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Sample records for preparing storage stable

  1. Preparation, Characterization and Thermal Properties of Paraffin Wax – Expanded Perlite Form-Stable Composites for Latent Heat Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tugba GURMEN OZCELIK

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, form-stable composite phase change materials (PCM for latent heat storage were prepared by impregnating paraffin wax into the pores of the expanded perlite (EP. The characterization of the composite PCMs was performed by FTIR, TGA, SEM and DSC analysis. The melting point and heat of fusion were determined for 25 % paraffin included composite, as 54.3 °C and 94.71 J/g and for 45 % paraffin included composite as 53.6 °C and 106.69 J/g, respectively. The FTIR results showed that there were no chemical reaction between the perlite and paraffin. TGA analysis indicated that both composite PCMs had good thermal stability. SEM images showed that the paraffin was dispersed uniformly into the pores and on the EP surface. There was no leakage and degradation at the composite PCMs after heating and cooling cycles. According to the results, both prepared composites showed good thermal energy storage properties, reliability and stability. All results suggested that the presented form- stable composite PCMs has great potential for thermal energy storage applications.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.1.13661

  2. Preparation and thermal energy storage properties of paraffin/calcined diatomite composites as form-stable phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Zhiming; Zhang, Yuzhong; Zheng, Shuilin; Park, Yuri; Frost, Ray L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Composite phase change material (PCM) was prepared by blending composite paraffin and calcined diatomite. ► The optimum mixed proportion was obtained through differential scanning calorimetry. ► Thermal energy storage properties of the composite PCMs were determined by DSC. ► Thermal cycling test showed that the prepared PCMs are thermally reliable and chemically stable. - Abstract: A composite paraffin-based phase change material (PCM) was prepared by blending composite paraffin and calcined diatomite through the fusion adsorption method. In this study, raw diatomite was purified by thermal treatment in order to improve the adsorption capacity of diatomite, which acted as a carrier material to prepare shape-stabilized PCMs. Two forms of paraffin (paraffin waxes and liquid paraffin) with different melting points were blended together by the fusion method, and the optimum mixed proportion with a suitable phase-transition temperature was obtained through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Then the prepared composite paraffin was adsorbed in calcined diatomite. The prepared paraffin/calcined diatomite composites were characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR) analysis techniques. Thermal energy storage properties of the composite PCMs were determined by DSC method. DSC results showed that there was an optimum adsorption ratio between composite paraffin and calcined diatomite and the phase-transition temperature and the latent heat of the composite PCMs were 33.04 °C and 89.54 J/g, respectively. Thermal cycling test of composite PCMs showed that the prepared material is thermally reliable and chemically stable. The obtained paraffin/calcined diatomite composites have proper latent heat and melting temperatures, and show practical significance and good potential application value

  3. Preparation and thermal energy storage properties of paraffin/calcined diatomite composites as form-stable phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Zhiming [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Chemistry Discipline, Faculty of Science and Technology, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Zhang, Yuzhong [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Zheng, Shuilin, E-mail: shuilinzh@yahoo.com.cn [School of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Park, Yuri [Chemistry Discipline, Faculty of Science and Technology, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Frost, Ray L., E-mail: r.frost@qut.edu.au [Chemistry Discipline, Faculty of Science and Technology, Queensland University of Technology, 2 George Street, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia)

    2013-04-20

    Highlights: ► Composite phase change material (PCM) was prepared by blending composite paraffin and calcined diatomite. ► The optimum mixed proportion was obtained through differential scanning calorimetry. ► Thermal energy storage properties of the composite PCMs were determined by DSC. ► Thermal cycling test showed that the prepared PCMs are thermally reliable and chemically stable. - Abstract: A composite paraffin-based phase change material (PCM) was prepared by blending composite paraffin and calcined diatomite through the fusion adsorption method. In this study, raw diatomite was purified by thermal treatment in order to improve the adsorption capacity of diatomite, which acted as a carrier material to prepare shape-stabilized PCMs. Two forms of paraffin (paraffin waxes and liquid paraffin) with different melting points were blended together by the fusion method, and the optimum mixed proportion with a suitable phase-transition temperature was obtained through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Then the prepared composite paraffin was adsorbed in calcined diatomite. The prepared paraffin/calcined diatomite composites were characterized by the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR) analysis techniques. Thermal energy storage properties of the composite PCMs were determined by DSC method. DSC results showed that there was an optimum adsorption ratio between composite paraffin and calcined diatomite and the phase-transition temperature and the latent heat of the composite PCMs were 33.04 °C and 89.54 J/g, respectively. Thermal cycling test of composite PCMs showed that the prepared material is thermally reliable and chemically stable. The obtained paraffin/calcined diatomite composites have proper latent heat and melting temperatures, and show practical significance and good potential application value.

