptacle connected thereto and extending upwardly therefrom; the volume of the large reservoir greatly exceeding the volume of the small reservoir; the ratio of the upper surface area of liquid in the large reservoir to the surface area of the soil covered thereby greatly exceeding the ratio of the upper surface area of liquid in the relatively small receptacle of the small reservoir to the surface area of the soil covered thereby; and means for determining the amount of liquid from the small reservoir permeating into the soil.

  9. Lysimeter Soil Retriever (LSR) - A tool for investigation on heterogeneity of the migration and structural changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reth, S.; Gierig, M.; Winkler, J. B.; Mueller, C. W.; Nitsche, C.; Seyfarth, M.

    2009-04-01

    Generally research fields of lysimeter studies scheduled as long term experiments. In the course of the studies, the lysimeters act more or less as a "black box". Usually the soil material is identified and analysed at the beginning of the experiments. But there is also a strong need to analyze the soil without disturbance of the soil structure after the experiments in order to obtain information about spatial and structural changes within the soil profile. The new technique of the Lysimeter Soil Retriever for the first time enables studies on the heterogeneous migration of percolating water, and changes of soil structure as well as soil organic matter (SOM) and biomass distribution, as well as the distribution of mycorrhiza and microbes in different depths on intact soil profiles. The main target by using the LSR is the preparation of an intact soil monolith from the field lysimeter and the immediate dissection into slices to enable a direct sampling of its soil environment at several depths. Distribution and composition of SOM, pF-values, soil porosity, as well as degradation of PAH were only a few parameters, which are determined at the different soil depths. In this presentation we give some examples for the different application of the LSR and the advantage for the experiments: - The soil of 8 lysimeters, planted with young beeches was retrieved after several years of fumigation with doubled atmospheric ozone concentrations and application of fungi. Due to the accurate sectioning of the soil monoliths a very dense and intensive soil sampling was possible. As the whole soil space of 8 lysimeters could be sampled, precise spatial information were obtained about the rapid formation of SOM depth gradients within the experiment duration. - After the investigation on the mobilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by the seepage water, the lysimeter soil was retrieved. Investigations on the microbiological degradation of the PAH were possible in the whole

  10. Evaluación de ácido acético como fumigante de mosquita blanca Bemisia tabaci (Gennadious en laboratorio y campo Assessment of acetic acid like fumigant of silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadious in laboratory and field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alfredo Samaniego Gaxiola

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la capacidad del ácido acético (AA como fumigante en contra de Bemisia tabaci (moquita blanca que es un plaga de importancia nacional. En el laboratorio, se fumigó el insecto con tres regímenes de dosis - tiempo: (ambos medios, baja - largos y altas - cortos. En el campo, las hojas de calabaza de cuatro variedades fueron fumigadas con 8, 16 y 32 µg ml-1 de AA en tiempos de 20, 40 y 60 min; adicionalmente, se evaluó el daño en las hojas (fitotoxicidad después de fumigarse. En el laboratorio, tiempo de fumigación > 15 miny 8 µg ml-1 de AA mató 100% de la mosquita, mientras que, su supervivencia se redujo 40% al fumigarla ocho horas con 2 µg ml-1de AA; pero la incubación del testigo (mosquita sin fumigar por ≥ 16 h también redujo su supervivencia; entretanto, con 8 y 16 µml-¹ de AA se redujo la supervivencia del insecto desde los cinco minutos (~20-80%. En el campo, la mosquita sobrevivió ~ 40% en las hojas de las cuatro variedades después de fumigarse con AA(8-32 µgml-¹ durante 20 min, pero el insecto prácticamente no sobrevivió al aumentar el tiempo de fumigación a 60 min. Las hojas mostraron un daño severo (fitotoxicidad > al 50% excepto en la dosis de 8 µg ml-¹ a los 20 min con un daño de ~ 20%. Se discuten alternativas del empleo del AA como fumigante.The aim of this work was to assess the capacity of acetic acid (AA like fumigant against Bemisia tabaci (silverleaf whitefly which is a pest of national importance. In laboratory, the bug was fumigated with three doses-time regimes: (both media, low dose-long time and high dose-short time. In field, squash leaves of four varieties were fumigated with 8, 16 and 32 µg ml-¹ of AA during of 20, 40 and 60 min; additionally, it was assessed damage in foils (phytotoxicity after fumigation. In laboratory, fumigation time > 15 min and 8µgml-¹ of AA killed 100% of whitefly, while its survival was reduced 40% when fumigated eight hours

  11. A novel method for rapidly isolating microbes that suppress soil-borne phytopathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Sarah; Agnew, Linda; Pereg, Lily

    2016-04-01

    Seedling establishment faces a large number of challenges related to soil physical properties as well as to fungal root diseases. It is extremely difficult to eliminate fungal pathogens from soils where their populations are established due to the persistent nature of their spores and since fumigation of resident fungi is very ineffective in clay-containing soils. Therefore it is necessary to find ways to overcome disease in areas where the soils are infected with fungal phytopathogens. The phenomenon of disease suppressive soils, where the pathogen is present but no disease observed, suggests that microbial antagonism in the soil may lead to the suppression of the growth of fungal pathogens. There are also cases in the literature where soil microorganisms were isolated that suppress the growth of phytopathogens. Antibiosis is one of the most important mechanisms responsible for fungal antagonism, with some significant antifungal compounds involved including antibiotics, volatile organic compounds, hydrogen cyanide and lytic enzymes. Isolation of pathogen-suppressive microorganisms from the soil is time consuming and tedious. We established a simple method for direct isolation of soil microbes (bacteria and fungi) that suppress fungal phytopathogens as well as procedures for confirmation of disease suppression. We will discuss such methods, which were so far tested with the cotton fungal pathogens Thielaviopsis basicola, Verticillium dahliae and Fusarium oxysporum and Verticillium fungicola. We have isolated a diversity of T. basicola-suppressive fungi and bacteria from two vastly different soil types. Identification of the antagonistic isolates revealed that they are a diverse lot, some belong to groups known to be suppressive of a wide range of fungal pathogens, endorsing the power of this technique to rapidly and directly isolate soil-borne microbes antagonistic to a wide variety of fungal pathogens.

  12. Status of Macrophomina phaseolina on strawberry in California and preliminary characterization of the pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrophomina crown and root rot has become a significant soilborne disease issue in California. For many locations in the state, the disease is associated with fields that are no longer pre-plant, flat field fumigated with methyl bromide + chloropicrin. Inoculation experiments indicated that some di...

  13. Managing root-knot nematodes: A case for cover crops in establishing peach orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are an important pathogen of peach in the United States. Several Meloidogyne spp. have been reported to cause damage to stone fruits, but M. incognita and M. javanica are the predominant species on peach. Preplant fumigant nematicides have traditionally been ...

  14. Management of Meloidogyne incognita with tall fescue grass rotations prior to peach orchard establishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are important pests of peach in the USA. Preplant fumigant nematicides have been used to control Meloidogyne spp. associated with Southeastern peach production. Unfortunately, growers have increasingly faced economic challenges, making it difficult for them t...

  15. Host susceptibility of tall fescue grass to Meloidogyne spp. and Mesocriconema xenoplax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preplant fumigant nematicides have traditionally been used to control Meloidogyne spp. and Mesocriconema xenoplax in peach in the Southeast. In recent years growers have faced economic hardships, making it difficult to afford costs associated with these chemicals. Finding an alternative to control...

  16. Use of spirotetramat in the post-plant management of root-knot nematode in eggplant and peach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Historically peach production and IPM management of nematodes has relied almost solely on pre- and post-plant applications of nematicides in the southeastern United States. Currently Telone II is the primary preplant fumigant used by peach growers, since methyl bromide and fenamiphos, the only post...

  17. (Contaminated soil)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegrist, R.L.

    1991-01-08

    The traveler attended the Third International Conference on Contaminated Soil, held in Karlsruhe, Germany. The Conference was a status conference for worldwide research and practice in contaminated soil assessment and environmental restoration, with more than 1500 attendees representing over 26 countries. The traveler made an oral presentation and presented a poster. At the Federal Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene, the traveler met with Dr. Z. Filip, Director and Professor, and Dr. R. Smed-Hildmann, Research Scientist. Detailed discussions were held regarding the results and conclusions of a collaborative experiment concerning humic substance formation in waste-amended soils.

  18. Effects of reduced-rate methyl bromide applications under conventional and virtually impermeable plastic film in perennial crop field nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Bradley D; Gerik, James S; Schneider, Sally M

    2010-08-01

    Producers of perennial crop nursery stock in California use preplant soil fumigation to meet state phytosanitary requirements. Although methyl bromide (MB) has been phased out in many agricultural industries, it is still the preferred treatment in the perennial nursery industry and is used under Critical Use Exemptions and Quarantine/Preshipment provisions of the Montreal Protocol. The present research was conducted to evaluate reduced-rate MB applications sealed with conventional and low-permeability plastic films compared with the primary alternative material. Reduced rates (100-260 kg ha(-1)) of MB applied in combination with chloropicrin (Pic) and sealed with a low-permeability plastic film provided weed and nematode control similar to the industry standard rate of 392 kg ha(-1) MB:Pic (98:2) sealed with high-density polyethylene (HDPE) film. However, the primary alternative chemical, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), tended to provide slightly lower pest control even on sites with relatively low plant parasitic nematode, soil-borne pathogen and weed pest pressure. If California regulations change to allow the use of low-permeability films in broadcast fumigant applications, the results of this research suggest that reduced rates of MB in perennial crop nurseries could serve as a bridge strategy until more technically, economically and environmentally acceptable alternatives are developed. Published 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Histological studies on the bundle sheath in needles of Picea abies (L. ) Karst. , diseased or fumigated with SO/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier-Maercker, U.

    1986-01-01

    The paper reports disorganisations within the bundle sheath in current year needles of diseased Picea abies. Similar symptoms were produced by fumigation of young trees for 20 days with 0.3 ppm SO/sub 2/. The lignified radial walls of the sheath cells were in a state of partial delignification and the lumina contained granular substances which absorbed UV light at 280 nm. While autofluorescence of the radial walls was weak in injured material the granular cell contents were heavily fluorescent. Studies of structural features and the outcome of feeding experiments using berberine sulfate and Tl/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ suggest that the bundle sheath is involved in the water transport from the vascular system towards the evaporating surfaces of the needle. The activity of wall bound peroxidase was localized histochemically; the possible role of this enzyme complex is discussed.

  20. 磷化氢环流熏蒸生产性应用研究%Application of circumfluent fumigation with phosphine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪宁; 王旭峰

    2011-01-01

    The technique of phosphine circumfluent fumigation was applied to wheat stored in high large warehouse.The test included three modes of apply drug,outside warehouse,combination of outside warehouse with grain surface and combination of outside warehouse w%以高大房式仓散存硬麦为实验对象,运用磷化氢环流熏蒸装备,分别采用仓外施药、仓外与粮面施药相结合、仓外与粮面间歇投药法不同方式生产性应用。根据不同区域和厂房条件,可以制定经济、安全、有效的熏蒸工艺,节省熏蒸时间,且浓度均匀,杀虫效果好。

  1. Fumigant toxicity of essential oils from Achillea millefolium (asteraceae) and Prangos ferulacea (Apiaceae) against Sitophilus granarius and S. oryzea (col.: Curculionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek, Şeyda; Pekbey, Gamze; Yaman, Cennet

    2016-04-01

    In the present study, experiments were conducted to investigate fumigant toxicity of the essential oil from Achillea millefolium (Asteraceae) and Prangos ferulacea (Apiaceae) plants for adult grain weevil (Sitophilus granarius) and rice weevil (S. oryzea) in vitro conditions. The essential oils were isolated with the water distillation method by Neo-Clevenger apparatus. During the study 10% (v/v) doses of oils in 20 cc of compressed rubber-capped glass tubes were used. After 24 hours mortality rates of the essential oils were compared. For S. granarius the toxicity of A. millefolium (98.85%) was observed to be more effective than P. ferulace (28.73%). Similarly for S. oryzea, A. millefolium (100 %) was found much more toxic than P. ferulace (9.82%). At the results of the study the essential oil of the A. millefolium has been determined as a promising insecticidal component against both pests.

  2. 烟草熏蒸过程中仓库内外环境磷化氢浓度检测%Air phosphine concentration of aluminum phosphide fumigated warehouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建中; 陈发明; 叶青; 彭言群

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the variation of air phosphine (PH3) concentrations in the internal and external environment of warehouse after aluminum phosphide (AlP) fumigation and natural air ventilation.Methods Air PH3 concentrations inside and outside fumigated warehouse were measured using synchronous sampling method according to the GBZ159 air collection standard during the process of fumigation and ventilation.Results PH3 concentrations were 30.36 ~ 182.14 g/m3 inside the warehouse when it was fumigated with 0.2~0.5 g/m3 AlP.Air PH3 concentrations were 3.12~17.9 mg/m3 and 27.3~ 162.4 g/m3 respectively at the fumigation operation position andbefore the ventilation of fumigated warehouse.PH3 concentrations gradually decreased to occupationally acceptable level in 90 % of the air samples inside the warehouse after 48 hrs of natural ventilation.Conclusion Air PH3 concentrations outside the fumigated warehouse were within the occupational acceptable levels in the whole process of fumigation.The safe level of air PH3 concentrations inside the fumigated warehouse was achieved after 72 hrs of natural air ventilation.%目的 探讨某烟草仓储基地磷化铝熏蒸过程中库内及周围环境空气中磷化氢(PH3)浓度变化规律,以及熏蒸后开仓通风散气工作场所达到安全浓度所需排放时间,为烟草熏蒸安全作业提供依据.方法 按GBZ-159采样规范,采用与熏蒸和散气过程同步等时采样方法,对某烟草仓储基地1号储烟库烟草熏蒸和开仓散气过程仓库内外环境空气中PH3浓度进行现场检测,监测不同时段库内外空气中PH3浓度.结果 库内磷化铝投放量为0.2~0.5 mg/m3;库内磷化氢熏蒸浓度为30.36~182.14 mg/m3;熏蒸时操作岗位磷化氢浓度范围为3.12~17.9 mg/m3;开仓散气前库内磷化氢浓度范围为27.3~162.4 mg/m3;在开仓散气48 h后库内pH3氢浓度逐步降至职业接触限值;库外磷化氢浓度在散气时同步检测91%

  3. 茶树精油熏蒸处理保鲜草莓的工艺优化%Optimization of tea tree oil fumigation for keeping quality of harvested strawberry fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵兴锋; 程赛; 王鸿飞; 曹保英

    2012-01-01

    In order to determine the optimum condition of tee tree oil fumigation for control disease of postharvest strawberry fruit inoculated with Botrytis cinerea, effects of three independent variables, fumigation time, fumigation concentration and fumigation temperature were investigated by means of response surface methodology (RSM) combined with Box-Behnken experimental design based on the single factor experiments. Results showed that the optimal fumigation conditions were as follows: the fumigation time was 3.1 h, fumigation concentration was 0.66 mL/L and fumigation temperature 33.3 ℃. Verification test showed that the decay index of inoculated strawberry fruit is 7.5%, and the relative error of the measured values with the predicted value is 4.1%. Under these conditions, natural strawberries were fumigated and stored to observe the disease and quality change. The results show that tea tree oil treatment can significantly reduce the natural decay development, meanwhile reduce weight loss and maintain higher hardness, soluble solid, titratable acid and anthocyanin content. This research can provide a reference for commercial application of tea tree oil on strawberry preservation.%为了获得茶树精油熏蒸处理进行草莓防腐保鲜的较佳工艺条件,采用单因素试验方法研究不同熏蒸体积分数、温度和时间对人工接种灰葡萄孢霉的草莓果实腐烂发生的影响.通过Box-Behnken设计及响应面分析获得熏蒸防腐保鲜的最佳工艺条件为:茶树精油熏蒸体积分数0.66 mL/L、熏蒸温度33.3℃、熏蒸时间3.1 h.按此优化条件进行验证发现接种草莓果实的腐烂指数为7.5%,实测值与模型预测值的相对误差在4.1%;将此优化条件应用于未接种的新鲜草莓果实,结果发现该处理能显著抑制果实的自然病害发生,还能减缓草莓果实失重率的上升和果实硬度、可溶性固形物、可滴定酸和花青素含量的下降.研究结果为茶树精

  4. Soil Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of the soil solution in the root environment in the greenhouse industry differ much from those for field grown crops. This is caused firstly by the growing conditions in the greenhouse, which strongly differ from those in the field and secondly the function attributed to the soil

  5. Comparative Toxicity of Fumigants and a Phosphine Synergist Using a Novel Containment Chamber for the Safe Generation of Concentrated Phosphine Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valmas, Nicholas; Ebert, Paul R.

    2006-01-01

    Background With the phasing out of ozone-depleting substances in accordance with the United Nations Montreal Protocol, phosphine remains as the only economically viable fumigant for widespread use. However the development of high-level resistance in several pest insects threatens the future usage of phosphine; yet research into phosphine resistance mechanisms has been limited due to the potential for human poisoning in enclosed laboratory environments. Principal Findings Here we describe a custom-designed chamber for safely containing phosphine gas generated from aluminium phosphide tablets. In an improvement on previous generation systems, this chamber can be completely sealed to control the escape of phosphine. The device has been utilised in a screening program with C. elegans that has identified a phosphine synergist, and quantified the efficacy of a new fumigant against that of phosphine. The phosphine-induced mortality at 20°C has been determined with an LC50 of 732 ppm. This result was contrasted with the efficacy of a potential new botanical pesticide dimethyl disulphide, which for a 24 hour exposure at 20°C is 600 times more potent than phosphine (LC50 1.24 ppm). We also found that co-administration of the glutathione depletor diethyl maleate (DEM) with a sublethal dose of phosphine (70 ppm, phosphine in a laboratory environment has now been substantially reduced by the implementation of our novel gas generation chamber. We have also identified a novel phosphine synergist, the glutathione depletor DEM, suggesting an effective pathway to be targeted in future synergist research; as well as quantifying the efficacy of a potential alternative to phosphine, dimethyl disulphide. PMID:17205134

  6. Clinical Observation of Drug Fumigation Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis%药物熏蒸治疗类风湿关节炎临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董瑞华; 郑立新; 张鲁阳; 于莉; 于文广

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To explore the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Method:Application of drug fumigation therapy of rheumatoid arthritis was observed before and after treatment. Joint pain,swelling,joint movement disorders,morning stiffness index change data were analyzed by SPSS11.0 software. Result:Compared with before treatment,after treatment,joint pain,tenderness,swelling significantly reduced morning stiffness and joint dysfunction improved significantly(P<0.01). Conclusion:The fumigation treatments using drugs in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis can effectively control the progression of the disease,and improve the quality of life of patients.%  目的:探讨类风湿关节炎治疗方法.方法:应用药物熏蒸疗法治疗类风湿关节炎,观察治疗前后关节疼痛、肿胀、关节活动障碍、晨僵指数的变化,使用SPSS 11.0软件进行统计分析.结果:与治疗前比较,治疗后关节疼痛、压痛、肿胀明显减轻,晨僵和关节功能障碍明显改善(P<0.01).结论:应用药物熏蒸疗法治疗类风湿关节炎,能有效控制病情的进展,提高患者的生活质量.

