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Sample records for prepartum menthol cigarette

  1. Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In order to more fully understand why individuals smoke menthol cigarettes, it is important to understand the perceptions held by youth and adults regarding menthol cigarettes. Perceptions are driven by many factors, and one factor that can be important is marketing. This review seeks to examine what role, if any, the marketing of menthol cigarettes plays in the formation of consumer perceptions of menthol cigarettes. The available literature suggests that menthol cigarettes may be p...

  2. Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rising Joshua

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to more fully understand why individuals smoke menthol cigarettes, it is important to understand the perceptions held by youth and adults regarding menthol cigarettes. Perceptions are driven by many factors, and one factor that can be important is marketing. This review seeks to examine what role, if any, the marketing of menthol cigarettes plays in the formation of consumer perceptions of menthol cigarettes. The available literature suggests that menthol cigarettes may be perceived as safer choices than non-menthol cigarettes. Furthermore, there is significant overlap between menthol cigarette advertising campaigns and the perceptions of these products held by consumers. The marketing of menthol cigarettes has been higher in publications and venues whose target audiences are Blacks/African Americans. Finally, there appears to have been changes in cigarette menthol content over the past decade, which has been viewed by some researchers as an effort to attract different types of smokers.

  3. The lingering question of menthol in cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besaratinia, Ahmad; Tommasi, Stella

    2015-02-01

    Tobacco use is the single most important preventable cause of cancer-related deaths in the USA and many parts of the world. There is growing evidence that menthol cigarettes are starter tobacco products for children, adolescents, and young adults. Accumulating research also suggests that smoking menthol cigarettes reinforces nicotine dependence, impedes cessation, and promotes relapse. However, menthol cigarettes are exempt from the US Food and Drug Administration ban on flavored cigarettes due, in part, to the lack of empirical evidence describing the health consequences of smoking menthol cigarettes relative to regular cigarettes. Determining the biological effects of menthol cigarette smoke relative to regular cigarette smoke can clarify the health risks associated with the use of respective products and assist regulatory agencies in making scientifically based decisions on the development and evaluation of regulations on tobacco products to protect public health and to reduce tobacco use by minors. We highlight the inherent shortcomings of the conventional epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory research on menthol cigarettes that have contributed to the ongoing debate on the public health impact of menthol in cigarettes. In addition, we provide perspectives on how future investigations exploiting state-of-the-art biomarkers of exposure and disease states can help answer the lingering question of menthol in cigarettes.

  4. Marketing of Menthol Cigarettes and Consumer Perceptions: A White Paper

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Publicly available internal tobacco industry documents were analyzed to answer the following questions regarding menthol cigarette marketing and consumer perception: 1) Are/were menthol cigarettes marketed with health reassurance messages? 2) What other messages come from menthol cigarette advertising? 3) How do smokers view menthol cigarettes? 4) Were menthol cigarettes marketed to specific populations? More than 800 relevant documents were identified on 1) marketing menthol with health...

  5. Menthol Cigarettes, Time to First Cigarette, and Smoking Cessation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanders Edward

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present work is to determine if menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers differ with respect to time to first cigarette (TTFC and successful smoking cessation via a meta-analysis of published results. For 13 independent estimates, menthol smokers were slightly but statistically significantly more likely to exhibit TTFC ≤ 5 min (random-effects odds ratio (OR = 1.12; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.04–1.21, while 17 independent estimates provided a non-significant difference for TTFC ≤ 30 min (random-effects OR = 1.06; 95% CI, 0.96–1.16. For cessation studies, meta-analysis of 30 published estimates indicated a decreased likelihood for menthol cigarette smokers to quit (random-effects OR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80–0.96. There was no difference between cessation rates for Caucasian menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers, but the results support that African American menthol cigarette smokers find it more difficult to quit. Adjustment of cessation for socioeconomic status eliminated any statistically significant advantage for smoking cessation in non-menthol smokers. In conclusion, these results suggest that the observed differences in cessation rates between menthol and non-menthol cigarette smokers are likely explained by differences in socioeconomic status and also suggest that TTFC may not be a robust predictor of successful smoking cessation.

  6. Menthol cigarettes and smoking cessation behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Allison C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although much is known about smoking cessation behavior, the vast majority of research has not assessed menthol as an independent factor. The objective of this review is to assess the effects, if any, that use of menthol cigarettes has on smoking cessation success in adults and youth. A total of 20 articles are included in this review. Although some studies have found that menthol smokers have less success in quitting smoking, others fail to find significant differences between menthol and non-menthol smokers. Some clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of various cessation treatments have suggested that menthol smokers have poorer outcomes, however two secondary data analysis studies (which used the same original dataset failed to find any difference in success rate associated with particular treatments. Although there is some suggestion that smoking menthol cigarettes is associated with worse cessation outcomes, differences are not always found. However, if there was a difference, it was always in the direction of worse outcomes for menthol smokers. Given that Black/African American smokers prefer menthol cigarettes more than White smokers, possible interactions with race/ethnicity are discussed.

  7. Menthol Cigarettes and the Initiation of Smoking: A White Paper

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Publicly available internal tobacco industry documents were analyzed to answer the following questions regarding menthol cigarettes and the uptake of smoking by youth: 1) Does menthol make it easier for young or new/inexperienced smokers to start smoking cigarettes? 2) Do menthol smokers start smoking earlier than non-menthol smokers? Is there a higher use among youth who have been smoking for less than one year? 3) Did current smokers start smoking menthol cigarettes before switching to ...

  8. Custom mentholation of commercial cigarettes for research purposes

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    Ian C. MacGregor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the U.S. menthol remains the sole permitted characterizing cigarette flavor additive in part because efforts to link menthol cigarette use to increased tobacco-related disease risk have been inconclusive. To perform definitive studies, cigarettes that differ only in menthol content are required, yet these are not commercially available. We prepared research cigarettes differing only in menthol content by deposition of l-menthol vapor directly onto commercial nonmenthol cigarettes, and developed a method to measure a cigarette's menthol and nicotine content. With our custom-mentholation technique we achieved the desired moderately high menthol content (as compared to commercial brands of 6.7 ± 1.0 mg/g (n = 25 without perturbing the cigarettes’ nicotine content (17.7 ± 0.7 mg/g [n = 25]. We also characterized other pertinent attributes of our custom-mentholated cigarettes, including percent transmission of menthol and nicotine to mainstream smoke and the rate of loss of menthol over time during storage at room temperature. We are currently using this simple mentholation technique to investigate the differences in human exposure to selected chemicals in cigarette smoke due only to the presence of the added menthol. Our cigarettes will also aid in the elucidation of the effects of menthol on the toxicity of tobacco smoke.

  9. What would menthol smokers do if menthol in cigarettes were banned? Behavioral intentions and simulated demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard J; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carter, Lawrence P; Cummings, K Michael

    2012-07-01

      The US Food and Drug Administration must consider whether to ban the use of menthol in cigarettes. This study examines how current smokers might respond to such a ban on menthol cigarettes.   Convenience sample of adolescent and adult smokers recruited from an online survey panel.   United States, 2010.   A total of 471 adolescent and adult current cigarette smokers.   Respondents were asked a series of questions about how they might react if menthol cigarettes were banned. In addition, participants completed a simulation purchase task to estimate the demand for menthol and non-menthol cigarettes across a range of prices.   Overall, 36.1% of respondents said they always (18.9%) or usually (17.2%) smoked menthol cigarettes. When asked how they might respond to a ban on menthol cigarettes, 35% of current menthol smokers said they would stop smoking, and 25% said they would 'find a way to buy a menthol brand'. Those who reported they might quit tended to have greater current intentions to quit [odds ratio (OR) = 4.47], while those who reported that they might seek illicit menthol cigarettes were far less likely to report current intentions to quit (OR = 0.06). Estimates for demand elasticity for preferred cigarette type were similar for menthol (α = 0.0051) and non-menthol (α = 0.0049) smokers. Demand elasticity and peak consumption were related to usual cigarette type and cigarettes smoked per day, but did not appear to differ by race, gender or age.   Preliminary evidence suggests that a significant minority of smokers of menthol cigarettes in the United States would try to stop smoking altogether if such cigarettes were banned. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. Association between menthol cigarette smoking and current use of electronic cigarettes among us adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Agaku

    2017-05-01

    Current e-cigarette use was significantly higher among menthol than nonmenthol cigarette smokers. These findings underscore the importance of efforts to reduce all forms of tobacco product use, including e-cigarettes, among youth.

  11. The menthol smoker: tobacco industry research on consumer sensory perception of menthol cigarettes and its role in smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreslake, Jennifer M; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Connolly, Gregory N

    2008-04-01

    The use of menthol in cigarettes is actively promoted by the tobacco industry for its perceived sensory benefits, and smokers of menthol cigarettes commonly differ from nonmenthol smokers in markers of smoking behavior and addiction. In this study, we analyzed internal tobacco industry documents to describe the relationships between sensory perception and the attitudes, preferences, and patterns of cigarette use among menthol smokers. Two unique types of menthol smoker emerged from this analysis: those who cannot tolerate the harshness and irritation associated with smoking nonmenthol cigarettes, and those who seek out the specific menthol flavor and associated physical sensation. Among the first segment of menthol smokers, menthol reduces negative sensory characteristics associated with smoking. This segment of smokers may include a large proportion of occasional smokers or young people, as well as smokers who have "traded down" to a less strong cigarette because of perceived harshness or negative health effects. Some established menthol smokers, on the other hand, appear to be tolerant of and even actively seek stronger sensory attributes, including higher menthol levels. Smokers of these "stronger" menthols have traditionally been disproportionately Black and male. Some beginning or occasional smokers may adopt menthols for their mild properties and to cover up the taste of tobacco, but then develop a stronger desire for the menthol taste over time. Future research measuring smoking behavior and evaluating cessation outcomes of menthol smokers should consider the duration of menthol use and differentiate smokers according to their reasons for using menthols.

  12. Epidemiology of menthol cigarette use in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asman Katherine

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately one-fourth of all cigarettes sold in the United States have the descriptor “menthol” on the cigarette pack. It is important to determine what socio-demographic factors are associated with smoking menthol cigarettes if indeed these types of cigarettes are related to smoking initiation, higher exposure to smoke constituents, nicotine dependence, or reduced smoking cessation. Methods The National Cancer Institute (NCI conducted a review of the scientific literature on this topic which we completed by adding more recently published articles via PubMed. We also conducted further data analyses using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the National Youth Tobacco Survey, the Monitoring the Future Survey, and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to provide up-to-date information on this topic. Results Menthol cigarettes are disproportionately smoked by adolescents, blacks/African Americans, adult females, those living in the Northeast of the United States and those with family incomes lower than $50,000. Based on self-reports of menthol cigarette use, menthol cigarette use among smokers have increased from 2004 to 2008. However, no increase was observed during these years for predominantly menthol brands like Newport™, Kool,™ and Salem™, however, this lack of significant trend may be due, at least in part, due to smaller numbers of smokers of specific brands or sub-brands, which provide estimates which are less precise. Conclusion Menthol cigarettes are disproportionately smoked by groups of U.S. cigarette smokers. It is likely that other disparities in menthol cigarette use exist that we have not covered or have not been studied yet.

  13. Primary measures of dependence among menthol compared to non-menthol cigarette smokers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Geoffrey M; Sulsky, Sandra I; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Marano, Kristin M; Graves, Monica J; Ogden, Michael W; Swauger, James E

    2014-08-01

    Previously published studies provide somewhat inconsistent evidence on whether menthol in cigarettes is associated with increased dependence. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, National Health Interview Survey, and Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey collect data on current cigarette type preference and primary measures of dependence, and thus allow examination of whether menthol smokers are more dependent than non-menthol smokers. Analyses based on combined data from multiple administrations of each of these four nationally representative surveys, using three definitions for current smokers (i.e., smoked ⩾1day, ⩾10days and daily during the past month), consistently demonstrate that menthol smokers do not report smoking more cigarettes per day than non-menthol smokers. Moreover, two of the three surveys that provide data on time to first cigarette after waking indicate no difference in urgency to smoke among menthol compared to non-menthol smokers, while the third suggests menthol smokers may experience a greater urgency to smoke; estimates from all three surveys indicate that menthol versus non-menthol smokers do not report a higher Heaviness of Smoking Index. Collectively, these findings indicate no difference in dependence among U.S. smokers who use menthol compared to non-menthol cigarettes.

  14. 78 FR 44484 - Menthol in Cigarettes, Tobacco Products; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1140 Menthol in Cigarettes, Tobacco Products... rulemaking (ANPRM) to obtain information related to the potential regulation of menthol in cigarettes. FDA is... of menthol in cigarettes. The preliminary scientific evaluation indicates there is likely a...

  15. Slowing Menthol's Progress: Differential Impact of a Tobacco Tax Increase on Cigarette Sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Michael S; D'Silva, Joanne; Boyle, Raymond G

    2016-05-01

    The proportion of smokers who use menthol cigarettes has increased nationally since 2004, while use of non-menthol cigarettes is declining, suggesting that menthol may be undermining the effectiveness of population level tobacco control efforts. In 2013 Minnesota passed a $1.75 cigarette tax increase. We investigated whether sales of menthol and non-menthol cigarettes were differentially affected by the price increase. Cigarette sales data from convenience stores in the Minneapolis, Minnesota, metro area from January 2012, through May 2015, were obtained. Proportion of sales accounted for by menthol cigarettes was analyzed with segmented regression. Before the price increase, menthol cigarettes gained 2.21% (1.17, 3.12) of market share annually. Following the price increase, the trend slowed to 0.26% (-0.78, 1.56) annually. The slope before the price increase was significantly positive; the slope following the price increase did not significantly differ from zero. Sales of menthol cigarettes declined less rapidly than non-menthol cigarettes before the price increase. Sales of menthol and non-menthol cigarettes declined at more comparable rates after the price increase. Increasing the price of tobacco may help ensure declines in consumption are more evenly distributed across menthol and non-menthol cigarettes. Using sales data, we found that a trend of increasing market share for menthol cigarettes was significantly reduced by a $1.75 cigarette price increase. These results suggest that cigarette price increases, a core tobacco control policy, may have a greater effect on menthol smokers than non-menthol smokers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Marketing of menthol cigarettes and consumer perceptions: a review of tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey J

    2011-05-01

    To examine tobacco industry marketing of menthol cigarettes and to determine what the tobacco industry knew about consumer perceptions of menthol. A snowball sampling design was used to systematically search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (LTDL) (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) between 28 February and 27 April 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the LTDL, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results from the major US tobacco companies and affiliated organisations. A collection of 953 documents from the 1930s to the first decade of the 21st century relevant to 1 or more of the research questions were qualitatively analysed, as follows: (1) are/were menthol cigarettes marketed with health reassurance messages? (2) What other messages come from menthol cigarette advertising? (3) How do smokers view menthol cigarettes? (4) Were menthol cigarettes marketed to specific populations? Menthol cigarettes were marketed as, and are perceived by consumers to be, healthier than non-menthol cigarettes. Menthol cigarettes are also marketed to specific social and demographic groups, including African-Americans, young people and women, and are perceived by consumers to signal social group belonging. The tobacco industry knew consumers perceived menthol as healthier than non-menthol cigarettes, and this was the intent behind marketing. Marketing emphasising menthol attracts consumers who may not otherwise progress to regular smoking, including young, inexperienced users and those who find 'regular' cigarettes undesirable. Such marketing may also appeal to health-concerned smokers who might otherwise quit.

  17. Menthol cigarettes and the cardiovascular risks of people living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez-Burbano, María José; Vargas, Mayra; Quiros, Clery; Lewis, John E; Espinoza, Luis; Deshratan, Asthana

    2014-01-01

    The possibility that menthol cigarettes add to the deleterious cardiovascular effects of smoking has been barely discussed. Although cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are at the forefront of medical concerns of people living with HIV (PLWH), an important, yet unknown, issue for clinicians and public health authorities is whether use of menthol-flavored cigarettes heightens CVD risk factors. Our study aims to assess traditional (10-year risk using the Framingham Risk Model) and nontraditional CVD risk factors and to contrast the effects of menthol-flavored versus non-menthol-flavored cigarettes on these risk factors. Compared to controls, menthol smokers were twice as likely to have hypertension. Users of menthol-flavored cigarettes had higher body mass index values, and increased risk of abdominal obesity. Multivariate analyses indicated that menthol smokers doubled the odds of having moderate to high CVD risk. This finding is highly significant given the widespread use of menthol-flavored cigarettes, particularly among women, minorities, and PLWH.

  18. 78 FR 55671 - Menthol in Cigarettes, Tobacco Products; Request for Comments; Extension of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1140 Menthol in Cigarettes, Tobacco Products... regulatory actions that FDA might take with respect to menthol in cigarettes. The Agency is taking this... other information that may inform regulatory actions FDA might take with respect to menthol...

  19. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Michael A; Smith, Gregory J; Cichocki, Joseph A; Fan, Lu; Liu, Yi-Shiuan; Caceres, Ana I; Jordt, Sven Eric; Morris, John B

    2015-01-01

    Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone) and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8), the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may promote smoking

  20. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ha

    Full Text Available Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8, the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may

  1. Up-regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in menthol cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Arthur L; Mukhin, Alexey G; La Charite, Jaime; Ta, Karen; Farahi, Judah; Sugar, Catherine A; Mamoun, Michael S; Vellios, Evan; Archie, Meena; Kozman, Maggie; Phuong, Jonathan; Arlorio, Franca; Mandelkern, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    One-third of smokers primarily use menthol cigarettes and usage of these cigarettes leads to elevated serum nicotine levels and more difficulty quitting in standard treatment programmes. Previous brain imaging studies demonstrate that smoking (without regard to cigarette type) leads to up-regulation of β(2)*-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We sought to determine if menthol cigarette usage results in greater nAChR up-regulation than non-menthol cigarette usage. Altogether, 114 participants (22 menthol cigarette smokers, 41 non-menthol cigarette smokers and 51 non-smokers) underwent positron emission tomography scanning using the α(4)β(2)* nAChR radioligand 2-[(18)F]fluoro-A-85380 (2-FA). In comparing menthol to non-menthol cigarette smokers, an overall test of 2-FA total volume of distribution values revealed a significant between-group difference, resulting from menthol smokers having 9-28% higher α(4)β(2)* nAChR densities than non-menthol smokers across regions. In comparing the entire group of smokers to non-smokers, an overall test revealed a significant between-group difference, resulting from smokers having higher α(4)β(2)* nAChR levels in all regions studied (36-42%) other than thalamus (3%). Study results demonstrate that menthol smokers have greater up-regulation of nAChRs than non-menthol smokers. This difference is presumably related to higher nicotine exposure in menthol smokers, although other mechanisms for menthol influencing receptor density are possible. These results provide additional information about the severity of menthol cigarette use and may help explain why these smokers have more trouble quitting in standard treatment programmes.

  2. Mentholated cigarettes and smoking-related cancers revisited: an ecologic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabat, Geoffrey C; Shivappa, Nitin; Hébert, James R

    2012-06-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration is assessing whether menthol should be banned as an additive to cigarettes. An important part of this determination concerns the health effects of mentholated relative to non-mentholated cigarettes. We examined the ecologic association between sales of mentholated cigarettes for the period 1950-2007, menthol preference by race and sex, and incidence rates of four tobacco-related cancers during 1973-2007. Total sales of mentholated cigarettes (market share) increased from about 3% in 1950 to slightly less than 30% in 1980 and remained fairly stable thereafter. Additional data show consistently that, compared to White smokers, Black smokers favor mentholated cigarettes by roughly a 3-fold margin. Differences in the incidence of lung cancer, squamous cell cancer of the esophagus, oropharyngeal cancer, and laryngeal cancer by race and sex and trends over a 35-year period, during which menthol sales were relatively stable and during which Black smokers were much more likely to smoke mentholated cigarettes compared to Whites, are not consistent with a large contribution of menthol, over and above the effect of smoking per se. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Physiological, psychological, social, and cultural influences on the use of menthol cigarettes among Blacks and Hispanics.

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    Castro, Felipe González

    2004-02-01

    Patterns of menthol cigarette consumption among Blacks and Hispanics are likely a product of the interactive effects of several factors: the physiological and pharmacological sensory effects of menthol, the "cool" psychological identity of being menthol smokers, the promotional marketing of menthol cigarettes, and the cultural effects of health-related beliefs and subjective culture norms. This article presents two conceptual frameworks--a moderation logic model and a mediation logic model--for organizing the disparate literature on factors affecting the consumption of menthol cigarettes among Blacks and Hispanics. Three factor domains are examined as direct effect predictors of menthol cigarette smoking: (a) physiological and pharmacological, (b) psychological, and (c) social and environmental. In addition, a fourth domain of cultural variables is presented as a class of moderator or mediator variables that can interact with these physiological, psychological, and social factors as determinants of menthol cigarette use. These cultural variables are examined as mediating or moderating factors that influence the use of menthol cigarettes by Black and Hispanic consumers. Recommendations are offered for future research to further understand the influence of cultural and other factors as determinants of menthol cigarette smoking among Blacks and Hispanics.

  4. Menthol cigarette smoking and obesity in young adult daily smokers in Hawaii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa Marie M. Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates 1 the relationship between menthol cigarette smoking and obesity and 2 the association of body mass index with the nicotine metabolite ratio among menthol and non-menthol daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 175. A brief survey on smoking and measures of height and weight, carbon monoxide, and saliva samples were collected from participants from May to December 2013 in Honolulu, Hawaii. Multiple regression was used to estimate differences in body mass index among menthol and non-menthol smokers and the association of menthol smoking with obesity. We calculated the log of the nicotine metabolite ratio to examine differences in the nicotine metabolite ratio among normal, overweight, and obese smokers. Sixty-eight percent of smokers used menthol cigarettes. Results showed that 62% of normal, 54% of overweight, and 91% of obese smokers used menthol cigarettes (p = .000. The mean body mass index was significantly higher among menthol compared with non-menthol smokers (29.4 versus 24.5, p = .000. After controlling for gender, marital status, educational attainment, employment status, and race/ethnicity, menthol smokers were more than 3 times as likely as non-menthol smokers to be obese (p = .04. The nicotine metabolite ratio was significantly lower for overweight menthol smokers compared with non-menthol smokers (.16 versus .26, p = .02 in the unadjusted model, but was not significant after adjusting for the covariates. Consistent with prior studies, our data show that menthol smokers are more likely to be obese compared with non-menthol smokers. Future studies are needed to determine how flavored tobacco products influence obesity among smokers.

  5. Perceptions of Menthol Cigarettes Among Twitter Users: Content and Sentiment Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Catherine L; Binns, Steven; Buenger, Melissa; Emery, Sherry; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2017-01-01

    Background Menthol cigarettes are used disproportionately by African American, female, and adolescent smokers. Twitter is also used disproportionately by minority and younger populations, providing a unique window into conversations reflecting social norms, behavioral intentions, and sentiment toward menthol cigarettes. Objective Our purpose was to identify the content and frequency of conversations about menthol cigarettes, including themes, populations, user smoking status, other tobacco or substances, tweet characteristics, and sentiment. We also examined differences in menthol cigarette sentiment by prevalent categories, which allowed us to assess potential perceptions, misperceptions, and social norms about menthol cigarettes on Twitter. This approach can inform communication about these products, particularly to subgroups who are at risk for menthol cigarette use. Methods Through a combination of human and machine classification, we identified 94,627 menthol cigarette-relevant tweets from February 1, 2012 to January 31, 2013 (1 year) from over 47 million tobacco-related messages gathered prospectively from the Twitter Firehose of all public tweets and metadata. Then, 4 human coders evaluated a random sample of 7000 tweets for categories, including sentiment toward menthol cigarettes. Results We found that 47.98% (3194/6657) of tweets expressed positive sentiment, while 40.26% (2680/6657) were negative toward menthol cigarettes. The majority of tweets by likely smokers (2653/4038, 65.70%) expressed positive sentiment, while 91.2% (320/351) of nonsmokers and 71.7% (91/127) of former smokers indicated negative views. Positive views toward menthol cigarettes were predominant in tweets that discussed addiction or craving, marijuana, smoking, taste or sensation, song lyrics, and tobacco industry or marketing or tweets that were commercial in nature. Negative views toward menthol were more common in tweets about smoking cessation, health, African Americans, women

  6. Estimation of the Retention of Menthol in the Respiratory Tract of Menthol Cigarette Smokers: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Melissa Hagan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Le menthol a été mesuré dans des cigarettes, dans des préparations de fumée de cigarettes ainsi que dans le sang et l'urine de fumeurs, mais l'efficacité de rétention par le fumeur du menthol délivré dans la fumée n'a fait l'objet d'aucun rapport jusqu'à présent. Treize fumeurs ont participé à une étude destinée à déterminer l'efficacité de dépôt et de rétention du menthol de la fumée de cigarette dans les voies respiratoires lors du fumage de cigarettes mentholées. Le présent document décrit les résultats obtenus pendant la mesure des analytes dans la fumée de cigarette exhalée. Le solanésol, la nicotine et le menthol dans la fumée exhalée ont été collectés en utilisant une pompe assistée par dépression pendant la session de fumage, au cours de laquelle chaque participant a fumé trois cigarettes mentholées en l'espace d'une heure. Les analytes ont été quantifiés en utilisant une méthode de chromatographie en phase liquide à haute performance (CLHP pour le solanésol et une méthode de chromatographie en phase gazeuse avec détection par ionisation de flamme (CPG-DIF pour la nicotine et le menthol. Les mégots de cigarette ont été collectés après le fumage et comparés à ceux des cigarettes fumées par machine pour fournir une estimation des expositions au niveau de la bouche aux composants de la fumée pendant un fumage normal. Une moyenne de 93% du menthol, 97% de la nicotine et 64% du solanésol délivrés dans la fumée ont été retenus par les fumeurs d'une cigarette mentholée. Les résultats pour le solanésol et la nicotine dans cette étude concordaient avec des valeurs précédemment publiées pour des fumeurs de cigarettes non-mentholées. Les résultats obtenus dans cette étude confirment l'utilité générale de la technique d'exposition au niveau de la bouche pour évaluer les expositions des fumeurs aux composants du flux principal de la fumée et concordent avec un ensemble

  7. Measures of initiation and progression to increased smoking among current menthol compared to non-menthol cigarette smokers based on data from four U.S. government surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Geoffrey M; Sulsky, Sandra I; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Marano, Kristin M; Graves, Monica J; Ogden, Michael W; Swauger, James E

    2014-11-01

    There are no large-scale, carefully designed cohort studies that provide evidence on whether menthol cigarette use is associated with a differential risk of initiating and/or progressing to increased smoking. However, questions of whether current menthol cigarette smokers initiated smoking at a younger age or are more likely to have transitioned from non-daily to daily cigarette use compared to non-menthol smokers can be addressed using cross-sectional data from U.S. government surveys. Analyses of nationally representative samples of adult and youth smokers indicate that current menthol cigarette use is not associated with an earlier age of having initiated smoking or greater likelihood of being a daily versus non-daily smoker. Some surveys likewise provide information on cigarette type preference (menthol versus non-menthol) among youth at different stages or trajectories of smoking, based on number of days smoked during the past month and/or cigarettes smoked per day. Prevalence of menthol cigarette use does not appear to differ among new, less experienced youth smokers compared to established youth smokers. While there are limitations with regard to inferences that can be drawn from cross-sectional analyses, these data do not suggest any adverse effects for menthol cigarettes on measures of initiation and progression to increased smoking.

  8. The marketing of menthol cigarettes in the United States: populations, messages, and channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Charyn D; Robinson, Robert G

    2004-02-01

    This commentary looks at the marketing menthol cigarettes to various targeted populations--women, middle school youth and Asian/Pacific Islander immigrants as well as African Americans. The authors take the position that "ethnic awareness" as evidenced in the advertising of menthol cigarette brands to African Americans is just one of four distinct messages that tobacco marketers have used for what they have termed the "coolness" category. The other messages are: healthy/medicinal; fresh/refreshing/cool/clean/crisp; and youthfulness/silliness and fun. The commentary poses three questions: (a) Are new population segments being steered toward menthol cigarettes using marketing approaches that are similar to what has occurred with African Americans and women? (b) What exactly is the relationship between the marketing of menthol cigarettes and subsequent use of menthol tobacco products by specific population subgroups? (c) Are there lessons to be learned from the marketing of menthol cigarettes that can be used to improve the public health and medical communities' smoking cessation and tobacco use prevention communications efforts?

  9. Menthol cigarette pricing at military and community retail outlets in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poston Walker SC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette prices at military exchanges historically have been discounted. DoD Instruction 1330.9 has mandated that prices be within 5% of the price offered in the local community since 2001. Because minorities are highly represented in the military, we determined whether menthol cigarette prices, the leading choice of African Americans, were compliant with the instruction. Methods We collected, via telephone, menthol cigarette price data from 48 randomly selected US military installation exchanges and matched local area Walmarts. We collected prices after taxes to determine the cost to consumer. Newport was selected as the index brand for menthol cigarettes because it is the leading and second leading brand smoked by African Americans and by Hispanics, respectively and has the second overall highest market share in the US. Results Smokers purchasing menthols at exchanges would realize average savings of 22.78%. There were no significant differences in savings based on military service (F = 1.850, p = 0.152 or US Census Division (F = 1.226, p = 0.311: data not shown. In addition, not a single exchange price was compliant with the DoD instruction. Conclusions Newport menthol cigarettes at military exchanges cost substantially less than the nearest Walmart, with an average savings of 23%. Our findings demonstrate that menthol cigarettes are substantially discounted on military installations, in a manner similar to other cigarette prices, and that DoD Instruction 1330.09 is not enforced.

  10. The African Americanization of menthol cigarette use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Phillip S

    2004-02-01

    Today, over 70% of African American smokers prefer menthol cigarettes, compared with 30% of White smokers. This unique social phenomenon was principally occasioned by the tobacco industry's masterful manipulation of the burgeoning Black, urban, segregated, consumer market in the 1960s. Through the use of television and other advertising media, coupled with culturally tailored images and messages, the tobacco industry "African Americanized" menthol cigarettes. The tobacco industry successfully positioned mentholated products, especially Kool, as young, hip, new, and healthy. During the time that menthols were gaining a large market share in the African American community, the tobacco industry donated funds to African American organizations hoping to blunt the attack on their products. Many of the findings in this article are drawn from the tobacco industry documents disclosed following the Master Settlement Agreement in 1998. After a short review of the origins and growth of menthols, this article examines some key social factors that, when considered together, led to disproportionate use of mentholated cigarettes by African Americans compared with other Americans. Unfortunately, the long-term impact of the industry's practice in this community may be partly responsible for the disproportionately high tobacco-related disease and mortality among African Americans generally and African American males particularly.

  11. Evaluating the association between menthol cigarette use and the likelihood of being a former versus current smoker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulsky, Sandra I; Fuller, William G; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Ogden, Michael W; Swauger, James E; Curtin, Geoffrey M

    2014-10-01

    Menthol in cigarettes has been examined for its potential to affect smoking dependence, measured primarily as number of cigarettes smoked per day and time to first cigarette after waking; the ability to quit smoking constitutes an additional measure of dependence. Successful quitting among menthol compared to non-menthol cigarette smokers is difficult to determine from the literature, due in part to the various definitions of quitting used by researchers. Nevertheless, intervention and follow-up studies of smoking cessation treatments generally indicate no differences in quitting success among menthol compared to non-menthol smokers, while cross-sectional studies suggest some differences within race/ethnicity groups. The association between menthol cigarette use and likelihood of being a former versus current smoker was examined based on data from the National Health Interview Survey and Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. Analyses stratified by race/ethnicity and limited to smokers who had quit at least one year prior to survey participation provided inconsistent results with regard to menthol cigarette use and quitting, both within surveys (i.e., comparing race/ethnicity groups) and between surveys (i.e., same race/ethnicity group across surveys). Evidence suggesting the existence or direction of an association between menthol in cigarettes and quitting depended on the data source.

  12. Systematic review of the epidemiological evidence comparing lung cancer risk in smokers of mentholated and unmentholated cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Peter N

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background US mentholated cigarette sales have increased considerably over 50 years. Preference for mentholated cigarettes is markedly higher in Black people. While menthol itself is not genotoxic or carcinogenic, its acute respiratory effects might affect inhalation of cigarette smoke. This possibility seems consistent with the higher lung cancer risk in Black men, despite Black people smoking less and starting smoking later than White people. Despite experimental data suggesting similar carcinogenicity of mentholated and non-mentholated cigarettes, the lack of convincing evidence that mentholation increases puffing, inhalation or smoke uptake, and the similarity of lung cancer rates in Black and White females, a review of cigarette mentholation and lung cancer is timely given current regulatory interest in the topic. Methods Epidemiological studies comparing lung cancer risk in mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smokers were identified from MedLine and other sources. Study details were extracted and strengths and weaknesses assessed. Relative risk estimates were extracted, or derived, for ever mentholated use and for long-term use, overall and by gender, race, and current/ever smoking, and meta-analyses conducted. Results Eight generally good quality studies were identified, with valid cases and controls, and appropriate adjustment for age, gender, race and smoking. The studies afforded good power to detect possible effects. However, only one study presented results by histological type, none adjusted for occupation or diet, and some provided no results by length of mentholated cigarette use. The data do not suggest any effect of mentholation on lung cancer risk. Adjusted relative risk estimates for ever use vary from 0.81 to 1.12, giving a combined estimate of 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.84-1.02, n = 8, with no increase in males (1.01, 0.84-1.22, n = 5, females (0.80, 0.67-0.95, n = 5, White people (0.87, 0.75-1.03, n = 4

  13. Targeted advertising, promotion, and price for menthol cigarettes in California high school neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa; Schleicher, Nina C; Dauphinee, Amanda L; Fortmann, Stephen P

    2012-01-01

    To describe advertising, promotions, and pack prices for the leading brands of menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes near California high schools and to examine their associations with school and neighborhood demographics. In stores (n = 407) within walking distance (0.8 km [1/2 mile]) of California high schools (n = 91), trained observers counted ads for menthol and nonmenthol cigarettes and collected data about promotions and prices for Newport and Marlboro, the leading brand in each category. Multilevel modeling examined the proportion of all cigarette advertising for any menthol brand, the proportion of stores with sales promotions, and the lowest advertised pack price in relation to store types and school/neighborhood demographics. For each 10 percentage point increase in the proportion of Black students, the proportion of menthol advertising increased by 5.9 percentage points (e.g., from an average of 25.7%-31.6%), the odds of a Newport promotion were 50% higher (95% CI = 1.01, 2.22), and the cost of Newport was 12 cents lower (95% CI = -0.18, -0.06). By comparison, the odds of a promotion and the price for Marlboro, the leading brand of nonmenthol cigarettes, were unrelated to any school or neighborhood demographics. In high school neighborhoods, targeted advertising exposes Blacks to more promotions and lower prices for the leading brand of menthol cigarettes. This evidence contradicts the manufacturer's claims that the availability of its promotions is not based on race/ethnicity. It also highlights the need for tobacco control policies that would limit disparities in exposure to retail marketing for cigarettes.

  14. The Impact of Menthol Cigarettes on Smoking Initiation among Non-Smoking Young Females in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoneatsu Osaki

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Japan presents an excellent case-study of a nation with low female smoking rates and a negligible menthol market which changed after the cigarette market was opened to foreign competition. Internal tobacco industry documents demonstrate the intent of tobacco manufacturers to increase initiation among young females through development and marketing of menthol brands. Japanese menthol market share rose rapidly from less than 1% in 1980 to 20% in 2008. Menthol brand use was dominated by younger and female smokers, in contrast with non-menthol brands which were used primarily by male smokers. Nationally representative surveys confirm industry surveys of brand use and provide further evidence of the end results of the tobacco industry’s actions—increased female smoking in Japan. These findings suggest that female populations may be encouraged to initiate into smoking, particularly in developing nations or where female smoking rates remain low, if the tobacco industry can successfully tailor brands to them. The Japanese experience provides a warning to public health officials who wish to prevent smoking initiation among young females.

  15. The impact of menthol cigarettes on smoking initiation among non-smoking young females in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Gregory N; Behm, Ilan; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Wayne, Geoffrey F

    2011-01-01

    Japan presents an excellent case-study of a nation with low female smoking rates and a negligible menthol market which changed after the cigarette market was opened to foreign competition. Internal tobacco industry documents demonstrate the intent of tobacco manufacturers to increase initiation among young females through development and marketing of menthol brands. Japanese menthol market share rose rapidly from less than 1% in 1980 to 20% in 2008. Menthol brand use was dominated by younger and female smokers, in contrast with non-menthol brands which were used primarily by male smokers. Nationally representative surveys confirm industry surveys of brand use and provide further evidence of the end results of the tobacco industry's actions-increased female smoking in Japan. These findings suggest that female populations may be encouraged to initiate into smoking, particularly in developing nations or where female smoking rates remain low, if the tobacco industry can successfully tailor brands to them. The Japanese experience provides a warning to public health officials who wish to prevent smoking initiation among young females.

  16. Inflammatory Effects of Menthol vs. Non-menthol Cigarette Smoke Extract on Human Lung Epithelial Cells: A Double-Hit on TRPM8 by Reactive Oxygen Species and Menthol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzong-Shyuan Lee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Clinical studies suggest that smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who use menthol cigarettes may display more severe lung inflammation than those who smoke non-menthol cigarette. However, the mechanisms for this difference remain unclear. Menthol is a ligand of transient receptor potential melastatin-8 (TRPM8, a Ca2+-permeant channel sensitive to reactive oxygen species (ROS. We previously reported that exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs to non-menthol cigarette smoke extract (Non-M-CSE triggers a cascade of inflammatory signaling leading to IL-8 induction. In this study, we used this in vitro model to compare the inflammatory effects of menthol cigarette smoke extract (M-CSE and Non-M-CSE and delineate the mechanisms underlying the differences in their impacts. Compared with Non-M-CSE, M-CSE initially increased a similar level of extracellular ROS, suggesting the equivalent oxidant potency. However, M-CSE subsequently produced more remarkable elevations in intracellular Ca2+, activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB signaling, and IL-8 induction. The extracellular ROS responses to both CSE types were totally inhibited by N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC; a ROS scavenger. The intracellular Ca2+ responses to both CSE types were also totally prevented by NAC, AMTB (a TRPM8 antagonist, or EGTA (an extracellular Ca2+ chelator. The activation of the MAPK/NF-κB signaling and induction of IL-8 to both CSE types were suppressed to similar levels by NAC, AMTB, or EGTA. These results suggest that, in addition to ROS generated by both CSE types, the menthol in M-CSE may act as another stimulus to further activate TRPM8 and induce the observed responses. We also found that menthol combined with Non-M-CSE induced greater responses of intracellular Ca2+ and IL-8 compared with Non-M-CSE alone. Moreover, we confirmed the essential role of TRPM8 in these responses to Non-M-CSE or M-CSE and the

  17. 特色薄荷型卷烟纸的开发与应用%Manufacture of Menthol Cigarette Paper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄富; 刘斌; 王平军

    2012-01-01

    The menthol is easy to escape from mentholated cigarettes during production,transportation,storage and sale due to its strong volatility when the conventional manufacture process is used. In order to solve these problems the microcapsules of menthol were prepared. The results showed that the encapsulated menthol added to cigarette paper by printing techniques can upgrade the quality of mentholated cigarettes.%将分子囊化薄荷脑涂布于卷烟原纸上,制成特色薄荷型卷烟纸,并应用特色薄荷型卷烟纸卷制烟支.结果表明,与传统薄荷型卷烟的生产相比,采用特色薄荷型卷烟纸生产卷烟,减少了薄荷脑在贮存期间的挥发转移,且特色薄荷型卷烟的薛荷清凉感在抽吸期间不随口数的增加而减少,确保抽吸过程中口味始终如一,改善了薄荷型卷烟的品质,并解决了薄荷型卷烟生产中的环境污染和生产线串味问题.

  18. Patterns of menthol cigarette use among current smokers, overall and within demographic strata, based on data from four U.S. government surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtin, Geoffrey M; Sulsky, Sandra I; Van Landingham, Cynthia; Marano, Kristin M; Graves, Monica J; Ogden, Michael W; Swauger, James E

    2014-10-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, National Survey on Drug Use and Health, National Health Interview Survey and Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey provide estimates of the proportions of U.S. smokers who currently use menthol cigarettes, overall and within demographic strata. Among adult past-month, regular and daily smokers, menthol cigarette use ranges from 26% to 30%, with statistically higher proportions of female versus male smokers (8-11 percentage points higher) currently using menthol cigarettes. Compared to adult smokers overall, statistically higher proportions of non-Hispanic Black smokers (72-79%) and statistically lower proportions of non-Hispanic White smokers (19-22%) currently use menthol cigarettes, with no differences among smokers of other race/ethnicity groups (18-20% to 28-30%, depending on the survey). Higher proportions of younger adult past-month, regular and daily smokers (aged 18-25years) currently use menthol cigarettes compared to older adult smokers (aged 26-29years and/or ⩾30years); however, differences are small in magnitude, with the vast majority of adult smokers (70-75%) who currently use menthol cigarettes being aged ⩾30years. Comparisons between youth and adult smokers are provided, although data for youth smokers are less available and provide less consistent patterns of menthol cigarette use.

  19. Data on cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases among smokers of menthol and non-menthol cigarettes compiled from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, 1999–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Van Landingham

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This Data in Brief contains results from three different survey logistic regression models comparing risks of self-reported diagnoses of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases among smokers of menthol and non-menthol cigarettes. Analyses employ data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES cycles administered between 1999 and 2012, combined and in subsets. Raw data may be downloaded from the National Center for Health Statistics. Results were not much affected by which covariates were included in the models, but depended strongly on the NHANES cycles included in the analysis. All three models returned elevated risk estimates for three endpoints when they were run in individual NHANES cycles (congestive heart failure in 2001–02; hypertension in 2003–04; and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 2005–06, and all three models returned null results for these endpoints when data from 1999–2012 were combined.

  20. E-Cigs, Menthol & Dip

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smoke Quiz: How Bad is Secondhand Smoke? E-Cigs, Menthol & Dip What We Know About E-Cigarettes ... Smoke Quiz: How Bad is Secondhand Smoke? E-Cigs, Menthol & Dip What We Know About E-Cigarettes ...

  1. Menthol Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Your Life Decisions Mood Social Life Triggers LGBT Smoking Your Health Health Effects Secondhand Smoke Weight & ... See if you’re asking for help the right way. Learn More Quit your way Want to ...

  2. Evaluation of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2. Part 6: 90-day OECD 413 rat inhalation study with systems toxicology endpoints demonstrates reduced exposure effects of a mentholated version compared with mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Alberto; Lebrun, Stefan; Kogel, Ulrike; Ho, Jenny; Tan, Wei Teck; Titz, Bjoern; Leroy, Patrice; Vuillaume, Gregory; Bera, Monali; Martin, Florian; Rodrigo, Gregory; Esposito, Marco; Dempsey, Ruth; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick

    2016-11-30

    The toxicity of a mentholated version of the Tobacco Heating System (THS2.2M), a candidate modified risk tobacco product (MRTP), was characterized in a 90-day OECD inhalation study. Differential gene and protein expression analysis of nasal epithelium and lung tissue was also performed to record exposure effects at the molecular level. Rats were exposed to filtered air (sham), to THS2.2M (at 15, 23 and 50 μg nicotine/l), to two mentholated reference cigarettes (MRC) (at 23 μg nicotine/l), or to the 3R4F reference cigarette (at 23 μg nicotine/l). MRCs were designed to meet 3R4F specifications. Test atmosphere analyses demonstrated that aldehydes were reduced by 75%-90% and carbon monoxide by 98% in THS2.2M aerosol compared with MRC smoke; aerosol uptake was confirmed by carboxyhemoglobin and menthol concentrations in blood, and by the quantities of urinary nicotine metabolites. Systemic toxicity and alterations in the respiratory tract were significantly lower in THS2.2M-exposed rats compared with MRC and 3R4F. Pulmonary inflammation and the magnitude of the changes in gene and protein expression were also dramatically lower after THS2.2M exposure compared with MRCs and 3R4F. No menthol-related effects were observed after MRC mainstream smoke-exposure compared with 3R4F. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Menthol and non-menthol smoking: the impact of prices and smoke-free air laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauras, John A; Levy, David; Chaloupka, Frank J; Villanti, Andrea; Niaura, Raymond S; Vallone, Donna; Abrams, David B

    2010-12-01

    To examine the relationship between menthol and non-menthol prices and smoke-free air laws and the choice between menthol and non-menthol cigarettes among current smokers. Data were extracted from the nationally representative (USA) 2003 and 2006/07 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey. A total of 57,383 adult smokers (aged 18+) were examined. A regression model was used to estimate the probability of being a menthol smoker conditional on being a current smoker who had a distinct preference for either non-menthol or menthol cigarettes. Cigarette prices, smoke-free air laws and socio-economic and demographic characteristics were examined as covariates. The prices of menthol and non-menthol cigarettes were associated with the choice between menthol and non-menthol cigarettes. However, smokers did not find menthol and non-menthol cigarettes to be close substitutes for one another. Non-menthol cigarettes were found to be less of a substitute for menthol cigarettes than vice versa. Young adults and African Americans were less responsive to prices with respect to switching between menthol and non-menthol cigarettes than were older adults and non-African Americans, respectively. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is grappling with the issue of whether or not to ban menthol cigarettes. The findings from this study suggest that smokers do not find menthol and non-menthol cigarettes to be close substitutes. The strong preference for mentholated cigarettes may serve as a lever to reduce smoking prevalence when combined with increased access to effective cessation treatments. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  4. The influence of menthol, e-cigarettes and other tobacco products on young adults' self-reported changes in past year smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Villanti, Andrea C; Wackowski, Olivia A; Gundersen, Daniel A; Giovenco, Daniel P

    2016-09-01

    Progression to regular smoking often occurs during young adulthood. This study examines self-reported changes in past year smoking among young adults and the potential influence of tobacco products on these trajectories. Respondents to the 2011 National Young Adult Health Survey who smoked 100 cigarettes in their lifetime (n=909) described smoking behaviour at the time of the survey and 1 year prior. Cigarette smoking trajectories were categorised as: no change, quit, decreased smoking or increased smoking. Participants were also asked about current use of menthol cigarettes and other tobacco products (ie, cigars, smokeless tobacco, hookah) and ever use of e-cigarettes. Most young adults (73.1%) reported stable cigarette smoking behaviours, while 8.2% reported having quit, 5.8% reported that they smoke on fewer days, 5% progressed from someday to daily smoking and 8% increased from not at all to current smoking. The youngest smokers (18-20) had significantly higher odds (adjusted OR (AOR) =2.6) of increasing cigarette use over the past year compared to those aged 30-34, as did blacks versus whites (AOR=2.35). Menthol cigarette use nearly doubled (AOR=1.87) the odds of increased smoking behaviour. E-cigarette and other tobacco product (OTP) use were not associated with increasing smoking but OTP use was negatively associated with remaining quit from cigarettes. Young adulthood is a critical period for smoking interventions, particularly among those most vulnerable to increasing smoking behaviours (ie, black and younger young adults). Policy efforts to restrict menthol cigarettes may reduce young adult smoking progression. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Menthol: putting the pieces together

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Objective To integrate information on cigarette companies' understanding and use of menthol as summarised in published research based on previously internal tobacco industry documents with results from large population-based surveys of tobacco use and other independent sources. Data sources Papers published in this supplement of Tobacco Control, together with papers identified using PubMed searches. Results Tobacco companies shaped consumer perceptions of menthol cigarettes. Menthol is not ju...

  6. Evaluation of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2. Part 7: Systems toxicological assessment of a mentholated version revealed reduced cellular and molecular exposure effects compared with mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogel, Ulrike; Titz, Bjoern; Schlage, Walter K; Nury, Catherine; Martin, Florian; Oviedo, Alberto; Lebrun, Stefan; Elamin, Ashraf; Guedj, Emmanuel; Trivedi, Keyur; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia

    2016-11-30

    Modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) are being developed with the aim of reducing smoking-related health risks. The Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS2.2) is a candidate MRTP that uses the heat-not-burn principle. Here, systems toxicology approaches were engaged to assess the respiratory effects of mentholated THS2.2 (THS2.2M) in a 90-day rat inhalation study (OECD test guideline 413). The standard endpoints were complemented by transcriptomics and quantitative proteomics analyses of respiratory nasal epithelium and lung tissue and by lipidomics analysis of lung tissue. The adaptive response of the respiratory nasal epithelium to conventional cigarette smoke (CS) included squamous cell metaplasia and an inflammatory response, with high correspondence between the molecular and histopathological results. In contrast to CS exposure, the adaptive tissue and molecular changes to THS2.2M aerosol exposure were much weaker and were limited mostly to the highest THS2.2M concentration in female rats. In the lung, CS exposure induced an inflammatory response, triggered cellular stress responses, and affected sphingolipid metabolism. These responses were not observed or were much lower after THS2.2M aerosol exposure. Overall, this system toxicology analysis complements and reconfirms the results from classical toxicological endpoints and further suggests potentially reduced health risks of THS2.2M. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Sensory properties of menthol and smoking topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoffman Allison C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although there is a great deal known about menthol as a flavoring agent in foods and confections, less is known about the particular sensory properties of menthol cigarette smoke. Similarly, although smoking topography (the unique way an individual smokes a cigarette has been well studied using non-menthol cigarettes, there is relatively less known about how menthol affects smoking behavior. The objective of this review is to assess the sensory properties of menthol tobacco smoke, and smoking topography associated with menthol cigarettes. The cooling, analgesic, taste, and respiratory effects of menthol are well established, and studies have indicated that menthol’s sensory attributes can have an influence on the positive, or rewarding, properties associated smoking, including ratings of satisfaction, taste, perceived smoothness, and perceived irritation. Despite these sensory properties, the data regarding menthol’s effect on smoking topography are inconsistent. Many of the topography studies have limitations due to various methodological issues.

  8. Menthol poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menthol is used to add peppermint flavor to candy and other products. It is also used in certain skin lotions and ointments. This article discusses menthol poisoning from swallowing pure menthol. This article is ...

  9. Menthol suppresses laryngeal C-fiber hypersensitivity to cigarette smoke in a rat model of gastroesophageal reflux disease: the role of TRPM8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bi-Yu; Lin, Yu-Jung; Lee, Hung-Fu; Ho, Ching-Yin; Ruan, Ting; Kou, Yu Ru

    2015-03-01

    Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) display enhanced laryngeal reflex reactivity to stimuli that may be due to sensitization of the laryngeal C-fibers by acid and pepsin. Menthol, a ligand of transient receptor potential melastatin-8 (TRPM8), relieves throat irritation. However, the possibility that GERD induces laryngeal C-fiber hypersensitivity to cigarette smoke (CS) and that menthol suppresses this event has not been investigated. We delivered CS into functionally isolated larynxes of 160 anesthetized rats. Laryngeal pH 5-pepsin treatment, but not pH 5-denatured pepsin, augmented the apneic response to CS, which was blocked by denervation or perineural capsaicin treatment (a procedure that blocks the conduction of C fibers) of the superior laryngeal nerves. This augmented apnea was partially attenuated by capsazepine [an transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonist], SB-366791 (a TRPV1 antagonist), and HC030031 [a transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) antagonist] and was completely prevented by a combination of TRPV1 and TRPA1 antagonists. Local application of menthol significantly suppressed the augmented apnea and this effect was reversed by pretreatment with AMTB (a TRPM8 antagonist). Our electrophysiological studies consistently revealed that laryngeal pH 5-pepsin treatment increased the sensitivity of laryngeal C-fibers to CS. Likewise, menthol suppressed this laryngeal C-fiber hypersensitivity and its effect could be reversed by pretreatment with AMTB. Our results suggest that laryngeal pH 5-pepsin treatment increases sensitivity to CS of both TRPV1 and TRPA1, which are presumably located at the terminals of laryngeal C-fibers. This sensory sensitization leads to enhanced laryngeal reflex reactivity and augmentation of the laryngeal C-fiber responses to CS, which can be suppressed by menthol acting via TRPM8.

  10. Predictors, indicators, and validated measures of dependence in menthol smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Muhammad-Kah, Raheema; Rimmer, Lonnie; Liang, Qiwei

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive review of the menthol cigarette dependence-related literature and results from an original analysis of the Total Exposure Study (TES), which included 1,100 menthol and 2,400 nonmenthol adult smokers. The substantial scientific evidence available related to age of first cigarette, age of regular use, single-item dependence indicators (smoking frequency, cigarettes per day, time to first cigarette, night waking to smoke), smoking duration, numerous validated and widely accepted measures of nicotine/cigarette dependence, and our analysis of the TES do not support that menthol smokers are more dependent than nonmenthol smokers or that menthol increases dependence.

  11. How Menthol Alters Tobacco-Smoking Behavior: A Biological Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, R J

    2015-09-01

    Mentholated cigarettes gained popularity in the 1950s and were often marketed as "healthy" cigarettes, attributable to their pleasurable mint flavor and cooling sensation in the mouth, lungs, and throat. While it is clear that nicotine is the primary psychoactive component in tobacco cigarettes, recent work has suggested that menthol may also play a role in exacerbating smoking behavior, despite original health claims. Recent evidence highlights four distinct biological mechanisms that can alter smoking behavior: 1) menthol acts to reduce the initially aversive experiences associated with tobacco smoking; 2) menthol can serve as a highly reinforcing sensory cue when associated with nicotine and promote smoking behavior; 3) menthol's actions on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors may change the reinforcing value of nicotine; and 4) menthol can alter nicotine metabolism, thus increasing nicotine bioavailability. The purpose of this review is to highlight and evaluate potential biological mechanisms by which menthol can alter smoking behavior.

  12. A cross-sectional study on tobacco use and dependence among women: Does menthol matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenbloom Judith

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The question of whether mentholation of cigarettes enhances tobacco dependence has generated conflicting findings. Potential mediating factors in a putative relationship between menthol use and tobacco dependence may include race and gender. While an association between menthol use and dependence is mixed, research on the role of race solely among women smokers is scarce. This study examined whether women menthol smokers have higher tobacco use and dependence than non-menthol smokers. Further, the study investigated differences between White and African American smokers. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 928 women seeking tobacco dependence treatment in Boston, Massachusetts. Measures obtained included preferred brand and menthol content, dependence markers (cigarettes per day (CPD; time to first cigarette in the morning; number of and longest previous quit attempts and smoking history (age of initiation; years smoking; menthol or non-menthol cigarette preference. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to detect interactions between menthol preference by race for continuous variables, and Pearson’s chi-squared test was used for analyses with dichotomous variables. Results A greater proportion of menthol smokers smoked their first cigarette within five minutes of waking (p Conclusions Women menthol smokers showed signs of greater tobacco dependence than non-menthol smokers. African Americans smoked fewer CPD but nevertheless had evidence of greater dependence.

  13. 75 FR 52008 - Menthol Report Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Menthol Report Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Menthol Report Subcommittee of... Secretary of Health and Human Services regarding the impact of use of menthol in cigarettes on the...

  14. Menthol: a simple monoterpene with remarkable biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamatou, Guy P P; Vermaak, Ilze; Viljoen, Alvaro M; Lawrence, Brian M

    2013-12-01

    Menthol is a cyclic monoterpene alcohol which possesses well-known cooling characteristics and a residual minty smell of the oil remnants from which it was obtained. Because of these attributes it is one of the most important flavouring additives besides vanilla and citrus. Due to this reason it is used in a variety of consumer products ranging from confections such as chocolate and chewing gum to oral-care products such as toothpaste as well as in over-the-counter medicinal products for its cooling and biological effects. Its cooling effects are not exclusive to medicinal use. Approximately one quarter of the cigarettes on the market contain menthol and small amounts of menthol are even included in non-mentholated cigarettes. Natural menthol is isolated exclusively from Mentha canadensis, but can also be synthesised on industrial scale through various processes. Although menthol exists in eight stereoisomeric forms, (-)-menthol from the natural source and synthesised menthol with the same structure is the most preferred isomer. The demand for menthol is high and it was previously estimated that the worldwide use of menthol was 30-32,000 metric tonnes per annum. Menthol is not a predominant compound of the essential oils as it can only be found as a constituent of a limited number of aromatic plants. These plants are known to exhibit biological activity in vitro and in vivo such as antibacterial, antifungal, antipruritic, anticancer and analgesic effects, and are also an effective fumigant. In addition, menthol is one of the most effective terpenes used to enhance the dermal penetration of pharmaceuticals. This review summarises the chemical and biological properties of menthol and highlights its cooling effects and toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Menthol binding and inhibition of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoor, Abrar; Nordman, Jacob C; Veltri, Daniel; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Al Kury, Lina; Shuba, Yaroslav; Mahgoub, Mohamed; Howarth, Frank C; Sadek, Bassem; Shehu, Amarda; Kabbani, Nadine; Oz, Murat

    2013-01-01

    Menthol is a common compound in pharmaceutical and commercial products and a popular additive to cigarettes. The molecular targets of menthol remain poorly defined. In this study we show an effect of menthol on the α7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor function. Using a two-electrode voltage-clamp technique, menthol was found to reversibly inhibit α7-nACh receptors heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Inhibition by menthol was not dependent on the membrane potential and did not involve endogenous Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) channels, since menthol inhibition remained unchanged by intracellular injection of the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA and perfusion with Ca(2+)-free bathing solution containing Ba(2+). Furthermore, increasing ACh concentrations did not reverse menthol inhibition and the specific binding of [(125)I] α-bungarotoxin was not attenuated by menthol. Studies of α7- nACh receptors endogenously expressed in neural cells demonstrate that menthol attenuates α7 mediated Ca(2+) transients in the cell body and neurite. In conclusion, our results suggest that menthol inhibits α7-nACh receptors in a noncompetitive manner.

  16. Menthol binding and inhibition of α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrar Ashoor

    Full Text Available Menthol is a common compound in pharmaceutical and commercial products and a popular additive to cigarettes. The molecular targets of menthol remain poorly defined. In this study we show an effect of menthol on the α7 subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh receptor function. Using a two-electrode voltage-clamp technique, menthol was found to reversibly inhibit α7-nACh receptors heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Inhibition by menthol was not dependent on the membrane potential and did not involve endogenous Ca(2+-dependent Cl(- channels, since menthol inhibition remained unchanged by intracellular injection of the Ca(2+ chelator BAPTA and perfusion with Ca(2+-free bathing solution containing Ba(2+. Furthermore, increasing ACh concentrations did not reverse menthol inhibition and the specific binding of [(125I] α-bungarotoxin was not attenuated by menthol. Studies of α7- nACh receptors endogenously expressed in neural cells demonstrate that menthol attenuates α7 mediated Ca(2+ transients in the cell body and neurite. In conclusion, our results suggest that menthol inhibits α7-nACh receptors in a noncompetitive manner.

  17. Activation of the cold-receptor TRPM8 by low levels of menthol in tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschke, Meike; Tkachenko, Anna; Ackermann, Katja; Hutzler, Christoph; Henkler, Frank; Luch, Andreas

    2017-04-05

    Activation of the cold-receptor TRPM8 by menthol or other tobacco additives can suppress natural defense reactions such as coughing that usually would become effective as involuntary resistance against the inhalation of fumes. In Europe menthol is only regulated as flavor, but can be used as additive as long as no characteristic mint-like aroma will become noticeable in the end-product tobacco. The question needs to be addressed of whether such comparatively minor contents would be sufficient to trigger a measurable activation of TRPM8. In this study, we have analyzed both the contents of menthol and other natural TRPM8 agonists in tobacco products and developed a bioassay to determine the minimum concentrations of selected agonists to activate the TRPM8 receptor in cultured cells. The data confirm menthol as strongest natural agonist investigated. Based on these experiments and previously published data, we have estimated both the minimum menthol concentrations in cigarette smoke and in tobacco that are expected to trigger measurable physiological effects. According to our assessments, TRPM8 activation is likely to occur when cigarettes contain more than 50 micrograms of menthol. Importantly, menthol contents in cigarettes far below the typical levels that require declaration as "mentholated" would be sufficient to activate sensory receptors. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Menthol facilitates the intravenous self-administration of nicotine in rats

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    Tengfei eWang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Menthol is preferred by approximately 25% of smokers and is the most common flavoring additive in tobacco and electronic cigarettes. Although some clinical studies have suggested that menthol facilitates the initiation of smoking and enhances the dependence on nicotine, many controversies remain. Using licking as the operant behavior, we found that adolescent rats self-administering nicotine (30 μg/kg/infusion, free base, i.v. with contingent oral menthol (60 μl, 0.01% w/v obtained significantly more infusions than rats receiving a vehicle cue or rats self-administering i.v. saline with a menthol cue. Rats yoked to their menthol-nicotine masters emitted significantly fewer licks on the active spouts, indicating that contingent pairing between nicotine and menthol is required for sustained nicotine intake. Rats that self-administered nicotine with a menthol cue also exhibited a long-lasting extinction burst and robust reinstatement behavior, neither of which were observed in rats that self-administered saline with a menthol cue. The cooling sensation of menthol is induced by activating the transient receptor potential M8 (TRPM8 channel. When WS-23, an odorless agonist of the TRPM8 channel, was used as a contingent cue for nicotine, the rats obtained a similar number of nicotine infusions as the rats that were provided a menthol cue and exhibited a strong preference for the active spout. In contrast, highly appetitive taste and odor cues failed to support nicotine self-administration. These data indicated that menthol, likely by inducing a cooling sensation, becomes a potent conditioned reinforcer when it is contingently delivered with nicotine. Together, these results provide a key behavioral mechanism by which menthol promotes the use of tobacco products or electronic cigarettes.

  19. Effects of Menthol on Nicotine Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacology and Dependence in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakir D Alsharari

    Full Text Available Although menthol, a common flavoring additive to cigarettes, has been found to impact the addictive properties of nicotine cigarettes in smokers little is known about its pharmacological and molecular actions in the brain. Studies were undertaken to examine whether the systemic administration of menthol would modulate nicotine pharmacokinetics, acute pharmacological effects (antinociception and hypothermia and withdrawal in male ICR mice. In addition, we examined changes in the brain levels of nicotinic receptors of rodents exposed to nicotine and menthol. Administration of i.p. menthol significantly decreased nicotine's clearance (2-fold decrease and increased its AUC compared to i.p. vehicle treatment. In addition, menthol pretreatment prolonged the duration of nicotine-induced antinociception and hypothermia (2.5 mg/kg, s.c. for periods up to 180 min post-nicotine administration. Repeated administration of menthol with nicotine increased the intensity of mecamylamine-precipitated withdrawal signs in mice exposed chronically to nicotine. The potentiation of withdrawal intensity by menthol was accompanied by a significant increase in nicotine plasma levels in these mice. Western blot analyses of α4 and β2 nAChR subunit expression suggests that chronic menthol impacts the levels and distribution of these nicotinic subunits in various brain regions. In particular, co-administration of menthol and nicotine appears to promote significant increase in β2 and α4 nAChR subunit expression in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and striatum of mice. Surprisingly, chronic injections of menthol alone to mice caused an upregulation of β2 and α4 nAChR subunit levels in these brain regions. Because the addition of menthol to tobacco products has been suggested to augment their addictive potential, the current findings reveal several new pharmacological molecular adaptations that may contribute to its unique addictive profile.

  20. Effects of Menthol on Nicotine Pharmacokinetic, Pharmacology and Dependence in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsharari, Shakir D; King, Justin R; Nordman, Jacob C; Muldoon, Pretal P; Jackson, Asti; Zhu, Andy Z X; Tyndale, Rachel F; Kabbani, Nadine; Damaj, M Imad

    2015-01-01

    Although menthol, a common flavoring additive to cigarettes, has been found to impact the addictive properties of nicotine cigarettes in smokers little is known about its pharmacological and molecular actions in the brain. Studies were undertaken to examine whether the systemic administration of menthol would modulate nicotine pharmacokinetics, acute pharmacological effects (antinociception and hypothermia) and withdrawal in male ICR mice. In addition, we examined changes in the brain levels of nicotinic receptors of rodents exposed to nicotine and menthol. Administration of i.p. menthol significantly decreased nicotine's clearance (2-fold decrease) and increased its AUC compared to i.p. vehicle treatment. In addition, menthol pretreatment prolonged the duration of nicotine-induced antinociception and hypothermia (2.5 mg/kg, s.c.) for periods up to 180 min post-nicotine administration. Repeated administration of menthol with nicotine increased the intensity of mecamylamine-precipitated withdrawal signs in mice exposed chronically to nicotine. The potentiation of withdrawal intensity by menthol was accompanied by a significant increase in nicotine plasma levels in these mice. Western blot analyses of α4 and β2 nAChR subunit expression suggests that chronic menthol impacts the levels and distribution of these nicotinic subunits in various brain regions. In particular, co-administration of menthol and nicotine appears to promote significant increase in β2 and α4 nAChR subunit expression in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and striatum of mice. Surprisingly, chronic injections of menthol alone to mice caused an upregulation of β2 and α4 nAChR subunit levels in these brain regions. Because the addition of menthol to tobacco products has been suggested to augment their addictive potential, the current findings reveal several new pharmacological molecular adaptations that may contribute to its unique addictive profile.