  4. Preparation and characterization of form-stable paraffin/polyurethane composites as phase change materials for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Keping; Yu, Xuejiang; Tian, Chunrong; Wang, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Paraffin/polyurethane composite as form-stable phase change material was prepared by bulk polymerization. • Paraffin/polyurethane composite possesses typical character of dual phase transition. • Total latent heat of n-eicosane/PUPCM is as high as 141.2 J/g. • Maximum encapsulation ratio for n-octadecane/PUPCM composites is 25% w/w. - Abstract: Polyurethane phase change material (PUPCM) has been demonstrated to be effective solid–solid phase change material for thermal energy storage. However, the high cost and complex process on preparation of PUPCMs with high enthalpy and broad phase transition temperature range can prohibit industrial-scale applications. In this work, a series of novel form-stable paraffin/PUPCMs composites (n-octadecane/PUPCM, n-eicosane/PUPCM and paraffin wax/PUPCM) with high enthalpy and broad phase transition temperature range (20–65 °C) were directly synthesized via bulk polymerization. The composites were prepared at different mass fractions of n-octadecane (10, 20, 25, 30% w/w). The results indicated that the maximum encapsulation ratio for n-octadecane/PUPCM10000 composites was around 25% w/w. The chemical structure and crystalline properties of these composites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), polarizing optical microscopy (POM), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD). Thermal properties and thermal reliability of the composites were determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). From DSC analysis, the composites showed a typical dual phase change temperature. The enthalpy for the composite with 25% w/w n-eicosane was as high as 141.2 J/g. TGA analysis indicated that the composites degraded at considerably high temperatures. The process of preparation of PUPCMs and their composites was very simple, inexpensive, environmental friendly and easy to process into desired shapes, which could find the promising applications in solar

  5. Preparation and characterization of form-stable paraffin/polycaprolactone composites as phase change materials for thermal energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aludin M.S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraffin is Phase Change Materials (PCM that possesses desirable properties such as high thermal energy storage and thermal stability to make it suitable for thermal energy storage applications. However, paraffin has been reported to leak out during the melting process. In this study, composites were prepared by dissolving paraffin and polycaprolactone (PCL at varied mass percent compositions in chloroform and then purified through precipitation techniques. The leakage test was conducted by placing the composite samples on a set of four-layer filter papers and left in a furnace at 90°C for 1 hour. By incorporating PCL into paraffin phase, the leakage mass percentage was drastically reduced. The PCL polymer matrix in the composites may have trapped the paraffin molecules during melting process thus prevent it from leaking.

  6. Form-Stable Phase Change Materials Based on Eutectic Mixture of Tetradecanol and Fatty Acids for Building Energy Storage: Preparation and Performance Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiran li

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on preparation and performance analysis of a series of form-stable phase change materials (FSPCMs, based on eutectic mixtures as phase change materials (PCMs for thermal energy storage and high-density polyethylene (HDPE-ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA polymer as supporting materials. The PCMs were eutectic mixtures of tetradecanol (TD–capric acid (CA, TD–lauric acid (LA, and TD–myristic acid (MA, which were rarely explored before. Thermal properties of eutectic mixtures and FSPCMs were measured by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC. The onset melting/solidification temperatures of form-stable PCMs were 19.13 °C/13.32 °C (FS TD–CA PCM, 24.53 °C/24.92 °C (FS TD–LA PCM, and 33.15 °C/30.72 °C (FS TD–MA PCM, respectively, and latent heats were almost greater than 90 J/g. The surface morphologies and chemical stability of form-stable PCM were surveyed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, respectively. The thermal cycling test revealed that the thermal reliability of these three form-stable PCMs was good. Thermal storage/release experiment indicated melting/solidification time was shortened by introducing 10 wt % aluminum powder (AP. It is concluded that these FSPCMs can act as potential building thermal storage materials in terms of their satisfactory thermal properties.