  7. Linking soil biodiversity and agricultural soil management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele-Bruhn, S.; Bloem, J.; Vries, de F.T.; Kalbitz, K.; Wagg, C.

    2012-01-01

    Soil biodiversity vastly exceeds aboveground biodiversity, and is prerequisite for ecosystem stability and services. This review presents recent findings in soil biodiversity research focused on interrelations with agricultural soil management. Richness and community structure of soil biota depend o

  8. Linking soil biodiversity and agricultural soil management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele-Bruhn, S.; Bloem, J.; de Vries, F.T.; Kalbitz, K.; Wagg, C.

    2012-01-01

    Soil biodiversity vastly exceeds aboveground biodiversity, and is prerequisite for ecosystem stability and services. This review presents recent findings in soil biodiversity research focused on interrelations with agricultural soil management. Richness and community structure of soil biota depend

  9. Importance of inoculum properties on the structure and growth of bacterial communities during Recolonisation of humus soil with different pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Marie; Bååth, Erland

    2013-08-01

    The relationship between community structure and growth and pH tolerance of a soil bacterial community was studied after liming in a reciprocal inoculum study. An unlimed (UL) humus soil with a pH of 4.0 was fumigated with chloroform for 4 h, after which soil was experimentally limed (EL) to a pH of 7.6. Both the UL and the EL soil were then reciprocally inoculated with UL soil or field limed (FL) soil with a pH of 6.2. The FL soil was from a 15-year-old experiment. The structural changes were measured on both bacteria in soil and on bacteria able to grow on agar plates using phospholipids fatty acid (PLFA) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The developing community pH tolerance and bacterial growth were also monitored over time using thymidine incorporation. The inoculum source had a significant impact on both growth and pH tolerance of the bacterial community in the EL soil. These differences between the EL soil inoculated with UL soil and FL soil were correlated to structural changes, as evidenced by both PLFA and DGGE analyses on the soil. Similar correlations were seen to the fraction of the community growing on agar plates. There were, however, no differences between the soil bacterial communities in the unlimed soils with different inocula. This study showed the connection between the development of function (growth), community properties (pH tolerance) and the structure of the bacterial community. It also highlighted the importance of both the initial properties of the community and the selection pressure after environmental changes in shaping the resulting microbial community.

  10. Soil mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Carrier, W. D., III; Houston, W. N.; Scott, R. F.; Bromwell, L. G.; Durgunoglu, H. T.; Hovland, H. J.; Treadwell, D. D.; Costes, N. C.

    1972-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of an investigation of the physical and mechanical properties of lunar soil on the Descartes slopes, and the Cayley Plains in the vicinity of the LM for Apollo 16. The soil mechanics data were derived form (1) crew commentary and debriefings, (2) television, (3) lunar surface photography, (4) performance data and observations of interactions between soil and lunar roving vehicle, (5) drive-tube and deep drill samples, (6) sample characteristics, and (7) measurements using the SRP. The general characteristics, stratigraphy and variability are described along with the core samples, penetrometer test results, density, porosity and strength.

  11. STATUS OF SOIL MICROBIAL POPULATION, ENZYMATIC ACTIVITY AND BIOMASS OF SELECTED NATURAL, SECONDARY AND REHABILITATED FORESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Daljit Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Substantial clearance of forests and conversion of forest into various land use types contribute to deterioration of soil fertility and associated nutrients loss. Soils from natural and rehabilitated forest in Chikus Forest Reserve and also enrichment planting forest and secondary forest of Tapah Hill Forest Reserve, Perak, Malaysia were selected in order to assess the influence of land use change on biological properties. This study was carried out to provide fundamental information on soil biological properties and also to compare the differences between natural forest, mono-rehabilitated forest, mixed planting forest and natural regenerated forest (secondary forest. Six subplots (20×20 m were established at each study plot and soil samples were collected at the depths of 0-15 cm (topsoil and 15-30 cm (subsoil. Soil microbial population was determined using spread-plate technique. Fluorescein Diacetate (FDA hydrolysis was used to assess the amount of microbial enzymatic activity for each forest plot. Soil Microbial Biomass C (MBC and N (MBN were extracted using chloroform fumigation extraction technique and the amount of MBC was determined by dichromate digestion, while MBN via Kjeldahl digestion technique. Soil acidity was determined by pH meter and moisture content was elucidated using gravimetric method. The levels of microbial population of bacterial and fungal at natural significantly exceeded the corresponding values of rehabilitated and secondary forest. However, microbial population is much higher in rehabilitated forest of Tapah Hill compared to that of secondary forest and also Chikus Forest Reserve planted forest which proves that rehabilitation activities do help increase the level of microbial community in the soils. Longer period of time after planting as in enrichment planting compared to mono planting of S. leprosula plantation showed that restoring and recovery of the planted forest needed time. Deforestation activities

  12. Agriculture: Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Productive soils, a favorable climate, and clean and abundant water resources are essential for growing crops, raising livestock, and for ecosystems to continue to provide the critical provisioning services that humans need.

  13. Total soil DNA quantification as an alternative microbial biomass determination approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Mikhail

    2015-04-01

    Many studies on geographically widespread soils from arctic permafrost to arid and tropical soils, as well as those studies on extreme events, such as freezing-thawing and drying-rewetting of soils, require immediate freezing of soil after sampling. The two common basic approaches, such as chloroform fumigation-extraction (CFE) and substrate-induced respiration (SIR), however, are not applicable in frozen or dry soil samples due to a partial destruction of microbial cells during freezing-thawing and drying-rewetting. This calls for approaches enabling correct estimation of microbial biomass in frozen or dried soil samples. This study was aimed to compare commonly used SIR and CFE techniques with total soil DNA quantification and demonstrate the applicability of DNA-based determination of microbial biomass in carbonate-containing, slightly (Chernozem) and strongly alkaline (Calcisol) soils of semi-arid climates. The samples of natural and agricultural ecosystems were taken throughout the soil profile from long-term static field experiments in the European part of Russia. The linear regression between SIR-Cmic and total soil dsDNA for the Chernozem showed very strong correlation. From the regression equation, the conversion factor of 5.10 with R2 = 0.96 was obtained. The effect of CO2 retention at alkaline pH (>8) and low microbial biomass-C resulted in an inability to obtain any SIR-CO2 release at deeper horizons of Calcisol, i.e. the CO2 retention potential was higher that the CO2 evolution. As a consequence, the values of SIR-Cmic of Calcisol at the horizons with pH > 8.0 were strongly underestimated (by a factor of 2-3). This smoothed the differences in Cmic between soil horizons. Nevertheless, reliable dsDNA values obtained for these soils demonstrated well-pronounced changes in microbial biomass within soil profile. The CFE and DNA-based approaches showed a good correspondence, with R2 = 0.96 for both soil types. The CFE-Cmic to DNA-Cmic factor of 0

  14. Fumigant Toxicity of Crushed Bulbs of Two Allium Species to Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius (Coleoptera: Bruchidae Toxicidad Fumigante para Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabriciu (Coleoptera: Bruchidae de Bulbos Trozados de Especies Allium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.I Ofuya

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Fumigant toxicity of crushed fresh bulbs of Allium sativum L. and A. cepa L. to the Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, a major pest of stored cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. seeds was assessed under laboratory conditions in Akure, Nigeria. In the tests, 20 g of infested cowpea seeds were suspended in a piece of muslin cloth, over an amount of crushed bulb in a container with a tightly fitted lid. Adult emergence was completely prevented from freshly laid eggs of C. maculatus on cowpea seeds that was fumigated with 6.0 g or more of crushed bulbs of A. sativum. Such fumigated seeds were not holed at all. Other amounts of A. sativum tested (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 g significantly reduced C. maculatus adult emergence from fumigated eggs and seed holing in comparison with the control. Crushed A. sativum was ineffective in preventing adult emergence from fumigated C. maculatus larvae in seeds. The fumigant effect of crushed A. cepa did not kill all C. maculatus eggs. An amount of 7.0 g significantly reduced C. maculatus adult emergence from fumigated eggs and seed holing in comparison with the control. There is good prospect in using crushed bulbs of A. sativum> as fumigant in C. maculatus control in stored cowpea seeds.Se evaluó la toxicidad fumigante de bulbos frescos trozados de Allium sativum L. y A. cepa L. sobre Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius, una importante plaga de semilla almacenada de caupí Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. bajo condiciones de laboratorio en Akure, Nigeria. En las pruebas, 20 g de semillas infestadas se suspendieron en un trozo de tela sobre cierta cantidad de bulbos trozados en un contenedor con una tapa ajustada. Se previno completamente la emergencia de adultos desde huevos recién puestos de C. maculatus en semillas de caupí que se fumigaron con 6,0 g o más de bulbos de A. sativum. Estas semillas fumigadas no estaban ahuecadas. Otras cantidades de A. sativum probadas (1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 y 5.0 g redujeron

  15. Measures of Microbial Biomass for Soil Carbon Decomposition Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, M. A.; Dabbs, J.; Steinweg, J. M.; Schadt, C. W.; Kluber, L. A.; Wang, G.; Jagadamma, S.

    2014-12-01

    Explicit parameterization of the decomposition of plant inputs and soil organic matter by microbes is becoming more widely accepted in models of various complexity, ranging from detailed process models to global-scale earth system models. While there are multiple ways to measure microbial biomass, chloroform fumigation-extraction (CFE) is commonly used to parameterize models.. However CFE is labor- and time-intensive, requires toxic chemicals, and it provides no specific information about the composition or function of the microbial community. We investigated correlations between measures of: CFE; DNA extraction yield; QPCR base-gene copy numbers for Bacteria, Fungi and Archaea; phospholipid fatty acid analysis; and direct cell counts to determine the potential for use as proxies for microbial biomass. As our ultimate goal is to develop a reliable, more informative, and faster methods to predict microbial biomass for use in models, we also examined basic soil physiochemical characteristics including texture, organic matter content, pH, etc. to identify multi-factor predictive correlations with one or more measures of the microbial community. Our work will have application to both microbial ecology studies and the next generation of process and earth system models.

  16. Soil fungal and bacterial biomass determined by epifluorescence microscopy and mycorrhizal spore density in different sugarcane managements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Pereira Aleixo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Crop productivity and sustainability have often been related to soil organic matter and soil microbial biomass, especially because of their role in soil nutrient cycling. This study aimed at measuring fungal and bacterial biomass by epifluorescence microscopy and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF spore density in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. fields under different managements. We collected soil samples of sugarcane fields managed with or without burning, with or without mechanized harvest, with or without application of vinasse and from nearby riparian native forest. The soil samples were collected at 10cm depth and storage at 4°C until analysis. Fungal biomass varied from 25 to 37µg C g-1 dry soil and bacterial from 178 to 263µg C g-1 dry soil. The average fungal/bacterial ratio of fields was 0.14. The AMF spore density varied from 9 to 13 spores g-1 dry soil. The different sugarcane managements did not affect AMF spore density. In general, there were no significant changes of microbial biomass with crop management and riparian forest. However, the sum of fungal and bacterial biomass measured by epifluorescence microscopy (i.e. 208-301µg C g-1 dry soil was very close to values of total soil microbial biomass observed in other studies with traditional techniques (e.g. fumigation-extraction. Therefore, determination of fungal/bacterial ratios by epifluorescence microscopy, associated with other parameters, appears to be a promising methodology to understand microbial functionality and nutrient cycling under different soil and crop managements.

  17. 气体二氧化氯用于空间消毒的评价%Evaluation of gaseous chlorine dioxide fumigation for enclosed space decontamination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾海泉; 张宗兴; 祁建城; 吴金辉; 衣颖; 张恩雷; 张金明; 李艳菊; 赵明; 郝丽梅; 林松

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the fumigation parameters required for gaseous chlorine dioxide( CD ) to sterilize space using commercially available bioindicators and to investigate the effect environmental humidity, organic burden and material types of contents surface on the results of gaseous chlorine CD for enclosed space biodecontamination. Methods Self-made or commercially available coupons inoculated with spores of Bacillus subtilis var nigery ATCC9372 ) were used as bioindicators to qualitatively evaluate the biodecontamination consequence of microenvironmental laboratories by gaseous CD with various fumigation parameters and under various experimental conditions. Results The ability of gaseous CD to inactivate spores was enhanced with environmental humidity. However, too high concentration vapor was liable to condense on the slick surface and there was a slight corrosion mark on the metal surface. According to the results indicated by commercially available bioindicators, enclosed space could be sterilized by 3 hours of fumigation of 300 parts per million volume ( ppmv ) gaseous CD. Albumin could well protect spores from gasous CD killing. 300 ppm gaseous CD fumigation for 4 hours could sterilize filter paper coupons, while 1000 ppm gaseous CD for 4 hours still failed to biodecontaminate steel coupons or cloth coupons completely. Conclusion The relative humidity of enclosed space should be maintained at about 75% for enclosed space fumigation with gaseous CD. Commercially available bioindicators fail to indicate accurately the decontamination of enclosed space with gaseous CD. CD concentration or docontamination time should be increased according to surface material types and the absence or presence of organic burdens in disinfection objects in enclosed space.%目的 用商品化的生物指示剂确定气体二氧化氯达到空间灭菌水平所需消毒参数,同时评价环境湿度、有机干扰物、物体表面材料对气体二氧化

  18. Determination of phosphine and other fumigants in air samples by thermal desorption and 2D heart-cutting gas chromatography with synchronous SIM/Scan mass spectrometry and flame photometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrenholtz, Svea; Hühnerfuss, Heinrich; Baur, Xaver; Budnik, Lygia Therese

    2010-12-24

    Fumigants and volatile industrial chemicals are particularly hazardous to health when a freight container is fumigated or the contaminated material is introduced into its enclosed environment. Phosphine is now increasingly used as a fumigant, after bromomethane--the former fumigant of choice--has been banned by the Montreal Protocol. We have enhanced our previously established thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC-MS) method by integrating a second gas chromatographic dimension and a flame photometric detector to allow the simultaneous detection of phosphine and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), providing a novel application. A thermal desorption system is coupled to a two dimensional gas chromatograph using both mass spectrometric and flame photometric detection (TD-2D-GC-MS/FPD). Additionally, the collection of mass spectrometric SIM and Scan data has been synchronised, so only a single analysis is now sufficient for qualitative scanning of the whole sample and for sensitive quantification. Though detection limits for the herewith described method are slightly higher than in the previous method, they are in the low μL m(-3) range, which is not only below the respective occupational exposure and intervention limits but also allows the detection of residual contamination after ventilation. The method was developed for the separation and identification of 44 volatile substances. For 12 of these compounds (bromomethane, iodomethane, dichloromethane, 1,2-dichlorethane, benzene, tetrachloromethane, 1,2-dichloropropane, toluene, trichloronitromethane, ethyl benzene, phosphine, carbon disulfide) the method was validated as we chose the target compounds due to their relevance in freight container handling.

  19. Growth of soybean at future tropospheric ozone concentrations decreases canopy evapotranspiration and soil water depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernacchi, Carl J; Leakey, Andrew D B; Kimball, Bruce A; Ort, Donald R

    2011-06-01

    Tropospheric ozone is increasing in many agricultural regions resulting in decreased stomatal conductance and overall biomass of sensitive crop species. These physiological effects of ozone forecast changes in evapotranspiration and thus in the terrestrial hydrological cycle, particularly in intercontinental interiors. Soybean plots were fumigated with ozone to achieve concentrations above ambient levels over five growing seasons in open-air field conditions. Mean season increases in ozone concentrations ([O₃]) varied between growing seasons from 22 to 37% above background concentrations. The objective of this experiment was to examine the effects of future [O₃] on crop ecosystem energy fluxes and water use. Elevated [O₃] caused decreases in canopy evapotranspiration resulting in decreased water use by as much as 15% in high ozone years and decreased soil water removal. In addition, ozone treatment resulted in increased sensible heat flux in all years indicative of day-time increase in canopy temperature of up to 0.7 °C. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Engineering Pseudomonas putida KT2440 for simultaneous degradation of organophosphates and pyrethroids and its application in bioremediation of soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Zhenqiang; Gong, Ting; Che, You; Liu, Ruihua; Xu, Ping; Jiang, Hong; Qiao, Chuanling; Song, Cunjiang; Yang, Chao

    2015-06-01

    Agricultural soils are usually co-contaminated with organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid pesticides. To develop a stable and marker-free Pseudomonas putida for co-expression of two pesticide-degrading enzymes, we constructed a suicide plasmid with expression cassettes containing a constitutive promoter J23119, an OP-degrading gene (mpd), a pyrethroid-hydrolyzing carboxylesterase gene (pytH) that utilizes the upp gene as a counter-selectable marker for upp-deficient P. putida. By introduction of suicide plasmid and two-step homologous recombination, both mpd and pytH genes were integrated into the chromosome of a robust soil bacterium P. putida KT2440 and no selection marker was left on chromosome. Functional expression of mpd and pytH in P. putida KT2440 was demonstrated by Western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays. Degradation experiments with liquid cultures showed that the mixed pesticides including methyl parathion, fenitrothion, chlorpyrifos, permethrin, fenpropathrin, and cypermethrin (0.2 mM each) were degraded completely within 48 h. The inoculation of engineered strain (10(6) cells/g) to soils treated with the above mixed pesticides resulted in a higher degradation rate than in noninoculated soils. All six pesticides could be degraded completely within 15 days in fumigated and nonfumigated soils with inoculation. Theses results highlight the potential of the engineered strain to be used for in situ bioremediation of soils co-contaminated with OP and pyrethroid pesticides.