  1. Menthol disrupts nicotine's psychostimulant properties in an age and sex-dependent manner in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fait, Benjamin W; Thompson, David C; Mose, Tenna N; Jatlow, Peter; Jordt, Sven E; Picciotto, Marina R; Mineur, Yann S

    2017-09-15

    Menthol is a commonly used flavorant in tobacco and e-cigarettes, and could contribute to nicotine sensitivity. To understand how menthol could contribute to nicotine intake and addiction, it is important to determine whether specific mechanisms related to sex and age could underlie behavioral changes induced by menthol-laced nicotinic products. Using a validated paradigm of nicotine-dependent locomotor stimulation, adolescent and adult C57BL/6J mice of both sexes were exposed to nicotine, or nicotine laced with menthol, as their sole source of fluid, and psychostimulant effects were evaluated by recording home cage locomotor activity for ten days. Nicotine and cotinine blood levels were measured following exposure. Results show an interaction between treatment, age, and sex on liquid consumption, indicating that mice responded differently to menthol and nicotine based on their age and sex. Adult male mice greatly increased their nicotine intake when given menthol. In female mice of both age groups, menthol did not have this effect. Despite an increase in nicotine intake promoted by menthol, adult male mice showed a significant decrease in locomotion, suggesting that menthol blunted nicotine-induced psychostimulation. This behavioral response to menthol was not detected in adolescent mice of either sex. These data confirm that menthol is more than a flavorant, and can influence both nicotine intake and its psychostimulant effects. These results suggest that age- and sex-dependent mechanisms could underlie menthol's influence on nicotine intake and that studies including adolescent and adult menthol smokers of both sexes are warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Menthol Enhances the Desensitization of Human α3β4 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ton, Hoai T; Smart, Amanda E; Aguilar, Brittany L; Olson, Thao T; Kellar, Kenneth J; Ahern, Gerard P

    2015-08-01

    The α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype is widely expressed in the peripheral and central nervous systems, including in airway sensory nerves. The nAChR subtype transduces the irritant effects of nicotine in tobacco smoke and, in certain brain areas, may be involved in nicotine addiction and/or withdrawal. Menthol, a widely used additive in cigarettes, is a potential analgesic and/or counterirritant at sensory nerves and may also influence nicotine's actions in the brain. We examined menthol's effects on recombinant human α3β4 nAChRs and native nAChRs in mouse sensory neurons. Menthol markedly decreased nAChR activity as assessed by Ca(2+) imaging, (86)Rb(+) efflux, and voltage-clamp measurements. Coapplication of menthol with acetylcholine or nicotine increased desensitization, demonstrated by an increase in the rate and magnitude of the current decay and a reduction of the current integral. These effects increased with agonist concentration. Pretreatment with menthol followed by its washout did not affect agonist-induced desensitization, suggesting that menthol must be present during the application of agonist to augment desensitization. Notably, menthol acted in a voltage-independent manner and reduced the mean open time of single channels without affecting their conductance, arguing against a simple channel-blocking effect. Further, menthol slowed or prevented the recovery of nAChRs from desensitization, indicating that it probably stabilizes a desensitized state. Moreover, menthol at concentrations up to 1 mM did not compete for the orthosteric nAChR binding site labeled by [(3)H]epibatidine. Taken together, these data indicate that menthol promotes desensitization of α3β4 nAChRs by an allosteric action.

  3. Exploring Cigarette Use among Male Migrant Workers in Nigeria

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    Olanrewaju Olusola Onigbogi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background There is limited knowledge about the use of cigarettes by blacks outside the United States (U.S. Nigeria creates an opportunity to explore smoking behaviours, smoking cessation (nicotine dependence and use of cigarettes in a country that has a large black population outside the U.S. Methods We conducted three Focus Group Discussions (FGDs involving twenty-four male migrant workers who reported that they were current cigarette smokers. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. Results Four major themes namely: reasons for initiating and continuing to smoke cigarettes, factors affecting brand choice, barriers to quitting, effect of smoking mentholated cigarette brands were identified. Conclusion This study provides insight into the use of mentholated and non-mentholated cigarettes and suggests the need for further studies to explore smoking behavior among Nigerians.

  4. Metabonomic study of rats exposed to cigarette sidestream smoke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAN Wen-liu; SHI Xian-zhe; LUO Jia; REN Feng-lian

    2016-01-01

    A metabonomic approach was undertaken in order to detect urinary endogenous and exogenous metabolites and to evaluate the effects of passive exposure to cigarette sidestream smoke on rats. Urinary samples from three groups of rats were determined including control rats, rats treated with blended cigarettes (nonmenthol cigarettes) and rats treated with menthol cigarettes. The total urinary 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), total 1-hydroxypyrene (1-HOP) and 3-hydroxybenzo[a] pyrene (3-HOBaP) were determined for assessing exposure to cigarette sidestream smoke toxins. Urinary endogenous metabolites in the three groups of rats were also analyzed and the data were processed by chemometrics. Eleven endogenous metabolites were found and identified. Their relative levels were compared among the three groups. The results show that cigarette sidestream smoke has complex effect on rats. Blended cigarette group makes difference to menthol cigarette group in the rats' urinary metabolic changes. Menthol adding to cigarettes has positive and negative effects on rats, respectively. The urinary metabolic profiling of menthol cigarette group is closer to that of control group.

  5. Do increases in cigarette prices lead to increases in sales of cigarettes with high tar and nicotine yields?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Matthew C; Loomis, Brett R; Mann, Nathan H

    2007-10-01

    We used scanner data on cigarette prices and sales collected from supermarkets across the United States from 1994 to 2004 to test the hypothesis that cigarette prices are positively correlated with sales of cigarettes with higher tar and nicotine content. During this period the average inflation-adjusted price for menthol cigarettes increased 55.8%. Price elasticities from multivariate regression models suggest that this price increase led to an increase of 1.73% in sales-weighted average tar yields and a 1.28% increase in sales-weighted average nicotine yields for menthol cigarettes. The 50.5% price increase of nonmenthol varieties over the same period yielded an estimated increase of 1% in tar per cigarette but no statistically significant increase in nicotine yields. An ordered probit model of the impact of cigarette prices on cigarette strength (ultra-light, light, full flavor, unfiltered) offers an explanation: As cigarette prices increase, the probability that stronger cigarette types will be sold increases. This effect is larger for menthol than for nonmenthol cigarettes. Our results are consistent with earlier population-based cross-sectional and longitudinal studies showing that higher cigarette prices and taxes are associated with increasing consumption of higher-yield cigarettes by smokers.

  6. Cellular and Molecular Targets of Menthol Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Oz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Menthol belongs to monoterpene class of a structurally diverse group of phytochemicals found in plant-derived essential oils. Menthol is widely used in pharmaceuticals, confectionary, oral hygiene products, pesticides, cosmetics, and as a flavoring agent. In addition, menthol is known to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic effects. Recently, there has been renewed awareness in comprehending the biological and pharmacological effects of menthol. TRP channels have been demonstrated to mediate the cooling actions of menthol. There has been new evidence demonstrating that menthol can significantly influence the functional characteristics of a number of different kinds of ligand and voltage-gated ion channels, indicating that at least some of the biological and pharmacological effects of menthol can be mediated by alterations in cellular excitability. In this article, we examine the results of earlier studies on the actions of menthol with voltage and ligand-gated ion channels.

  7. Menthol Toxicity: An Unusual Cause of Coma

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) consider menthol an effective substance, which help in common cold symptoms and labeled to have low toxicity profile. Direct exposure to high menthol amount has been reported in animal; but no studies have been done to show the effect of menthol on long-term use in humans. Up to our knowledge we are reporting a rare case of chronic exposure to significant amount of menthol associated with cutaneous, gastrointestinal and neurological manifestations.

  8. Why We Must Continue to Investigate Menthol's Role in the African American Smoking Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Linda A; Trinidad, Dennis R; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn K; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Clanton, Mark S; Moolchan, Eric T; Fagan, Pebbles

    2016-04-01

    The disproportionate burden of tobacco use among African Americans is largely unexplained. The unexplained disparities, referred to as the African American smoking paradox, includes several phenomena. Despite their social disadvantage, African American youth have lower smoking prevalence rates, initiate smoking at older ages, and during adulthood, smoking rates are comparable to whites. Smoking frequency and intensity among African American youth and adults are lower compared to whites and American Indian and Alaska Natives, but tobacco-caused morbidity and mortality rates are disproportionately higher. Disease prediction models have not explained disease causal pathways in African Americans. It has been hypothesized that menthol cigarette smoking, which is disproportionately high among African Americans, may help to explain several components of the African American smoking paradox. This article provides an overview of the potential role that menthol plays in the African American smoking paradox. We also discuss the research needed to better understand this unresolved puzzle. We examined prior synthesis reports and reviewed the literature in PubMed on the menthol compound and menthol cigarette smoking in African Americans. The pharmacological and physiological effects of menthol and their interaction with biological and genetic factors may indirectly contribute to the disproportionate burden of cigarette use and diseases among African Americans. Future studies that examine taste sensitivity, the menthol compound, and their effects on smoking and chronic disease would provide valuable information on how to reduce the tobacco burden among African Americans. Our study highlights four counterintuitive observations related to the smoking risk profiles and chronic disease outcomes among African Americans. The extant literature provides strong evidence of their existence and shows that long-standing paradoxes have been largely unaffected by changes in the social

  9. Pharm GKB: menthol [PharmGKB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available strength with menthactin (dextromethorphan hydrobromide + guaifenesin + menthol + pseudoephedrine hydrochlo...ride) Benylin DM-e extra strength with menthactin (dextromethorphan hydrobromide + guaifenesin + menthol) Be... - CRM (menthol + methyl salicylate) Koffex DM-d-e - liq (dextromethorphan hydrobromide + guaifenesin + pseu

  10. (-)-Menthol biosynthesis and molecular genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, Rodney B.; Davis, Edward M.; Ringer, Kerry L.; Wildung, Mark R.

    2005-12-01

    (-)-Menthol is the most familiar of the monoterpenes as both a pure natural product and as the principal and characteristic constituent of the essential oil of peppermint ( Mentha x piperita). In this paper, we review the biosynthesis and molecular genetics of (-)-menthol production in peppermint. In Mentha species, essential oil biosynthesis and storage is restricted to the peltate glandular trichomes (oil glands) on the aerial surfaces of the plant. A mechanical method for the isolation of metabolically functional oil glands, has provided a system for precursor feeding studies to elucidate pathway steps, as well as a highly enriched source of the relevant biosynthetic enzymes and of their corresponding transcripts with which cDNA libraries have been constructed to permit cloning and characterization of key structural genes. The biosynthesis of (-)-menthol from primary metabolism requires eight enzymatic steps, and involves the formation and subsequent cyclization of the universal monoterpene precursor geranyl diphosphate to the parent olefin (-)-(4 S)-limonene as the first committed reaction of the sequence. Following hydroxylation at C3, a series of four redox transformations and an isomerization occur in a general “allylic oxidation-conjugate reduction” scheme that installs three chiral centers on the substituted cyclohexanoid ring to yield (-)-(1 R, 3 R, 4 S)-menthol. The properties of each enzyme and gene of menthol biosynthesis are described, as are their probable evolutionary origins in primary metabolism. The organization of menthol biosynthesis is complex in involving four subcellular compartments, and regulation of the pathway appears to reside largely at the level of gene expression. Genetic engineering to up-regulate a flux-limiting step and down-regulate a side route reaction has led to improvement in the composition and yield of peppermint oil.

  11. The Sensory Difference Threshold of Menthol Odor in Flavored Tobacco Determined by Combining Sensory and Chemical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüsemann, Erna J Z; Cremers, Johannes W J M; Visser, Wouter F; Punter, Pieter H; Talhout, Reinskje

    2017-03-01

    Cigarettes are an often-used consumer product, and flavor is an important determinant of their product appeal. Cigarettes with strong nontobacco flavors are popular among young people, and may facilitate smoking initiation. Discriminating flavors in tobacco is important for regulation purposes, for instance to set upper limits to the levels of important flavor additives. We provide a simple and fast method to determine the human odor difference threshold for flavor additives in a tobacco matrix, using a combination of chemical and sensory analysis. For an example, the human difference threshold for menthol odor, one of the most frequently used tobacco flavors, was determined. A consumer panel consisting of 20 women compared different concentrations of menthol-flavored tobacco to unflavored cigarette tobacco using the 2-alternative forced choice method. Components contributing to menthol odor were quantified using headspace GC-MS. The sensory difference threshold of menthol odor corresponded to a mixture of 43 (37-50)% menthol-flavored tobacco, containing 1.8 (1.6-2.1) mg menthol, 2.7 (2.3-3.1) µg menthone, and 1.0 (0.9-1.2) µg neomenthyl acetate per gram of tobacco. Such a method is important in the context of the European Tobacco Product Directive, and the US Food and Drug Administration Tobacco Control Act, that both prohibit cigarettes and roll-your-own tobacco with a characterizing flavor other than tobacco. Our method can also be adapted for matrices other than tobacco, such as food. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  12. Disparities and Menthol Marketing: Additional Evidence in Support of Point of Sale Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Harris, Jenine; Snider, Doneisha; Walsh, Heidi; Cyr, Julianne; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2013-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with point-of-sale tobacco marketing in St. Louis, an urban city in the United States. Using spatial analysis, descriptive statistics, and multilevel modeling, we examined point-of-sale data and the proportion of mentholated cigarette and total cigarette marketing from 342 individual tobacco retail stores within St. Louis census tracts characterized by the percent of black adults and children. Menthol and total tobacco product marketing was highest in areas with the highest percentages of black residents. When examining menthol marketing to children, we did not find as strong of a relationship, however results of multilevel modeling indicate that as the proportion of black children in a census tract increased, the proportion of menthol marketing near candy also increased. These results indicate the need for communities globally to counter this targeted marketing by taking policy action specifically through the enactment of marketing restrictions provided by the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control. PMID:24071922

  13. Disparities and Menthol Marketing: Additional Evidence in Support of Point of Sale Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Barnoya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined factors associated with point-of-sale tobacco marketing in St. Louis, an urban city in the United States. Using spatial analysis, descriptive statistics, and multilevel modeling, we examined point-of-sale data and the proportion of mentholated cigarette and total cigarette marketing from 342 individual tobacco retail stores within St. Louis census tracts characterized by the percent of black adults and children. Menthol and total tobacco product marketing was highest in areas with the highest percentages of black residents. When examining menthol marketing to children, we did not find as strong of a relationship, however results of multilevel modeling indicate that as the proportion of black children in a census tract increased, the proportion of menthol marketing near candy also increased. These results indicate the need for communities globally to counter this targeted marketing by taking policy action specifically through the enactment of marketing restrictions provided by the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control.

  14. Disparities and menthol marketing: additional evidence in support of point of sale policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Harris, Jenine; Snider, Doneisha; Walsh, Heidi; Cyr, Julianne; Barnoya, Joaquin

    2013-09-25

    This study examined factors associated with point-of-sale tobacco marketing in St. Louis, an urban city in the United States. Using spatial analysis, descriptive statistics, and multilevel modeling, we examined point-of-sale data and the proportion of mentholated cigarette and total cigarette marketing from 342 individual tobacco retail stores within St. Louis census tracts characterized by the percent of black adults and children. Menthol and total tobacco product marketing was highest in areas with the highest percentages of black residents. When examining menthol marketing to children, we did not find as strong of a relationship, however results of multilevel modeling indicate that as the proportion of black children in a census tract increased, the proportion of menthol marketing near candy also increased. These results indicate the need for communities globally to counter this targeted marketing by taking policy action specifically through the enactment of marketing restrictions provided by the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act and the Framework Convention of Tobacco Control.

  15. Are all cigarettes just the same? Female's perceptions of slim, coloured, aromatized and capsule cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Crawford; Ford, Allison; Mackintosh, Anne; Purves, Richard

    2015-02-01

    Twelve focus groups in Glasgow (Scotland) were conducted with female non-smokers and occasional smokers aged 12-24 years (N = 75), with each group shown 11 cigarettes: two (standard) cigarettes with cork filters; two coloured cigarettes (pink or brown); four slim cigarettes; an aromatized black cigarette; a menthol cigarette and a cigarette with a flavour-changing rupturable capsule in the filter. Participants were asked to rank the cigarettes by appeal, taste and harm. The capsule cigarette was then discussed in depth. The pink coloured cigarette and slim cigarettes created significant interest and were generally perceived as most appealing and pleasant tasting, and least harmful. The black aromatized cigarette received a mixed response, with some disliking the dark colour and associating it with low appeal, strong taste and increased harm, whereas for others the smell helped to enhance appeal and taste perceptions and lower perceptions of harm. The novel capsule cigarette, when discussed in-depth, was viewed very positively. Just as research shows that cigarette packs can influence perceptions of appeal, harm and taste, this study suggests that the actual cigarettes can do likewise. The findings have implications for tobacco education and policy.

  16. Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... New FDA Regulations Text Size: A A A Electronic Cigarettes Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery operated products designed ... more about: The latest news and events about electronic cigarettes on this FDA page Electronic cigarette basics ...

  17. Positive correlation between menthol content and in vitro menthol tolerance in Mentha arvensis L. cultivars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ajit K Shasany; Suman P S Khanuja; Sunita Dhawan; Sushil Kumar

    2000-09-01

    Menthol is a highly valued monoterpene produced by Japanese mint (Mentha arvensis) as a natural product with wide applications in cosmetics, confectionery, flavours, beverages and therapeutics. Selection of high menthol yielding genotypes is therefore the ultimate objective of all genetic improvement programmes in Mentha arvensis. A positive correlation was observed in the present study between menthol content in oils of evaluated genotypes and the level of tolerance to externally supplied menthol of explants of these genotypes in culture medium. The easy use of this relationship as a selectable biochemical marker opens the practical applicability of large-scale in vitro screening of the germplasm, clones and breeders’ material for selection of elite genotypes.

  18. Biocatalytic enantiomeric resolution of l-menthol from an eight isomeric menthol mixture

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Brady, D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available of l-menthyl acetate and menthol was run. Run time was 17 min. Elution times (min) vinyl acetate 1.83; acetic acid 9.8; menthyl acetate 12.5; menthol 14.2. Results are reported as percentage conversion of available dl-menthol. Conversions were... ?l of an organic solvent (pentane, hexane, heptane, isooctane, decane, cyclohexane or benzene) and 23 ?l liquid menthol was added. The acyl donor (14 ?l of vinyl acetate, butyric, valeric or octanoic acid was added) to make the final reaction...

  19. Tobacco control environment in the United States and individual consumer characteristics in relation to continued smoking: differential responses among menthol smokers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael; Wang, Yanwen; Berg, Carla J

    2014-08-01

    We used a consumer panel augmented with state-specific measures of tobacco control activities to examine the main effects and interactions among consumer behaviors, particularly menthol cigarette smoking, and tobacco control environment on cessation over a six-year period. We used the Nielson Homescan Panel, which tracks consumer purchasing behaviors, and tobacco control information matched to panelist zip code. We focused on 1582 households purchasing ≥20 packs from 2004 to 2009. Our analysis included demographics; purchasing behavior including menthol versus nonmenthol use (≥80% of cigarettes purchased being menthol), quality preferences (average price/pack), purchase recency, and nicotine intake (nicotine levels of cigarettes purchased); and tobacco control metrics (taxation, anti-tobacco advertising, smoke-free policies). Menthol smoking (Hazard Ratio [HR]=0.79, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.64, 0.99), being African American (HR=0.67, CI 0.46, 0.98), being male (HR=0.46, CI 0.28, 0.74), higher quality premium preferences (HR=0.80, CI 0.77, 0.91), lower recency (HR=1.04, CI 1.02, 1.05), and higher nicotine intake rates (HR=0.99, CI 0.99, 0.99) were related to continued smoking. No significant interactions were found. While there were no interactions between menthol use and effects of tobacco control activities, we did find additional support for the decreased cessation rates among menthol cigarette smokers, particularly in the African American population. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Pyrolysates of novel latent fragrant compound 3,6-dimethyl-2,5-pyrazinedicarboxylic acid menthol ester].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Miao; Zhao, Boya; Bao, Xiaorong; Zhao, Mingqin; Ji, Xiaoming; Fu, Peipei; Zhang, Yujie

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop a new tobacco flavor released at high-temperature, the novel latent fragrant compound 3,6-dimethyl-2,5-pyrazinedicarboxylic acid menthol ester (DPAME) was synthesized by esterification using 2,3,5,6-tetramethylpyrazine and menthol as raw materials. In air atmosphere, the pyrolysis behavior of DPAME was investigated using an on-line pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) method at three temperature levels of 300, 600 and 900 degrees C, separately. The pyrolysis products were directly introduced into GC-MS and were qualitatively and semi-quantitatively analyzed. The results showed that a variety of aroma compounds of aldehydes, 3-p-menthene and menthol were released and identified at 300 degrees C. While at 600 degrees C and 900 degrees C, flavor alkene class, the alkyl pyrazines, menthol and 3-p-menthene were generated. And the types and relative amounts of pyrazines were significantly increased, at these two temperatures. Combined the analytical results of DPAME pyrolysates and the results of sensory evaluation of the cigarette, the possible pyrolysis mechanism was preliminarily speculated. The Py-GC-MS technique for the study of the pyrolysis products of DPAME was convenient and rapid. The investigation provided a reliable theoretical foundation for the perfume reinforcement technology in tobacco products, contributing to the development of cigarette products with better aroma and taste. This method is an accurate and quick way to study the pyrolysis products of latent fragrant substance.

  1. Menthol Alone Upregulates Midbrain nAChRs, Alters nAChR Subtype Stoichiometry, Alters Dopamine Neuron Firing Frequency, and Prevents Nicotine Reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brandon J; Wall, Teagan R; Henley, Beverley M; Kim, Charlene H; Nichols, Weston A; Moaddel, Ruin; Xiao, Cheng; Lester, Henry A

    2016-03-09

    Upregulation of β2 subunit-containing (β2*) nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) is implicated in several aspects of nicotine addiction, and menthol cigarette smokers tend to upregulate β2* nAChRs more than nonmenthol cigarette smokers. We investigated the effect of long-term menthol alone on midbrain neurons containing nAChRs. In midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons from mice containing fluorescent nAChR subunits, menthol alone increased the number of α4 and α6 nAChR subunits, but this upregulation did not occur in midbrain GABAergic neurons. Thus, chronic menthol produces a cell-type-selective upregulation of α4* nAChRs, complementing that of chronic nicotine alone, which upregulates α4 subunit-containing (α4*) nAChRs in GABAergic but not DA neurons. In mouse brain slices and cultured midbrain neurons, menthol reduced DA neuron firing frequency and altered DA neuron excitability following nAChR activation. Furthermore, menthol exposure before nicotine abolished nicotine reward-related behavior in mice. In neuroblastoma cells transfected with fluorescent nAChR subunits, exposure to 500 nm menthol alone also increased nAChR number and favored the formation of (α4)3(β2)2 nAChRs; this contrasts with the action of nicotine itself, which favors (α4)2(β2)3 nAChRs. Menthol alone also increases the number of α6β2 receptors that exclude the β3 subunit. Thus, menthol stabilizes lower-sensitivity α4* and α6 subunit-containing nAChRs, possibly by acting as a chemical chaperone. The abolition of nicotine reward-related behavior may be mediated through menthol's ability to stabilize lower-sensitivity nAChRs and alter DA neuron excitability. We conclude that menthol is more than a tobacco flavorant: administered alone chronically, it alters midbrain DA neurons of the nicotine reward-related pathway.

  2. Probable warfarin interaction with menthol cough drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coderre, Karen; Faria, Claudio; Dyer, Earl

    2010-01-01

    Warfarin is a widely used and effective oral anticoagulant; however, the agent has an extensive drug and food interaction profile. We describe a 46-year-old African-American man who was receiving warfarin for a venous thromboembolism and experienced a decrease in his international normalized ratio (INR). No corresponding reduction had been made in his warfarin dosage, and no changes had been made in his concomitant drug therapy or diet. The patient's INR fell from a therapeutic value of 2.6 (target range 2-3) to 1.6 while receiving a weekly warfarin dose of 50 mg. His INR remained stable at 1.6 for 3 weeks despite incremental increases in his warfarin dose. The patient reported that he had been taking 8-10 menthol cough drops/day due to dry conditions at his workplace during the time period that the INR decreased. Five days after discontinuing the cough drops, his INR increased from 1.6 to 2.9. Over the subsequent 5 weeks, his INR was stabilized at a much lower weekly warfarin dose of 40 mg. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated that the decreased INR was probably related to the concomitant use of menthol cough drops during warfarin therapy. The mechanism for this interaction may be related to the potential for menthol to affect the cytochrome P450 system as an inducer and inhibitor of certain isoenzymes that would potentially interfere with the metabolism of warfarin. To our knowledge, this is the second case report of an interaction between warfarin and menthol. Patients receiving warfarin should be closely monitored, as they may choose to take over-the-counter products without considering the potential implications, and counseled about a possible interaction with menthol cough drops.

  3. Menthol inhibits 5-HT3 receptor-mediated currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoor, Abrar; Nordman, Jacob C; Veltri, Daniel; Yang, Keun-Hang Susan; Shuba, Yaroslav; Al Kury, Lina; Sadek, Bassem; Howarth, Frank C; Shehu, Amarda; Kabbani, Nadine; Oz, Murat

    2013-11-01

    The effects of alcohol monoterpene menthol, a major active ingredient of the peppermint plant, were tested on the function of human 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. 5-HT (1 μM)-evoked currents recorded by two-electrode voltage-clamp technique were reversibly inhibited by menthol in a concentration-dependent (IC50 = 163 μM) manner. The effects of menthol developed gradually, reaching a steady-state level within 10-15 minutes and did not involve G-proteins, since GTPγS activity remained unaltered and the effect of menthol was not sensitive to pertussis toxin pretreatment. The actions of menthol were not stereoselective as (-), (+), and racemic menthol inhibited 5-HT3 receptor-mediated currents to the same extent. Menthol inhibition was not altered by intracellular 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid injections and transmembrane potential changes. The maximum inhibition observed for menthol was not reversed by increasing concentrations of 5-HT. Furthermore, specific binding of the 5-HT3 antagonist [(3)H]GR65630 was not altered in the presence of menthol (up to 1 mM), indicating that menthol acts as a noncompetitive antagonist of the 5-HT3 receptor. Finally, 5-HT3 receptor-mediated currents in acutely dissociated nodose ganglion neurons were also inhibited by menthol (100 μM). These data demonstrate that menthol, at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, is an allosteric inhibitor of 5-HT3 receptors.

  4. Effects of menthol on the pharmacokinetics of triazolam and phenytoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Motohiro; Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Hirobe, Ryuta; Hayashi, Mami; Hiraoka, Hironori; Yokobori, Kohsuke; Ochiai, Takumi; Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Kon, Risako; Tajima, Masataka; Ochiai, Wataru; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    We have previously shown that menthol attenuates the anticoagulant effect of warfarin by increasing the expression levels of CYP3A and CYP2C in the liver. This study evaluated the effects of menthol on the pharmacokinetics of the CYP3A substrate triazolam and the CYP2C substrate phenytoin. Menthol was orally administered to mice for 7 d. Twenty-four hours after the administration of menthol, triazolam was orally administered, and the plasma concentration was measured. In addition, the CYP3A metabolic activity for triazolam and the CYP3A expression level in the liver were determined. The effects of menthol on the pharmacokinetics of phenytoin were assessed in the same manner. In the menthol-treated group, the area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC) of triazolam was lower and its clearance was higher compared with the control group. The CYP3A metabolic activity and CYP3A expression level in the liver were significantly increased in the menthol-treated group compared with the control group. Similarly, the AUC of phenytoin was lower and the hepatic CYP2C expression level was higher in the menthol-treated group. Thus, menthol lowered the plasma concentrations of triazolam and phenytoin when concurrently administered. These effects may be attributed to an increased metabolic activity for these drugs due to the increased expression of CYP3A and CYP2C in the liver.

  5. Encapsulation of Menthol in Beeswax by a Supercritical Fluid Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Linjing Zhu; Hongqiao Lan; Bingjing He; Wei Hong; Jun Li

    2010-01-01

    Encapsulation of menthol in beeswax was prepared by a modified particles from gas-saturated solutions (PGSS) process with controlling the gas-saturated solution flow rate. Menthol/beeswax particles with size in the range of 2–50 μm were produced. The effects of the process conditions, namely, the pre-expansion pressure, pre-expansion temperature, gas-saturated solution flow rate, and menthol composition, on the particle size, particle size distribution, and menthol encapsulation rate were inv...

  6. Encapsulation of Menthol in Beeswax by a Supercritical Fluid Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjing Zhu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulation of menthol in beeswax was prepared by a modified particles from gas-saturated solutions (PGSS process with controlling the gas-saturated solution flow rate. Menthol/beeswax particles with size in the range of 2–50 μm were produced. The effects of the process conditions, namely, the pre-expansion pressure, pre-expansion temperature, gas-saturated solution flow rate, and menthol composition, on the particle size, particle size distribution, and menthol encapsulation rate were investigated. Results indicated that in the range of studied conditions, increase of the pressure, decrease of the gas-saturated solution flow rate, and decrease of the menthol mass fraction can decrease the particle size and narrow particle size distribution of the produced menthol/beeswax microparticles. An N2-blowing method was proposed to measure the menthol release from the menthol/beeswax microparticles. Results showed that the microparticles have obvious protection of menthol from its volatilization loss.

  7. Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdinc Nayir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette is a device developed with an intent to enable smokers to quit smoking and avoid the unhealthful effects of cigarettes. The popularity of e-cigarette has increased rapidly in recent years. The increase in its use during the adolescence period is attention-grabbing. Despite the fact that e-cigarette has become popular in a dramatic way, there are certain differences of opinion regarding its long-term effects on health, in particular. While some people assert that it is less harmful than conventional cigarettes, some others assert the contrary. Although e-cigarette contains less toxic substances compared to conventional cigarette, it contains certain carcinogens existing in conventional cigarette such as formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. It also contains heavy metals (nickel, chrome that conventional cigarette does not contain; and therefore, raises concerns about health. E-cigarette leads to upper and lower respiratory tract irritation as well as an increased airway resistance and an increased bacterial colonization in the respiratory tract. It may also cause tahcycardia and increase diastolic blood pressure. Although e-cigarette has been found to have certain benefits in terms of smoking cessation, most of the studies have shown unfavorable results. In this collected work, the effects of e-cigarette on health and its role in smoking cessation are discussed in detail.

  8. The effect of inhaled menthol on upper airway resistance in humans: A randomized controlled crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effie J Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Menthol (l-menthol is a naturally-occurring cold receptor agonist commonly used to provide symptomatic relief for upper airway congestion. Menthol can also reduce the sensation of dyspnea. It is unclear whether the physiological action of menthol in dyspnea reduction is through its cold receptor agonist effect or whether associated mechanical changes occur in the upper airway.

  9. Menthol inhibits detrusor contractility independently of TRPM8 activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Filho, Antonio Celso Saragossa; Shah, Ajay; Augusto, Taize Machado; Barbosa, Guilherme Oliveira; Leiria, Luiz Osorio; de Carvalho, Hernandes Faustino; Antunes, Edson; Grant, Andrew Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Agonists such as icilin and menthol can activate the cool temperature-sensitive ion channel TRPM8. However, biological responses to menthol may occur independently of TRPM8 activation. In the rodent urinary bladder, menthol facilitates the micturition reflex but inhibits muscarinic contractions of the detrusor smooth muscle. The site(s) of TRPM8 expression in the bladder are controversial. In this study we investigated the regulation of bladder contractility in vitro by menthol. Bladder strips from wild type and TRPM8 knockout male mice (25-30 g) were dissected free and mounted in organ baths. Isometric contractions to carbachol (1 nM-30 µM), CaCl2 (1 µM to 100 mM) and electrical field stimulation (EFS; 8, 16, 32 Hz) were measured. Strips from both groups contracted similarly in response to both carbachol and EFS. Menthol (300 µM) or nifedipine (1 µM) inhibited carbachol and EFS-induced contractions in both wild type and TRPM8 knockout bladder strips. Incubation with the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (1 µM), replacement of extracellular sodium with the impermeant cation N-Methyl-D-Glucamine, incubation with a cocktail of potassium channel inhibitors (100 nM charybdotoxin, 1 µM apamin, 10 µM glibenclamide and 1 µM tetraethylammonium) or removal of the urothelium did not affect the inhibitory actions of menthol. Contraction to CaCl2 was markedly inhibited by either menthol or nifedipine. In cultured bladder smooth muscle cells, menthol or nifedipine abrogated the carbachol or KCl-induced increases in [Ca2+]i. Intravesical administration of menthol increased voiding frequency while decreasing peak voiding pressure. We conclude that menthol inhibits muscarinic bladder contractions through blockade of L-type calcium channels, independently of TRPM8 activation.

  10. Menthol inhibits detrusor contractility independently of TRPM8 activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Celso Saragossa Ramos-Filho

    Full Text Available Agonists such as icilin and menthol can activate the cool temperature-sensitive ion channel TRPM8. However, biological responses to menthol may occur independently of TRPM8 activation. In the rodent urinary bladder, menthol facilitates the micturition reflex but inhibits muscarinic contractions of the detrusor smooth muscle. The site(s of TRPM8 expression in the bladder are controversial. In this study we investigated the regulation of bladder contractility in vitro by menthol. Bladder strips from wild type and TRPM8 knockout male mice (25-30 g were dissected free and mounted in organ baths. Isometric contractions to carbachol (1 nM-30 µM, CaCl2 (1 µM to 100 mM and electrical field stimulation (EFS; 8, 16, 32 Hz were measured. Strips from both groups contracted similarly in response to both carbachol and EFS. Menthol (300 µM or nifedipine (1 µM inhibited carbachol and EFS-induced contractions in both wild type and TRPM8 knockout bladder strips. Incubation with the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (1 µM, replacement of extracellular sodium with the impermeant cation N-Methyl-D-Glucamine, incubation with a cocktail of potassium channel inhibitors (100 nM charybdotoxin, 1 µM apamin, 10 µM glibenclamide and 1 µM tetraethylammonium or removal of the urothelium did not affect the inhibitory actions of menthol. Contraction to CaCl2 was markedly inhibited by either menthol or nifedipine. In cultured bladder smooth muscle cells, menthol or nifedipine abrogated the carbachol or KCl-induced increases in [Ca2+]i. Intravesical administration of menthol increased voiding frequency while decreasing peak voiding pressure. We conclude that menthol inhibits muscarinic bladder contractions through blockade of L-type calcium channels, independently of TRPM8 activation.

  11. Does inhaling menthol affect nasal patency or cough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenia, Priti; Houghton, Tom; Beardsmore, Caroline

    2008-06-01

    There is widespread use of menthol in over-the-counter medications, despite scant information on any beneficial effects. Our aim was to assess the effect of menthol on nasal air flow, perception of nasal patency and cough challenge testing. Subjects comprised 42 healthy children aged 10 and 11 in a school setting. We used a single-blind pseudo-randomized cross-over trial to compare the effect of an inhalation of either menthol or placebo(eucalyptus oil). Baseline and post-intervention measurements were made on each of 2 consecutive days. Main outcome measures were (i) nasal expiratory and inspiratory flows and volumes, measured by spirometer, (ii) perception of nasal patency, assessed with a visual analogue scale (VAS), and (iii) the number of coughs in response to nebulized citric acid. There was no effect of menthol on any of the spirometric measurements. Following menthol, there was a significant increase in the perception of nasal patency (mean difference in log VAS (menthol-placebo) = -0.207, 95%CI -0.329, -0.085). The cough count after menthol inhalation was reduced when compared to baseline but the change was not different from that after placebo (mean difference in cough count (menthol-placebo) = -1.71, 95%CI -4.11, 0.69). Menthol has no effect on objective measures of flow but significantly increases the perception of nasal patency. It may not be possible to extrapolate these findings to younger children and those with rhinitis. Extending the study of menthol to these groups, including investigations of the efficacy and safety profiles, will provide further valuable evidence for its common use.

  12. Thyroid hormones in fetal growth and prepartum maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forhead, A J; Fowden, A L

    2014-06-01

    The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are essential for normal growth and development of the fetus. Their bioavailability in utero depends on development of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid gland axis and the abundance of thyroid hormone transporters and deiodinases that influence tissue levels of bioactive hormone. Fetal T4 and T3 concentrations are also affected by gestational age, nutritional and endocrine conditions in utero, and placental permeability to maternal thyroid hormones, which varies among species with placental morphology. Thyroid hormones are required for the general accretion of fetal mass and to trigger discrete developmental events in the fetal brain and somatic tissues from early in gestation. They also promote terminal differentiation of fetal tissues closer to term and are important in mediating the prepartum maturational effects of the glucocorticoids that ensure neonatal viability. Thyroid hormones act directly through anabolic effects on fetal metabolism and the stimulation of fetal oxygen consumption. They also act indirectly by controlling the bioavailability and effectiveness of other hormones and growth factors that influence fetal development such as the catecholamines and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). By regulating tissue accretion and differentiation near term, fetal thyroid hormones ensure activation of physiological processes essential for survival at birth such as pulmonary gas exchange, thermogenesis, hepatic glucogenesis, and cardiac adaptations. This review examines the developmental control of fetal T4 and T3 bioavailability and discusses the role of these hormones in fetal growth and development with particular emphasis on maturation of somatic tissues critical for survival immediately at birth.

  13. Acidogenic mineral additions increased Ca mobilization in prepartum sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darriet, C; Axe, D E; Crenshaw, T D

    2017-01-01

    Increased sow milk production is associated with an increase in unexplained sow mortality during prepartum and early postpartum periods. This association has led to purported claims of hypocalcemic disorders. Assuming similar responses as dairy cows, feeding anionic mineral salts in late gestation and early lactation may reduce potential hypocalcemia related disorders in sows. Two experiments using CAD-MATE (Granco Minerals, Petersburg, VA), an acidogenic mineral supplement (AMS), were designed to determine the amount required to increase urinary Ca excretion and to identify renal compensatory responses to acid loads in sows. In Exp. 1, 30 multiparous gestating sows (Landrace × Large White) were fed 1 of 6 diets with either 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, or 2.5% AMS additions for 14 d. Diets provided a range (33 to -216 mEq/kg) of cation-anion balance, calculated as Na + K - Cl - S. Two 24-h urine samples were collected via bladder catheters for mineral analysis. One venous blood sample was drawn from 2 sows per diet on d 14. In Exp. 2, twelve sows were fed 1 of 3 diets to provide either 0, 1.5, or 2.5% AMS. Three 24-h composites of urine and fecal excreta were collected and analyses were used to calculate apparent mineral retention. Venous blood pH (range 7.41 to 7.33) and base excess (range 5.4 to 0.5 mmol/L) decreased (linear, sows fed diets with 2.5% AMS. Fecal K, Na, and Cl excretion did not differ among treatments. Apparent Ca retention decreased ( sows.

  14. Perceived Relative Harm of Selected Cigarettes and Non-Cigarette Tobacco Products—A Study of Young People from a Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Rural Area in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kaleta

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The perceived health risk of recently introduced nicotine and tobacco products may influence both their uptake and continued use. The aim of the study was to assess how adolescents rate relative harmfulness of slim and menthol cigarettes, water pipes, e-cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco compared to regular cigarettes. Cross-sectional survey data from students aged 13–19 years from Piotrkowski district, Poland were analyzed. Among the sample of 4050 students, 3552 respondents completed anonymous, confidential, self-administered questionnaire adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS. The study results indicate that the students perceived slim cigarettes and menthol cigarettes as less harmful, which is in line with the message created by tobacco companies. On the other hand, less popular products such as water pipes and smokeless tobacco were considered as more harmful. The current study indicates insufficient and misleading perception of harmfulness of different tobacco/nicotine products available on the Polish market. Simultaneously, there is insufficient countrywide public health education in this matter. Preventive measures are necessary to discourage young people from smoking uptake and to ensure that potential consumers can, based on objective data, make informed decisions about cigarettes and non-cigarette tobacco products.

  15. Perceived Relative Harm of Selected Cigarettes and Non-Cigarette Tobacco Products-A Study of Young People from a Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Rural Area in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Polanska, Kinga; Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Wojtysiak, Piotr

    2016-09-06

    The perceived health risk of recently introduced nicotine and tobacco products may influence both their uptake and continued use. The aim of the study was to assess how adolescents rate relative harmfulness of slim and menthol cigarettes, water pipes, e-cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco compared to regular cigarettes. Cross-sectional survey data from students aged 13-19 years from Piotrkowski district, Poland were analyzed. Among the sample of 4050 students, 3552 respondents completed anonymous, confidential, self-administered questionnaire adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). The study results indicate that the students perceived slim cigarettes and menthol cigarettes as less harmful, which is in line with the message created by tobacco companies. On the other hand, less popular products such as water pipes and smokeless tobacco were considered as more harmful. The current study indicates insufficient and misleading perception of harmfulness of different tobacco/nicotine products available on the Polish market. Simultaneously, there is insufficient countrywide public health education in this matter. Preventive measures are necessary to discourage young people from smoking uptake and to ensure that potential consumers can, based on objective data, make informed decisions about cigarettes and non-cigarette tobacco products.

  16. Perceived Relative Harm of Selected Cigarettes and Non-Cigarette Tobacco Products—A Study of Young People from a Socio-Economically Disadvantaged Rural Area in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleta, Dorota; Polanska, Kinga; Bak-Romaniszyn, Leokadia; Wojtysiak, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The perceived health risk of recently introduced nicotine and tobacco products may influence both their uptake and continued use. The aim of the study was to assess how adolescents rate relative harmfulness of slim and menthol cigarettes, water pipes, e-cigarettes, and smokeless tobacco compared to regular cigarettes. Cross-sectional survey data from students aged 13–19 years from Piotrkowski district, Poland were analyzed. Among the sample of 4050 students, 3552 respondents completed anonymous, confidential, self-administered questionnaire adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS). The study results indicate that the students perceived slim cigarettes and menthol cigarettes as less harmful, which is in line with the message created by tobacco companies. On the other hand, less popular products such as water pipes and smokeless tobacco were considered as more harmful. The current study indicates insufficient and misleading perception of harmfulness of different tobacco/nicotine products available on the Polish market. Simultaneously, there is insufficient countrywide public health education in this matter. Preventive measures are necessary to discourage young people from smoking uptake and to ensure that potential consumers can, based on objective data, make informed decisions about cigarettes and non-cigarette tobacco products. PMID:27608034

  17. Benefits of Prepartum Nest-building Behaviour on Parturition and Lactation in Sows — A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jinhyeon; Valros, Anna

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that prepartum sows have an innate motivation to build a nest before parturition. Under commercial conditions, however, the farrowing crate, which is widely used in modern pig husbandry, inhibits this innate behaviour through the lack of space, materials, or both. Thus, restriction of nest-building behaviour could generate increased stress, resulting in a decrease in maternal endogenous hormones. Hence, it could lead to detrimental effects on farrowing and lactating performance. Here we review interactions between prepartum nest-building behaviour, stress and maternal endogenous hormone levels, and discuss their effects on parturition, lactation, and welfare of sows and offspring. PMID:26333669

  18. Racial differences in cigarette brand recognition and impact on youth smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauphinee Amanda L

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background African Americans are disproportionately exposed to cigarette advertisements, particularly for menthol brands. Tobacco industry documents outline strategic efforts to promote menthol cigarettes to African Americans at the point of sale, and studies have observed more outdoor and retail menthol advertisements in neighborhoods with more African-American residents. Little research has been conducted to examine the effect of this target marketing on adolescents’ recognition of cigarette brand advertising and on smoking uptake. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine racial differences in brand recognition and to assess the prospective relationship between brand recognition and smoking uptake. Methods School-based surveys assessing tobacco use and environmental and social influences to smoke were administered to 6th through 9th graders (ages 11 to 15 in an urban and racially diverse California school district. The primary outcome for the cross-sectional analysis (n = 2,589 was brand recognition, measured by students’ identification of masked tobacco advertisements from the point of sale. The primary outcome for the longitudinal analysis (n = 1,179 was progression from never to ever smoking within 12 months. Results At baseline, 52% of students recognized the Camel brand, 36% Marlboro, and 32% Newport. African-American students were three times more likely than others to recognize Newport (OR = 3.03, CI = 2.45, 3.74, p  Conclusions The study findings illustrate that African-American youth are better able to recognize Newport cigarette advertisements, even after adjustment for exposure to smoking by parents and peers. In addition, recognition of Newport cigarette advertising predicted smoking initiation, regardless of race. This longitudinal study contributes to a growing body of evidence that supports a ban on menthol flavored cigarettes in the US as well as stronger regulation of tobacco

  19. Stabilizing Unstable Amorphous Menthol through Inclusion in Mesoporous Silica Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, Teresa; Castiñeira, Carmem; Mendes, Davide; Danède, Florence; Sotomayor, João; Fonseca, Isabel M; Gomes da Silva, Marco; Paiva, Alexandre; Barreiros, Susana; Cardoso, M Margarida; Viciosa, Maria T; Correia, Natália T; Dionisio, Madalena

    2017-09-05

    The amorphization of the readily crystallizable therapeutic ingredient and food additive, menthol, was successfully achieved by inclusion of neat menthol in mesoporous silica matrixes of 3.2 and 5.9 nm size pores. Menthol amorphization was confirmed by the calorimetric detection of a glass transition. The respective glass transition temperature, Tg = -54.3 °C, is in good agreement with the one predicted by the composition dependence of the Tg values determined for menthol:flurbiprofen therapeutic deep eutectic solvents (THEDESs). Nonisothermal crystallization was never observed for neat menthol loaded into silica hosts, which can indicate that menthol rests as a full amorphous/supercooled material inside the pores of the silica matrixes. Menthol mobility was probed by dielectric relaxation spectroscopy, which allowed to identify two relaxation processes in both pore sizes: a faster one associated with mobility of neat-like menthol molecules (α-process), and a slower, dominant one due to the hindered mobility of menthol molecules adsorbed at the inner pore walls (S-process). The fraction of molecular population governing the α-process is greater in the higher (5.9 nm) pore size matrix, although in both cases the S-process is more intense than the α-process. A dielectric glass transition temperature was estimated for each α (Tg,dielc(α)) and S (Tg,dielc(S)) molecular population from the temperature dependence of the relaxation times to 100 s. While Tg,dielc(α) agrees better with the value obtained from the linearization of the Fox equation assuming ideal behavior of the menthol:flurbiprofen THEDES, Tg,dielc(S) is close to the value determined by calorimetry for the silica composites due to a dominance of the adsorbed population inside the pores. Nevertheless, the greater fraction of more mobile bulk-like molecules in the 5.9 nm pore size matrix seems to determine the faster drug release at initial times relative to the 3.2 nm composite. However, the latter

  20. Triple Quad-ICP-MS Measurement of Toxic Metals in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke from Spectrum Research Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, R Steven; Gray, Naudia; Gonzalez-Jimenez, Nathalie; Fresquez, Mark; Watson, Clifford H

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported toxic metal concentrations in the mainstream smoke from 50 varieties of commercial cigarettes available in the USA using quadrupole inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). However, efforts to continue producing high quality data on select mainstream cigarette smoke constituents demand continued improvements in instrumentation and methodology and application of the methodology to cigarettes that differ in design or construction. Here we report a new application of 'triple quad'-ICP-MS instrumentation to analyze seven toxic metals in mainstream cigarette smoke from the Spectrum variable nicotine research cigarettes. The Spectrum cigarettes are available for research purposes in different configurations of low or conventional levels of nicotine, mentholated or nonmentholated, and tar delivery ranges described as 'low tar' or 'high tar'. Detailed characterizations of specific harmful or potentially harmful constituents delivered by these research cigarettes will help inform researchers using these cigarettes in exposure studies, cessation studies and studies related to nicotine addiction or compensation. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Dry period heat stress relief effects on prepartum progesterone, calf birth weight, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfenson, D; Flamenbaum, I; Berman, A

    1988-03-01

    Effects of cooling high producing dairy cows during the dry period were examined in 84 pluriparous Israeli-Holstein cows. Cooling was by a combination of wetting and forced ventilation from 0600 to 1800 h until parturition and common management afterwards for both groups. Cooling maintained diurnal increase in rectal temperature within .2 degrees C as compared with .5 degrees C in control cows in warmer months, Mean rectal temperatures at 1400 h in control cows were moderate, within 39.2 degrees C. Cooling did not affect prepartum or postpartum body condition score or mean blood progesterone during the dry period. Results suggested a possible increase in blood progesterone in later pregnancy by cooling during hot weather. Cooling increased mean 150-d milk production by 3.6 kg/d (3.1 kg FCM/d). Prepartum cooling negatively affected first lactation month yield in cows calving in early summer. Prepartum cooling might prevent adaptation to heat and impair subsequent postpartum performance. Prepartum progesterone was not related to milk yield. Calves' birth weight increased by cooling, but the effect was mostly in older cows. Birth weight was related to milk yield, independently of cooling effect, mostly in older cows. Cooling during the dry period might increase milk yield as it does during lactation. Results indicate possible benefit of cooling dry cows even under mild heat stress.

  2. Association between prepartum feeding behaviour and periparturient health disorders in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Luchterhand

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between prepartum feeding behaviour, measured as time spent feeding per day, and periparturient health disorders, milk yield, milk composition, and milk somatic cell count in Jersey cows. Pregnant Jersey cows were marked with unique alphanumeric symbols and were moved into a prepartum group four weeks prior to their expected calving date. At enrollment, cows with a body condition score 4 or a locomotion score > 3 were not included. Time spent feeding was measured using 10-min video scan sampling for 24-hour periods 2 to 4 days per week of the study. A total of 925 cows were eligible for analysis. Parity was based on lactation number at time of enrollment and classified as nulliparous (cows pregnant with their first calf, primiparous (cows pregnant with their second calf and multiparous (lactation > 2. Multiparous cows with two or more health disorders spent approximately 10% less time feeding prepartum than cows that did not have any health disorders. Multiparous cows subsequently diagnosed with metritis had a tendency to spend 5% less time feeding prepartum than healthy counterparts. Primiparous cows with retained placenta had a 10% reduction in feeding time compared to healthy primiparous cows. Monitoring time spent feeding prepartum by primiparous and multiparous cows, even on a limited number of days, appeared to be beneficial in predicting cows at risk for periparturient health disorders. Real-time daily feeding behaviour monitoring technologies that can be used by dairy farms are now available which might prove to be even more helpful in identifying cows at risk for periparturient cow health disorders as more data points can be recorded for each cow and compared to her own behaviour or that of specific cohorts.

  3. Association between Prepartum Feeding Behavior and Periparturient Health Disorders in Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchterhand, Karen M; Silva, Paula R B; Chebel, Ricardo C; Endres, Marcia I

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between prepartum feeding behavior, measured as time spent feeding per day, and periparturient health disorders, milk yield, milk composition, and milk somatic cell count in Jersey cows. Pregnant Jersey cows were marked with unique alphanumeric symbols and were moved into a prepartum group 4 weeks prior to their expected calving date. At enrollment, cows with a body condition score 4 or a locomotion score >3 were not included. Time spent feeding was measured using 10-min video scan sampling for 24-h periods of 2-4 days per week of the study. A total of 925 cows were eligible for analysis. Parity was based on lactation number at the time of enrollment and classified as nulliparous (cows pregnant with their first calf), primiparous (cows pregnant with their second calf), and multiparous (lactation ≥2). Multiparous cows with two or more health disorders spent approximately 10% less time feeding prepartum than cows that did not have any health disorders. Multiparous cows subsequently diagnosed with metritis had a tendency to spend 5% less time feeding prepartum than healthy counterparts. Primiparous cows with retained placenta had a 10% reduction in feeding time compared to healthy primiparous cows. Monitoring time spent feeding prepartum by primiparous and multiparous cows, even on a limited number of days, appeared to be beneficial in predicting cows at risk for periparturient health disorders. Real-time daily feeding behavior monitoring technologies that can be used by dairy farms are now available, which might prove to be even more helpful in identifying cows at risk for periparturient cow health disorders as more data points can be recorded for each cow and compared to her own behavior or that of specific cohorts.

  4. Racial differences in cigarette brand recognition and impact on youth smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauphinee, Amanda L; Doxey, Juliana R; Schleicher, Nina C; Fortmann, Stephen P; Henriksen, Lisa

    2013-02-25

    African Americans are disproportionately exposed to cigarette advertisements, particularly for menthol brands. Tobacco industry documents outline strategic efforts to promote menthol cigarettes to African Americans at the point of sale, and studies have observed more outdoor and retail menthol advertisements in neighborhoods with more African-American residents. Little research has been conducted to examine the effect of this target marketing on adolescents' recognition of cigarette brand advertising and on smoking uptake. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine racial differences in brand recognition and to assess the prospective relationship between brand recognition and smoking uptake. School-based surveys assessing tobacco use and environmental and social influences to smoke were administered to 6th through 9th graders (ages 11 to 15) in an urban and racially diverse California school district. The primary outcome for the cross-sectional analysis (n = 2,589) was brand recognition, measured by students' identification of masked tobacco advertisements from the point of sale. The primary outcome for the longitudinal analysis (n = 1,179) was progression from never to ever smoking within 12 months. At baseline, 52% of students recognized the Camel brand, 36% Marlboro, and 32% Newport. African-American students were three times more likely than others to recognize Newport (OR = 3.03, CI = 2.45, 3.74, p brand recognition of Camel and Marlboro did not predict smoking initiation. Regardless of race, students who recognized the Newport brand at baseline were more likely to initiate smoking at follow-up (OR = 1.49, CI = 1.04, 2.15, p recognition of Newport cigarette advertising predicted smoking initiation, regardless of race. This longitudinal study contributes to a growing body of evidence that supports a ban on menthol flavored cigarettes in the US as well as stronger regulation of tobacco advertising at the point of sale.

  5. Vapours of US and EU Market Leader Electronic Cigarette Brands and Liquids Are Cytotoxic for Human Vascular Endothelial Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaela Putzhammer

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to provide toxicological data on e-cigarette vapours of different e-cigarette brands and liquids from systems viewed as leaders in the e-cigarette market and to compare e-cigarette vapour toxicity to the toxicity of conventional strong high-nicotine cigarette smoke. Using an adapted version of a previously constructed cigarette smoke constituent sampling device, we collected the hydrophilic fraction of e-cigarette vapour and exposed human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs to the mixture of compounds present in the vapour of 4 different single-use e-cigarettes, 6 different liquid vapours produced by the same refillable e-cigarette, and one e-cigarette with an exchangeable liquid cartridge. After incubation of cells with various concentrations and for various periods of time we analysed cell death induction, proliferation rates, the occurrence of intra-cellular reactive oxygen species, cell morphology, and we also measured e-cigarette heating coil temperatures. Overall, conventional cigarette smoke extract showed the most severe impact on endothelial cells. However, some e-cigarette vapour extracts showed high cytotoxicity, inhibition of cell proliferation, and alterations in cell morphology, which were comparable to conventional high-nicotine cigarettes. The vapours generated from different liquids using the same e-cigarette show substantial differences, pointing to the liquids as an important source for toxicity. E-cigarette vapour-mediated induction of oxidative stress was significant in one out of the 11 analysed vapours. There is a high variability in the acute cytotoxicity of e-cigarette vapours depending on the liquid and on the e-cigarettes used. Some products showed toxic effects close to a conventional high-nicotine cigarette. Liquid nicotine, menthol content, and the formation of acute intracellular reactive oxygen species do not seem to be the central elements in e-cigarette vapour toxicity.

  6. Menthol inhibiting parasympathetic function of tracheal smooth muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsing-Won; Liu, Shao-Cheng; Chao, Pin-Zhir; Lee, Fei-Peng

    2016-01-01

    Menthol is used as a constituent of food and drink, tobacco and cosmetics nowadays. This cold receptor agonist has been used as a nasal inhalation solution in the daily life. The effect of menthol on nasal mucosa in vivo is well known; however, the effect of the drug on tracheal smooth muscle has been rarely explored. Therefore, during administration of the drug for nasal symptoms, it might also affect the trachea via oral intake or inhalation. We used our preparation to test the effectiveness of menthol on isolated rat tracheal smooth muscle. A 5 mm long portion of rat trachea was submersed in 30 ml Krebs solution in a muscle bath at 37ºC. Changes in tracheal contractility in response to the application of a parasympathetic mimetic agent were measured using a transducer connected to a Pentium III computer equipped with polygraph software. The following assessments of menthol were performed: (1) effect on tracheal smooth muscle resting tension; (2) effect on contraction caused by 10-6 M methacholine as a parasympathetic mimetic; (3) effect of the drug on electrically induced tracheal smooth muscle contractions. Results indicated that addition of a parasympathetic mimetic to the incubation medium caused the trachea to contract in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of menthol at doses of 10-5 M or above elicited a relaxation response to 10-6 M methacholine-induced contraction. Menthol could also inhibit electrical field stimulation (EFS) induced spike contraction. However, it alone had a minimal effect on the basal tension of trachea as the concentration increased. We concluded that the degree of drug-induced tracheal contraction or relaxation was dose-dependent. In addition, this study indicated that high concentrations of menthol might actually inhibit parasympathetic function of the trachea. PMID:27994497

  7. Effect of menthol coated craft paper on corrosion of copper in HCl environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Premkumar; K Kannan; M Natesan

    2010-06-01

    Natural menthol was coated on craft paper by impregnation and studied as volatile corrosion inhibitor for copper in hydrochloric acid environment. The effect of menthol on copper corrosion was studied by gravimetric and electrochemical methods such as potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance measurements. The results indicate that menthol adsorbs on the metal surface, which protects copper against further corrosion. The adsorption behaviour of menthol on copper surface was found to obey Temkin’s adsorption isotherm.

  8. 40 CFR 180.1092 - Menthol; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Menthol; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1092 Menthol; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. An exemption from the requirement of a tolerance is established for residues of the pesticidal chemical menthol...

  9. 76 FR 4690 - Menthol and Propetamphos; Registration Review Proposed Decisions; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... AGENCY Menthol and Propetamphos; Registration Review Proposed Decisions; Notice of Availability AGENCY... decisions. Menthol is a biochemical pesticide used to control mites in over-wintering bee hives..., telephone and No. ID No. number, E-mail address Menthol; Case 4063 EPA-HQ-OPP-2009-0 Colin G. Walsh;...

  10. Temporal Variations in Cigarette Tobacco Bacterial Community Composition and Tobacco-Specific Nitrosamine Content Are Influenced by Brand and Storage Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopyk, Jessica; Chattopadhyay, Suhana; Kulkarni, Prachi; Smyth, Eoghan M.; Hittle, Lauren E.; Paulson, Joseph N.; Pop, Mihai; Buehler, Stephanie S.; Clark, Pamela I.; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Sapkota, Amy R.

    2017-01-01

    Tobacco products, specifically cigarettes, are home to microbial ecosystems that may play an important role in the generation of carcinogenic tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs), as well as the onset of multiple adverse human health effects associated with the use of these products. Therefore, we conducted time-series experiments with five commercially available brands of cigarettes that were either commercially mentholated, custom-mentholated, user-mentholated, or non-mentholated. To mimic user storage conditions, the cigarettes were incubated for 14 days under three different temperatures and relative humidities (i.e., pocket, refrigerator, and room). Overall, 360 samples were collected over the course of 2 weeks and total DNA was extracted, PCR amplified for the V3V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene and sequenced using Illumina MiSeq. A subset of samples (n = 32) was also analyzed via liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry for two TSNAs: N’-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Comparative analyses of the five tobacco brands revealed bacterial communities dominated by Pseudomonas, Pantoea, and Bacillus, with Pseudomonas relatively stable in abundance regardless of storage condition. In addition, core bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified in all samples and included Bacillus pumilus, Rhizobium sp., Sphingomonas sp., unknown Enterobacteriaceae, Pantoea sp., Pseudomonas sp., Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, and P. putida. Additional OTUs were identified that significantly changed in relative abundance between day 0 and day 14, influenced by brand and storage condition. In addition, small but statistically significant increases in NNN levels were observed in user- and commercially mentholated brands between day 0 and day 14 at pocket conditions. These data suggest that manufacturing and user manipulations, such as mentholation and storage conditions, may directly impact the

  11. Cigarette promotional offers: who takes advantage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Victoria M; White, Martha M; Freeman, Karen; Gilpin, Elizabeth A; Pierce, John P

    2006-03-01

    Promotional offers on cigarettes (e.g., dollar-off, multipack discounts) composed the largest share of tobacco industry marketing expenditures, totaling $8.9 billion, or 72% of the total budget in 2002. Internal industry documents indicate that young adults, potential quitters, and other price-sensitive groups are the targets of these marketing tactics. How effective they are in actually reaching these groups in the general population of smokers has not yet been investigated. Data were from 4618 current smokers responding to the large, random-digit-dialed population-based 2002 California Tobacco Survey. The characteristics were identified of smokers who reported that they used these offers "every time I see one." Thirty-five percent of smokers used promotional offers every time they saw one. Multivariate analyses identified young adults, women, African Americans, those with higher daily cigarette consumption, and those worried about cigarette costs as more likely to use promotional offers at every opportunity. Smokers most committed to quitting were no more likely to use promotional offers than those with no intention to quit. Cigarette brand was highly correlated with age and race/ethnicity, and therefore was not included in the multivariate analysis. Those who smoked menthol cigarettes and Camels, more often young adults and African Americans, were much more likely than those of other brands to use promotional offers. With the exception of smokers intending to quit, cigarette promotional offers are effectively reaching most industry-targeted groups. Importantly, young adults, who have the greatest long-term customer potential, are responding.

  12. Phylogenetic Analysis of Selected Menthol-Producing Species Belonging to the Lamiaceae Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Motahareh; Mirzaei, Hamed; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Bagherian, Ali; Masoud Khoi, Mohammad Jaber; Reza Mirzaei, Hamid; Salehi, Rasoul; Reza Jaafari, Mahmoud; Kazemi Oskuee, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Menthol is an organic compound with diverse medicinal and commercial applications, and is made either synthetically or through extraction from mint oils. The aim of the present study was to investigate menthol levels in selected menthol-producing species belonging to the Lamiaceae family, and to determine phylogenetic relationships of menthol dehydrogenase gene sequence among these species. Three genus of Lamiaceae, namely Mentha, Salvia, and Micromeria, were selected for phytochemical and phylogenetic analyses. After identification of each species based on menthol dehydrogenase gene in NCBI, BLAST software was used for the sequence alignment. MEGA4 software was used to draw phylogenetic tree for various species. Phytochemical analysis revealed that the highest and lowest amounts of both essential oil and menthol belonged to Mentha spicata and Micromeria hyssopifolia, respectively. The species Mentha spicata and Mentha piperita, which were assigned to one cluster in the dendrogram, contained the highest amounts of essential oil and menthol while Micromeria species, which was in the distinct cluster and placed in the farther evolutionary distance, contained the lowest amount of essential oil and menthol. Phylogenetic and phytochemistry analyses showed that essential oil and menthol contents of menthol-producing species are associated with menthol dehydrogenase gene sequence.

  13. TRPM8 is the principal mediator of menthol-induced analgesia of acute and inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyi; Fan, Lu; Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Sui, Aiwei; Morris, John B; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2013-10-01

    Menthol, the cooling natural product of peppermint, is widely used in medicinal preparations for the relief of acute and inflammatory pain in sports injuries, arthritis, and other painful conditions. Menthol induces the sensation of cooling by activating TRPM8, an ion channel in cold-sensitive peripheral sensory neurons. Recent studies identified additional targets of menthol, including the irritant receptor, TRPA1, voltage-gated ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors. It remains unclear which of these targets contribute to menthol-induced analgesia, or to the irritating side effects associated with menthol therapy. Here, we use genetic and pharmacological approaches in mice to probe the role of TRPM8 in analgesia induced by L-menthol, the predominant analgesic menthol isomer in medicinal preparations. L-menthol effectively diminished pain behavior elicited by chemical stimuli (capsaicin, acrolein, acetic acid), noxious heat, and inflammation (complete Freund's adjuvant). Genetic deletion of TRPM8 completely abolished analgesia by L-menthol in all these models, although other analgesics (acetaminophen) remained effective. Loss of L-menthol-induced analgesia was recapitulated in mice treated with a selective TRPM8 inhibitor, AMG2850. Selective activation of TRPM8 with WS-12, a menthol derivative that we characterized as a specific TRPM8 agonist in cultured sensory neurons and in vivo, also induced TRPM8-dependent analgesia of acute and inflammatory pain. L-menthol- and WS-12-induced analgesia was blocked by naloxone, suggesting activation of endogenous opioid-dependent analgesic pathways. Our data show that TRPM8 is the principal mediator of menthol-induced analgesia of acute and inflammatory pain. In contrast to menthol, selective TRPM8 agonists may produce analgesia more effectively, with diminished side effects.