  7. Form-Stable Phase Change Materials Based on Eutectic Mixture of Tetradecanol and Fatty Acids for Building Energy Storage: Preparation and Performance Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingyu; Lu, Shilei; Kong, Xiangfei; Liu, Shangbao; Li, Yiran

    2013-10-22

    This paper is focused on preparation and performance analysis of a series of form-stable phase change materials (FSPCMs), based on eutectic mixtures as phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage and high-density polyethylene (HDPE)-ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) polymer as supporting materials. The PCMs were eutectic mixtures of tetradecanol (TD)-capric acid (CA), TD-lauric acid (LA), and TD-myristic acid (MA), which were rarely explored before. Thermal properties of eutectic mixtures and FSPCMs were measured by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The onset melting/solidification temperatures of form-stable PCMs were 19.13 °C/13.32 °C (FS TD-CA PCM), 24.53 °C/24.92 °C (FS TD-LA PCM), and 33.15 °C/30.72 °C (FS TD-MA PCM), respectively, and latent heats were almost greater than 90 J/g. The surface morphologies and chemical stability of form-stable PCM were surveyed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, respectively. The thermal cycling test revealed that the thermal reliability of these three form-stable PCMs was good. Thermal storage/release experiment indicated melting/solidification time was shortened by introducing 10 wt % aluminum powder (AP). It is concluded that these FSPCMs can act as potential building thermal storage materials in terms of their satisfactory thermal properties.

  8. Preparation and properties of lauric acid/silicon dioxide composites as form-stable phase change materials for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Guiyin; Li Hui; Liu Xu

    2010-01-01

    Form-stable lauric acid (LA)/silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) composite phase change materials were prepared using sol-gel methods. The LA was used as the phase change material for thermal energy storage, with the SiO 2 acting as the supporting material. The structural analysis of these form-stable LA/SiO 2 composite phase change materials was carried out using Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope (FT-IR). The microstructure of the form-stable composite phase change materials was observed by a scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The thermal properties and thermal stability were investigated by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a thermogravimetric analysis apparatus (TGA), respectively. The SEM results showed that the LA was well dispersed in the porous network of SiO 2 . The DSC results indicated that the melting latent heat of the form-stable composite phase change material is 117.21 kJ kg -1 when the mass percentage of the LA in the SiO 2 is 64.8%. The results of the TGA showed that these materials have good thermal stability. The form-stable composite phase change materials can be used for thermal energy storage in waste heat recovery and solar heating systems.

  9. Form-stable paraffin/high density polyethylene composites as solid-liquid phase change material for thermal energy storage: preparation and thermal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, Ahmet

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the preparation of paraffin/high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites as form-stable, solid-liquid phase change material (PCM) for thermal energy storage and with determination of their thermal properties. In such a composite, the paraffin (P) serves as a latent heat storage material and the HDPE acts as a supporting material, which prevents leakage of the melted paraffin because of providing structural strength. Therefore, it is named form-stable composite PCM. In this study, two kinds of paraffins with melting temperatures of 42-44 deg. C (type P1) and 56-58 deg. C (type P2) and latent heats of 192.8 and 212.4 J g -1 were used. The maximum weight percentage for both paraffin types in the PCM composites without any seepage of the paraffin in the melted state were found as high as 77%. It is observed that the paraffin is dispersed into the network of the solid HDPE by investigation of the structure of the composite PCMs using a scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The melting temperatures and latent heats of the form-stable P1/HDPE and P2/HDPE composite PCMs were determined as 37.8 and 55.7 deg. C, and 147.6 and 162.2 J g -1 , respectively, by the technique of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Furthermore, to improve the thermal conductivity of the form-stable P/HDPE composite PCMs, expanded and exfoliated graphite (EG) by heat treatment was added to the samples in the ratio of 3 wt.%. Thereby, the thermal conductivity was increased about 14% for the form-stable P1/HDPE and about 24% for the P2/HDPE composite PCMs. Based on the results, it is concluded that the prepared form-stable P/HDPE blends as composite type PCM have great potential for thermal energy storage applications in terms of their satisfactory thermal properties and improved thermal conductivity. Furthermore, these composite PCMs added with EG can be considered cost effective latent heat storage materials since they do not require encapsulation and extra cost to enhance