  1. Toxicity of phosphine fumigation western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)%磷化氢熏蒸对西花蓟马的毒力作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凡华; 王跃进; 刘涛; 李丽

    2013-01-01

    The toxicity of phosphine fumigation on western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) at different temperatures was investigated in this study. The results showed 3 days egg was the most tolerant among all life stages- Phosphine fumigation could influence the development of western fiower thrips. The time of treatments required for the same mortality at same dose decreased remarkably as fumigation temperature increased from 15℃ to 25℃, and exposure duration was the critical factor affecting the toxicity of phosphine. Phosphine could be a potential alternative for quarantine treatment of western flower thrips.%本文研究了不同温度下磷化氢熏蒸处理对西花蓟马的毒力作用.结果表明:在西花蓟马各虫态中,3d卵对磷化氢熏蒸耐受性最强;磷化氢熏蒸会影响西花蓟马的生长发育;在15、25℃下,随着熏蒸温度的提高,以相同浓度处理达到相同死亡率水平所需的时间明显缩短,熏蒸时间为影响磷化氢毒力作用的关键因素.磷化氢是一种潜在的可以用于西花蓟马检疫处理的熏蒸剂.

  2. 推拿疗法配合中药熏蒸治疗椎动脉型颈椎病20例%20 Cases Massage Therapy with Traditional Chinese Medicine Fumigation Treatment of Vertebral Artery Type Cervical Spondylosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彬

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Observed with massage therapy medicine fumigation treatment of vertebral artery type cervical spondylosis clinical ef icacy. Method: For our hospital 20 cases of vertebral artery type of cervical spondylosis massage therapy with the use of traditional Chinese medicine fumigation treatment. Results: 20 patients were cured 10 cases, ef ective in 6 cases, ef ective in 3 cases, 1 case, the total ef iciency of 95%. Conclusion: Massage therapy with traditional Chinese medicine fumigation treatment of vertebral artery type of cervical spondylosis significant.%目的:观察推拿疗法配合中药熏蒸治疗椎动脉型颈椎病的治疗作用。方法对我院收治的20例椎动脉型颈椎病采用推拿疗法配合中药熏蒸治疗。结果20例患者中,治愈10例,显效6例,有效3例,无效1例,总有效率95%。结论推拿疗法配合中药熏蒸治疗椎动脉型颈椎病疗效显著。

  3. Evaluation of Steam and Soil Solarization for Meloidogyne arenaria Control in Florida Floriculture Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Rosskopf, Erin N; Butler, David M; Fennimore, Steven A; Holzinger, John

    2016-09-01

    Steam and soil solarization were investigated for control of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria in 2 yr of field trials on a commercial flower farm in Florida. The objective was to determine if preplant steam treatments in combination with solarization, or solarization alone effectively controlled nematodes compared to methyl bromide (MeBr). Trials were conducted in a field with naturally occurring populations of M. arenaria. Treatments were solarization alone, steam treatment after solarization using standard 7.6-cm-diameter perforated plastic drain tile (steam 1), steam treatment following solarization using custom-drilled plastic drain tile with 1.6-mm holes spaced every 3.8 cm (steam 2), and MeBr applied at 392 kg/ha 80:20 MeBr:chloropicrin. Drain tiles were buried approximately 35 cm deep with four tiles per 1.8 by 30 m plot. Steam application followed a 4-wk solarization period concluding in mid-October. All steam was generated using a Sioux propane boiler system. Plots were steamed for sufficient time to reach the target temperature of 70°C for 20 min. Solarization plastic was retained on the plots during steaming and plots were covered with a single layer of carpet padding to provide additional insulation. The floriculture crops larkspur (Delphinium elatum and Delphinium × belladonna), snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) were produced according to standard commercial practices. One month after treatment in both years of the study, soil populations of M. arenaria were lower in both steam treatments and in MeBr compared to solarization alone. At the end of the season in both years, galling on larkspur, snapdragon, and sunflowers was lower in both steam treatments than in solarization. Both steam treatments also provided control of M. arenaria in soil at the end of the season comparable to, or exceeding that provided by MeBr. Both steam treatments also reduced M. arenaria in snapdragon roots comparable to, or exceeding

  4. Evaluation of Steam and Soil Solarization for Meloidogyne arenaria Control in Florida Floriculture Crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Rosskopf, Erin N.; Butler, David M.; Fennimore, Steven A.; Holzinger, John

    2016-01-01

    Steam and soil solarization were investigated for control of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria in 2 yr of field trials on a commercial flower farm in Florida. The objective was to determine if preplant steam treatments in combination with solarization, or solarization alone effectively controlled nematodes compared to methyl bromide (MeBr). Trials were conducted in a field with naturally occurring populations of M. arenaria. Treatments were solarization alone, steam treatment after solarization using standard 7.6-cm-diameter perforated plastic drain tile (steam 1), steam treatment following solarization using custom-drilled plastic drain tile with 1.6-mm holes spaced every 3.8 cm (steam 2), and MeBr applied at 392 kg/ha 80:20 MeBr:chloropicrin. Drain tiles were buried approximately 35 cm deep with four tiles per 1.8 by 30 m plot. Steam application followed a 4-wk solarization period concluding in mid-October. All steam was generated using a Sioux propane boiler system. Plots were steamed for sufficient time to reach the target temperature of 70°C for 20 min. Solarization plastic was retained on the plots during steaming and plots were covered with a single layer of carpet padding to provide additional insulation. The floriculture crops larkspur (Delphinium elatum and Delphinium × belladonna), snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) were produced according to standard commercial practices. One month after treatment in both years of the study, soil populations of M. arenaria were lower in both steam treatments and in MeBr compared to solarization alone. At the end of the season in both years, galling on larkspur, snapdragon, and sunflowers was lower in both steam treatments than in solarization. Both steam treatments also provided control of M. arenaria in soil at the end of the season comparable to, or exceeding that provided by MeBr. Both steam treatments also reduced M. arenaria in snapdragon roots comparable to, or exceeding

  5. Effect of soil solarization on tomato inside plastic greenhouse Efeito da solarização do solo sobre o tomateiro em entufa plástica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nereu Augusto Streck

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of soil covering with transparent polyethylene sheets, known as soil solarization, on tomate crop insule a 10m x 25m plastic greenhouse was evaluated in the Subtropical Central Region of the Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. A 80-day solarization pre-planting treatment from December 17, 1992 to March 7, 1993 significantly enhanced marketable fruit weight of "Monte Carlo" tornato variety (91% increase. A large increase was observed in plant growth response resulted by solarization, even in the absence of known pathogens. Differences in chemical soil properties were not detected.Este experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o efeito da solarização do solo sobre a cultura do tomateiro, cultivar "Monte Carlo", no interior de uma estufa plástica de 10m x 25m, em Santa Maria, RS. A solarização foi realizada de 17 de dezembro de 1992 a 07 de março de 1993, utilizando polietileno transparente de 100µm de espessura. Quatro parcelas de 6m x 4m foram solarizadas e outras quatro parcelas de mesmo tamanho foram mantidas sem plástico, constituindo a testemunha. Não foi verificada modificação nas propriedades químicas do solo com a solarização. O crescimento inicial das plantas foi maior nas parcelas solarizadas e como consequência, atingiram a altura de poda uma semana antes do que nas parcelas não solanzadas. A produção comercial de frutos foi 91% superior nas parcelas solarizadas. Evidenciou-se, portanto, o efeito positivo do método da solarização do solo sobre o tomateiro em estufa plástica.

  6. Microbial carbon turnover in the plant-rhizosphere-soil continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Ashish; Dannert, Helena; Griffiths, Robert; Thomson, Bruce; Gleixner, Gerd

    2014-05-01

    Soil microbial biomass contributes significantly to maintenance of soil organic matter (SOM). It is well known that biochemical fractions of soil microorganisms have varying turnover and therefore contribute differentially to soil C storage. Here we compare the turnover rates of different microbial biochemical fractions using a pulse chase 13CO2 plant labelling experiment. The isotope signal was temporally traced into rhizosphere soil microorganisms using the following biomarkers: DNA, RNA, fatty acids and chloroform fumigation extraction derived microbial biomass size classes. C flow into soil microbial functional groups was assessed through phospholipid and neutral lipid fatty acid (PLFA/NLFA) analyses. Highest 13C enrichment was seen in the low molecular weight (LMW) size class of microbial biomass (Δδ13C =151) and in nucleic acids (DNA: 38o RNA: 66) immediately after the pulse followed by a sharp drop. The amount of 13C in the high molecular weight (HMW) microbial biomass (17-81) and total fatty acids (32-54) was lower initially and stayed relatively steady over the 4 weeks experimental period. We found significant differences in turnover rates of different microbial biochemical and size fractions. We infer that LMW cytosolic soluble compounds are rapidly metabolized and linked to respiratory C fluxes, whereas mid-sized products of microbial degradation and HMW polymeric compounds have lower renewal rate in that order. The turnover of cell wall fatty acids was also very slow. DNA and RNA showed faster turnover rate; and as expected RNA renewal was the fastest due to its rapid production by active microorganisms independent of cell replication. 13C incorporation into different functional groups confirmed that mutualistic arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi rely on root C and are important in the initial plant C flux. We substantiated through measurements of isotope incorporation into bacterial RNA that rhizosphere bacteria are also important in the initial C conduit

  7. 低温条件下磷化氢熏蒸对玫瑰采后品质的影响%Effects of phosphine fumigation on postharvest quality of cut rose at low temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凡华; 刘涛; 李丽; 王跃进

    2011-01-01

    The effects of phosphine(PH3) fumigation at 2℃ on respiration,fresh weight loss(FWL) during treatment,and physiological changes of cut rose during vase life were observed.The results showed that phosphine fumigation at low temperature could increase respiration rate during fumigation,but had no effects on FWL,flower color,and vase life.Phosphine fumigation at 1.52mg/L had no effects on the content of soluble protein,accumulation of malondialdehyde(MDA) and electrical conductivity(EC) during vase life;however,it could reduce the content of soluble protein,enhanced accumulation of MDA and increased EC at 3.04mg/L at beginning of vase life.Phosphine fumigation at low temperature could be used for quarantine treatment on cut rose.%研究了2℃下磷化氢熏蒸对黑魔术玫瑰处理期间呼吸强度、失重率及瓶插期间生理指标的影响。结果表明:低温磷化氢熏蒸处理会增强贮藏期间的呼吸强度,但对失重率、色泽、瓶插寿命无显著影响。1.52mg/L浓度下的熏蒸处理对玫瑰瓶插初期可溶性蛋白质含量、丙二醛(MDA)积累、电导率无显著影响,但是3.04mg/L浓度下会引起玫瑰瓶插初期可溶性蛋白质含量下降、丙二醛积累和电导率的提高。低温磷化氢熏蒸可以用于鲜切黑魔术玫瑰的检疫处理。

  8. 温经洗药熏蒸腰椎间盘突出症的效果观察%Effect of fumigation therapy with main channel warming by Chinese herbs for lumbar disc protrusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘惠霞; 邓烈夏

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the effect of nursing for patients receiving fumigation therapy with main channel warming by Chinese herbs for lumbar disc protrusion.Methods 200 patients with lumbar disc protrusion who had been treated during the period of January 2010 to December 2011 were randomly divided into a study group and a control group.Both groups received fumigation therapy with main channel warming by Chinese herbs and conventional treatment.The study group received special care for the fumigation therapy and conventional care while the control group received routine care.Results After completion of treatment,length of hospital stay was shorter,the efficacy was better,the adverse events due to the fumigation therapy were fewer,and patient satisfaction was higher in the study group than in the control group.Conclusions Special care for patients receiving fumigation therapy with main channel warming by Chinese herbs for lumbar disc protrusion has a better effect.%目的 探讨温经洗药熏蒸疗法治疗腰椎间盘突出的护理效果.方法 收集2010年1月至2011年12月在我科住院治疗的腰椎间盘突出症患者200例,随机分成治疗组和对照组,均采用温经洗药熏蒸方法和常规疗法治疗,其中治疗组有针对性的给予温经洗药熏蒸方法治疗护理和常规护理,对照组采用常规护理.结果 治疗结束后治疗组的疗效、住院时间以及住院期间因熏蒸治疗发生的不良事件较对照组减少,患者满意度较高.结论 温经洗药熏蒸治疗腰椎间盘突出症护理效果良好.

  9. Rapid Screening of Sulfur Fumigated Chinese Star Anises by Surface Desorption Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry%表面解吸常压化学电离质谱快速鉴别硫磺熏蒸八角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗丽萍; 王姜; 章文军; 戴喜末; 方小伟; 张茜; 刘亚丽; 陈焕文

    2013-01-01

    Without any sample pretreatment,the mass spectral fingerprints of sulfur fumigated Chinese star anises and untreated samples were rapidly obtained in either a positive or negative ion detection mode with a home-made surface desorption atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (DAPCI) source.The DAPCI-MS raw data were further analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA),and several unknown samples were successfully discriminated using the PCA model.The results showed that the DAPCIMS was able to detect some characteristic chemicals from the Chinese star anises' surface and identify the components by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS).The further principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) of MS fingerprints allow a confident discrimination of sulfur fumigated star anise samples from the non-sulfur fumigated samples.The method developed here is attractive to provide a fast and effective way to screen sulfur fumigated products with sufficient sensitivity and no toxin pollution.This method is expected to be applied to rapid identification of the sulfur fumigated product on the market in future.%采用自行研制的表面解吸常压化学电离质谱(DAPCI-MS),无需样品预处理,对硫磺熏蒸八角和未熏八角直接进行正、负离子模式检测,获得其化学指纹图谱,并通过主成分分析(PCA)及聚类分析(CA)方法对所获指纹谱图信息进行分析,进而对不同样品进行鉴别.结果表明,在正、负离子模式下,DAPCI-MS都可对八角表面多种特征化学成分进行分析,快速获得八角的化学指纹谱图,并能够对目标组分进行多级串联质谱鉴定,结合PCA及CA方法可对八角是否经硫磺熏蒸进行快速鉴别.本方法无需样品预处理,灵敏度高,分析速度快,无污染,可望应用于市场上硫熏制品的快速鉴别.

  10. Soil sustainability and indigenous soil management practices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soil sustainability and indigenous soil management practices among food crop farmers in Ogun State, Nigeria. ... Journal of Environmental Extension ... describe and analyse the current soil management practices among food crop farmers in ...

  11. Soil Survey Geographic (SSURGO) - Magnesic Soils

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Magnesic soils is a subset of the SSURGO dataset containing soil family selected based on the magnesic content and serpentinite parent material. The following soil...

  12. Schoolground Soil Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Charles

    1978-01-01

    Outlined are simple activities for studying soil, which can be conducted in the schoolyard. Concepts include soil profiles, topsoil, soil sizes, making soil, erosion, slope, and water absorption. (SJL)

  13. Effects of dimethyl disulfide on microbial communities in protectorate soils under continuous cropping%二甲基二硫熏蒸对保护地连作土壤微生物群落的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王方艳; 王秋霞; 颜冬冬; 毛连纲; 郭美霞; 燕平梅; 曹坳程

    2011-01-01

    随着保护地高附加值经济作物的连年栽培,土传病害问题愈发突出,熏蒸剂也因此得以更广泛的应用.但鉴于熏蒸剂的广谱性,在杀死有害生物的同时,不可避免地对非靶标生物产生一定的影响.为明确澳甲烷替代药剂二甲基二硫(dimethyl disulfide,简称DMDS)熏蒸对土壤微生物群落的影响,本研究在室内条件下采用BIOLOG方法,测定不同浓度DMDS熏蒸对保护地连作土壤微生物群落的影响.研究结果表明:不同浓度DMDS(170.00 mg·kg-1、85.20 mg·kg-1、42.50 mg·kg-1、21.30 mg·kg-1和10.62 mg·kg-1)熏蒸处理对镰孢菌属(Fusarium spp.)和疫霉菌属(Phytophthora spp.)的LC50(抑制中浓度)分别为42.08 mg·kg-1和115.15 mg·kg-1.DMDS熏蒸后恢复培养0d取样,温育120h时,170.00 mg·kg-1、42.50 mg·kg-1和10.62 mg·kg-1的DMDS处理土壤的AWCD值(平均每孔颜色变化率,average well-color development,AWCD)分别比空白对照升高8.46%、6.02%、19.31%,表明DMDS促进了土壤微生物的生长.恢复培养14d后,各处理土壤微生物的AWCD值恢复至对照水平.多样性指数分析显示,DMDS熏蒸后恢复培养0d时,土壤微生物群落的Shannon指数、Simpson 指数均高于空白对照,McIntosh指数与对照无显著性差异;恢复培养7d后,Shannon指数与Simpson指数恢复至对照水平.主成分分析结果显示,DMDS熏蒸后恢复培养0d时,各处理间微生物对碳源的利用方式差异显著,恢复培养14d后,DMDS对微生物碳源利用方式的影响逐渐减弱,恢复至对照水平,结果表明,DMDS熏蒸处理对土壤微生物的生长具有促进作用,影响了微生物对碳源的利用方式,但在恢复培养14 d后,被干扰的土壤微生物逐渐恢复至对照水平.DMDS熏蒸处理在有效防控土传病原真菌的同时,不会对土壤微生物群落产生明显的扰动影响,对环境较安全.%Soil fumigants are widely used to protect agricultural and high-value cash crops from soil

  14. Digestate and ash as alternatives to conventional fertilisers: Benefits and threats to soil biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Rachel; Lag-Brotons, Alfonso J.; Herbert, Ben; Hurst, Lois; Ostle, Nick; Dodd, Ian C.; Quinton, John; Surridge, Ben; Aiouache, Farid; Semple, Kirk T.