  14. Nicotine concentrations with electronic cigarette use: effects of sex and flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncken, Cheryl A; Litt, Mark D; McLaughlin, Lynn D; Burki, Nausherwan A

    2015-04-01

    This study examined overall changes in nicotine concentrations when using a popular e-cigarette and 18 mg/mL nicotine e-Juice, and it further explored effects of sex and flavorings on these concentrations. We recruited nontreatment-seeking smokers who were willing to try e-cigarettes for 2 weeks and abstain from cigarette smoking. Subjects were randomized to either menthol tobacco or non-menthol tobacco-flavored e-cigarette use for 7-10 days, and the next week they were crossed over to the other condition. On the last day of e-cigarette use of each flavor, subjects completed a laboratory session in which they used the e-cigarette for 5 min ad libitum. Nicotine concentrations were obtained 5 min before and 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min after the onset of e-cigarette use. Twenty subjects completed at least 1 monitoring session. Nicotine concentrations significantly increased from baseline to 5 min by 4 ng/mL at the first laboratory session (p flavor (based on smoking history) on changes in nicotine concentrations. After adding preferred flavor, sex, and visit order to the model, there was a significant preferred flavor by sex interaction (p flavors had lower nicotine concentrations and rated their e-cigarette as less likeable (p flavor may impact nicotine concentrations with e-cigarette use in women. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Trends in nicotine yield in smoke and its relationship with design characteristics among popular US cigarette brands, 1997-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Gregory N; Alpert, Hillel R; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Koh, Howard

    2007-10-01

    To determine whether nicotine yields in the smoke of cigarettes would show an overall increase over time or an increasing trend limited to any particular market category (eg, full flavour vs light, medium (mild) or ultralight; mentholated vs non-mentholated), manufacturer, or brand family or brand style, and whether nicotine yields in smoke would be associated with measurable trends in cigarette design. Machine-based measures of nicotine yield in smoke and measures of cigarette design features related to nicotine delivery (ventilation, nicotine content in the tobacco rod and number of puffs), as well as market category descriptors, were obtained from annual reports filed with the Massachusetts Department of Public by tobacco manufacturers for 1997-2005. Trends in nicotine yield and its relationship with design features and market parameters were analysed with multilevel mixed-effects regression modelling procedures. A statistically significant trend was confirmed in increased nicotine yield, of 0.019 (1.1%) mg/cig/year over the period 1997-2005 and 0.029 (1.6%) mg/cig/year over the period 1998-2005. The increasing trend was observed in all major market categories (mentholated vs non-mentholated, and full flavour vs light, medium (mild) or ultralight). Nicotine yield in smoke was positively associated with nicotine concentration in the tobacco and number of puffs per cigarette, both of which showed increasing trends during the study period. This study confirms increased machine-measured levels of nicotine, the addictive agent in cigarettes, in smoke, to be a result of increased nicotine in the tobacco rod and other design modifications.

  16. Trends in nicotine yield in smoke and its relationship with design characteristics among popular US cigarette brands, 1997–2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Gregory N; Alpert, Hillel R; Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Koh, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether nicotine yields in the smoke of cigarettes would show an overall increase over time or an increasing trend limited to any particular market category (eg, full flavour vs light, medium (mild) or ultralight; mentholated vs non‐mentholated), manufacturer, or brand family or brand style, and whether nicotine yields in smoke would be associated with measurable trends in cigarette design. Methods Machine‐based measures of nicotine yield in smoke and measures of cigarette design features related to nicotine delivery (ventilation, nicotine content in the tobacco rod and number of puffs), as well as market category descriptors, were obtained from annual reports filed with the Massachusetts Department of Public by tobacco manufacturers for 1997–2005. Trends in nicotine yield and its relationship with design features and market parameters were analysed with multilevel mixed‐effects regression modelling procedures. Results A statistically significant trend was confirmed in increased nicotine yield, of 0.019 (1.1%) mg/cig/year over the period 1997–2005 and 0.029 (1.6%) mg/cig/year over the period 1998–2005. The increasing trend was observed in all major market categories (mentholated vs non‐mentholated, and full flavour vs light, medium (mild) or ultralight). Nicotine yield in smoke was positively associated with nicotine concentration in the tobacco and number of puffs per cigarette, both of which showed increasing trends during the study period. Conclusions This study confirms increased machine‐measured levels of nicotine, the addictive agent in cigarettes, in smoke, to be a result of increased nicotine in the tobacco rod and other design modifications. PMID:17897974

  17. Conformational analysis of menthol diastereomers by NMR and DFT computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtner, Julia; Reinscheid, Uwe M.

    2008-01-01

    Correlations between experimental and calculated 13C chemical shifts were performed with the series of all menthol diastereomers. In this way it could be shown that identification problems with newly isolated natural products can be solved. Starting from simulated, low energy conformers of menthol, neomenthol, isomenthol, and neoisomenthol the 13C chemical shifts were obtained using DFT calculations [functional: B3LYP, basis set: 6-31G(d,p)]. Due to differences in chemical shifts, the prochiral methyl groups of the isopropyl substituent of menthol could be differentiated using the correlations between experimental and calculated values. A conformational scan of the dihedral angle of the isopropyl group allowed the determination of the dominating rotamers of menthol (+68.4°) and neomenthol (+172.5°) using 13C chemical shifts. The results were supported by energy calculations, 1JCH and 3JHH measurements. The correlations and 3JHH measurements for isomenthol indicate conformational averaging impeding the determination of the isopropyl group rotamer. For neoisomenthol, MD simulations showed two chair conformations. However, in contrast to calculated energies and correlations between theoretical and experimental 13C chemical shifts, the measured 3JH3H2 coupling of 6.3 Hz indicates an equally populated equilibrium of both conformers.

  18. Enantioselective recognition of menthol by mouse odorant receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, Yoshiki; Touhara, Kazushige

    2015-01-01

    The olfactory system has a remarkable ability to detect and discriminate a vast variety of odorant molecules. In mammals, hundreds to thousands of odorant receptors (ORs) expressed in olfactory sensory neurons play an essential role in this discrimination. Odorants are recognized by ORs in a combinatorial fashion in which a single odorant activates a particular combination of receptors, leading to its perception as a particular aroma. It is well known that enantiomers emit different aromas in spite of exhibiting otherwise identical chemical properties. To elucidate the molecular basis for the difference, we recorded responses to l- and d-menthol in the mouse olfactory bulb and found that enantiomers elicited similar but overlapping and distinct receptor activation patterns. We then identified l-menthol-specific and d-menthol-biased receptors and performed detailed structure-activity relationship studies, revealing high stereoselectivity of the enantiospecific menthol receptor. The binding site on ORs appears to have evolved to distinguish subtle differences in very similar odorant structures.

  19. Physiological and biochemical performances of menthol-induced aposymbiotic corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jih-Terng Wang

    Full Text Available The unique mutualism between corals and their photosynthetic zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium spp. is the driving force behind functional assemblages of coral reefs. However, the respective roles of hosts and Symbiodinium in this endosymbiotic association, particularly in response to environmental challenges (e.g., high sea surface temperatures, remain unsettled. One of the key obstacles is to produce and maintain aposymbiotic coral hosts for experimental purposes. In this study, a simple and gentle protocol to generate aposymbiotic coral hosts (Isopora palifera and Stylophora pistillata was developed using repeated incubation in menthol/artificial seawater (ASW medium under light and in ASW in darkness, which depleted more than 99% of Symbiodinium from the host within 4∼8 days. As indicated by the respiration rate, energy metabolism (by malate dehydrogenase activity, and nitrogen metabolism (by glutamate dehydrogenase activity and profiles of free amino acids, the physiological and biochemical performances of the menthol-induced aposymbiotic corals were comparable to their symbiotic counterparts without nutrient supplementation (e.g., for Stylophora or with a nutrient supplement containing glycerol, vitamins, and a host mimic of free amino acid mixture (e.g., for Isopora. Differences in biochemical responses to menthol-induced bleaching between Stylophora and Isopora were attributed to the former digesting Symbiodinium rather than expelling the algae live as found in the latter species. Our studies showed that menthol could successfully bleach corals and provided aposymbiotic corals for further exploration of coral-alga symbioses.

  20. The role of trigeminal nasal TRPM8-expressing afferent neurons in the antitussive effects of menthol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevkova, J; Kollarik, M; Poliacek, I; Brozmanova, M; Surdenikova, L; Tatar, M; Mori, N; Canning, B J

    2013-07-15

    The cold-sensitive cation channel TRPM8 is a target for menthol, which is used routinely as a cough suppressant and as an additive to tobacco and food products. Given that cold temperatures and menthol activate neurons through gating of TRPM8, it is unclear how menthol actively suppresses cough. In this study we describe the antitussive effects of (-)-menthol in conscious and anesthetized guinea pigs. In anesthetized guinea pigs, cough evoked by citric acid applied topically to the tracheal mucosa was suppressed by menthol only when it was selectively administered as vapors to the upper airways. Menthol applied topically to the tracheal mucosa prior to and during citric acid application or administered continuously as vapors or as an aerosol to the lower airways was without effect on cough. These actions of upper airway menthol treatment were mimicked by cold air delivered to the upper airways but not by (+)-menthol, the inactive isomer of menthol, or by the TRPM8/TRPA1 agonist icilin administered directly to the trachea. Subsequent molecular analyses confirmed the expression of TRPM8 in a subset of nasal trigeminal afferent neurons that do not coincidently express TRPA1 or TRPV1. We conclude that menthol suppresses cough evoked in the lower airways primarily through a reflex initiated from the nose.

  1. Menthol-induced action potentials in Conocephalum conicum as a result of unspecific interactions between menthol and the lipid phase of the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupisz, Kamila; Trebacz, Kazimierz; Gruszecki, Wiesław I

    2015-07-01

    Our previous study has shown that the liverwort Conocephalum conicum generates action potentials (APs) in response to both temperature drop and menthol, which are also activators of the TRPM8 (transient receptor potential melastatin 8) receptor in animals. Not only similarities but also differences between electrical reactions to menthol and cooling observed in the liverwort aroused our interest in the action of menthol at the molecular level. Patch-clamp investigations have shown that menthol causes a reduction of current flowing through slow vacuolar (SV) channels to 29 ± 10% of the initial value (n = 9); simultaneously, it does not influence magnitudes of currents passing through a single SV channel. This may point to an unspecific interaction between menthol and the lipid phase of the membrane. An influence of menthol on lipid organization in membranes was investigated in two-component monomolecular layers formed with menthol and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) at the argon-water interface. Analyses of the mean molecular area parameters vs the molar fraction of the menthol component have shown over-additivity (approximately 20 Å(2) ) in the region of high molar fractions of menthol. Infrared absorption spectroscopy studies have shown that menthol, most probably, induces breaking of a hydrogen bond network formed by ester carbonyl groups and water bridges in the lipid membrane and binds to the polar head group region of DPPC. We conclude that the disruption in the lipid phase of the membrane influences ion channels and/or pumps and subsequently causes generation of APs in excitable plants such as C. conicum.

  2. Prepartum body condition score and plane of nutrition affect the hepatic transcriptome during the transition period in grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vailati-Riboni, M; Meier, S; Burke, C R; Kay, J K; Mitchell, M D; Walker, C G; Crookenden, M A; Heiser, A; Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Roche, J R; Loor, J J

    2016-11-02

    A transcriptomic approach was used to evaluate potential interactions between prepartum body condition score (BCS) and feeding management in the weeks before calving on hepatic metabolism during the periparturient period. Thirty-two mid-lactation grazing dairy cows of mixed age and breed were randomly allocated to one of four treatment groups in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: two prepartum BCS categories [4.0 (thin, BCS4) and 5.0 (optimal, BCS5); based on a 10-point scale], and two levels of energy intake during the 3 weeks preceding calving (75 and 125 % of estimated requirements). Liver samples were obtained at -7, 7, and 28 d relative to parturition and subsequent RNA was hybridized to the Agilent 44 K Bovine (V2) Microarray chip. The Dynamic Impact Approach was used for pathway analysis, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used for gene network analysis. The greater number of differentially expressed genes in BCS4 cows in response to prepartum feed allowance (1071 vs 310, over the entire transition period) indicates that these animals were more responsive to prepartum nutrition management than optimally-conditioned cows. However, independent of prepartum BCS, pathway analysis revealed that prepartal feeding level had a marked effect on carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid, and glycan metabolism. Altered carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism suggest a greater and more prolonged negative energy balance postpartum in BCS5 cows overfed prepartum. This is supported by opposite effects of prepartum feeding in BCS4 compared with BCS5 cows in pathways encompassing amino acid, vitamin, and co-factor metabolism. The prepartum feed restriction ameliorates the metabolic adaptation to the onset of lactation in BCS5 cows, while detrimentally affecting BCS4 cows, which seem to better adapt when overfed. Alterations in the glycosaminoglycans synthesis pathway support this idea, indicating better hepatic health status in feed-restricted BCS5 and overfed BCS4 cows

  3. Storefront Cigarette Advertising Differs by Community Demographic Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Andrew B.; Caughey, Robert W.; Rees, Vaughan W.; Connolly, Gregory N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Tobacco manufacturers have targeted youth and ethnic/racial minorities with tailored advertising. Less is known about how characteristics of storefront tobacco advertisements, such as location, position, size, and content, are used to appeal to demographic subgroups. Design The occurrence and characteristics of storefront cigarette advertising were observed for all licensed tobacco retailers in two defined communities. Setting Measures were taken in two Boston, Massachusetts, area urban communities: a low-income, minority community and a high-income, nonminority community. Subjects No human subjects were involved in this study. Measures Advertisement position (attached or separated from storefront), size (small, medium, or large), mentholation, and price were recorded. Geographic coordinates of tobacco retailers and schools were mapped using ArcGIS 9.2. Analysis Differences between the communities in advertisement number and characteristics were assessed using bivariate analyses. Logistic regression was used to ascertain the odds of specific advertising features occurring in the low-income/minority community. Results The low-income/minority community had more tobacco retailers, and advertisements were more likely to be larger, promote menthol products, have a lower mean advertised price, and occur within 1000 feet of a school. Conclusion Storefront cigarette advertising characteristics that increase exposure and promote youth initiation were more prominent in a low-income/minority community. The findings emphasize the need for more effective regulation of storefront tobacco advertising. PMID:20594091

  4. 薄荷醇及其受体TRPM8与肿瘤关系研究进展%Research progress in the role of menthol and its receptor TRPM8 in tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晨; 江国荣; 陆茵; 刘兆国; 汪思亮; 盛晓波; 韦忠红; 杨召聪; 陈文星; 王爱云; 郑仕中

    2015-01-01

    薄荷是一种被广泛使用的植物药和食品添加剂,其发挥功能的主要成分为薄荷醇。研究发现薄荷醇具有抗炎镇痛、抗菌抗病毒及止咳等多种生理功能。近年来,研究发现薄荷醇具有明显的抗肿瘤活性,能抑制多种恶性肿瘤的生长和演进。然而,也有研究发现使用添加薄荷醇的香烟制品其肺癌发病率明显高于一般烟民。该文对薄荷醇的生理功能及其受体TRPM8进行综述,着重对近年来薄荷醇及其受体与肿瘤关系的研究进展进行综述,并探讨薄荷醇在临床应用的局限性和不良反应,为后续的科学研究及指导临床提供参考。%Mint is a widely used plant medicine and food addi-tives, whose main component is menthol. It has been found that menthol has many physiological functions such as anti-inflamma-tion, analgesia, antibacterial and antiviral. In recent years, a number of studies found that menthol had obvious antitumor ac-tivity and could inhibit the growth and evolution of a variety of malignant tumors. However, some studies also found that using menthol cigarettes products could result in significant higher in-cidence of lung cancer than normal smokers. This article mainly reviews the recent progress of physiological functions of menthol and its receptor TRPM8. We highlight the associations between menthol and its receptor TRPM8 with cancers. We also discuss the clinical limitation and adverse reactions of using menthol, which may provide valuable references for follow-up cancer-relat-ed studies.

  5. The effect of temperature and menthol on carbonation bite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Paul M; Bryant, Bruce

    2014-09-01

    Temperature and chemesthesis interact, but this interaction has not been fully examined for most irritants. The current experiments focus on oral pungency from carbonation. Previous work showed that cooling carbon dioxide (CO2) solutions to below tongue temperature enhanced rated bite. However, to the best of our knowledge, the effects of warming to above tongue temperature have not been examined. In Experiment 1, subjects sampled CO2 solutions at 4 nominal concentrations (0.0, 2.0, 2.8, and 4.0 v/v) × 5 temperatures (18.3, 24.5, 29.9, 34.5, and 39.6 (o)C). Subjects dipped their tongue tips into samples and rated bite. As in previous work, subjects rated cool solutions (25.0 (o)C and lower) as more intense. Warming solutions above tongue temperature (39.6 (o)C) did not affect ratings. Experiment 2 examined warmer temperatures (18.3, 33.9, 39.0, 44.9, and 48.2 ºC). Bite was enhanced only at 48.2 ºC, and a follow-up experiment suggested that enhancement was probably due to confusion between carbonation bite and mild heat pain. Experiment 3 examined the effect of menthol cooling by pretreating the tongue with menthol. Unlike physical cooling, menthol cooling had little or no effect on rated bite. The results are discussed in the context of candidate transduction mechanisms for carbonation sensation.

  6. Tetrodotoxin-dependent effects of menthol on mouse gastric motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Antonella; Baldassano, Sara; Serio, Rosa; Mulè, Flavia

    2013-10-15

    Menthol, the main active constituent of peppermint oil, exerts gut spasmolytic effects, although its mechanism of action remains unclear. We investigated the effects of menthol on gastric emptying and spontaneous- or evoked- mechanical activity of whole murine stomach. Gastric emptying was calculated after i.p. administration of menthol (50mg/Kg). Responses induced by menthol on gastric intraluminal pressure and evoked-cholinergic contractions were analyzed in vitro. Menthol decreased the gastric emptying rate. In vitro, menthol (0.3-30 mM) produced a concentration-dependent relaxation of whole stomach, that was significantly reduced by tetrodotoxin or ω-conotoxin GVIA. The gastric relaxant responses were not affected by Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, inhibitor of nitric oxide-synthase, apamin or [Lys1,Pro2,5,Arg3,4,Tyr6] vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)(7-28), a VIP receptor antagonist, but they were significantly antagonized by atropine or guanethidine, a blocker of adrenergic neurotransmission. The joint application of atropine and guanethidine did not produce any additive effects on menthol effects. Phentolamine, an α-adrenoceptor antagonist, but not propranolol, a β-adrenoceptor antagonist, significantly reduced menthol responses and the contemporary administration of both adrenergic antagonists did not produce additive effects. Menthol (1-100 μM) produced a reduction of the electrically-evoked cholinergic contractions, which was prevented by guanethidine. Menthol did not affect the contractions induced by carbachol. In conclusion, menthol in mouse, is able to reduce the rate of gastric emptying and to relax the stomach in vitro. The latter effect appears due, almost in part, to neural mechanisms, with involvement of α-adrenoceptors leading to reduction of tonic ongoing release of acetylcholine.

  7. Relationship of prepartum udder and teat measurements with subsequent milk production traits in primiparous Nili-Ravi buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chandrasekar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted to find out the relationship of prepartum udder and teat measurements with subsequent milk production traits in primiparous Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Materials and Methods: A total of 12 Nili-Ravi buffalo heifers were selected from Buffalo Farm, Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes, Regional Station- Bir Dosanjh, Nabha, Patiala, Punjab. The udder length (UL, udder width (UW, udder depth, teat length (TL, teat diameter (TD, and teat distances were measured at fortnightly interval from 60 days prepartum until calving. After calving, 60 days total milk yield (TDMY, peak yield (PY, and days taken to attain PY (DPY were also recorded. The correlation coefficients of various prepartum udder and teat measurements since 60 days prepartum to calving with 60 days TDMY, PY, and DPY were calculated to find out the relationship between the traits in primiparous Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Results: The result envisaged that all udder and teat measurements were increased gradually toward the date of calving in primiparous buffaloes. The UL, UW, left fore (LF and right rear (RRTL, RRTD, and the distance between LF to left rear (LR teat were positively correlated with 60 days TDMY. The UL and UW depicted positive but nonsignificant correlation with PY. Fore TLs showed positive correlation where as TDs and teat distances had a negative correlation with the DPY in primiparous Nili-Ravi buffaloes. Conclusion: It was concluded that milk production performance could be assessed on the basis of prepartum udder and teat measurements in primiparous Nili-Ravi buffaloes.

  8. Electrospinning of functional poly(methyl methacrylate) nanofibers containing cyclodextrin-menthol inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uyar, Tamer; Nur, Yusuf; Hacaloglu, Jale; Besenbacher, Flemming

    2009-03-01

    Electrospinning of nanofibers with cyclodextrin inclusion complexes (CD-ICs) is particularly attractive since distinct properties can be obtained by combining the nanofibers with specific functions of the CD-ICs. Here we report on the electrospinning of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibers containing cyclodextrin-menthol inclusion complexes (CD-menthol-ICs). These CD-menthol-IC functionalized nanofibers were developed with the purpose of producing functional nanofibers that contain fragrances/flavors with high temperature stability, and menthol was used as a model fragrance/flavor material. The PMMA nanofibers were electrospun with CD-menthol-ICs using three type of CD: α-CD, β-CD, and γ-CD. Direct pyrolysis mass spectrometry (DP-MS) studies showed that the thermal evaporation of menthol occurred over a very high and a broad temperature range (100-355 °C) for PMMA/CDmenthol-IC nanowebs, demonstrating the complexation of menthol with the CD cavity and its high temperature stability. Furthermore, as the size of CD cavity increased in the order α-CDmenthol shifted to higher temperatures, suggesting that the strength of interaction between menthol and the CD cavity is in the order γ-CD>β-CD>α-CD.

  9. Determination of Menthol in Plasma and Urine by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peat, Judy; Frazee, Clint; Kearns, Gregory; Garg, Uttam

    2016-01-01

    Menthol, a monoterpene, is a principal component of peppermint oil and is used extensively in consumer products as a flavoring aid. It is also commonly used medicinally as a topical skin coolant; to treat inflammation of the mucous membranes, digestive problems, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); and in preventing spasms during endoscopy and for its spasmolytic effect on the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Menthol has a half life of 3-6 h and is rapidly metabolized to menthol glucuronide which is detectable in urine and serum following menthol use. We describe a method for the determination of total menthol in human plasma and urine using liquid/liquid extraction, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in selected ion monitoring mode and menthol-d4 as the internal standard. Controls are prepared with menthol glucuronide and all samples undergo enzymatic hydrolysis for the quantification of total menthol. The method has a linear range of 5-1000 ng/mL, and coefficient of variation <10%.

  10. SHORT-TERM TOXICITY STUDY IN RATS DOSED WITH PULEGONE AND MENTHOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, I.; Würtzen, G.; Carstensen, J.

    1983-01-01

    Pulegone and menthol, components of peppermint oil, were investigated in rats. The substances were administered by gavage for 28 days at 0, 20, 80, 160 mg pulegone and 0, 200, 400, 800 mg menthol/kg body wt./day, respectively. At the two highest doses, pulegone induced atonia, decreased blood...

  11. The dark side of marketing seemingly "Light" cigarettes: successful images and failed fact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollay, R W; Dewhirst, T

    2002-03-01

    To understand the development, intent, and consequences of US tobacco industry advertising for low machine yield cigarettes. Analysis of trade sources and internal US tobacco company documents now available on various web sites created by corporations, litigation, or public health bodies. When introducing low yield products, cigarette manufacturers were concerned about maintaining products with acceptable taste/flavour and feared consumers might become weaned from smoking. Several tactics were employed by cigarette manufacturers, leading consumers to perceive filtered and low machine yield brands as safer relative to other brands. Tactics include using cosmetic (that is, ineffective) filters, loosening filters over time, using medicinal menthol, using high tech imagery, using virtuous brand names and descriptors, adding a virtuous variant to a brand's product line, and generating misleading data on tar and nicotine yields. Advertisements of filtered and low tar cigarettes were intended to reassure smokers concerned about the health risks of smoking, and to present the respective products as an alternative to quitting. Promotional efforts were successful in getting smokers to adopt filtered and low yield cigarette brands. Corporate documents demonstrate that cigarette manufacturers recognised the inherent deceptiveness of cigarette brands described as "Light"or "Ultra-Light" because of low machine measured yields.

  12. The menthol marketing mix: targeted promotions for focus communities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Tess Boley; Wright, La Tanisha; Crawford, George

    2010-12-01

    This study analyzes tobacco industry menthol marketing strategies aimed at urban predominantly Black populations. Data are drawn from an interview with a former Brown & Williamson Tobacco Company trade marketing manager, tobacco industry documents on Kool promotions in urban areas, and public health literature on tobacco marketing. Tobacco companies recognize the growth potential for the menthol segment in these urban communities. They have higher levels of price discounts and signage, exert tight controls over the retail environment, and use hip-hop lifestyle to associate menthol products with urban nightlife, music, fame, and cultural edginess among younger smokers. Tobacco companies regard the urban Black menthol segment as one of the few markets in which they can grow sales despite declines elsewhere in the United States. Consequently, this population is surrounded by intense and integrated levels of marketing. We need strong monitoring, regulation, and enforcement efforts that will counter the industry's use of menthol at multiple levels in urban environments.

  13. Polarized Raman optical activity of menthol and related molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, L. D.; Hecht, L.; Blyth, S. M.

    1989-01-01

    Polarized and depolarized Raman optical activity spectra of menthol, menthyl chloride, neomenthol and neothiomenthol from 800 to 1500 cm -1 are reported. Despite axial symmetry in all the bonds, the presence of the heteroatoms O or S seems to induce large deviations from the expected ratio of 2:1 between the polarized and depolarized Raman optical activity intensities, but Cl does not. These deviations might originate in large electric quadrupole contributions induced by excited state interactions involving O or S Rydberg p orbitals and valence orbitals on other parts of the molecule. Such interactions appear to undermine the bond polarizability theory of Raman intensities.

  14. The absorption and metabolism of a single L-menthol oral versus skin administration: Effects on thermogenesis and metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Angelica; Carrillo, Andres E; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Vakonaki, Elena; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Kenny, Glen P; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Flouris, Andreas D

    2015-12-01

    We investigated the absorption and metabolism pharmacokinetics of a single L-menthol oral versus skin administration and the effects on human thermogenesis and metabolic rate. Twenty healthy adults were randomly distributed into oral (capsule) and skin (gel) groups and treated with 10 mg kg(-1) L-menthol (ORALMENT; SKINMENT) or control (lactose capsule: ORALCON; water application: SKINCON) in a random order on two different days. Levels of serum L-menthol increased similarly in ORALMENT and SKINMENT (p > 0.05). L-menthol glucuronidation was greater in ORALMENT than SKINMENT (p  0.05). Participants reported no cold, shivering, discomfort, stress or skin irritation. We conclude that a single L-menthol skin administration increased thermogenesis and metabolic rate in humans. These effects are minor following L-menthol oral administration probably due to faster glucuronidation and greater blood menthol glucuronide levels.

  15. Flavoured non-cigarette tobacco product use among US adults: 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhomme, Michèle G; Holder-Hayes, Enver; Ambrose, Bridget K; Tworek, Cindy; Feirman, Shari P; King, Brian A; Apelberg, Benjamin J

    2016-11-01

    Limited data exist on flavoured non-cigarette tobacco product (NCTP) use among US adults. Data from the 2013 to 2014 National Adult Tobacco Survey (N=75 233), a landline and cellular telephone survey of US adults aged ≥18, were assessed to estimate past 30-day NCTP use, flavoured NCTP use and flavour types using bivariate analyses. During 2013-2014, 14.4% of US adults were past 30-day NCTP users. Nationally, an estimated 10.2 million e-cigarette users (68.2%), 6.1 million hookah users (82.3%), 4.1 million cigar smokers (36.2%) and 4.0 million smokeless tobacco users (50.6%) used flavoured products in the past 30 days. The most prevalent flavours reported were menthol/mint (76.9%) for smokeless tobacco; fruit (74.0%) for hookah; fruit (52.4%), candy/chocolate/other sweet flavours (22.0%) and alcohol (14.5%) for cigars/cigarillos/filtered little cigars; fruit (44.9%), menthol/mint (43.9%) and candy/chocolate/other sweet flavours (25.7%) for e-cigarettes and fruit (56.6%), candy/chocolate/other sweet flavours (26.5%) and menthol/mint (24.8%) for pipes. Except for hookah and pipes, past 30-day flavoured product use was highest among 18-24-year olds. By cigarette smoking, never smoking e-cigarette users (84.8%) were more likely to report flavoured e-cigarette use, followed by recent former smokers (78.1%), long-term former smokers (70.4%) and current smokers (63.2%). Flavoured NCTP use is prominent among US adult tobacco users, particularly among e-cigarette, hookah and cigar users. Flavoured product use, especially fruit and sweet-flavoured products, was higher among younger adults. It is important for tobacco prevention and control strategies to address all forms of tobacco use, including flavoured tobacco products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  16. Low-Yield Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Division of Reproductive Health More CDC Sites Low-Yield Cigarettes Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... they compensate when smoking them. Smokers Who Use Low-Yield Cigarettes Many smokers consider smoking low-yield ...

  17. Menthol reduces the anticoagulant effect of warfarin by inducing cytochrome P450 2C expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Motohiro; Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Tsukui, Makoto; Kurokawa, Asako; Naito, Rina; Suzuki, Midori; Yokobori, Kohsuke; Ochiai, Takumi; Ishii, Makoto; Kusunoki, Yoshiki; Kon, Risako; Ochiai, Wataru; Wakui, Nobuyuki; Machida, Yoshiaki; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2014-06-02

    Recently, it was reported that the anticoagulant effect of warfarin was reduced when patients receiving warfarin also took menthol. The purpose of this study is to reveal the mechanism of this reduced anticoagulant effect of warfarin from the pharmacokinetic point of view. Warfarin was orally administered to mice 24h after the administration of menthol for 2 days, and the plasma warfarin concentration was measured. In the menthol administration group, the area under the blood concentration time curve of warfarin was decreased by approximately 25%, while total clearance was increased to 1.3-fold compared to the control group. The hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C protein expression level in the menthol administration group was significantly increased compared to that in the control group. An increase in the nuclear translocation of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) was also observed. The addition of menthol to human hepatic cells, HepaRG cells, caused an increase in the mRNA expression level of CYP2C9. The results of this study revealed that menthol causes an increase in CYP2C expression levels in the liver, which leads to an enhancement of warfarin metabolism, resulting in a decreased anticoagulant effect of warfarin. It was also suggested that menthol acted directly on the liver and increased the expression level of CYP2C by enhancing the nuclear translocation of CAR.

  18. Effect of Menthol on Respiratory and Perceptual Responses to Exercise in Firefighter Protective Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Impaired respiration reduces firefighters’ work capacity. This study evaluated the effect of menthol lozenge on respiratory and perceptual responses during exercise in a hot environment. Ten participants wearing firefighter protective gear performed two repeated exercise and rest trials in a counter-balanced order. Exercise consisted of two bouts of 20-min treadmill exercise at 60% of maximal oxygen uptake and one bout of 20-min stepping exercise at a wet bulb global temperature of 35°C. Participants either took 10-mg menthol or control lozenges prior to the beginning of each exercise bout. Respiratory gas exchange, heart rate, thermal sensation, and breathing comfort were continuously recorded. Menthol lozenges significantly increased pulmonary ventilation (menthol: 45.0±6.6 L•min-1 vs. control: 41.4±5.8 L•min-1 and menthol: 52.7±9.7 L•min-1 vs. control: 46.5±7.0 L•min-1, for the 1st and 2nd treadmill exercise, respectively and oxygen consumption (menthol: 26.7±2.0 ml•kg-1•min-1 vs. control: 25.2±2.3 ml•kg-1•min-1 and menthol: 28.8±2.3 ml•kg-1•min-1 vs. control: 26.9±1.9 ml•kg-1•min-1, for the 1st and 2nd treadmill exercise, respe¬cti¬ve¬ly (p0.05. The ventilatory equivalents though were not different throughout the exercise (p>0.05. Ratings of thermal sensation and breathing comfort were not different (p>0.05. It was concluded that menthol could alter breathing pattern and increase respiratory responses during strenuous exercise in the heat. There was no favorable effect of menthol on respiratory or perceptual responses under exercise-heat stress.

  19. When choice makes sense: menthol influence on mating, oviposition and fecundity in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehbia eABED-VIEILLARD

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe environment to which insects have been exposed as larvae and adults can affect subsequent behaviors, such as mating, oviposition, food preference or fitness. Experience can change female preference for oviposition, particularly in phytophagous insects. In Drosophila melanogaster, females avoid laying eggs on menthol rich-food when given the choice. Exposure to menthol during larval development reduces this aversion. However, this observation was not reproduced in the following generation. Recently, we have shown that oviposition-site preference (OSP differs between wild-type D. melanogaster lines freely or forcibly exposed to menthol. After 12 generations, menthol forced lines still exhibit a persistent aversion to menthol whereas ‘free-choice’ lines show a decreased aversion for menthol rich-food. Here, we compare courtship behavior, mating and female fecundity in forced and free-choice lines, raised either on menthol rich-food (Menthol-lines or on menthol-free food (Plain-lines. Forced males did not discriminate between decapitated virgin females of the two lines. They courted and mated with intact females of both forced lines in a comparable rate. However forced M-line males did mate significantly more rapidly with forced M-line females. In the free-choice procedure, P-line males show a similar pattern as forced males for discrimination ability and courtship. M-line males courted significantly more M-line females. Both ‘free-choice’ lines males mated significantly more with females of their own line. Female fecundity was assessed during ten days in ‘free-choice’ lines. Menthol-line females laid more eggs during the first four days than female Plain-lines and parental control-line. The total number of eggs laid during the first ten days of female adult life is comparable in M-line and parental control line. However, Menthol-line females laid eggs earlier than both parental control and Plain-lines. Our findings show that

  20. Effects of Increasing Prepartum Dietary Protein Level Using Poultry by-Product Meal on Productive Performance and Health of Multiparous

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hossein Yazdi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two levels of crude protein using poultry by-product meals (PBPM fed during late gestation on the performance, blood metabolites, and colostrum composition of Holstein dairy cows. Sixteen multiparous cows 26±6 d before expected calving were assigned randomly to two treatments containing 1 14% and 2 16% crude protein. The cow’s BCS was 3.56 ± 0.5 on average, at the beginning of the trial. Yields of milk, protein, lactose, fat, and SNF were not affected by prepartum dietary CP level. Colostrum composition (fat, CP and Total solids, blood metabolites (Ca, Glucose, Total protein, Albumin, Globulin and Urea N, and metabolic diseases incidence were not influenced by prepartum dietary CP level. There was no significant difference between treatments in body weight and BCS changes. As expected, blood urea N before calving was higher in the cows fed 16% CP diets. Serum cholesterol during prepartum and postpartum periods was significantly decreased as the CP increased in the diet. In general, although postpartum glucose level increased in cows which received 16% CP in the diet, it seems that no other obvious advantages over feeding the 14% CP diet are apparent. So feeding this last diet is recommended to close up cows.

  1. Effects of two different prepartum diets on some metabolic traits and productive response in multiparous Holstein cows in early lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Gabai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-six multiparous Italian Holstein cows were used to compare two feeding strategies for the prepartum period. Cowswere allocated to two dietary treatments on the basis of their parity (3.1 ± 1.1 and mature equivalent production (11473± 1449 kg. From 20 ± 7 d precalving to the calving day, one group of 13 cows (parity = 3.1 ± 1.0; mature equivalentproduction = 11473 ± 1606 kg was fed a Control diet made by mixing a 50:50 as fed combination of the far off dryration and the lactation diet fed postpartum. The remaining cows (parity = 3.1 ± 1.1; mature equivalent production =11473 ± 1338 kg were fed a prepartum diet (Anionic obtained by supplementing the far off dry ration with energy andprotein sources plus calcium chloride. This diet had a lower dietary cation-anion difference than the Control diet (7.35 vs26.66 meq/100 g DM; Pfed the Anionic diet had the lowest DM intake during the prepartum (12.0 vs 13.4 kg/d; Pshowed a limited drop in plasma Ca reducing the incidence of subclinical hypocalcaemia in comparison with the Controlgroup (8 vs 62%; Pof hepatic function (aspartate-amino transferase, ϒ-glutamil transferase, creatin-kinase and bilirubine. After calving,all the cows were co-mingled and fed the same lactation ration and those that had received the Anionic diet duringthe prepartum showed a significant increase in milk yield with no changes in milk quality. Average production at the peakof lactation was 43.8 kg/d for Control cows while it raised up to 47.8 kg/d (Pduring the prepartum. This positive result was obtained with a lower loss in cows’ body condition score measured at 30and 60 days in milk and without any effect on the uterine involution process. The use of the Anionic diet has proven tobe an effective alternative to the common practice of feeding close-up diets made by a partial replacement of the far offdry ration with the diet fed to the lactating cows. This strategy should be particularly recommended for dairy

  2. GC Method Validation for the Analysis of Menthol in Suppository Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad N. Abualhasan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Menthol is widely used as a fragrance and flavor in the food and cosmetic industries. It is also used in the medical and pharmaceutical fields for its various biological effects. Gas chromatography (GC is considered to be a sensitive method for the analysis of menthol. GC chromatographic separation was developed using capillary column (VF-624 and a flame ionization detector (FID. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines for various parameters such as precision, linearity, accuracy, solution stability, robustness, limit of detection, and quantification. The tested validation parameters were found to be within acceptable limits. The method was successfully applied for the quantification of menthol in suppositories formulations. Quality control departments and official pharmacopeias can use our developed method in the analysis of menthol in pharmaceutical dosage formulation and raw material.

  3. Capsaicin and menthol in the treatment of itch and pain: recently cloned receptors provide the key

    OpenAIRE

    Anand, P.

    2003-01-01

    Topical capsaicin is reported to be an effective treatment for idiopathic intractable pruritis ani. While both capsaicin and menthol application produce a transient perianal burning sensation, only capsaicin relieves itching. Classical observations on functional desensitisation of nociceptors by capsaicin may explain the beneficial effects but the recent discovery of a range of receptors which respond to capsaicin, menthol, and temperature, and their expression in subsets of sensory nerve fib...

  4. Concentrations of sialyloligosaccharides in bovine colostrum and milk during the prepartum and early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T; Kawase, H; Kimura, K; Watanabe, Y; Ohtani, M; Arai, I; Urashima, T

    2003-04-01

    Sialyloligosaccharides and sialylglycoconjugates in colostrum and milk are regarded to be important biological components with respect to be source of brain gangliosides in infant and to be antiinfectional components for the attack by the pathogenic bacteria and virus. Several acidic oligosaccharides have been characterised in both bovine and human milk or colostrum. The sialyloligosaccharide content of human colostrum and milk has been extensively studied, whereas that of cows milk and colostrum has received less attention. In this study, the concentrations of three sialyloligosaccharides of bovine colostrum and milk were determined at various stages during the prepartum and the first 7 d postpartum. The concentration of 3'SL (Neu5Ac(alpha2-3)Gal(beta1-4)Glc) reached a maximum value of 0.85 mg/ml immediately following parturition while the concentrations of 6'SL (Neu5Ac(alpha2-6)Gal(beta1-4)Glc) and 6'SLN (Neu5Ac(alpha2-6)Gal(beta1-4)GlcNAc) of 0.14 and 0.12 mg/ml, respectively, were much lower at this initial stage, although these concentration were maximum immediately following parturition. Bovine colostrum, especially that collected immediately after parturition, may be suitable as a source of 3'SL and other sialyloligosaccharides for use as additives by the food or pharmaceutical industries.

  5. Proteomics indicates modulation of tubulin polymerization by L-menthol inhibiting human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridi, Uzma; Sisodia, Brijesh S; Shukla, Ashutosh K; Shukla, Rakesh K; Darokar, Mahendra P; Dwivedi, Upendra N; Shasany, Ajit K

    2011-05-01

    Menthol is a naturally occurring cyclic monoterpene used in oral hygiene products, confectionary, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, pesticides, and as a flavoring agent. In the present study, we analyzed the differentially expressing proteome in L-menthol-treated Caco-2 cell line as it was found to inhibit cell proliferation. Interestingly, free tubulin proteins were observed to be limited after menthol treatment. Semiquantitative RT-PCR with α-tubulin primers showed no change in the level of RNA expression in menthol-treated cell line. However, tubulin polymerization assay with menthol indicated a trend similar to taxol in promoting microtubule assembly. Further, physical counting of apoptotic nuclei and active caspase-3 assays confirmed onset of apoptosis though the rate was slower as compared with that of taxol treatment. This study is the first report of a monoterpene L-menthol modulating tubulin polymerization and apoptosis to inhibit cancer cell proliferation.

  6. Repurposing L-Menthol for Systems Medicine and Cancer Therapeutics? L-Menthol Induces Apoptosis through Caspase 10 and by Suppressing HSP90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faridi, Uzma; Dhawan, Sunita S; Pal, Shaifali; Gupta, Sanchita; Shukla, Ashutosh K; Darokar, Mahendra P; Sharma, Ashok; Shasany, Ajit K

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to repurpose L-menthol, which is frequently used in oral health and topical formulations, for cancer therapeutics. In this article, we argue that monoterpenes such as L-menthol might offer veritable potentials in systems medicine, for example, as cheaper anti-cancer compounds. Other monoterpenes such as limonene, perillyl alcohol, and geraniol have been shown to induce apoptosis in various cancer cell lines, but their mechanisms of action are yet to be completely elucidated. Earlier, we showed that L-menthol modulates tubulin polymerization and apoptosis to inhibit cancer cell proliferation. In the present report, we used an apoptosis-related gene microarray in conjunction with proteomics analyses, as well as in silico interpretations, to study gene expression modulation in human adenocarcinoma Caco-2 cell line in response to L-menthol treatment. The microarray analysis identified caspase 10 as the important initiator caspase, instead of caspase 8. The proteomics analyses showed downregulation of HSP90 protein (also corroborated by its low transcript abundance), which in turn indicated inhibition of AKT-mediated survival pathway, release of pro-apoptotic factor BAD from BAD and BCLxL complex, besides regulation of other factors related to apoptosis. Based on the combined microarray, proteomics, and in silico data, a signaling pathway for L-menthol-induced apoptosis is being presented for the first time here. These data and literature analysis have significant implications for "repurposing" L-menthol beyond oral medicine, and in understanding the mode of action of plant-derived monoterpenes towards development of cheaper anticancer drugs in future.

  7. Cigarette use, Cigarette Consumption and Price of Cigarette

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JingMing Li

    2016-01-01

    两种经验方法在这篇研究论文中使用,为了调查在美国香烟价格跟香烟需求的关系通过可以找到的数据信息。这篇论文的目的为了调查香烟的价格是否是一个强有力的方式去减少香烟的需求。论文中的的数据收集来源于美国的48个州从1985年到1995年,目的是检测香烟价格跟其他独立的变量对香烟需求的作用。最小二乘回归模型跟虚拟变量的最小二乘法模型已经使用去决定香烟价格的作用。此外,其他因素像人均GDP,人口,CPI也使用在模型中去证实潜在的关系对于香烟需求。报告结果显示了任何方式的香烟价格上升将会导致个人香烟需求的下降。香烟需求的百分比下降取决于香烟价格的百分比上升,这个现象可以通过需求的价格弹性去估量。基于报告的分析可以放心的作出结论,香烟价格上升仍然是一种有效的工具去减少香烟的需求。%In this research paper two empirical methodologies are used for studying the relation between cigarette price and cigarette consumption in America with available statistical information. The purpose of the paper is to investigate whether the price of cigarette is a powerful method for cutting cigarette consumption. The statistical information used in the paper is collected from 48 U.S. states over the period from 1985 to 1995 for examining the effect of cigarette price and others independent variables on cigarette consumption. Ordinary least squares (OLS) regression model and Least square dummy variable model are used to determine effect of cigarette price. Furthermore, other factors such as GDP per capita, population and Consumer price index (CPI), have been added into the model to attest to their potential nexuses with cigarette consumption. The result of the report shows that any increase in the price of cigarettes will decrease personal consumption of cigarettes. Higher prices increase costs to

  8. Encapsulation of l-menthol in hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and release characteristics of the inclusion complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Guangyong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available l-menthol has been widely used in flavour, food and pharmaceuticals. Because of its high volatility and whisker growth, l-menthol-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex was produced to improve shelf-life, provide protection, and enhance the stability of l-menthol. The inclusion complex was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction. The results show that l-menthol was successfully encapsulated in hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin. l-menthol loading capacity is about 8.44%. Geometries and binding energies of l-menthol-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes were investigated using molecular mechanics calculations. The shape and orientation of the most stable complex, and the minimum binding energy were determined. L-menthol release from complex was determined by thermogravimetric analysis. Two l-menthol release rate peaks were observed at 69.3 and 279.1°C. The l-menthol release reaction order, release activation energy and the preexponential factor were obtained.

  9. A "clean cigarette" for a clean nation: a case study of Salem Pianissimo in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunta, M; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To illustrate, through internal industry documents, how RJ Reynolds exploited the concerns of the Japanese society about cleanliness to market the concept of cleaner, implicitly healthier cigarettes in Japan. Systematic keyword and opportunistic website searches of formerly private internal industry documents. Industry documents show that RJ Reynolds developed marketing plans based upon their cultural assumptions of Japanese people as fastidious about hygiene and manners, and with relatively high penchants to try new products. RJ Reynolds found there was also a growing concern for health, the environment, and smokers were conscious about annoying others. Deodorised consumer products were one of Japan's biggest trends. These characteristics presented RJ Reynolds with a profitable formula for marketing Salem Pianissimo, a clean cigarette with less smell and smoke. Salem Pianissimo, a 100 mm cigarette claiming to contain 1 mg tar and 0.1 mg nicotine, targeted women since menthol cigarettes were popular among 18-24 year old female smokers, although Japan's law prohibited those below 20 years to smoke and the tobacco industry had a voluntary code disallowing advertising to women and youth. RJ Reynolds successfully launched its clean cigarette, Salem Pianissimo, in Japan aiming to exploit perceived cultural characteristics such as a penchant for cleanliness, an eagerness to try new products, and social harmony.

  10. Carbonyl compounds generated from electronic cigarettes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bekki, Kanae; Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Ohta, Kazushi; Inaba, Yohei; Nakagome, Hideki; Kunugita, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes...

  11. Effect of stocking density on social, feeding, and lying behavior of prepartum dairy animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobeck-Luchterhand, K M; Silva, P R B; Chebel, R C; Endres, M I

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of prepartum stocking density on social, lying, and feeding behavior of dairy animals and to investigate the relationship between social rank and stocking density. In total, 756 Jersey animals were enrolled in the study approximately 4 wk before expected calving date. This study used 8 experimental units (4 replicates × 2 pens/treatment per replicate), and at each replicate, one pen each of nulliparous and parous (primiparous and multiparous) animals per treatment was enrolled. The 2 treatments were 80% stocking density (80D, 38 animals per pen; each pen with 48 headlocks and 44 stalls) and 100% stocking density (100D, 48 animals per pen). Parous animals were housed separately from nulliparous animals. Animals at 254±3d of gestation were balanced for parity (parous vs. nulliparous) and projected 305-d mature-equivalent milk yield (only parous animals) and randomly assigned to either 80D or 100D. Displacements from the feed bunk were measured for 3h after fresh feed delivery on d 2, 5, and 7 of each week. Feeding behavior was measured for 24-h periods (using 10-min video scan sampling) on d 2, 5, and 7 on wk 1 of every replicate and d 2 and 5 for the following 4 wk. A displacement index (proportion of successful displacements from the feed bunk relative to all displacements the animal was involved in) was calculated for each animal and used to categorize animals into ranking categories of high, middle, and low. Seventy nulliparous and 64 parous focal animals in the 80D treatment and 89 nulliparous and 74 parous focal animals in the 100D were used to describe lying behavior (measured with data loggers). Animals housed at 80D had fewer daily displacements from the feed bunk than those housed at 100D (15.2±1.0 vs. 21.3±1.0 per day). Daily feeding times differed between nulliparous and parous animals at the 2 stocking densities. Nulliparous 80D animals spent 12.4±5.0 fewer minutes per day feeding than

  12. Involvement of cholinergic nicotinic receptors in the menthol-induced gastric relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Antonella; Serio, Rosa; Mulè, Flavia

    2014-12-15

    We have previously demonstrated that menthol reduces murine gastric tone in part through a neural mechanism, involving adrenergic pathways and reduction of ongoing release of acetylcholine from enteric nerves. In the present study we aimed to verify whether the gastric relaxation to menthol may be triggered by interaction with neural receptors or ionic channels proteins, such as transient receptor potential (TRP)-melastatin8 (TRPM8), TRP-ankyrin 1 (TRPA1), 5-hydroxytriptamine 3 (5-HT3) receptor or cholinergic nicotinic receptors. Spontaneous mechanical activity was detected in vitro as changes in intraluminal pressure from isolated mouse stomach. Menthol (0.3-30 mM) induced gastric relaxation which was not affected by 5-benzyloxytryptamine, a TRPM8 receptor antagonist, HC030031, a TRPA1 channel blocker. In addition, allylisothiocyanate, a TRPA1 agonist, but not (2S,5R)-2-Isopropyl-N-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-methylcyclohexanecarboximide, a selective TRPM8 agonist, induced gastric relaxation. Genic expression of TRPA1, but not of TRPM8, was revealed in mouse stomach. Indeed, menthol-induced gastric relaxation was significantly reduced by hexamethonium, cholinergic nicotinic receptor antagonist. Menthol, at concentrations that failed to affect gastric tone, reduced the contraction induced by dimethylphenylpiperazinium, nicotinic receptor agonist. The joint application of hexamethonium and atropine, muscarinc receptor antagonist, or hexamethonium and phentholamine, α-adrenergic receptor antagonist, did not produce any additive reduction of the relaxant response to menthol. Lastly, ondansetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, was ineffective. In conclusion, our study suggests that nicotinic receptors, but not TRP and 5-HT3 receptors, are molecular targets for menthol inducing murine gastric relaxation, ultimately due to the reduction of acetylcholine release from enteric nerves.

  13. Effects of menthol on circular smooth muscle of human colon: analysis of the mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Antonella; Liotta, Rosa; Mulè, Flavia

    2014-10-05

    Menthol is the major constituent of peppermint oil, an herbal preparation commonly used to treat nausea, spasms during colonoscopy and irritable bowel disease. The mechanism responsible for its spasmolytic action remains unclear. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects induced by menthol on the human distal colon mechanical activity in vitro and to analyze the mechanism of action. The spontaneous or evoked-contractions of the circular smooth muscle were recorded using vertical organ bath. Menthol (0.1 mM-30 mM) reduced, in a concentration-dependent manner, the amplitude of the spontaneous contractions without affecting the frequency and the resting basal tone. The inhibitory effect was not affected by 5-benzyloxytryptamine (1 μM), a transient receptor potential-melastatin8 channel antagonist, or tetrodotoxin (1 μM), a neural blocker, or 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (10 µM), inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO)-sensitive soluble guanylyl cyclase, or tetraethylammonium (10 mM), a blocker of potassium (K+)-channels. On the contrary, nifedipine (3 nM), a voltage-activated L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, significantly reduced the inhibitory menthol actions. Menthol also reduced in a concentration-dependent manner the contractile responses caused by exogenous application of Ca2+ (75-375 μM) in a Ca2+-free solution, or induced by potassium chloride (KCl; 40 mM). Moreover menthol (1-3 mM) strongly reduced the electrical field stimulation (EFS)-evoked atropine-sensitive contractions and the carbachol-contractile responses. The present results suggest that menthol induces spasmolytic effects in human colon circular muscle inhibiting directly the gastrointestinal smooth muscle contractility, through the block of Ca2+ influx through sarcolemma L-type Ca2+ channels.

  14. Short communication: Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on Brix values and fatty acid profile of colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, R; Ambrose, D J; Oba, M

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of oilseeds supplemented in prepartum diets on colostrum quality. Thirty-nine dry pregnant Holstein cows (14 primiparous and 25 multiparous cows) were blocked by body condition score and parity and assigned to 1 of 3 experimental diets containing rolled oilseeds at 8% of dietary dry matter (canola seed or sunflower seed) or no oilseed (control) at 35 d before the expected calving date. Canola seed is high in oleic acid and sunflower seed is high in linoleic acid content. Colostrum samples were collected at the first milking after calving, and concentrations of nutrient composition, fatty acid profile, and Brix value (an indicator IgG concentration) were determined. Cows fed sunflower seeds before calving produced colostrum with greater crude protein content (15.0 vs. 12.9%), colostral Brix values (24.3 vs. 20.3%), and conjugated linoleic acid concentration (18:2 cis-9,trans-11; 0.64 vs. 0.48%) compared with those fed canola seed. Positive effects of feeding sunflower seed might be mediated by ruminal metabolism of linoleic acid and subsequent enhanced production of conjugated linoleic acid. Oilseed supplementation in prepartum diets of dairy cows also altered fatty acid profile of colostrum in a way to reflect fatty acid profile of the supplemented oilseeds except for oleic acid. In conclusion, prepartum feeding of sunflower seed increased colostral Brix value, an indicator of colostral IgG concentration, compared with that of canola seed, but its mode of action and effects on health and productivity of calves need to be investigated.

  15. Effects of crystalline menthol on blood metabolites in Holstein steers and in vitro volatile fatty acid and gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Miller, K A; Aperce, C C; Alvarado-Gilis, C A; Higgins, J J; Drouillard, J S

    2016-03-01

    Fifty-two Holstein steers (573 ± 9.92 kg BW) were used to determine if oral administration of crystalline menthol would induce changes in endogenous secretions of IGF-1 and circulating concentrations of glucose, lactate, and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN). Steers were blocked by BW and assigned within block to treatment. Treatments consisted of 0, 0.003, 0.03, or 0.3% crystalline menthol (DM basis) added to the diet. Animals were housed in individual, partially covered pens equipped with feed bunks and automatic water fountains. On d 1 of the experiment, blood samples were obtained via jugular venipuncture at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after feeding. Treatment administration commenced on d 2, and blood samples were again drawn at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after feeding. This blood-sampling schedule was repeated on d 9, 16, 23, and 30. Plasma was analyzed for PUN, glucose, and lactate concentrations. Serum was used to analyze IGF-1 concentration. Body weights were measured on d 1, 9, 16, 23, and 30. To accompany the live animal phase, in vitro fermentations were performed using ruminal fluid cultures. Measurements included VFA concentrations and fermentative gas production for cultures containing crystalline menthol at 0, 0.003, 0.03, or 0.3% of substrate DM. Addition of menthol to the diet of steers resulted in a treatment × day interaction ( menthol had greater serum IGF-1 concentrations on d 2 compared with steers fed 0.03% menthol. Steers fed 0% menthol had greater serum IGF-1 concentrations on d 9 compared with steers fed 0.03 and 0.3% menthol, whereas no differences were observed on d 23 or 30. Plasma glucose was similar among treatments until d 23, when steers supplemented with 0.03% menthol had lower glucose concentrations. Plasma urea nitrogen concentrations were not different among treatments; however, PUN concentrations varied by day. A linear response was detected for BW ( = 0.03), with steers consuming 0% menthol having the greatest BW and steers that consumed 0

  16. Ingestion of a cold temperature/menthol beverage increases outdoor exercise performance in a hot, humid environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Than Tran Trong

    Full Text Available A recent laboratory study demonstrated that the ingestion of a cold/menthol beverage improved exercise performance in a hot and humid environment during 20 km of all-out cycling. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether the ingestion of cold water/ice-slurry with menthol would improve performance in hot and humid outdoor conditions.Ten trained males completed three trials of five blocks consisting of 4-km cycling and 1.5-km running. During warm-up, every block and recovery, the athletes drank 190 ml of aromatized (i.e., with 0.05 mL of menthol beverage at three temperatures: Neutral (ambient temperature (28.7°C±0. 5°C, Cold (3.1°C±0.6°C or Ice-slurry (0.17°C±0.07°C. Trial time, core temperature (Tco, heart rate (HR, rate of perceived exertion (RPE, thermal sensation (TS and thermal comfort (TC were assessed.Ice-slurry/menthol increased performance by 6.2% and 3.3% compared with neutral water/menthol and cold water/menthol, respectively. No between-trial differences were noted for Tco, HR, RPE, TC and TS was lower with ice-slurry/menthol and cold water/menthol compared with neutral water/menthol.A low drink temperature combined with menthol lessens the performance decline in hot/humid outdoor conditions (i.e., compared with cold water alone. Performances were better with no difference in psycho-physiological stress (Tco, HR and RPE between trials. The changes in perceptual parameters caused by absorbing a cold/menthol beverage reflect the psychological impact. The mechanism leading to these results seems to involve brain integration of signals from physiological and psychological sources.

  17. E-Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that are known to be harmful. Scientists are studying the health effects of using e-cigarettes. New information is coming in, but they don't have the answers yet. Although FDA is working to regulate e-cigarettes, currently they are not ...

  18. Responses of energy balance, physiology, and production for transition dairy cows fed with a low-energy prepartum diet during hot season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Huawei; Wang, Yachun; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Fuwei; Cao, Zhijun; Rahman, Muhammad Aziz Ur; Cao, Binghai; Li, Shengli

    2013-10-01

    Twenty multiparous Chinese Holstein dairy cows calving in hot summer (S group), were compared with 20 similar control cows calving in cool autumn (C group). Diets were the same for both groups; prepartum diets had relatively low energy density. Average temperature-humidity index was 76.5 and 53.0 in summer and autumn, respectively. S group cows had significantly higher rectal temperatures (39.6 vs. 39.0 °C) and respiration rates (79.0 vs. 31.3 breaths/min) than C group, and consumed less feed (prepartum 8.0 vs. 12.3 kg/day, postpartum 16.3 vs. 21.2 kg/day). Calculated energy balance (EB) was -7.98 vs. -5.15 Mcal/day for S group prepartum and postpartum, respectively. In contrast, EB was 1.36 vs. -2.03 Mcal/day for C group prepartum and postpartum, respectively. S group produced significantly less milk than C group by 15.4 % (5.2 kg/day) and 26.8 % (10.2 kg/d) for milk yield and energy-corrected milk, respectively. Percentages of milk fat (3.28 vs. 4.29 %), protein (3.08 vs. 3.33 %), and solids-not-fat (8.46 vs. 8.78 %) were significantly lower for S group. Milk urea nitrogen (19.54 vs. 13.31 mg/dL) was significantly higher in S group. Significantly lower feed efficiency was observed in S group (1.56 vs. 1.66). During the entire transition period, S group had significantly lower circulating glucose levels. S group had significantly higher levels of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) prepartum, but after 14 days in milk, NEFA was significantly lower. We conclude that increasing dietary energy density during transition period (especially prepartum) is necessary to minimize adverse effects of hot season.

  19. Ending the cigarette pandemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, J B

    1983-12-01

    1 year after the issuance of the original Surgeon General's report, Congress passed the Federal Cigarette Labeling Advertising Act, requiring all cigarette packages distributed in the US to carry a Surgeon General's warning that smoking may be hazardous to health. Congress pased the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act in 1969. This banned cigarette advertising from radio and television. The Surgeon General published the most comprehensive volume on smoking ever issued in the US in 1979, the 15th anniversary of the 1st report. The data on cigarette smoking's adverse effects on health were overwhelming, and the press recognized this. No longer able to rely on journalists to cast doubt on the reliability of the data, the industry changed its strategy by attempting to portray smoking as a civil rights issue. The tobacco industry began to pour millions of dollars into campaigns to prevent the passage of municipal, state, and federal legislation that would ban cigarette advertising or restrict smoking in public places and at the work site. "Healthy People," the Surgeon General's 1st report on health promotion and disease prevention, emphasized the necessary future direction of medicine: prevention. Efforts to end the cigarette pandemic will need to focus on the following in the future: an end to the victimization of women; a greater focus on adolescents; more effective strategies for smoking cessation; more attention to clean indoor air rights; abandonment of recommendations to switch to low-tar, low-nicotine cigarettes; and revelation of chemical additives in cigarettes. The epidemiologists have now documented the devastating nature of the health problems attributable to cigarette smoking, but the minimal budgetary allocations to fight smoking testify to the lack of political will on the part of government.

  20. Analysis of metabolic effects of menthol on WFS1-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Marite; Ivask, Marilin; Raasmaja, Atso; Kõks, Sulev

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the physiological regulation of energy metabolism in wild-type (WT) and WFS1-deficient (Wfs1KO) mice by measuring the effects of menthol treatment on the O2 consumption, CO2 production, rectal body temperature, and heat production. The basal metabolism and behavior was different between these genotypes as well as TRP family gene expressions. Wfs1KO mice had a shorter life span and weighed less than WT mice. The food and water intake of Wfs1KO mice was lower as well as the body temperature when compared to their WT littermates. Furthermore, Wfs1KO mice had higher basal O2 consumption, and CO2 and heat production than WT mice. In addition, Wfs1KO mice showed a higher response to menthol administration in comparison to WT mice. The strongest menthol effect was seen on different physiological measures 12 h after oral administration. The highest metabolic response of Wfs1KO mice was seen at the menthol dose of 10 mg/kg. Menthol increased O2 consumption, and CO2 and heat production in Wfs1KO mice when compared to their WT littermates. In addition, the expression of Trpm8 gene was increased. In conclusion, our results show that the Wfs1KO mice develop a metabolic phenotype characterized with several physiological dysfunctions.

  1. Parameterization and optimization of the menthol force field for molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasik, Mateusz; Szefczyk, Borys

    2016-10-01

    Menthol's various biological properties render it a useful component for medical and cosmetological applications, while its three centers of asymmetry mean that it can be used in a range of organic reactions. Menthol-substituted ionic liquids (ILs) have been found to exhibit promising antimicrobial and antielectrostatic properties, as well as being useful in organic catalysis and biochemical studies. However, so far, a force field designed and validated specifically for the menthol molecule has not been constructed. In the present work, the validation and optimization of force field parameters with regard to the ability to reproduce the macroscopic properties of menthol is presented. The set of optimized potentials for liquid simulations all atom (OPLS-AA) compatible parameters was tested and carefully tuned. The refinement of parameters included fitting of partial atomic charges, optimization of Lennard-Jones parameters, and recalculation of the dihedral angle parameters needed to reproduce quantum energy profiles. To validate the force field, a variety of physicochemical properties were calculated for liquid menthol. Both thermodynamic and kinetic properties were taken into account, including density, surface tension, enthalpy of vaporization, and shear viscosity. The obtained force field was proven to accurately reproduce the properties of the investigated compound while being fully compatible with the OPLS-AA force field.

  2. [Study on pharmacokinetics and in vitro/in vivo correlation of menthol in Zhike Chuanbei Pipa dropping pills in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin; Liu, Dan; Du, Chao; Wang, Jin-Lei; Wang, Li-Feng; Wang, Yang; Liu, Jun-Jing

    2013-05-01

    To determine the concentration of menthol in rat plasma by GC. Rats were administered with single dose of Zhike Chuanbei Pipa dropping pills (ZCPDP) and different doses of menthol herbs. DAS 3. 1.6 software was used to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters, and the accumulative absorption percentage of menthol was calculated by Loo-Riegelman method. The linear regression analysis was made in vitro/in vivo accumulative absorption percentages to detect the in vitro/in vivo correlation. The results of the study showed that the pharmacokinetics behavior of menthol in ZCPDP was in conformity with two-compartment model characteristics. The main parameters were: tmax was 10 min, t1/2beta was (183. 93 52. 75) min, CL/F was (0. 426 +/- 0. 194) L . min-1 . kg-1, all of which were no difference between ZCPDP and menthol herbs with the same dosage. There were significant differences in tmax, t1/2beta, CL/F between menthol herbs with different dosages (P menthol herbs with the same dosage in rats, with good in vitro/in vivo correlation. There were significant differences in pharmacokinetics of menthol in the range of 19.2-570 mg . kg-1.

  3. Interaction of menthol with mixed-lipid bilayer of stratum corneum: A coarse-grained simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Guang; Dai, Xingxing; Yin, Qianqian; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2015-07-01

    Menthol is a widely used penetration enhancer in clinical medicine due to its high efficiency and relative safety. Although there are many studies focused on the penetration-enhancing activity of menthol, the details of molecular mechanism are rarely involved in the discussion. In this study, we present a series of coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the interaction of menthol with a mixed-lipid bilayer model consisting of ceramides, cholesterol and free fatty acids in a 2:2:1 molar ratio. Taking both the concentration of menthol and temperature into consideration, it was found that a rise in temperature and concentration within a specific range (1-20%) could improve the penetration-enhancing property of menthol and the floppiness of the bilayer. However, at high concentrations (30% and more), menthol completely mixed with the lipids and the membrane can no longer maintain a bilayer structure. Our results elucidates some of the molecular basis for menthol's penetration enhancing effects and may provide some assistance for the development and applications of menthol as a penetration enhancer. Furthermore, we establish a method to investigate the penetration enhancement mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine using the mixed-lipid bilayer model of stratum corneum by molecular dynamics simulations.

  4. E-Cigarettes (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness E-Cigarettes KidsHealth > For Teens > E-Cigarettes A A ... Habit en español Los cigarrillos electrónicos What Are E-Cigarettes? E-cigarettes look high tech, so it's ...

  5. E-Cigarettes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old E-Cigarettes KidsHealth > For Parents > E-Cigarettes A A ... Using Them en español Los cigarrillos electrónicos About E-Cigarettes E-cigarettes are being marketed as a ...

  6. E-Cigarettes (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old E-Cigarettes KidsHealth > For Parents > E-Cigarettes Print A ... Using Them en español Los cigarrillos electrónicos About E-Cigarettes E-cigarettes are being marketed as a ...