  10. Preparation and thermal properties of form-stable palmitic acid/active aluminum oxide composites as phase change materials for latent heat storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Guiyin; Li, Hui; Cao, Lei; Shan, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Form-stable palmitic acid (PA)/active aluminum oxide composites as phase change materials were prepared by adsorbing liquid palmitic acid into active aluminum oxide. In the composites, the palmitic acid was used as latent heat storage materials, and the active aluminum oxide was used as supporting material. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope (FT-IR), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) were used to determine the chemical structure, crystalloid phase and microstructure of the composites, respectively. The thermal properties and thermal stability were investigated by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a thermogravimetry analyzer (TGA). The FT-IR analyses results indicated that there is no chemical interaction between the palmitic acid and active aluminum oxide. The SEM results showed that the palmitic acid was well adsorbed into porous network of the active aluminum oxide. The DSC results indicated that the composites melt at 60.25 °C with a latent heat of 84.48 kJ kg −1 and solidify at 56.86 °C with a latent heat of 78.79 kJ kg −1 when the mass ratio of the PA to active aluminum oxide is 0.9:1. Compared with that of the PA, the melting and solidifying time of the composites CPCM5 was reduced by 20.6% and 21.4% because of the increased heat transfer rate through EG addition. The TGA results showed that the active aluminum oxide can improve the thermal stability of the composites. -- Highlights: ► Form-stable PA/active aluminum oxide composites as PCMs were prepared. ► Chemical structure, crystalloid phase and microstructure of composites were determined. ► Thermal properties and thermal stability of the composites were investigated. ► Expanded graphite can improve thermal conductivity of the composites.

  11. Preparation, morphology and thermal properties of electrospun fatty acid eutectics/polyethylene terephthalate form-stable phase change ultrafine composite fibers for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Yibing; Ke Huizhen; Lin Liang; Fei Xiuzhu; Wei Qufu; Song Lei; Hu Yuan; Fong Hao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Electrospun binary fatty acid eutectics/PET ultrafine composite fibers were prepared. ► Fatty acid eutectics had appropriate phase transition temperature and heat enthalpy. ► Their morphological structures and thermal properties were different from each other. ► Composite fibers could be innovative form-stable PCMs for thermal energy storage. - Abstract: The ultrafine composite fibers based on the composites of binary fatty acid eutectics and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) with varied fatty acid eutectics/PET mass ratios (50/100, 70/100, 100/100 and 120/100) were fabricated using the technique of electrospinning as form-stable phase change materials (PCMs). The five binary fatty acid eutectics including LA–MA, LA–PA, MA–PA, MA–SA and PA–SA were prepared according to Schrader equation, and then were selected as an innovative type of solid–liquid PCMs. The results characterized by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) indicated that the prepared binary fatty acid eutectics with low phase transition temperatures and high heat enthalpies for climatic requirements were more suitable for applications in building energy storage. The structural morphologies, thermal energy storage and thermal stability properties of the ultrafine composite fibers were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM), DSC and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. SEM images revealed that the electrospun binary fatty acid eutectics/PET ultrafine composite fibers possessed the wrinkled surfaces morphologies compared with the neat PET fibers with cylindrical shape and smooth surfaces; the grooves or ridges on the corrugated surface of the ultrafine composite fibers became more and more prominent with increasing fatty acid eutectics amount in the composite fibers. The fibers with the low mass ratio maintained good structural morphologies while the quality became worse when the mass ratio is too high (more than 100/100). DSC measurements

  12. Stable CSR in storage rings: A model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, Fernando; Byrd, John M.; Loftsdottir, Agusta; Venturini, Marco; Abo-Bakr, Michael; Feikes, Jorge; Holldack, Karsten; Kuske, Peter; Wustefeld, Godehart; Hubers, Heinz-Willerm; Warnock, Robert

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive historical view of the work done on coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in storage rings is given in reference [1]. Here we want just to point out that even if the issue of CSR in storage rings was already discussed over 50 years ago, it is only recently that a considerable number of observations have been reported. In fact, intense bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation with a stochastic character were measured in the terahertz frequency range, at several synchrotron light source storage rings [2-8]. It has been shown [8-11], that this bursting emission of CSR is associated with a single bunch instability, usually referred as microbunching instability (MBI), driven by the fields of the synchrotron radiation emitted by the bunch itself. Of remarkably different characteristics was the CSR emission observed at BESSY II in Berlin, when the storage ring was tuned into a special low momentum compaction mode [12, 13]. In fact, the emitted radiation was not the quasi-random bursting observed in the other machines, but a powerful and stable flux of broadband CSR in the terahertz range. This was an important result, because it experimentally demonstrated the concrete possibility of constructing a stable broadband source with extremely high power in the terahertz region. Since the publication of the first successful experiment using the ring as a CSR source [14], BESSY II has regular scheduled user s shifts dedicated to CSR experiments. At the present time, several other laboratories are investigating the possibility of a CSR mode of operation [15-17] and a design for a new ring optimized for CSR is at an advanced stage [18]. In what follows, we describe a model that first accounts for the BESSY II observations and then indicates that the special case of BESSY II is actually quite general and typical when relativistic electron storage rings are tuned for short bunches. The model provides a scheme for predicting and optimizing the performance of ring