    2017-04-01

    Recovering energy and nutrients from waste offers opportunities to tackle issues of energy and food security whilst simultaneously improving waste management. Waste materials from the bioenergy industry potentially contain valuable resources for use in agriculture and there is growing evidence to suggest that the use of digestate, from anaerobic digestion, and biomass ash from incineration processes could contribute to improving soil health and nutrition. The work presented here is part of the Adding Value to Ash and Digestate (AVAnD) project which looks at the impacts of digestate and ash blends on soil fertility, crop yields and soil health. Whilst increased crop productivity is one of the essential indicators of the success of these alternative soil amendments; it is important that the impacts on soil biological function is understood. Field and lab experiments were conducted with a number of different fertiliser treatments, including conventional fertiliser (urea and superphosphate), digestate from two contrasting feedstocks, ash material and ash-digestate blends. Looking across different biological scales from soil microbe to soil macro-fauna, this work examines the benefits and threats to soil biota arising from the use of ash-digestate fertilisers in agriculture. Measurements of microbial respiration and biomass (by chloroform fumigation) and community composition (by phospholipid fatty acid analysis) were made at different timescales (days/weeks). Data from these studies demonstrates that none of the soil amendments decreased microbial activity or biomass in the short term (t= 1 month). Additions of both conventional fertilisers and the fertilisers derived from waste stimulated microbial activity with significantly higher respiration observed from the digestate based treatments. Digestate-based treatments also resulted in higher soil microbial biomass and differential effects were observed between digestate amendments with and without ash. These results

  15. A Study on HPLC Fingerprints of Zingiber Officinale Before and After Sulfur-fumigation%生姜硫磺熏蒸前后HPLC特征色谱图研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李平; 蒋俊; 汤坚; 汪华君; 顾丽亚; 李昊天; 贾晓斌

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explain the differences between zingiber officinale and its sulfur fumigation products on chromatography fingerprints by HPLC-DAD;To discuss the influence of sulfur-fumigation on the quality of zingiber officinale. Methods HPLC, diode array detector, and ZORBAX SB-C18 column were used with acetonitrile-water as the mobile phase, gradient elute, volume flow rate of 1 mL/min, column temperature of 25 ℃, and detection wavelength of 280 nm. HPLC-DAD technology was applied to establish the fingerprints of zingiber officinale before and after sulfur-fumigating process, in order to analyze the HPLC fingerprints of zingiber officinale before and after sulfur-fumigating process. External standard method was used to do the quantitative determination of 6-gingerol. Results The 17 common peaks were identified through the comparison of 3 batches of fingerprints of zingiber officinale and their sulfur-fumigated samples. The peak areas of NO.3, NO.10, NO.11, and NO.17 were reduced by 50.68%, 64.41%, 67.68%, and 21.23%respectively. The content of 6-gingerol had no significant change. Conclusion The chemical composition of zingiber officinale changed at different degrees after sulfur-fumigated process. The safety and effectiveness of sulfur fumigation products of zingiber officinale require more researches.%目的:对比硫磺熏蒸前后生姜高效液相色谱(HPLC)指纹图谱结构差异,探讨硫磺熏蒸对生姜质量的影响。方法采用 HPLC 二极管阵列检测器,ZORBAX SB-C18柱(4.6 mm×150 mm,5μm),乙腈-水为流动相,梯度洗脱,体积流量1 mL/min,柱温25℃,检测波长280 nm,建立硫磺熏蒸前后生姜的化学成分指纹图谱,对硫磺熏蒸前后的HPLC图谱进行成分分析,并采用外标法对活性成分6-姜酚进行定量检测。结果经过比较3批生姜硫熏品与3批生姜非硫熏品的指纹图谱,建立了17个共有色谱峰,3号色谱峰的峰面积下降了50.68%,10号峰下降了64.41%,11号峰下降了67

  16. Fumigant activity of plant essential oils and components from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana), anise (Pimpinella anisum) and garlic (Allium sativum) oils against Lycoriella ingenua (Diptera: Sciaridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ii-Kwon; Choi, Kwang-Sik; Kim, Do-Hyung; Choi, In-Ho; Kim, Lee-Sun; Bak, Won-Chull; Choi, Joon-Weon; Shin, Sang-Chul

    2006-08-01

    Plant essential oils from 40 plant species were tested for their insecticidal activities against larvae of Lycoriella ingénue (Dufour) using a fumigation bioassay. Good insecticidal activity against larvae of L. ingenua was achieved with essential oils of Chenopodium ambrosioides L., Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus smithii RT Baker, horseradish, anise and garlic at 10 and 5 microL L(-1) air. Horseradish, anise and garlic oils showed the most potent insecticidal activities among the plant essential oils. At 1.25 microL L(-1), horseradish, anise and garlic oils caused 100, 93.3 and 13.3% mortality, but at 0.625 microL L(-1) air this decreased to 3.3, 0 and 0% respectively. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of one major compound from horseradish, and three each from anise and garlic oils. These seven compounds and m-anisaldehyde and o-anisaldehyde, two positional isomers of p-anisaldehyde, were tested individually for their insecticidal activities against larvae of L. ingenua. Allyl isothiocyanate was the most toxic, followed by trans-anethole, diallyl disulfide and p-anisaldehyde with LC(50) values of 0.15, 0.20, 0.87 and 1.47 microL L(-1) respectively.

  17. Interactive effects of simultaneous ozone and fluoranthene fumigation on the eco-physiological status of the evergreen conifer, Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb et. Zucc.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntimehin, Ilemobayo; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    Forest decline has long been attributed to air pollution and acid rain/fog, with ozone having a record for damaging trees. This study investigated eco-physiological changes on Japanese red pine caused by simultaneous fumigation of O(3) (O) and fluoranthene (F) over a 90 day period. Seedlings were exposed individually or in combinations to 10 muM fluoranthene and O(3) (3 ppm and 6 ppm in 60 days and 90 days, respectively) inside growth chambers. Eco-physiological parameters monitored included gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, needle chlorophyll content, and visual appearance. After 90 days, O + F treatment showed deleterious effects on visual needle appearance and the net photosynthesis rate near saturated irradiance. In addition, decreased levels in stomatal conductance, photochemical efficiency of PS II in the dark, and total chlorophyll and Chl a: Chl b were observed. F only treatment showed similar results but in lesser magnitude compared with F + O treatment. O treatment alone showed no significant negative effect, probably due to its low concentration in the 60 day treatment. The addition of mannitol (OH radical scavenger) mitigated O + F and F negative effects. Fluoranthene deposited on Japanese red pine presents great eco-physiological damage risk, even at low O(3) concentration. Furthermore, the effects of O(3) assisted phyto-toxicity of fluoranthene on red pine may have relevance to other plant species.

  18. Camphor—A Fumigant during the Black Death and a Coveted Fragrant Wood in Ancient Egypt and Babylon—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Viljoen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The fragrant camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora and its products, such as camphor oil, have been coveted since ancient times. Having a rich history of traditional use, it was particularly used as a fumigant during the era of the Black Death and considered as a valuable ingredient in both perfume and embalming fluid. Camphor has been widely used as a fragrance in cosmetics, as a food flavourant, as a common ingredient in household cleaners, as well as in topically applied analgesics and rubefacients for the treatment of minor muscle aches and pains. Camphor, traditionally obtained through the distillation of the wood of the camphor tree, is a major essential oil component of many aromatic plant species, as it is biosynthetically synthesised; it can also be chemically synthesised using mainly turpentine as a starting material. Camphor exhibits a number of biological properties such as insecticidal, antimicrobial, antiviral, anticoccidial, anti-nociceptive, anticancer and antitussive activities, in addition to its use as a skin penetration enhancer. However, camphor is a very toxic substance and numerous cases of camphor poisoning have been documented. This review briefly summarises the uses and synthesis of camphor and discusses the biological properties and toxicity of this valuable molecule.

  19. Laboratory measurements of nitric oxide release from forest soil with a thick organic layer under different understory types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bargsten

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO plays an important role in the photochemistry of the troposphere. NO from soil contributes up to 40% to the global budget of atmospheric NO. Soil NO emissions are primarily caused by biological activity (nitrification and denitrification, that occurs in the uppermost centimetres of the soil, a soil region often characterized by high contents of organic material. Most studies of NO emission potentials to date have investigated mineral soil layers. In our study we sampled soil organic matter under different understories (moss, grass, spruce and blueberries in a humid mountainous Norway spruce forest plantation in the Fichtelgebirge (Germany. We performed laboratory incubation and fumigation experiments using a customized chamber technique to determine the response of net potential NO flux to physical and chemical soil conditions (water content and temperature, bulk density, particle density, pH, C/N ratio, organic C, soil ammonium, soil nitrate. Net potential NO fluxes (in terms of mass of N from soils of different understories ranged from 1.7–9.8 ng m−2 s−1 (grass and moss, 55.4–59.3 ng m−2 s−1 (spruce, and 43.7–114.6 ng m−2 s−1 (blueberry at optimum water content and a soil temperature of 10°C. The water content for optimum net potential NO flux ranged between 0.76 and 0.8 gravimetric soil moisture for moss, between 1.0 and 1.1 for grass, 1.1 and 1.2 for spruce, and 1.3 and 1.9 for blueberries. Effects of soil physical and chemical characteristics on net potential NO flux were statistically significant (0.01 probability level only for NH4+. Therefore, the effects of biogenic factors like understory type, amount of roots, and degree of mycorrhization on soil biogenic NO emission are discussed; they have the potential to explain the observed different of net potential NO fluxes. Quantification of NO emissions from the upmost

  20. Evolution of soil organic matter changes using pyrolysis and metabolic indices: a comparison between organic and mineral fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinari, S; Masciandaro, G; Ceccanti, B; Grego, S

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate chemical and biochemical changes of organic matter in fertilized (ammonium nitrate) and amended (vermicompost and manure) soils using pyrolysis and metabolic indices. The metabolic potential [dehydrogenase (DH-ase)/water soluble organic carbon (WSOC)], the metabolic quotient (qCO2) and the microbial quotient (Cmic:Corg) were calculated as indices of soil organic matter evolution. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography (Py-GC) was used to study structural changes in the organic matter. Carbon forms and microbial biomass have been measured by dichromate oxidation and fumigation-extraction methods, respectively. Dehydrogenase activity has been tested using INT (p-Iodonitrotetrazolium violet) as substrate. The results showed that organic amendment increased soil microbial biomass and its activity which were strictly related to pyrolytic mineralization and humification indices (N/O, B/E3). Mineral fertilization caused a greater alteration of native soil organic matter than the organic amendments, in that a high release of WSOC and relatively large amounts of aliphatic pyrolytic products, were observed. Therefore, the pyrolysis and metabolic indices provided similar and complementary information on soil organic matter changes after mineral and organic fertilization.

  1. A review of diversity-stability relationship of soil microbial community:What do we not know?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan Deng

    2012-01-01

    The impact of decreased biodiversity on ecosystem stability,or the diversity-stability (D-S) relationship,is one of the major concerns of modern ecological studies.Studies on the D-S relationship for soil microbial communities began in 2000 when the fumigation method was developed to generate different levels of soil microbial biodiversity.The studies used various measures and levels of biodiversity,and covered several functional parameters.Due to the lack of general concepts and reliable approaches to define microbial species,studies on the D-S relationship of soil microbial communities concentrate on genetic diversity and functional diversity more than species diversity.Contradictory results were observed in various studies on D-S relationship with possible factors affecting or even changing the directions of the D-S relationship including:(1) the methods of stability measurement,(2) the techniques in microbial diversity measurement,(3) the measures and levels of diversity,(4) the type and strength of disturbance,(5) the traits of functions,and (6) the hidden treatments stemming from diversity manipulation.We argue that future studies should take diversity,species composition and interaction,and soil environmental conditions holistically into account in D-S studies to develop modeling to predict soil functional stability.We also suggest that studies should be carried out on a wider range of disturbance types and functional parameters,and efforts be shifted towards long-term field studies.

  2. Foliar and soil deposition of pesticide sprays in peanuts and their washoff and runoff under simulated worst-case rainfall conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauchope, R Don; Johnson, W Carroll; Sumner, Harold R

    2004-11-17

    There are few studies that relate the timing and amounts of pesticide washoff from plant foliage during rainfall to runoff losses at the edge of the field. We hypothesized that foliar deposits, if washed onto the soil slowly during rainfall, may then undergo less leaching during the period of infiltration that occurs prior to soil saturation and runoff, thus exhibiting larger runoff losses than pesticides on/in the soil at the beginning of rain. We measured the runoff of ethalfluralin, metolachlor, chlorothalonil, and rhodamine WT dye using simulated rainfall on 450 m2 mesoplots planted in peanut. Ethalfluralin was applied preplant incorporated, and metolachlor was applied preemergence on bare soil. Chlorothalonil and rhodamine WT were applied to the peanut canopy at maturity. Rainfall was simulated 24 h after each chemical application (in May and July, 1998, and May and August, 1999) using raindrop sprinklers, applying 5.5 +/- 0.5 cm over a 2 h period to create reasonable worst-case conditions; between 3 and 9 mm of runoff was generated. Volume-weighted average concentrations of chemicals in runoff were 7, 104, 163, and 179 ug L(-1) for ethalfluralin, metolachlor, chlorothalonil, and rhodamine WT, respectively. The total amounts of chemicals lost in the runoff events were 0.04 +/- 0.01, 0.2 +/- 0.1, 0.6 +/- 0.5, and 0.2 +/- 0.1, as percents of amounts applied, respectively. Rhodamine WT formed a vivid red solution on wetting and provided visual clues to the dynamics of chemical washoff/runoff. The washoff from rain-exposed peanut foliage appeared to be complete within a few minutes of the beginning of rainfall, and disappearance of dye from rain-exposed soil surface occurred within the first 10 min of rainfall. However, dye was present in runoff water at near-constant concentrations throughout the 2 h runoff event, indicating that near-constant amounts of chemical remained in the soil extraction zone. These results confirm earlier studies showing that soil

  3. 磷化氢-二氧化碳混合熏蒸对烟草甲虫卵灭杀效果研究%Killing Effect of Mixed Fumigation of Phosphine and Carbon Dioxide on Eggs of Lasioderma serricorne F

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭涛; 刘师伟; 谭琳; 余兴江; 郭年梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective] This study aimed to investigate the kil ing effect of mixed fumi-gation of phosphine and carbon dioxide on eggs of Lasioderma serricorne F. [Method] The outside-storage phosphine generator was placed in a tabernacled smoke box, and the mortality rates of L. serricorne F. eggs in the smoke box under conditions of different aluminium phosphide usage amount and different fumigation time were studied. In addition, the times needed by tabernacle and smoke box cen-ter to reach the phosphine concentration peak were recorded. [Result] The optimum conditions for kil ing the eggs of L. serricorne were as fol ows: temperature of (27± 2) ℃, relatively humidity of (45±5)%, aluminium phosphide usage amount of 1.5 g/m3 and effective exposure time of 96 h. The kil ing effect of mixed fumigation of phos-phine and carbon dioxide was increased with the extension of fumigation time. The increased usage amount of aluminium phosphide showed no significant effect on kil ing effect. The tabernacle space and smoke box center al required relatively short time to reach the phosphine concentration peak. If the tabernacle had a good airtightness, the overal fumigation time could be shortened. [Conclusion] The fumi-gation method is reliable, and it can be used for the control of L. serricorne F. in tobacco storage.%[目的]考察磷化氢-二氧化碳混合熏蒸法测定其对烟草甲虫卵的杀灭效果。[方法]使用仓外磷化氢发生器对帐幕烟箱中的烟草甲虫卵采取磷化氢-二氧化碳混合熏蒸法杀虫,测定不同磷化铝使用量和不同熏蒸时间条件下烟草甲虫卵的死亡率,同时测定帐幕空间和烟箱中心磷化氢浓度达到峰值的时间。[结果]帐幕温度在(27±2)℃,RH(45±5)%时,磷化铝在1.5 g/m3的使用量下,有效密闭96 h,对烟草甲虫卵有较好的杀灭效果。磷化氢-二氧化碳混合熏蒸杀虫效果随熏蒸时间的延长而提高,磷化铝用量的提高对杀虫效果

  4. Effects of Elevated Atmospheric CO(2) on Rhizosphere Soil Microbial Communities in a Mojave Desert Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, L M; Buttner, M P; Cruz, P; Smith, S D; Robleto, E A

    2011-10-01

    The effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide [CO(2)] on microbial communities in arid rhizosphere soils beneath Larrea tridentata were examined. Roots of Larrea were harvested from plots fumigated with elevated or ambient levels of [CO(2)] using Free-Air CO(2) Enrichment (FACE) technology. Twelve bacterial and fungal rRNA gene libraries were constructed, sequenced and categorized into operational taxonomical units (OTUs). There was a significant decrease in OTUs within the Firmicutes (bacteria) in elevated [CO(2)], and increase in Basiomycota (fungi) in rhizosphere soils of plots exposed to ambient [CO(2)]. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that OTUs belonged to a wide range of bacterial and fungal taxa. To further study changes in bacterial communities, Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (QPCR) was used to quantify populations of bacteria in rhizosphere soil. The concentration of total bacteria 16S rDNA was similar in conditions of enriched and ambient [CO(2)]. However, QPCR of Gram-positive microorganisms showed a 43% decrease in the population in elevated [CO(2)]. The decrease in representation of Gram positives and the similar values for total bacterial DNA suggest that the representation of other bacterial taxa was promoted by elevated [CO(2)]. These results indicate that elevated [CO(2)] changes structure and representation of microorganisms associated with roots of desert plants.