  7. A comparison of electronic and traditional cigarette butt leachate on the development of Xenopus laevis embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Tatiana Tatum; Rayburn, James

    2017-01-01

    Potential developmental toxicities of three different cigarette butt leachates were evaluated using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX). Xenopus laevis embryos were exposed to regular cigarette butt (RCB), menthol (MCB) and electronic (ECB) in concentrations ranging from 0 to 4 butts/l for RCB and MCB and 0-10 butts/l for ECB. The embryos were from stage 8 to 11 and were exposed for a 96-h period in static renewal test conditions. Median lethal concentration (LC50), malformation (EC50), non-observed adverse effect concentration (NOAEC), and lowest observed adverse effect concentration (LOAEC) were calculated. Results from these studies suggest that each tested leachate is teratogenic for X. laevis embryos. The lowest LC50 was determined for ECB exposure at 17.9 cigarette butts/L. The LC50 value was the highest with RCB and MCB having LC50 s of approximately 1 cigarette butt/L. There were notable EC50 differences with RCB having the highest and ECB the lowest. The NOAEC and LOAEC levels for RCB and MCB were below 1 cigarette butt/L for both mortality and malformations; over 8 butts/L for ECB mortality and over 4 butts/L for malformations. From these results, we conclude that RCB leachate is the most toxic compound, while MCB leachate has the higher teratogenicity. ECB leachate has the lowest toxic and teratogenic effects on embryos but there were still noticeable effects. The results confirmed that the FETAX assay can be useful in an integrated biological hazard assessment for the preliminary screening for ecological risks of cigarette butts, and electronic cigarettes, in aquatic environment.

  8. Method for the determination of ammonium in cigarette tobacco using ion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Christina Vaughan; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Damian, Maria; Watson, Clifford H

    2015-07-01

    Ammonia and other alkaline substances have been postulated to be important in cigarette design. The most significant potential contribution of ammonia is a possible interaction with the native, protonated nicotine in the smoke. Ammonia is more alkaline than nicotine and could facilitate a shift in the acid/base equilibrium where a fraction of the total nicotine converts to the more lipophilic, non-protonated form. This non-protonated, or free-base, form of nicotine absorbs more efficiently across membranes, resulting in more rapid delivery to the smoker's bloodstream. Ammonia and other potential ammonia sources, such as additives like diammonium phosphate, could influence the acid-base dynamics in cigarette smoke and ultimately the rate of nicotine delivery. To examine and characterize the ammonia content in modern cigarettes, we developed a fast, simple and reliable ion chromatography based method to measure extractable ammonia levels in cigarette filler. This approach has minimal sample preparation and short run times to achieve high sample throughput. We quantified ammonia levels in tobacco filler from 34 non-mentholated cigarette brands from 3 manufacturers to examine the ranges found across a convenience sampling of popular, commercially available domestic brands and present figures of analytical merit here. Ammonia levels ranged from approximately 0.9 to 2.4mg per gram of cigarette filler between brands and statistically significance differences were observed between brands and manufacturers. Our findings suggest that ammonia levels vary by brand and manufacturer; thus in domestic cigarettes ammonia could be considered a significant design feature because of the potential influence on smoke chemistry.

  9. Reduced dry periods and varying prepartum diets alter postpartum ovulation and reproductive measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gümen, A; Rastani, R R; Grummer, R R; Wiltbank, M C

    2005-07-01

    There has been substantial recent interest in shortening dry periods; however, the effects of this management change on reproduction have not been adequately evaluated. Holstein cows (n = 58) were assigned in a randomized block design to 1 of 3 treatments: 1) traditional (T) dry period (approximately 56 d) in which cows were fed a low energy diet from 56 to 29 d prepartum followed by a moderate energy diet for 28 d; 2) shortened (S) dry period (approximately 28 d) in which cows were fed continuously a high energy diet; or 3) no planned (N) dry period in which cows were fed continuously a high energy diet. All cows received a high energy lactation diet after calving. Ovaries were evaluated by ultrasound and blood samples collected 3 times weekly beginning at d 6 or 7 postpartum until 7 d after second ovulation. Average days from calving until first detection of a 10-mm follicle were fewer in N (8.0 d) and S (8.9 d) than in T (10.5 d) cows. Time from calving to first ovulation was earlier in N (13.2 d) than in S (23.8 d) and T (31.9 d) cows. A greater percentage of follicles of the first follicular wave ovulated in N (89%; 16/18) than in T (42%; 8/19), with S (62%; 13/21) cows being intermediate. Double ovulation rate at the first ovulation was greater in T (61%) than N (16%), with S (35%) intermediate. No difference was detected in double ovulation rate at second ovulation (13/56). Number of cows with persistent corpus luteum (>30 d; 15/56) was not different among groups; however, short luteal phases were greater in N (28%; 5/18) than S (0%; 0/20) cows. Days to first artificial insemination were fewer in N (69.4 d) and S (68.0 d) than in T (75.0 d). First-service conception rate was greater in N (55%; 11/20) than in T (20%; 4/20), with S (26%; 6/23) cows being intermediate. Days open in pregnant cows were fewer in N (93.8 d) than in T (145.4 d), with S (121.2 d) cows being intermediate. Thus, shortening or eliminating the dry period leads to earlier postpartum

  10. Colostrum yield and piglet growth during lactation are related to gilt metabolic and hepatic status prepartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loisel, F; Farmer, C; Ramaekers, P; Quesnel, H

    2014-07-01

    BW gain in early lactation. Colostrum yield and litter performance during lactation were correlated with some markers of sow metabolic and hepatic status measured during the prepartum period.

  11. Effects on anionic salts in a pre-partum dairy ration on calcium metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Van Dijk

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of anionic salts in the transition diet on serum and urine calcium at calving and on peripartal health, subsequent milk production and fertility performance were studied in a well-managed, high-producing Friesland dairy herd. Over a period of a year, approximately 21 days before the expected date of calving, 28 pre-partum heifers and 44 multiparous dry cows were randomly allocated within parity to 1 of 2 transition diets, designated control and experimental anionic diets. The anionic diet contained the same quantities of the basic transition ration fed to the control group as well as a standard anionic salt mixture containing 118 g NH4Cl, 36 g (NH42SO4 and 68 g MgSO4 (total 222 g per animal per day. This reduced the DCAD to -11.68 mEq/100 g dietary dry matter compared to +13.57 for the control diet. Blood and urine were randomly sampled from 7 to 8 animals within each category within 3 hours post-partum. Serum calcium (total and ionised and creatinine, urine calcium and creatinine and the fractional clearance of calcium were assessed. Relevant clinical, milk production, and fertility data were collected. The total serum calcium (2.07 versus 1.60 mmol/ , serum ionised calcium (1.12 vs 1.02 mmol/ , urine calcium (0.92 vs 0.10 mmol/ and the fractional clearance of calcium (1.88 vs 0.09 % were significantly higher (P <0.01 at calving for multiparous cows fed the anionic diet compared to those fed the control diet. In the primiparous cows there were no significant differences in serumcalcium levels. However, the urine calcium (1.07 vs 0.43 mmol/ and the fractional clearance of calcium was higher (1.75 vs 0.45 % in cows fed the anionic diet (P <0.05 and 0.01 respectively. These results illustrated that there were benefits, although no differences were demonstrated with respect to health, milk production or fertility. The supplementation of diets with anionic salts in the last 2-3 weeks before calving has the potential to significantly

  12. [Effects of menthol as an additive in tobacco products and the need for regulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahnert, S; Nair, U; Mons, U; Pötschke-Langer, M

    2012-03-01

    Menthol is the most widely used and the most prominent tobacco additive in tobacco products advertised and marketed by the tobacco industry. Besides its characteristic flavor, it possesses a variety of pharmacological properties facilitating tobacco smoke inhalation and potentiating dependence. These properties of menthol not only favor tobacco initiation and consumption but can also prevent smoking cessation. This article summarizes the effect of menthol as an additive in tobacco products and its effect on tobacco consumption that causes a number of chronic diseases and premature death and, therefore, counteracts tobacco control measures. Currently, there is no legislative regulation in Germany that considers the health hazard, addiction-enhancing and attractiveness-increasing properties of additives permitted in tobacco products. Effective regulation or even a ban could contribute to a reduction of tobacco consumption and, hence, save many people from a long-lasting tobacco dependence.

  13. Kinetics and Mechanism of the Oxidation of Menthol by Potassium Bromate in Acidic Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikant na

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available No suitable method is available for the estimation of menthol, hence in all kinetic results reported in this chapter, menthol was in excess over potassium bromate and the stoichiometry was also determined under the experimental conditions where menthol (substrate was in excess over potassium bromate (oxidant. Present study was focused on the analysis of kinetics and mechanism of oxidation of neomenthol by potassium bromate in acidic medium. For oxidizing neomenthol, potassium bromate stock solution (5.0×10─2 mol. dm─3 was prepared by dissolving exactly weighed quantity of potassium bromate in doubly distilled water. The suitable reaction mixtures were prepared and left at 313 K for over 24 hours to ensure complete oxidation of neomenthol. The unreacted potassium bromate was determined iodometrically and the results indicate that one mole of potassium bromate is consumed for every three moles of neomenthol and leads to the formation of menthone (ketone.

  14. Synthesis of liquid menthol by hydrogenation of dementholized peppermint oil over Ni catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora L. Manuale

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogenation of (--menthone and (+-isomenthone was studied at 2.7 MPa and 100 ºC. The objective was to produce a liquid menthol mixture rich in (--menthol from dementholized peppermint oil. Ni-based catalysts were tested and compared for this reaction: a 6 and 12% Ni dispersed into a nonstoichiometric magnesium aluminate (Ni-Mg-Al with spinel structure; b Ni-Raney catalyst. Both types of catalysts were active for (--menthone and (+-isomenthone hydrogenation. Lower conversion but higher selectivity to (--menthol was obtained with Ni-Mg-Al catalysts. However, they rapidly lost their activity. Instead Ni-Raney catalysts kept its original activity even after several hydrogenation runs.

  15. The gastroprotective effect of menthol: involvement of anti-apoptotic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariane Leite Rozza

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the anti-apoptotic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of menthol against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Wistar rats were orally treated with vehicle, carbenoxolone (100 mg/kg or menthol (50 mg/kg and then treated with ethanol to induce gastric ulcers. After euthanasia, stomach samples were prepared for histological slides and biochemical analyses. Immunohistochemical analyses of the cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic heat-shock protein-70 (HSP-70 and the apoptotic Bax protein were performed. The neutrophils were manually counted. The activity of the myeloperoxidase (MPO was measured. To determine the level of antioxidant functions, the levels of glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, glutathione reductase (GR and superoxide dismutase (SOD were measured using ELISA. The levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin-6 (IL-6 and the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10 were assessed using ELISA kits. The menthol treated group presented 92% gastroprotection compared to the vehicle-treated group. An increased immunolabeled area was observed for HSP-70, and a decreased immunolabeled area was observed for the Bax protein in the menthol treated group. Menthol treatment induced a decrease in the activity of MPO and SOD, and the protein levels of GSH, GSH-Px and GR were increased. There was also a decrease in the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and an increase in the level of IL-10. In conclusion, oral treatment with menthol displayed a gastroprotective activity through anti-apoptotic, antixidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

  16. The gastroprotective effect of menthol: involvement of anti-apoptotic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozza, Ariane Leite; Meira de Faria, Felipe; Souza Brito, Alba Regina; Pellizzon, Cláudia Helena

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the anti-apoptotic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of menthol against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Wistar rats were orally treated with vehicle, carbenoxolone (100 mg/kg) or menthol (50 mg/kg) and then treated with ethanol to induce gastric ulcers. After euthanasia, stomach samples were prepared for histological slides and biochemical analyses. Immunohistochemical analyses of the cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic heat-shock protein-70 (HSP-70) and the apoptotic Bax protein were performed. The neutrophils were manually counted. The activity of the myeloperoxidase (MPO) was measured. To determine the level of antioxidant functions, the levels of glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured using ELISA. The levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 (IL-10) were assessed using ELISA kits. The menthol treated group presented 92% gastroprotection compared to the vehicle-treated group. An increased immunolabeled area was observed for HSP-70, and a decreased immunolabeled area was observed for the Bax protein in the menthol treated group. Menthol treatment induced a decrease in the activity of MPO and SOD, and the protein levels of GSH, GSH-Px and GR were increased. There was also a decrease in the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and an increase in the level of IL-10. In conclusion, oral treatment with menthol displayed a gastroprotective activity through anti-apoptotic, antixidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

  17. Analyzing Cigarette Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Dan; Griffin, Dale; Ricker, Janet

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity in which students use their natural inquisitiveness about their personal environment to investigate the composition of cigarette smoke. Includes techniques for measuring tar and carbon monoxide content. (DDR)

  18. Exploring the conformational landscape of menthol, menthone, and isomenthone: A microwave study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, David; Shubert, V.; Betz, Thomas; Schnell, Melanie

    2015-03-01

    The rotational spectra of the monoterpenoids menthol, menthone, and isomenthone are reported in the frequency range of 2-8.5GHz, obtained with broadband Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy. For menthol only one conformation was identified under the cold conditions of the molecular jet, whereas three conformations were observed for menthone and one for isomenthone. The conformational space of the different molecules was extensively studied using quantum chemical calculations, and the results were compared with molecular parameters obtained by the measurements. Finally, a computer program is presented, which was developed to automatically identify different species in a dense broadband microwave spectrum using calculated ab initio rotational constants as input.

  19. Exploring the conformational landscape of menthol, menthone, and isomenthone: A microwave study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eSchmitz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The rotational spectra of the monoterpenoids menthol, menthone, and isomenthone are reportedin the frequency range of 2−8.5GHz, obtained with broadband Fourier-transform microwave spectroscopy.For menthol only one conformation was identified under the cold conditions of the molecularjet, whereas three conformations were observed for menthone and one for isomenthone. Theconformational space of the different molecules was extensively studied using quantum chemicalcalculations, and the results were compared with molecular parameters obtained by the measurements.Finally, a computer program is presented, which was developed to automatically identifydifferent species in a dense broadband microwave spectrum using calculated ab initio rotationalconstants as input.

  20. The effects of menthol on cold allodynia and wind-up-like pain in upper limb amputees with different levels of phantom limb pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vase, Lene; Svensson, Peter; Nikolajsen, Lone; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2013-02-08

    The mechanisms underlying phantom limb pain are not fully known, but hypersensitivity appears to be a central element. Menthol has previously been suggested as a model for hypersensitivity, but it has not yet been investigated if different levels of neuropathic pain may influence the effects of menthol or if topical application of menthol may act as a model for hypersensitivity in patients with phantom limb pain. In the present study, menthol (l-menthol 40%) was applied to the affected and non-affected sides in 24 upper-limb amputees with different levels of phantom limb pain to test if menthol could induce cold allodynia and exacerbate wind-up-like pain. The average level of phantom limb pain was significantly related to cold allodynia (P=0.044). Prior to application of menthol, the level of phantom limb pain was significantly related to the level of wind-up-like pain following both brush (P=0.040) and pinprick (P=0.033) stimulation. After application of menthol, the level of phantom limb pain was only related to wind-up-like pain following brush (P=0.011) but not pinprick stimulation (P=0.233). This study indicates that menthol does influence hypersensitivity in phantom limb pain patients, and it is the first study to show that menthol may exacerbate wind-up-like pain in this group of neuropathic pain patients. The findings suggest that menthol may act as a model for studying sensitization in phantom limb patients.

  1. Effects of prepartum controlled-energy wheat straw and grass hay diets supplemented with starch or sugar on periparturient dairy cow performance and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litherland, N B; da Silva, D N L; Hansen, W P; Davis, L; Emanuele, S; Blalock, H

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the effects of a forage source [wheat straw (WS) versus grass hay (GH)] prepartum and supplemental carbohydrate source [corn (dry feed; DF) versus molasses (liquid feed; LF)] on pre- and postpartum intake, digestibility, selective particle consumption, milk yield, and lipid metabolism. The objectives were to determine if forage or pre- and postpartum supplement alters periparturient intake, energy balance, and milk yield. Sixty (n=15) multiparous dairy cows were used in a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to compare WS versus GH diets supplemented with either DF or LF. Dietary treatments were (1) WS prepartum + DF pre- and postpartum (WSDF), 2) WS prepartum + LF pre- and postpartum (WSLF), (3) GH prepartum + DF pre- and postpartum (GHDF), and (4) GH prepartum + LF pre- and postpartum (GHLF). Treatments began at dry-off, × before expected calving. During the prepartum phase, cows maintained dry matter intake (DMI) at 2.0% of body weight and prepartum energy balance remained positive for all treatments until calving. Prepartum GH diets had a more positive energy balance compared with WS diets. On week -5, energy balance was more positive for GHDF than for WSDF or GHLF. Energy balance for WSLF, however, was lower on week -3 and -1 than GHDF. Liquid feed decreased dry matter digestibility and increased prepartum liver triglyceride, serum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and tended to increase β-hydroxybutyrate. After calving, LF decreased DMI and energy balance, but not yield of milk or 3.5% fat-corrected milk, resulting in greater feed efficiency compared with DF. Forage did not affect postpartum DMI, but milk yield tended to be higher for WS versus GH. The DMI expressed as percentage of body weight was not affected by supplement or prepartum forage type. Cows fed WS had lower serum NEFA, higher liver glycogen, and tended to have a lower triglyceride to glycogen ratio postpartum than GH. Serum

  2. Reciprocal effects of capsaicin and menthol on thermosensation through regulated activities of TRPV1 and TRPM8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaishi, Masayuki; Uchida, Kunitoshi; Suzuki, Yoshiro; Matsui, Hiroshi; Shimada, Tadashi; Fujita, Fumitaka; Tominaga, Makoto

    2016-03-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is activated by elevated temperature (>42 °C), and it has been reported that cold temperature decreases capsaicin-induced TRPV1 activity. In contrast, transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) is activated by low temperatures and menthol, and heat stimulation suppresses menthol-evoked TRPM8 currents. These findings suggest that the effects of specific agents on TRPV1 and TRPM8 channels are intricately interrelated. We examined the effects of menthol on human (h)TRPV1 and of capsaicin on hTRPM8. hTRPV1 currents activated by heat and capsaicin were inhibited by menthol, whereas hTRPM8 currents activated by cold and menthol were similarly inhibited by capsaicin. An in vivo sensory irritation test showed that menthol conferred an analgesic effect on the sensory irritation evoked by a capsaicin analogue. These results indicate that in our study the agonists of TRPV1 and TRPM8 interacted with both of these channels and suggest that the anti-nociceptive effects of menthol can be partially explained by this phenomenon.

  3. Relieving thermal discomfort: Effects of sprayed L-menthol on perception, performance, and time trial cycling in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barwood, M J; Corbett, J; Thomas, K; Twentyman, P

    2015-06-01

    L-menthol stimulates cutaneous thermoreceptors and induces cool sensations improving thermal comfort, but has been linked to heat storage responses; this could increase risk of heat illness during self-paced exercise in the heat. Therefore, L-menthol application could lead to a discrepancy between behavioral and autonomic thermoregulatory drivers. Eight male participants volunteered. They were familiarized and then completed two trials in hot conditions (33.5 °C, 33% relative humidity) where their t-shirt was sprayed with CONTROL-SPRAY or MENTHOL-SPRAY after 10 km (i.e., when they were hot and uncomfortable) of a 16.1-km cycling time trial (TT). Thermal perception [thermal sensation (TS) and comfort (TC)], thermal responses [rectal temperature (Trec ), skin temperature (Tskin )], perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate, pacing (power output), and TT completion time were measured. MENTHOL-SPRAY made participants feel cooler and more comfortable and resulted in lower RPE (i.e., less exertion) yet performance was unchanged [TT completion: CONTROL-SPRAY 32.4 (2.9) and MENTHOL-SPRAY 32.7 (3.0) min]. Trec rate of increase was 1.40 (0.60) and 1.45 (0.40) °C/h after CONTROL-SPRAY and MENTHOL-SPRAY application, which were not different. Spraying L-menthol toward the end of self-paced exercise in the heat improved perception, but did not alter performance and did not increase heat illness risk.

  4. Implications of Human Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8) Channel Gating from Menthol Binding Studies of the Sensing Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Parthasarathi; Hilton, Jacob K; Sisco, Nicholas J; Van Horn, Wade D

    2016-01-12

    The transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) ion channel is the primary cold sensor in humans. TRPM8 is gated by physiologically relevant cold temperatures and chemical ligands that induce cold sensations, such as the analgesic compound menthol. Characterization of TRPM8 ligand-gated channel activation will lead to a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms that underlie TRPM8 function. Here, the direct binding of menthol to the isolated hTRPM8 sensing domain (transmembrane helices S1-S4) is investigated. These data are compared with two mutant sensing domain proteins, Y745H (S2 helix) and R842H (S4 helix), which have been previously identified in full length TRPM8 to be menthol insensitive. The data presented herein show that menthol specifically binds to the wild type, Y745H, and R842H TRPM8 sensing domain proteins. These results are the first to show that menthol directly binds to the TRPM8 sensing domain and indicates that Y745 and R842 residues, previously identified in functional studies as crucial to menthol sensitivity, do not affect menthol binding but instead alter coupling between the sensing domain and the pore domain.

  5. Chemopreventive efficacy of menthol on carcinogen-induced cutaneous carcinoma through inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaoguo; Shen, Cunsi; Tao, Yu; Wang, Siliang; Wei, Zhonghong; Cao, Yuzhu; Wu, Hongyan; Fan, Fangtian; Lin, Chao; Shan, Yunlong; Zhu, Pingting; Sun, Lihua; Chen, Chen; Wang, Aiyun; Zheng, Shizhong; Lu, Yin

    2015-08-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress have been implicated in various pathological processes including skin tumorigenesis. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality, the treatment progress of which remains slow though. Therefore, chemoprevention and other strategies are being considered. Menthol has shown high anticancer activity against various human cancers, but its effect on skin cancer has never been evaluated. We herein investigated the chemopreventive potential of menthol against 9,10-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation, oxidative stress and skin carcinogenesis in female ICR mice. Pretreatment with menthol at various doses significantly suppressed tumor formation and growth, and markedly reduced tumor incidence and volume. Moreover, menthol inhibited TPA-induced skin hyperplasia and inflammation, and significantly suppressed the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Furthermore, pretreatment with menthol inhibited the formation of reactive oxygen species and affected the activities of a battery of antioxidant enzymes in the skin. The expressions of NF-κB, Erk and p38 were down-regulated by menthol administration. Thus, inflammation and oxidative stress collectively played a crucial role in the chemopreventive efficacy of menthol on the murine skin tumorigenesis.

  6. Effects of Menthol Supplementation in Feedlot Cattle Diets on the Fecal Prevalence of Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aperce, C. C.; Amachawadi, R.; Van Bibber-Krueger, C. L.; Nagaraja, T. G.; Scott, H. M.; Vinasco-Torre, J.; Drouillard, J. S.

    2016-01-01

    The pool of antimicrobial resistance determinants in the environment and in the gut flora of cattle is a serious public health concern. In addition to being a source of human exposure, these bacteria can transfer antibiotic resistance determinants to pathogenic bacteria and endanger the future of antimicrobial therapy. The occurrence of antimicrobial resistance genes on mobile genetic elements, such as plasmids, facilitates spread of resistance. Recent work has shown in vitro anti-plasmid activity of menthol, a plant-based compound with the potential to be used as a feed additive to beneficially alter ruminal fermentation. The present study aimed to determine if menthol supplementation in diets of feedlot cattle decreases the prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in feces. Menthol was included in diets of steers at 0.3% of diet dry matter. Fecal samples were collected weekly for 4 weeks and analyzed for total coliforms counts, antimicrobial susceptibilities, and the prevalence of tet genes in E. coli isolates. Results revealed no effect of menthol supplementation on total coliforms counts or prevalence of E. coli resistant to amoxicillin, ampicillin, azithromycin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, kanamycin, nalidixic acid, streptomycin, sulfisoxazole, and sulfamethoxazole; however, 30 days of menthol addition to steer diets increased the prevalence of tetracycline-resistant E. coli (P menthol exerts its effects remains unclear, results of our study suggest that menthol may have an impact on antimicrobial resistance in gut bacteria. PMID:28030622

  7. Effects of prepartum lipid supplementation on FSH superstimulation and transferable embryo recovery in multiparous beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, J F; Kojima, F N; Wehrman, M E; Lindsey, B R; Kerley, M S; Patterson, D J

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of prepartum lipid supplementation on the number and quality of embryos recovered following ovarian super-ovulation in postpartum suckled beef cows. Mature cows (n = 40) were assigned to one of two treatments (lipid versus. no lipid) and supplemented for approximately 40 days prior to calving. Supplements provided to cows were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. The treatment group was fed 1.6 kg hd(-1) per day of whole soybeans (WSB; 19.8% ether extract, and 41.8% crude protein) and the control group received a supplement consisting of 1.8 kg hd(-1) day of a soybean meal and soy-hull combination (SBS; 2.15% EE and 36.81% CP). Cows were synchronized using a GnRH [Cystorelin((R)) 100 microg im]-GnRH-PGF(2alpha) [Lutalyse 25 mg im] protocol. Cows were administered two injections of GnRH seven days apart and PG seven days after the second GnRH injection. Twenty-eight cows (WSB, n = 15; SBS, n = 13) responded to estrus synchronization and were superstimulated. Super-ovulation was initiated on day 8-10 of the synchronized cycle by twice-daily injections of pFSH (Pluset) over four days in decreasing doses using a total of 608.4 IU per cow. Prostaglandin F(2alpha) was administered 96 and 108 h after super-stimulation was initiated with FSH. Days postpartum (WSB = 59 days; SBS = 57 days) at initiation of FSH treatments were similar (P > 0.10) for both treatments. Cows were monitored for estrus activity by the HeatWatch Estrus Detection System. Twenty-seven cows (WSB, n = 15; SBS, n = 12) exhibited estrus after FSH and inseminated at 0, 12, and 24 h after the onset of estrus with 1, 2, and 1 units of semen, respectively. Embryos were recovered and evaluated 7-8 days later. Only cows that responded to FSH and that were inseminated were used for statistical analysis. Data were analyzed using the General Linear Models Procedure of SAS. Body condition scores did not differ (P > 0.10) between treatments when cows were

  8. Cotton fabric functionalisation with menthol/PCL micro- and nano-capsules for comfort improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossotti, Raffaella; Ferri, Ada; Innocenti, Riccardo; Zelenková, Tereza; Dotti, Francesca; Marchisio, Daniele L; Barresi, Antonello A

    2015-01-01

    Cotton functionalisation with poly-ɛ-caprolactone (PCL) micro- and nano-capsules containing menthol was carried out with the aim of introducing a long-lasting refreshing sensation. The preparation of the polymer micro- and nano-capsules was carried out by solvent displacement technique. A confined impinging jets mixer was used in order to ensure fast mixing and generate a homogeneous environment where PCL and menthol can self-assemble. The micro- and nano-capsules and the functionalised fabrics were characterised by means of DSC, FT-IR spectroscopy and SEM imaging. Micro- and nano-capsules of different size, from about 200 to about 1200 nm, were obtained varying menthol to PCL ratio (from 0.76 to 8), overall concentration and flow rate (i.e. mixing conditions). The inclusion of menthol was confirmed by DSC analysis. A patch test was carried out by 10 volunteers. Micro-capsules were found to be effective in conferring the fabric a refreshing sensation without altering skin physiology.

  9. Influence of repeated daily menthol exposure on human temperature regulation and perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, D Jason; Weston, Neil; House, James R; Tipton, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    A single exposure to menthol can, depending on concentration, enhance both cool sensations and encourage body heat storage. This study tested whether there is an habituation in either response after repeated-daily exposures. Twenty-two participants were assigned to one of three spray groups: Control (CON; n=6), 0.05% L-menthol (M(0.05%); n=8), and 0.2% L-menthol (M(0.2%); n=8). On Monday (20°C, 50% rh) participants were sprayed with 100 mL of solution and undertook 40 min of cycling at 45% of their peak power (Ex1), from Tuesday to Thursday (30°C, 50% rh) they were sprayed twice daily whilst resting (R1 to R6), Friday was a repeat of Monday (Ex2). Thermal sensation (TS), thermal comfort, perceived exertion, irritation, rectal and skin temperature (Tsk), skin blood flow (SkBF) and sweat rate were monitored. A two-way ANOVA (alpha=0.05) compared responses from the beginning (Ex1, R1) and end (Ex2, R5) of the testing week. M(0.2%) induced significantly (PMenthol caused a heat storage response, mediated by vasoconstriction, at the beginning and end of the week, suggesting the habituation of TS occurred in a pathway specific to sensation. In summary, the cooling influence of 0.2% menthol habituates after repeated-daily exposures, but with no habituation in heat storage.

  10. Research on choleretic effect of menthol, menthone, pluegone, isomenthone, and limonene in DanShu capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guanying; Yuan, Xing; Zhang, Sanyin; Wang, Ruru; Yang, Miao; Wu, Chunjie; Wu, Zhigang; Ke, Xiao

    2015-02-01

    Danshu capsule (DSC) is a medicinal compound in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It is commonly used for the treatment of acute & chronic cholecystitis as well as choleithiasis. To study its choleretic effect, healthy rats were randomly divided into DSC high (DSCH, 900mg/kg), medium (DSCM, 450mg/kg), and low (DSCL, 225mg/kg) group, Xiaoyan Lidan tablet (XYLDT, 750mg/kg), and saline group. The bile was collected for 1h after 20-minute stabilization as the base level, and at 1h, 2h, 3h, and 4h after drug administration, respectively. Bile volume, total cholesterol, and total bile acid were measured at each time point. The results revealed that DSC significantly stimulated bile secretion, decreased total cholesterol level and increased total bile acid level. Therefore, it had choleretic effects. To identify the active components contributing to its choleretic effects, five major constituents which are menthol (39.33mg/kg), menthone (18.02mg/kg), isomenthone (8.18mg/kg), pluegone (3.31mg/kg), and limonene (4.39mg/kg) were tested on our rat model. The results showed that menthol and limonene could promote bile secretion when compared to DSC treatment (p > 0.05); Menthol, menthol and limonene could significantly decrease total cholesterol level (pmenthol, menthone and limonene.

  11. Influence of prepartum pirlimycin hydrochloride or penicillin-novobiocin therapy on mastitis in heifers during early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, S P; Gillespie, B E; Ivey, S J; Lewis, M J; Johnson, D L; Lamar, K C; Moorehead, H; Dowlen, H H; Chester, S T; Hallberg, J W

    2004-06-01

    A study was conducted in 2 dairy research herds to determine whether prepartum therapy of heifer mammary glands with penicillin-novobiocin or pirlimycin hydrochloride was effective for reducing the percentage of heifers and mammary quarters infected with mastitis pathogens during early lactation. Almost 96% of Jersey heifers (67 of 70) and 71.3% of quarters (199 of 279) were infected 14 d before expected calving. Of the quarters infected at 14 d before expected parturition, 75% (54 of 72) were uninfected following treatment with penicillin-novobiocin; 87% (61 of 70) were uninfected following treatment with pirlimycin, and 56% (32 of 57) were uninfected in the untreated negative control group. The majority of intramammary infections in Jersey heifers were due to coagulase-negative staphylococci (61%), Streptococcus species, primarily Streptococcus uberis (19%), and Staphylococcus aureus (8%). Almost 73% of Holstein heifers (40 of 55) and 34.3% of mammary quarters (73 of 213) were infected 14 d before expected calving. Of the quarters infected at 14 d before expected parturition, 76% (19 of 25) were uninfected following treatment with penicillin-novobiocin; 59% (17 of 29) were uninfected following treatment with pirlimycin, and 26% (5 of 19) were uninfected in the untreated negative control group. The majority of intramammary infections in Holstein heifers were due to coagulase-negative staphylococci (44%) and Staph. aureus (30%). In both herds, the bacteriological cure rate was significantly higher in heifer mammary glands treated with penicillin-novobiocin or pirlimycin hydrochloride than in untreated controls. Prepartum therapy of heifer mammary glands with penicillin-novobiocin or pirlimycin hydrochloride significantly reduced the percentage of heifers and quarters infected with mastitis pathogens during early lactation.

  12. Effect of pre-partum prilled fat supplementation on feed intake, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effect of pre-partum prilled fat feeding on dry matter intake (DMI, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Advance pregnant Murrah buffaloes were either received a dietary supplement of prilled fat at 100 g/day for 35 days pre-partum and at 150 g/day for 95 days post-partum (supplemented group [SG] or did not receive fat supplement (control group [CG]. DMI and the yields of milk and milk component were measured. A body condition score (BCS was recorded. Energy balance and gross feed efficiency (GFE were calculated. DMI and BCS were recorded and milk yield (MY, fat, protein, lactose, solid not fat, energy balance were measured. The fat corrected milk yield was calculated. Results: The DMI was non-significant between groups and periods of study. BCS of buffaloes improved in the SG than CG (p<0.01. The energy intake in terms of total digestible nutrients (TDN%, TDN intake, digestible energy (DE, metabolizable energy/kg of milk, DE of milk, net energy, and GFE were higher (p<0.01 in SG during post-partum period. Crude protein intake was statistically similar in both the groups. MY was higher (p<0.01 in SG than in CG during 95 days of early lactation. Milk fat, fat corrected MY was higher (p<0.01 in SG however protein, lactose and solid not fat content did not varied between the groups. The feed efficiency of the SG was higher (p<0.01 than the CG during the post-partum period. Conclusion: It was inferred that prilled fat supplementation augments energy balance and milk production in transition Murrah buffaloes.

  13. Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if people start smoking again. Can a person overdose on nicotine? Nicotine is poisonous and, though uncommon, ... Drugs Anabolic Steroids Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Cocaine Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Electronic Cigarettes (E- ...

  14. E-Cigarettes (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which the person inhales. That's why using e-cigs is known as "vaping." Because e-cigarettes don' ... a regular cigarette. But anyone using an e-cig still gets an unhealthy dose of nicotine and ...

  15. Cardiology Patient Page: Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of places where tobacco smoking is restricted, including restaurants, bars, offices, and airplanes. What Is Known About ... e-cigarettes helped them quit smoking. Studies with convenience samples of e-cigarette users show that people ...

  16. College Students' Perceptions of Risk and Addictiveness of E-Cigarettes and Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Maria; Loukas, Alexandra; Harrell, Melissa B.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: As conventional cigarette use is declining, electronic cigarette ("e-cigarette") use is rising and is especially high among college students. Few studies examine dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes among this population. This study explores the relationship between dual and exclusive e-cigarette / cigarette use and…

  17. College Students' Perceptions of Risk and Addictiveness of E-Cigarettes and Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Maria; Loukas, Alexandra; Harrell, Melissa B.; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: As conventional cigarette use is declining, electronic cigarette ("e-cigarette") use is rising and is especially high among college students. Few studies examine dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes among this population. This study explores the relationship between dual and exclusive e-cigarette / cigarette use and…

  18. Cold and L-menthol-induced sensitization in healthy volunteers--a cold hypersensitivity analogue to the heat/capsaicin model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Hjalte H; Poulsen, Jeppe N; Uchida, Yugo; Nikbakht, Anahita; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Gazerani, Parisa

    2015-05-01

    Topical high-concentration L-menthol is the only established human experimental pain model to study mechanisms underlying cold hyperalgesia. We aimed at investigating the combinatorial effect of cold stimuli and topical L-menthol on cold pain and secondary mechanical hyperalgesia. Analogue to the heat-capsaicin model on skin sensitization, we proposed that cold/menthol enhances or prolong L-menthol-evoked sensitization. Topical 40% L-menthol or vehicle was applied (20 minutes) on the volar forearms of 20 healthy females and males (age, 28.7 ± 0.6 years). Cold stimulation of 5°C for 5 minutes was then applied to the treated area 3 times with 40-minute intervals. Cold detection threshold and pain, mechanical hyperalgesia (pinprick), static and dynamic mechanical allodynia (von Frey and brush), skin blood flow (laser speckle), and temperature (thermocamera) were assessed. Cold detection threshold and cold pain threshold (CPT) increased after L-menthol and remained high after the cold rekindling cycles (P menthol evoked secondary hyperalgesia to pinprick (P menthol (P menthol facilitated and prolonged L-menthol-induced cold pain and hyperalgesia. This model may prove beneficial for testing analgesic compounds when a sufficient duration of time is needed to see drug effects on CPT or mechanical hypersensitivity.

  19. Responses of intact and injured sural nerve fibers to cooling and menthol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teliban, Alina; Bartsch, Fabian; Struck, Marek; Baron, Ralf; Jänig, Wilfrid

    2014-05-01

    Intact and injured cutaneous C-fibers in the rat sural nerve are cold sensitive, heat sensitive, and/or mechanosensitive. Cold-sensitive fibers are either low-threshold type 1 cold sensitive or high-threshold type 2 cold sensitive. The hypothesis was tested, in intact and injured afferent nerve fibers, that low-threshold cold-sensitive afferent nerve fibers are activated by the transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8) agonist menthol, whereas high-threshold cold-sensitive C-fibers and cold-insensitive afferent nerve fibers are menthol insensitive. In anesthetized rats, activity was recorded from afferent nerve fibers in strands isolated from the sural nerve, which was either intact or crushed 6-12 days before the experiment distal to the recording site. In all, 77 functionally identified afferent C-fibers (30 intact fibers, 47 injured fibers) and 34 functionally characterized A-fibers (11 intact fibers, 23 injured fibers) were tested for their responses to menthol applied to their receptive fields either in the skin (10 or 20%) or in the nerve (4 or 8 mM). Menthol activated all intact (n = 12) and 90% of injured (n = 20/22) type 1 cold-sensitive C-fibers; it activated no intact type 2 cold-sensitive C-fibers (n = 7) and 1/11 injured type 2 cold-sensitive C-fibers. Neither intact nor injured heat- and/or mechanosensitive cold-insensitive C-fibers (n = 25) and almost no A-fibers (n = 2/34) were activated by menthol. These results strongly argue that cutaneous type 1 cold-sensitive afferent fibers are nonnociceptive cold fibers that use the TRPM8 transduction channel.

  20. A Simple Technique for Determining the pH of Whole Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong J

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new technique has been developed to determine the pH of whole cigarette smoke. In this technique, whole smoke from ten cigarettes was trapped in 300 mL water containing 1% (w/v sodium chloride and the pH was determined on the resulting aqueous suspension of cigarette smoke. Two impingers with an extra coarse porosity fritted disc were used to dispense the smoke in the aqueous trapping medium. Cigarettes were smoked on a 20-port Borgwaldt RM 20/CS smoking machine using modified FTC (Federal Trade Commission conditions. The puff volume was adjusted to take a 35 mL puff as measured through the cigarette and the collection traps. This new technique accounts for the contributions to smoke pH from both the vapor phase and the particulate phase of smoke. The repeatability of this new technique was determined on eighteen replicates of a commercially available non-menthol, filter cigarette. Each measurement was done on a different day to check for a possible drift in pH with time. The mean pH value for the chosen sample was found to be 4.97 with a standard deviation of 0.07 pH units. The smoke pH values for over 150 commercially available cigarette brands with a variety of “tar” levels were determined. The smoke pH values had a range from 4.6 to 5.5, with an average of 4.79 and a maximum standard deviation of 0.10 pH units. An experimental flue cured cigarette had a smoke pH of around 5.0, while an experimental Burley cigarette had a smoke pH of 5.4. No correlation between smoke pH and “tar” or total particulate matter (TPM and between pH and nicotine levels was found. The purpose of the present study was to develop a practical, relatively simple laboratory method to measure the pH of a water solution of whole smoke, and was not intended to reflect, or have direct relevance for any biochemical or biological phenomena such as inhalability of smoke, flavor perception, nicotine ab-sorption, etc.”

  1. A comparison of eugenol and menthol on encapsulation characteristics with water-soluble quaternized β-cyclodextrin grafted chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phunpee, Sarunya; Saesoo, Somsak; Sramala, Issara; Jarussophon, Suwatchai; Sajomsang, Warayuth; Puttipipatkhachorn, Satit; Puttipipatkhajorn, Satit; Soottitantawat, Apinan; Ruktanonchai, Uracha Rungsardthong

    2016-03-01

    Two guest molecules (eugenol and (-)-menthol) were investigated on inclusion complex formation with water-soluble quaternized β-CD grafted with chitosan (QCD-g-CS). The inclusion complexes were prepared at varying mole ratios between eugenol or (-)-menthol and β-CD (substituted on QCD-g-CS) by a conventional shaking method and obtained as solid powder by freeze-drying process. The results showed that encapsulation efficiency %EE decreased with increasing of initial eugenol or (-)-menthol loading whereas %loading increased with increasing of initial eugenol or (-)-menthol loading. The results indicated that inclusion complex formation between eugenol and QCD-g-CS was more favorable than that of (-)-menthol. To clarify this mechanism, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore their binding energy, solvation energy and total free energy of those complexes. It was found that the total free energy (ΔG) of eugenol and (-)-menthol against QCD-g-CS (mole ratio of 1) in water-explicit system were -2108.91 kJ/mol and -344.45 kJ/mol, respectively. Moreover, molecular dynamic simulation of eugenol absorbed on surface QCD-g-CS (-205.73 kJ/mol) was shown to have a higher negative value than that of (-)-menthol on QCD-gCS (3182.31 kJ/mol). Furthermore, the release characteristics of the encapsulated powder were also investigated in simulated saliva pH 6.8 at 32 °C. The results suggested that (-)-menthol had higher release rate from the complexes than eugenol. In all cases, the release characteristics for those guest molecules could be characterized by the limited-diffusion kinetics.

  2. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Meernik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121 to assess what proportion of hospitals have developed e-cigarette policies, how policies have been implemented and communicated, and what motivators and barriers have influenced the development of e-cigarette regulations. Seventy-five hospitals (62% completed the survey. Over 80% of hospitals reported the existence of a policy regulating the use of e-cigarettes on campus and roughly half of the hospitals without a current e-cigarette policy are likely to develop one within the next year. Most e-cigarette policies have been incorporated into existing tobacco-free policies with few reported barriers, though effective communication of e-cigarette policies is lacking. The majority of hospitals strongly agree that e-cigarette use on campus should be prohibited for staff, patients, and visitors. Widespread incorporation of e-cigarette policies into existing hospital smoke and tobacco-free campus policies is feasible but needs communication to staff, patients, and visitors.

  3. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meernik, Clare; Baker, Hannah M; Paci, Karina; Fischer-Brown, Isaiah; Dunlap, Daniel; Goldstein, Adam O

    2015-12-29

    Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121) to assess what proportion of hospitals have developed e-cigarette policies, how policies have been implemented and communicated, and what motivators and barriers have influenced the development of e-cigarette regulations. Seventy-five hospitals (62%) completed the survey. Over 80% of hospitals reported the existence of a policy regulating the use of e-cigarettes on campus and roughly half of the hospitals without a current e-cigarette policy are likely to develop one within the next year. Most e-cigarette policies have been incorporated into existing tobacco-free policies with few reported barriers, though effective communication of e-cigarette policies is lacking. The majority of hospitals strongly agree that e-cigarette use on campus should be prohibited for staff, patients, and visitors. Widespread incorporation of e-cigarette policies into existing hospital smoke and tobacco-free campus policies is feasible but needs communication to staff, patients, and visitors.

  4. Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on calf birth weight, postpartum health, feed intake, milk yield, and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, R; Colazo, M G; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-05-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of supplemental fat (no oilseed vs. oilseed) during late gestation and the source of fat (canola vs. sunflower seed), on dry matter intake (DMI), plasma metabolite concentrations, milk production and composition, calf birth weight, postpartum health disorders, ovarian function and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Pregnant Holstein cows, blocked by body condition and parity, were assigned to 1 of 3 diets containing rolled canola seed (high in oleic acid; n=43) or sunflower (high in linoleic acid; n=45) at 8% of dry matter, or no oilseed (control; n=43), for the last 35±2 d of pregnancy. After calving, all cows received a common lactation diet. Blood samples were collected at wk -3 (i.e., 2 wk after initiation of prepartum diets) and at wk +1, +2, +3, +4 and +5 postpartum to determine the concentration of fatty acids (mEq/dL), β-hydroxybutyrate (mg/dL), and glucose (mg/dL). Ovarian ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to determine the first appearance of dominant (10mm) and preovulatory-size (≥16mm) follicles, and ovulation. Uterine inflammatory status based on the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN; subclinical endometritis: >8% PMN) was assessed at d 25±1 postpartum. Significant parity by treatment interactions were observed for DMI and milk yield. Prepartum oilseed supplementation, more specifically sunflower seed supplementation, increased postpartum DMI in primiparous cows without affecting prepartum DMI or milk yield. Contrarily, in multiparous cows, prepartum oilseed supplementation decreased both prepartum and postpartum DMI and milk yield during the first 2 wk. Regardless of parity, prepartum feeding of canola reduced postpartum DMI compared with those fed sunflower. Mean fatty acids concentrations at wk -3 were greater in cows given supplemental oilseed than those fed no oilseeds. Gestation length and calf birth weight were increased in cows given supplemental oilseed prepartum

  5. Comparative glandular trichome transcriptome-based gene characterization reveals reasons for differential (-)-menthol biosynthesis in Mentha species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtar, Md Qussen; Qamar, Nida; Yadav, Pallavi; Kulkarni, Pallavi; Kumar, Ajay; Shasany, Ajit Kumar

    2017-06-01

    The genes involved in menthol biosynthesis are reported earlier in Mentha × piperita. But the information on these genes is not available in Mentha arvensis. To bridge the gap in knowledge on differential biosynthesis of monoterpenes leading to compositional variation in the essential oil of these species, a comparative transcriptome analysis of the glandular trichome (GT) was carried out. In addition to the mevalonic acid (MVA) and methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway genes, about 210 and 196 different terpene synthases (TPSs) transcripts were identified from annotation in M. arvensis and M. × piperita, respectively, and correlated to several monoterpenes present in the essential oil. Six isoforms of (-)-menthol dehydrogenases (MD), the last enzyme of the menthol biosynthetic pathway, were identified, cloned and characterized from the transcriptome data (three from each species). Varied expression levels and differential enzyme kinetics of these isoforms indicated the nature and composition of the product, as these isoforms generate both (-)-menthol and (+)-neomenthol from (-)-menthone and converts (-)-menthol to (-)-menthone in the reverse reaction, and hence together determine the quantity of (-)-menthol in the essential oil in these two species. Several genes for high value minor monoterpenes could also be identified from the transcriptome data. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  6. Effect of pre-partum feed supplementation on post-partum ovarian activity, milk production and calf growth of small holder dairy Cattle in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayemi, Pougue Henri; Nsongka, Munji Victorine; Leinyuy, Isabelle; Webb, Edward Cottington; Nchadji, Justin Mbanya; Cavestany, Daniel; Bryant, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Seventy-two cows were selected for an on-farm study on the effect of feed supplementation before calving on milk production, ovarian activity and calf growth of Holstein, indigenous Red Fulani cows and their crosses. Pre-partum feed supplementation was done using cotton seed cake (80%), maize (18%), bone meal (1%) and kitchen salt (1% NaCl). Supplementation levels consisted of a low supplementation fed at 1 kg per animal per day and high supplementation fed at 2 kg per animal per day. In addition, Red Fulani cows received the supplements in two different ways namely a pre-partum supplementation consisting of 1 kg per cow per day and pre- and post-partum supplementation consisting of 1 kg per cow per day before calving and 1 kg per cow per day post-partum up to 30 days after calving. Blood samples were analysed using ELISA Progesterone kits to determine the length of post-partum anoestrus. Results show that pre-partum levels of feeding did not have any effect (P > 0.05) on body condition score (BCS) at 12 weeks after calving, calf birth weight, average daily weight gain of calves, milk production and post-partum anoestrus. High BCS at calving was shown to influence BCS at 12 weeks of lactation. Holstein cows had bigger calves (P < 0.01) at birth (45 kg) compared to traditional cows (36 kg) and crosses (34 kg). There was little benefit of pre-partum supplementation on the parameters investigated in this study. Consequently, low income farmers are advised to concentrate their efforts of supplementation early in lactation.

  7. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla

    2014-05-01

    With the rapid increase in use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), users and non-users are exposed to the aerosol and product constituents. This is a review of published data on the human health effects of exposure to e-cigarettes and their components. Literature searches were conducted through September 2013 using multiple electronic databases. Forty-four articles are included in this analysis. E-cigarette aerosols may contain propylene glycol, glycerol, flavourings, other chemicals and, usually, nicotine. Aerosolised propylene glycol and glycerol produce mouth and throat irritation and dry cough. No data on the effects of flavouring inhalation were identified. Data on short-term health effects are limited and there are no adequate data on long-term effects. Aerosol exposure may be associated with respiratory function impairment, and serum cotinine levels are similar to those in traditional cigarette smokers. The high nicotine concentrations of some products increase exposure risks for non-users, particularly children. The dangers of secondhand and thirdhand aerosol exposure have not been thoroughly evaluated. Scientific evidence regarding the human health effects of e-cigarettes is limited. While e-cigarette aerosol may contain fewer toxicants than cigarette smoke, studies evaluating whether e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes are inconclusive. Some evidence suggests that e-cigarette use may facilitate smoking cessation, but definitive data are lacking. No e-cigarette has been approved by FDA as a cessation aid. Environmental concerns and issues regarding non-user exposure exist. The health impact of e-cigarettes, for users and the public, cannot be determined with currently available data.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Effects of Capsaicin and Menthol on Intraoral Somatosensory Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Shengyi; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Zhang, Zhenting;

    2015-01-01

    PT values, the number of hypersensitive or hyposensitive test sites, and the coordinates of the center of gravity (COG) of somatosensory sensitivity. RESULTS: The mean ± SEM VAS score of pain intensity produced by the application of capsaicin (4.6 ± 0.5) was significantly higher than that produced...... by menthol (0.3 ± 0.2) and saline (0.1 ± 0.1) (P somatosensory changes (P > .147...

  9. Metabolism of Monoterpenes: Acetylation of (-)-Menthol by a Soluble Enzyme Preparation from Peppermint (Mentha piperita) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau, R; Hooper, C L

    1978-05-01

    The essential oil from mature leaves of flowering peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) contains up to 15% (-)-menthyl acetate, and leaf discs converted exogenous (-)-[G-(3)H]menthol into this ester in approximately 15% yield of the incorporated precursor. Leaf extracts catalyzed the acetyl coenzyme A-dependent acetylation of (-)-[G-(3)H]menthol and the product of this transacetylase reaction was identified by radiochromatographic techniques. Transacetylase activity was located mainly in the 100,000g supernatant fraction, and the preparation was partially purified by combination of Sephadex G-100 gel filtration and chromatography on O-diethylaminoethyl-cellulose. The transacetylase had a molecular weight of about 37,000 as judged by Sephadex G-150 gel filtration, and a pH optimum near 9. The apparent K(m) and velocity for (-)-menthol were 0.3 mm and 16 nmol/hr. mg of protein, respectively. The saturation curve for acetyl coenzyme A was sigmoidal, showing apparent saturation near 0.1 mm. Dithioerythritol was required for maximum activity and stability of the enzyme, and the enzyme was inhibited by thiol directed reagents such as p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. Diisopropylfluorophosphate also inhibited transacylation suggesting the involvement of a serine residue in catalysis. The transacylase was highly specific for acetyl coenzyme A; propionyl coenzyme A and butyryl coenzyme A were not nearly as efficient as acyl donors (11% and 2%, respectively). However, the enzyme was much less selective with regard to the alcohol substrate, suggesting that the nature of the acetate ester synthesized in mint is more dependent on the type of alcohol available than on the specificity of the transacetylase. This is the first report on an enzyme involved in monoterpenol acetylation in plants. A very similar enzyme, catalyzing this key reaction in the metabolism of menthol, was also isolated from the flowers of peppermint.

  10. Cigarette Consumption and Cigarette Smoking Prevalence Among Adults in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, John S; Lai, Sue Min

    2015-06-11

    Recent tobacco prevention and cessation activities have focused on nonsmoking ordinances and behavioral changes, and in Kansas, the overall prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults has decreased. The objective of this study was to determine whether overall cigarette consumption (mean annual number of cigarettes smoked) in Kansas also decreased. Data on cigarette smoking prevalence for 91,465 adult Kansans were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey for 1999 through 2010. Data on annual cigarette consumption were obtained from the 2002 and 2006 Kansas Adult Tobacco Survey and analyzed by totals, by sex, and by smoking some days or smoking every day. Linear regression was used to evaluate rate changes over time. Among men, but not women, cigarette smoking prevalence decreased significantly over time. The prevalence of smoking every day decreased significantly among both men and women, whereas the prevalence of smoking on some days increased significantly for women but not men. For current smokers, the mean annual number of cigarettes consumed remained the same. The decline in overall smoking prevalence coupled with the lack of change in mean annual cigarette consumption may have resulted in a more intense exposure to cigarettes for the smoking population. The significant increase in some day use among women indicates a need for additional prevention and education activities; the impact on future lung cancer incidence rates needs further investigation.

  11. The JFFMA assessment of flavoring substances structurally related to menthol and uniquely used in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirokuji, Yoshiharu; Abe, Hajime; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Saito, Kenji; Sekiya, Fumiko; Hayashi, Shim-mo; Maruyama, Shinpei; Ono, Atsushi; Nakajima, Madoka; Degawa, Masakuni; Ozawa, Shogo; Shibutani, Makoto; Maitani, Tamio

    2014-02-01

    Using the procedure devised by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), we performed safety evaluations on four flavoring substances structurally related to menthol (L-menthyl 2-methylbutyrate, DL-menthyl octanoate, DL-menthyl palmitate, and DL-menthyl stearate) uniquely used in Japan. While no genotoxicity study data were available in the literature, all four substances had no chemical structural alerts predictive of genotoxicity. Moreover, they all four are esters consisting of menthol and simple carboxylic acids that were assumed to be immediately hydrolyzed after ingestion and metabolized into innocuous substances for excretion. As menthol and carboxylic acids have no known genotoxicity, it was judged that the JECFA procedure could be applied to these four substances. According to Cramer's classification, these substances were categorized as class I based on their chemical structures. The estimated daily intakes for all four substances were within the range of 1.54-4.71 μg/person/day and 60-1250 μg/person/day, using the methods of Maximized Survey-Derived Intake and Single Portion Exposure Technique, respectively, based on the annual usage data of 2001, 2005, and 2010 in Japan. As the daily intakes of these substances were below the threshold of concern applied to class I substances viz., 1800 μg/person/day, it was concluded that all four substances raise no safety concerns when used for flavoring foods under the currently estimated intake levels.

  12. The intractable cigarette 'filter problem'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Bradford

    2011-05-01

    When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the 'filter problem'. These extensive filter research and development efforts suggest a phase of genuine optimism among cigarette designers that cigarette filters could be engineered to mitigate the health hazards of smoking. This paper explores the early history of cigarette filter research and development in order to elucidate why and when seemingly sincere filter engineering efforts devolved into manipulations in cigarette design to sustain cigarette marketing and mitigate consumers' concerns about the health consequences of smoking. Relevant word and phrase searches were conducted in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library online database, Google Patents, and media and medical databases including ProQuest, JSTOR, Medline and PubMed. 13 tobacco industry documents were identified that track prominent developments involved in what the industry referred to as the 'filter problem'. These reveal a period of intense focus on the 'filter problem' that persisted from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, featuring collaborations between cigarette producers and large American chemical and textile companies to develop effective filters. In addition, the documents reveal how cigarette filter researchers' growing scientific knowledge of smoke chemistry led to increasing recognition that filters were unlikely to offer significant health protection. One of the primary concerns of cigarette producers was to design cigarette filters that could be economically incorporated into the massive scale of cigarette production. The synthetic plastic cellulose acetate

  13. Chemistry of Cigarette Burning Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen P

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette-burning and the smoke-formation processes and smoke composition are important topics for understanding cigarette performance. This paper proposes the molecular formulas representing the active components of bright, burley, and Oriental tobaccos and a basic chemistry model of the cigarette burning processes. Previous knowledge of the cigarette burning processes and smoke formation helped to establish parameters in deriving the basic chemistry equations. The proposed chemistry provides a brief view of the mechanisms of the cigarette burning during puffing and interpuff smoldering, and can be used to interpret and predict the smoke composition for cigarettes made from bright, burley, and Oriental tobaccos. Based on the proposed chemistry, the effect of ventilation on smoke component deliveries is discussed and the reaction heat of the puffing process is estimated.

  14. Anti-hyperalgesic effects of a novel TRPM8 agonist in neuropathic rats: a comparison with topical menthol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ryan; Gonçalves, Leonor; Leveridge, Mathew; Mack, Stephen R; Hendrick, Alan; Brice, Nicola L; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2014-10-01

    Menthol has historically been used topically to alleviate various pain conditions. At low concentrations, this non-selective TRPM8 agonist elicits a cooling sensation, however higher concentrations result in cold hyperalgesia in normal subjects and paradoxically analgesia in neuropathic patients. Through behavioural and electrophysiological means, we examined whether this back-translated into a pre-clinical rodent model. Menthol was applied topically to the hind paws of naive and spinal nerve-ligated (SNL) rats. In behavioural assays, menthol did not affect withdrawal thresholds to mechanical stimulation and 10% and 40% menthol rarely sensitised withdrawals to innocuous cooling in naïve rats. However, in SNL rats, 10% and 40% menthol alleviated cold hypersensitivity. This was partly corroborated by in vivo electrophysiological recordings of dorsal horn lamina V/VI neurones. As several studies have implicated TRPM8 in analgesia, we examined whether a novel systemically available TRPM8 agonist, M8-Ag, had more potent anti-hyperalgesic effects than menthol in neuropathic rats. In vitro, M8-Ag activates TRPM8, expressed in HEK293 cells, with an EC50 of 44.97 nM. In vivo, M8-Ag inhibited neuronal responses to innocuous and noxious cooling in SNL rats with no effect in sham-operated rats. This effect was modality selective; M8-Ag did not alter neuronal responses to mechanical, heat or brush stimulation. In addition, M8-Ag attenuated behavioural hypersensitivity to innocuous cooling but not mechanical stimulation. These data suggest that menthol induced hyperalgesia is not consistently replicable in the rat and that the analgesic properties are revealed by injury. Systemic TRPM8 agonists might be beneficial in neuropathy without affecting normal cold sensitivity.

  15. Cigarette price minimization strategies used by adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pesko, Michael F; Kruger, Judy; Hyland, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    .... We explored use of cigarette price minimization strategies, such as purchasing cartons of cigarettes, purchasing in states with lower after-tax cigarette prices, and purchasing on the Internet...

  16. Combined use of borneol or menthol with labrasol promotes penetration of baicalin through rabbit cornea in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Bai, Jianhai; Yang, Hongbin; Liu, Jingjing; Cui, Hao

    2015-01-01

    The permeability of most drugs through the eyes is very limited, so finding safe and effective penetration enhancers is of high importance in current ophthalmology research. In this paper, we use a new approach that integrates Chinese and Western medicine to improve the corneal permeability of baicalin, a water- and fat-insoluble target drug, in vitro. Rabbits were divided into three groups. The first group was dosed with borneol (0.05%, 0.1%). menthol (0.1%, 0.2%), or Labrasol (1%, 2%) individually, the second was dosed with a combination of Labrasol with either borneol or menthol, and the third group received a control treatment. Compared with the control treatment, borneol, menthol, or Labrasol alone clearly improved the permeability of baicalin in vitro. Furthermore, the penetrating effects were significantly increased by combining the application of Labrasol with menthol or borneol. Among the various combined penetration enhancers, 0.1% borneol with 2% Labrasol achieved the best apparent permeability, approximately 16.35 times that of the control. Additionally, the calculation of corneal hydration level and the Draize test demonstrated the safety of these penetration enhancers to the rabbit corneas in vivo. This study confirms that the combined use of borneol or menthol, compounds both derived from Chinese herbs, with Labrasol can improve the corneal permeability of water- and fat-insoluble drugs.

  17. Cigarette-by-cigarette satisfaction during ad libitum smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Saul; Kirchner, Thomas R

    2009-05-01

    Smoking is thought to produce immediate reinforcement, and subjective satisfaction with smoking is thought to influence subsequent smoking. The authors used ecological momentary assessment (A. A. Stone & S. Shiffman, 1994) to assess cigarette-by-cigarette smoking satisfaction in 394 heavy smokers who subsequently attempted to quit. Across 14,882 cigarettes rated, satisfaction averaged 7.06 (0-10 scale), but with considerable variation across cigarettes and individuals. Women and African American smokers reported higher satisfaction. More satisfied smokers were more likely to lapse after quitting (HR = 1.1, p < .03), whereas less satisfied smokers derived greater benefit from patch treatment to help them achieve abstinence (HR = 1.23, p < .001). Cigarettes smoked in positive moods were more satisfying, correcting for mood at the time of rating. The best predictor of subsequent smoking satisfaction was the intensity of craving prior to smoking. Understanding subjective smoking satisfaction provides insight into sources of reinforcement for smoking.

  18. Nature's Treatment for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Studies on the Isolation of (-)-Menthol from Peppermint Oil and Its Conversion to (-)-Menthyl Acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Maeve; Connors, E´ilis Margaret; Anwar, Zeeshan; Walsh, John J.

    2015-01-01

    A simple, robust, and reproducible method was developed for the isolation of (-)-menthol from peppermint oil and to study the effect of different types of leaving groups, catalysts, solvents, and tertiary base on the extent of esterification of (-)-menthol to (-)-menthyl acetate. In this experiment, students compare leaving group properties of…

  19. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E; Meijer, B.C

    1996-01-01

    Study objective: Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental

  20. Cigarette smoking habits among schoolchildren

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Branski, D; Knol, K; Kerem, E; Meijer, B.C

    1996-01-01

    Study objective: Cigarette smoking is a major preventable cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Most adult smokers start smoking regularly some time before 18 years of age. The aim of this study was to determine the age at which children begin cigarette smoking, to study the environmental fact

  1. Electronic cigarettes in the media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J Drew; Orellana-Barrios, Menfil; Medrano-Juarez, Rita; Buscemi, Dolores; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are an increasingly popular source of nicotine and an increasingly popular topic in the media. Concerns about potential hazards associated with e-cigarette use and advertising, especially to adolescents, have led to studies on e-cigarettes in both traditional media (TV, mail, print, and outdoor advertising) and social media (websites, social networking sites, blogs, and e-mails). This review presents a narrative description of available studies related to e-cigarettes in the media. These articles have focused on promotion in both traditional and social media across a broad range of topics and have concentrated on target audiences, smoking cessation, harm reduction, and advertising. E-cigarette advertising is the most frequent topic in the published articles. Identifying the target audience also is a common objective in articles. The representation of e-cigarettes as a "healthier alternative" to traditional cigarettes and their use as a "smoking cessation aid" are main themes presented through all types of media.

  2. Acute effect of topical menthol on chronic pain in slaughterhouse workers with carpal tunnel syndrome: triple-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Brandt, Mikkel;

    2014-01-01

    participants with CTS and chronic pain of the arm/hand who were randomly distributed into two groups to receive topical menthol (Biofreeze) or placebo (gel with a menthol scent) during the working day and 48 hours later the other treatment (crossover design). Participants rated arm/hand pain intensity during...... the last hour of work (scale 0-10) immediately before 1, 2, and 3 hours after application. Furthermore, global rating of change (GROC) in arm/hand pain was assessed 3 hours after application. Compared with placebo, pain intensity and GROC improved more following application of topical menthol (P = 0.......026 and P = 0.044, resp.). Pain intensity of the arm/hand decreased by -1.2 (CI 95%: -1.7 to -0.6) following topical menthol compared with placebo, corresponding to a moderate effect size of 0.63. In conclusion, topical menthol acutely reduces pain intensity during the working day in slaughterhouse workers...

  3. Electronic cigarettes for smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are novel vaporising devices that, similar to nicotine replacement treatments, deliver nicotine but in lower amounts and less swiftly than tobacco smoking. However, they enjoy far greater popularity than these medications due in part to their behaviour replacement characteristics. Evidence for their efficacy as cessation aids, based on several randomised trials of now obsolete e-cigarettes, suggests a modest effect equivalent to nicotine patch. E-cigarettes are almost certainly far less harmful than tobacco smoking, but the health effects of long-term use are as yet unknown. Dual use is common and almost as harmful as usual smoking unless it leads to quitting. Population effects, such as re-normalising smoking behaviour, are a concern. Clinicians should be knowledgeable about these products. If patients who smoke are unwilling to quit or cannot succeed using evidence-based approaches, e-cigarettes may be an option to be considered after discussing the limitations of current knowledge.