  13. Stable CSR in Storage Rings: A Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, F.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive historical view of the work done on coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in storage rings is given in reference [1]. Here we want just to point out that even if the issue of CSR in storage rings was already discussed over 50 years ago, it is only recently that a considerable number of observations have been reported. In fact, intense bursts of coherent synchrotron radiation with a stochastic character were measured in the terahertz frequency range, at several synchrotron light source storage rings [2-8]. It has been shown [8-11], that this bursting emission of CSR is associated with a single bunch instability, usually referred as microbunching instability (MBI), driven by the fields of the synchrotron radiation emitted by the bunch itself. Of remarkably different characteristics was the CSR emission observed at BESSY II in Berlin, when the storage ring was tuned into a special low momentum compaction mode [12, 13]. In fact, the emitted radiation was not the quasi-random bursting observed in the other machines, but a powerful and stable flux of broadband CSR in the terahertz range. This was an important result, because it experimentally demonstrated the concrete possibility of constructing a stable broadband source with extremely high power in the terahertz region. Since the publication of the first successful experiment using the ring as a CSR source [14], BESSY II has regular scheduled user's shifts dedicated to CSR experiments. At the present time, several other laboratories are investigating the possibility of a CSR mode of operation [15-17] and a design for a new ring optimized for CSR is at an advanced stage [18]. In what follows, we describe a model that first accounts for the BESSY II observations and then indicates that the special case of BESSY II is actually quite general and typical when relativistic electron storage rings are tuned for short bunches. The model provides a scheme for predicting and optimizing the performance of ring

  14. Palmitic acid/polypyrrole composites as form-stable phase change materials for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silakhori, Mahyar; Metselaar, Hendrik Simon Cornelis; Mahlia, Teuku Meurah Indra; Fauzi, Hadi; Baradaran, Saeid; Naghavi, Mohammad Sajad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel phase change composite of palmitic acid–polypyrrole(PA–PPy) was fabricated. • Thermal properties of PA–PPy are characterized in different mass ratios of PA–PPy. • Thermal cycling test showed that form stable PCM had a favorable thermal reliability. - Abstract: In this study a novel palmitic acid (PA)/polypyrrole (PPy) form-stable PCMs were readily prepared by in situ polymerization method. PA was used as thermal energy storage material and PPy was operated as supporting material. Form-stable PCMs were investigated by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectrometer) analysis that illustrated PA Particles were wrapped by PPy particles. XRD (X-ray diffractometer) was used for crystalline phase of PA/PPy composites. Thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used for investigating Thermal stability and thermal energy storage properties of prepared form-stable PCMs. According to the obtained results the form stable PCMs exhibited favorable thermal stability in terms of their phase change temperature. The form-stable PCMs (79.9 wt% loading of PA) were considered as the highest loading PCM with desirable latent heat storage of 166.3 J/g and good thermal stability. Accelerated thermal cycling tests also showed that form stable PCM had an acceptable thermal reliability. As a consequence of acceptable thermal properties, thermal stability and chemical stability, we can consider the new kind of form stable PCMs for low temperature solar thermal energy storage applications

  15. A Model Describing Stable Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, F.

    2004-01-01

    We present a model describing high power stable broadband coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz frequency region in an electron storage ring. The model includes distortion of bunch shape from the synchrotron radiation (SR), which enhances higher frequency coherent emission, and limits to stable emission due to an instability excited by the SR wakefield. It gives a quantitative explanation of several features of the recent observations of CSR at the BESSY II storage ring. We also use this model to optimize the performance of a source for stable CSR emission

  16. A model describing stable coherent synchrotron radiation in storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, F.; Byrd, J.M.; Loftsdottir, A.; Venturini, M.; Abo-Bakr, M.; Feikes, J.; Holldack, K.; Kuske, P.; Wuestefeld, G.; Huebers, H.-W.; Warnock, R.