  5. CHANGES IN MICROBIAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL SOIL PROPERTIES ASSOCIATE WITH CHARCOAL PRODUCTION IN TEMPERATE FOREST (QUERCUS SPP IN SANTA ROSA, GTO. MEXICO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Estela Gómez Luna

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The temperate forest of Quercus spp. Santa Rosa is one ofthe most extensive forests in central Mexico. In this forest,charcoal is produced traditionally by rural communities.This study evaluated the impact of the activity of charcoalproduction in three sampling sites of the forest, soil fromthe impact site, land adjacent to the site of charcoalproduction and control soil without charcoal productionactivity on physicochemical and microbiological properties.We determined pH, concentration of macro-and microelementswas performed by calculating microbial colonyforming units (CFU of bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes andpromoting growth of plants rhizobacteria (PGPR. Finally,we determined microbial biomass by fumigation-incubationmethod. On the floor of coal production, an increase in pH,the concentration of cations forming bases (Ca2 + and K+and a high regard microbial fungi, bacteria andactinomycetes, but the microbial biomass and organicmatter content was higher in the control soil, in terms ofRPCP only isolated in the soil adjacent to coal productionsite and the control soil. The physicochemical changesproduced by the warming effect of soil significantlyaffected the microbial community favoring the reduction orelimination of dominant groups sensitive to hightemperatures that are actively involved in the dynamics ofsoil processes

  6. Contact and fumigant toxicity of hexane flower bud extract of Syzygium aromaticum and its compounds against Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagavan, Asokan; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Marimuthu, Sampath

    2011-11-01

    The head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis De Geer is an obligate ectoparasite of humans that causes pediculosis capitis, a nuisance for millions of people worldwide, with high prevalence in children. P. humanus capitis has been treated by methods that include the physical remotion of lice, various domestic treatments, and conventional insecticides. None of these methods render complete protection, and there is clear evidence for the evolution of resistance and cross-resistance to conventional insecticides. Non-toxic alternative options are hence needed for head lice treatment and/or prevention, and natural products from plants are good candidates for safer control agents that may provide good anti-lice activity. The plant extracts are good and safe alternatives due to their low toxicity to mammals and easy biodegradability. The present study carried out the pediculocidal activity using the hexane flower bud extract of Syzygium aromaticum (Myrtaceae) against P. humanus capitis examined by direct contact and fumigant toxicity (closed- and open-container methods) bioassay. The chemical composition of S. aromaticum flower bud hexane extract was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major chemical constituent (58.79%) of flower bud hexane extract S. aromaticum was identified as chavibetol (5-allyl-2-methoxyphenol) by comparison of mass spectral data and retention times. The hexane extract of S. aromaticum was subjected to gas chromatography analysis, and totally 47 compounds were detected, of which chavibetol was predominantly present. The other major constituents present in the hexane extract were eugenol acetate (phenol,2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)-,acetate (15.09%), caryophyllene-(I1) (2,6,10,10-tetramethyl bicyclo [7.2.0] undeca-1,6-diene (13.75%), caryophyllene oxide (3.04%), 2,6,6,9-tetramethyl-1,4,8-cycloundecatriene (1.67%), and copaene (1.33%). The filter paper contact bioassay study showed pronounced pediculicidal activity in the flower bud hexane

  7. Dynamic of the active fraction of organic matter in some meadow soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahtali Sbih

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbial biomass (MB and light fraction (LF of organic matter are often considered as active fraction of organic matter (AFOM and as indices of soil fertility and microbial activity. This study was performed in order to assess the turnover of AFOM using long-term incubation (56 weeks at25 °Cin 34 meadow soils with different physical and chemical properties such as soil texture, organic C and total N. The MB and LF were determined at 8 and 5 times during the incubation period using fumigation-extraction technique for MB and densimetric method for LF. The amount of MB-C and MB-N mineralized increased with time of incubation. At the beginning of incubation, the C and N content of soil MB represented respectively 0.76 to 3.7% of total organic C and 1.94 to 10.7% of total N. The C and N content of LF represented respectively 2.9 to 25.6% of total organic C and 1.7 to 17.5% of total N. At the end of incubation, the losses of MB-C and MB-N from soils reached respectively 71 and 82% of the initial amounts. The MB and LF dynamic were well described by a two-component first-order rate model. The amount of N in the labile MB and LF pools represented respectively 54% of total MB-N and 61% of total LF-N. The more stable MB and LF pools had higher half-life than labile pools. The results obtained indicated that the stable LF would be the precursor of soil humic compounds.

  8. Determination of phosphine residues in fumigated tobacco by headspace gas chromatography%顶空气相色谱法测定烟草熏蒸后的磷化氢残留量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢昕博; 周国俊; 边腾飞; 肖卫强; 张云莲; 黄健; 储国海; 金光辉; 丁伟; 周小忠

    2014-01-01

    A method was developed by headspace gas chromatography to monitor trace phosphine residue in fumigated tobacco. PoraPLOT Q capillary column and pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD) in P-mode were employed. Results showed thatR2 was 0.9998, average recovery of 98.90%, intra-day RSD of 0.5% (n=5), inter-day RSD of 2.4% (n=5), and that limit of detection and quantification of phosphine were 0.005 and 0.015μg/g, respectively. Concentration of phosphine in fumigated tobacco was less than 0.0069μg/g three days after fumigation.%建立了顶空气相色谱法测定熏蒸后烟草中的痕量磷化氢。采用PoraPLOT Q毛细管色谱柱,脉冲火焰光度检测器(PFPD) P模式检测。结果显示,方法决定系数R2为0.9998,平均加标回收率为98.90%,日内重复性RSD为0.5%(n=5),日间重复性RSD为2.4%(n=5),方法检出限为0.0050μg/g,定量限为0.015μg/g。运用本方法对熏蒸后烟草进行测试,结果显示熏蒸结束3天后烟草中磷化氢残留量均小于0.0069μg/g。

  9. 1-MCP对火龙果果实采后生理特性的影响%Effects of 1-Methylcyclopropene Fumigation Treatment on Physiological Characteristics of Pitaya Fruits during Storage Period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彬; 郑伟; 何绪晓; 李胜海; 邓仁菊; 周俊良

    2011-01-01

    The fruits of Jinghonglong, a new pitaya variety with white flesh, were fumigated with 1 -MCP to study the effects on fruit hardness, respiration intensity, POO and CAT activity, PG and PE enzymatic activity, content of soluble pectin and insoluble pectin and discuss the anti-aging mechanism of 1-MCP in fresh preservation of pitaya during the storage period. Hie results showed that 1-MCP fumigation treatment delayed reduction of fruit hardness at the late storage period and inhibited the respiratory intensity of pitaya fruits to some extent. The 1 -MCP fumigation treatment delayed the senescence process of pitaya fruits during the earlier storage period, but it accelerated the senescence process of pitaya fruits during the late storage period.%为探明1-甲基环丙烯(1-MCP)在火龙果果实保鲜过程中的抗衰老作用机理,为火龙果保鲜提供理论依据,以白肉火龙果新品种晶红龙为试验材料,分别研究了1 -MCP处理对火龙果低温贮藏期的果实硬度、呼吸强度、POD、CAT、PG、PE、水溶性果胶和不溶性果胶的影响.结果表明,1-MCP熏蒸处理减缓了火龙果贮藏后期果实硬度下降,对火龙果果实的呼吸作用具有一定的抑制作用;贮藏前期(第24天前)可廷缓火龙果果实衰老,但是在贮藏后期却加速了果实的衰老.

  10. Efficacy Observation on Massage, Herbal Fumigation Combined with Behavioral Intervention Treating Radiohumeral Bursitis%推拿、中药熏蒸结合行为干预治疗网球肘的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍国维

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察推拿、中药熏蒸配合行为干预治疗网球肘的疗效。方法:将80例网球肘患者随机分为治疗组(40例)和对照组(40例),治疗组采用推拿、中药熏蒸结合行为干预治疗,对照组采用针刺治疗,观察两组临床疗效。结果:治疗组优良率为85.0%,高于对照组的55.0%(P<0.05)。结论:推拿、中药熏蒸配合行为干预治疗网球肘疗效显著。%Objective:To observe the curative effects of massage, herbal fumigation combined with behavioral intervention treating radiohumeral bur-sitis. Methods: 80 cases of radiohumeral bursitis were randomly divided into treatment group (40 cases) and control group (40 cases), treatment group adopted treatment of massage, herbal fumigation combined with behavioral intervention, control group treated with acupuncture, clinical effi-cacy of the two groups was observed. Results:The excellent and good rate of treatment group was 85%, higher than that of control group by 55%(P<0.05). Conclusion:Efficacy of massage, herbal fumigation combined with behavioral intervention treating radiohumeral bursitis is significant.

  11. Soil use and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; McBratney, A.B.; White, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    This four-volume set, edited by leading experts in soil science, brings together in one collection a series of papers that have been fundamental to the development of soil science as a defined discipline. Volume 3 on Soil Use and Management covers: - Soil evaluation and land use planning - Soil and

  12. Changes in net photosynthesis, transpiration and dark respiration in winter barley exposed to elevated levels of sulphur dioxide using an open-air fumigation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darrall, N.M. (National Power Technology and Environmental Centre, Leatherhead (UK))

    1991-01-01

    Photosynthesis, transpiration and dark respiration were measured in winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. 'Igri' exposed to sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in an open-air fumigation experiment during three growing seasons from 1985 to 1987. Observations were made on the most recently fully expanded leaves in situ using portable photosynthesis equipment with an integral logging facility. No long-term inhibition of photosynthesis was detected in response to elevated levels of SO{sub 2} of up to means of 0.043, 0.048 and 0.038 microliter l{sup {minus}1} during three experiments, respectively, but elevated rates of dark respiration were recorded in plots exposed to means of 0.032 and 0.043 microliter l{sup {minus}1} in 1985. Significantly enhanced rates of net photosynthesis were seen on the flag leaves in plots exposed to means of 0.021 and 0.043 microliter l{sup {minus}1} SO{sub 2} in 1985 and 0.014 and 0.048 microliter l{sup {minus}1} SO{sub 2} in 1986 where infestation with powdery mildew Erysiphe graminis DC ex Merat F. sp. hordei (Em Marchal) was also significantly greater of a percentage leaf area basis. The possible enhancement of leaf photosynthetic rates by mildew infestation of the lower leaves is discussed. No long-term reduction in the rate of transpiration or in stomatal conductance was detected, but simultaneous changes were observed in these two parameters in the same direction, as short-term incrases or decreases in photosynthesis. 6 figs., 29 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Over-expressing the C3 photosynthesis cycle enzyme Sedoheptulose-1-7 Bisphosphatase improves photosynthetic carbon gain and yield under fully open air CO2 fumigation (FACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ort Donald R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biochemical models predict that photosynthesis in C3 plants is most frequently limited by the slower of two processes, the maximum capacity of the enzyme Rubisco to carboxylate RuBP (Vc,max, or the regeneration of RuBP via electron transport (J. At current atmospheric [CO2] levels Rubisco is not saturated; consequently, elevating [CO2] increases the velocity of carboxylation and inhibits the competing oxygenation reaction which is also catalyzed by Rubisco. In the future, leaf photosynthesis (A should be increasingly limited by RuBP regeneration, as [CO2] is predicted to exceed 550 ppm by 2050. The C3 cycle enzyme sedoheptulose-1,7 bisphosphatase (SBPase, EC 3.1.3.17 has been shown to exert strong metabolic control over RuBP regeneration at light saturation. Results We tested the hypothesis that tobacco transformed to overexpressing SBPase will exhibit greater stimulation of A than wild type (WT tobacco when grown under field conditions at elevated [CO2] (585 ppm under fully open air fumigation. Growth under elevated [CO2] stimulated instantaneous A and the diurnal photosynthetic integral (A' more in transformants than WT. There was evidence of photosynthetic acclimation to elevated [CO2] via downregulation of Vc,max in both WT and transformants. Nevertheless, greater carbon assimilation and electron transport rates (J and Jmax for transformants led to greater yield increases than WT at elevated [CO2] compared to ambient grown plants. Conclusion These results provide proof of concept that increasing content and activity of a single photosynthesis enzyme can enhance carbon assimilation and yield of C3 crops grown at [CO2] expected by the middle of the 21st century.

  14. Over-expressing the C3 photosynthesis cycle enzyme Sedoheptulose-1-7 Bisphosphatase improves photosynthetic carbon gain and yield under fully open air CO2 fumigation (FACE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Biochemical models predict that photosynthesis in C3 plants is most frequently limited by the slower of two processes, the maximum capacity of the enzyme Rubisco to carboxylate RuBP (Vc,max), or the regeneration of RuBP via electron transport (J). At current atmospheric [CO2] levels Rubisco is not saturated; consequently, elevating [CO2] increases the velocity of carboxylation and inhibits the competing oxygenation reaction which is also catalyzed by Rubisco. In the future, leaf photosynthesis (A) should be increasingly limited by RuBP regeneration, as [CO2] is predicted to exceed 550 ppm by 2050. The C3 cycle enzyme sedoheptulose-1,7 bisphosphatase (SBPase, EC 3.1.3.17) has been shown to exert strong metabolic control over RuBP regeneration at light saturation. Results We tested the hypothesis that tobacco transformed to overexpressing SBPase will exhibit greater stimulation of A than wild type (WT) tobacco when grown under field conditions at elevated [CO2] (585 ppm) under fully open air fumigation. Growth under elevated [CO2] stimulated instantaneous A and the diurnal photosynthetic integral (A') more in transformants than WT. There was evidence of photosynthetic acclimation to elevated [CO2] via downregulation of Vc,max in both WT and transformants. Nevertheless, greater carbon assimilation and electron transport rates (J and Jmax) for transformants led to greater yield increases than WT at elevated [CO2] compared to ambient grown plants. Conclusion These results provide proof of concept that increasing content and activity of a single photosynthesis enzyme can enhance carbon assimilation and yield of C3 crops grown at [CO2] expected by the middle of the 21st century. PMID:21884586

  15. Evaluation of microbial biomass C and N content of the soils cultivated with vetch (Vicia sativa L. and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlyas Bolat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Legume forage crops have the ability of retaining free nitrogen in the air through symbiotic Rhizobium bacteria found in their roots. Additionally, microbial biomass (MB–an essential living component of soil and a significant factor influencing plant nutrient dynamics–is considered to be accurate indicator of soil’s biological condition. Given the aforementioned aspects, soil MB C (Cmic and MB N (Nmic of different legume forage crops were investigated in this study. Soil samples were taken in order to identify certain physical and chemical characteristics of the soil using volume cylinders (0 – 6.5 cm depth from Vicia sativa L. (VSP and Medicago sativa L. planted (MSP areas. To determine the Cmic and Nmic contents, topsoil samples were also taken from 0 – 6.5 cm depth. Cmic and Nmic contents were identified using chloroform – fumigation – extraction method. There was no statistical significance for particle density, bulk density, electrical conductivity, CaCO3 %, and decomposition ratio (Corg/Ntotal of the VSP and MSP soil (P > 0.05. However, some other soil characteristics such as temperature, porosity, sand, silt and clay contents, pH, organic C and total N differed significantly (P < 0.05. Compared to VSP soil, the Cmic contents were determined to be 27 % higher (P < 0.05 in MSP soil. In VSP soil, the soil Nmic content ranged from 83.38 µg g-1 to 124.67 µg g-1, while it ranged from 91.62 µg g-1 to 187.07 µg g-1 in MSP soil. The Nmic content of the MSP soil was observed to be approximately 35 % higher than VSP soil, and a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05 was noticed between the two. Moreover, a significant positive correlation was found not only between the Cmic and organic C contents (r = 0.667; P < 0.05 but also between the Nmic and total N contents of MSP and VSP soil (r = 0.881; P < 0.01. The results of the study revealed that soil Cmic and Nmic values differ as the types of planted legume forage crops

  16. Visual soil evaluation and soil compaction research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M.L. Guimarães, Rachel; Keller, Thomas; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2017-01-01

    to organize a joint workshop. The present special issue is an outcome from the workshop on “Soil structural quality of tropical soils: Visual evaluation methods and soil compaction prevention strategies” that was held 26–29 May 2014 in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. There has been a long-lasting interest in Visual...... and climatic conditions, as well as in utilizing VSE methods together with qualitative methods to evaluate the impact of soil management (Munkholm et al., 2013). Soil compaction due to agricultural operations is a serious threat to soil productivity and soil ecological functions and has been a key research...... Soil Evaluation (VSE). An ISTRO working group was established more than 30 years ago with the objectives to exchange knowledge and experiences on field methods of visual-tactile soil assessment and to foster international cooperation on new or refined methods. The three previous meeting of the group...

  17. Effects of elevated nitrogen deposition on soil microbial biomass carbon in major subtropical forests of southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui WANG; Jiangming MO; Xiankai LU; Jinghua XUE; Jiong LI; Yunting FANG

    2009-01-01

    The effects of elevated nitrogen deposition on soil microbial biomass carbon (C) and extractable dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in three types of forest of southern China were studied in November, 2004 and June, 2006. Plots were established in a pine forest (PF), a mixed pine and broad-leaved forest (MF) and monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (MEBF) in the Dinghushan Nature Reserve. Nitrogen treatments included a control (no N addition), low N (50 kg N/(hm2.a)), medium N (100 kg N/ (hm2. a)) and high N (150 kg N/(hm2. a)). Microbial biomass C and extractable DOC were determined using a chloro-form fumigation-extraction method. Results indicate that microbial biomass C and extractable DOC were higher in June, 2006 than in November, 2004 and higher in the MEBF than in the PF or the MF. The response of soil microbial biomass C and extractable DOC to nitrogen deposition varied depending on the forest type and the level of nitrogen treatment. In the PF or MF forests, no significantly different effects of nitrogen addition were found on soil microbial biomass C and extractable DOC. In the MEBF, however, the soil microbial biomass C generally decreased with increased nitrogen levels and high nitrogen addition significantly reduced soil microbial biomass C. The response of soil extractable DOC to added nitrogen in the MEBF shows the opposite trend to soil microbial biomass C. These results suggest that nitrogen deposition may increase the accumulation of soil organic carbon in the MEBF in the study region.

  18. 音乐在痉挛型脑瘫患儿熏蒸治疗中的应用%The Application of Music in Spastic Cerebral Palsy in Children during Chinese Herb Fumigation Therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白青云; 张鹤

    2016-01-01

    目的:观察音乐疗法对痉挛型脑瘫患儿中药熏蒸治疗过程中伴发不良情绪的干预效果。方法将258名痉挛型脑瘫患儿随机分为观察组和对照组,每组129例,观察组患儿在中药熏蒸的同时给予音乐干预。研究两组患儿中药熏蒸过程中哭闹情况,以噪音计分别对两组患儿进行哭闹分贝和哭闹时间测定。结果观察组患儿15min、30min哭闹分贝数,明显低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),哭闹持续时间明显短于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论音乐疗法可以显著降低痉挛型脑瘫患儿中药熏蒸治疗过程中的哭闹程度,提高患儿中药熏蒸的依从性。%Objective To investigate the impact of music therapy on negative emotions in children with spastic cerebral palsy during the process of Chinese herb fumigation therapy .Methods 258 children with spastic cerebral palsy were randomly divided into observation group and control group, and each group had 129 cases.While all the patients were undergone Chinese herb fumigation therapy , patients in the observation group were given music intervention additionally .Observation was conducted when the children received fumigation therapy , and the crying sound was monitored with a Sound Level Meter in decibels , as well as the duration of crying .Results The crying decibels of children in the observation group were significantly lower than that of the control group at the time of 15 minute and 30 minute from beginning ( P<0.01 ) , and the crying duration of the observation group was also significantly shorter than that of the control group ( P<0.01 ) . Conclusions The music therapy can significantly reduce the degree of crying in children with spastic cerebral palsy during the process of Chinese herb fumigation therapy , and improve the children ’ s compliance .