  4. Electronic cigarette use by college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutfin, Erin L; McCoy, Thomas P; Morrell, Holly E R; Hoeppner, Bettina B; Wolfson, Mark

    2013-08-01

    Electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, are battery operated devices that deliver nicotine via inhaled vapor. There is considerable controversy about the disease risk and toxicity of e-cigarettes and empirical evidence on short- and long-term health effects is minimal. Limited data on e-cigarette use and correlates exist, and to our knowledge, no prevalence rates among U.S. college students have been reported. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of e-cigarette use and identify correlates of use among a large, multi-institution, random sample of college students. 4444 students from 8 colleges in North Carolina completed a Web-based survey in fall 2009. Ever use of e-cigarettes was reported by 4.9% of students, with 1.5% reporting past month use. Correlates of ever use included male gender, Hispanic or "Other race" (compared to non-Hispanic Whites), Greek affiliation, conventional cigarette smoking and e-cigarette harm perceptions. Although e-cigarette use was more common among conventional cigarette smokers, 12% of ever e-cigarette users had never smoked a conventional cigarette. Among current cigarette smokers, e-cigarette use was negatively associated with lack of knowledge about e-cigarette harm, but was not associated with intentions to quit. Although e-cigarette use was more common among conventional cigarette smokers, it was not exclusive to them. E-cigarette use was not associated with intentions to quit smoking among a sub-sample of conventional cigarette smokers. Unlike older, more established cigarette smokers, e-cigarette use by college students does not appear to be motivated by the desire to quit cigarette smoking. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. DNA typing from cigarette butts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yoshihisa; Takayama, Tomohiro; Hirata, Keiji; Yamada, Sadao; Nagai, Atsushi; Nakamura, Isao; Bunai, Yasuo; Ohya, Isao

    2003-03-01

    We performed DNA typing for D1S80, HLADQA1, TH01 and PM using the butts of 100 cigarettes that were smoked by ten different individuals (ten cigarettes per individual). The results obtained from DNA typing for D1S80 agreed with the results obtained using bloodstains in 76 cigarette butt samples. Sixteen samples produced false results, showing the loss of the longer allelic hetero-band. When examined using agarose gel electrophoresis, high-molecular weight DNA was not observed in these samples. The same results were also observed for buccal swab samples and saliva stains obtained from the same individuals. In the remaining eight cigarette butt samples, PCR products were not detected. The results obtained from DNA typing for TH01, HLADQA1 and PM agreed with the results obtained using bloodstains in 90 samples. In the remaining ten samples of a specific kind of cigarette (Marlboro), the PCR products were not detected. The extracts from the ends of the Marlboro cigarettes were stained yellow. When the DNA extracted from Marlboro cigarette butts was treated with Microcon-100 (amicon) or SizeSep 400 Span Columns (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech), PCR products could be detected. When PCR amplification was performed after adding extracts from the ends of unsmoked Marlboro cigarettes to DNA extracted from bloodstains, PCR products could not be detected. The present data indicate that the degradation of high-molecular weight DNA and the inhibition of PCR by dyes of the cigarette end should be kept in mind when performing DNA typing using cigarette ends.

  6. A green and sustainable approach: celebrating the 30th anniversary of the asymmetric l-menthol process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emura, Makoto; Matsuda, Hiroyuki

    2014-11-01

    Takasago has been devoted to producing l-menthol since 1954, and our long history of manufacturing this important aroma chemical is reviewed here. The current asymmetric catalytic process had its 30th anniversary in 2013. Our l-menthol process is considered carbon-neutral, and, therefore, 'green' and sustainable. It uses renewable myrcene obtained from gum rosin as a starting material. In addition, the Rh-BINAP (=2,2'-bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,1'-binaphthyl) catalytic system is highly efficient. This pathway not only leads l-menthol, but a variety of 100% biobased aroma chemical products as well. By measuring the (14) C levels in a material, one can determine the percentage of carbon that is biobased. This biobased assay, described as the ratio plant-derived C/fossil-derived C, can clarify how renewable a product really is. This will be highlighted for several of Takasago's key aroma chemicals.

  7. Change in pharmacokinetic behavior of intravenously administered midazolam due to increased CYP3A2 expression in rats treated with menthol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Katsuhito; Suzuki, Sho; Yamamura, Ayumi; Konishi, Hiroki

    2015-04-01

    Menthol is used widely as a constituent of functional foods and chemical drugs. The present study investigated changes in the pharmacokinetic behavior of intravenously administered midazolam (MDZ), a probe for CYP3A, when rats were treated with menthol. The study also examined which isoforms of CYP3A1 and 3A2 were menthol-inducible and contributed to the altered disposition of midazolam. Menthol was administered intraperitoneally to rats once daily for 3 days at a dose of 10 mg/kg, while the control rats received vehicle alone. The pharmacokinetic examination of i.v. administered midazolam revealed that serum midazolam concentrations at each sampling point were lower in the menthol-treated rats than in the control rats. Regarding the pharmacokinetic parameters of the menthol-treated group, the area under the curve (AUC) was decreased significantly and, correspondingly, the elimination rate constant at terminal phase (ke) was increased significantly without significant changes in the volume of distribution at steady state (Vdss). The metabolic production of the 1'-hydroxylated and 4'-hydroxylated forms of MDZ by hepatic microsomes was significantly greater in the menthol-treated rats than in the control rats. The expression levels of mRNA and protein for hepatic CYP3A2 were more than 2.5-fold higher than the control levels when the rats were treated with menthol, whereas no changes were observed in the expression levels of CYP3A1. These results indicate that menthol enhanced the elimination clearance of midazolam by inducing hepatic CYP3A2 and that careful attention should be paid when menthol is ingested in combination with drugs that act as substrates for CYP3A.

  8. Receptivity to E-cigarette Marketing, Harm Perceptions, and E-cigarette Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Fagan, Pebbles; Kehl, Lisa; Herzog, Thaddeus A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To test whether exposure and receptivity to e-cigarette marketing are associated with recent e-cigarette use among young adults through increased beliefs that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes. Methods Data were collected from 307 multiethnic 4- and 2-year college students; approximately equal proportions of current, never, and former cigarette smokers [mean age = 23.5 (SD = 5.5); 65% female]. Results Higher receptivity to e-cigarette marketing was associated with perceptions that e-cigarettes are less harmful than cigarettes, which in turn, were associated with higher recent e-cigarette use. Conclusions The findings provide preliminary support to the proposition that marketing of e-cigarettes as safer alternatives to cigarettes or cessation aids is associated with increased e-cigarette use among young adults. The findings have implications for development of e-cigarette regulations. PMID:25290604

  9. Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarettes Use: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is a strong predictor of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes use, particularly in adolescents, yet the effects has not be systematically reviewed and quantified. Relevant studies were retrieved by searching three databases up to June 2015. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs calculated by a random-effects model. Current smokers were more likely to use e-cigarette currently (OR: 14.89, 95% CI: 7.70–28.78 and the probability was greater in adolescents than in adults (39.13 vs. 7.51. The probability of ever e-cigarettes use was significantly increased in smokers (OR: 14.67, 95% CI: 11.04–19.49. Compared with ever smokers and adults, the probabilities were much greater in current smokers (16.10 vs. 9.47 and adolescents (15.19 vs. 14.30, respectively. Cigarette smoking increases the probability of e-cigarettes use, especially in current smokers and adolescents.

  10. Cigarette Smoking and Electronic Cigarettes Use: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Jian-Wei; Cao, Shuang-Shuang; Wang, Hui-Qin; Hu, Ru-Ying

    2016-01-12

    Increasing evidence indicates that cigarette smoking is a strong predictor of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) use, particularly in adolescents, yet the effects has not be systematically reviewed and quantified. Relevant studies were retrieved by searching three databases up to June 2015. The meta-analysis results were presented as pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated by a random-effects model. Current smokers were more likely to use e-cigarette currently (OR: 14.89, 95% CI: 7.70-28.78) and the probability was greater in adolescents than in adults (39.13 vs. 7.51). The probability of ever e-cigarettes use was significantly increased in smokers (OR: 14.67, 95% CI: 11.04-19.49). Compared with ever smokers and adults, the probabilities were much greater in current smokers (16.10 vs. 9.47) and adolescents (15.19 vs. 14.30), respectively. Cigarette smoking increases the probability of e-cigarettes use, especially in current smokers and adolescents.

  11. Insulin signaling and skeletal muscle atrophy and autophagy in transition dairy cows either overfed energy or fed a controlled energy diet prepartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S; Abuelo, A; Nydam, D V; Leal Yepes, F A; Overton, T R; Wakshlag, J J

    2016-05-01

    During periods of negative energy balance, mobilization of muscle is a physiologic process providing energy and amino acids. This is important in transition dairy cows experiencing negative energy and protein balance postpartum. Overconsumption of energy during late pregnancy affects resting glucose and insulin concentrations peripartum and increases the risk for hyperketonemia postpartum, but the effects on muscle tissue are not fully understood. Skeletal muscle accounts for the majority of insulin-dependent glucose utilization in ruminants. Our objective was to study peripartal skeletal muscle insulin signaling as well as muscle accretion and atrophy in cows with excess energy consumption prepartum. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained 28 and 10 days prepartum, as well as 4 and 21 days postpartum from 24 Holstein cows. Biopsies were taken immediately before and 60 min after intravenous glucose challenge causing endogenous release of insulin. Gene expression of IGF-1, myostatin, and atrogin-1, as well as immunoblot analysis of atrogin-1, muRF1, ubiquitinated proteins, LC3, and phosphorylation of AKT, ERK and mTORC1 substrate 4EBP1 was performed. Excess energy consumption in late pregnancy did not lead to changes in insulin-dependent molecular regulation of muscle accretion or atrophy compared with the controlled energy group. In both groups, phosphorylation of AKT and mTORC1 substrate was significantly decreased postpartum whereas proteasome activity and macroautopagy were upregulated. This study showed that in addition to the proteasome pathway of muscle atrophy, macroautophagy is upregulated in postpartum negative energy and protein balance regardless of dietary energy strategy prepartum and was higher in cows overfed energy throughout the study period.

  12. 19 CFR 159.5 - Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes..., and cigarette papers and tubes. The internal revenue taxes imposed on cigars, cigarettes, and cigarette papers and tubes under section 5701 or 7652, Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (26 U.S.C. 5701 or...

  13. 27 CFR 40.351 - Cigarette papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 40.351... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Taxes § 40.351 Cigarette papers....

  14. 27 CFR 41.34 - Cigarette papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cigarette papers. 41.34... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Taxes Tax Rates § 41.34 Cigarette papers. Cigarette papers are taxed at the...

  15. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Cigarette Pica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Cathleen C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study of an adolescent with mental retardation and autism found that pica of cigarette butts was maintained in a condition with no social consequences when cigarettes contained nicotine but not when cigarettes contained herbs without nicotine. A procedure based on stimulus control, which reduced cigarette consumption to zero, is described.…

  16. Rare 'head-to-tail' arrangement of guest molecules in the inclusion complexes of (+)- and (-)-menthol with β-cyclodextrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceborska, Magdalena; Asztemborska, Monika; Lipkowski, Janusz

    2012-11-01

    The inclusion of (+)- and (-)-menthols in β-cyclodextrin has been studied by X-ray crystallography. The obtained [2:2] complexes show typical for β-cyclodextrin form of head-to-head dimer. In both (+)- and (-)-cases, the menthol molecule in one of cyclodextrins forming dimer exhibits disorder and occupies two major sites. Also both of the diastereoisomeric complexes show unusual 'head to tail' arrangement of guest molecules - two guest molecules are differently oriented inside β-cyclodextrin cavity. Stability constants for both complexes in solution were measured.

  17. Enzymatic Menthol Production: One-Pot Approach Using Engineered Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toogood, Helen S; Ní Cheallaigh, Aisling; Tait, Shirley; Mansell, David J; Jervis, Adrian; Lygidakis, Antonios; Humphreys, Luke; Takano, Eriko; Gardiner, John M; Scrutton, Nigel S

    2015-10-16

    Menthol isomers are high-value monoterpenoid commodity chemicals, produced naturally by mint plants, Mentha spp. Alternative clean biosynthetic routes to these compounds are commercially attractive. Optimization strategies for biocatalytic terpenoid production are mainly focused on metabolic engineering of the biosynthesis pathway within an expression host. We circumvent this bottleneck by combining pathway assembly techniques with classical biocatalysis methods to engineer and optimize cell-free one-pot biotransformation systems and apply this strategy to the mint biosynthesis pathway. Our approach allows optimization of each pathway enzyme and avoidance of monoterpenoid toxicity issues to the host cell. We have developed a one-pot (bio)synthesis of (1R,2S,5R)-(-)-menthol and (1S,2S,5R)-(+)-neomenthol from pulegone, using recombinant Escherichia coli extracts containing the biosynthetic genes for an "ene"-reductase (NtDBR from Nicotiana tabacum) and two menthone dehydrogenases (MMR and MNMR from Mentha piperita). Our modular engineering strategy allowed each step to be optimized to improve the final production level. Moderate to highly pure menthol (79.1%) and neomenthol (89.9%) were obtained when E. coli strains coexpressed NtDBR with only MMR or MNMR, respectively. This one-pot biocatalytic method allows easier optimization of each enzymatic step and easier modular combination of reactions to ultimately generate libraries of pure compounds for use in high-throughput screening. It will be, therefore, a valuable addition to the arsenal of biocatalysis strategies, especially when applied for (semi)-toxic chemical compounds.

  18. Effects of menthol essence and breast milk on the improvement of nipple fissures in breastfeeding women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Amir Ali Akbari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nipple fissure is a common disorder during breastfeeding. With high prevalence of nipple fissures and its impacts on breastfeeding, as well as the existence of evidence in favor of the application of peppermint as an antiinflammatory and antiinfection herb, the purpose of this study is to determine the effect of Menthol essence on improving nipple fissures in the primiparous breastfeeding women. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted using a clinical trial method. Samples were divided randomly into two groups of 55 women. The women in the peppermint group applied four drops of Menthol essence on their nipple and areola after each feeding. The control group applied four drops of their own milk on the nipple and areola after each feeding. Then, the two groups were studied on days 10 and 14 postpartum. For intensity of pain, the visual analog scale (0-10 cm and to measure the severity of damage, Amir scale (1-10 cm were applied and the existence or lack of nipple discharge was also recorded. The data were analyzed using SPSS 17 software. Results: The mean intensity of pain and nipple fissure before treatment (8.55 ± 1.74 and day 10 after delivery (4.26 ± 1.57 and before treatment and day 14 after delivery in the case group (1.32 ± 1.02 had a significant difference (P < 0.001. Nipple discharge between the two groups, before treatment (%75.2 and day 10 after delivery (%31.6 and before treatment and day 14 after delivery (%15.7, the case group had a significant difference (P < 0.001. Conclusion: Menthol essence can improve nipple fissures in the primiparous breastfeeding women.

  19. Why do women stop smoking during pregnancy? Cigarettes taste and smell bad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pletsch, Pamela K; Kratz, Anna Thornton

    2004-08-01

    There are high rates of cigarette smoking resumption among women who have quit smoking while pregnant, and the reasons for this are poorly understood. Our purpose in this study was to obtain an in-depth description of the context surrounding smoking behaviors during pregnancy and the first 3 months after women give birth in order to gain insight into the reasons women resume smoking. We used a longitudinal qualitative descriptive approach with in-depth interviews conducted early in pregnancy, at 36 weeks of pregnancy, and 3 months postpartum. Our purposive sample consisted of 15 pregnant women who had stopped smoking without assistance by their first prenatal visit. All women smoked mentholated cigarettes prior to pregnancy and 40% were primiparas. A thematic content analysis of 43 interviews revealed that the majority of women experienced an aversion to the taste or smell of tobacco smoke while pregnant and attributed these sensation changes to being pregnant. The taste and smell of tobacco smoke returned to prepregnancy states postpartum, and by 3 months postpartum 73% of the women had resumed smoking. This physiologic change can be conceptualized as a pregnancy-specific motivation for smoking cessation that can inform our efforts toward relapse prevention.

  20. "Not one single case of throat irritation": misuse of the image of the otolaryngologist in cigarette advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samji, Hussein A; Jackler, Robert K

    2008-03-01

    Early in the last century, when questions about the health effects of smoking became a topic of widespread discussion, tobacco companies undertook a multi-faceted campaign to allay the public's fears. As terms like "smoker's cough" and "coffin nails" (referring to cigarettes) began to appear in the popular vernacular, tobacco marketers recognized the need to counter this threat to their livelihood. One strategy was to use endorsements by healthy and vigorous-appearing singers, radio stars, and actors. Another was to raise fears over weight gain: "Reach for a Lucky instead of a sweet." Among the more reprehensible tactics was the utilization of the image of the noble and caring physician to sell cigarettes: doctors were depicted both as satisfied and enthusiastic partakers of the smoking habit (e.g., "More doctors smoke Camels"). Images of medical men (and a few token women) appeared under warm reassurances of the safety of smoking. Frequently, images appeared of a head-mirrored "throat doctor," smiling benignly, while indicating that the company's product would do no harm. Indeed, many cigarette ads, especially for menthol brands, suggested a therapeutic soothing benefit from smoking. Liberal use was also made of pseudo-scientific medical reports and surveys. Our intention is to tell, principally through advertising images-the story of how, between the late 1920s and the early 1950s, tobacco companies used deceptive and often patently false claims in an effort to reassure the public of the safety of their products.

  1. Molecular Interaction between Intercellular Lipids in the Stratum Corneum and l-Menthol, as Analyzed by Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shinya; Obata, Yasuko; Onuki, Yoshinori; Utsumi, Shunichi; Ohta, Noboru; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Takayama, Kozo

    2017-01-01

    l-Menthol increases drug partitioning on the surface of skin, diffusion of drugs in the skin, and lipid fluidity in the stratum corneum and alters the rigidly arranged lipid structure of intercellular lipids. However, l-menthol is a solid at room temperature, and it is difficult to determine the effects of l-menthol alone. In this study, we vaporized l-menthol in order to avoid the effects of solvents. The vaporized l-menthol was applied to the stratum corneum or lipid models comprising composed of ceramides (CER) [EOS], the longest lipid acyl chain of the ceramides in the stratum corneum lipids that is associated with the barrier function of the skin; CER [NS], the shorter lipid acyl chain of the ceramides, and the most components in the stratum corneum of the intercellular lipids that is associated with water retention in the intercellular lipid structure of the stratum corneum; cholesterol; and palmitic acid. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses revealed that the lipid models were composed of hexagonal packing and orthorhombic packing structures of different lamellar periods. Taken together, our results revealed that l-menthol strongly affected the lipid model composed of CER [EOS]. Therefore, l-menthol facilitated the permeation of drugs through the skin by liquid crystallization of the longer lamellar structure. Importantly, these simple lipid models are useful for investigating microstructure of the intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum.

  2. Acute Effect of Topical Menthol on Chronic Pain in Slaughterhouse Workers with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Triple-Blind, Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Sundstrup

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical menthol gels are classified “topical analgesics” and are claimed to relieve minor aches and pains of the musculoskeletal system. In this study we investigate the acute effect of topical menthol on carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS. We screened 645 slaughterhouse workers and recruited 10 participants with CTS and chronic pain of the arm/hand who were randomly distributed into two groups to receive topical menthol (Biofreeze or placebo (gel with a menthol scent during the working day and 48 hours later the other treatment (crossover design. Participants rated arm/hand pain intensity during the last hour of work (scale 0–10 immediately before 1, 2, and 3 hours after application. Furthermore, global rating of change (GROC in arm/hand pain was assessed 3 hours after application. Compared with placebo, pain intensity and GROC improved more following application of topical menthol (P=0.026 and P=0.044, resp.. Pain intensity of the arm/hand decreased by −1.2 (CI 95%: −1.7 to −0.6 following topical menthol compared with placebo, corresponding to a moderate effect size of 0.63. In conclusion, topical menthol acutely reduces pain intensity during the working day in slaughterhouse workers with CTS and should be considered as an effective nonsystemic alternative to regular analgesics in the workplace management of chronic and neuropathic pain.

  3. Stereochemical analysis of menthol and menthylamine isomers using calculated and experimental optical rotation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinscheid, F.; Reinscheid, U. M.

    2016-01-01

    The complete series of menthol isomers and their corresponding amino derivatives (base and protonated/HCl forms), were investigated using experimental and theoretical data. Our study focused on the conformational and configurational analysis, and revealed that experimental data should be used in combination with calculated data. Furthermore, even in the case of the highly studied member, menthol, discrepancies were found among previously published literature values. We show that the correct determination of the population mix is a must for the correct prediction of the absolute configuration (AC) of neoisomenthol. The neoiso forms are of special interest since a number of structural inconsistences can be found in the literature. We present a stringent proof of the AC of neoisomenthol based on literature information. To the best of our knowledge, the AC of neoisomenthylamine is for the first time shown using experimental and calculated optical rotation data. A correction of a series of publications containing an important error in the assignment of (+)-menthylamine (correct: (+)-neomenthylamine) is presented. With 26 data pairs (experimental versus calculated) of optical rotation values a regression is performed. The AC of all 12 compounds, even the most difficult neoiso forms, could be predicted correctly using experimental low-temperature NMR data. Furthermore, if only experimental data with an optical rotation outside the range of -10 +10 are used, all 12 compounds would have been correctly assigned without low-temperature NMR data as restraints.

  4. Cool and menthol receptor TRPM8 in human urinary bladder disorders and clinical correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benham Christopher D

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The recent identification of the cold-menthol sensory receptor (TRPM8; CMR1, provides us with an opportunity to advance our understanding of its role in the pathophysiology of bladder dysfunction, and its potential mediation of the bladder cooling reflex. In this study, we report the distribution of the cool and menthol receptor TRPM8 in the urinary bladder in patients with overactive and painful bladder syndromes, and its relationship with clinical symptoms. Methods Bladder specimens obtained from patients with painful bladder syndrome (PBS, n = 16, idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO, n = 14, and asymptomatic microscopic hematuria (controls, n = 17, were immunostained using specific antibodies to TRPM8; nerve fibre and urothelial immunostaining were analysed using fibre counts and computerized image analysis respectively. The results of immunohistochemistry were compared between the groups and correlated with the Pain, Frequency and Urgency scores. Results TRPM8-immunoreactive staining was observed in the urothelium and nerve fibres scattered in the suburothelium. The nerve fibre staining was seen in fine-calibre axons and thick (myelinated fibres. There was marked increase of TRPM8-immunoreactive nerve fibres in IDO (P = 0.0249 and PBS (P Conclusion This study demonstrates increased TRPM8 in nerve fibres of overactive and painful bladders, and its relationship with clinical symptoms. TRPM8 may play a role in the symptomatology and pathophysiology of these disorders, and may provide an additional target for future overactive and painful bladder pharmacotherapy.

  5. Endocrine and metabolic changes in transition dairy cows are affected by prepartum infusions of a serotonin precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Hernandez, Laura L; Sauerwein, Helga; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2017-06-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) has been shown to be involved in calcium homeostasis, modulating calcium concentration in blood. In addition, 5-HT participates in a variety of metabolic pathways, mainly through the modulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. The hypothesis of the present study was that the prepartum administration of 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), a 5-HT precursor, would affect endocrine systems related to calcium homeostasis, and interact with other endocrine and metabolic pathways during the transition period. In this study, 20 Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 2 experimental groups. Both groups received a daily i.v. infusion of 1 L of either 0.9% NaCl (control group; n = 10) or 0.9% NaCl containing 1 mg of 5-HTP/kg of BW (5-HTP group, n = 10). Infusions started d 10 before estimated parturition date and ended the day of parturition, resulting in a minimum of 4 d of infusion (8.4 ± 0.7 d of infusion). Until parturition, blood samples were collected before the daily infusions, and postpartum daily until d 7, and on d 30. Plasma concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH) were transiently increased at parturition and on d 1 in control cows. In the 5-HTP group PTH remained unchanged. The concentration of pyridinoline (PYD), an established marker for calcium release from the bone to the bloodstream, increased on d 1 postpartum only in the 5-HTP group. In control cows, PYD concentrations did not change on d 1 postpartum. Melatonin concentrations were slightly but significantly increased in the 5-HTP group compared with the control group. Insulin concentrations decreased in both groups postpartum. Before parturition, leptin concentrations decreased in both groups and remained at this level until d 30 postpartum. Plasma IgG concentrations decreased in both groups on d -1 postpartum. Haptoglobin increased in both groups on d -1 and remained at this level until d 7 postpartum. No differences between groups were observed for insulin, glucagon, IgG, leptin

  6. A Dairy Herd Case Investigation with Very Low Dietary Cation–Anion Difference in Prepartum Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Melendez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available During the periparturient period, subclinical hypocalcemia (total plasma Ca concentration <2.0 mmol/l is a potential problem for the dairy cow; consequently, its prevention is essential for success of fertility and productive performance. Dietary cation–anion difference (DCAD has been defined as the difference in milliequivalents of cations (Na, K and anions (Cl, S per kilogram of dry matter (DM and has a direct impact on blood acid–base metabolism. Diets rich in K and Na induce metabolic alkalosis, interfering with tissue sensitivity to parathyroid hormone, and diets rich in Cl and S (anionic salts cause metabolic acidosis, reducing the risk of hypocalcemia. Consequently, the use of anionic salts has become a popular method to prevent hypocalcemia in dairy cattle. Monitoring diets with anionic salts can be done by measuring urine pH, with optimal values between 6.2 and 6.8 for Holstein cows. The objective of this report is to present a herd case investigation involving a dairy farm feeding a very low DCAD (−143 mEq/kg DM, expecting improved Ca homeostasis. The diet of −143 mEq/kg (urine pH 5.2–5.8 was changed to a diet with −53 mEq/kg DM (urine pH 6.2–6.8. Blood samples were taken at the time of calving for 10 cows that calved before and then for 10 cows that calved after changing the diet. Cows with extremely low DCAD had Ca concentrations of 2.11 ± 0.22 mmol/l and cows with a more moderated DCAD, 2.11 ± 0.16 mmol/l (P > 0.05. Several other blood metabolites (P, Mg, Na, K, Cl, albumin, globulins, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and GGT were also similar between groups. This very low DCAD during the prepartum period may severely compromise animal physiology unnecessarily, with little advantage over normal calcium concentrations at parturition, when compared with a less negative DCAD (−53 mEq/kg DM. Feeding a less negative DCAD ration (−53 mEq/kg DM did not decrease plasma Ca levels right after

  7. A menthol-based solid dispersion technique for enhanced solubility and dissolution of sulfamethoxazole from an oral tablet matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choonara, Bibi F; Choonara, Yahya E; Kumar, Pradeep; du Toit, Lisa C; Tomar, Lomas K; Tyagi, Charu; Pillay, Viness

    2015-08-01

    A menthol-based solid dispersion was designed to improve the intrinsic solubility of the poorly soluble sulfamethoxazole- a class II drug molecule of Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) displaying widespread antibacterial activity. Solid dispersions of menthol and sulfamethoxazole were compressed with hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) into suitable sulfamethoxazole-loaded matrix tablets for oral drug delivery. The sulfamethoxazole-loaded solid dispersions and compressed tablets were characterized for their physicochemical and physicomechanical properties such as changes in crystallinity, melting point, molecular transitions, and textural analysis for critical analysis of their effects on the solubility and dissolution of sulfamethoxazole. The formulations were further evaluated for swelling, degradation, solubility, and in vitro drug release behavior. In vitro drug release from the sulfamethoxazole-loaded matrix tablets displayed a minimum and maximum fractional release of 0.714 and 0.970, respectively. The tablets further displayed different release rate profiles over the study periods of 12, 16, 48, and 56 h which were attributed to the varying concentrations of menthol within each formulation. Menthol was determined as a suitable hydrophilic carrier for sulfamethoxazole since it functioned as a solubilizing and release-retarding agent for improving the solubility and dissolution of sulfamethoxazole as well as controlling the rate at which it was released.

  8. Differential role of the menthol-binding residue Y745 in the antagonism of thermally gated TRPM8 channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrer-Montiel Antonio

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TRPM8 is a non-selective cation channel that belongs to the melastatin subfamily of the transient receptor potential (TRP ion channels. TRPM8 is activated by voltage, cold and cooling compounds such as menthol. Despite its essential role for cold temperature sensing in mammals, the pharmacology of TRPM8 is still in its infancy. Recently, tyrosine 745 (Y745 was identified as a critical residue for menthol sensitivity of the channel. In this report, we study the effect of mutating this residue on the action of several known TRPM8 antagonists: BCTC, capsazepine, SKF96365, and clotrimazole as well as two new inhibitor candidates, econazole and imidazole. Results We show that Y745 at the menthol binding site is critical for inhibition mediated by SKF96365 of cold- and voltage-activated TRPM8 currents. In contrast, the inhibition by other antagonists was unaffected by the mutation (BCTC or only partially reduced (capsazepine, clotrimazole, econazole, suggesting that additional binding sites exist on the TRPM8 channel from where the inhibitors exert their negative modulation. Indeed, a molecular docking model implies that menthol and SKF96365 interact readily with Y745, while BCTC is unable to bind to this residue. Conclusion In summary, we identify structural elements on the TRPM8 channel that are critical for the action of channel antagonists, providing valuable information for the future design of new, specific modulator compounds.

  9. Cigarette tax avoidance and evasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehr, Mark

    2005-03-01

    Variation in state cigarette taxes provides incentives for tax avoidance through smuggling, legal border crossing to low tax jurisdictions, or Internet purchasing. When taxes rise, tax paid sales of cigarettes will decline both because consumption will decrease and because tax avoidance will increase. The key innovation of this paper is to compare cigarette sales data to cigarette consumption data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). I show that after subtracting percent changes in consumption, residual percent changes in sales are associated with state cigarette tax changes implying the existence of tax avoidance. I estimate that the tax avoidance response to tax changes is at least twice the consumption response and that tax avoidance accounted for up to 9.6% of sales between 1985 and 2001. Because of the increase in tax avoidance, tax paid sales data understate the level of smoking and overstate the drop in smoking. I also find that the level of legal border crossing was very low relative to other forms of tax avoidance. If states have strong preferences for smoking control, they must pair high cigarette taxes with effective policies to curb smuggling and other forms of tax avoidance or employ alternative policies such as counter-advertising and smoking restrictions.

  10. Electronic Cigarette Use among Mississippi Adults, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent L. Mendy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are battery-powered devices that deliver nicotine in the form of aerosol. We identify differences and associations in e-cigarette use by sociodemographic characteristics and describe the reported reasons for initiating use among Mississippi adults. We used the 2015 Mississippi Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, which collected information on e-cigarette use from 6,035 respondents. The prevalence of current e-cigarette use and having ever tried an e-cigarette was determined overall and by sociodemographic characteristics. Weighted prevalences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and prevalences for subgroups were compared using the X2 tests and associations were assessed using logistic regression. In 2015, 4.7% of Mississippi adults currently used e-cigarettes, while 20.5% had ever tried an e-cigarette. The prevalence of current e-cigarette use was significantly higher for young adults, whites, men, individuals unable to work, those with income $35,000–$49,999, and current smokers compared to their counterparts. Similar results were observed for having ever tried an e-cigarette. E-cigarette use was associated with age, race, income, and smoking status. Most (71.2% of current e-cigarette users and over half (52.1% of those who have ever tried e-cigarettes reported that a main reason for trying or using e-cigarettes was “to cut down or quit smoking.”

  11. The effect of either topical menthol or a placebo on functioning and knee pain among patients with knee OA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topp, Robert; Brosky, Joseph A; Pieschel, David

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common health problem with symptoms including reduced functioning and joint pain. Protracted pharmacological management of knee OA is associated with side effects including gastrointestinal, renal, and neurological dysfunction. Menthol gels have been used with limited empirical support to relieve pain and improve functioning among individual with OA. The purpose of this study was to compare the ability to complete functional tasks and knee pain while completing functional tasks among patients with knee OA after topical application of either 3.5% menthol gel or an inert placebo gel. Twenty individuals with knee OA volunteered to complete 2 data collection visits 1 week apart. Subjects underwent the same data collection at each visit including the performance of functional tasks and self-reporting knee pain while performing each task. The functional tasks included a 6-Minute Walk (6-MW), the Timed Get Up and Go (TUG), 30-second timed chair stand (TCS), and time to ascend (Up stairs) and descend (Down stairs) a flight of stairs. Subjects reported their knee pain immediately following each functional task using a 100-mm visual analog scale. These assessments of pain and functioning were measured twice at each subject visit: upon arrival at the facility without any intervention and again during the same visit after random application to the OA knee of 5 mL of 3.5% menthol gel or 5 mL of an inert gel. There were no significant between-group differences or time by treatment interaction in performance of any of the functional tasks, or measures of pain, at any of the data collection time points. However, there were significant within-group differences. Scores on the 6-MW, TCS, and Down stairs functional tasks improved significantly following the application of menthol gel. Scores on the Down stairs functional task improved significantly following application of the placebo gel. The menthol intervention resulted in significant reductions in pain

  12. Doctors Divided on Safety, Use of Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cigarettes When patients ask about safety and using e-cigarettes to stop smoking, doctors' advice differs To use ... of the devices -- specifically, about the safety of e-cigarettes compared to traditional cigarettes, according to the Stanford ...

  13. CDC Vital Signs: E-cigarette Ads and Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... students were current (past 30-day) users of electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, in 2014. Most e-cigarettes ... Related Pages Vital Signs Issue details: Exposure to Electronic Cigarette Advertising Among Middle School and High School Students ...

  14. Determination of Dyclonine Hydrochloride by a HPLC Method and Camphor and Menthol by a GC Method in Compound Lotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suying Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method with UV detector for the determination of dyclonine hydrochloride and a gas chromatography (GC method with flame ionization detector (FID for the determination of camphor and menthol in lotion were developed. The developed HPLC method involved using a SinoChoom ODS-BP C18 reversed-phase column (5 μm, 4.6 mm × 200 mm and mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile : water : triethylamine in a ratio of 45 : 55 : 1.0; pH was adjusted to 3.5 with glacial acetic acid. The developed GC method for determination of camphor and menthol involved using an Agilent 19091J-413 capillary chromatographic column (30 m × 320 μm × 0.25 μm. The two methods were validated according to official compendia guidelines. The calibration of dyclonine hydrochloride for HPLC method was linear over the range of 20–200 μg/mL. The retention time was found at 6.0 min for dyclonine hydrochloride. The calibration of camphor and menthol of GC method was linear over the range of 10–2000 μg/mL. The retention time was found at 2.9 min for camphor and 3.05 min for menthol. The proposed HPLC and GC methods were proved to be suitable for the determination of dyclonine hydrochloride, camphor, and menthol in lotion.

  15. A COMPARISON OF TOPICAL MENTHOL TO ICE ON PAIN, EVOKED TETANIC AND VOLUNTARY FORCE DURING DELAYED ONSET MUSCLE SORENESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johar, Pramod; Grover, Varun; Topp, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose/Background: Pain can adversely affect muscle functioning by inhibiting muscle contractions. Delayed onset muscle soreness was used as a tool to ascertain whether a topical menthol-based analgesic or ice was more effective at reducing pain and permitting greater muscular voluntary and evoked force. Methods: Sixteen subjects were randomized to receive either a topical gel containing 3.5% menthol or topical application of ice to the non-dominant elbow flexors two days following the performance of an exercise designed to induce muscle soreness. Two days later, DOMS discomfort was treated with a menthol based analgesic or ice. Maximum voluntary contractions and evoked tetanic contractions of the non-dominant elbow flexors were measured at baseline prior to inducing muscle soreness (T1), two days following inducing DOMS after 20 (T2), 25 (T3) and 35 (T4) minutes of either menthol gel or ice therapy. Pain perception using a 10-point visual analog scale was also measured at these four data collection points. Treatment analysis included a 2 way repeated measures ANOVA (2 × 4). Results: Delayed onset muscle soreness decreased (p = 0.04) voluntary force 17.1% at T2 with no treatment effect. Tetanic force was 116.9% higher (p<0.05) with the topical analgesic than ice. Pain perception at T2 was significantly (p=0.02) less with the topical analgesic versus ice. Conclusions: Compared to ice, the topical menthol-based analgesic decreased perceived discomfort to a greater extent and permitted greater tetanic forces to be produced. Level of Evidence: Level 2b PMID:22666646

  16. The Effects of Filter Ventilation on Flavor Constituents in Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Y

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The deliveries of 20 added flavor constituents, total particulate matter (TPM, nicotine, ‘tar’ carbon monoxide and water in cigarette mainstream smoke were studied when filter ventilation was 0, 10%, 30%, 50% and 70%, respectively. The flavor substance test was done by addition of standard samples. The flavor constituents in cigarette smoke condensate were separated by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE and capillary gas chromatography (GC. The flavor constituents were identified and determined quantitatively by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and GC. The flavors studied were methylpyrazine, furaldehyde, 5-methylfuraldehyde, benzaldehyde, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, trimethylpyrazine, 2-acetylpyridine, phenylacetaldehyde, acetophenone, linalool, b-phenylethyl alcohol, isophorone, oxoisophorone, benzyl acetate, menthol, ethyl octanoate, b-damascenone, b-damascone, geranylacetone and b-ionone. The deliveries of TPM, nicotine, ‘tar’ carbon monoxide and water in mainstream smoke were determined according to International Standard methods. It was found that the flavor constituents and routine components in mainstream smoke decreased in different proportions as the filter ventilation increased. Carbon monoxide and ‘tar’ decreased more than nicotine. The flavor constituents with lower boiling points and lower molecular weights decreased more than those with higher boiling points and higher molecular weights. With the increase of filter ventilation, not only is the amount of smoke components reduced and the smoke taste weakened, but also the composition of smoke is modified and the quality of aroma changed slightly. These findings should be considered when developing low-‘tar’ cigarettes through the use of filter ventilation technology.

  17. A New Area to Fight: Electronic Cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şermin Börekçi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette is spreading like an epidemic that threatens the public health. Last one year, e-cigarette use increased by 2 times in both adults and children, and just as the cigarette ads of 1950s and 1960s, e-cigarette ads are taking place in the television, radio, internet, magazines and in the all kinds of advertising media. E-sigara should be recognized as a serious health threat, and should be fought against it. The aim of this review is to show the effects of e-cigarette on health by the scientific evidences.

  18. Cigarette consumption among foreign tourists in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termsirikulchai, Lakkhana; Kengganpanich, Mondha; Benjakul, Sarunya; Kengganpanich, Tharadol

    2012-06-01

    To explore the cigarette consumption among foreign tourists in Thailand. The data in this cross-sectional survey is collected by interviewing 655 foreign tourist smokers with questionnaires in congested areas including Suvarnabhum International Airport, Khao San Road, shopping centers and tourist attraction sites. The data was collected in October, 2010, analyzed by descriptive statistic and the crude magnitude of cigarette consumption was calculated. The findings indicated that 62.9% of tourists were male and 58.9% were from European countries and 22.7% were from Asian countries. 59.2% smoked cigarettes sold in Thailand and were taxed legally. In that amount, 55.7% smoked imported cigarettes and only 3.5% smoked Thai cigarettes. 40.8% had brought cigarettes from their countries or bought cigarettes from Duty Free shops with the amount allowed by Thai law. The top 2 popular brands were Marlboro and L&M. The main reason why they bought imported cigarettes in Thailand was that the price was cheaper or the same when compared with that in their countries. The cigarette consumption share crudely calculated was around 8.90 million packs. Foreign tourists smoked imported cigarettes distributed in Thailand and cigarettes brought from abroad. So, Free Trade Agreement in bilateral level or multilateral level need to be reviewed and should separate cigarettes from other goods. The tax barrier excise tax measure and permission law of carrying in 200 sticks should be reviewed in order to control cigarette consumption effectively.

  19. Influence of puerarin, paeoniflorin, and menthol on structure and barrier function of tight junctions in MDCK and MDCK-MDR1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Menthol but not puerarin and paeoniflorin may enhance paracellular transport and improve drug penetration of the BBB by disrupting the structure and, thereby, weakening the barrier function of TJs.

  20. Dependence levels in users of electronic cigarettes, nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ETTER, Jean-François; EISSENBERG, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess dependence levels in users of e-cigarettes, and compare them with dependence levels in users of nicotine gums and tobacco cigarettes. Design Self-reports from cross-sectional Internet and mail surveys. Comparisons of: a) 766 daily users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes with 30 daily users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes; b) 911 former smokers who used the e-cigarette daily with 451 former smokers who used the nicotine gum daily (but no e-cigarette); c) 125 daily e-cigarette users who smoked daily (dual users) with two samples of daily smokers who did not use e-cigarettes (2206 enrolled on the Internet and 292 enrolled by mail from the general population of Geneva). We used the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale, the Cigarette Dependence Scale and versions of these scales adapted for e-cigarettes and nicotine gums. Results Dependence ratings were slightly higher in users of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes than in users of nicotine-free e-cigarettes. In former smokers, long-term (>3 months) users of e-cigarettes were less dependent on e-cigarettes than long-term users of the nicotine gum were dependent on the gum. There were few differences in dependence ratings between short-term (cigarettes. Dependence on e-cigarettes was generally lower in dual users than dependence on tobacco cigarettes in the two other samples of daily smokers. Conclusions Some e-cigarette users were dependent on nicotine-containing e-cigarettes, but these products were less addictive than tobacco cigarettes. E-cigarettes may be as or less addictive than nicotine gums, which themselves are not very addictive. PMID:25561385

  1. Patient–physician communication regarding electronic cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B. Steinberg

    2015-01-01

    Discussion: Physician communication about e-cigarettes may shape patients' perceptions about the products. More research is needed to explore the type of information that physicians share with their patients regarding e-cigarettes and harm reduction.

  2. Flavour chemicals in electronic cigarette fluids

    OpenAIRE

    Tierney, Peyton A; Karpinski, Clarissa D; Brown, Jessica E; Luo, Wentai; Pankow, James F

    2015-01-01

    Background Most e-cigarette liquids contain flavour chemicals. Flavour chemicals certified as safe for ingestion by the Flavor Extracts Manufacturers Association may not be safe for use in e-cigarettes. This study identified and measured flavour chemicals in 30 e-cigarette fluids. Methods Two brands of single-use e-cigarettes were selected and their fluids in multiple flavour types analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. For the same flavour types, and for selected confectionary fla...

  3. E-cigarettes also contain detrimental chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Wibholm, Niels Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews studies dealing with the content of electronic (e-) cigarettes. Based on measurements of the e-juice, the inhaled and the exhaled vapour, it is sound to assume that smoking e-cigarettes might have much less detrimental health effects than smoking conventional cigarettes....... However, propylene glycol and glycerine are abundant in e-cigarettes and although they are generally perceived as relatively harmless, the long-term effects of heavy exposure to these substances are unknown....

  4. E-cigarettes also contain detrimental chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Wibholm, Niels Christoffer;

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews studies dealing with the content of electronic (e-) cigarettes. Based on measurements of the e-juice, the inhaled and the exhaled vapour, it is sound to assume that smoking e-cigarettes might have much less detrimental health effects than smoking conventional cigarettes. Howe....... However, propylene glycol and glycerine are abundant in e-cigarettes and although they are generally perceived as relatively harmless, the long-term effects of heavy exposure to these substances are unknown....

  5. a Minty Microwave Menagerie: the Rotational Spectra of Menthone, Menthol, Carvacrol, and Thymol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, David; Shubert, V. Alvin; Betz, Thomas; Giuliano, Barbara Michela; Schnell, Melanie

    2015-06-01

    Terpenes represent one of the largest classes of secondary metabolites in nature and are derived from adding substituents to their core building block, isoprene. They exhibit a huge assortment of structures and thus a variety of chemical and biological activities. We recently investigated a number of monoterpenoids using broadband rotational spectroscopy in the 2-8.5 GHz frequency range. We present a comparative study of the aromatic monoterpenoids thymol and carvacrol and aliphatic menthone and menthol. The differences in their electronic and steric structures significantly influence molecular properties such as internal rotation barriers and conformational flexibility. These influences are revealed in the rotational spectra. We report the rotational spectra and the experimentally determined molecular parameters. Results from extensive quantum chemical calculations of the conformational spaces of these molecules are compared with the experimentally determined molecular parameters.

  6. Diastereoselective anodic hetero- and homo-coupling of menthol-, 8-methylmenthol- and 8-phenylmenthol-2-alkylmalonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias C. Letzel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diastereoselective radical coupling was achieved with chiral auxiliaries. The radicals were generated by anodic decarboxylation of five malonic acid derivatives. These were prepared from benzyl malonates and four menthol auxiliaries. Coelectrolyses with 3,3-dimethylbutanoic acid in methanol at platinum electrodes in an undivided cell afforded hetero-coupling products in 22–69% yield with a diastereoselectivity ranging from 5 to 65% de. Electrolyses without a coacid led to diastereomeric homo-coupling products in 21–50% yield with ratios of diastereomers being 1.17:2.00:0.81 to 7.03:2.00. The stereochemistry of the new stereogenic centers was confirmed by X-ray structure analysis and 13C NMR data.

  7. Effects of d-menthol stress on the growth of and microcystin release by the freshwater cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xi; Liu, Yunguo; Zeng, Guangming; Xu, Weihua; Hu, Xinjiang; Zhu, Zhilin; Zhang, Pingyang; Wang, Yaqin

    2014-10-01

    The effects of d-menthol on the growth of Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905 and microcystin (MCY) concentration were evaluated by batch culture experiments. The algal biomass and the intracellular and extracellular MCY concentrations were evaluated during 5d incubation. After the d-menthol exposure, the dry weight of the cells gradually decreased; the decrease in the dry weight after 5d exposure was 29, 12, and 2mgL(-1) when the initial cell densities were 1.4×10(7), 1.2×10(6), and 2.9×10(5)cellmL(-1), respectively. The results indicate that the d-menthol exposure inhibited the cellular growth, thus also inhibiting the increase of the total MCY concentration. In the presence of d-menthol, the intracellular MCY was gradually released into the medium after the cell lysis. The extracellular MCY concentration in the medium was significantly higher in the d-menthol-exposed samples than in the control samples, confirming that d-menthol cannot decompose the extracellular MCY.

  8. Involvement of transient receptor potential melastatin-8 (TRPM8) in menthol-induced calcium entry, reactive oxygen species production and cell death in rheumatoid arthritis rat synovial fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shuyan; Wang, Yuxiang; Pan, Leiting; Yang, Shuang; Sun, Yonglin; Wang, Xinyu; Hu, Fen

    2014-02-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis is most prominently characterized by synoviocyte hyperplasia which therefore serves as an important target for clinical therapy. In the present study, it was observed that menthol, the specific agonist of transient receptor potential melastatin subtype 8 (TRPM8), could induce sustained increases of cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) in synoviocytes isolated from collagen-induced arthritis rats in dose-dependent manner, which was evidently blocked by applying an extracellular Ca(2+)-free buffer. Menthol-induced [Ca(2+)]c increase was also significantly inhibited by potent TRPM8 antagonist capsazepine (CZP), indicating that this [Ca(2+)]c elevation was mostly attributed to TRPM8-mediated Ca(2+) entry. Besides, RT-PCR indeed demonstrated presence of TRPM8 in the synoviocytes. Meanwhile, it was found that menthol evoked production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, which could be abolished by Ca(2+) free solutions or CZP. Further experiments showed that menthol reduced the cell numbers and survival of synoviocytes. This reduction was associated with apoptosis as suggested by mitochondrial membrane depolarization, nuclear condensation and a caspase 3/7 apoptotic assay. Menthol-induced death and apoptosis of synoviocytes both were obviously inhibited by CZP, intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM, and reactive oxygen species inhibitor diphenylene iodonium, respectively. Taken together, our data indicated that menthol resulted in synoviocyte death associated with apoptosis via calcium entry and reactive oxygen species production depending on TRPM8 activation.

  9. Salinity does not alter the effectiveness of menthol as an anesthetic and sedative during the handling and transport of juvenile fat snook (Centropomus parallelus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulchro, L C O 'r; Carvalho, M A G; Gomes, L C

    2016-04-19

    The effectiveness of menthol as anesthetic and sedative for fat snook (Centropomus parallelus) was tested at different salinities. In the first experiment, the fish were exposed to different concentrations of menthol (25, 37 and 50 mg L-1) in water at different salinities (0, 17 and 36 ppt). In the second experiment, the fish were transported for 10 hours in water with menthol at concentrations of 0, 3.7 and 7.4 mg L-1 under different salinities. Na+ and K+ ions from fish body and water were analyzed after transport. The optimal concentrations of menthol for a short handling period and surgical induction was 37 and 50 mg L-1, respectively, and these values were independent of salinity. After transport, neither mortality nor significant changes in ammonia or dissolved oxygen were observed between treatments at the different salinities. The nitrite levels were lower in freshwater than in brackish and saltwater, but did not change with mentol. The total body levels of Na+ increased with the salinity increase. Menthol is an effective anesthetic for handling of juvenile fat snook at different salinities. Menthol did not influence the measured water parameters and body ions, and it is not necessary for the transport of fat snook.

  10. Menthol and geraniol biotransformation and glycosylation capacity of Levisticum officinale hairy roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Inês S; Faria, Jorge M S; Figueiredo, A Cristina; Pedro, Luis G; Trindade, Helena; Barroso, José G

    2009-03-01

    The biotransformation capacity of Levisticum officinale W.D.J. Koch hairy root cultures was studied by evaluating the effect of the addition of 25 mg/L menthol or geraniol on morphology, growth, and volatiles production. L. officinale hairy root cultures were maintained for 7 weeks in SH medium, in darkness at 24 degrees C and 80 r.p.m., and the substrates were added 15 days after inoculation. Growth was evaluated by measuring fresh and dry weight and by using the dissimilation method. Volatiles composition was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Hairy roots morphology and growth were not influenced by substrate addition. No new volatiles were detected after menthol addition and, as was also the case with the control cultures, volatiles of these hairy roots were dominated by (Z)-falcarinol (1-45%), N-octanal (3-8%), palmitic acid (3-10%), and (Z)-ligustilide (2-9%). The addition of geraniol induced the production of six new volatiles: nerol/citronellol/neral (traces-15%), alpha-terpineol (0.2-3%), linalool (0.1-1.2%), and geranyl acetate (traces-2%). The relative amounts of the substrates and some of their biotransformation products decreased during the course of the experiment. Following the addition of beta-glycosidase to the remaining distillation water, analysis of the extracted volatiles showed that lovage hairy roots were able to convert both substrates and their biotransformation products into glycosidic forms. GC:gas chromatography GC-MS:gas chromatography-mass spectrometry SH:Schenk and Hildebrandt (1972) culture medium.

  11. The electronic cigarette: the new cigarette of the 21st century?*

    OpenAIRE

    Marli Maria Knorst; Igor Gorski Benedetto; Mariana Costa Hoffmeister; Marcelo Basso Gazzana

    2014-01-01

    The electronic nicotine delivery system, also known as the electronic cigarette, is generating considerable controversy, not only in the general population but also among health professionals. Smokers the world over have been increasingly using electronic cigarettes as an aid to smoking cessation and as a substitute for conventional cigarettes. There are few available data regarding the safety of electronic cigarettes. There is as yet no evidence that electronic cigarettes are effective in tr...

  12. Association Between Prepartum Maternal Iron Deficiency and Offspring Risk of Schizophrenia: Population-Based Cohort Study With Linkage of Danish National Registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger J; Nielsen, Philip R; Pedersen, Carsten B;

    2011-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that maternal iron deficiency may increase the risk of schizophrenia-spectrum disorder in offspring. We initiated this study to determine whether maternal prepartum anemia influences offspring risk of schizophrenia. We conducted a population-based study with individual...... a 1.60-fold (95% confidence interval = 1.16-2.15) increased risk of schizophrenia. Although the underlying mechanisms are unknown and independent replication is needed, our findings suggest that maternal iron deficiency increases offspring risk of schizophrenia....... record linkage of the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and the Danish National Hospital Register. In a cohort of 1 115 752 Danish singleton births from 1978 to 1998, cohort members were considered as having a maternal history of anemia if the mother had received...

  13. Association Between Prepartum Maternal Iron Deficiency and Offspring Risk of Schizophrenia: Population-Based Cohort Study With Linkage of Danish National Registers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that maternal iron deficiency may increase the risk of schizophrenia-spectrum disorder in offspring. We initiated this study to determine whether maternal prepartum anemia influences offspring risk of schizophrenia. We conducted a population-based study with individual...... record linkage of the Danish Civil Registration System, the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, and the Danish National Hospital Register. In a cohort of 1 115 752 Danish singleton births from 1978 to 1998, cohort members were considered as having a maternal history of anemia if the mother had received...... a diagnosis of anemia at any time during the pregnancy. Cohort members were followed from their 10th birthday until onset of schizophrenia, death, or December 31, 2008, whichever came first. Adjusted for relevant confounders, cohort members whose mothers had received a diagnosis of anemia during pregnancy had...

  14. Polonium-210 budget in cigarettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khater, A.E.M. E-mail: khater_ashraf@yahoo.com)

    2004-07-01

    Due to the relatively high activity concentrations of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb that are found in tobacco and its products, cigarette smoking highly increases the internal intake of both radionuclides and their concentrations in the lung tissues. That might contribute significantly to an increase in the internal radiation dose and in the number of instances of lung cancer observed among smokers. Samples of most frequently smoked fine and popular brands of cigarettes were collected from those available on the Egyptian market. {sup 210}Po activity concentrations were measured by alpha spectrometry, using surface barrier detectors, following the radiochemical separation of polonium. Samples of fresh tobacco, wrapping paper, fresh filters, ash and post-smoking filters were spiked with {sup 208}Po for chemical recovery calculation. The samples were dissolved using mineral acids (HNO{sub 3}, HCl and HF). Polonium was spontaneously plated-out on stainless steel disks from diluted HCl solution. The {sup 210}Po activity concentration in smoke was estimated on the basis of its activity in fresh tobacco and wrapping paper, fresh filter, ash and post-smoking filters. The percentages of {sup 210}Po activity concentrations that were recovered from the cigarette tobacco to ash, post-smoking filters, and smokes were assessed. The results of this work indicate that the average (range) activity concentration of {sup 210}Po in cigarette tobacco was 16.6 (9.7-22.5) mBq/cigarette. The average percentages of {sup 210}Po content in fresh tobacco plus wrapping paper that were recovered by post-smoking filters, ash and smoke were 4.6, 20.7 and 74.7, respectively. Cigarette smokers, who are smoking one pack (20 cigarettes) per day, are inhaling on average 123 mBq/d of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb each. The annual effective doses were calculated on the basis of {sup 210}Po and {sup 210}Pb intake with the cigarette smoke. The mean values of the annual effective dose for smokers (one pack per

  15. Polonium-210 budget in cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Ashraf E M

    2004-01-01

    Due to the relatively high activity concentrations of (210)Po and (210)Pb that are found in tobacco and its products, cigarette smoking highly increases the internal intake of both radionuclides and their concentrations in the lung tissues. That might contribute significantly to an increase in the internal radiation dose and in the number of instances of lung cancer observed among smokers. Samples of most frequently smoked fine and popular brands of cigarettes were collected from those available on the Egyptian market. (210)Po activity concentrations were measured by alpha spectrometry, using surface barrier detectors, following the radiochemical separation of polonium. Samples of fresh tobacco, wrapping paper, fresh filters, ash and post-smoking filters were spiked with (208)Po for chemical recovery calculation. The samples were dissolved using mineral acids (HNO(3), HCl and HF). Polonium was spontaneously plated-out on stainless steel disks from diluted HCl solution. The (210)Po activity concentration in smoke was estimated on the basis of its activity in fresh tobacco and wrapping paper, fresh filter, ash and post-smoking filters. The percentages of (210)Po activity concentrations that were recovered from the cigarette tobacco to ash, post-smoking filters, and smokes were assessed. The results of this work indicate that the average (range) activity concentration of (210)Po in cigarette tobacco was 16.6 (9.7-22.5) mBq/cigarette. The average percentages of (210)Po content in fresh tobacco plus wrapping paper that were recovered by post-smoking filters, ash and smoke were 4.6, 20.7 and 74.7, respectively. Cigarette smokers, who are smoking one pack (20 cigarettes) per day, are inhaling on average 123 mBq/d of (210)Po and (210)Pb each. The annual effective doses were calculated on the basis of (210)Po and (210)Pb intake with the cigarette smoke. The mean values of the annual effective dose for smokers (one pack per day) were estimated to be 193 and 251 microSv from

  16. Cigarette smokers' classification of tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casseus, M; Garmon, J; Hrywna, M; Delnevo, C D

    2016-11-01

    Cigarette consumption has declined in the USA. However, cigar consumption has increased. This may be due in part to some cigarette smokers switching to filtered cigars as a less expensive substitute for cigarettes. Additionally, some cigarette smokers may perceive and consume little filtered cigars as cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to determine how cigarette smokers classify tobacco products when presented with photographs of those products. An online survey was conducted with a sample of 344 self-identified cigarette smokers. Respondents were presented with pictures of various types of tobacco products, both with and without packaging, and then asked to categorise them as either a cigarette, little cigar, cigarillo, cigar or machine-injected roll-your-own cigarette (RYO). Respondents were also asked about their tobacco use and purchasing behaviour. Overall, respondents had difficulty distinguishing between cigarettes, little cigars, cigarillos and RYO. When presented with images of the products without packaging, 93% of respondents identified RYO as a cigarette, while 42% identified a little cigar as a cigarette. Additionally, respondents stated that they would consider purchasing little cigars as substitutes for cigarettes because of the price advantage. The results of this survey suggest that when presented with photographs of tobacco products, large proportions of current smokers were unable to differentiate between cigarettes, little cigars, cigarillos, RYO and cigars. Findings have implications for existing public health efforts targeting cigarette smokers, and underscore the need to review current definitions of tobacco products and federal excise taxes on such products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Carbonyl Compounds Generated from Electronic Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanae Bekki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be implemented, with the aim of protecting and promoting public health worldwide. Moreover, basic scientific data are required for the regulation of e-cigarette. To date, there have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal, which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. These carbonyl compounds are incidentally generated by the oxidation of e-liquid (liquid in e-cigarette; glycerol and glycols when the liquid comes in contact with the heated nichrome wire. The compositions and concentrations of these compounds vary depending on the type of e-liquid and the battery voltage. In some cases, extremely high concentrations of these carbonyl compounds are generated, and may contribute to various health effects. Suppliers, risk management organizations, and users of e-cigarettes should be aware of this phenomenon.

  18. Non-cigarette tobacco and the lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schivo, Michael; Avdalovic, Mark V; Murin, Susan

    2014-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is known to cause a wide range of damaging health outcomes; however, the effects of non-cigarette tobacco products are either unknown or perceived as less harmful than cigarettes. Smokeless tobacco, cigar smoking, and waterpipe smoking have increased in usage over the past few decades. Some experts believe that their use is reaching epidemic proportions. Factors such as a perception of harm reduction, targeted advertising, and unrecognized addiction may drive the increased consumption of non-cigarette tobacco products. In particular, the need for social acceptance, enjoyment of communal smoking activities, and exotic nature of waterpipe smoking fuels, in part, its popularity. The public is looking for "safer" alternatives to smoking cigarettes, and some groups advertise products such as smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes as the alternatives they seek. Though it is clear that cigar and waterpipe tobacco smoking are probably as dangerous to health as cigarette smoking, there is an opinion among users that the health risks are less compared to cigarette smoking. This is particularly true in younger age groups. In the cases of smokeless tobacco and electronic cigarettes, the risks to health are less clear and there may be evidence of a harm reduction compared to cigarettes. In this article, we discuss commonly used forms of non-cigarette tobacco products, their impacts on lung health, and relevant controversies surrounding their use.

  19. Carbonyl compounds generated from electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekki, Kanae; Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Ohta, Kazushi; Inaba, Yohei; Nakagome, Hideki; Kunugita, Naoki

    2014-10-28

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are advertised as being safer than tobacco cigarettes products as the chemical compounds inhaled from e-cigarettes are believed to be fewer and less toxic than those from tobacco cigarettes. Therefore, continuous careful monitoring and risk management of e-cigarettes should be implemented, with the aim of protecting and promoting public health worldwide. Moreover, basic scientific data are required for the regulation of e-cigarette. To date, there have been reports of many hazardous chemical compounds generated from e-cigarettes, particularly carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and glyoxal, which are often found in e-cigarette aerosols. These carbonyl compounds are incidentally generated by the oxidation of e-liquid (liquid in e-cigarette; glycerol and glycols) when the liquid comes in contact with the heated nichrome wire. The compositions and concentrations of these compounds vary depending on the type of e-liquid and the battery voltage. In some cases, extremely high concentrations of these carbonyl compounds are generated, and may contribute to various health effects. Suppliers, risk management organizations, and users of e-cigarettes should be aware of this phenomenon.

  20. Electronic cigarettes: the road ahead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besaratinia, Ahmad; Tommasi, Stella

    2014-09-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cig) are proliferating in the world's lucrative nicotine delivery market at an alarmingly fast pace. E-cig are aggressively marketed as an alternative to conventional tobacco cigarettes, although very little is known about the health consequences of e-cig use. Chemical analysis of e-cig vapor/liquid has shown that many toxicants and carcinogens present in cigarette smoke are also found, albeit generally in lower concentrations, in a wide range of e-cig products. Notwithstanding the presence of toxicants and carcinogens in e-cig products, the biological effects of exposure to these contaminants have not been determined in e-cig users. The ongoing research and future investigations on e-cig initiation, use, perceptions, dependence, and toxicity are expected to provide empirical evidence that can be used to inform the general public, scientific community, and regulatory authorities of the health risks/benefits associated with e-cig use. This information will help stimulate scientists in the field of tobacco research, as well as assist the regulatory agencies in making scientifically based decisions on the development and evaluation of regulations on tobacco products to protect the public's health. Finding the scientific underpinnings for the health risks/benefits of e-cig use can impact millions of people who are increasingly turning to e-cig as a replacement for or complement to conventional tobacco cigarettes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. E-Cigarettes and Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresler, Carolyn M.; Field, John K.; Fox, Jesme; Gritz, Ellen R.; Hanna, Nasser H.; Ikeda, Norihiko; Jassem, Jacek; Mulshine, James L.; Peters, Matthew J.; Yamaguchi, Nise H.; Warren, Graham; Zhou, Caicun

    2014-01-01

    The increasing popularity and availability of electronic cigarettes (i.e., e-cigarettes) in many countries have promoted debate among health professionals as to what to recommend to their patients who might be struggling to stop smoking or asking about e-cigarettes. In the absence of evidence-based guidelines for using e-cigarettes for smoking cessation, some health professionals have urged caution about recommending them due to the limited evidence of their safety and efficacy, while others have argued that e-cigarettes are obviously a better alternative to continued cigarette smoking and should be encouraged. The leadership of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer asked the Tobacco Control and Smoking Cessation Committee to formulate a statement on the use of e-cigarettes by cancer patients to help guide clinical practice. Below is this statement, which we will update periodically as new evidence becomes available. PMID:24736063

  2. The electronic cigarette: the new cigarette of the 21st century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marli Maria Knorst

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The electronic nicotine delivery system, also known as the electronic cigarette, is generating considerable controversy, not only in the general population but also among health professionals. Smokers the world over have been increasingly using electronic cigarettes as an aid to smoking cessation and as a substitute for conventional cigarettes. There are few available data regarding the safety of electronic cigarettes. There is as yet no evidence that electronic cigarettes are effective in treating nicotine addiction. Some smokers have reported using electronic cigarettes for over a year, often combined with conventional cigarettes, thus prolonging nicotine addiction. In addition, the increasing use of electronic cigarettes by adolescents is a cause for concern. The objective of this study was to describe electronic cigarettes and their components, as well as to review the literature regarding their safety; their impact on smoking initiation and smoking cessation; and regulatory issues related to their use.

  3. Smokers’ and E-Cigarette Users’ Perceptions about E-Cigarette Warning Statements

    OpenAIRE

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; David Hammond; O’Connor, Richard J.; Strasser, Andrew A.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette warning labels are important sources of risk information, but warning research for other tobacco products is limited. This study aimed to gauge perceptions about warnings that may be used for e-cigarettes. We conducted six small focus groups in late 2014/early 2015 with adult current e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers. Participants rated and discussed their perceptions of six e-cigarette warning statements, and warnings in two existing Vuse and MarkTen e-cigarette ads. Par...

  4. E-cigarettes: facts, perceptions, and marketing messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Ellen R

    2014-02-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are perceived as an alternative to standard tobacco cigarette smoking, primarily because of the e-cigarette industry's marketing messages. However, scientific studies about e-cigarette safety and efficacy remain limited. This column presents some of the issues associated with e-cigarette use, such as potential components of regulation, perceptions that e-cigarettes can help users quit smoking, and free-wheeling marketing strategies that include expanding e-cigarette use to young people. Nurses can be a reliable source of information about e-cigarettes.

  5. Global approaches to regulating electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Awopegba, Ayodeji; De León, Elaine; Cohen, Joanna E

    2017-07-01

    Classify and describe the policy approaches used by countries to regulate e-cigarettes. National policies regulating e-cigarettes were identified by (1) conducting web searches on Ministry of Health websites, and (2) broad web searches. The mechanisms used to regulate e-cigarettes were classified as new/amended laws, or existing laws. The policy domains identified include restrictions or prohibitions on product: sale, manufacturing, importation, distribution, use, product design including e-liquid ingredients, advertising/promotion/sponsorship, trademarks, and regulation requiring: taxation, health warning labels and child-safety standards. The classification of the policy was reviewed by a country expert. The search identified 68 countries that regulate e-cigarettes: 22 countries regulate e-cigarettes using existing regulations; 25 countries enacted new policies to regulate e-cigarettes; 7 countries made amendments to existing legislation; 14 countries use a combination of new/amended and existing regulation. Common policies include a minimum-age-of-purchase, indoor-use (vape-free public places) bans and marketing restrictions. Few countries are applying a tax to e-cigarettes. A range of regulatory approaches are being applied to e-cigarettes globally; many countries regulate e-cigarettes using legislation not written for e-cigarettes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Electronic cigarettes. Potential harms and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, M Bradley; Upson, Dona

    2014-02-01

    Use of electronic cigarettes, devices that deliver a nicotine-containing vapor, has increased rapidly across the country and globally. Perceived and marketed as a "healthier alternative" to conventional cigarettes, few data exist regarding the safety of these devices and their efficacy in harm reduction and treatment of tobacco dependence; even less is known about their overall impact on population health. This review highlights the recent data regarding electronic cigarette toxicity, impact on lung function, and efficacy in smoking reduction and cessation. Studies show that the vapor generated from electronic cigarettes has variable amounts of nicotine and potential harmful toxins, albeit at levels lower than in conventional cigarettes. The long-term carcinogenic and lung function effects of electronic cigarettes are not known. Although some data demonstrate that electronic cigarettes may be effective in reducing conventional cigarette consumption, there are no data demonstrating the efficacy of electronic cigarettes as a tool to achieve cessation. Until robust longitudinal evaluations demonstrate the safety of electronic cigarettes and efficacy in treatment of tobacco dependence, their role as a harm reduction tool is unclear.

  7. Progress in synthesis of l-menthol%l-薄荷醇的合成研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑昌戈; 刘煊业; 喻晓蔚; 徐岩

    2011-01-01

    介绍了l-薄荷醇的性质、应用与最近几年国内市场对l-薄荷醇的需求情况。着重阐述了4条l-薄荷醇合成路线及其研究进展。4条路线分别是:经由香茅醛、经由l-薄荷酮、经胡薄荷酮和经百里酚合成l-薄荷醇,香茅醛、l-薄荷酮、胡薄荷酮和百里酚在路线中可作为起始原料或中间产物。其中,以月桂烯经香茅醛合成l-薄荷醇以及由百里酚直接合成l-薄荷醇的路线,目前已实现工业化生产。l-薄荷醇的合成大多需要以天然产物为原料,价格较高。而以百里酚等石化产品为原料的合成路线虽较短,但得到的异构体较多,l-薄荷醇的收率相对较低。松节油作为可再资源,来源广泛,价廉易得,以其为原料的合成路线将具有的潜在的应用价值。%The properties,applications and recent market demand of l-menthol are reviewed.Recent advances of four synthetic routes of l-menthol are presented.These routes start from citronellal,l-menthone,pulegone and thymol respectively.The one from citronella or thymol is already industrialized.l-menthol synthesis usually starts from inexpensive natural products.The one from thymol has the least step number,but suffers from more isomers and lower yield of l-menthol.Synthesis of l-menthol from cheap and renewable turpentine shows the potential in industrial application.

  8. Association Between Electronic Cigarette Use and Openness to Cigarette Smoking Among US Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelberg, Benjamin J.; Ambrose, Bridget K.; Green, Kerry M.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Bunnell, Rebecca; King, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), is increasing. One concern is the appeal of these products to youth and young adults and the potential to influence perceptions and use of conventional cigarettes. Methods: Using data from the 2012–2013 National Adult Tobacco Survey, characteristics of adults aged 18–29 years who had never established cigarette smoking behavior were examined by ever use of e-cigarettes, demographics, and ever use of other tobacco products (smokeless tobacco, cigars, hookah, and cigarettes). Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between e-cigarette use and openness to cigarette smoking among young adults, defined as the lack of a firm intention not to smoke soon or in the next year. Results: Among young adults who had never established cigarette smoking behavior (unweighted n = 4,310), 7.9% reported having ever tried e-cigarettes, and 14.6% of those who reported having ever tried e-cigarettes also reported current use of the product. Ever e-cigarette use was associated with being open to cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio = 2.4; 95% confidence interval = 1.7, 3.3), as was being male, aged 18–24 years, less educated, and having ever used hookah or experimented with conventional cigarettes. Conclusions: Ever use of e-cigarettes and other tobacco products was associated with being open to cigarette smoking. This study does not allow us to assess the directionality of this association, so future longitudinal research is needed to illuminate tobacco use behaviors over time as well as provide additional insight on the relationship between ENDS use and conventional cigarette use among young adult populations. PMID:25378683

  9. Impact of cigarette minimum price laws on the retail price of cigarettes in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynan, Michael A; Ribisl, Kurt M; Loomis, Brett R

    2013-05-01

    Cigarette price increases prevent youth initiation, reduce cigarette consumption and increase the number of smokers who quit. Cigarette minimum price laws (MPLs), which typically require cigarette wholesalers and retailers to charge a minimum percentage mark-up for cigarette sales, have been identified as an intervention that can potentially increase cigarette prices. 24 states and the District of Columbia have cigarette MPLs. Using data extracted from SCANTRACK retail scanner data from the Nielsen company, average cigarette prices were calculated for designated market areas in states with and without MPLs in three retail channels: grocery stores, drug stores and convenience stores. Regression models were estimated using the average cigarette pack price in each designated market area and calendar quarter in 2009 as the outcome variable. The average difference in cigarette pack prices are 46 cents in the grocery channel, 29 cents in the drug channel and 13 cents in the convenience channel, with prices being lower in states with MPLs for all three channels. The findings that MPLs do not raise cigarette prices could be the result of a lack of compliance and enforcement by the state or could be attributed to the minimum state mark-up being lower than the free-market mark-up for cigarettes. Rather than require a minimum mark-up, which can be nullified by promotional incentives and discounts, states and countries could strengthen MPLs by setting a simple 'floor price' that is the true minimum price for all cigarettes or could prohibit discounts to consumers and retailers.

  10. Adolescent Light Cigarette Smoking Patterns and Adult Cigarette Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Constance Wiener

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Light cigarette smoking has had limited research. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between light smoking in adolescence with smoking in adulthood. Methods. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health data, Waves I and IV, were analyzed. Previous month adolescent smoking of 1–5 cigarettes/day (cpd (light smoking; 6–16 cpd (average smoking; 17 or more cpd (heavy smoking; and nonsmoking were compared with the outcome of adult smoking. Results. At baseline, 15.9% of adolescents were light smokers, 6.8% were average smokers, and 3.6% were heavy smokers. The smoking patterns were significantly related to adult smoking. In logistic regression analyses, adolescent light smokers had an adjusted odds ratio (AOR of 2.45 (95% CI: 2.00, 3.00 of adult smoking; adolescent average or heavy smokers had AOR of 5.57 (95% CI: 4.17, 7.43 and 5.23 (95% CI: 3.29, 8.31, respectively. Conclusion. Individuals who initiate light cigarette smoking during adolescence are more likely to smoke as young adults. Practical Implications. When screening for tobacco use by adolescents, there is a need to verify that the adolescents understand that light smoking constitutes smoking. There is a need for healthcare providers to initiate interventions for adolescent light smoking.

  11. Insulin signaling, inflammation, and lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue of transition dairy cows either overfed energy during the prepartum period or fed a controlled-energy diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Abuelo, A; Leal Yepes, F A; Overton, T R; Wakshlag, J J

    2016-08-01

    Adipose tissue mobilization is a hallmark of the transition period in dairy cows. Cows overfed energy during the dry period have higher concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) compared with cows fed a controlled-energy diet prepartum. The reason for an increase in blood NEFA concentrations at the level of adipose tissue in cows overfed energy has not been fully elucidated. One hypothesis is that cows with high BHB concentrations suffer from adipose tissue-specific insulin resistance, leading to higher rates of adipose tissue mobilization in the postpartum period. To test this hypothesis, subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies of cows overfed energy in excess of predicted requirements by 50% in the dry period, and that had high concentrations of blood BHB postpartum (group H; n=12), were used. Findings were compared with results of biopsies from cows fed a controlled-energy diet and with low BHB concentrations postpartum (group C; n=12) to create the biggest contrast in BHB concentrations. Subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained before and 60 min after an intravenous glucose challenge (0.25 g/kg of glucose) at 28 and 10 d before expected calving as well as on d 4 and 21 postpartum. Phosphorylation of protein kinase B, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and hormone-sensitive lipase was determined before and after glucose infusion by Western blot. Western blot was also used to assess the baseline protein abundance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and insulin receptor β-subunit. In addition, gene expression of fatty acid synthase, adiponectin, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and tumor necrosis factor α was determined by real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR. Backfat thickness was determined in the thurl area by ultrasonography. Cows in group H showed a greater degree of lipogenesis prepartum, but no differences were found in lipolytic enzyme activity postpartum compared with cows

  12. Effects of prepartum 2,4-thiazolidinedione on insulin sensitivity, plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α and leptin, and adipose tissue gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenberg, K M; Perfield, K L; Farney, J K; Bradford, B J; Boisclair, Y R; Overton, T R

    2011-11-01

    Administration of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) ligands, thiazolidinediones (TZD), to prepartum dairy cattle has been shown to improve dry matter intake and decrease circulating nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) around the time of calving. The objective of this work was to elucidate mechanisms of TZD action in transition dairy cattle by investigating changes in plasma leptin, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), the revised quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (RQUICKI), and adipose tissue gene expression of leptin, PPARγ, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and fatty acid synthase (FAS). Multiparous Holstein cows (n=40) were administered 0, 2.0, or 4.0 mg of TZD/kg of body weight (BW) by intrajugular infusion once daily from 21 d before expected parturition until parturition. Plasma samples collected daily from 22 d before expected parturition through 21 d postpartum were analyzed for glucose, NEFA, and insulin. Plasma samples collected on d -14, -3, -1, 1, 3, 7, 14, and 49 relative to parturition were also analyzed for leptin and TNFα. Adipose tissue was collected on d 7 before expected parturition from a subset of cows, and gene expression was examined via quantitative real-time PCR. A tendency for a treatment by time effect on plasma leptin prepartum was observed such that values were similar on d -14 but cows receiving 2.0 mg/kg of BW of TZD tended to have lower circulating leptin as calving approached. Postpartum leptin tended to be increased linearly (2.3, 2.4, and 2.5±0.1 ng/mL for 0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/kg treatments, respectively) in cows that received TZD prepartum. Plasma TNFα increased linearly (2.6, 3.7, and 4.0±0.1 pg/mL) in response to TZD treatment and decreased through the first week postpartum. Calculation of RQUICKI 1/[log(glucose)+log(insulin)+log(NEFA)] suggested altered insulin sensitivity in cows administered TZD that may depend on day relative to calving. Administration of TZD increased adipose tissue expression of

  13. Are E-cigarettes a safe and good alternative to cigarette smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, Oren; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Reznick, Abraham Z

    2015-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes (E-cigarettes) are devices that can vaporize a nicotine solution combined with liquid flavors instead of burning tobacco leaves. Since their emergence in 2004, E-cigarettes have become widely available, and their use has increased exponentially worldwide. E-cigarettes are aggressively advertised as a smoking cessation aid; as healthier, cheaper, and more socially acceptable than conventional cigarettes. In recent years, these claims have been evaluated in numerous studies. This review explores the development of the current E-cigarette and its market, prevalence of awareness, and use. The review also explores the beneficial and adverse effects of E-cigarettes in various aspects in accordance with recent research. The discussed aspects include smoking cessation or reduction and the health risks, social impact, and environmental consequences of E-cigarettes.

  14. Sub-MICs of Mentha piperita essential oil and menthol inhibits AHL mediated quorum sensing and biofilm of Gram negative bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fohad Mabood Husain

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial quorum sensing (QS is a density dependent communication system that regulates the expression of certain genes including production of virulence factors in many pathogens. Bioactive plant extract/compounds inhibiting QS regulated gene expression may be a potential candidate as antipathogenic drug. In this study anti-QS activity of peppermint (Mentha piperita oil was first tested using the Chromobacterium violaceum CVO26 biosensor. Further, the findings of the present investigation revealed that peppermint oil at sub-MICs strongly interfered with acyl homoserine lactone (AHL regulated virulence factors and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila. The result of molecular docking analysis attributed the quorum sensing inhibitory activity exhibited by peppermint oil to menthol. Assessment of ability of menthol to interfere with quorum sensing systems of various Gram-negative pathogens comprising diverse AHL molecules revealed that it reduced the AHL dependent production of violacein, virulence factors and biofilm formation indicating broad-spectrum anti-QS activity. Using two E. coli biosensors, MG4/pKDT17 and pEAL08-2, we also confirmed that menthol inhibited both the las and pqs quorum sensing systems. Further, findings of the in vivo studies with menthol on nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans showed significantly enhanced survival of the nematode. Our data identified menthol as a novel broad spectrum quorum sensing inhibitor.

  15. An endophyte of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth, producing menthol, phenylethyl alcohol and 3-hydroxypropionic acid, and other volatile organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Masroor; Deshidi, Ramesh; Shah, Bhawal Ali; Bindu, Kushal; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2015-10-01

    An endophytic fungus, PR4 was found in nature associated with the rhizome of Picrorhiza kurroa, a high altitude medicinal plant of Kashmir Himalayas. The fungus was found to inhibit the growth of several phyto-pathogens by virtue of its volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Molecular phylogeny, based on its ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal gene sequence, revealed the identity of the fungus as Phomopsis/Diaporthe sp. This endophyte was found to produce a unique array of VOCs, particularly, menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, (+)-isomenthol, β-phellandrene, β-bisabolene, limonene, 3-pentanone and 1-pentanol. The purification of compounds from the culture broth of PR4 led to the isolation of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HPA) as a major metabolite. This is the first report of a fungal culture producing a combination of biologically and industrially important metabolites—menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA. The investigation into the monoterpene biosynthetic pathway of PR4 led to the partial characterization of isopiperitenone reductase (ipr) gene, which seems to be significantly distinct from the plant homologue. The biosynthesis of plant-like-metabolites, such as menthol, is of significant academic and industrial significance. This study indicates that PR4 is a potential candidate for upscaling of menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA, as well as for understanding the menthol/monoterpene biosynthetic pathway in fungi.

  16. Sub-MICs of Mentha piperita essential oil and menthol inhibits AHL mediated quorum sensing and biofilm of Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Fohad M; Ahmad, Iqbal; Khan, Mohammad S; Ahmad, Ejaz; Tahseen, Qudisa; Khan, Mohd Shahnawaz; Alshabib, Nasser A

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial quorum sensing (QS) is a density dependent communication system that regulates the expression of certain genes including production of virulence factors in many pathogens. Bioactive plant extract/compounds inhibiting QS regulated gene expression may be a potential candidate as antipathogenic drug. In this study anti-QS activity of peppermint (Mentha piperita) oil was first tested using the Chromobacterium violaceum CVO26 biosensor. Further, the findings of the present investigation revealed that peppermint oil (PMO) at sub-Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (sub-MICs) strongly interfered with acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) regulated virulence factors and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila. The result of molecular docking analysis attributed the QS inhibitory activity exhibited by PMO to menthol. Assessment of ability of menthol to interfere with QS systems of various Gram-negative pathogens comprising diverse AHL molecules revealed that it reduced the AHL dependent production of violacein, virulence factors, and biofilm formation indicating broad-spectrum anti-QS activity. Using two Escherichia coli biosensors, MG4/pKDT17 and pEAL08-2, we also confirmed that menthol inhibited both the las and pqs QS systems. Further, findings of the in vivo studies with menthol on nematode model Caenorhabditis elegans showed significantly enhanced survival of the nematode. Our data identified menthol as a novel broad spectrum QS inhibitor.

  17. Immediate response to cigarette smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rees, P.J.; Chowienczyk, P.J.; Clark, T.J.

    1982-06-01

    Using an automated method of calculating airways resistance in the body plethysmograph, we have investigated changes occurring immediately after inhalation of cigarette smoke. Decreases in specific conductance occurred by the time of the first measurement seven or eight seconds after exposure to single inhalations of cigarette smoke in 12 smokers and 12 non-smokers. Less than half of the initial change was present 40 seconds after the inhalation. Initial responses were greater in the non-smokers. Responses recurred with repeated inhalations in smokers and non-smokers. Prior administration of salbutamol and ipratropium bromide significantly inhibited the response and this inhibition appeared to be greater in non-smokers. Sodium cromoglycate inhaled as a dry powder had no effect on the response.

  18. The intractable cigarette ‘filter problem’

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background When lung cancer fears emerged in the 1950s, cigarette companies initiated a shift in cigarette design from unfiltered to filtered cigarettes. Both the ineffectiveness of cigarette filters and the tobacco industry's misleading marketing of the benefits of filtered cigarettes have been well documented. However, during the 1950s and 1960s, American cigarette companies spent millions of dollars to solve what the industry identified as the ‘filter problem’. These extensive filter research and development efforts suggest a phase of genuine optimism among cigarette designers that cigarette filters could be engineered to mitigate the health hazards of smoking. Objective This paper explores the early history of cigarette filter research and development in order to elucidate why and when seemingly sincere filter engineering efforts devolved into manipulations in cigarette design to sustain cigarette marketing and mitigate consumers' concerns about the health consequences of smoking. Methods Relevant word and phrase searches were conducted in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library online database, Google Patents, and media and medical databases including ProQuest, JSTOR, Medline and PubMed. Results 13 tobacco industry documents were identified that track prominent developments involved in what the industry referred to as the ‘filter problem’. These reveal a period of intense focus on the ‘filter problem’ that persisted from the mid-1950s to the mid-1960s, featuring collaborations between cigarette producers and large American chemical and textile companies to develop effective filters. In addition, the documents reveal how cigarette filter researchers' growing scientific knowledge of smoke chemistry led to increasing recognition that filters were unlikely to offer significant health protection. One of the primary concerns of cigarette producers was to design cigarette filters that could be economically incorporated into the massive scale of cigarette

  19. Thermal injury patterns associated with electronic cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiwani, Alisha Z; Williams, James F; Rizzo, Julie A; Chung, Kevin K; King, Booker T; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2017-01-01

    E-cigarettes are typically lithium-ion battery-operated devices that simulate smoking by heating a nicotine-solution into a vapor that the user inhales. E-cigarette use is becoming rapidly popular as an alternative to traditional cigarette smoking. This report describes an emerging problem associated with e-cigarettes, consisting of 10 thermally injured patients seen at a single burn center over a 2-year period from 2014 to 2016. Our cohort was comprised mainly of young adults who sustained mixed partial and full thickness burns as a result of e-cigarette-related explosions. In many documented scenarios, a malfunctioning or over-heated battery is the cause. Our data support the need for increased awareness among healthcare providers and the general public of the potential harms of e-cigarette use, modification, storage, and charging. PMID:28123861

  20. Parental Use of Electronic Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbutt, Jane M; Miller, Whitney; Dodd, Sherry; Bobenhouse, Neil; Sterkel, Randall; Strunk, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    To describe parental use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) to better understand the safety risks posed to children. Between June 24 and November 6, 2014, parents completed a self-administered paper survey during an office visit to 15 pediatric practices in a Midwestern practice-based research network. Attitudes towards and use of e-cigs are reported for those aware of e-cigs before the survey. Ninety-five percent (628 of 658) of respondents were aware of e-cigs. Of these, 21.0% (130 of 622) had tried e-cigs at least once, and 12.3% (77) reported e-cig use by ≥1 person in their household (4.0% exclusive e-cig use, 8.3% dual use with regular cigarettes). An additional 17.3% (109) reported regular cigarette use. Most respondents from e-cig-using homes did not think e-cigs were addictive (36.9% minimally or not addictive, 25.0% did not know). While 73.7% believed that e-liquid was very dangerous for children if they ingested it, only 31.2% believed skin contact to be very dangerous. In 36.1% of e-cig-using homes, neither childproof caps nor locks were used to prevent children's access to e-liquid. Only 15.3% reported their child's pediatrician was aware of e-cig use in the home. E-cig use occurred in 1 in 8 homes, often concurrently with regular cigarettes. Many parents who used e-cigs were unaware of the potential health and safety hazards, including nicotine poisoning for children, and many did not store e-liquid safely. Pediatricians could provide education about e-cig associated safety hazards but are unaware of e-cig use in their patients' homes. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of Exposure to Electronic Cigarette Advertising on Susceptibility and Trial of Electronic Cigarettes and Cigarettes in US Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanti, Andrea C; Rath, Jessica M; Williams, Valerie F; Pearson, Jennifer L; Richardson, Amanda; Abrams, David B; Niaura, Raymond S; Vallone, Donna M

    2016-05-01

    This study assessed the impact of brief exposure to four electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) print advertisements (ads) on perceptions, intention, and subsequent use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes in US young adults. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in a national sample of young adults from an online panel survey in 2013. Participants were randomized to ad exposure or control. Curiosity, intentions, and perceptions regarding e-cigarettes were assessed post-exposure and e-cigarette and cigarette use at 6-month follow-up. Analyses were conducted in 2014. Approximately 6% of young adults who had never used an e-cigarette at baseline tried an e-cigarette at 6-month follow-up, half of whom were current cigarette smokers at baseline. Compared to the control group, ad exposure was associated with greater curiosity to try an e-cigarette (18.3% exposed vs. 11.3% unexposed, AOR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.18, 2.26) among never e-cigarette users and greater likelihood of e-cigarette trial at follow-up (3.6% exposed vs. 1.2% unexposed, AOR = 2.85; 95% CI = 1.07, 7.61) among never users of cigarettes and e-cigarettes. Exploratory analyses did not find an association between ad exposure and cigarette trial or past 30-day use among never users, nor cigarette use among smokers over time. Curiosity mediated the relationship between ad exposure and e-cigarette trial among e-cigarette never users. Exposure to e-cigarette ads may enhance curiosity and limited trial of e-cigarettes in never users. Future studies are needed to examine the net effect of curiosity and trial of e-cigarettes on longer-term patterns of tobacco use. This randomized trial provides the first evidence of the effect of e-cigarette advertising on a behavioral outcome in young adults. Compared to the control group, ad exposure was associated with greater curiosity to try an e-cigarette among never e-cigarette users and greater likelihood of e-cigarette trial at follow-up in a small number of never e-cigarette

  2. Cell wall and yeast culture supplementation on prepartum dairy cows and its effects on colostrum quality and immune status of calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Campos-Granados

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at a private dairy farm located in Santa Rosa de Oreamuno, Cartago Province. Thirty prepartum Jersey cows and their calves were used in a completely randomized design with 2 treatments of 15 repetitions each. Treatments were: first, unsupplemented control; and second, daily supplement from 21 days prepartum with 40 g of cell wall and yeast culture. The concentration of total immunoglobulins of colostrum was quantified, giving average values of 90.06±23.74 mg.ml-1 for the control group and 105.94±17.59 mg.ml-1 for the supplemented (p<0.05. The concentration of total serum protein in the blood serum of calves was quantified, giving average values of 8.57±1.27 g.dl-1 for the control group and 8.24±1.26 g.dl-1 for the supplemented (p>0.05. The daily weight gain, weekly growth expressed as height at the withers, solid diet daily intake and feed conversion of calves during the first 8 weeks were quantified, obtaining average values of solid diet intake of 985.17±8.51 g and 977.51±5.74 g (p>0.05, daily gain of 382.86±1.20 g and 410.94±51.22 g (p>0.05, weekly growth of 1.45±0.33 cm and 1.70±0.31 cm (p>0,05 and feed conversion of 2.57±0.11 and 2.38±0.09 (p>0.05, for the control group and supplemented, respectively. In conclusion, supplementation with cell wall and yeast culture had an enhancing effect on concentration of total immunoglobulins in colostrum and an improving effect on the health of calves, reflected in lower incidence of respiratory and digestive tract diseases.

  3. Cigarette smoking and DNA methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ken W. K.; Pausova, Zdenka

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is the most studied epigenetic modification, capable of controlling gene expression in the contexts of normal traits or diseases. It is highly dynamic during early embryogenesis and remains relatively stable throughout life, and such patterns are intricately related to human development. DNA methylation is a quantitative trait determined by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genetic variants at a specific locus can influence both regional and distant DNA methylation. The environment can have varying effects on DNA methylation depending on when the exposure occurs, such as during prenatal life or during adulthood. In particular, cigarette smoking in the context of both current smoking and prenatal exposure is a strong modifier of DNA methylation. Epigenome-wide association studies have uncovered candidate genes associated with cigarette smoking that have biologically relevant functions in the etiology of smoking-related diseases. As such, DNA methylation is a potential mechanistic link between current smoking and cancer, as well as prenatal cigarette-smoke exposure and the development of adult chronic diseases. PMID:23882278

  4. Arsenic Speciation in Tobacco and Cigarette Smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu C

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is one of the metals found in cured tobacco and mainstream cigarette smoke. Levels of arsenic in modern filtered cigarette smoke range from sub-ppm to a few tens of ppms. To enable accurate smoke toxicity assessment on arsenic in cigarette smoke, it is desirable to establish its chemical forms in addition to total quantities because different arsenic compounds possess different toxicological potentials.

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Menthol and Menthone in Schistosoma mansoni Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaia, Mauricio G; Cagnazzo, Túlio di Orlando; Feitosa, Karina A; Soares, Edson G; Faccioli, Lúcia H; Allegretti, Silmara M; Afonso, Ana; Anibal, Fernanda de Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by several species of trematode worms and it is believed that more than 261 million people are affected worldwide. New drug development has become essential because there is a risk of the parasite becoming resistant to Praziquantel, the only drug available for this infection. This study evaluated parasitological, immunological and histological parameters in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni and treated with an herbal commercial medicine. This drug consists of menthol (30-55%) and menthone (14-32%). A 60 day treatment regimen with the herbal medicine decreased the number of S. mansoni eggs in the feces, liver, and intestine and reduced the number of hepatic granulomas. We observed a reduction of 84% in blood eosinophilia and a decrease in the IL-4 and IL-10 blood levels after treatment. Therefore, we propose that schistosomiasis treatment with this herbal medicine for 60 days has an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory action in this animal model for schistosomiasis thus contributing to the decrease in physio pathological effects caused by S. mansoni infection.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Menthol and Menthone in Schistosoma mansoni Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaia, Mauricio G.; Cagnazzo, Túlio di Orlando; Feitosa, Karina A.; Soares, Edson G.; Faccioli, Lúcia H.; Allegretti, Silmara M.; Afonso, Ana; Anibal, Fernanda de Freitas

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by several species of trematode worms and it is believed that more than 261 million people are affected worldwide. New drug development has become essential because there is a risk of the parasite becoming resistant to Praziquantel, the only drug available for this infection. This study evaluated parasitological, immunological and histological parameters in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni and treated with an herbal commercial medicine. This drug consists of menthol (30–55%) and menthone (14–32%). A 60 day treatment regimen with the herbal medicine decreased the number of S. mansoni eggs in the feces, liver, and intestine and reduced the number of hepatic granulomas. We observed a reduction of 84% in blood eosinophilia and a decrease in the IL-4 and IL-10 blood levels after treatment. Therefore, we propose that schistosomiasis treatment with this herbal medicine for 60 days has an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory action in this animal model for schistosomiasis thus contributing to the decrease in physio pathological effects caused by S. mansoni infection. PMID:27378927

  7. E-Cigarettes Lead to 'Real' Smoking by Teens: Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_166899.html E-Cigarettes Lead to 'Real' Smoking by Teens: Review But one public health expert ... likely as their non-vaping counterparts to begin smoking traditional cigarettes, a new review suggests. "E-cigarette ...

  8. An Analysis of Electronic Cigarette and Cigarette Advertising in US Women's Magazines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Corey Hannah; Mongiovi, Jennifer; Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Ethan, Danna; Hammond, Rodney

    2016-01-01

    Background: Traditional cigarette advertising has existed in the US for over 200 years. Studies suggest that advertising has an impact on the initiation and maintenance of smoking behaviors. In recent years, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) emerged on the market as an alternative to the traditional tobacco cigarette. The purpose of this study was to describe advertisements in popular US magazines marketed to women for cigarettes and e-cigarettes. Methods: This study involved analyzing 99 issues of 14 popular US magazines marketed to women. Results: Compared to advertisements for traditional cigarettes, advertisements for e-cigarettes were more often found in magazines geared toward the 31–40-year-old audience (76.5% vs. 53.1%, P = 0.011) whereas traditional cigarette advertisements were nearly equally distributed among women 31–40 and ≥40 years. More than three-quarters of the e-cigarette advertisements presented in magazines aimed at the higher median income households compared to a balanced distribution by income for traditional cigarettes (P = 0.033). Conclusions: Future studies should focus on specific marketing tactics used to promote e-cigarette use as this product increases in popularity, especially among young women smokers. PMID:27688867

  9. Using Alcohol to Sell Cigarettes to Young Adults: A Content Analysis of Cigarette Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belstock, Sarah A.; Connolly, Gregory N.; Carpenter, Carrie M.; Tucker, Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Advertising influences the health-related behaviors of college-aged individuals. Cigarette manufacturers aggressively market to young adults and may exploit their affinity for alcohol when creating advertisements designed to increase cigarettes' appeal. Internal tobacco industry documents reveal that cigarette manufacturers understood…

  10. Using Alcohol to Sell Cigarettes to Young Adults: A Content Analysis of Cigarette Advertisements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belstock, Sarah A.; Connolly, Gregory N.; Carpenter, Carrie M.; Tucker, Lindsey

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Advertising influences the health-related behaviors of college-aged individuals. Cigarette manufacturers aggressively market to young adults and may exploit their affinity for alcohol when creating advertisements designed to increase cigarettes' appeal. Internal tobacco industry documents reveal that cigarette manufacturers understood…

  11. 78 FR 52679 - Safety Standard for Cigarette Lighters; Adjusted Customs Value for Cigarette Lighters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... automatically according to the terms of the cigarette lighter regulation. Because the adjustment occurs by terms... Federal Regulations, which is published #0;under 50 titles pursuant to 44 U.S.C. 1510. #0; #0;The Code of... 1210 Safety Standard for Cigarette Lighters; Adjusted Customs Value for Cigarette Lighters AGENCY...

  12. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Max J; Townsend, Timothy G

    2015-05-01

    The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50mg/L by WET and 40mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  13. Smokers' sources of e-cigarette awareness and risk information

    OpenAIRE

    Wackowski, Olivia A.; Bover Manderski, Michelle T.; Delnevo, Cristine D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies have explored sources of e-cigarette awareness and peoples' e-cigarette information needs, interests, or behaviors. This study contributes to both domains of e-cigarette research. Methods: Results are based on a 2014 e-cigarette focused survey of 519 current smokers from a nationally representative research panel. Results: Smokers most frequently reported seeing e-cigarettes in stores (86.4%) and used in person (83%). Many (73%) had also heard about e-cigarette...

  14. 氨薄荷搽剂中薄荷脑含量测定方法研究%Syudy on concentration determination of menthol in ammonia and menthol spiritus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊丽; 段松冷; 曾蔚欣

    2016-01-01

    Objective To establish a method for concentration determination of menthol in ammonia and menthol spiritus.Methods Gas chromatography (GC)and polarimetry were applied for the concentration determination of menthol in ammonia and menthol spiri-tus,respectively.Results According to GC analysis,the linear range of menthol was 500 ~1 500 mg·L -1 (r =0.999 6),with an av-erage recovery of 99.1 3%,RSD =0.34%(n =9).In polarimetry analysis,the linear range of menthol was 1 0 ~30 g·L -1 (r =0.999 4),with an average recovery of 98.65%,RSD =0.85% (n =9).There were no significant differences between GC and polari-metry in the measurement.Conclusions Polarimetry is simple and accurate,and it is better than GC for the testing of hospital prepa-rations.%目的:分别建立气相色谱法和旋光度测定法测定氨薄荷搽剂中薄荷脑的含量,并将两种方法结果进行统计学分析。方法气相色谱法采用 DB -WAX (30 m ×0.25 mm ×0.25μm)色谱柱,柱温初始温度120℃,保持12 min;进样温度250℃。载气为高纯氦气,汽化温度为250℃,流速为1.0 mL·min -1,按外标法计算结果;旋光度测定法参照2010年版中国药典。结果气相色谱法测定氨薄荷搽剂中薄荷脑含量检测浓度线性范围为500~1500 mg·L -1(r =0.9996),平均回收率为99.13%, RSD =0.34%(n =9);旋光法测定氨薄荷搽剂中薄荷脑含量检测浓度线性范围为 1 0~30 g·L -1(r =0.9994),平均回收率为98.65%,RSD =0.85%(n =9)。结论气相色谱法与旋光度法测定结果没有显著性差异,二者均可用于氨薄荷搽剂中薄荷脑含量的测定,气相色谱法略优于旋光度测定法。

  15. 75 FR 75936 - Required Warnings for Cigarette Packages and Advertisements; Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-07

    ... Cigarette Packages and Advertisements; Research Report AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... warnings and accompanying graphics to be displayed on cigarette packages and in cigarette advertisements... health warning statements appear on cigarette packages and in cigarette advertisements. Section 201...

  16. Menthol’s Potential Effects on Nicotine Dependence: A White Paper

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Publicly available internal tobacco industry documents were analyzed to answer the following questions regarding menthol’s role in nicotine dependence: 1) What are the addiction and exposure measures and what are their relationships to menthol cigarette use? 2) Do menthol smokers show different signs or levels of nicotine dependence compared to non-menthol smokers? 3) Does menthol affect cigarette consumption (cigarettes per day) and do menthol smokers smoke more or fewer cigarettes per day c...

  17. Determination of the content of menthol and phenol in Menthol Phenol Tincture by GC%气相色谱法测定复方薄荷脑苯酚酊中薄荷脑和苯酚的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐道华; 张红伟

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立气相色谱法测定薄荷脑苯酚酊中薄荷脑和苯酚含量的方法.方法 采用聚乙二醇-20M为固定液的毛细管色谱柱,FID检测器,程序升温,萘为内标.结果薄荷脑、苯酚分别在0.249 0~1.867 2 g·L-1(r=0.999 6)和0.415 2~3.114 2 g·L-1(r=0.999 2)范围内线性关系良好;平均加样回收率分别为99.8%和99.9%.结论 该方法简便、准确、重复性好,可用于该制剂的质量控制.%Objective To establish a determination method for menthol and phenol in Menthol Phenol Tincture. Methods GC wasused at programmed temperature. The capillary chromatographic column was packed with PKG-20M. The detector was FID, and naphthalene was used as the internal standard. Results The calibration curves were linear over the range of 0. 249 0-1. 867 2 g ? L ' (r = 0. 999 6) ,and 0. 415 2-3. 114 2 g ? L-1 ( r =0. 999 2) .respectively. The average recoveries were 99. 8% for menthol,99. 9% for phenol. Conclusion The method is simple,accurate and reproducible. It can be used in the quality control of the preparation.

  18. Cigarette litter: smokers' attitudes and behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Jessica M; Rubenstein, Rebecca A; Curry, Laurel E; Shank, Sarah E; Cartwright, Julia C

    2012-06-01

    Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers' littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers' knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000) were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7%) reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66) and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32). Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94). Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic waste and are harmful when disposed of improperly.

  19. Cigarette Litter: Smokers’ Attitudes and Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia C. Cartwright

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette butts are consistently the most collected items in litter clean-up efforts, which are a costly burden to local economies. In addition, tobacco waste may be detrimental to our natural environment. The tobacco industry has conducted or funded numerous studies on smokers’ littering knowledge and behavior, however, non-industry sponsored research is rare. We sought to examine whether demographics and smokers’ knowledge and beliefs toward cigarette waste as litter predicts littering behavior. Smokers aged 18 and older (n = 1,000 were interviewed about their knowledge and beliefs towards cigarette waste as litter. Respondents were members of the Research Now panel, an online panel of over three million respondents in the United States. Multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to determine factors significantly predictive of ever having littered cigarette butts or having littered cigarette butts within the past month (p-value < 0.05. The majority (74.1% of smokers reported having littered cigarette butts at least once in their life, by disposing of them on the ground or throwing them out of a car window. Over half (55.7% reported disposing of cigarette butts on the ground, in a sewer/gutter, or down a drain in the past month. Those who did not consider cigarette butts to be litter were over three and half times as likely to report having ever littered cigarette butts (OR = 3.68, 95%CI = 2.04, 6.66 and four times as likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month (OR = 4.00, 95%CI = 2.53, 6.32. Males were significantly more likely to have littered cigarette butts in the past month compared to females (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.14, 1.94. Holding the belief that cigarette butts are not litter was the only belief in this study that predicted ever or past-month littering of cigarette waste. Messages in anti-cigarette-litter campaigns should emphasize that cigarette butts are not just litter but are toxic

  20. Hazardous waste status of discarded electronic cigarettes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Max J.; Townsend, Timothy G., E-mail: ttown@ufl.edu

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Electronic cigarettes were tested using TCLP and WET. • Several electronic cigarette products leached lead at hazardous waste levels. • Lead was the only element that exceeded hazardous waste concentration thresholds. • Nicotine solution may cause hazardous waste classification when discarded unused. - Abstract: The potential for disposable electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) to be classified as hazardous waste was investigated. The Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was performed on 23 disposable e-cigarettes in a preliminary survey of metal leaching. Based on these results, four e-cigarette products were selected for replicate analysis by TCLP and the California Waste Extraction Test (WET). Lead was measured in leachate as high as 50 mg/L by WET and 40 mg/L by TCLP. Regulatory thresholds were exceeded by two of 15 products tested in total. Therefore, some e-cigarettes would be toxicity characteristic (TC) hazardous waste but a majority would not. When disposed in the unused form, e-cigarettes containing nicotine juice would be commercial chemical products (CCP) and would, in the United States (US), be considered a listed hazardous waste (P075). While household waste is exempt from hazardous waste regulation, there are many instances in which such waste would be subject to regulation. Manufactures and retailers with unused or expired e-cigarettes or nicotine juice solution would be required to manage these as hazardous waste upon disposal. Current regulations and policies regarding the availability of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes worldwide were reviewed. Despite their small size, disposable e-cigarettes are consumed and discarded much more quickly than typical electronics, which may become a growing concern for waste managers.

  1. Do cigarette and alcohol affect semen analysis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Zeynel Keskin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There are a number of studies about the effect of cigarette and alcohol on semen parameters in the literature. There is not a consensus on the relationship between use of cigarette and alchol and semen parameters in those studies. The number of studies in which cigarette and alcohol use are evaluated together is limited. This study was aimed to analyze the effect of cigarette and/or alcohol use on semen parameters. Methods: In this prospective study, 762 patients who applied to an hospital urology polyclinic between January 2015 and March 2015 due to infertility, were questioned for alcohol and cigarette use in anamnesis. The remaining 356 patients were included in our study. Then, semen analysis of the patients was performed. The patients were divided into five groups according to cigarette use, into five groups according to alcohol use and into four groups according to cigarette and/or alcohol use. Significant differences were analyzed between the groups in terms of semen volume, semen concentration, total motility, forward motility and morphological (normality, head anomaly, neck anomaly, tail anomaly values. Results: According to cigarette use, only in group 4 (who use more than 20 package-years cigarette semen volume was significantly lower than the control group (Mann-Whitney U, p = 0.009. There was no significant difference in any of the other parameters and groups compared with the control group (Mann-Whitney U, p > 0,05 Conclusion:According to our study, using more than 20 package- years cigarette decreases semen volume. The reason of this result might be the fact that the threshold value, from which the effect of cigarette and alcohol use on the semen parameters has to be determined.

  2. Smokers’ and E-Cigarette Users’ Perceptions about E-Cigarette Warning Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia A. Wackowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette warning labels are important sources of risk information, but warning research for other tobacco products is limited. This study aimed to gauge perceptions about warnings that may be used for e-cigarettes. We conducted six small focus groups in late 2014/early 2015 with adult current e-cigarette users and cigarette-only smokers. Participants rated and discussed their perceptions of six e-cigarette warning statements, and warnings in two existing Vuse and MarkTen e-cigarette ads. Participants were open to e-cigarette warnings and provided the strongest reactions to statements warning that e-liquid/e-vapor or e-cigarettes can be poisonous, contain toxins, or are “not a safe alternative to smoking”. However, many also noted that these statements were exaggerated, potentially misleading, and could scare smokers away from reducing their harm by switching to e-cigarettes. Opinions on the Food and Drug Administration’s proposed nicotine addiction warning and warnings that e-cigarettes had not been approved for smoking cessation or had unknown health effects were mixed. Participants perceived MarkTen’s advertisement warning to be stronger and more noticeable than Vuse’s. Care should be taken in developing e-cigarette warnings given their relative recentness and potential for harm reduction compared to other tobacco products. Additional research, including with varied audiences, would be instructive.

  3. Extraction of thymol, eucalyptol, menthol, and camphor residues from honey and beeswax. Determination by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozal, M J; Bernal, J L; Jiménez, J J; González, M J; Higes, M

    2002-04-19

    A gas chromatographic method to determine thymol, eucalyptol (cineole), menthol and camphor residues in honey and beeswax is proposed. To isolate the compounds, three methods involving liquid-liquid extraction with methylene chloride, distillation, or solid-phase extraction on octadecylsilica cartridges can be used. The GC separation is carried out on a 60 m x 0.53 mm Stabilwax DA capillary column, using a flame ionization detector. The method is applied to the analysis of natural honey and also honey and beeswax samples from beehives treated with the above compounds.

  4. Estimating mortality due to cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, H; Juel, K

    2000-01-01

    , chronic bronchitis, emphysema, ischemic heart disease, and stroke were caused by cigarette smoking. In the method proposed by Peto et al, 35% of deaths among men and 25% of deaths among women from these causes were estimated to be attributable to cigarette smoking. The differences between the two methods...

  5. Debate, Research on E-Cigarettes Continues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since they first began to be sold in North America in the mid-2000s, electronic cigarettes have been the subject of intense debate. NCI's Dr. Michele Bloch recently presented an update on some of the issues surrounding e-cigarettes.

  6. Cigarette smoking and risk of ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette T; Kjær, Susanne K; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The majority of previous studies have observed an increased risk of mucinous ovarian tumors associated with cigarette smoking, but the association with other histological types is unclear. In a large pooled analysis, we examined the risk of epithelial ovarian cancer associated with multiple...... measures of cigarette smoking with a focus on characterizing risks according to tumor behavior and histology....

  7. Cigarette Smoking and Urinary Organic Sulfides 

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANLE; CAOWEN-JUN

    2000-01-01

    In order to observe how cigarette smoking influences levels of thio-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid(TTCA),high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) was used to detect TTCA in urine from 18 healthy male volunteers.At the sme time,the total amout of urinary organic sulfides was determined by the iodine azide test(IAT).Nine of the volunteers had smoking higtories(5 to 10 cigarettes per day,as the smoking group),and the rest only occasionally smoke (1 to 2 cigarettes per month,as the control group).Samples were collected in the early morning (limosis)and 90 minutes after smoking a cigarette.Results showed that smoking a single cigaretter could elevate the level of urinary organic sulfides both in the smoking and control groups,while a smoking habit appeared to have no significant influence on the urinary organic sulfide level.No significant cumulative effect of cigarette smoking on urinary organic sulfides was found,The influence of cigarette on uinary organic sulfides was temporary.The results suggest that cigaretter smoking might be a confounding factor in biomontoring the levels of carbon disulfide in exposed workers.

  8. 47 CFR 73.4055 - Cigarette advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cigarette advertising. 73.4055 Section 73.4055 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4055 Cigarette advertising. See 15 U.S.C. 1335....

  9. Cigarette advertising and teen smoking initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewinkel, Reiner; Isensee, Barbara; Sargent, James D; Morgenstern, Matthis

    2011-02-01

    To test the specificity of the association between cigarette advertising and adolescent smoking initiation. A longitudinal survey of 2102 adolescents, aged 10 to 17 years at baseline, who never smoked was conducted by using masked images of 6 cigarette advertisements and 8 other commercial products with all brand information digitally removed. The exposure variable was a combination of contact frequency and cued recall of brands for cigarette and other advertisements. Multilevel mixed-effects Poisson regressions were used to assess smoking initiation 9 months after the baseline assessment as a function of cigarette-advertisement exposure, other advertisement exposure, and baseline covariates. Thirteen percent (n = 277) of students initiated smoking during the observation period. Although the incidence of trying smoking was associated with increased exposure to cigarette advertisements (10% in the low, 12% in the medium, and 19% in the high cigarette-advertisement exposure tertile initiated smoking), exposure to other advertisements did not predict smoking initiation. Compared with low exposure to cigarette advertisements, high exposure remained a significant predictor of adolescent smoking initiation after controlling for baseline covariates (adjusted relative risk: 1.46 [95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.97]; P marketing and teen smoking; exposure to cigarette advertisements, but not other advertisements, is associated with smoking initiation.

  10. Effect of cigarette smoke on seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, R E

    2001-02-21

    The effect of cigarette smoke was studied on the germination of radish, kale, lettuce, amaranth, wheat, rice, barley and rye seeds. It was found that such smoke markedly retarded, in all cases, the rate of germination. Furthermore, cigarette smoke caused a retardation of the levels of certain enzymes (alpha-amylase or lysozyme) known to be significant in the germination of these seeds.

  11. E-cigarettes: Considerations for the otolaryngologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyani, Sneh; Derkay, Craig S

    2015-08-01

    To review the literature regarding electronic cigarettes and discuss potential implications and need for advocacy for the pediatric otolaryngologist. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are battery-operated devices that deliver nicotine-containing vapors via inhalation. Research on the health related consequences of e-cigarettes is ongoing and safety has yet to be established. E-cigarettes are not presently under the regulation of any national governing body with wide accessibility to minors. Use of these products has substantially increased since arrival to the market, particularly within the adolescent population. These products are marketed via various platforms including television, Internet and social media. Hundreds of flavors are offered and e-cigarettes are packaged in various colors. Not only are the ill health effects and addictive quality of nicotine concerning, these products have the potential to serve as a gateway for minors to tobacco use. The relationship between tobacco use, secondhand smoke exposure and otolaryngology specific diseases has well been defined. As use of electronic cigarettes increases, pediatric otolaryngologists should be aware of the ongoing literature regarding these products and to be prepared to counsel families accordingly. The use of e-cigarettes among teenagers, potential implications of secondhand vapor exposure from parents and friends, and concerns this may encourage adolescents to utilize conventional tobacco products needs to be considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Mathematical Model of Cigarette Smoldering Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen P

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model for a smoldering cigarette has been proposed. In the analysis of the cigarette combustion and pyrolysis processes, a receding burning front is defined, which has a constant temperature (~450 °C and divides the cigarette into two zones, the burning zone and the pyrolysis zone. The char combustion processes in the burning zone and the pyrolysis of virgin tobacco and evaporation of water in the pyrolysis zone are included in the model. The hot gases flow from the burning zone, are assumed to go out as sidestream smoke during smoldering. The internal heat transport is characterized by effective thermal conductivities in each zone. Thermal conduction of cigarette paper and convective and radiative heat transfer at the outer surface were also considered. The governing partial differential equations were solved using an integral method. Model predictions of smoldering speed as well as temperature and density profiles in the pyrolysis zone for different kinds of cigarettes were found to agree with the experimental data. The model also predicts the coal length and the maximum coal temperatures during smoldering conditions. The model provides a relatively fast and efficient way to simulate the cigarette burning processes. It offers a practical tool for exploring important parameters for cigarette smoldering processes, such as tobacco components, properties of cigarette paper, and heat generation in the burning zone and its dependence on the mass burn rate.

  13. INDONESIAN YOUTH AND CIGARETTE SMOKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Susilowati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increasing number of children and young adults exposed to tobacco usage in the world is alarming. Indonesia is the third biggest tobacco consumer in the world after China and India. Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body, it reduce quality of life and life expectancy. Smoking causes illnesses, big economic lost and premature death. Tobacco use was the leading cause of preventable death. Smokers began at early age; they became the target of massive tobacco campaigns. Youth were vulnerable to tobacco advertising, once they began to smoke, it was difficult to quit. The Objectives of this paper is to identify tobacco usage among the Indonesian youth, to explore health problems, regulations related to tobacco consumption and efforts to implement the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Methods: Method used is by reviewing studies and campaign information provided by researchers and practitioners in tobacco control programs. Result: Data shows that among people aged 10 to 24 years in Indonesia the current smokers were 23.7% daily smokers, 5.5% occasional smokers while the average cigarettes consumed daily were 12.2. Among lndonesian aged 13-15 years, there were 41% boys and 3.5% girls that were current cigarette smoking and 10.3% boys and 3,1% girls that had current tobacco other than cigarette. It is important that this preventable epidemic becomes a top public health issue in all countries. A complete ban on all tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship is a powerful tool to protect the world's youth and Indonesia should ratify tobacco ban. Key words: Indonesia, tobacco, youth, advertisement

  14. Native, discount, or premium brand cigarettes: what types of cigarettes are Canadian youth currently smoking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton-Marshall, Tara; Leatherdale, Scott T; Burkhalter, Robin

    2013-02-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the brand distribution of premium, discount, and native cigarette brands and to identify the factors associated with smoking these brands among a nationally representative sample of Canadian youth smokers. Data from 3,137 current smokers in Grades 9-12 participating in the 2008-2009 Youth Smoking Survey (YSS) were used to examine the prevalence and factors associated with different cigarette brand preferences. The most prevalent brand of cigarette smoked was premium cigarettes (44.7%), followed by discount cigarettes (33.7%), and to be native cigarettes (7.3%). There was significant variability in brand preference by province with the majority of youth in Atlantic Canada and Quebec smoking a discount brand of cigarettes and higher prevalence rates of native cigarette use in Ontario and Quebec. Respondents were more likely to smoke discount cigarettes if they were female, daily smokers, or if they only had $1-20 a week in spending money. Respondents were more likely to smoke native cigarettes if they were Aboriginal, heavier smokers, or if they reported having no weekly spending money. A significant proportion of students from Grade 9 to 12 in Canada smoke cigarettes that are more affordable than premium brands and it appears that the market share for these more affordable cigarette options has increased in recent years. Given that the price of cigarettes is an important determinant in youth smoking behavior, it is critical to develop and continue to enforce tobacco control strategies designed to eliminate access to cheaper sources of cigarettes among youth populations.

  15. Carbon monoxide kinetics following simulated cigarette smoking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnik, A.S. (Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI); Coin, E.J.

    1980-05-01

    Carbon monoxide kinetics were measured in the blood (% carboxyhemoglobin) and alveolar phase (ppM carbon monoxide) after simulated cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking was siumlated using the same amount of carbon monoxide that 2R1F cigarettes manufactured by the Tobacco Research Institute would contain. Ten boluses of air containing carbon monoxide equivalent to smoking one cigarette were inhaled by six healthy nonsmoker volunteers. Carbon monoxide in the air phase was measured by an Ecolyzer and carboxyhemoglobin was measured by a CO-Oximeter. The mean rise in alveolar carbon monoxide immediately and 20 min after inhaling the last bolus was 3.3 and 3.1 ppM, respectively (p<.005). The mean rise in carboxyhemoglobin immediately and 20 min after inhalation of the last bolus was 0.8 and 0.5% respectively (P<.005). The changes in carboxyhemoglobin were found to be similar to changes that occur when one cigarette is actually smoked.

  16. Do electronic cigarettes help with smoking cessation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Smoking causes around 100,000 deaths each year in the UK, and is the leading cause of preventable disease and early mortality. Smoking cessation remains difficult and existing licensed treatments have limited success. Nicotine addiction is thought to be one of the primary reasons that smokers find it so hard to give up, and earlier this year DTB reviewed the effects of nicotine on health. Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are nicotine delivery devices that aim to mimic the process of smoking but avoid exposing the user to some of the harmful components of traditional cigarettes. However, the increase in the use of e-cigarettes and their potential use as an aid to smoking cessation has been subject to much debate. In this article we consider the regulatory and safety issues associated with the use of e-cigarettes, and their efficacy in smoking cessation and reduction.

  17. Electronic cigarettes: ambiguity and controversies of usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savant, Suyog; Shetty, Deeksha; Phansopkar, Sushil; Jamkhande, Amol

    2014-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (EC), a proxy to conventional cigarettes, gained popularity on the basis of its own advocacy, marketing and large scale publicity. Sometimes marketed as an adjunct to quitting or a substitute for cigarettes, its popularity rose. However, its sale in the global markets was subjected to prejudice. Reasons cited by the regulatory bodies for its ouster were the toxic contents it contained. Some countries preferred to ban them while some have legalised them. However, the manufacturers have claimed that it does have the potential to help smokers quit or at least replace the conventional cigarettes which cause millions of death globally. Research is hence needed to prove the efficacy and utility of this device for welfare of people who are looking for better options than puffing cigarettes.

  18. Glass fiber contamination of cigarette filters: an additional health risk to the smoker?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, J L; Lee, H J; Hurley, E L; Cummings, K M; Lesses, J D; Streck, R J

    1998-11-01

    We report here the results of studies documenting the contamination of a cigarette-appearing smoking article labeled Eclipse with glass fibers, fragments, and particles. Eclipse, a product of the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company (RJR), was commercialized in June of 1996. Eclipse is unlike conventional cigarettes in that, like its predecessor Premier, it is designed to heat and not burn tobacco. The purpose of Eclipse was to simplify the chemical composition and reduce the biological activity of the mainstream and sidestream smoke and to achieve a significant reduction of environmental tobacco smoke. In Eclipse, tobacco pyrolysis is reduced by a carbon fuel rod that serves as a heat source for generating an aerosol having nicotine and tobacco flavor. The carbon rod, at the tip of the cigarette, is insulated and bound with two wrapping mats of glass fibers. Recently, Eclipse has been modified to address consumer complaints of burdensome draw and off-taste. The redesigned Eclipse, which we have termed the NEW Eclipse, has an unconventional filter-appearing mouthpiece that consists of a cellulose acetate cylindrical bundle with a central hollow tunnel. In our analysis of Eclipse, glass fibers (length:width aspect ratio, > or = 3:1) were: (a) observed protruding from the tip; (b) identified on the white cigarette wrapping paper; (c) viewed on the surface of the cork-appearing tipping paper; (d) found in the pack residue; (e) discovered lying freely on the cut surface of the filter by both light and electron microscopy; (f) harvested from the filter with adhesive tape; and (g) displaced when Eclipse was smoked mechanically. In a study of Eclipse that had not been removed from carefully opened packs, we observed that > or = 95% of the filters were contaminated with glass fibers (Eclipse: Regular, n = 114/120, 95%; Milds, n = 118/120, 98%; Menthol, n = 120/120, 100%). Likewise, 99% of NEW Eclipse had glass fibers on the redesigned filter (Regular, n = 119/120). In contrast

  19. Association Between Electronic Cigarette Marketing Near Schools and E-cigarette Use Among Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovenco, Daniel P; Casseus, Myriam; Duncan, Dustin T; Coups, Elliot J; Lewis, M Jane; Delnevo, Cristine D

    2016-12-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are now the most popular tobacco product among youth. Little is known about the relationship between exposure to e-cigarette marketing at the point-of-sale and youth e-cigarette use. Research staff collected data on e-cigarette availability and promotion in tobacco retailers within a half-mile of 41 schools participating in the 2014 New Jersey Youth Tobacco Survey. These data were linked with participant responses from the New Jersey Youth Tobacco Survey (n = 3,909) and log-Poisson regression models estimated adjusted prevalence ratios for ever and past-month e-cigarette use. Nearly a quarter of high school students in New Jersey have tried e-cigarettes (24.1%) and 12.1% were past-month users. Prevalence was highest among males, non-Hispanic whites, and students who have used other tobacco products. After controlling for covariates and the clustered nature of the data, e-cigarette retailer density around schools was positively associated with ever and past-month use of e-cigarettes (p promotion at the point-of-sale may play a role in reducing the use of e-cigarettes. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Preliminary influence of 2015 cigarette excise tax up-regulation on cigarette retail price].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, G Z; Wang, C X; Yang, J Q; Jiang, Y

    2016-10-10

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of cigarette excise tax up-regulation on the retail price of cigarettes in 2015. Methods: Nominal and real price of selected cigarette varieties were calculated with data from Tobacco Retail Price Monitoring Project, which was conducted in 10 cities of China from 2013 to 2015. The trend of the cigarette prices changing was analyzed with annual data. Results: A total of 352 varieties of cigarettes were surveyed during the three years. The nominal price of these cigarettes did not change significantly from 2013 to 2014. Compared with nominal price of 2014, the price of 286 varieties increased and the price of 10 most popular varieties increased from 0.6% to 7.4% after cigarette excise tax increased, but the actual prices had both rise and fall compared with 2013. Conclusions: Cigarette excise tax raise in 2015 had influence on the retail price of cigarettes. But the increase in retail price was very limited, if factors including inflation and purchasing power are taken into consideration. Therefore, the influence of 2015 cigarette excise tax raise on tobacco control needs further evaluation.

  1. Gender, depressive symptoms, and daily cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Cristina B

    2014-01-01

    It is widely known that cigarette use and depressive symptoms co-occur during adolescence and young adulthood and that there are gender differences in smoking initiation, progression, and co-occurrence with other drug use. Given that females have an earlier onset of depressive symptoms while males have an earlier onset of cigarette use, this study explored the possible bidirectional development of cigarette use and depressive symptoms by gender across the transition from adolescence to young adulthood. Gender differences in the stability and crossed effects of depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking during the transition to young adulthood, controlling for other known risk factors, were examined using a nationally representative longitudinal sample. A bivariate autoregressive multi-group structural equation model examined the longitudinal stability and crossed relationships between a latent construct of depressive symptoms and cigarette smoking over four waves of data. Data for this study came from four waves of participants (N = 6,501) from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health. At each of four waves, participants completed a battery of measures including questions on depressive symptoms and an ordinal measure of number of cigarettes smoked per day. The best-fitting bivariate autoregressive models were gender-specific, included both crossed and parallel associations between depressive symptoms and cigarette use during the transition to adulthood, and controlled for wave-specific parental smoking, alcohol use, and number of friends who smoke. For females, greater depressive symptoms at each wave, except the first one, were associated with greater subsequent cigarette use. There were bidirectional associations between depressive symptoms and cigarette use only for females during young adulthood, but not for males. The development of depressive symptoms and cigarette use from adolescence and into young adulthood follows similar patterns for males

  2. Effect of Surfactants and Thickeners on the Stability of Menthol-Diphenhydramine Cream Identified by Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuki, Yoshinori; Yokokawa, Masamitsu; Utsumi, Shunichi; Obata, Yasuko; Machida, Yoshiaki; Seike, Chieko; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Takayama, Kozo

    2016-01-01

    A menthol-diphenhydramine cream is prepared in hospital pharmacies and then prescribed to patients for the treatment of pruritus associated with chronic kidney disease. The purpose of this study is to design a stable formulation without any concern about phase separation during its clinical use on patients. As a preventive measure against phase separation, various surfactants and thickeners were incorporated into the creams. The test creams were stored at 40°C, and then their phase separation behaviors were monitored. The key technology was magnetic resonance imaging T2 mapping. From the T2 maps, some surfactants showed a certain stabilizing effect. In addition, the data analysis using Kohonen's self-organizing map revealed that hydrophilic-lipophilic balance of the surfactant is an important factor for the stabilizing effects of the surfactants. However, as a whole, the effect of surfactant was not sufficient to improve completely the low stability. By contrast, the creams were significantly stabilized by addition of thickeners. In particular, the stabilizing effect of carbomer Hiviswako105(®) (H105) was very high; no phase separation was observed from the cream containing H105 even after 30 d storage at 40°C. This study also verified the combination effect of surfactants and thickeners on the improvement of the emulsion stability. In conclusion, we successfully established a stable formulation of menthol-diphenhydramine cream.

  3. Biotransformation of menthol and geraniol by hairy root cultures of Anethum graveolens: effect on growth and volatile components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Jorge M S; Nunes, Inês S; Figueiredo, A Cristina; Pedro, Luis G; Trindade, Helena; Barroso, José G

    2009-06-01

    Two oxygen-containing monoterpene substrates, menthol or geraniol (25 mg l(-1)), were added to Anethum graveolens hairy root cultures to evaluate the influence of the biotransformation capacity on growth and production of volatile compounds. Growth was assessed by the dissimilation method and by fresh and dry weight measurement. The volatiles were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The total constitutive volatile component was composed, in more than 50%, by falcarinol (17-52%), apiole (11-24%), palmitic acid (7-16%), linoleic acid (4-9%), myristicin (4-8%) and n-octanal (2-5%). Substrate addition had no negative influence on growth. The relative amount of menthol quickly decreased 48 h after addition, and the biotransformation product menthyl acetate was concomitantly formed. Likewise, the added geraniol quickly decreased over 48 h alongside with the production of the biotransformation products. The added geraniol was biotransformed in 10 new products, the alcohols linalool, alpha-terpineol and citronellol, the aldehydes neral and geranial, the esters citronellyl, neryl and geranyl acetates and linalool and nerol oxides.

  4. In vitro induction of α-pinene, pulegone, menthol, menthone and limonene in cell suspension culture of pennyroyal (Mentha pulegium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darvishi, E; Kahrizi, D; Bahraminejad, S; Mansouri, M

    2016-03-20

    Medicinal plants are known as important sources of secondary metabolites. Because of the economic value of pennyroyal [Mentha pulegium L. (Lamiaceae)] in food industries, propagation of this valuable plant has special importance. Plant cell suspension culture can increase some produced components. The aim of this research was performing cell culture for induction of some secondary metabolites of M. pulegium and compares it with native one. The MS medium was used for suspension culture. To investigate quantitative materials, 4 levels of yeast extract elicitor (20, 40, 60 and 80 mg/L) and salicylic acid in 4 levels (2, 4, 6 and 8 mg/L) were used. Obtained extracts were analyzed by GC-MS. Statistical analysis showed that the amount of limonene, menthone, menthol and α-pinene were more than mentioned compounds in natural plant as control. The maximum amount of this metabolites were obtained as limonene (in 60 mg/l yeast extract), menthone (in 40 mg/l yeast extract and 2 mg/l salicylic acid), menthol (in 6 mg/l salicylic acid) and α-pinene (in 4 mg/l salicylic acid) in the M. pulegium cell culture. The Pulegone was fond more in natural plants than cell culture mass. The most important secondary metabolites were increased by cell culture containing of salicylic acid and yeast extract elicitors in M. pulegume.

  5. Essential Oil Composition of Menthol Mint (Mentha arvensis and Peppermint (Mentha piperita Cultivars at Different Stages of Plant Growth from Kumaon Region of Western Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Verma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Menthol mint (Mentha arvensis L. and peppermint (M. piperita L. cultivars grown in Kumaon region were evaluated for essential oil content and composition at different stages of crop growth. In men­thol mint cultivars viz., ‘Kosi’, ‘Saksham’, ‘Himalaya’, and ‘Kalka’, the essential oil content was found to vary from 0.3% - 1.2%, 0.42% - 1.1%, 0.38% - 1.0% and 0.26% - 1.2%, at different days after transplanting (DAT respectively, while in cultivars ‘Kukrail’, ‘CIM-Madhurus’ and ‘CIM-Indus’ of peppermint, it varied from 0.28% - 0.6%, 0.19% - 0.55% and 0.17% - 0.37%, respectively at different DAT. The menthol content in all the menthol mint cultivars reached higher values at 120 and 150 DAT. In case of peppermint cultivars viz., Kukrail’, ‘CIM-Madhurus’ and ‘CIM-Indus’, menthol content varied from 32.92% - 39.65%, 34.29% - 42.83% and 22.56% - 32.77%, respectively during the crop growth.

  6. Prepartum administration of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST on adaptation to subclinical ketosis of the ewes and performance of the lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.O. Feijó

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of prepartum rbST injection on the metabolic profile of pregnant ewes induced to subclinical ketosis, as well as the metabolism until seven days of life and weight gain until seven weeks of life of the lambs. Twenty seven pregnant ewes of the pantaneiro genetic group were used, divided into two groups: rbST group (n = 14 and control group (n = 13. The rbST group received two applications of 1 mg/kg of rbST, at 97 and 111 days gestation, while the control group received placebo injections. There were significant differences between groups in levels of GGT in the ketosis post induction period and BHB concentrations in the postpartum period. Concentrations of glucose, urea, phosphorus, albumin, cholesterol, AST, NEFA and insulin were not different between dams from the two groups in different periods of the study (P>0.05. There was an effect of rbST on body weight observed already at fourteen days of life (P<0.0001, there was an increase in serum phosphorus levels at birth of lambs (P=0.0014, and albumin at seven days of life (P = 0.0014 of the lambs, with no difference between groups for the other metabolites. Therefore, the use of rbST was effective in increasing the weight of the lambs until the seventh week of life. In addition, rbST treatment had positive effects on the dam metabolism with reduction of liver overload, as indicated by decreased GGT after ketosis induction and decreased BHB at the postpartum period.