  19. STUDY ON DIFFUSION AND DISTRIBUTION CHARACTERISTICS OF PH3 DURING FUMIGATION FOR GRAIN STORAGE%储粮熏蒸过程中磷化氢扩散及分布特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡寰翀; 游海洋; 王耀武; 张涛; 刘强; 裴永胜; 丁超

    2016-01-01

    采用粮堆表层投药并结合环流熏蒸技术,开展高大平房仓P H3环流熏蒸试验。通过对多点、多层P H3浓度检测,统计并分析粮堆内部P H3浓度的含量及扩散规律,研究结果表明:环流熏蒸过程中, P H3浓度扩散速度均匀,随着粮堆高度的升高, P H3平均浓度呈现轻微上升,但上升幅度有限;同时,拟合P H3浓度下降规律发现:P H3浓度下降速率在40.28 m L/m3・d~43.86 m L/m3・d之间,变化趋势随时间呈线性负相关,下降斜率系数a随粮堆深度变化而变化。%As an important insecticidal technology of grain storage ,recirculated fumigation of the Phosphine ( PH3 ) can significantly improve both safety and stability of storage environment . Therefore ,the recircu-lated fumigation experiment of the PH3 was conducted in a large scape warehouse in this study by placing the aluminium phosphide tablet on grain bulk surface . The concentration and diffusion rules of PH 3 in wheat bulk was statisticaly analyzed and the results showed that :the PH 3 concentration was uniformly dif-fused during the fumigation . PH3 concentration slightly increased with the increasing of wheat bulk hight . Simultaneously ,the PH3 concentration fitting curves showed that the decreasing rate of PH 3 ranged be-tween 40 .28 mL/m3 . d to 43 .86 mL/m3 . d . It has negative linear correlation with fumigation time ,where the coefficients a changed with the depths of grain bulk .

  20. Low temperature phosphine fumigation for control of oriental fruit fly on loquat%枇杷携带桔小实蝇磷化氢低温熏蒸技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王迪; 徐文雅; 刘涛; 李丽; 张凡华; 叶秀娟; 陈艳; 王跃进

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the toxicity of phosphine against the oriental fruit fly(Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel) in loquat, 2, 4 and 6 days fumigation were conducted with 2.28 mg/L phosphine at 8℃. Phosphine tolerance tests show that the tolerances of different developmental stages of B. dorsalis in order were: 3rd instars>2nd instars>1st instars>eggs. And all stages of oriental fruit fl y was completely killed after 4 days fumigation. Phytotoxicity test show that phosphine fumigation had no significant effects on internal quality parameters of the loquat, including fruit firmness, soluble sugar content and total acids. Our results indicated that low temperature phosphine fumigation was effective against the oriental fruit fly and did not have any adverse effects on the quality of loquat, thus had great potential for phytosanitary treatment of B. dorsalis in loquats.%为了明确磷化氢在检疫处理枇杷(Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.)携带桔小实蝇(Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel)中应用的可能,本文在8℃下,使用2.28 mg/L 磷化氢,分别熏蒸处理2、4、6 d,并测定了磷化氢熏蒸对各虫态桔小实蝇的毒性及枇杷品质的影响。对各虫态桔小实蝇的毒力结果表明,枇杷中桔小实蝇各虫态对磷化氢的耐受性为3龄幼虫>2龄幼虫>1龄幼虫>卵,3龄幼虫是最耐受虫态,2.28 mg/L 磷化氢熏蒸4 d 可完全杀灭各虫态的桔小实蝇。品质测定结果表明,磷化氢熏蒸对枇杷的硬度、可溶性糖和总酸度等品质无明显影响,且对枇杷呼吸速率有一定抑制作用,降低了贮藏期间营养物质的消耗和损失,因而在枇杷的检疫处理中极具应用前景。

  1. 骨科弹道式冲击波配合中药熏洗治疗软组织劳损%Orthopedic ballistic shock wave and herbal fumigation therapy for treatment of overuse injury of soft tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘波; 刘辉; 赵卫侠; 伍萨

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Orthopedic ballistic shock wave is commonly used to cure the overuse injury of soft tissues, but this therapy combined with herbal fumigation simultaneously is rarely reported.OBJECTIVE: To observe the clinical effects of the orthopedic ballistic shock wave combined with Chinese medicinal herbal fumigation on overuse injury of soft tissues.METHODS: A total of 912 cases with soft tissue overuse injury were treated with the orthopedic ballistic shock wave and Chinese medicinal herbal fumigation. The pain intensity of trigger point was assessed by visual analogue scale.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The intensity of pain decreased obviously after one weak treatment, but there were no significant changes of visual analogue scale in the second week. Two weeks later, the intensity of pain decreased significantly compared with before treatment (P < 0.05). Compared with tennis elbow and tenovaginitis of flexor digitorum, the visual analogue scale of calcanodynia decreased slowly (P < 0.05). The therapy of orthopedic ballistic shock wave and herbal fumigation is significantly efficient for overuse injury of soft tissues.%背景:目前采用骨科弹道式冲击波治疗软组织劳损较为普遍,但与中药熏洗配合治疗的报道甚少.目的:观察骨科弹道式冲击波配合中药熏洗治疗软组织劳损的临床疗效.方法:将912 例软组织劳损患者采用骨科弹道式冲击波配合中药熏洗治疗.采用目测类比定级法评定患者痛点受压时的疼痛强度.结果与结论:经骨科弹道式冲击波配合中药熏洗治疗1周后,患者疼痛下降明显,第2周时测类比定级法评分变化不明显.2 周以后,患者疼痛强度与治疗前比较明显下降(P < 0.05).跟痛症与网球肘、屈指肌腱腱鞘炎比较,患者疼痛强度下降缓慢(P < 0.05).结果证实,骨科弹道式冲击波配合中药熏洗治疗软组织劳损疗效显著.

  2. The Research of the Extra - corporeal Bacteriostasis of the Incense - fumigating Oil of Rhizoma Atractylodis & Folium Artemisiae Argyi%苍艾香熏油体外抑菌作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    明溪; 何晓山; 陈柏君; 熊磊

    2011-01-01

    objective : To further research the incense - fumigating oil of R&F, based on the clinical experienced prescription of professor XiongLei and modem pharmacology research.The extra - corporeal bacteriostasis of the incense - fumigating oil of Rhizoma atractylodis & Folium artemisiae argyi, and compare the extra - corporeal bacteriostasis of mixed Volatile Oil and single unmixed Volatile Oil.Methods : to detect the extra - corporeal bacteriostasis of the Incense - fumigating Oil of Rhizoma atractylodis & Folium anemisia argyi and single unmixed volatile oil to different experimentaJ bacteria by the methods of punching, and to figure out its dose - effect relationship of extra - corporeal hacteriostasis respectively by using Levofloxacin Hydrochloride and Fluconazole as positive control.Results : The Incense - fumigating Oil of Rhizoma atractylodis & Folium artemisiae argyi has extra - corporeal bacteriostasis on such bacteria as Staphylococcus aureus, beta streptococcus, candida albicans.Furthermore, its effect, within a cenain degree of dose, can boost up with the increasing of dose.However, there is no avail on pseudomonas aeruginosa.Staphylococcus aureus, beta streptococcus, candida albicans are sensitive to single unmixed Volatile oil which in the experiment, Pseudomonas aeruginosa just sensitive to the Volatile oil of Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim.%目的:进一步研究将熊磊教授临床经验方用现代制剂工艺制成的苍艾香薰油的体外抑菌作用,比较复方挥发油与各组方中单药挥发油的抑菌效果.方法:采用打孔法检测苍艾香熏油及各单药挥发油对各实验菌的体外抑菌作用,并用左氧氟沙星及酮康唑制剂为阳性对照,分别初步求出其抑菌作用的量效关系.结果:苍艾香熏油对金黄色葡萄球菌、乙型链球菌,白色念珠球菌均有体外抑菌作用,并在一定剂量范围内呈量效关系.但对铜绿假单胞菌不敏感.金黄色葡萄球菌、乙型链球菌、白色

  3. 荔枝蝽臭液对常见仓储害虫的熏蒸毒力%Fumigation Toxicity of Tessartoma papillosa (Drury) Stink Gland Secretion to Four Common Storage Pest Insects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江军; 赵冬香; 高景林; 王爱萍

    2011-01-01

    [Aims]Respecting the characteristics of Tessartoma papillosa (Drury) stink gland secretion and the grim situation of pest damage in grain storage, authors studied the fumigation effect of the stink gland secretion from T.papillosa on four kind of storage pest insects, cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus Fabricius, rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae(Linnaeus), lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica Fabricius, and driedfruit beetle, Carpophilus hemipterus Linnaeus by fumigation with sealed triangular flasks.[Results]The result showed that the LC50 for 24 h of the T.papillosa male adult stink gland secretion to C.maculates, S.oryzae, R.dominies and C.hemipterus were 0.5247, 6.3125,2.4068 and 3.7753 μL/L respectively, while the LC50 for 24 h of T.papillosa female adult stink gland secretion were 0.4803,6.3803, 2.5936 and 3.7925 μL/L respectively.[Conclusions]The T.papillosa adult stink gland secretion has very good fumigation to the four stored-grain pest insects.We expected to screen out effective natural compounds with fumigation from the stink gland secretion.%[目的]鉴于荔枝蝽臭液的特性以及粮食储藏中害虫危害的严峻形势,采用三角瓶密闭熏蒸法探讨了荔枝蝽臭液对常见仓储售虫的熏蒸潜力.[结果]结果表明:荔枝蝽雄虫臭液24 h熏蒸毒力的LC值分别为米象0.5247 μL/L、谷蠹6.3125μL/L、四纹豆象2.4068μL/L、黄斑露尾甲3.7753μL/L;荔枝蝽雌虫臭液24 熏蒸毒力的LC值分别为米象0.4803μL/L、谷蠹6.3803μL/L、四纹豆象2.5936μL/L、黄斑露尾甲3.7925μL/L.[结论]荔枝蝽臭液对米象、谷蠹、四纹豆象和黄斑露尾甲等仓储害虫具有很好的熏蒸毒力,可望能从荔枝蝽臭液中筛选出有效的天然熏蒸化合物.

  4. Effects of tea tree oil fumigation on disease and quality of postharvest strawberry fruits%茶树油熏蒸对草莓采后病害和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程赛; 邵兴锋; 郭安南; 宋钰兴

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of tea tree oil on the preservation of strawberry fruits, strawberries inoculated with Botrytis cinerea or Rhizopus stolonifer spores were fumigated by tea tree oil with different concentration and time, and then stored at 20℃ to observe the decay development.In vitro experiment, it was investigated on the inhibition of spore germination and mycelia growth of both pathogens by fumigation treatment, and also the effects of tea tree oil treatment on the change of quality during storage.The results showed that tea tree oil fumigation treatment reduced the decay incidence and lesion diameter of gray mold or mildew root, inhibited the spores germination and hyphae growth of pathogens.It also reduced the weight loss and maintained higher hardness, soluble solid and titratable acid content of strawberry fruits.Therefore, tea tree oil fumigation treatment for fresh strawberries is feasible, and the treatment at 2 000 mg/L with 3 h treatment time can prolong the shelf life of fresh fruits.%为了研究茶树油对草莓保鲜的作用效果,对人工接种灰葡萄孢霉(Botrytis cinerea)和根霉(Rhizopus stolonifer)的草莓果实进行不同质量浓度、不同时间的茶树油熏蒸处理,测定20℃贮藏下的病害发生情况,并运用体外试验研究该熏蒸处理对病原菌孢子萌发和菌丝生长的影响.同时,还分析了接受该处理的果实在贮藏期间的品质变化趋势.研究发现:茶树油熏蒸处理可降低草莓果实灰霉病和根霉病的发病率和病斑直径,抑制其孢子萌发和菌丝生长,减缓草莓果实在贮藏期间失重率的上升,维持较高的硬度、可溶性固形物和可滴定酸含量.结果表明茶树油熏蒸用于草莓保鲜是可行的,质量浓度为2 000mg/L,熏蒸3 h可明显延长草莓货架期.

  5. 八种药用植物精油对谷蠹成虫的熏蒸活性%Fumigant activities of eight essential oils of herb plants against Rhizopertha dominica(Fab.)adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄衍章; 李世广; 操海群; 巢道平; 周倩

    2011-01-01

    The fumigant activities of eight essential oils of herb plants against adults of Rhizopertha dominica (Fab.) were tested in the sealed triangular flask. The result indicated that Illicium verum, Foeniculum vulgare and Acorus gramineus oils were possessed of good fumigant activities against the tested pests, especially the Illicium verum oils. Under the condition of empty-storehouse-imitation, the Illicium verum and Foeniculum vulgare oils showed excellent fumigant activities against the tested pests, and the LC50 to R. Dominica (Fab.) after treatment for 3 days were 2.88 uL-L"1 and 4.02 μL·L-1, respectively. Of all eight herb plants essential oils, only Illicium verum showed good fumigant activities under the condition of real-storehouse-imitation, and the oil produced 92.37% corrected mortalities of pests at 166.67 μL·L-1 after treatment for 10 days. Further bioassay showed the LC50 of Illicium verum oil against R. Dominica (Fab.) after treatment for 14 days under the condition of real-storehouse-imitation was 67.01 uL·L-1-1.%采用三角瓶密闭熏蒸法,测试了8种药用植物精油在空仓和实仓模拟条件下对谷蠹成虫的熏蒸活性.结果表明,8种植物精油以八角茴香,小茴香和石菖蒲时试虫的熏杀效果较好,尤以八角茴香精油的熏杀效果最佳.空仓模拟条件下,八角茴香和小茴香精油均对谷蠹成虫表现出很高的熏杀活性,其熏蒸处理3d后的LC50分别为2.88 μL·L-1和4.02 μL·L-1.实仓模拟条件下,8种植物精油仅以八角茴香的熏蒸效果较好,其166.67 μL·L-1熏蒸处理10d后试虫的校正死亡率为92.37%,实仓模拟熏蒸处理14d后的LC50为67.01 μL·L-1.

  6. Detailed Soils 24K

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set is a digital soil survey and is the most detailed level of soil geographic data developed by the National Cooperative Soil Survey. The information was...

  7. GeologicSoils_SOAG

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — GeologicSoils_SOAG includes a pre-selected subset of SSURGO soil data depicting prime agricultural soils in Vermont. The SSURGO county coverages were joined to the...

  8. Indicators: Soil Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chemical makeup of the soil can provide information on wetland condition, wetland water quality and services being provided by the wetland ecosystem. Analyzing soil chemistry reveals if the soil is contaminated with a toxic chemical or heavy metal.

  9. Soil Organic Carbon Stock

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the carbon held within soil organic constituents (i.e., products produced as dead plants and animals decompose and the soil microbial...

  10. Soil microbial biomass and population in response to seasonal variation and age in Gmelina arborea plantations in south-western Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jonathan C.Onyekwelu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: We investigated the Effects of plantation development,seasons,and soil depth on soil microbial indices in Gmelina arborea plantations in south-western Nigeria.Soil samples were obtained from the soil depths of 0-15 and 15-30 cm from plantations of six different ages during the rainy season,dry seasons,and their transitions.We used plate count and fumigation-extraction methods to determine microbe population and microbial biomass carbon (MB-C) and nitrogen (MB-N),respectively.Plantation age did not affect microbial indices,implying a non-significant effect of plantation development on microbial communities.It could also imply that soil microbial indices had already stabilized in the sampled plantations.Seasonal variation and soil depth had significant effects on microbial indices.At 0-15 cm soil depth,mean MB-C increased from 50.74 μg·g-1 during the peak of the dry season (i.e.March) to 99.58 μg·g-1 during the peak of the rainy season (i.e.September),while it increased from 36.22 μg·g-1 to 75.31 μg·g-1 at 15-30 cm soil depth between the same seasonal periods.Bacteria populations and MB-N showed similar increasing trends.Correlations.between MB-C,MB-N,microbe populations,and rainfall were positive and linear.Significantly higher microbial activities took place in the plantations during the rainy season,increased with soil wetness,and decreased at greater soil depth.

  11. Short-term recovery of soil physical, chemical, micro- and mesobiological functions in a new vineyard under organic farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, E. A. C.; Agnelli, A. E.; Fabiani, A.; Gagnarli, E.; Mocali, S.; Priori, S.; Simoni, S.; Valboa, G.

    2015-06-01

    Deep earthwork activities carried out before vineyard plantation can severely affect soil profile properties. As a result, soil features in the root environment are often much more similar to those of the underlying substratum than those of the original profile. The time needed to recover the original soil functions is ecologically relevant and may strongly affect vine phenology and grape yield, particularly under organic viticulture. The general aim of this work was to investigate soil resilience after vineyard pre-planting earthworks. In particular, an old and a new vineyard, established on the same soil type, were compared over a 5-year period for soil chemical, physical, micro- and mesobiological properties. The investigated vineyards (Vitis vinifera L., cv. Sangiovese) were located in the Chianti Classico district (central Italy), on stony and calcareous soils, and were not irrigated. The older vineyard was planted in 2000, after slope reshaping by bulldozing and back-hoe ploughing down to about 0.8-1.0 m. The new vineyard was planted in 2011, after equivalent earthwork practices carried out in the summer of 2009. Both vineyards were organically managed, and they were fertilized with compost only every autumn (1000 kg ha-1 per year). The new vineyard was cultivated by periodic tillage, while the old vineyard was managed with alternating grass-covered and tilled inter-rows. Soil samples were collected at 0-15 cm depth from fixed locations in each vineyard every spring from 2010 to 2014. The old vineyard was sampled in both tilled and grass-covered inter-rows. According to the results from physical and chemical analyses, the new vineyard, during the whole 2010-2014 period, showed lower total organic carbon, total nitrogen, carbon to nitrogen ratio and electrical conductivity, along with higher silt and total CaCO3 contents than the old vineyard, suggesting still-evolving equilibrium conditions. The microarthropod analysis showed significantly different

  12. Soils, Soils, Published in 2004, Taylor County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Soils dataset, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2004. It is described as 'Soils'. Data by this publisher are often...