  7. Objective View of Electronic Cigarette Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Koseoglu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Electronic cigarette is a device designed for helping the people who want to quit tobacco smoking. In the recent few years, its use has been spreading in a great deal. Its properties, the effects on human health and its potential for helping to quit smoking attract attention all over the world. In this review, it is aimed to have the readers an objective point of view by through consideration of the publications. Materials and Methods: In accordance to the aim, the general knowledge about electronic cigarette device and its use and; the studies performed on the subject, evaluated as in the forms of surveys, clinical observations and clinical interventional studies examining its potential harmful effects, have been considered in a detailed way Results: In general, the interpretations are made as electronic cigarette can supply some of the effects of nicotine, taken from tobacco cigarette and; hence, it is an important potential tool for quitting tobacco cigarette. However, it is indicated to have some threats to health and more research about its health effects should be accomplished; even if it is not so harmful as tobacco cigarette. Additionally, the studies, finding its harm potentials being related to its quality and production design, are drawing attention. Conclusion: The studies about electronic cigarette, which is found a place of use and spreading all over the world for quitting or lowering the harmful effects of tobacco cigarette, are not yet enough, in respect to its potential using purposes. Uncertainity exists about the place of electronic cigarettes in tobacco control. More research on the subject is urgently needed at both individual and population levels. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 572-580

  8. Young adult e-cigarette users' reasons for liking and not liking e-cigarettes: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus A; Muranaka, Nicholas; Fagan, Pebbles

    2015-01-01

    To gain an in-depth understanding of what young adult electronic- or e-cigarette users like or dislike about e-cigarettes. We aimed to determine the reasons that may encourage young adults to use e-cigarettes or discourage them from using e-cigarettes. Twelve focus group discussions were conducted with 62 current daily e-cigarette users (63% men) of mean age = 25.1 years (standard deviation = 5.5). Data were analysed following principles of inductive content analysis. Results indicated 12 categories of reasons for liking e-cigarettes (e.g., recreation, smoking cessation) and 6 categories of reasons for not liking e-cigarettes (e.g. poor product quality, poor smoking experience). Young adults' motives for using or not using e-cigarettes appear to be varied and their relative importance in terms of predicting e-cigarette use initiation, dependence, and cigarette/e-cigarette dual use needs to be carefully studied in population-based, empirical studies. The current findings suggest that e-cigarettes may serve social, recreational, and sensory expectancies that are unique relative to cigarettes and not dependent on nicotine. Further, successful use of e-cigarettes in smoking cessation will likely need higher standards of product quality control, better nicotine delivery efficiency and a counselling component that would teach smokers how to manage e-cigarette devices while trying to quit smoking cigarettes.

  9. Chronic l-menthol-induced browning of white adipose tissue hypothesis: A putative therapeutic regime for combating obesity and improving metabolic health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellariou, Paraskevi; Valente, Angelica; Carrillo, Andres E; Metsios, George S; Nadolnik, Liliya; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Boguszewski, Cesar; Andrade, Cláudia Marlise Balbinotti; Svensson, Per-Arne; Kawashita, Nair Honda; Flouris, Andreas D

    2016-08-01

    Obesity constitutes a serious global health concern reaching pandemic prevalence rates. The existence of functional brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans has provoked intense research interest in the role of this metabolically active tissue in whole-body energy balance and body weight regulation. A number of environmental, physiological, pathological, and pharmacological stimuli have been proposed to induce BAT-mediated thermogenesis and functional thermogenic BAT-like activity in white adipose tissue (WAT), opening new avenues for therapeutic strategies based on enhancing the number of beige adipocytes in WAT. Recent evidence support a role of l-menthol cooling, mediated by TRPM8 receptor, on UCP1-dependent thermogenesis and BAT-like activity in classical WAT depots along with the recruitment of BAT at specific anatomical sites. l-Menthol-induced BAT thermogenesis has been suggested to occur by a β-adrenergic-independent mechanism, avoiding potential side-effects due to extensive β-adrenergic stimulation mediated by available beta receptor agonists. l-Menthol has been also linked to the activation of the cold-gated ion channel TRPA1. However, its role in l-menthol-induced UCP1-dependent thermogenic activity in BAT and WAT remains undetermined. White adipose tissue plasticity has important clinical implications for obesity prevention and/or treatment because higher levels of UCP1-dependent thermogenesis can lead to enhanced energy expenditure at a considerable extent. We hypothesize that chronic dietary l-menthol treatment could induce TRPM8- and TRPA1-dependent WAT adaptations, resembling BAT-like activity, and overall improve whole-body metabolic health in obese and overweight individuals. The putative impact of chronic l-menthol dietary treatment on the stimulation of BAT-like activity in classical WAT depots in humans remains unknown. A detailed experimental design has been proposed to investigate the hypothesized l-menthol-induced browning of WAT. If

  10. Impact of cigarette taxation policy on excise revenues and cigarette consumption in Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin S. Krasovsky

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2012, Uzbekistan ratified the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which states that price and tax measures are an effective means of reducing tobacco consumption. We aimed to explore the effect of taxation policies on revenues and cigarette consumption. METHODS: Data on tax rates, revenues, cigarette sales were taken from national reports. To forecast potential revenues, a scenario analysis was performed. RESULTS: In 1991-2004, ad valorem excise system was in place in Uzbekistan, which was later replaced by the specific excise system. In 1997-2011, the nominal average excise has increased by a factor of twenty, but in real terms, after a sharp increase in 1999, average excise declined annually and increased only in 2010-2011. Annual cigarette sales per capita of adult population in 1999-2007 constituted 17-25 cigarette packs, while in 2008-2011 it increased to 30-37 packs. Four scenarios of excise tax increases in 2012 were developed: one actual scenario based on the rates effective in Uzbekistan in 2012, and three hypothetical ones anticipating excise rates increase by 1.5, 2 and 3-fold. With actual excise increase in 2012, the inflation-adjusted budget revenues would grow by 5%, and with three hypothetical - by 17%, 35% and 66% respectively, despite the decline of tax-paid cigarette sales. CONCLUSION: Stabilization or reduction in cigarette excises in Uzbekistan in 2002-2008 led to a decline in real excise revenues and the growth of cigarette sales. In 1999 and 2010-2011, excises were significantly increased and the real revenues have risen, despite the decline in cigarette sales. As cigarette prices are low, the illegal outflow of cigarettes from Uzbekistan apparently exceeds the illegal inflow. A significant increase in cigarette excise (1.5-3 fold can both increase budget revenues and reduce cigarette consumption, with greater increase yielding more benefits.

  11. First-year impact of the 1989 California cigarette tax increase on cigarette consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flewelling, R L; Kenney, E; Elder, J P; Pierce, J; Johnson, M; Bal, D G

    1992-06-01

    We employed a time series design to evaluate the impact of the 1989 California cigarette tax increase on cigarette consumption in California. Adult per capita consumption data from 1980 to 1990 were analyzed for California and the United States. Trend data indicated a sharp drop in California cigarette consumption coincident with the tax increase. Time-series regression analyses support this observation, and suggest that a 5% to 7% decline in consumption is attributable to the tax increase.

  12. A Prototypical First-Generation Electronic Cigarette Does Not Reduce Reports of Tobacco Urges or Withdrawal Symptoms among Cigarette Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arit M. Harvanko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is unknown whether first-generation electronic cigarettes reduce smoking urges and withdrawal symptoms following a 24 h deprivation period. This study tested whether a first-generation electronic cigarette reduces smoking urges and withdrawal symptoms in cigarette smokers. Following 24 h of tobacco deprivation, using a within-subjects design, eight nontreatment seeking tobacco cigarette smokers (3 females administered 10 puffs from a conventional cigarette or a first-generation electronic cigarette containing liquid with 0, 8 or 16 mg/ml nicotine. Conventional cigarettes ameliorated smoking urges and electronic cigarettes did not, regardless of nicotine concentration. First-generation electronic cigarettes may not effectively substitute for conventional cigarettes in reducing smoking urges, regardless of nicotine concentration.

  13. Evaluating nicotine dependence levels in e-cigarette users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Roz, Alba; Secades Villa, Roberto; Weidberg, Sara

    2017-01-11

    Despite the fact that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are rapidly growing in popularity and use worldwide, there is scarce scientific data on abuse liability among e-cigarette users, and about whether e-cigarette use is related to nicotine dependence or not. The aim of this study is to explore nicotine dependence levels in a sample of experienced e-cigarette users (n= 39) and to compare them with current tobacco cigarette smokers (n=42). We conducted several face-to-face interviews in order to assess sociodemographic and dependence related characteristics in both e-cigarette users and in smokers. Adapted versions of both the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND) and the nicotine dependence syndrome scale (NDSS) were used to analyze nicotine dependence in each of the groups. Biochemical markers of carbon monoxide and urinary cotinine analysis were also collected. Results showed that e-cigarette users scored lower than cigarette smokers in both FTND and all NDSS subscales. Our findings extend previous research on e-cigarette use and nicotine addiction and suggest that e-cigarette users are less dependent on nicotine than current tobacco cigarette smokers. Further prospective studies are needed to better ascertain their addictiveness potential, comparing those smokers who switched to e-cigarettes from smoking cigarettes, and those who had never been tobacco cigarette smokers.

  14. Recent Research Development in Resolution Kinetics of Racemic Menthol by Lipase%脂肪酶动力学拆分薄荷醇的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    念保义; 黄志华; 罗菊香; 牛玉

    2011-01-01

    从脂肪酶拆分薄荷醇的转酯化、水解反应的工艺和影响因素等方面,分析了脂肪酶动力学拆分过程的转酯化和水解反应的催化路径与特点,指出了脂肪酶拆分薄荷醇的最佳路径和工艺选择.综述了近10年来脂肪酶拆分制备工业重要的手性香料l-薄荷醇的研究进展,特别综述了具有工业化前景的脂肪酶催化拆分和单元操作工艺的研究进展.同时展望了未来脂肪酶拆分薄荷醇的研究方向.%A condensed review of the potential offered by lipase for resolution of racemic menthols for the past 10 years is presented.Especially, recent applications of the lipase catalytic approach and industrialization of unit operation to the preparation of the most important flavor, l-menthol, are comprehensively covered by analyzing their processes of transesterification, hydrolysis reaction and influential factors. The potential industrial processes based on lipase-catalytie methods are discussed in the terms of their advantages over classical ones. The optimal pathway of resolution is achieved by analyzing resolving routes of menthol and alternative of acyl agent for transesterification of menthol. And a vista of the future investigations is opened up for new realms from macro-kinetics of menthol resolution for the industrial processes.

  15. Ingestion of cigarettes and cigarette butts by children--Rhode Island, January 1994-July 1996 .

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-14

    During 1995, the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) received 7917 reports of potentially toxic exposures to tobacco products among children aged cigars. Acute nicotine poisoning is characterized by rapid onset of symptoms that may be severe when large amounts have been ingested. During January 1994-July 1996, the Rhode Island Poison Control Center (RIPCC) received 146 reports of ingestion of products containing nicotine by children aged cigarette butts among children aged cigarette butts by children aged < or = 6 years resulted in minor toxic effects and occurred more frequently in households where smoking was permitted in the presence of children and where cigarettes and cigarette wastes were accessible to children.

  16. Changes in cigarette expenditure minimising strategies before and after a cigarette tax increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kelvin; Boyle, Raymond G

    2017-02-20

    Smokers use cigarette expenditure minimising strategies (CEMS) to alleviate the effect of tax increases on their cigarette expenses. We examined changes in smokers' CEMS use before and after a 2013 Minnesota $1.75 cigarette tax increase. Data were from representative samples of smokers who participated in the Minnesota Adult Tobacco Survey 2010 (n=948) and 2014 (n=1229). Participants indicated CEMS used in the past year from a list. Weighted multiple logistic regressions were used to examine changes in prevalence of each CEMS use over time adjusting for demographics and cigarette consumption. Characteristics associated with CEMS use in 2014 were examined. Between 2010 and 2014, more smokers tried to save money on cigarettes by rolling their own cigarettes (from 19% to 29%), using other tobacco products (from 13% to 25%), and buying cigarettes from cheaper places (from 48% to 55%). Yet, fewer smokers used coupons/promotions (from 63% to 50%) and bought cigarettes by the carton (from 39% to 32%). These changes varied somewhat by race/ethnicity and education, for example, more smokers with tax increase. Regulations that would reduce CEMS use could boost the effectiveness of cigarette tax increases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) [year]. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Awareness of FDA-mandated cigarette packaging changes among smokers of 'light' cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, M; Bansal-Travers, M; Sanborn, P M; Tang, K Z; Strasser, A A

    2015-02-01

    Previous research has clearly demonstrated that smokers associate cigarette descriptors such as 'light', 'ultra-light' and 'low tar' with reduced health risks, despite evidence showing that cigarettes with these descriptor terms do not present lower health risk. In June 2010, regulations implemented by the US Food and Drug Administration went into effect to ban the use of 'light', 'mild' and 'low' on cigarette packaging. We surveyed smokers participating in human laboratory studies at our Center in Philadelphia, PA, USA shortly after the ban went into effect to determine the extent of awareness of recent cigarette packaging changes among smokers of light cigarettes. In our sample of 266 smokers, 76 reported smoking light cigarettes, but fewer than half of these smokers reported noticing changes to their cigarette packaging. Simple removal of a few misleading terms may be too subtle of a change to register with consumers of so-called 'low tar' cigarettes; more comprehensive regulation of cigarette packaging design may be necessary to gain smokers' attention and minimize misperceptions associated with tobacco pack design characteristics and color. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Cigarette smoking impairs sperm bioenergetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazim R. Chohan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The growing consensus on the negative impact of cigarette smoking on fertility prompted us to compare the rate of sperm respiration in smokers and non-smokers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semen samples from 20 smokers and 58 non-smokers consulting at the andrology laboratory for fertility evaluation were used. Smoking was defined as consumption of at least a half a pack per day. A phosphorescence analyzer that measures O2 concentration in sperm suspensions as function of time was used to determine the rate of respiration. In a sealed vial, the rate of sperm respiration (k was defined as -d[O2]/dt; where [O2] was obtained from the phosphorescence decay rate of a palladium phosphor. [O2] in solutions containing sperm and glucose declined linearly with time, showing the kinetics of O2 consumption was zero-order. Inhibition of O2 consumption by cyanide confirmed the oxidations that occurred in the sperm mitochondrial respiratory chain. RESULTS: There were no differences (p > 0.28 between smokers and non-smokers for ejaculate volume, motility, concentration, normal morphology, viability and hypo-osmotic swelling test. The rate (mean ± SD, in µM O2/min/108 sperm of sperm mitochondrial O2 consumption in the smokers was 0.96 ± 0.58 and in the non-smokers 1.39 ± 0.67 (p = 0.004. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of sperm respiration was significantly lower in smokers. This negative impact of cigarette smoking on sperm aerobic metabolism may, in part, explain the lower rate of fertility in smokers.

  19. Differences in Electronic Cigarette Awareness, Use History, and Advertisement Exposure between Black and White Hospitalized Cigarette Smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Baumann, Angela Warren; Kohler, Connie; Kim, Young-Il; Cheong, JeeWon; Hendricks, Peter; Bailey, William C.; Harrington, Kathleen F.

    2015-01-01

    E-cigarette use has increased rapidly over the past decade. There is growing concern about e-cigarette use and advertising given limited regulation of these products. This cross-sectional study reports on data collected at baseline from hospitalized cigarette smokers (N = 944) recruited in monthly cohorts between December 2012 and September 2013. Participants were queried regarding e-cigarette awareness and use, and number and sources of e-cigarette advertisement exposures in the previous six...

  20. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic which outlines key facts related to current smoking among adults. For accessibility issues contact...

  1. Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Infographic which outlines key facts related to current smoking among adults. For accessibility issues contact...

  2. E-cigarettes and E-hookahs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 46. Callahan-Lyon P. Electronic cigarettes: human health effects. Tob Control . 2014;23(Suppl 2):ii36-ii40. ...

  3. Does environmental cigarette smoke affect breastfeeding behavior?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Firouzbakht, Mozhgan; Hajian-Tilaki, Karimallah; Nikpour, Maryam; Banihosseini, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Background: Exposure of lactating women to environmental cigarette smoke may increase cotinine in breast milk, which in turn may reduce the volume of milk and the duration of breastfeeding. Objectives...

  4. Why Teens Choose E-Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cigarettes in this young age group." States could tax the devices, hiking their prices, she suggested. Federal ... professor, psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Conn.; Krysten Bold, Ph.D., postdoctoral fellow in ...

  5. Estimating mortality due to cigarette smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik; Juel, K

    2000-01-01

    . Peto et al (Lancet 1992;339:1268-1278), requires data on mortality from lung cancer among people who have never smoked and among smokers, but it does not require data on the prevalence of smoking. In the Prevent model, 33% of deaths among men and 23% of those among women in 1993 from lung cancer......We estimated the mortality from various diseases caused by cigarette smoking using two methods and compared the results. In one method, the "Prevent" model is used to simulate the effect on mortality of the prevalence of cigarette smoking derived retrospectively. The other method, suggested by R......, chronic bronchitis, emphysema, ischemic heart disease, and stroke were caused by cigarette smoking. In the method proposed by Peto et al, 35% of deaths among men and 25% of deaths among women from these causes were estimated to be attributable to cigarette smoking. The differences between the two methods...

  6. CSEO - the Cigarette Smoke Exposure Ontology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Younesi, Erfan; Ansari, Sam; Guendel, Michaela; Ahmadi, Shiva; Coggins, Chris; Hoeng, Julia; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2014-01-01

    ...) is composed of 20091 concepts. The ontology in its current form is able to capture a wide range of cigarette smoke exposure concepts within the knowledge domain of exposure science with a reasonable sensitivity and specificity...

  7. Smoking behaviors and intentions among current e-cigarette users, cigarette smokers, and dual users: A national survey of U.S. high school seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Sean Esteban; Veliz, Phil; McCabe, Vita V; Boyd, Carol J

    2017-03-01

    E-cigarette use among adolescents has increased significantly in recent years, but it remains unclear whether cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking differ among current (i.e., 30-day) non-users, only e-cigarette users, only cigarette smokers, and dual users. A nationally representative sample of 4385 U.S. high school seniors were surveyed during the spring of their senior year via self-administered questionnaires in 2014. An estimated 9.6% of U.S. high school seniors reported current e-cigarette use only, 6.3% reported current cigarette smoking only, and 7.2% reported current dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarette smoking. There were no significant differences between current only cigarette smokers and dual users in the odds of early onset of cigarette smoking, daily cigarette smoking, intentions for future cigarette smoking, friends' cigarette smoking behaviors, attempts to quit cigarette smoking, or the inability to quit cigarette smoking. Adolescents who only used e-cigarettes had higher odds of intentions for future cigarette smoking in the next 5years (AOR=2.57, 95% CI: 1.21-5.24) than current non-users. Dual users and only cigarette smokers had higher odds of cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking than non-users or only e-cigarette users. Adolescents who engage in current dual use have cigarette smoking behaviors and intentions for future cigarette smoking that more closely resemble cigarette smokers than e-cigarette users. Adolescents who only use e-cigarettes have higher intentions to engage in future cigarette smoking relative to their peers who do not engage in e-cigarette use or cigarette smoking.

  8. The synergistic effect of cigarette taxes on the consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and betel nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jie-Min

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of cigarettes and alcoholic beverages creates serious health consequences for individuals and overwhelming financial burdens for governments around the world. In Asia, a third stimulant – betel nuts – increases this burden exponentially. For example, individuals who simultaneously smoke, chew betel nuts and drink alcohol are approximately 123 times more likely to develop oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal cancer than are those who do not. To discourage consumption of cigarettes, the government of Taiwan has imposed three taxes over the last two decades. It now wishes to lower consumption of betel nuts. To assist in this effort, our study poses two questions: 1 Will the imposition of an NT$10 Health Tax on cigarettes effectively reduce cigarette consumption? and 2 Will this cigarette tax also reduce consumption of alcoholic beverages and betel nuts? To answer these questions, we analyze the effect of the NT$10 tax on overall cigarette consumption as well as the cross price elasticities of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages. Methods To establish the Central Bureau of Statistics demand function, we used cigarette, betel nut, and alcoholic beverage price and sales volume data for the years 1972–2002. To estimate the overall demand price elasticity of cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages, we used a seemingly unrelated regression analysis. Results We find that the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce cigarette consumption by a significant 27.22%. We also find that cigarettes, betel nuts, and alcoholic beverages have similar inherent price elasticities of -0.6571, -0.5871, and -0.6261 respectively. Because of this complementary relationship, the NT$10 health tax on cigarettes will reduce betel nut consumption by 20.07% and alcohol consumption by 7.5%. Conclusion The assessment of a health tax on cigarettes as a smoking control policy tool yields a win-win outcome for both government and

  9. Pharmacokinetics of menthol and carvone after administration of an enteric coated formulation containing peppermint oil and caraway oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascher, H; Kikuta, C; Schiel, H

    2001-01-01

    Enteric coating of peppermint oil/caraway oil capsules avoids subjective discomfort to the patient caused by gastroesophageal reflux. In order to confirm bioequivalence of an enteric coated formulation containing peppermint oil and caraway oil (CAS 277309-55-4, Enteroplant) and an immediate release formulation of both oils, the pharmacokinetics of menthol and carvone after oral administration of the two formulations were studied in a randomized, two-period cross-over study in 16 healthy male volunteers. The subjects received 180 mg peppermint oil and 100 mg caraway oil, once as 2 enteric coated capsules of the fixed enteric coated combination preparation containing 90 mg peppermint oil (WS 1340) and 50 mg caraway oil (WS 1520) each (test) and once in the form of 5 capsules of an immediate release formulation (reference) containing 36 mg peppermint (WS 1340) oil and 20 mg caraway oil (WS 1520) each. The capsules were taken with 250 ml water after a 10 h fast. Both substances were determined in plasma by GC/MS after extraction. The limit of quantification was 10 ng/ml for menthol and 0.5 ng/ml for carvone. The mean maximum plasma levels for menthol were 1196 ng/ml after administration of the test medication and 1492 ng/ml after administration of the reference medication. The bioavailability with respect to the AUC was comparable after administration of test and reference preparation, the 90% confidence interval was 97 to 105%. As expected, there were considerable differences for Tmax. After application of the enteric coated form the maximum concentration was reached significantly later (3.0 h vs. 1.7 h) compared to the immediate release capsule. Corresponding data were also calculated for carvone. After application of the test medication the maxima of 14 ng/ml for both formulations were reached later (2.5 h vs. 1.3 h). The 90% confidence interval of the AUC for carvone was 79 to 119% and therefore slightly outside the acceptable range for bioequivalence of 80 to 125

  10. Other tobacco product and electronic cigarette use among homeless cigarette smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggett, Travis P; Campbell, Eric G; Chang, Yuchiao; Rigotti, Nancy A

    2016-09-01

    We determined the prevalence and correlates of other tobacco product and electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use in a clinic-based sample of homeless cigarette smokers. In April-July 2014, we used time-location sampling to conduct a cross-sectional, in-person survey of 306 currently homeless adult cigarette smokers recruited from 5 clinical sites at Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program. We assessed past-month use of large cigars, little cigars, smokeless tobacco, and e-cigarettes. Among those who had used e-cigarettes, we assessed the reasons for doing so. We used logistic regression analysis to identify the participant characteristics associated with the use of each product. Eighty-six percent of eligible individuals participated in the survey. In the past month, 37% of respondents used large cigars, 44% used little cigars, 8% used smokeless tobacco, 24% used an e-cigarette, and 68% used any of these products. Reasons for e-cigarette use included curiosity (85%) and to help quit conventional cigarettes (69%). In multivariable regression analyses, homeless smokers with greater subsistence difficulties were more likely to use little cigars (p=0.01) and less likely to use e-cigarettes (p=0.001). Non-Hispanic black (p=0.01), Hispanic (pcigarette use to help quit smoking (p=0.02). Health care providers who serve homeless people should consider routine screening for the use of other tobacco products and e-cigarettes to help guide smoking cessation discussions and tobacco treatment planning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Differences in the design and sale of e-cigarettes by cigarette manufacturers and non-cigarette manufacturers in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Andrew B; Jo, Catherine L; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2016-04-01

    Three categories of e-cigarette brands have emerged within the US market: e-cigarette brands developed by cigarette manufacturers, brands acquired by cigarette manufacturers and brands with no cigarette manufacturer affiliation. In the absence of federal regulatory oversight of e-cigarettes, we assessed differences in e-cigarette products and sales practices across these categories. Brand websites for top-selling e-cigarette brands from each of these categories were examined in October of 2015 to compare website access restrictions, online sales practices and products sold, including e-cigarette model type (eg, 'cigalike' vs advanced systems) and options available (eg, flavoured, nicotine free). Website access to brands developed by cigarette manufacturers was restricted to users aged 21 years or older, and one website required user registration. In addition, these brands were exclusively reusable/rechargeable 'cigalikes.' Limited flavour options were available for these products, and nicotine-free options were not sold. In contrast, brands acquired by cigarette manufacturers and brands with no cigarette manufacturer affiliation generally required website visitors to be 18, offered a nicotine-free option, and most offered disposable products and an array of flavoured products (eg, fruit/candy flavours). This exploratory study finds differences in e-cigarette products and sales practices across these three e-cigarette brand categories, with brands developed by cigarette manufacturers adopting a particularly distinctive product and sales strategy. Anticipated regulation of e-cigarettes in the USA may be influencing these product and sales decisions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Awareness of FDA-Mandated Cigarette Packaging Changes among Smokers of "Light" Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcone, M.; Bansal-Travers, M.; Sanborn, P. M.; Tang, K. Z.; Strasser, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has clearly demonstrated that smokers associate cigarette descriptors such as "light", "ultra-light" and "low tar" with reduced health risks, despite evidence showing that cigarettes with these descriptor terms do not present lower health risk. In June 2010, regulations implemented by the US Food and…

  13. Social Influences on Use of Cigarettes, E-Cigarettes, and Hookah by College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Melody; Ickes, Melinda J.; Rayens, Mary Kay; Butler, Karen; Wiggins, Amanda T.; Hahn, Ellen J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: (1) Compare social norms and perceived peer use between college student cigarette, e-cigarette, and/or hookah users and nonusers; and (2) determine variables associated with social influences. Participants: Undergraduate students attending a large university in the Southeast United States (N = 511). Methods: An April 2013 online survey…

  14. Fewer Cancer-Causing Chemicals in E-Cigs Than Regular Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... study suggests that smokers who completely switch to e-cigarettes and stop smoking tobacco cigarettes may significantly reduce ... of 12 years. For two weeks, they used e-cigarettes instead of tobacco cigarettes. During that time, their ...

  15. E-cigarette specialty retailers: Data to assess the association between retail environment and student e-cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostean, Georgiana; Crespi, Catherine M; Vorapharuek, Patsornkarn; McCarthy, William J

    2017-04-01

    The retail environment is a major social determinant of health, yet little is known about the e-cigarette specialty retailer environment. The e-cigarette specialty retail environment may be associated with e-cigarette use by middle and high school students, an issue that was addressed in a recent article entitled, "E-cigarette use among students and e-cigarette specialty retailer presence near schools," by Bostean and colleagues (G. Bostean, C.M. Crespi, P. Vorapharuek, W.J. McCarthy, 2016 [1]). We present data relating to e-cigarette specialty retailers in Orange County, California. We describe the data collection method (including the search methodology to identify e-cigarette specialty retailers), present descriptive retailer data including school proximity, and provide data from multi-level regressions predicting individual-level student use of e-cigarettes based on presence of an e-cigarette specialty retailer in proximity to schools.

  16. [Health consequences of smoking electronic cigarettes are poorly described].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøttenborg, Sandra Søgaard; Holm, Astrid Ledgaard; Wibholm, Niels Christoffer; Lange, Peter

    2014-09-01

    Despite increasing popularity, health consequences of vaping (smoking electronic cigarettes, e-cigarettes) are poorly described. Few studies suggest that vaping has less deleterious effects on lung function than smoking conventional cigarettes. One large study found that e-cigarettes were as efficient as nicotine patches in smoking cessation. The long-term consequences of vaping are however unknown and while some experts are open towards e-cigarettes as a safer way of satisfying nicotine addiction, others worry that vaping in addition to presenting a health hazard may lead to an increased number of smokers of conventional cigarettes.

  17. Merchandising of cigarettes in San Francisco pharmacies: 27 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eule, B; Sullivan, M K; Schroeder, S A; Hudmon, K S

    2004-12-01

    To estimate changes since 1976 in the proportion of San Francisco pharmacies that sell cigarettes and to characterise the advertising of cigarettes and the merchandising of non-prescription nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products in these retail establishments. 100 randomly selected San Francisco pharmacies were visited in 2003. Pharmacies were characterised based on the sale of cigarettes, advertising for cigarettes, and the merchandising of non-prescription NRT products. In 2003, 61% of pharmacies sold cigarettes, a significant decrease compared to 89% of pharmacies selling cigarettes in 1976 (p merchandise the primary known risk factor for death in the USA.

  18. Chinese Smokers’ Cigarette Purchase Behaviors, Cigarette Prices and Consumption: Findings from the ITC China Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Background While cigarette purchasing behavior has been shown to be linked with certain tobacco use outcomes such as quit intentions and quit attempts, there have been very few studies examining cigarette purchasing behaviors and their impact on cigarette price and consumption in China, the world’s largest cigarette consumer. Objective The goal of this study is to examine the extent and determinants of cost/price-related purchase behaviors, and estimate the impact of these behaviors on cigarette prices paid by Chinese smokers. It also assesses the socio-economic differences in compensatory purchase behaviors, and examines how they influence the relationship between purchase behaviors, cigarette prices, and cigarette consumption. Methods Multivariate analyses using the general estimating equations (GEE) method were conducted using data from the International Tobacco Control China Survey (the ITC China Survey), a longitudinal survey of adult smokers in seven cities in China: Beijing, Changsha, Guangzhou, Kunming, Shanghai, Shenyang, and Yinchuan. In each city, about 800 smokers were surveyed in each wave. The first three waves - Wave 1 (conducted between March to December 2006), Wave 2 (November 2007 to March 2008) and Wave 3 (May to October 2009 and February to March 2010) - of the ITC China Survey data were used in this analysis. Various aspects of smokers’ self-reported price/cost-related cigarette purchasing behaviors were analyzed. Findings Nearly three-quarters (72%) of smokers surveyed indicated that a major reason they chose their most-used cigarette brand was its low cost/price. Almost half (50.6%) of smokers reported buying in cartons in their most recent cigarette purchase. Smokers with lower income and/or low levels of education were more likely to choose a brand because of its low cost/price. However, those with higher income and/or high levels of education were more likely to buy cartons. Gender and age were also related to type of purchase

  19. Chinese smokers' cigarette purchase behaviours, cigarette prices and consumption: findings from the ITC China Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Chaloupka, Frank J; Fong, Geoffrey T; Li, Qiang; Jiang, Yuan

    2014-03-01

    While cigarette purchasing behaviour has been shown to be linked with certain tobacco use outcomes such as quit intentions and quit attempts, there have been very few studies examining cigarette purchasing behaviours and their impact on cigarette price and consumption in China, the world's largest cigarette consumer. The aim of the present study was to examine the extent and determinants of cost/price-related purchase behaviours, and estimate the impact of these behaviours on cigarette prices paid by Chinese smokers. It also assesses the socioeconomic differences in compensatory purchase behaviours, and examines how they influence the relationship between purchase behaviours, cigarette prices and cigarette consumption. Multivariate analyses using the general estimating equations method were conducted using data from the International Tobacco Control China Survey (the ITC China Survey), a longitudinal survey of adult smokers in seven cities in China: Beijing, Changsha, Guangzhou, Kunming, Shanghai, Shenyang and Yinchuan. In each city, about 800 smokers were surveyed in each wave. The first three waves--wave 1 (conducted between March to December 2006), wave 2 (November 2007 to March 2008) and wave 3 (May to October 2009 and February to March 2010)--of the ITC China Survey data were used in this analysis. Various aspects of smokers' self-reported price/cost-related cigarette purchasing behaviours were analysed. Nearly three-quarters (72%) of smokers surveyed indicated that a major reason they chose their most-used cigarette brand was its low cost/price. Almost half (50.6%) of smokers reported buying in cartons in their most recent cigarette purchase. Smokers with lower income and/or low levels of education were more likely to choose a brand because of its low cost/price. However, those with higher income and/or high levels of education were more likely to buy cartons. Gender and age were also related to type of purchase behaviours. Those behaviours led to reductions

  20. Running performance and thermal sensation in the heat are improved with menthol mouth rinse but not ice slurry ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, C J; Thoseby, B; Sculley, D V; Callister, R; Taylor, L; Dascombe, B J

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a cooling strategy designed to predominately lower thermal state with a strategy designed to lower thermal sensation on endurance running performance and physiology in the heat. Eleven moderately trained male runners completed familiarization and three randomized, crossover 5-km running time trials on a non-motorized treadmill in hot conditions (33 °C). The trials included ice slurry ingestion before exercise (ICE), menthol mouth rinse during exercise (MEN), and no intervention (CON). Running performance was significantly improved with MEN (25.3 ± 3.5 min; P = 0.01), but not ICE (26.3 ± 3.2 min; P = 0.45) when compared with CON (26.0 ± 3.4 min). Rectal temperature was significantly decreased with ICE (by 0.3 ± 0.2 °C; P < 0.01), which persisted for 2 km of the run and MEN significantly decreased perceived thermal sensation (between 4 and 5 km) and ventilation (between 1 and 2 km) during the time trial. End-exercise blood prolactin concentration was elevated with MEN compared with CON (by 25.1 ± 24.4 ng/mL; P = 0.02). The data demonstrate that a change in the perception of thermal sensation during exercise from menthol mouth rinse was associated with improved endurance running performance in the heat. Ice slurry ingestion reduced core temperature but did not decrease thermal sensation during exercise or improve running performance.

  1. Operant behavioral responses to orofacial cold stimuli in rats with chronic constrictive trigeminal nerve injury: effects of menthol and capsazepine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Both spinal and trigeminal somatosensory systems use the TRPM8 channel as a principal transducer for detecting cold stimuli. It is currently unclear whether this cold transducer may play a role in trigeminal neuropathic pain manifesting cold allodynia and hyperalgesia. In the present study, trigeminal neuropathy was induced by chronic constrictive nerve injury of the infraorbital nerve (ION-CCI). Behavioral responses to cold stimuli in orofacial regions were assessed by the newly developed orofacial operant test in the ION-CCI rats. We tested menthol and capsazepine, two compounds that can activate and inhibit TRPM8 respectively, on orofacial operant responses to cold stimuli in ION-CCI rats. Testing animals performed operant tasks by voluntarily contacting their orofacial regions to a cold stimulation module in order to access sweetened milk as a reward, and contact time and number of the operant behaviors were automatically recorded. Total contact time was significantly reduced at the cooling temperatures of 17°C and 12°C in ION-CCI group in comparison with sham group, indicating the presence of cold allodynia and hyperalgesia in ION-CCI rats. When menthol was administered to ION-CCI rats, total contact time was further reduced and total contact number increased at the cooling temperatures. In contrast, after administration of capsazepine to ION-CCI rats, total contact time was significantly increased at the cooling temperatures. The behavioral outcomes support the idea that TRPM8 plays a role in cold allodynia and hyperalgesia following chronic trigeminal nerve injury. PMID:23767981

  2. A Randomized Trial of the Effect of E-cigarette TV Advertisements on Intentions to Use E-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, Matthew C; Duke, Jennifer C; Crankshaw, Erik C; Eggers, Matthew E; Lee, Youn O; Nonnemaker, James M; Kim, Annice E; Porter, Lauren

    2015-11-01

    Adolescents' use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and exposure to e-cigarette TV advertising have increased in recent years, despite questions about their safety. The current study tests whether exposure to e-cigarette TV advertisements influences intentions to use e-cigarettes in the future and related attitudes. A parallel-group randomized controlled experiment was conducted and analyzed in 2014 using an online survey with a convenience sample of 3,655 U.S. adolescents aged 13-17 years who had never tried e-cigarettes. Adolescents in the treatment group viewed four e-cigarette TV advertisements. Adolescents in the treatment group reported a greater likelihood of future e-cigarette use compared with the control group. ORs for the treatment group were 1.54 (p=0.001) for trying an e-cigarette soon; 1.43 (p=0.003) for trying an e-cigarette within the next year; and 1.29 (p=0.02) for trying an e-cigarette if a best friend offered one. Adolescents in the treatment group had higher odds of agreeing that e-cigarettes can be used in places where cigarettes are not allowed (OR=1.71, pExposure to e-cigarette advertising had relatively large and consistent effects across experimental outcomes. Together with the simultaneous increase in e-cigarette advertising exposure and e-cigarette use among adolescents, findings suggest that e-cigarette advertising is persuading adolescents to try this novel product. This raises concerns that continued unregulated e-cigarette advertising will contribute to potential individual- and population-level harm. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. How hearing about harmful chemicals affects smokers' interest in dual use of cigarettes and e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Jessica K; Byron, M Justin; Ribisl, Kurt M; Brewer, Noel T

    2017-03-01

    Substantial harm could result from concurrent cigarette and e-cigarette use (i.e., dual use) were it to undermine smoking cessation. Perceptions of chemical exposure and resulting harms may influence dual use. We conducted a probability-based phone survey of 1164 U.S. adult cigarette smokers in 2014-2015 and analyzed results in 2016. In a between-subjects experiment, smokers heard a hypothetical scenario in which cigarettes and e-cigarettes had the same amount of harmful chemicals or cigarettes had more chemicals than e-cigarettes (10× more, 100× more, or chemicals were present only in cigarettes). Smokers indicated how the scenario would change their interest in dual use and perceived health harms. Few smokers (7%) who heard that the products have the same amount of chemicals were interested in initiating or increasing dual use. However, more smokers were interested when told that cigarettes have 10× more chemicals than e-cigarettes (31%), 100× more chemicals than e-cigarettes (32%), or chemicals were present only in cigarettes (43%) (all pe-cigarettes (79% vs. 41%, OR=5.41, 95% CI=4.08-7.17). These harm perceptions partially explained the relationship between chemical scenario and dual use interest. Smokers associated higher chemical amounts in cigarettes versus e-cigarettes with greater health harms from cigarettes and thus expressed increased interest in dual use. The findings suggest that disclosing amounts of chemicals in cigarette smoke and e-cigarette aerosol could unintentionally encourage dual use.

  4. The effect of cigarette price increase on the cigarette consumption in Taiwan: evidence from the National Health Interview Surveys on cigarette consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Chun-Yuan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study uses cigarette price elasticity to evaluate the effect of a new excise tax increase on cigarette consumption and to investigate responses from various types of smokers. Methods Our sample consisted of current smokers between 17 and 69 years old interviewed during an annual face-to-face survey conducted by Taiwan National Health Research Institutes between 2000 to 2003. We used Ordinary Least Squares (OLS procedure to estimate double logarithmic function of cigarette demand and cigarette price elasticity. Results In 2002, after Taiwan had enacted the new tax scheme, cigarette price elasticity in Taiwan was found to be -0.5274. The new tax scheme brought about an average annual 13.27 packs/person (10.5% reduction in cigarette consumption. Using the cigarette price elasticity estimate from -0.309 in 2003, we calculated that if the Health and Welfare Tax were increased by another NT$ 3 per pack and cigarette producers shifted this increase to the consumers, cigarette consumption would be reduced by 2.47 packs/person (2.2%. The value of the estimated cigarette price elasticity is smaller than one, meaning that the tax will not only reduce cigarette consumption but it will also generate additional tax revenues. Male smokers who had no income or who smoked light cigarettes were found to be more responsive to changes in cigarette price. Conclusions An additional tax added to the cost of cigarettes would bring about a reduction in cigarette consumption and increased tax revenues. It would also help reduce incidents smoking-related illnesses. The additional tax revenues generated by the tax increase could be used to offset the current financial deficiency of Taiwan's National Health Insurance program and provide better public services.

  5. Does the availability of single cigarettes promote or inhibit cigarette consumption? Perceptions, prevalence and correlates of single cigarette use among adult Mexican smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, J F; Villalobos, V; Dorantes-Alonso, A; Arillo-Santillán, E; Cummings, K Michael; O’Connor, R; Fong, G T

    2009-01-01

    Background: Single cigarette use and its implications have rarely been studied among adults. Objective: To assess perceptions, prevalence and correlates of single cigarette purchase behaviour and its relation to harm reduction. Design: Focus group transcripts and cross-sectional data were analysed. Setting and participants: Focus groups among convenience samples of adult smokers in two Mexican cities and a population-based sample of 1079 adult smokers from the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project in four Mexican cities. Main outcome measures: Purchase of single cigarettes last time cigarettes were bought, frequency of purchasing single cigarettes in the previous month and intention to quit in the next 6 months. Results: Focus group data indicated that smokers bought single cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy. Survey data indicated that 38% of participants purchased single cigarettes in the last month and 10% purchased them the last time they bought cigarettes, with more frequent consumption among young adults and those with lower income. Purchasing single cigarettes was independently associated with the frequency of using single cigarettes to reduce consumption and, less consistently, with the frequency of being cued to smoke after seeing single cigarettes for sale. Using single cigarettes to reduce consumption was positively associated with quit intention, whereas being cued to smoke by single cigarettes was negatively associated with quit intention. Conclusions: Study results suggest that some adult Mexican smokers purchase single cigarettes as a method to limit, cut down on and even quit smoking. Nevertheless, promotion of the availability of single cigarettes as a harm reduction strategy could provide additional smoking cues that undermine quit attempts and promote youth smoking. PMID:19671535

  6. Cigarette smoking and male infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taymour Mostafa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have identified specific body systems affected by the hazardous effects of the cigarette smoking particularly the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. The effect of smoking on male reproduction has also been studied where semen quality was investigated in different cross-sectional studies including infertile patients with conflicting results. This article aimed to assess the relationship between smoking and male infertility. A review of published articles was carried out, using PubMed, medical subject heading (MSH databases and Scopus engine excluding the effects of smoking outside male infertility. Key words used to assess exposure, outcome, and estimates for the concerned associations were: smoking, semen, male infertility, sperm, humans, and fertility. Most of the reports showed that smoking reduces sperm production, sperm motility, sperm normal forms and sperm fertilising capacity through increased seminal oxidative stress and DNA damage. Few papers reported nonsignificant differences in semen parameters between smokers or non-smokers. It is concluded that although some smokers may not experience reduced fertility, men with marginal semen quality can benefit from quitting smoking.

  7. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Ah Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Materials and Methods: Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use who were middle and high school students aged 13–18 years. We compared smoking experience, the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and the relation between the reasons for e-cigarette uses and the frequency of e-cigarette use. Results: The prevalence of e-cigarette ever and current (past 30 days users were 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever users, approximately 60% used e-cigarettes not within 1 month. On the other hand, 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. The frequent and intensive cigarette smoking was associated with frequent e-cigarette uses. The percentage of frequent e-cigarette users (≥10 days/month was 3.5% in adolescents who did not smoke within a month, but 28.7% among daily smokers. Additionally, it was 9.1% in smokers who smoked less than 1 cigarette/month, but 55.1% in smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day. The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%, followed by the belief that they are less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%, the desire to quit smoking (13.1%, and the capacity for indoor use (10.7%. Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, the desire to quit smoking and the capacity for indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Conclusions: Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and the frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and

  8. The Relation between Frequency of E-Cigarette Use and Frequency and Intensity of Cigarette Smoking among South Korean Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Ah; Lee, Sungkyu; Cho, Hong-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The prevalence of adolescent electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use has increased in most countries. This study aims to determine the relation between the frequency of e-cigarette use and the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking. Additionally, the study evaluates the association between the reasons for e-cigarette use and the frequency of its use. Materials and Methods: Using the 2015 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-Based Survey, we included 6655 adolescents with an experience of e-cigarette use who were middle and high school students aged 13–18 years. We compared smoking experience, the frequency and intensity of cigarette smoking, and the relation between the reasons for e-cigarette uses and the frequency of e-cigarette use. Results: The prevalence of e-cigarette ever and current (past 30 days) users were 10.1% and 3.9%, respectively. Of the ever users, approximately 60% used e-cigarettes not within 1 month. On the other hand, 8.1% used e-cigarettes daily. The frequent and intensive cigarette smoking was associated with frequent e-cigarette uses. The percentage of frequent e-cigarette users (≥10 days/month) was 3.5% in adolescents who did not smoke within a month, but 28.7% among daily smokers. Additionally, it was 9.1% in smokers who smoked less than 1 cigarette/month, but 55.1% in smokers who smoked ≥20 cigarettes/day. The most common reason for e-cigarette use was curiosity (22.9%), followed by the belief that they are less harmful than conventional cigarettes (18.9%), the desire to quit smoking (13.1%), and the capacity for indoor use (10.7%). Curiosity was the most common reason among less frequent e-cigarette users; however, the desire to quit smoking and the capacity for indoor use were the most common reasons among more frequent users. Conclusions: Results showed a positive relation between frequency or intensity of conventional cigarette smoking and the frequency of e-cigarette use among Korean adolescents, and frequency of e-cigarette

  9. Psychiatric comorbidity in adolescent electronic and conventional cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Adam M; Strong, David R; Sussman, Steve; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Unger, Jennifer B; Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

    2016-02-01

    The popularity of electronic (e-) cigarettes has greatly increased recently, particularly in adolescents. However, the extent of psychiatric comorbidity with adolescent e-cigarette use and dual use of conventional (combustible) and e-cigarettes is unknown. This study characterized psychiatric comorbidity in adolescent conventional and e-cigarette use. Ninth grade students attending high schools in Los Angeles, CA (M age = 14) completed self-report measures of conventional/e-cigarette use, emotional disorders, substance use/problems, and transdiagnostic psychiatric phenotypes consistent with the NIMH-Research Domain Criteria Initiative. Outcomes were compared by lifetime use of: (1) neither conventional nor e-cigarettes (non-use; N = 2557, 77.3%); (2) e-cigarettes only (N = 412, 12.4%); (3) conventional cigarettes only (N = 152, 4.6%); and (4) conventional and e-cigarettes (dual use; N = 189, 5.6%). In comparison to adolescents who used conventional cigarettes only, e-cigarette only users reported lower levels of internalizing syndromes (depression, generalized anxiety, panic, social phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder) and transdiagnostic phenotypes (i.e., distress intolerance, anxiety sensitivity, rash action during negative affect). Depression, panic disorder, and anhedonia were higher in e-cigarette only vs. non-users. For several externalizing outcomes (mania, rash action during positive affect, alcohol drug use/abuse) and anhedonia, an ordered pattern was observed, whereby comorbidity was lowest in non-users, moderate in single product users (conventional or e-cigarette), and highest in dual users. These findings: (1) raise question of whether emotionally-healthier ('lower-risk') adolescents who are not interested in conventional cigarettes are being attracted to e-cigarettes; (2) indicate that research, intervention, and policy dedicated to adolescent tobacco-psychiatric comorbidity should distinguish conventional cigarette, e-cigarette, and dual use.

  10. [Electronic cigarettes - effects on health. Previous reports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napierała, Marta; Kulza, Maksymilian; Wachowiak, Anna; Jabłecka, Katarzyna; Florek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    Currently very popular in the market of tobacco products have gained electronic cigarettes (ang. E-cigarettes). These products are considered to be potentially less harmful in compared to traditional tobacco products. However, current reports indicate that the statements of the producers regarding to the composition of the e- liquids not always are sufficient, and consumers often do not have reliable information on the quality of the product used by them. This paper contain a review of previous reports on the composition of e-cigarettes and their impact on health. Most of the observed health effects was related to symptoms of the respiratory tract, mouth, throat, neurological complications and sensory organs. Particularly hazardous effects of the e-cigarettes were: pneumonia, congestive heart failure, confusion, convulsions, hypotension, aspiration pneumonia, face second-degree burns, blindness, chest pain and rapid heartbeat. In the literature there is no information relating to passive exposure by the aerosols released during e-cigarette smoking. Furthermore, the information regarding to the use of these products in the long term are not also available.

  11. Mapping Cigarettes Similarities using Cluster Analysis Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorentz Jäntschi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to investigate the relationship and/or occurrences in and between chemical composition information (tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, market information (brand, manufacturer, price, and public health information (class, health warning as well as clustering of a sample of cigarette data. A number of thirty cigarette brands have been analyzed. Six categorical (cigarette brand, manufacturer, health warnings, class and four continuous (tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide concentrations and package price variables were collected for investigation of chemical composition, market information and public health information. Multiple linear regression and two clusterization techniques have been applied. The study revealed interesting remarks. The carbon monoxide concentration proved to be linked with tar and nicotine concentration. The applied clusterization methods identified groups of cigarette brands that shown similar characteristics. The tar and carbon monoxide concentrations were the main criteria used in clusterization. An analysis of a largest sample could reveal more relevant and useful information regarding the similarities between cigarette brands.

  12. Electronic Cigarette and Traditional Cigarette Use among Middle and High School Students in Florida, 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Lauren; Duke, Jennifer; Hennon, Meredith; Dekevich, David; Crankshaw, Erik; Homsi, Ghada; Farrelly, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Recent youth trends in the prevalence of e-cigarette and traditional cigarette use in Florida were examined in a cross-sectional, representative state sample from 2011 to 2014. Traditional cigarette use among youth declined during the study period. Experimentation with and past 30-day use of e-cigarettes among Florida youth tripled over 4 years. Past 30-day e-cigarette use exceeded traditional cigarette use in 2014; 10.8% of high school and 4.0% of middle school students reported recent e-cigarette use, compared with 8.7% of high school and 2.9% of middle school students for traditional cigarettes (P4, 20.5% of high school and 8.5% of middle school students reported ever use of e-cigarettes. Among ever e-cigarette users in 2014, 30.3% of high school and 42.2% of middle school students had never smoked traditional cigarettes. Given the concern that significant rates of e-cigarette use by U.S. adolescents may have a negative effect on public health, further review of e-cigarette advertising, marketing, sales, and use among U.S. youth is warranted.

  13. Electronic Cigarette and Traditional Cigarette Use among Middle and High School Students in Florida, 2011-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Porter

    Full Text Available Recent youth trends in the prevalence of e-cigarette and traditional cigarette use in Florida were examined in a cross-sectional, representative state sample from 2011 to 2014. Traditional cigarette use among youth declined during the study period. Experimentation with and past 30-day use of e-cigarettes among Florida youth tripled over 4 years. Past 30-day e-cigarette use exceeded traditional cigarette use in 2014; 10.8% of high school and 4.0% of middle school students reported recent e-cigarette use, compared with 8.7% of high school and 2.9% of middle school students for traditional cigarettes (P<0.001. By 2014, 20.5% of high school and 8.5% of middle school students reported ever use of e-cigarettes. Among ever e-cigarette users in 2014, 30.3% of high school and 42.2% of middle school students had never smoked traditional cigarettes. Given the concern that significant rates of e-cigarette use by U.S. adolescents may have a negative effect on public health, further review of e-cigarette advertising, marketing, sales, and use among U.S. youth is warranted.

  14. Exposure Calls to U. S. Poison Centers Involving Electronic Cigarettes and Conventional Cigarettes-September 2010-December 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatham-Stephens, Kevin; Law, Royal; Taylor, Ethel; Kieszak, Stephanie; Melstrom, Paul; Bunnell, Rebecca; Wang, Baoguang; Day, Hannah; Apelberg, Benjamin; Cantrell, Lee; Foster, Howell; Schier, Joshua G

    2016-12-01

    E-cigarette use is increasing, and the long-term impact on public health is unclear. We described the acute adverse health effects from e-cigarette exposures reported to U.S. poison centers. We compared monthly counts and demographic, exposure, and health effects data of calls about e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes made to poison centers from September 2010 through December 2014. Monthly e-cigarette calls increased from 1 in September 2010, peaked at 401 in April 2014, and declined to 295 in December 2014. Monthly conventional cigarette calls during the same period ranged from 302 to 514. E-cigarette calls were more likely than conventional cigarette calls to report adverse health effects, including vomiting, eye irritation, and nausea. Five e-cigarette calls reported major health effects, such as respiratory failure, and there were two deaths associated with e-cigarette calls. E-cigarette calls to U.S. poison centers increased over the study period, and were more likely than conventional cigarettes to report adverse health effects. It is important for health care providers and the public to be aware of potential acute health effects from e-cigarettes. Developing strategies to monitor and prevent poisonings from these novel devices is critical.

  15. E-Cigarettes Not Good to Gums, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162118.html E-Cigarettes Not Good to Gums, Study Finds Nicotine, ... in New York exposed nonsmokers' gum tissue to e-cigarette vapors. Their findings appear to counter arguments ...

  16. Lung injury after cigarette smoking is particle-related

    Science.gov (United States)

    That specific component responsible and the mechanistic pathway for increased human morbidity and mortality after cigarette smoking have yet to be delineated. We propose that 1) injury and disease following cigarette smoking are associated with exposure and retention of particles...

  17. Lung injury after cigarette smoking is particle-related

    Science.gov (United States)

    That specific component responsible and the mechanistic pathway for increased human morbidity and mortality after cigarette smoking have yet to be delineated. We propose that 1) injury and disease following cigarette smoking are associated with exposure and retention of particles...

  18. Progressions of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, S C; Duncan, T E; Hops, H

    1998-08-01

    This study examined the progressive relations among adolescent use of alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana using latent growth curve analyses. Specifically, the present study examined three models to determine (1) the effect of prior cigarette use on alcohol use and development and the relationship between change in cigarette use and the development of alcohol use (N = 115), (2) the effect of prior alcohol use on cigarette use and development and the relationship between change in alcohol use and the development of cigarette use (N = 199); and (3) the effect of prior alcohol and cigarette use on marijuana use and development, and the relationship between change in alcohol use and cigarette use and the development, of marijuana use (N = 287). Support was found for the relation between prior levels of substance use and involvement in other substances. Cigarette use, in particular, was particularly important in the subsequent involvement of alcohol and marijuana.

  19. FDA to Weigh Dangers of Exploding E-Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162849.html FDA to Weigh Dangers of Exploding E-Cigarettes Agency ... The Associated Press reported last month that the FDA had identified 66 instances of e-cigarette explosions ...

  20. E-Cigarettes Not a Smoking Deterrent for Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163191.html E-Cigarettes Not a Smoking Deterrent for Kids Study ... 23, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- There's no evidence that e-cigarettes are driving down teen smoking -- and, in ...

  1. Toxic Metals Found in E-Cigarette Liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_163492.html Toxic Metals Found in E-Cigarette Liquid Their presence in 5 brands studied is ... the metals end up in the aerosol that e-cigarette users inhale," said study leader Ana Maria Rule, ...

  2. The Implications of Sidestream Cigarette Smoke for Cardiovascular Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurshman, Larry G.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Non-smokers exposed to emissions from a burning cigarette in ambient air demonstrate measureable physiological responses. The study showed that work capacity was reduced as a result of exposure to their sidestream cigarette smoke. (RE)

  3. Advances in research of the effects of menthol on TRP channels%薄荷醇影响TRP通道的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄钊; 王晖

    2011-01-01

    In recent years it has been discovered that there is a close connection between menthol and the transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, including TRPV1, TRPV3, TRPM8 and TRPA1. This review attempts to summarize the advances in research of the effects of menthol on the TRP channels regulating the intracellular calcium ion.%近年来,国内外学者在薄荷醇影响钙离子通道的研究中发现,其与瞬时感受器电位(TRP)通道有着密切的关系,其中包括TRPV1、TRPV3、TRPM8和TRPA1.本文对近年来薄荷醇参与细胞内Ca2+调节的TRP通道的相关研究进行综述.

  4. Assessment of the in vivo genotoxicity of cadmium chloride, chloroform, and D,L-menthol as coded test chemicals using the alkaline comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kunio; Fukuyama, Tomoki; Nakashima, Nobuaki; Matsumoto, Kyomu

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM) international validation study of in vivo rat alkaline comet assays, we examined cadmium chloride, chloroform, and D,L-menthol under blind conditions as coded chemicals in the liver and stomach of Sprague-Dawley rats after 3 days of administration. Cadmium chloride showed equivocal responses in the liver and stomach, supporting previous reports of its poor mutagenic potential and non-carcinogenic effects in these organs. Treatment with chloroform, which is a non-genotoxic carcinogen, did not induce DNA damage in the liver or stomach. Some histopathological changes, such as necrosis and degeneration, were observed in the liver; however, they did not affect the comet assay results. D,L-Menthol, a non-genotoxic non-carcinogen, did not induce liver or stomach DNA damage. These results indicate that the comet assay can reflect genotoxic properties under blind conditions.

  5. Characterisation of the Draw Resistance Across a Lit Cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colard S

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The consumer senses and reacts to the draw resistance of the cigarette after it is lit. In spite of this obvious fact, this physical parameter is usually measured under standard conditions on the unlit cigarette (1. In order to evaluate more accurately the smokers’ perception during the course of cigarette smoking, the theoretical aspects of the draw resistance measurement of a lit cigarette have been studied and an experimental device has been developed.

  6. Menthol in Qianlipipalu by GC%GC色谱法测定强力枇杷露中薄荷脑的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪剑飞

    2012-01-01

      目的:建立GC法测定强力枇杷露中薄荷脑的含量测定方法.方法:采用Rtx-WAX毛细管柱(长30m、直径0.25mm、膜厚0.25μm),载气为氮气,FID检测器,柱温为恒温140℃,内标法测定薄荷脑含量.结果:薄荷脑在0.09996~0.99960mg·mL-1范围内浓度与峰面积呈良好的线性关系(r=0.9991,n=6),平均加样回收率为96.90%,RSD为1.22%(n=6).结论:本方法快速、灵敏、结果准确,适用于强力枇杷露中薄荷脑的含量测定.%  Objective:To establish a GC method for the Determination of Menthol in Qianlipipalu. Methods:The Rtx–WAX capillary column (30m×0.25mm,0.25μm) was used with FID,nitrogen as the carrier gas,column temperature at 140℃,the internal standard method was used to determine the content of menthol.Results: The menthol sample showed a good linear relationship at the range of 0.09996~0.99960mg·mL-1(r=0.9991,n=6).The average recovery rate was 96.90%and RSD was 1.22%. Conclusions:This method is simple and accurate and able to determination of Menthol in Qianlipipalu.

  7. Mucoadhesive fenretinide patches for site-specific chemoprevention of oral cancer: enhancement of oral mucosal permeation of fenretinide by coincorporation of propylene glycol and menthol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao; Desai, Kashappa-Goud H; Mallery, Susan R; Holpuch, Andrew S; Phelps, Maynard P; Schwendeman, Steven P

    2012-04-02

    The objective of this study was to enhance oral mucosal permeation of fenretinide by coincorporation of propylene glycol (PG) and menthol in fenretinide/Eudragit RL PO mucoadhesive patches. Fenretinide is an extremely hydrophobic chemopreventive compound with poor tissue permeability. Coincorporation of 5-10 wt % PG (mean J(s) = 16-23 μg cm⁻² h⁻¹; 158-171 μg of fenretinide/g of tissue) or 1-10 wt % PG + 5 wt % menthol (mean J(s) = 18-40 μg cm⁻² h⁻¹; 172-241 μg of fenretinide/g of tissue) in fenretinide/Eudragit RL PO patches led to significant ex vivo fenretinide permeation enhancement (p < 0.001). Addition of PG above 2.5 wt % in the patch resulted in significant cellular swelling in the buccal mucosal tissues. These alterations were ameliorated by combining both enhancers and reducing PG level. After buccal administration of patches in rabbits, in vivo permeation of fenretinide across the oral mucosa was greater (∼43 μg fenretinide/g tissue) from patches that contained optimized permeation enhancer content (2.5 wt % PG + 5 wt % menthol) relative to permeation obtained from enhancer-free patch (∼17 μg fenretinide/g tissue) (p < 0.001). In vitro and in vivo release of fenretinide from patch was not significantly increased by coincorporation of permeation enhancers, indicating that mass transfer across the tissue, and not the patch, largely determined the permeation rate control in vivo. As a result of its improved permeation and its lack of deleterious local effects, the mucoadhesive fenretinide patch coincorporated with 2.5 wt % PG + 5 wt % menthol represents an important step in the further preclinical evaluation of oral site-specific chemoprevention strategies with fenretinide.

  8. Properties of gastroretentive sustained release tablets prepared by combination of melt/sublimation actions of L-menthol and penetration of molten polymers into tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Mamoru; Goto, Akinori

    2011-01-01

    A novel floating sustained release tablet having a cavity in the center was developed by utilizing the physicochemical properties of L-menthol and the penetration of molten hydrophobic polymer into tablets. A dry-coated tablet containing famotidine as a model drug in outer layer was prepared with a L-menthol core by direct compression. The tablet was placed in an oven at 80°C to remove the L-menthol core from tablet. The resulting tablet was then immersed in the molten hydrophobic polymers at 90°C. The buoyancy and drug release properties of tablets were investigated using United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 32 Apparatus 2 (paddle 100 rpm) and 900 ml of 0.01 N HCl. The L-menthol core in tablets disappeared completely through pathways in the outer layer with no drug outflows when placed in an oven for 90 min, resulting in a formation of a hollow tablet. The hollow tablets floated on the dissolution media for a short time and the drug release was rapid due to the disintegration of tablet. When the hollow tablets were immersed in molten hydrophobic polymers for 1 min, the rapid drug release was drastically retarded due to a formation of wax matrices within the shell of tablets and the tablets floated on the media for at least 6 h. When Lubri wax® was used as a polymer, the tablets showed the slowest sustained release. On the other hand, faster sustained release properties were obtained by using glyceryl monostearate (GMS) due to its low hydrophobic nature. The results obtained in this study suggested that the drug release rate from floating tablets could be controlled by both the choice of hydrophobic polymer and the combined use of hydrophobic polymers.

  9. Another Risk From Cigarette Smoking: Corneal Burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Hürmeriç

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A 21-year-old male presented with corneal injury in his left eye after one of his friends had moved his arm backwards and accidentally hit his eye with the lit end of a cigarette. Slit lamp examination revealed epithelial defect and significant stromal edema at the superior temporal quadrant of the cornea. Cigarette ashes were noted in his lashes and inferior conjunctival fornix at the initial examination in the emergency service. 6 weeks after the injury, slit lamp examination revealed stromal thinning and haze in the temporal part of the cornea. His best spectacle-corrected distance visual acuity was 20/25 with a refractive error of -6.75x135 diopters in the left eye. Our case demonstrates that ocular thermal injury due to cigarette smoking can cause serious damage to the ocular tissues. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2012; 42: 484-5

  10. Women, smoking, cigarette advertising and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernster, V L

    1986-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major cause of cancer in women, accounting for about one-fourth of their estimated 219,000 cancer deaths per year. Cigarette smoking specifically increases a woman's risk of developing cancer of the lung, larynx, esophagus, oral cavity, pancreas, kidney, bladder, and possibly uterine cervix. During the past twenty years, concerted efforts have been made by the tobacco industry to increase sales to women. Strategies have included development of "feminine" brands such as Virginia Slims, slick media campaigns portraying smoking as elegant and glamorous, and sponsorship of fashion, women's sports events, and even medical programs. Reversal of these alarming trends requires that women as well as men recognize the role of cigarette smoking in cancer causation, and support programs which promote non-smoking as well as combat the influence of the tobacco industry on women's smoking behavior.

  11. Are increases in cigarette taxation regressive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borren, P; Sutton, M

    1992-12-01

    Using the latest published data from Tobacco Advisory Council surveys, this paper re-evaluates the question of whether or not increases in cigarette taxation are regressive in the United Kingdom. The extended data set shows no evidence of increasing price-elasticity by social class as found in a major previous study. To the contrary, there appears to be no clear pattern in the price responsiveness of smoking behaviour across different social classes. Increases in cigarette taxation, while reducing smoking levels in all groups, fall most heavily on men and women in the lowest social class. Men and women in social class five can expect to pay eight and eleven times more of a tax increase respectively, than their social class one counterparts. Taken as a proportion of relative incomes, the regressive nature of increases in cigarette taxation is even more pronounced.

  12. Effects of cigarette smoking on erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovac, J R; Labbate, C; Ramasamy, R; Tang, D; Lipshultz, L I

    2015-12-01

    Cigarette smoking is a leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States. Although public policies have resulted in a decreased number of new smokers, smoking rates remain stubbornly high in certain demographics with 20% of all American middle-aged men smoking. In addition to the well-established harmful effects of smoking (i.e. coronary artery disease and lung cancer), the past three decades have led to a compendium of evidence being compiled into the development of a relationship between cigarette smoking and erectile dysfunction. The main physiologic mechanism that appears to be affected includes the nitric oxide signal transduction pathway. This review details the recent literature linking cigarette smoking to erectile dysfunction, epidemiological associations, dose dependency and the effects of smoking cessation on improving erectile quality.

  13. A propulsion injury following a spontaneous electronic cigarette explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherrie Chan Yiru

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes have become increasingly popular at an alarming rate. This coincides with the public perception that they are a safer mean of nicotine consumption. Unregulated devices carry unrecognized safety risks that have led to numerous cases of burns, associating with spontaneous combustions of e-cigarettes.

  14. 76 FR 57008 - Smoking of Electronic Cigarettes on Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-15

    ... Office of the Secretary 14 CFR Part 252 RIN 2105-AE06 Smoking of Electronic Cigarettes on Aircraft AGENCY... service on other charter flights where smoking is not banned. Electronic cigarettes were introduced into... cigarettes the issue has been raised as to whether the statutory ban on smoking in section 41706 and existing...

  15. Food and Drug Administration Evaluation and Cigarette Smoking Risk Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Annette R.; Waters, Erika A.; Parascandola, Mark; Augustson, Erik M.; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K. Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between a belief about Food and Drug Administration (FDA) safety evaluation of cigarettes and smoking risk perceptions. Methods: A nationally representative, random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 1046 adult current cigarette smokers. Results: Smokers reporting that the FDA does not evaluate cigarettes for…

  16. E-Cigarettes and Young People: A Public Health Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit Button Past Emails E-Cigarettes and Young People: A Public Health Concern Language: English Español (Spanish) ... justify efforts to prevent e-cigarette use by young people. We know that the vapor from e-cigarettes ...