  13. Surfactant adsorption to soil components and soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ishiguro, Munehide; Koopal, Luuk K.

    2016-01-01

    Soils are complex and widely varying mixtures of organic matter and inorganic materials; adsorption of surfactants to soils is therefore related to the soil composition. We first discuss the properties of surfactants, including the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and surfactant adsorption on

  14. Soil-structure interaction including nonlinear soil

    OpenAIRE

    Gicev, Vlado

    2008-01-01

    There are two types of models of soil-structure system depending upon the rigidity of foundation: models with rigid and models with flexible foundation. Main features of the soil-structure interaction phenomenon: -wave scattering, -radiation damping, -reduction of the system frequencies. In this presentation, the influence of interaction on the development of nonlinear zones in the soil is studied.

  15. 磷化氢环流熏蒸技术应用中需注意的几个问题%SOME ISSUES ON APPLICATION OF RECIRCULATION FUMIGATION OF PHOSPHINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王殿轩

    2001-01-01

    In this paper some issues about recirculation fumigation of phosphine are discussed, those include demand for gastight , the relationship between dosage of aluminium phophide, phosphine concentration and effectiveness of killing pests, several manners of phospine application, monitoring and evaluation of effectiveness. And several cases are indicated that phosphine is unsuitable to recirculate in the warehouse equipped with recirculation fumigation system.%本文从仓房的气密性、用药量浓度和密闭时间与杀虫效果的关系、磷化氢环流熏蒸中可采用的几种方式、熏蒸效果的检查与评价等几个方面阐述了磷化氢环流熏蒸中应注意的若干问题,并对几种不宜进行整仓环流熏蒸的情况进行了说明。

  16. Microbial metabolism in soil at low temperatures: Mechanisms unraveled by position-specific 13C labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bore, Ezekiel

    2016-04-01

    Microbial transformation of organic substances in soil is the most important process of the C cycle. Most of the current studies base their information about transformation of organic substances on incubation studies under laboratory conditions and thus, we have a profound knowledge on SOM transformations at ambient temperatures. However, metabolic pathway activities at low temperature are not well understood, despite the fact that the processes are relevant for many soils globally and seasonally. To analyze microbial metabolism at low soil temperatures, isotopomeres of position-specifically 13C labeled glucose were incubated at three temperature; 5, -5 -20 oC. Soils were sampled after 1, 3 and 10 days and additionally after 30 days for samples at -20 °C. The 13C from individual molecule position was quantifed in respired CO2, bulk soil, extractable organic C and extractable microbial biomass by chloroform fumigation extraction (CFE) and cell membranes of microbial communities classified by 13C phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis. 13CO2 released showed a dominance of the flux from C-1 position at 5 °C. Consequently, at 5 °C, pentose phosphate pathway activity is a dominant metabolic pathway of glucose metabolization. In contrast to -5 °C and -20 oC, metabolic behaviors completely switched towards a preferential respiration of the glucose C-4 position. With decreasing temperature, microorganism strongly shifted towards metabolization of glucose via glycolysis which indicates a switch to cellular maintenance. High recoveries of 13C in extractable microbial biomass at -5 °C indicates optimal growth condition for the microorganisms. PLFA analysis showed high incorporation of 13C into Gram negative bacteria at 5 °C but decreased with temperature. Gram positive bacteria out-competed Gram negatives with decreasing temperature. This study revealed a remarkable microbial activity at temperatures below 0 °C, differing significantly from that at ambient

  17. Assessing Soil Biological Properties of Natural and Planted Forests in the Malaysian Tropical Lowland Dipterocarp Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daljit S. Karam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: A study was conducted to evaluate and compare the soil biological properties of a natural forest and an 18-year-old stand of Shorea leprosula in Chikus Forest Reserve, Perak, Malaysia. Approach: Soils were sampled at depths of 0-15 cm (topsoil and 15-30 cm (subsoil in six subplots (20×20 m of natural forest (C1 and of a planted S. leprosula (C2 plot. Fresh composite soil samples were kept in UV-sterilized polyethylene bags prior to analysis in the laboratory. The microbial population count was determined using a spread-plate count technique. The microbial enzymatic activity was elucidated using a Fluorescein Diacetate (FDA hydrolysis assay; microbial biomass was extracted using a rapid chloroform fumigation extraction method. The Microbial Biomass C (MBC was determined by wet dichromate oxidation; Kjeldahl digestion and a distillation method were used for evaluation of Microbial Biomass N (MBN. Results: Results indicate that only the microbial biomass N and the population count in the soil at the 0-15 cm depth were found to be higher in C1 compared to C2. The higher microbial population count in the soil at the 0-15 cm depth of C1 compared to C2 was enhanced by the large amount of organic matter that serves as a suitable medium for soil microbial growth. The higher MBN in the C1 soil was also influenced by the high content of organic material available that encourages activities of decomposing bacteria to take place. Similarities in the soil biological properties of the plots with regard to enzymatic activity and microbial biomass Care believed to be influenced by the same topographic gradient. The higher MBC/MBN ratios found in soils of C2 compared to C1 were due to the low availability of N compared to C, might result from N utilization by soil microbes for organic material decomposition. Conclusion: There are similarities in microbial enzymatic activity and biomass C, but not in microbial population counts and biomass N

  18. Changes in soil C-isotopic composition in an agroecosystem under Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment (FACE) treatment during a crop rotation period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesemann, Anette

    2005-01-01

    FACE (Free Air Carbon dioxide Enrichment) has been used since 1999 to evaluate the effects of future atmospheric CO(2) concentrations on an arable crop agroecosystem. The experiment conducted at the Institute of Agroecology at the Federal Research Centre in Braunschweig consists of a typical local crop rotation of winter barley, a cover crop, sugar beet and winter wheat. The atmospheric CO2 concentration of ambient air is about 375 ppm with a delta13C value of -7 to -9 per thousand, and 550 ppm (delta13C value = -20.2 per thousand) during daylight hours in the rings fumigated with additional CO2. Thus, the surplus C can be traced in the agricultural system. Over the course of the first experimental period (3-year crop rotation period), the C-isotopic composition and the C concentration in soil were monitored monthly. Plant samples were analysed according to the relevant developmental stages of the crop under cultivation. A 13C depletion was observed in plant parts, as well as in soil samples from the FACE rings under CO2 enrichment, indicating that labelled C has reached both respective ecosystem compartments. Albeit farming management practice (especially ploughing) leads to a mixing of 'old' and 'new' C compounds throughout all soil horizons down to the end of the ploughing layer and resulted in a heterogeneous distribution of newly formed C compounds in the soil, isotope analysis of soil C reflected where the surplus C went.

  19. Seasonal variation in soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen in an artificial sand-binding vegetation area in Shapotou, northern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuYan Zhou; XuanMing Zhang; XiaoHong Jia; JinQin Ma; YanHong Gao

    2013-01-01

    In this study, seasonal variation characteristics of surface soil microbial biomass carbon (MBC) and soil microbial biomass nitrogen (MBN) of an artificial vegetation area located in Shapotou for different time periods were studied using the chloroform fumigation method, and the results were compared with those of near-natural vegetation areas and mobile dunes. Results showed that the MBC and MBN levels in the 0-5 cm soil layer were higher in autumn than in summer and spring. As the prolongation of vegetation restoration raised the MBC and MBN levels in summer and autumn, no clear variation was found in spring. However, the MBC and MBN in 5-20 cm had no obvious seasonal variation. During summer and autumn, the variation trend of MBC and MBN in the vertical direction was shown to be 0-5>5-10>10-20 cm in the vegetation area, while for mobile dunes, the MBC and MBN levels increased as the depth increased. The natural vegetation area was shown to possess the highest MBC and MBN levels, and yet mobile dunes have the lowest MBC and MBN levels. MBC and MBN levels in artificial sand-binding vegetation increased with the prolongation of vegetation restoration, indicating that the succession of sand-binding vegetation will result in the ac-cumulation of soil carbon and nitrogen, as well as the restoration of soil fertility.

  20. NOrth AMerica Soil (NOAM-SOIL) Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D. A.; Waltman, S. W.; Geng, X.; James, D.; Hernandez, L.

    2009-05-01

    NOAM-SOIL is being created by combining the CONUS-SOIL database with pedon data and soil geographic data coverages from Canada and Mexico. Completion of the in-progress NOrth AMerica Soil (NOAM-SOIL) database will provide complete North America coverage comparable to CONUS. Canadian pedons, which number more than 500, have been painstakingly transcribed to a common format, from hardcopy, and key- entered. These data, along with map unit polygons from the 1:1,000,000 Soil Landscapes of Canada, will be used to create the required spatial data coverages. The Mexico data utilizes the INEGI 1:1,000,000 scale soil map that was digitized by U. S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center in the mid 1990's plus about 20,000 pedons. The pedon data were published on the reverse side of the paper 1:250,000 scale Soil Map of Mexico and key entered by USDA and georeferenced by Penn State to develop an attribute database that can be linked to the 1:1,000,000 scale Soil Map of Mexico based on taxonomic information and geographic proximity. The essential properties that will be included in the NOAM-SOIL data base are: layer thickness (depth to bedrock or reported soil depth); available water capacity; sand, silt, clay; rock fragment volume; and bulk density. For quality assurance purposes, Canadian and Mexican soil scientists will provide peer review of the work. The NOAM-SOIL project will provide a standard reference dataset of soil properties for use at 1km resolution by NACP modelers for all of North America. All data resources, including metadata and selected raw data, will be provided through the Penn State web site: Soil Information for Environmental Modeling and Ecosystem Management (www.soilinfo.psu.edu). Progress on database completion is reported.

  1. STUDY ON THE PHOSPHINE EXPOSURE LEVELS AND HARM CHARACTERISTICS ON TO BACCO FUMIGATION AND SCATTERED GAS PROCESS%烟草熏蒸散气过程磷化氢暴露水平及危害特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建中; 陈发明; 喻泽林; 叶青

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨某烟草仓储库在常规熏蒸杀虫及开仓通风散气过程中,不同时段工作场所空气中磷化氢(H3P)浓度变化、劳动者接触水平及危害特征,为职业安全和健康管理提供依据.[方法]通过职业卫生学调查和现场试验,采用与熏蒸和散气过程同步采样方法,采取不同时段空气中H3P浓度,结合接触者健康资料进行分析.[结果](1)磷化铝(AIP)单位投放量按库内容积为0.2-0.5 g/m3不等;(2)库内各楼层熏蓁浓度分别设计为20-120ppm;(3)熏蒸时熏蒸岗位H3P浓度范围为3.12~17.9 mg/m3;(4)开仓散气前库内各接层H3P浓度分别34.1~70.0ppm;(5)通风散气48h以后库内H3P的浓度逐步下降至国家职业接触限值,至168h时H3P浓度低于检出限.[结论]烟草熏蒸职业目标疾病是预防急性H3P中毒,控制熏蒸过程是控制H3P危害的关键措施,入库作业前检测H3P浓度是预防中毒的基本措施.%[Objective] To explore the variation of H3P concentration in the workplace and Laborer exposure levels and endanger the characteristic during the warehouse tobacco fumigation and scattered gas process, and provide the basis managements of occupational safety and health. [Methods] Through professional hygienic survey and field tests, typical subjects were selected and H3P concentrations in the workplace were measured using synchronous sampling method. We analyzed the health data combined with the close contact people. [Results] (I) The used A1P dose were concentrations were 0,2-0.5 g/mJ. (2) The H3P concentrations were 20~120 ppm during fumigation. (3) The H3P concentrations were 3.12-17.9 mg/m3 at the fumigation operation position. (4) The H3P concentrations were 34.1-70.0 ppm before the warehouse opened and ventilated. (5) The H3P concentrations inside the warehouse gradually decreased to occupational exposure limits after 48h of natural ventilation, and 100% of the samples were detected less than the detection limit after

  2. 香蕉携带杰克贝尔氏粉蚧的甲酸乙酯熏蒸技术初探%Primary study on ethyl formate fumigation against Jack Beardsley mealybug on banana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐文雅; 王迪; 刘涛; 李丽; 王毅; 刘长明; 王跃进

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine whether ethyl formate could be used to control Jack Beardsley mealybug (Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi Gimpel et Miller) on banana (Musa paradisiaca), in this study under the 13℃, using a series of concentration of ethyl formate combined with 15% carbon dioxide fumigation for 2.5 h, ethyl formate fumigation were measured for each bug state jack bell's mealybug toxicity and quality of fumigated bananas . The banana had the stronger chemisorption to ethyl formate. Under the condition of 40% loading rate, the concentration of the ethyl formate after 10 minutes was only 30%. And after 2.5 hours, the ethyl formate cannot be detected. The tolerance of all insect stages to ethyl formate appeared in the order of egg > the adult > nymph. All stages of mealybug was killed completely when fumigated with ethyl formate at the dosage of 90 g/m3. In the test of the character, fumigation of ethyl formate had no significant effects on internal quality of the banana, including fruit color, firmness, soluble sugar content and total acids. These results indicated that ethyl formate was effective to kill the Jack Beardsley mealybug while its adverse effect on the quality of banana could be greatly reduced at low temperature, so control of predatory insect pests using ethyl formate is achievable.%为了明确甲酸乙酯在检疫处理香蕉(Musa paradisiaca)携带杰克贝尔氏粉蚧(Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi Gimpel et Miller)中应用的可能,本文在13℃下,使用一系列浓度的甲酸乙酯结合15%二氧化碳对杰克贝尔氏粉蚧和海南巴西蕉(Musa paradisiaca)进行了2.5 h 熏蒸处理,并测定了甲酸乙酯熏蒸对各虫态杰克贝尔氏粉蚧的毒性及香蕉品质的影响。结果表明香蕉对甲酸乙酯有较强的吸附作用,装载率为40%的条件下,投药后10 min 的浓度仅约为投药剂量的30%,熏蒸2.5 h 后已不能检测到熏蒸空间中的甲酸乙酯。对各虫态粉蚧的毒力结果表

  3. Effects of open-top chamber fumigations with ozone on three fungal leaf diseases of wheat and the mycoflora of the phyllosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Tiedemann, A; Weigel, H J; Jäger, H J

    1991-01-01

    Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Turbo) was exposed in open-top chambers to six different ozone levels (8-h daily means from 12.4 to 122 microg m(-3)), to non-filtered air and to chamberless field conditions for 31 days from seedling stage through ear emergence. Powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis DC. f.sp. tritici Marchal) which developed during the exposure period was significantly enhanced from 0.3/0.6% (two chamber replicates), 1.2/2.1%, 0.9/2.2% in charcoal-filtered air (CF) to 1.5/1.6%, 3.7/4.3%, 4.4/4.6% at the highest level of ozone, on the flag leaf, second and third leaf position, respectively. Post-exposure inoculation with Septoria nodorum Berk. led to increases of disease severity on the flag leaf from 40.9/43.6% in CF to 66.3/70.6% at the highest ozone concentration and on the ears from 15.7/16.5% to 26.3/26.6%. In the same comparison, severity of spot blotch following inoculation with Bipolaris sorokiniana (Sacc.) Shoem. (syn. Helminthosporium sativum Pamm., King et Bakke) was increased on the flag leaf from 3.6/8.9% to 12.3/23.4%. The three diseases examined correlated significantly with the ozone treatments in fumigated chambers. Disease severity was enhanced even on undamaged plant tissue (flag leaves). Infections of the two facultative pathogens on lower leaf positions started only in part from visible ozone lesions, mildew did not start from such lesions. No significant effects of ozone in the chambers on the saprobial colonization of the phyllosphere were detected, whereas there were marked differences in this respect between plants from the field and the chambers. At the highest ozone treatment, contents of chlorophyll a and carotenoids on the second leaf position declined significantly, which was associated with symptoms of premature senescence. Senescing effects of ozone are therefore assumed to be one major factor in predisposing wheat for necrotrophic leaf pathogens. Surprisingly, injurious and predisposing effects of ozone were

  4. Open-air fumigation of winter barley with sulphur dioxide: Effects on growth of the flag leaf and enzymes of photosynthetic carbon metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montiel-Canobra, P.O.; Bradbeer, J.W. (King' s Coll. London (UK)); Darrall, N.M. (National Power Technology and Environmental Centre, Leatherhead (UK))

    1991-01-01

    The effects SO{sub 2} on flag leaf growth and on a number of enzymes of photosynthetic carbon metabolism in leaves of winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Igri) were investigated. Plant material was obtained from an open-air fumigation experiment operated at Littlehampton, West Sussex, U.K., throughout two growing seasons (1985-1986 and 1986-1987). In 1985-1986 samples were compared from an ambient plot and the highest SO{sub 2} treatment plot. In 1986-1987 samples from the ambient SO{sub 2} plot and the two highest treatments were sampled. The flag leaf was studied in particular because of its considerable contribution to grain filling. Significant reduction in flag leaf dry weight and flag leaf area were found in the highest SO{sub 2} treatment in both seasons. In 1986-1987, delays in flag leaf emergence and senescence in both the 0.028 and 0.038 microliter l{sup {minus}1} SO{sub 2} treatments were observed. Leaf extracts were used to assay the following enzymes: stromal phosphoribulokinase and NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-phosphate dehydrogenase, phosphoglycerate kinase and cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. No effects of SO{sub 2} were detected on the total activity of any of the stromal enzymes, or on the activation status of NADP-dependent glyceraldehyde-phosphate dehydrogenase. Significant reductions in the post-anthesis activity of cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase were recorded for the highest SO{sub 2} treatment (0.038 microliter l{sup {minus}1}) and provided a preliminary indication that these levels of SO{sub 2} could affect the flow of fixed carbon in leaves and could thereby affect the availability of photoassimilate for export from source leaves. Both the reduction in size of the flag leaf and decreased levels of activity of cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase may have important implications for the process of grain filling. 7 figs., 42 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Fundamentals of soil science

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study guide provides comments and references for professional soil scientists who are studying for the soil science fundamentals exam needed as the first step for certification. The performance objectives were determined by the Soil Science Society of America's Council of Soil Science Examiners...