  17. Electronic Cigarette Retail Outlets and Proximity to Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Ellen J; Begley, Kathy; Gokun, Yevgeniya; Johnson, Andrew O; Mundy, Monica E; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2015-01-01

    To compare the retail distribution and density per population of electronic and conventional cigarettes in smoke-free communities with and without e-cigarette restrictions. A cross-sectional study with field observations of retail tobacco stores. Two Central Kentucky counties with 100% smoke-free workplace regulations; counties selected on the basis of whether e-cigarette use was restricted. Fifty-seven tobacco retailers in two counties, including conventional retailers and stand-alone e-cigarette stores. Type and location of store and products sold; addresses of stores and schools geocoded with ArcGIS. Bivariate comparisons between counties, rates and confidence intervals for frequency of tobacco retailers and e-cigarette stores per population. Fifty-three percent of tobacco retailers sold e-cigarettes. E-cigarette availability did not differ by whether smoke-free regulation covered e-cigarettes. Rates of tobacco retailers and e-cigarette distributors per 10,000 were 8.29 and 4.40, respectively, in the two-county area. Of the 40 schools, 88% had a tobacco retailer and 68% had an e-cigarette distributor within 1 mile. In this exploratory study, e-cigarette use restriction was not related to store availability. For a relatively new product, e-cigarettes were readily available in retail outlets and close to schools.

  18. 合成L-薄荷醇产业化的研究进展%The Research Development for the Industrialization of L-menthol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    念保义; 林明穗; 黄志华; 罗菊香; 牛玉

    2012-01-01

    分析了已产业化的薄荷醇的H&R工艺和Takasago工艺的特点.并结合两个工艺的相关潜在工业化的操作单元如原料制备、脂肪酶拆分、其他薄荷醇对映体的回收利用以及合并中间环节的一釜合成等方面的研究进展进行综述。同时,展望了L-薄荷醇产业化未来的发展方向。%The characteristic of H & R process and Takasago process of L-menthols, which is industrialized, are presented in this paper. The research development of the potential industrialization of unit operation, such as material preparation, lipase resolution, other racemic menthols reuse and one-pot synthesis to prepare desired product, are reviewed. In addition, a vista of the future investigations is opened up for the industrialization of L-menthols.

  19. Puerarin transport across a Calu-3 cell monolayer – an in vitro model of nasal mucosa permeability and the influence of paeoniflorin and menthol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang L

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Lin Zhang, Shou-Ying Du, Yang Lu, Chang Liu, Zhi-Hao Tian, Chang Yang, Hui-Chao Wu, Zhen Wang School of Chinese Materia Medica, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Chaoyang District, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Nasal administration is a high-potential delivery system, particularly because it can provide a pathway from the nose to the brain. The objective of this research is to characterize puerarin transport across a Calu-3 cell monolayer used as a model of the nasal mucosa and to evaluate the influence of puerarin in combination with paeoniflorin and menthol to explore the enhanced mechanism of the permeability at the cell level. The apparent permeability coefficients (Papp of puerarin bidirectional transport were both <1.5×10-6 cm/s, and the efflux ratio was <1.5, indicating that puerarin alone exhibited poor absorption and that its transport primarily occurred by passive diffusion through the cell monolayer. When puerarin was coad­ministered with paeoniflorin, the Papp was not changed (P>0.05. However, the addition of menthol significantly (P<0.05 improved the Papp of puerarin in both directions. Moreover, based on immunofluorescence experiments and transepithelial electrical resistance measurements, the data indicated that the drug compatibility opened tight junctions and weakened the barrier capabilities of epithelial cells, thereby promoting the permeability of puerarin. Keywords: puerarin, paeoniflorin, menthol, nasal administration, transport, tight junction

  20. Effects of experimental income on demand for potentially real cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Wilson, Arlington George; Bickel, Warren K

    2015-03-01

    Cigarette demand, or the change in cigarette consumption as a function of price, is a measure of reinforcement that is associated with level of tobacco dependence and other clinically relevant measures, but the effects of experimentally controlled income on real-world cigarette consumption have not been examined. In this study, income available for cigarette purchases was manipulated to assess the effect on cigarette demand. Tobacco-dependent cigarette smokers (n = 15) who smoked 10-40 cigarettes per day completed a series of cigarette purchasing tasks under a variety of income conditions meant to mimic different weekly cigarette budgets: $280, approximately $127, $70, or approximately $32 per week. Prices of $0.12, $0.25, $0.50, and $1.00 per cigarette were assessed in each income condition. Participants were instructed to purchase as many cigarettes as they would like for the next week and to only consume cigarettes purchased in the context of the study. One price in 1 income condition was randomly chosen to be "real," and the cigarettes and the excess money in the budget for that condition were given to the participant. Results indicate that demand elasticity was negatively correlated with income. Demand intensity (consumption at low prices) was unrelated to income condition and remained high across incomes. These results indicate that the amount of income that is available for cigarette purchases has a large effect on cigarette consumption, but only at high prices. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The electronic cigarette: potential health benefit or mere business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Cinzia; Invernizzi, Giovanni; Bosi, Sandra; Pozzi, Paolo; Di Paco, Adriano; Mazza, Roberto; Ruprecht, Ario Alberto; Munarini, Elena; Boffi, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have attracted considerable attention as a possible alternative to tobacco cigarettes, but uncertainties about their impact on health and indoor air quality as well as their commercial success without a clear regulatory framework are arousing concern. We have therefore tried to summarize the health-related implications of the use of e-cigarettes in order to help physicians and health professionals provide accurate information on this device. Given the lack of unequivocal scientific data on their toxicity and safety, we conclude that at the moment there is no reason to approve e-cigarettes as a safe alternative to tobacco smoke.

  2. Electronic cigarettes: a safer alternative or potential poison?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Janet E

    2014-10-01

    Electronic cigarettes have been marketed as a safer alternative to cigarettes, and their use is expanding exponentially. However, there is a severe lack of scientific data about the ingredients in the liquid used in the device and the health consequences of using electronic cigarettes. As technology has outpaced regulations, the production and sale of electronic cigarettes are, as yet, unregulated and do not fall under the purview of the Food and Drug Administration. This article will review the mechanism of action and what is currently known about the safety of electronic cigarettes. The risk of poisoning for children will also be identified, as well as the implications for home healthcare clinicians.

  3. 气相色谱法测定薄荷醇微胶囊的包裹率%Menthol Encapsulation Efficiency Determined by Gas Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝洪桥; 洪玮; 花丹; 庄吴勇; 吴正举; 李军

    2011-01-01

    Gas chromatography was proposed to measure the content of surface menthol and total menthol for microcapsules prepared by supercritical fluid technology, and then the encapsulation efficiency could be determined. Results showed that the concentration of menthol in either ethanol or ether in the range of 0. 025~0. 800 mg/mL had a good linear relation with the chromatogram results (peak areas) , the correlation coefficient was close to 1. When using ethanol as the solvent, the average recovery of the method was 100. 03 % , while RSD in the determination of the surface menthol was 0. 35 %. When using ether as the solvent, the average recovery was 102. 23% , and RSD in the determination of total menthol content was 1. 31%. The encapsulation efficiency for the tested microcapsule sample determined was 69. 23%. The method showed high precision, good reproducibility and simple operation.%用超临界流体微粒化技术制备薄荷醇的微胶囊,气相色谱法分别测定微胶囊表面薄荷醇和总薄荷醇的含量,并以此计算包裹率.结果表明,用乙醇和乙醚为溶剂,薄荷醇在0.025~0.800 mg/mL浓度范围内与色谱积分面积有很好的线性关系,相关系数均接近1;所用壁材三棕榈酸甘油酯对结果没有影响.用乙醇为溶剂,薄荷醇平均回收率为100.03%;样品表面薄荷醇含量测定的相对标准偏差(RSD)为0.35%.用乙醚为溶剂,薄荷醇平均回收率为102.23%,样品总薄荷醇含量测定的RSD为1.31%.用气相色谱法测得微胶囊的薄荷醇包裹率为69.23%,该方法精度高,重复性好,且操作简单.

  4. GC法测定市售川贝枇杷糖浆中薄荷脑含量%Determination of Menthol in Chuanbei Pipa Syrup by GC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄咏梅; 李红; 苏玉枝

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test the content of menthol in Chuanbei Pipa Syrup(CPS)by GC, and to evaluate its quality. Meth-ods The content of menthol in CPS was determined by capillary gas chromatography. DB-WAX capillary column (30 m ×0. 319 mm × 0. 50μm) was used with nitrogen as carrier gas. The precolumn pressure was 500 kPa and the column temperature was at 110 ℃ with split ratio of 25 : 1. The temperature was set at 250℃ for sample injection and for the detector. Results The content of menthol in CPS produced by Henan Pharmaceutical Co. , Ltd. , Zhengzhou Pharmaceutical Co. , Ltd. and Yunan Pharmaceutical Co. , Ltd. was 0. 154 mg/mL, 0. 203 mg/mL and 0. 109 mg/mL, respectively. Of them, the men-thol content in CPS produced by Zhengzhou Pharmaceutical Co. , Ltd. met the requirements of Pharmacopoeia(2005 edition), and that of the other two species was slightly lower. Conclusion The methods are convenient, reliable and accurate for the de-termination of menthol content in Chuanbei Pipa Syrup.%目的 建立川贝枇杷糖浆中薄荷脑含量测定方法.方法 采用毛细管气相色谱法(GC).色谱条件:DB-WAX毛细管柱(30 m ×0.319 mm ×0.50μm);载气:氮气;柱前压为500 kPa;柱温110℃,分流比为25:1;进样口温度为250℃;检测器温度为250℃.结果 三种市售川贝枇杷糖浆样品中的薄荷脑含量分别为0.154 mg/mL、0.203 mg/mL、0.109 mg/mL,其中郑州某药业股份有限公司产品符合2005版药典的规定,其余两个品种的含量均稍偏低.结论 所建立的方法简便,可行,重现性好,可用于市售川贝枇杷糖浆中薄荷脑含量的测定.

  5. Cigarettes Butts and the Case for an Environmental Policy on Hazardous Cigarette Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Barnes

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Discarded cigarette butts are a form of non-biodegradable litter. Carried as runoff from streets to drains, to rivers, and ultimately to the ocean and its beaches, cigarette filters are the single most collected item in international beach cleanups each year. They are an environmental blight on streets, sidewalks, and other open areas. Rather than being a protective health device, cigarette filters are primarily a marketing tool to help sell ‘safe’ cigarettes. They are perceived by much of the public (especially current smokers to reduce the health risks of smoking through technology. Filters have reduced the machine-measured yield of tar and nicotine from burning cigarettes, but there is controversy as to whether this has correspondingly reduced the disease burden of smoking to the population. Filters actually may serve to sustain smoking by making it seem less urgent for smokers to quit and easier for children to initiate smoking because of reduced irritation from early experimentation. Several options are available to reduce the environmental impact of cigarette butt waste, including developing biodegradable filters, increasing fines and penalties for littering butts, monetary deposits on filters, increasing availability of butt receptacles, and expanded public education. It may even be possible to ban the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether on the basis of their adverse environmental impact. This option may be attractive in coastal regions where beaches accumulate butt waste and where smoking indoors is increasingly prohibited. Additional research is needed on the various policy options, including behavioral research on the impact of banning the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether.

  6. Beliefs About the Direct Comparison of E-Cigarettes and Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Alexandra R; Karyadi, Kenny A; VanderVeen, J Davis; Cyders, Melissa A

    2017-07-03

    Recent data suggests that positive beliefs about electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) use can lead to later e-cig use. Considering that many advertisements claim that e-cigs are superior to cigarettes, individuals' likelihood to view e-cigs more favorably than cigarettes can also influence subsequent e-cig use; however, no studies have directly assessed such a comparison. The present study created and validated the Comparing E-Cigarettes and Cigarettes questionnaire (CEAC), which asks individuals to directly compare e-cigs and cigarettes on a number of dimensions, in two independent samples. In sample 1 (451 undergraduates; mean age = 20.35, SD = 5.44, 72.4% female, 73.4% Caucasian) we explored the factor structure of the CEAC and in sample 2 (699 community adults collected via Amazon's Mechanical Turk; mean age = 34.04, SD = 10.9, 47.7% female, 83.3% Caucasian) we replicated the factor structure. Exploratory factor analysis suggested a three-factor structure: General Benefits (α = 0.80), General Effects (α = 0.86), and Health Benefits (α = 0.88), which was replicated via confirmatory factor analysis, χ(2) = 4.36; RMSEA = 0.07, 90% CI = 0.06-0.08; TLI = 0.99; CFI = 0.99, and was relatively invariant across product use and gender. Individuals reported viewing e-cigs as safer and more beneficial than cigarettes and these beliefs were higher in e-cig users. Future work should establish how these comparative beliefs are influenced by e-cig use and/or influence subsequent transition to and increases in e-cig use. Although e-cigs are likely less harmful than cigarettes, and thus these comparative beliefs represent that state of nature, e-cigs are not completely without risk.

  7. Cigarettes butts and the case for an environmental policy on hazardous cigarette waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Thomas E; Lum, Kristen; Smith, Elizabeth; Wang, Vivian; Barnes, Richard

    2009-05-01

    Discarded cigarette butts are a form of non-biodegradable litter. Carried as runoff from streets to drains, to rivers, and ultimately to the ocean and its beaches, cigarette filters are the single most collected item in international beach cleanups each year. They are an environmental blight on streets, sidewalks, and other open areas. Rather than being a protective health device, cigarette filters are primarily a marketing tool to help sell 'safe' cigarettes. They are perceived by much of the public (especially current smokers) to reduce the health risks of smoking through technology. Filters have reduced the machine-measured yield of tar and nicotine from burning cigarettes, but there is controversy as to whether this has correspondingly reduced the disease burden of smoking to the population. Filters actually may serve to sustain smoking by making it seem less urgent for smokers to quit and easier for children to initiate smoking because of reduced irritation from early experimentation. Several options are available to reduce the environmental impact of cigarette butt waste, including developing biodegradable filters, increasing fines and penalties for littering butts, monetary deposits on filters, increasing availability of butt receptacles, and expanded public education. It may even be possible to ban the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether on the basis of their adverse environmental impact. This option may be attractive in coastal regions where beaches accumulate butt waste and where smoking indoors is increasingly prohibited. Additional research is needed on the various policy options, including behavioral research on the impact of banning the sale of filtered cigarettes altogether.

  8. Reasons for Starting and Stopping Electronic Cigarette Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica K. Pepper

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to explore reasons for starting and then stopping electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use. Among a national sample of 3878 U.S. adults who reported ever trying e-cigarettes, the most common reasons for trying were curiosity (53%; because a friend or family member used, gave, or offered e-cigarettes (34%; and quitting or reducing smoking (30%. Nearly two-thirds (65% of people who started using e-cigarettes later stopped using them. Discontinuation was more common among those whose main reason for trying was not goal-oriented (e.g., curiosity than goal-oriented (e.g., quitting smoking (81% vs. 45%, p < 0.001. The most common reasons for stopping e-cigarette use were that respondents were just experimenting (49%, using e-cigarettes did not feel like smoking cigarettes (15%, and users did not like the taste (14%. Our results suggest there are two categories of e-cigarette users: those who try for goal-oriented reasons and typically continue using and those who try for non-goal-oriented reasons and then typically stop using. Research should distinguish e-cigarette experimenters from motivated users whose decisions to discontinue relate to the utility or experience of use. Depending on whether e-cigarettes prove to be effective smoking cessation tools or whether they deter cessation, public health programs may need distinct strategies to reach and influence different types of users.

  9. Cigarette sales in pharmacies in the USA (2005-2009).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidenberg, Andrew B; Behm, Ilan; Rees, Vaughan W; Connolly, Gregory N

    2012-09-01

    Several US jurisdictions have adopted policies prohibiting pharmacies from selling tobacco products. Little is known about how pharmacies contribute to total cigarette sales. Pharmacy and total cigarette sales in the USA were tabulated from AC Nielsen and Euromonitor, respectively, for the years 2005-2009. Linear regression was used to characterise trends over time, with observed trends extrapolated to 2020. Between 2005 and 2009, pharmacy cigarette sales increased 22.72% (p=0.004), while total cigarette sales decreased 17.43% (p=0.015). In 2005, pharmacy cigarette sales represented 3.05% of total cigarette sales, increasing to 4.54% by 2009. Extrapolation of these findings resulted in estimated pharmacy cigarette sales of 14.59% of total US cigarette sales by 2020. Cigarette sales in American pharmacies have risen in recent years, while cigarette sales nationally have declined. If current trends continue, pharmacy cigarette market share will, by 2020, increase to more than four times the 2005 share.

  10. Health Considerations in Regulation and Taxation of Electronic Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainous, Arch G; Tanner, Rebecca J; Mainous, Ryan W; Talbert, Jeffery

    2015-01-01

    The use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) is experiencing unprecedented growth. This can be contrasted to the use of conventional cigarettes which showed a decrease among adults with the current smoker prevalence dropping from 20.9% in 2005 to 17.8% in 2013. There is some data that e-cigarettes are attracting both former smokers and never smokers, and in particular, young people as users. Currently most states do not tax e-cigarettes. Taxation and regulation may have a similar overall goal of decreasing smoking but regulation tends to focus reduced availability of products. In terms of tobacco control, taxation focuses on the demand side of the equation. Taxation is a distinct strategy from regulation and has been shown to decrease new adopters of conventional cigarettes. A variety of potential taxation strategies can be considered by policymakers based on different assumptions about e-cigarettes and their utility, ranging from untaxed to taxation at moderate levels compared to conventional cigarettes to taxation equal to conventional cigarettes. Until more evidence for the benefits of e-cigarettes is presented, it seems prudent to view them as a potentially harmful and addictive product that ought to be regulated and taxed in an equivalent manner to conventional cigarettes.

  11. Cigarette smoking and leukocyte subpopulations in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, D S; Flanders, W D; Barboriak, J J; Malarcher, A M; Gates, L

    1996-07-01

    Because of previously reported associations among the total leukocyte count, cigarette smoking, and risk of cardiovascular disease, we examined the relation of cigarette smoking to various leukocyte subpopulations among 3467 men aged 31 to 45 years. The median total leukocyte count was 36% higher (7840 vs. 5760 cells/mL) among current cigarette smokers than among men who had never smoked, and both stratification and regression analyses were used to examine independent associations with leukocyte subpopulations. At equivalent counts of other subpopulations, CD4+ lymphocytes and neutrophils were the cell types most strongly associated with cigarette smoking; each standard deviation change in counts of these subpopulations increased the odds of current (vs. never) smoking by approximately threefold. Furthermore, whereas 15% of the 238 men with relatively low (men with relatively high counts of both subpopulations were current smokers. Counts of T lymphocytes also tended to be higher among the 32 men with self-reported ischemic heart disease than among other men. These results, along with previous reports of immunologically active T lymphocytes in atherosclerotic plaques, suggest that this subpopulation may be of particular interest in studies examining the relation of leukocytes to cardiovascular disease.

  12. Cigarette smoking and progression in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Marcus; van Harten, Annemarie; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; De Keyser, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of cigarette smoking on progression and disability accumulation in multiple sclerosis ( MS). Methods: Information on past and present smoking of 364 patients with MS was obtained through a structured questionnaire survey. We used Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox

  13. Cigarette smoking and progression in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Marcus; van Harten, Annemarie; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten; De Keyser, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of cigarette smoking on progression and disability accumulation in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Information on past and present smoking of 364 patients with MS was obtained through a structured questionnaire survey. We used Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox r

  14. The Psychology of Cigarette Advertising: Professional Puffery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Gary Alan

    1974-01-01

    Concludes that cigarette advertising both exploits and creates popular culture, and that the popular culture is intimately tied to the cognitive and affective mechanisms of people. Available from: Editor, Journal of Popular Culture, University Hall, Bowling Green University, Bowling Green, Ohio 43403. (RB)

  15. Counseling patients on the use of electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbert, Jon O; Agunwamba, Amenah A; Rutten, Lila J

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have substantially increased in popularity. Clear evidence about the safety of e-cigarettes is lacking, and laboratory experiments and case reports suggest these products may be associated with potential adverse health consequences. The effectiveness of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation is modest and appears to be comparable to the nicotine patch combined with minimal behavioral support. Although a role for e-cigarettes in the treatment of tobacco dependence may emerge in the future, the potential risk of e-cigarettes outweighs their known benefit as a recommended tobacco treatment strategy by clinicians. Patients should be counseled on the known efficacy and potential risks of e-cigarettes.

  16. [Summary of the existing knowledge about electronic cigarettes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cselkó, Zsuzsa; Pénzes, Melinda

    2016-06-19

    The decreasing proportion of smokers due to smoking restrictions have led producers to invent and disseminate electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) worldwide as a new form of nicotine enjoyment. This review summarizes the existing knowledge about e-cigarettes based on publications of PubMed, and on reviews and research data published by national and international scientific institutions. Present knowledge about the composition of e-cigarettes confirms that they are harmful products since their vapor is equally detrimental to the health of users and bystanders. Their benefits in smoking cessation still have not been justified by adequate scientific evidence, however, it has been proven that e-cigarettes uphold nicotine addiction and may increase the risk of starting conventional cigarette use by youth. In order to ensure the results of tobacco control policy and to assist smoking cessation, the same regulations are to be applied to e-cigarettes as to conventional tobacco products.

  17. E-cigarette Marketing and Older Smokers: Road to Renormalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Janine K.; Petersen, Anne Berit; Hunter, Mary; Wang, Julie; Sheon, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe older smokers’ perceptions of risks and use of e-cigarettes, and their responses to marketing and knowledge of, and opinions about, regulation of e-cigarettes. Methods Eight 90-minute focus groups with 8 to 9 participants met in urban and suburban California to discuss topics related to cigarettes and alternative tobacco products. Results Older adults are using e-cigarettes for cessation and as a way to circumvent no-smoking policies; they have false perceptions about the effectiveness and safety of e-cigarettes. They perceive e-cigarette marketing as a way to renormalize smoking. Conclusions To stem the current epidemic of nicotine addiction, the FDA must take immediate action because e-cigarette advertising promotes dual use and may contribute to the renormalization of smoking. PMID:25741681

  18. Concentration dependent effects of tobacco particulates from different types of cigarettes on expression of drug metabolizing proteins, and benzo(a)pyrene metabolism in primary normal human oral epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Peter G; Zhao, Zhong-Lin; Kosinska, Wieslawa; Fleisher, Kenneth E; Gordon, Terry; Guttenplan, Joseph B

    2011-09-01

    The ability of tobacco smoke (TS) to modulate phase I and II enzymes and affect metabolism of tobacco carcinogens is likely an important factor in its carcinogenicity. For the first time several types of TS particulates (TSP) were compared in different primary cultured human oral epithelial cells (NOE) for their abilities to affect metabolism of the tobacco carcinogen, (BaP) to genotoxic products, and expression of drug metabolizing enzymes. TSP from, reference filtered (2RF4), mentholated (MS), reference unfiltered, (IR3), ultra low tar (UL), and cigarettes that primarily heat tobacco (ECL) were tested. Cells pretreated with TSP concentrations of 0.2-10 μg/ml generally showed increased rates of BaP metabolism; those treated with TSP concentrations above 10 μg/ml showed decreased rates. Effects of TSPs were similar when expressed on a weight basis. Weights of TSP/cigarette varied in the order: MS≈IR3>2RF4>ECL>UL. All TSPs induced the phase I proteins, cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) and 1B1 (CYP1B1), phase II proteins, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone 1 (NQO1), and microsomal glutathione S-transferase 1 (MGST1), and additionally, hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 2 (HSD17B2), as assessed by qRT-PCR. The pattern of gene induction at probable physiological levels favored activation over detoxification.

  19. The effect of e-cigarette warning labels on college students' perception of e-cigarettes and intention to use e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsiao-Yun; Lin, Hsien-Chang; Seo, Dong-Chul; Lohrmann, David K

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the effect of two e-cigarette warning labels on college students' perceived advantages and risks of e-cigarette use, as well as students' intentions to use e-cigarettes. The company-produced e-cigarette warning label carries abundant information with small font size while the governmental warning label has only two sentences presented in large font size. The effect of both labels have not yet been examined and verified. Data were collected in October 2015 from college students at a Midwestern university. A pretest-posttest design was employed with 338 students exposed to the warning label proposed by the FDA and 328 students exposed to the label created by e-cigarette companies. Structural equation modeling analysis was implemented to examine the effect of warning labels with the analytical model grounded in the Theory of Planned Behavior. Findings showed that college students' perceived advantages of e-cigarette use were positively related to their intentions to use e-cigarettes, while perceived risks were negatively associated with their intentions. When comparing two labels, the governmental label was found to reduce college students' intentions to use e-cigarettes via increasing perceived risks of e-cigarette use (β=0.10, pcompanies showed no influence on beliefs about or intentions to use e-cigarettes. The warning label proposed by the FDA is more effective than that created by e-cigarette companies, however, has room for improvement to make a greater impact on e-cigarette use intention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. E-cigarette specialty retailers: Data to assess the association between retail environment and student e-cigarette use

    OpenAIRE

    Bostean, Georgiana; Crespi, Catherine M.; Vorapharuek, Patsornkarn; McCarthy, William J

    2017-01-01

    The retail environment is a major social determinant of health, yet little is known about the e-cigarette specialty retailer environment. The e-cigarette specialty retail environment may be associated with e-cigarette use by middle and high school students, an issue that was addressed in a recent article entitled, “E-cigarette use among students and e-cigarette specialty retailer presence near schools,” by Bostean and colleagues (G. Bostean, C.M. Crespi, P. Vorapharuek, W.J. McCarthy, 2016 [1...

  1. An empirical analysis of cigarette demand in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Eugenio; Mejia, Raul; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the long-term and short-term effects on cigarette demand in Argentina based on changes in cigarette price and income per person >14 years old. Method Public data from the Ministry of Economics and Production were analysed based on monthly time series data between 1994 and 2010. The econometric analysis used cigarette consumption per person >14 years of age as the dependent variable and the real income per person >14 years old and the real average price of cigarettes as independent variables. Empirical analyses were done to verify the order of integration of the variables, to test for cointegration to capture the long-term effects and to capture the short-term dynamics of the variables. Results The demand for cigarettes in Argentina was affected by changes in real income and the real average price of cigarettes. The long-term income elasticity was equal to 0.43, while the own-price elasticity was equal to −0.31, indicating a 10% increase in the growth of real income led to an increase in cigarette consumption of 4.3% and a 10% increase in the price produced a fall of 3.1% in cigarette consumption. The vector error correction model estimated that the short-term income elasticity was 0.25 and the short-term own-price elasticity of cigarette demand was −0.15. A simulation exercise showed that increasing the price of cigarettes by 110% would maximise revenues and result in a potentially large decrease in total cigarette consumption. Conclusion Econometric analyses of cigarette consumption and their relationship with cigarette price and income can provide valuable information for developing cigarette price policy. PMID:23760657

  2. An empirical analysis of cigarette demand in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Eugenio; Mejia, Raul; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J

    2015-01-01

    To estimate the long-term and short-term effects on cigarette demand in Argentina based on changes in cigarette price and income per person >14 years old. Public data from the Ministry of Economics and Production were analysed based on monthly time series data between 1994 and 2010. The econometric analysis used cigarette consumption per person >14 years of age as the dependent variable and the real income per person >14 years old and the real average price of cigarettes as independent variables. Empirical analyses were done to verify the order of integration of the variables, to test for cointegration to capture the long-term effects and to capture the short-term dynamics of the variables. The demand for cigarettes in Argentina was affected by changes in real income and the real average price of cigarettes. The long-term income elasticity was equal to 0.43, while the own-price elasticity was equal to -0.31, indicating a 10% increase in the growth of real income led to an increase in cigarette consumption of 4.3% and a 10% increase in the price produced a fall of 3.1% in cigarette consumption. The vector error correction model estimated that the short-term income elasticity was 0.25 and the short-term own-price elasticity of cigarette demand was -0.15. A simulation exercise showed that increasing the price of cigarettes by 110% would maximise revenues and result in a potentially large decrease in total cigarette consumption. Econometric analyses of cigarette consumption and their relationship with cigarette price and income can provide valuable information for developing cigarette price policy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Cigarette smoking and cigarette marketing exposure among students in selected African countries: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Luhua; Palipudi, Krishna M; Ramanandraibe, Nivo; Asma, Samira

    2016-10-01

    To investigate cigarette smoking prevalence and exposure to various forms of cigarette marketing among students in 10 African countries. We used data collected during 2009-2011 from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS), a school-based cross-sectional survey of students aged 13-15years, to measure the prevalence of cigarette smoking and exposure to cigarette marketing; comparisons to estimates from 2005 to 2006 were conducted for five countries where data were available. Current cigarette smoking ranged from 3.4% to 13.6% among students aged 13-15 in the 10 countries studied, although use of tobacco products other than cigarettes was more prevalent in all countries except in Cote D'Ivoire. Cigarette smoking was higher among boys than girls in seven out of the 10 countries. Among the five countries with two rounds of surveys, a significant decrease in cigarette smoking prevalence was observed in Mauritania and Niger; these two countries also experienced a decline in three measures of cigarette marketing exposure. It is also possible that smoking prevalence might have risen faster among girls than boys. Cigarette smoking among youth was noticeable in 10 African countries evaluated, with the prevalence over 10% in Cote D'Ivoire, Mauritania, and South Africa. Cigarette marketing exposure varied by the types of marketing; traditional venues such as TV, outdoor billboards, newspapers, and magazines were still prominent. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. The Herbivore-Induced Plant Volatiles Methyl Salicylate and Menthol Positively affect Growth and Pathogenicity of Entomopathogenic Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yongwen; Qasim, Muhammad; Hussain, Mubasher; Akutse, Komivi Senyo; Avery, Pasco Bruce; Dash, Chandra Kanta; Wang, Liande

    2017-01-01

    Some herbivore-induced-plant volatiles (HIPVs) compounds are vital for the functioning of an ecosystem, by triggering multi-trophic interactions for natural enemies, plants and herbivores. However, the effect of these chemicals, which play a crucial role in regulating the multi-trophic interactions between plant-herbivore-entomopathogenic fungi, is still unknown. To fill this scientific gap, we therefore investigated how these chemicals influence the entomopathogenic fungi growth and efficacy. In this study, Lipaphis erysimi induced Arabidopsis thaliana HIPVs were collected using headspace system and detected with GC-MS, and then analyzed the effects of these HIPVs chemicals on Lecanicillium lecanii strain V3450. We found that the HIPVs menthol and methyl salicylate at 1 and 10 nmol·ml−1 improved many performance aspects of the fungus, such as germination, sporulation, appressorial formation as well as its pathogenicity and virulence. These findings are not only important for understanding the multi-trophic interactions in an ecosystem, but also would contribute for developing new and easier procedures for conidial mass production as well as improve the pathogenicity and virulence of entomopathogenic fungi in biological pest management strategies. PMID:28079180

  5. Solubilization of menthol by platycodin D in aqueous solution: an integrated study of classical experiments and dissipative particle dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Haiou; Yin, Qianqian; Wan, Guang; Dai, Xingxing; Shi, Xinyuan; Qiao, Yanjiang

    2015-03-01

    Menthol (M) and platycodin D (PD) are the main active ingredients in Mentha haplocalyx and Platycodon grandiflorum A. DC., respectively. They are commonly used in combination in traditional Chinese medicine. In this study, laboratory experiments and computer simulations were used to investigate the solubilization of M by PD, which was believed to be one of the main causes of the synergistic effect of M. haplocalyx and P. grandiflorum A. DC. Results showed that both the method by which M was added and the concentration of PD had significant effects on the solubilization efficiency of M, and these influences were closely associated with each other. Temperature, an important environmental condition, was also found to have a significant effect on the solubilization effect of PD. These findings not only clarify the molecular basis of the solubilization effect, including amount solubilized at the macroscale and the structures of the micelles, and the drug loading mechanisms and processing at the mesoscale. This work may provide some guidance for the further development of saponins and fundamental research in the drug delivery system.

  6. The Herbivore-Induced Plant Volatiles Methyl Salicylate and Menthol Positively affect Growth and Pathogenicity of Entomopathogenic Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yongwen; Qasim, Muhammad; Hussain, Mubasher; Akutse, Komivi Senyo; Avery, Pasco Bruce; Dash, Chandra Kanta; Wang, Liande

    2017-01-01

    Some herbivore-induced-plant volatiles (HIPVs) compounds are vital for the functioning of an ecosystem, by triggering multi-trophic interactions for natural enemies, plants and herbivores. However, the effect of these chemicals, which play a crucial role in regulating the multi-trophic interactions between plant-herbivore-entomopathogenic fungi, is still unknown. To fill this scientific gap, we therefore investigated how these chemicals influence the entomopathogenic fungi growth and efficacy. In this study, Lipaphis erysimi induced Arabidopsis thaliana HIPVs were collected using headspace system and detected with GC-MS, and then analyzed the effects of these HIPVs chemicals on Lecanicillium lecanii strain V3450. We found that the HIPVs menthol and methyl salicylate at 1 and 10 nmol·ml-1 improved many performance aspects of the fungus, such as germination, sporulation, appressorial formation as well as its pathogenicity and virulence. These findings are not only important for understanding the multi-trophic interactions in an ecosystem, but also would contribute for developing new and easier procedures for conidial mass production as well as improve the pathogenicity and virulence of entomopathogenic fungi in biological pest management strategies.

  7. Electronic cigarette sales to minors via the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca S; Derrick, Jason; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) entered the US market in 2007 and, with little regulatory oversight, grew into a $2-billion-a-year industry by 2013. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has reported a trend of increasing e-cigarette use among teens, with use rates doubling from 2011 to 2012. While several studies have documented that teens can and do buy cigarettes online, to our knowledge, no studies have yet examined age verification among Internet tobacco vendors selling e-cigarettes. To estimate the extent to which minors can successfully purchase e-cigarettes online and assess compliance with North Carolina's 2013 e-cigarette age-verification law. In this cross-sectional study conducted from February 2014 to June 2014, 11 nonsmoking minors aged 14 to 17 years made supervised e-cigarette purchase attempts from 98 Internet e-cigarette vendors. Purchase attempts were made at the University of North Carolina Internet Tobacco Vendors Study project offices using credit cards. Rate at which minors can successfully purchase e-cigarettes on the Internet. Minors successfully received deliveries of e-cigarettes from 76.5% of purchase attempts, with no attempts by delivery companies to verify their ages at delivery and 95% of delivered orders simply left at the door. All delivered packages came from shipping companies that, according to company policy or federal regulation, do not ship cigarettes to consumers. Of the total orders, 18 failed for reasons unrelated to age verification. Only 5 of the remaining 80 youth purchase attempts were rejected owing to age verification, resulting in a youth buy rate of 93.7%. None of the vendors complied with North Carolina's e-cigarette age-verification law. Minors are easily able to purchase e-cigarettes from the Internet because of an absence of age-verification measures used by Internet e-cigarette vendors. Federal law should require and enforce rigorous age verification for all e-cigarette sales as with the federal

  8. Using Experimental Auctions to Examine Demand for E-Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard; Rousu, Matthew C; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Vogl, Lisa; Corrigan, Jay R

    2017-06-01

    E-cigarettes are the latest in a line of potentially reduced exposure products that have garnered interest among smokers. In this paper, we use experimental auctions to estimate smokers' demand for e-cigarettes and to assess the impact of advertisements on willingness to pay. These are actual auctions, with winners and losers, which means hypothetical biases often seen in surveys are minimized. We find smokers have positive demand for e-cigarettes, and that the print advertisements used in our study had greater effectiveness than video ads (b = 2.00, p demand for disposable e-cigarettes. Demand was greater for reusable versus disposable e-cigarettes. In multivariate models, demand for e-cigarettes was higher among non-white participants and among smokers willing to pay more for cigarettes. Our findings suggest that cigarette smokers are interested in e-cigarettes as alternatives to traditional products, particularly for reusable forms, and that this demand can be influenced by messaging/advertising. Given these reduced harm products are appealing, if smokers are able to switch completely to e-cigarettes, there is a good chance for accrual of significant harm reduction.

  9. Using E-Cigarettes in the Home to Reduce Smoking and Secondhand Smoke: Disadvantaged Parents' Accounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowa-Dewar, Neneh; Rooke, Catriona; Amos, Amanda

    2017-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are subject to considerable public health debate. Most public health experts agree that for smokers who find it particularly challenging to quit, e-cigarettes may reduce harm. E-cigarette use in the home may also reduce children's secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, although e-cigarette vapour may pose risks. This…

  10. Up in Vapor: Exploring the Health Messages of E-Cigarette Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Erin; Haught, Matthew J; Morris Ii, David L

    2017-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have gained popularity in the United States, and marketers are using advertising to recruit new users to their products. Despite outright bans on traditional cigarette advertisements, e-cigarettes have no specific regulations. This study uses framing theory to explore the themes in e-cigarette advertisements. Also, practical implications are discussed.

  11. Research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hoshing

    2014-01-01

    Objective To consider the research gaps related to the environmental impacts of electronic cigarettes due to their manufacture, use and disposal. Methods Literature searches were conducted through December 2013. Studies were included in this review if they related to the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes. Results Scientific information on the environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing, use and disposal is very limited. No studies formally evaluated the environmental impacts of the manufacturing process or disposal of components, including batteries. Four studies evaluated potential exposure to secondhand e-cigarette aerosol, an indication of impacts on indoor air quality. A 2010 survey of six e-cigarette models found that none of the products provided disposal instructions for spent cartridges containing nicotine. Notably, some e-cigarette manufacturers claim their e-cigarettes are ‘eco-friendly’ or ‘green’, despite the lack of any supporting data or environmental impact studies. Some authors argue that such advertising may boost sales and increase e-cigarette appeal, especially among adolescents. Conclusions Little is known about the environmental impacts of e-cigarettes, and a number of topics could be further elucidated by additional investigation. These topics include potential environmental impacts related to manufacturing, use and disposal. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette manufacturing will depend upon factory size and the nicotine extracting method used. The environmental impacts of e-cigarette use will include chemical and aerosol exposure in the indoor environment. The environmental impacts of disposal of e-cigarette cartridges (which contain residual nicotine) and disposal of e-cigarettes (which contain batteries) represent yet another environmental concern. PMID:24732165

  12. Effects of electronic cigarette smoking on human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, S A; Al Asiri, S A

    2014-01-01

    Electronic cigarette smoking is gaining dramatic popularity and is steadily spreading among the adolescents, high income, urban population around the world. The aim of this study is to highlight the hazards of e-cigarette smoking on human health. In this study, we identified 38 published studies through a systematic database searches including ISI-web of science and pub-med. We searched the related literature by using the key words including Electronic cigarette, E-cigarette, E-vapers, incidence, hazards. Studies in which electronic cigarette smoking hazards was investigated were included in the study. No limitations on publication status, study design of publication were implemented. Finally we included 28 publications and remaining 10 were excluded. E-smoking can cause, nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, choking, burn injuries, upper respiratory tract irritation, dry cough, dryness of the eyes and mucous membrane, release of cytokines and pro-inflammatory mediators, allergic airway inflammation, decreased exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) synthesis in the lungs, change in bronchial gene expression and risk of lung cancer. Electronic cigarettes are swiftly promoted as an alternative to conventional cigarette smoking, although its use is highly controversial. Electronic cigarettes are not a smoking cessation product. Non-scientific claims about e-cigarettes are creating confusion in public perception about e-cigarette and people believe that e-cigarettes are safe and less addictive, but its use is unsafe and hazardous to human health. E-cigarette smoking should be regulated in the same way as traditional cigarettes and must be prohibited to children and adolescents.

  13. Electronic Cigarette Use and Respiratory Symptoms in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnell, Rob; Barrington-Trimis, Jessica L; Wang, Kejia; Urman, Robert; Hong, Hanna; Unger, Jennifer; Samet, Jonathan; Leventhal, Adam; Berhane, Kiros

    2017-04-15

    Rates of adolescent electronic (e-) cigarette use are increasing, but there has been little study of the chronic effects of use. Components of e-cigarette aerosol have known pulmonary toxicity. To investigate the associations of e-cigarette use with chronic bronchitis symptoms and wheeze in an adolescent population. Associations of self-reported use of e-cigarettes with chronic bronchitic symptoms (chronic cough, phlegm, or bronchitis) and of wheeze in the previous 12 months were examined in 2,086 Southern California Children's Health Study participants completing questionnaires in 11th and 12th grade in 2014. Ever e-cigarette use was reported by 502 (24.0%), of whom 201 (9.6%) used e-cigarettes during the last 30 days (current users). Risk of bronchitic symptoms was increased by almost twofold among past users (odds ratio [OR], 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.37-2.49), compared with never-users, and by 2.02-fold (95% CI, 1.42-2.88) among current users. Risk increased with frequency of current use (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.02-2.68) for 1-2 days and 2.52 (95% CI, 1.56-4.08) for 3 or more days in past 30 days compared with never-users. Associations were attenuated by adjustment for lifetime number of cigarettes smoked and secondhand smoke exposure. However, risk of bronchitic symptoms among past e-cigarette users remained elevated after adjustment for relevant potential confounders and was also observed among never-cigarette users (OR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.11-2.59). There were no statistically significant associations of e-cigarette use with wheeze after adjustment for cigarette use. Adolescent e-cigarette users had increased rates of chronic bronchitic symptoms. Further investigation is needed to determine the long-term effects of e-cigarettes on respiratory health.

  14. Adolescents' attitudes towards e-cigarette ingredients, safety, addictive properties, social norms, and regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorukanti, Anuradha; Delucchi, Kevin; Ling, Pamela; Fisher-Travis, Raymond; Halpern-Felsher, Bonnie

    2017-01-01

    E-cigarette use has dramatically increased. While studies have examined adolescents' attitudes towards smoking, few have extended this research to adolescents' attitudes towards e-cigarettes. The goal of this study was to examine adolescents' attitudes regarding e-cigarette ingredients, safety, addictive properties, social norms, accessibility, price, and regulation; and determine whether attitudes differ by past cigarette/e-cigarette use. Participants were 786 9th and 12th graders from California (63.21% females; mean age=16.10years [SD=1.6]; 26.61% White, 21.98% Asian/Pacific Islander, 29.82% Hispanic, and 21.59% other). Results indicated that 19.05% of participants believed smoke from e-cigarettes is water; 23.03% believed e-cigarettes aren't a tobacco product; 40.36% considered e-cigarettes to be for cessation, and 43.13% felt they were safer than cigarettes. Participants felt it was more acceptable to use e-cigarettes indoors and outdoors compared to cigarettes (pe-cigarette taxes is a bad idea, 63.95% thought e-cigarettes were easier to get than cigarettes, 54.42% felt e-cigarettes cost too much, 64.33% felt the age for buying e-cigarettes should be raised, and 64.37% favored e-cigarette regulation. Adolescents who used e-cigarettes and/or cigarettes had significantly more favorable e-cigarette attitudes than non-users. This study indicates that adolescents are aware of some of the risks of e-cigarettes, although many harbor misperceptions and hold more favorable attitudes towards e-cigarettes than cigarettes. Of concern is the relationship between favorable e-cigarette attitudes and use. Findings suggest the need to provide adolescents with correct information about e-cigarette ingredients, risks, and the insufficient evidence of their role in cigarette cessation.

  15. Evaluation of E-Cigarette Liquid Vapor and Mainstream Cigarette Smoke after Direct Exposure of Primary Human Bronchial Epithelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Scheffler

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available E-cigarettes are emerging products, often described as “reduced-risk” nicotine products or alternatives to combustible cigarettes. Many smokers switch to e-cigarettes to quit or significantly reduce smoking. However, no regulations for e-cigarettes are currently into force, so that the quality and safety of e-liquids is not necessarily guaranteed. We exposed primary human bronchial epithelial cells of two different donors to vapor of e-cigarette liquid with or without nicotine, vapor of the carrier substances propylene glycol and glycerol as well as to mainstream smoke of K3R4F research cigarettes. The exposure was done in a CULTEX® RFS compact  module, allowing the exposure of the cells at the air-liquid interface. 24 h post-exposure, cell viability and oxidative stress levels in the cells were analyzed. We found toxicological effects of e-cigarette vapor and the pure carrier substances, whereas the nicotine concentration did not have an effect on the cell viability. The viability of mainstream smoke cigarette exposed cells was 4.5–8 times lower and the oxidative stress levels 4.5–5 times higher than those of e-cigarette vapor exposed cells, depending on the donor. Our experimental setup delivered reproducible data and thus provides the opportunity for routine testing of e-cigarette liquids to ensure safety and quality for the user.

  16. The effect of Taiwan's tax-induced increases in cigarette prices on brand-switching and the consumption of cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Wen; Yang, Chung-Lin; Chen, Chin-Shyan; Liu, Tsai-Ching; Chen, Pei-Fen

    2005-06-01

    The effect of raising cigarette taxes to reduce smoking has been the subject of several studies, which often treat the price of cigarettes as an exogenous factor given to smokers who respond to it by adjusting their smoking behavior. However, cigarette prices vary with brand and quality, and smokers can and do switch to lower-priced brands to reduce the impact of the tax on the cost of cigarettes as they try to consume the same number of cigarettes as they had before a tax hike. Using data from a two-year follow-up interview survey conducted before and after a new cigarette tax scheme was imposed in Taiwan in 2002, this study examines three behavioral changes smokers may make to respond to tax-induced cigarette price increase: brand-switching, amount consumed, and amount spent on smoking. These changes were studied in relation to smoker income, before-tax cigarette price, level of addiction, exposure to advertizing, and consumer loyalty. We found that smokers, depending upon exposure to advertizing, level of consumer loyalty and initial price of cigarettes, switched brands to maintain current smoking habits and control costs. We also found that the initial amount smoked and level of addiction, not price, at least not at the current levels in Taiwan, determined whether a smoker reduced the number of cigarettes he consumed.

  17. Environmental health hazards of e-cigarettes and their components: Oxidants and copper in e-cigarette aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Chad A; Sundar, Isaac K; Watson, Richard M; Elder, Alison; Jones, Ryan; Done, Douglas; Kurtzman, Rachel; Ossip, Deborah J; Robinson, Risa; McIntosh, Scott; Rahman, Irfan

    2015-03-01

    To narrow the gap in our understanding of potential oxidative properties associated with Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) i.e. e-cigarettes, we employed semi-quantitative methods to detect oxidant reactivity in disposable components of ENDS/e-cigarettes (batteries and cartomizers) using a fluorescein indicator. These components exhibit oxidants/reactive oxygen species reactivity similar to used conventional cigarette filters. Oxidants/reactive oxygen species reactivity in e-cigarette aerosols was also similar to oxidant reactivity in cigarette smoke. A cascade particle impactor allowed sieving of a range of particle size distributions between 0.450 and 2.02 μm in aerosols from an e-cigarette. Copper, being among these particles, is 6.1 times higher per puff than reported previously for conventional cigarette smoke. The detection of a potentially cytotoxic metal as well as oxidants from e-cigarette and its components raises concern regarding the safety of e-cigarettes use and the disposal of e-cigarette waste products into the environment.

  18. Can Increases in the Cigarette Tax Rate be Linked to Cigarette Retail Prices? Solving mysteries related to the cigarette pricing mechanism in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Song; Zheng, Rong; Hu, Teh-wei

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explain China’s cigarette pricing mechanism and the role of the Chinese State Tobacco Monopoly Administration (STMA) on cigarette pricing and taxation. Methods Published government tobacco tax documentation and statistics published by the Chinese State Tobacco Monopoly Administration (STMA) are used to analyze the interrelations among industry profits, taxes, and retail price of cigarettes in China. Results The 2009 excise tax increase on cigarettes in China has not translated into higher retail prices because the Chinese STMA used its policy authority to ensure that retail cigarette prices did not change. The government tax increase is being collected at both the producer and wholesale levels. As a result, the 2009 excise tax increase in China has resulted in higher tax revenue for the government and lower profits for the tobacco industry, with no increase in the retail price of cigarettes for consumers. Conclusions Numerous studies have found that taxation is one of the most effective policy instruments for tobacco control. However, these findings come from countries that have market economies where market forces determine prices and influence how cigarette taxes are passed to the consumers in retail prices. China’s tobacco industry is not a market economy; therefore, nonmarket forces and the current Chinese tobacco monopoly system determine cigarette prices. The result is that tax increases do not necessarily get passed on to the retail price. PMID:23076787

  19. Changes among retailers selling cigarettes to minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovell, R A; Mowat, D L; Dorland, J; Lam, M

    1996-01-01

    This study analyzes changes over a three-year period among Ontario retailers selling cigarettes to minors. Under supervision, 13 and 14-year-old minors were sent into stores to attempt to buy cigarettes. These minor-purchase-events (MPEs) were carried out in a local health unit that had implemented a community-based intervention and in an adjoining comparison health unit. After the local program we observed a large reduction (from 46% to 6%) in merchants willing to sell tobacco to minors. In the neighbouring health unit, a high rate of selling continued until a federal program using a similar intervention was implemented, after which a large reduction (from 47% to 2%) was observed. This magnitude of change has been unprecedented, except when active enforcement was implemented by police officers. Thus, from a public health perspective, it is important to understand what is influencing the store operators.

  20. Reinforcing effects of cigarette advertising on under-age smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, P P; Eadie, D R

    1990-03-01

    Interviews were conducted with 848 Glasgow children aged between 11 and 14 years. There were consistent differences between smokers and non-smokers. Smokers tended to be more adept at recalling, recognizing and identifying cigarette advertisements. This suggests they tend to pay more attention to cigarette advertising. Smokers also tended to be generally more appreciative of cigarette advertising. Moreover, this greater awareness and appreciation of cigarette advertising was independent of other important predictors of under-age smoking, such as smoking by peers, siblings and parents. These findings, taken in conjunction with previous research, indicate that cigarette advertising is reinforcing under-age smoking. The smokers showed an enhanced or heightened preference for Kensitas Club, the brand favoured by adults. This is consistent with previous research indicating that promotional devices which help determine and reinforce adult cigarette brand preferences have an even greater effect on under-age smokers.

  1. Recent Advances in Cigarette Ignition Propensity Research and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Hillel R; O'Connor, Richard J; Spalletta, Ron; Connolly, Gregory N

    2010-04-01

    Major U.S. cigarette companies for decades conducted research and development regarding cigarette ignition propensity which has continued beyond fire safety standards for cigarettes that have recently been legislated. This paper describes recent scientific advances and technological development based on a comprehensive review of the physical, chemical, and engineering sciences, public health, and trade literature, U.S. and international patents, and research in the tobacco industry document libraries.Advancements since the first implementation of standards have made been in: a) understanding the key parameters involved in cigarette smoldering combustion and ignition of substrates; b) developing new cigarette and paper wrapper designs to reduce ignition propensity, including banded and non-banded cigarette paper approaches, c) assessing toxicology, and d) measuring performance. While the implications of manufacturers' non-safety related aims are of concern, this research indicates possible alternative designs should experience with fire loss and existing technologies on the market suggest need for improvement.

  2. [Electronic Cigarettes: Lifestyle Gadget or Smoking Cessation Aid?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurmans, Macé M

    2015-07-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are vaporisers of liquids often containing nicotine. In the inhaled aerosol carcinogens, ultrafine and metal particles are detected usually in concentrations below those measured in tobacco smoke. Therefore, these products are expected to be less harmful. This has not yet been proven. The long-term safety of e-cigarettes is unknown. Short duration use leads to airway irritation and increased diastolic blood pressure. So far only two randomised controlled trials have investigated efficacy and safety of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation: No clear advantage was shown in comparison to smoking cessation medication. Due to insufficient evidence, e-cigarettes cannot be recommended for smoking cessation. Problematic are the lack of regulation and standardisation of e-cigarette products, which makes general conclusions impossible.

  3. Cigarette cravings, impulsivity and the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane ePotvin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Craving is a core feature of tobacco use disorder as well as a significant predictor of smoking relapse. Studies have shown that appetitive smoking-related stimuli (e.g. someone smoking trigger significant cravings in smokers which impedes their self-control capacities and promotes drug seeking behavior. In this review, we begin by an overview of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies investigating the neural correlates of smokers to appetitive smoking cues. The literature reveals a complex and vastly distributed neuronal network underlying smokers’ craving response that recruits regions involved in self-referential processing, panning/regulatory processes, emotional responding, attentional biases, and automatic conducts. We then selectively review important factors contributing to the heterogeneity of results that significantly limit the implications of these findings, namely between- (abstinence, smoking expectancies and self-regulation and within-studies factors (severity of smoking dependence, sex-differences, motivation to quit and genetic factors. Remarkably, we found that little to no attention has been devoted to examine the influence of personality traits on the neural correlates of cigarette cravings in fMRI studies. Impulsivity has been linked with craving and relapse in substance and tobacco use, which prompted our research team to examine the influence of impulsivity on cigarette cravings in an fMRI study. We found that the influence of impulsivity on cigarette cravings was mediated by fronto-cingular mechanisms. Given the high prevalence of cigarette smoking in several psychiatric disorders that are characterized by significant levels of impulsivity, we conclude by identifying psychiatric patients as a target population whose tobacco smoking habits deserve further behavioral and neuro-imaging investigation.

  4. Pressor effects of caffeine and cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J E; Richardson, M

    1991-09-01

    Pressor effects of caffeine and cigarette smoking were examined in 15 normotensive young men and women. A cross-over design was used in which all subjects participated in four separate conditions: placebo alone, caffeine alone, placebo plus smoking, and caffeine plus smoking. Caffeine and smoking produced independent increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and these effects were additive in the caffeine-plus-smoking condition. Heart rate was significantly increased by smoking but was essentially unaffected by caffeine.

  5. The effects of cigarette smoking on anesthesia.

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo, C.

    2000-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains over 4000 substances, some of which are harmful to the smoker. Some constituents cause cardiovascular problems, increasing the blood pressure, heart rate, and the systemic vascular resistance. Some cause respiratory problems, interfering with oxygen uptake, transport, and delivery. Further, some interfere with respiratory function both during and after anesthesia. Some also interfere with drug metabolism. Various effects on muscle relaxants have been reported. Risk of...

  6. The effects of cigarette smoking on anaesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo, C.

    2000-01-01

    Cigarette smoke contains over 4000 substances, some of which are harmful to the smoker. Some constituents cause cardiovascular problems, increasing the blood pressure, heart rate, and the systemic vascular resistance. Some cause respiratory problems, interfering with oxygen uptake, transport, and delivery. Further, some interfere with respiratory function both during and after anesthesia. Some also interfere with drug metabolism. Various effects on muscle relaxants have been reported. Risk of...

  7. Influence of topical application of capsaicin, menthol and local anesthetics on intraoral somatosensory sensitivity in healthy subjects: temporal and spatial aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganawa, Takuya; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Ando, Tomohiro; Svensson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate temporal and spatial aspects of somatosensory changes after topical application of capsaicin, menthol and local anesthetics (LA) on the gingiva with the use of intraoral palpometers and thermal devices. Sixteen healthy volunteers (eight male, eight female) participated. Four topical preparations (capsaicin, menthol, LA and Vaseline as a control) were randomly applied to the gingiva around the first premolar in the upper jaw via individual oral templates, which allowed spatial mapping of somatosensory changes at and adjacent to the site of application. The topical drugs were applied for 15 min in a randomized and balanced sequence. The perceived preparation-evoked pain intensity was recorded with the use of 0-10 visual analog scales (VAS). Standardized mechanical and thermal stimuli were applied before, during and up to 30 min after the topical applications, and numerical rating scales (NRS) were used to score the perceived intensity of the stimuli. Peak VAS, area under the curve and mean VAS preparation-evoked pain scores for capsaicin, menthol, LA and control were compared with paired t tests. NRS scores for mechanical and thermal test stimuli were analyzed with four-way repeated measurements analyses of variance. Capsaicin evoked significantly higher VAS pain parameters as well as higher NRS scores to heat stimuli than control (P capsaicin caused sensitization to heat stimuli at and adjacent to the application area. In conclusion, this study for the first time demonstrates the time course of capsaicin-evoked heat hyperalgesia in and outside the site of application at the oral mucosa (primary and secondary hyperalgesia).

  8. Electronic cigarettes: a survey of users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etter Jean-François

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about users of electronic cigarettes, or their opinions, satisfaction or how and why they use such products. Methods An internet survey of 81 ever-users of ecigarettes in 2009. Participants answered open-ended questions on use of, and opinions about, ecigarettes. Results Respondents (73 current and 8 former users lived in France, Canada, Belgium or Switzerland. Most respondents (77% were men; 63% were former smokers and 37% were current smokers. They had used e-cigarettes for 100 days (median and drew 175 puffs per day (median. Participants used the ecigarette either to quit smoking (53 comments, to reduce their cigarette consumption (14 comments, in order not to disturb other people with smoke (20 comments, or in smoke-free places (21 comments. Positive effects reported with ecigarettes included their usefulness to quit smoking, and the benefits of abstinence from smoking (less coughing, improved breathing, better physical fitness. Respondents also enjoyed the flavour of ecigarettes and the sensation of inhalation. Side effects included dryness of the mouth and throat. Respondents complained about the frequent technical failures of ecigarettes and had some concerns about the possible toxicity of the devices and about their future legal status. Conclusions Ecigarettes were used mainly to quit smoking, and may be helpful for this purpose, but several respondents were concerned about potential toxicity. There are very few published studies on ecigarettes and research is urgently required, particularly on the efficacy and toxicity of these devices.

  9. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFranza, JR; Clark, DM; Pollay, RW

    2003-01-01

    Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Conclusion The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers.

  10. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollay RW

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Conclusion The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers.

  11. Cigarette smoking and poverty in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuanli; Rao, Keqin; Hu, Teh-Wei; Sun, Qi; Mao, Zhenzhong

    2006-12-01

    Drawing on the 1998 China national health services survey data, this study estimated the poverty impact of two smoking-related expenses: excessive medical spending attributable to smoking and direct spending on cigarettes. The excessive medical spending attributable to smoking is estimated using a regression model of medical expenditure with smoking status (current smoker, former smoker, never smoker) as part of the explanatory variables, controlling for people's demographic and socioeconomic characteristics. The poverty impact is measured by the changes in the poverty head count, after smoking-related expenses are subtracted from income. We found that the excessive medical spending attributable to smoking may have caused the poverty rate to increase by 1.5% for the urban population and by 0.7% for the rural population. To a greater magnitude, the poverty headcount in urban and rural areas increased by 6.4% and 1.9%, respectively, due to the direct household spending on cigarettes. Combined, the excessive medical spending attributable to smoking and consumption spending on cigarettes are estimated to be responsible for impoverishing 30.5 million urban residents and 23.7 million rural residents in China. Smoking related expenses pushed a significant proportion of low-income families into poverty in China. Therefore, reducing the smoking rate appears to be not only a public health strategy, but also a poverty reduction strategy.

  12. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFranza, JR; Clark, DM; Pollay, RW

    2003-01-01

    Objective To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. Methods A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Data Synthesis Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. Conclusion The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers. PMID:19570250

  13. Cigarette package design: opportunities for disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Difranza, J R; Clark, D M; Pollay, R W

    2002-06-15

    To learn how cigarette packages are designed and to determine to what extent cigarette packages are designed to target children. A computer search was made of all Internet websites that post tobacco industry documents using the search terms: packaging, package design, package study, box design, logo, trademark and design study. All documents were retrieved electronically and analyzed by the first author for recurrent themes. Cigarette manufacturers devote a great deal of attention and expense to package design because it is central to their efforts to create brand images. Colors, graphic elements, proportioning, texture, materials and typography are tested and used in various combinations to create the desired product and user images. Designs help to create the perceived product attributes and project a personality image of the user with the intent of fulfilling the psychological needs of the targeted type of smoker. The communication of these images and attributes is conducted through conscious and subliminal processes. Extensive testing is conducted using a variety of qualitative and quantitative research techniques. The promotion of tobacco products through appealing imagery cannot be stopped without regulating the package design. The same marketing research techniques used by the tobacco companies can be used to design generic packaging and more effective warning labels targeted at specific consumers.

  14. Exploring cigarette use among male migrant workers in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Olanrewaju Olusola Onigbogi; David Karatu; Sarafa Sanusi; Rebekah Pratt; Kolawole Okuyemi

    2015-01-01

    Background There is limited knowledge about the use of cigarettes by blacks outside the United States (U.S). Nigeria creates an opportunity to explore smoking behaviours, smoking cessation (nicotine dependence) and use of cigarettes in a country that has a large black population outside the U.S. Methods We conducted three Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) involving twenty-four male migrant workers who reported that they were current cigarette smokers. Interviews were audio-tape...

  15. Knowledge and beliefs about electronic cigarettes among quitline cessation staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Sharon; Leischow, Scott; Bailey, Linda; Bush, Terry; Wassum, Ken; Copeland, Lesley; Zhu, Shu-Hong

    2016-09-01

    Smokers are asking health practitioners for guidance about using e-cigarettes as an aid to quitting. Several studies have surveyed physicians. However, in North America many smokers seek help from telephone quitlines rather than physicians. The objective of the current study was to assess quitline counselors' perceptions of e-cigarettes and what they tell callers about these products. An online cross-sectional survey, conducted in 2014 with 418 quitline counselors in the U.S. and Canada, measured perceptions of e-cigarettes: (1) use as a quitting aid; (2) safety; (3) professional guidance given and organizational guidance received; (4) regulation. The response rate was 90.1%. Analyses included calculating standard errors and 95% confidence intervals around summary statistics. Nearly 70% of counselors believed that e-cigarettes are not effective quitting aids. Most believed e-cigarettes are addictive (87%) and that secondhand exposure to vapor is harmful (71%). Counselors reported that callers ask for advice about e-cigarettes, but few counselors recommended e-cigarettes (4%). Counselors (97%) reported being instructed by quitline employers to explain to clients that e-cigarettes are not FDA-approved; 74% were told to recommend approved quitting aids instead. Most counselors (>87%) believed e-cigarettes should be regulated like cigarettes in terms of advertising, taxation, access by minors, and use in public places. Quitline counselors view e-cigarettes as ineffective quitting aids, potentially dangerous, and in need of greater regulations. Counselors can influence how treatment seekers view e-cigarettes, therefore it is imperative that quitlines stay abreast of emerging data and communicate about these products in ways that best serve clients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 3 in 4 Teens Think E-Cigarettes Safer Than Tobacco: Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_161665.html 3 in 4 Teens Think E-Cigarettes Safer Than Tobacco: Survey But devices deliver as ... Close to three-quarters of American teenagers believe e-cigarettes are less harmful or addictive than real cigarettes, ...

  17. Adolescents Who Wouldn't Have Smoked May Be Drawn to E-Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    An NCI Cancer Currents blog post on a recent study that suggest adolescents are not just using e-cigarettes as a substitute for conventional cigarettes but that e-cigarettes are attracting new users to tobacco products.

  18. A New Convenient Method for the Resolution of 1, 1'-Binaphthalene-2, 2'-diol Via a Phosphite Using (-)-Menthol as Resolving Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    (-)-Menthol reacts with phosphorus trichloride to afford menthyl phosphorodichloridite 2,which further reacts with racemic 1, 1'-binaphthalene-2, 2'-diol to give phosphite (±)-3 in the presence of triethylamine. +(±)-3 can be easily separated by fractional crystallization to form the crystal (+)-(S)-3 and the mother liquor (-)-(R)-3. Then both the crystal and the mother liquor are treated with AcOH-H20 to obtain enantiomeric pure (-)-(S)-1 and (+)-(R)-1 respectively, with enantiomeric excess up to 99.7%.

  19. Determination of menthol in Bohe Tong by gas chromatography%气相色谱法测定薄荷通中薄荷脑含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭钟慧; 陈小冰; 莫翠华

    2001-01-01

    Objective:Determination of menthol in Bohe Tong.Methods:GC wasused.Results:The average recovery was 99.06% and RSD was 2.01%.Conclusion:This method is simple,quick and accurate.It can be used for quality control of Bohe Tong.%采用气相色谱法测定薄荷通中薄荷脑含量。结果平均回收率为99.06%,RSD=2.01%。本法简便、快速、准确,可用于该药品的质量控制。

  20. Dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, and psoriasis drug products containing coal tar and menthol for over-the-counter human use; amendment to the monograph. Final rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-03-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule amending the final monograph (FM) for over-the-counter (OTC) dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, and psoriasis drug products to include the combination of 1.8 percent coal tar solution and 1.5 percent menthol in a shampoo drug product to control dandruff. FDA did not receive any comments or data in response to its previously proposed rule to include this combination. This final rule is part of FDA's ongoing review of OTC drug products.

  1. Fast Determination of Essential Oil from Dried Menthol Mint and Orange Peel by Solvent Free Microwave Extraction Using Carbonyl Iron Powder as the Microwave Absorption Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zi-Ming; DING Lan; WANG Lu; FENG Jin; LI Tie-Chun; ZHOU Xin; ZHANG Han-Qi

    2006-01-01

    An improved solvent free microwave extraction, in which a kind of microwave absorption medium (carbonyl iron powder) was used, was applied to the extraction of essential oil from dried menthol mint and orange peel without addition of any solvent and pretreatment. It took much less time of extraction (30 min) than microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (90 min) and conventional hydrodistillation (180 min). The kinds of chemical compositions in essential oil extracted by different methods were almost the same and such improved solvent free microwave ext