  6. Hot fire, cool soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoof, C.R.; Moore, D.; Fernandes, P.; Stoorvogel, J.J.; Fernandes, R.; Ferreira, A.J.D.; Ritsema, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfires greatly increase a landscape's vulnerability to flooding and erosion events by removing vegetation and changing soils. Fire damage to soil increases with increasing soil temperature, and, for fires where smoldering combustion is absent, the current understanding is that soil temperatures i

  7. Restoring Soil Quality to Mitigate Soil Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan Lal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Feeding the world population, 7.3 billion in 2015 and projected to increase to 9.5 billion by 2050, necessitates an increase in agricultural production of ~70% between 2005 and 2050. Soil degradation, characterized by decline in quality and decrease in ecosystem goods and services, is a major constraint to achieving the required increase in agricultural production. Soil is a non-renewable resource on human time scales with its vulnerability to degradation depending on complex interactions between processes, factors and causes occurring at a range of spatial and temporal scales. Among the major soil degradation processes are accelerated erosion, depletion of the soil organic carbon (SOC pool and loss in biodiversity, loss of soil fertility and elemental imbalance, acidification and salinization. Soil degradation trends can be reversed by conversion to a restorative land use and adoption of recommended management practices. The strategy is to minimize soil erosion, create positive SOC and N budgets, enhance activity and species diversity of soil biota (micro, meso, and macro, and improve structural stability and pore geometry. Improving soil quality (i.e., increasing SOC pool, improving soil structure, enhancing soil fertility can reduce risks of soil degradation (physical, chemical, biological and ecological while improving the environment. Increasing the SOC pool to above the critical level (10 to 15 g/kg is essential to set-in-motion the restorative trends. Site-specific techniques of restoring soil quality include conservation agriculture, integrated nutrient management, continuous vegetative cover such as residue mulch and cover cropping, and controlled grazing at appropriate stocking rates. The strategy is to produce “more from less” by reducing losses and increasing soil, water, and nutrient use efficiency.

  8. Cross-cutting activities: Soil quality and soil metagenomics

    OpenAIRE

    Peter P. Motavalli; Garrett, Karen A.

    2008-01-01

    This presentation reports on the work of the SANREM CRSP cross-cutting activities "Assessing and Managing Soil Quality for Sustainable Agricultural Systems" and "Soil Metagenomics to Construct Indicators of Soil Degradation." The introduction gives an overview of the extensiveness of soil degradation globally and defines soil quality. The objectives of the soil quality cross cutting activity are: CCRA-4 (Soil Metagenomics)

  9. Classification of Ferrallitic Soils in Chinese Soil Taxonomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The development of the classification of ferrallitic soils in China is reviewed and the classification of Ferralisols and Ferrisols in Chinese Soil Taxonomy is introduced in order to discuss the correlation between the ferrallitic soil classification in the Chinese Soil Taxonomy and those of the other soil classification systems. In the former soil classification systems of China, the ferrallitic soils were classified into the soil groups of Latosols, Latosolic red soils, Red soils, Yellow soils and Dry red soils, according to the combination of soil forming conditions, soil-forming processes, soil features and soil properties. In the Chinese Soil Taxonomy, most of ferrallitic soils are classified into the soil orders of Ferralisols and Ferrisols based on the diagnostic horizons and/or diagnostic characteristics with quantitatively defined properties. Ferralisols are the soils that have ferralic horizon, and they are merely subdivided into one suborder and two soil groups. Ferrisols are the soils that have LAC-ferric horizon but do not have ferralic horizon, and they are subdivided into three suborders and eleven soil groups. Ferralisols may correspond to part of Latosols and Latosolic red soils. Ferrisols may either correspond to part of Red soils, Yellow soils and Dry red soils, or correspond to part of Latosols and Latosolic red soils.

  10. Cracking in desiccating soils

    OpenAIRE

    Ledesma Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Soil shrinkage is produced typically under desiccating conditions. Eventually shrinkage may generate cracks in the soil mass, a phenomenon that is being studied by several researchers, because its prediction is far from being a routine in Soil Mechanics. Within this context, Unsaturated Soil Mechanics provides a promising framework to understand the mechanisms involved. In addition to that, physical modelling of desiccating soils constitutes a good tool to explore the nature of this problem. ...

  11. Phosphorus status of soils from contrasting forested ecosystems in southwestern Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achat, D. L.; Bakker, M. R.; Zeller, B.; Derrien, D.; Barsukov, P.; Nikitich, P.

    2011-12-01

    Phosphorus is one of the most limiting nutrients in many ecosystems and mineral reserves available for fertilizer production are forecasted to last for no more than 100 yrs. Crop requirements for P are often lower in forests than in agriculture and P fertilization to forest ecosystems is not very common on a global scale. In southern Siberia, expected climate change would lead to higher overall precipitation, higher temperatures and subsequently to changes in land use (i.e. agricultural land could increase on detriment of forests). In the present work we evaluated P status in four forested ecosystems in southwestern Siberia including 1 site with lowland Populus tremula, and 3 upland sites in the Salair mountains with Populus tremula, Abies siberica or with small forest openings. The upland sites feature twice higher productivity than the lowland sites and it was suggested that thick snow cover on those sites would enable winter activity of microbial communities leading to faster soil degradation processes and higher nutrient availability. We thus wanted to test whether biological processes in the upland sites were of larger impact on P status than in the lowland sites. We combined 32P isotopic dilution techniques (for diffusive P), chemical extractions (for total P, organic P) and fumigation/incubation/respiration methods (for microbial P) to test this hypothesis. Additional soil analyses (C, N and othes) were performed. Results will be interpreted in the light of the exising knowledge on botany, climate, pedology and expected implications for future land use, would this occur to change.

  12. Nematode Genera in Forest Soil Respond Differentially to Elevated CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Deborah A.; Weicht, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Previous reports suggest that fungivorous nematodes are the only trophic group in forest soils affected by elevated CO2. However, there can be ambiguity within trophic groups, and we examined data at a genus level to determine whether the conclusion remains similar. Nematodes were extracted from roots and soil of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and sweet gum (Liquidambar styraciflua) forests fumigated with either ambient air or CO2-enriched air. Root length and nematode biomass were estimated using video image analysis. Most common genera included Acrobeloides, Aphelenchoides, Cephalobus, Ditylenchus, Ecphyadorphora, Filenchus, Plectus, Prismatolaimus, and Tylencholaimus. Maturity Index values and diversity increased with elevated CO2 in loblolly pine but decreased with elevated CO2 in sweet gum forests. Elevated CO2 treatment affected the occurrence of more nematode genera in sweet gum than loblolly pine forests. Numbers were similar but size of Xiphinema decreased in elevated CO2. Abundance, but not biomass, of Aphelenchoides was reduced by elevated CO2. Treatment effects were apparent at the genus levels that were masked at the trophic level. For example, bacterivores were unaffected by elevated CO2, but abundance of Cephalobus was affected by CO2 treatment in both forests. PMID:24115786

  13. Short-term effects of natural and NH4+-enriched chabazite zeolitite amendments to soil microbial biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Giacomo; Keiblinger, Katharina Maria; Di Giuseppe, Dario; Faccini, Barbara; Colombani, Nicolò; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Coltorti, Massimo; Mastrocicco, Micòl

    2017-04-01

    Natural zeolite-bearing rocks (zeolitites) are known to be a suitable material for agricultural purposes by improving soil physicochemical properties and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). However, little is known about their effects on soil microbial biomass. Aim of this work is to evaluate short-term effects of different chabazite-zeolitite amendments on soil microbial biomass (and activity). To this purpose a silty-clay agricultural soil was amended in three different ways, by the addition of 5 and 15 wt% of natural chabazite zeolitites (NZ) and 10 wt% of NH4+-enriched chabazite zeolitites (CZ). Soil pH, water content, dissolved organic carbon (C), total dissolved N, NH4+, NO3-, NO2-, microbial biomass C and N and ergosterol were periodically measured over a time course of 16 days in a laboratory incubation experiment. In order to verify the immobilization of N derived from CZ into microbial biomass, the δ15N signature of microorganisms was evaluated by the Extraction-Fumigation-Extraction method followed by EA-IRMS analysis. This latter investigation was possible because zeolitites were enriched with NH4+ derived from pig-slurry, which have a very high 15N natural abundance that allow to trace microbial incorporation. Soil amended with 5 wt% of NZ showed increased ergosterol content as well as microbial C/N ratio starting from day 9 of incubation, suggesting that fungal biomass was probably favored, although the same behavior was not found in the soil amended with 15 wt% of the same material. On the other hand, the NH4+-enriched CZ showed strong interactions with soil microbial biomass N. Isotopic measurements supported microbial assimilation of the N introduced with CZ since the second day of incubation. The high dissolved organic C and microbial biomass N suggested an increase of mineralization and immobilization processes. In addition, in CZ amended soil, microbial biomass N was related to NO3- production over time and inversely related to NH4+, suggesting high

  14. Integration of sunflower (Helianthus annuus residues with a pre-plant herbicide enhances weed suppression in broad bean (Vicia faba Integração de resíduos de girassol (Helianthus annuus com herbicida pré-emergente na supressão de plantas daninhas na cultura da fava (Vicia faba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S Alsaadawi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Field trial was conducted with the aim of utilizing allelopathic crop residues to reduce the use of synthetic herbicides in broad bean (Vicia faba fields. Sunflower residue at 600 and 1,400 g m-2 and Treflan (trifluralin at 50, 75 and 100% of recommended dose were incorporated into the soil alone or in combination with each other. Untreated plots were maintained as a control. Herbicide application in plots amended with sunflower residue had the least total weed count and biomass, which was even better than herbicide used alone. Integration of recommended dose of Treflan with sunflower residue at 1,400 g m-² produced maximum (987.5 g m-2 aboveground biomass of broad bean, which was 74 and 36% higher than control and recommended herbicide dose applied alone, respectively. Combination of herbicide and sunflower residue appeared to better enhance pod number and yield per unit area than herbicide alone. Application of 50% dose of Treflan in plots amended with sunflower residue resulted in similar yield advantage as was noticed with 100% herbicide dose. Chromatographic analysis of residue-infested field soil indicated the presence of several phytotoxic compounds of phenolic nature. Periodic data revealed that maximum suppression in weed density and dry weight synchronized with peak values of phytotoxins observed 4 weeks after incorporation of sunflower residues. Integration of sunflower residues with lower herbicide rates can produce effective weed suppression without compromising yield as a feasible and environmentally sound approach in broad bean fields.O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de utilizar resíduos agrícolas com potencial alelopático para reduzir o uso de herbicidas sintéticos em fava (Vicia faba. Resíduos de girassol (600 e 1,400 g m-2 e Treflan (50, 75 e 100% da dose recomendada foram incorporados ao solo isoladamente ou em combinação uns com os outros. Parcelas não tratadas foram mantidas como controle. A aplicação de

  15. Enhancement of growth of Lentinus crinitus in soil using benomyl and vegetable oil Aumento do crescimento de Lentinus crinitus em solo usando benomil e óleo vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia M.G. Machado

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to identify alternatives for soil fumigation in bioremediation process, the addition of benomyl and vegetable oil on the growth of L. crinitus and mitosporic fungi were evaluated. Benomyl can be used as an alternative to methyl bromide. Addition of vegetable oil favors the growth of L. crinitus.Para identificar alternativas para a fumigação de solo em processos de biorremediação, foi avaliada a adição de benomil e de óleo vegetal no crescimento de Lentinus crinitus e fungos mitospóricos. Benomil pode ser usado como alternativa ao brometo de metila. A adição de óleo vegetal favoreceu o crescimento de L. crinitus.

  16. 45%苯醚·硫酰氟熏蒸剂现场灭蟑药效试验研究%Field test of the biological efficacy of the 45% mixed fumigant of sulfuryl fluoride with d-Cyphenothrin on cockroach control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄清臻; 贾瑞忠; 杨振洲; 李彦; 韩华; 石华; 孙成祥; 毛桂宜

    2012-01-01

    Objective To observe the killing efficacy of the 45% mixed fumigant of sulfuryl fluoride with d - Cyphenothrin on cockroaches. Methods The 45% mixed fumigant of sulfuryl fluoride with d - Cyphenothrin was applied at 10-20 g/m3 in the kitchen operating area of a hotel restaurant and the change in the cockroach density was observed. Results The cockroach mortality rate was 88.04%-100% within 6-72 h after application of the mixed fumigant at 10-20 g/m3, with an average decrease of 82.46%-98.53% in the cockroach density 72 hours after the application of the fumigant. Conclusion The 45% mixed fumigant of sulfuryl fluoride with d-Cyphenothrin can be used to kill cockroaches in confined spaces.%目的 观察45%苯醚·硫酰氟熏蒸剂现场熏蒸灭蟑效果.方法 选择宾馆餐厅的操作间施用45%苯醚·硫酰氟熏蒸剂10~20 g/m3,观察72 h蜚蠊密度变化.结果 45%苯醚·硫酰氟熏蒸剂现场使用10~20 g/m3时,标示性蜚蠊6~72 h死亡率为88.04%~100%,处理后72 h蜚蠊密度平均下降率为82.46%~98.53%.结论 45%苯醚·硫酰氟熏蒸剂可用于密闭场所灭蟑.

  17. N 2O emissions at municipal solid waste landfill sites: Effects of CH 4 emissions and cover soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Houhu; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming

    Municipal solid waste landfills are the significant anthropogenic sources of N 2O due to the cooxidation of ammonia by methane-oxidizing bacteria in cover soils. Such bacteria could be developed through CH 4 fumigation, as evidenced by both laboratory incubation and field measurement. During a 10-day incubation with leachate addition, the average N 2O fluxes in the soil samples, collected from the three selected landfill covers, were multiplied by 1.75 ( p landfill sites, N 2O fluxes in two landfill sites were significantly correlated with the variations of the CH 4 emissions without landfill gas recovery ( p landfill gas recovery in another landfill site ( p > 0.05). The annual average N 2O flux was 176 ± 566 μg N 2O-N m -2 h -1 ( p landfill site, which was 72% ( p landfill sites, respectively. The magnitude order of N 2O emissions in three landfill sites was also coincident by the results of laboratory incubation, suggesting the sandy soil cover could mitigate landfill N 2O emissions.

  18. Rhizosphere bacterial carbon turnover is higher in nucleic acids than membrane lipids: implications for understanding soil carbon cycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish A. Malik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Using a pulse-chase 13CO2 plant labeling experiment we compared the flow of plant carbon into macromolecular fractions of root-associated soil microorganisms. Time dependent 13C dilution patterns in microbial cellular fractions were used to calculate their turnover time. The turnover times of microbial biomolecules were found to vary: microbial RNA (19 h and DNA (30 h turned over fastest followed by chloroform fumigation extraction-derived soluble cell lysis products (14 d, while phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs had the slowest turnover (42 d. PLFA/NLFA 13C analyses suggest that both mutualistic arbuscular mycorrhizal and saprophytic fungi are dominant in initial plant carbon uptake. In contrast, high initial 13C enrichment in RNA hints at bacterial importance in initial C uptake due to the dominance of bacterial derived RNA in total extracts of soil RNA. To explain this discrepancy, we observed low renewal rate of bacterial lipids, which may therefore bias lipid fatty acid based interpretations of the role of bacteria in soil microbial food webs. Based on our findings, we question current assumptions regarding plant-microbe carbon flux and suggest that the rhizosphere bacterial contribution to plant assimilate uptake could be higher. This highlights the need for more detailed quantitative investigations with nucleic acid biomarkers to further validate these findings.

  19. Study on Soil Magnetic Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIYAN-LI; LIUXIAO-YI

    1995-01-01

    A study on the effect of applied magnetic field was performed with six types of soils collected from northeastern China.Magnetic field was found to cause changes of soil physico-chemical properties and soil enzyme activities.An appropriate applied magnetic field could cut down soil zeta-potential,soil specific surface,soil water potential and soil swelling capacity;raise the charge density on soil colloids and the activities of invertase,hydrogen peroxidase and amylase in the soils;enhance soil aggregation and improve soil structural status and soil water-releasing capability.

  20. 采用中药蒸汽浴治疗儿童痉挛型脑瘫疗效观察%Clinical observation for traditional chinese fumigating to spasticity of cerebral palsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤仲敏

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨采用中药蒸汽浴治疗痉挛型脑瘫患儿的临床疗效.方法 92例痉挛型脑瘫患儿在家长知情同意下,按数字表法随机分为治疗组和对照组各46例,对照组采用常规的功能训练和推拿治疗,治疗组在对照组的基础上加用中药蒸汽浴疗法,两组治疗均为3个疗程,应用改良Ashworth法进行肌张力评分,观察两组肌张力缓解的情况和临床疗效.结果 经过治疗3个疗程后,治疗组肌张力评分为(1.15±0.71)分,较对照组的(1.49±0.83)分差异有统计学意义(t=3.11,P<0.05);治疗组总有效率为86.96%,明显高于对照组的69.57%(x2=4.09,P<0.05).结论 中药蒸汽浴可明显降低痉挛型脑瘫患儿的肌张力,提高临床疗效.%Objective To explore the efficacy of traditional Chinese fumigating's treatment effect on infant's spasticity of cerebral palsy. Methods 92 patients with infant's spasticity of cerebral palsy were randomly divided into two groups: each group 46 patients. The control group received ordinary functional training and tuina therapies, and the treatment group except receiving functional training and tuina therapies ,they were given traditional Chinese fumigating additional,both groups were treated for 3 months. Results The muscular tension relieving extent in the treatment group is much better than that in the control group,and compared with the control group,there is significant statistical difference( t = 3. 11 ,P <0. 05) ;The overall efficacy was 86. 96% for the treatment group and 69. 57% for the control group. Between the two groups there were significant differences( x2 = 4. 09 ,P < 0. 05). Conclusion Traditional Chinese fumigating could obviously relieve the muscular tension and improve clinical efficacy, and had a good clinical prospect.