    2004-01-01

    We present a model describing high power stable broadband coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz frequency region in an electron storage ring. The model includes distortion of bunch shape from the synchrotron radiation (SR), which enhances higher frequency coherent emission, and limits to stable emission due to an instability excited by the SR wakefield. It gives a quantitative explanation of several features of the recent observations of CSR at the BESSY II storage ring. We also use this model to optimize the performance of a source for stable CSR emission

  17. Preservation and storage of prepared ballistic gelatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattijssen, E J A T; Alberink, I; Jacobs, B; van den Boogaard, Y

    2016-02-01

    The use of ballistic gelatine, generally accepted as a human muscle tissue simulant in wound ballistic studies, might be improved by adding a preservative (Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate) which inhibits microbial growth. This study shows that replacing a part of the gelatine powder by the preservative does not significantly alter the penetration depth of projectiles. Storing prepared blocks of ballistic gelatine over time decreased the penetration depth of projectiles. Storage of prepared gelatine for 4 week already showed a significant effect on the penetration depth of projectiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Congener Production in Blood Samples During Preparation and Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Søren; Nielsen, Erik

    1995-01-01

    Retsmedicin, congener production, preparation, head space GC, acetone, isobutanol, storage, blood samples, n-propanol, methanol, methylethylketone......Retsmedicin, congener production, preparation, head space GC, acetone, isobutanol, storage, blood samples, n-propanol, methanol, methylethylketone...

  19. Mechanically stable ternary heterogeneous electrodes for energy storage and conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Libo; Zhang, Hongti; Surjadi, James Utama; Li, Peifeng; Han, Ying; Sun, Dong; Lu, Yang

    2018-02-01

    Recently, solid asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC) has been deemed as an emerging portable power storage or backup device for harvesting natural resources. Here we rationally engineered a hierarchical, mechanically stable heterostructured FeCo@NiCo layered double hydroxide (LDH) with superior capacitive performance by a simple two-step electrodeposition route for energy storage and conversion. In situ scanning electron microscope (SEM) nanoindentation and electrochemical tests demonstrated the mechanical robustness and good conductivity of FeCo-LDH. This serves as a reliable backbone for supporting the NiCo-LDH nanosheets. When employed as the positive electrode in the solid ASC, the assembly presents high energy density of 36.6 W h kg -1 at a corresponding power density of 783 W kg -1 and durable cycling stability (87.3% after 5000 cycles) as well as robust mechanical stability without obvious capacitance fading when subjected to bending deformation. To demonstrate its promising capability for practical energy storage applications, the ASC has been employed as a portable energy source to power a commercially available digital watch, mini motor car, or household lamp bulb as well as an energy storage reservoir, coupled with a wind energy harvester to power patterned light-emitting diodes (LEDs).

  20. A simple route to prepare stable hydroxyapatite nanoparticles suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yingchao; Wang Xinyu; Li Shipu

    2009-01-01

    A simple ultrasound assisted precipitation method with addition of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) is proposed to prepare stable hydroxyapatite (HAP) nanoparticles suspension from the mixture of Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 solution and Ca(OH) 2 solution. The product was characterized by XRD, FT-IR, TEM, HRTEM and particle size, and zeta potential analyzer. TEM observation shows that the suspension is composed of 10-20 nm x 20-50 nm short rod-like and 10-30 nm similar spherical HAP nanoparticles. The number-averaged particle size of stable suspension is about 30 nm between 11.6 and 110.5 nm and the zeta potential is -60.9 mV. The increase of stability of HAP nanoparticles suspension mainly depends on the electrostatic effect and steric effect of GAGs. The HAP nanoparticles can be easily transported into the cancer cells and exhibit good potential as gene or drug carrier system.

  1. Preparation and characterization of stable aqueous higher-order fullerenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aich, Nirupam; Flora, Joseph R V; Saleh, Navid B

    2012-01-01

    Stable aqueous suspensions of nC 60 and individual higher fullerenes, i.e. C 70 , C 76 and C 84 , are prepared by a calorimetric modification of a commonly used liquid–liquid extraction technique. The energy requirement for synthesis of higher fullerenes has been guided by molecular-scale interaction energy calculations. Solubilized fullerenes show crystalline behavior by exhibiting lattice fringes in high resolution transmission electron microscopy images. The fullerene colloidal suspensions thus prepared are stable with a narrow distribution of cluster radii (42.7 ± 0.8 nm, 46.0 ± 14.0 nm, 60 ± 3.2 nm and 56.3 ± 1.1 nm for nC 60 , nC 70 , nC 76 and nC 84 , respectively) as measured by time-resolved dynamic light scattering. The ζ-potential values for all fullerene samples showed negative surface potentials with similar magnitude ( − 38.6 ± 5.8 mV, − 39.1 ± 4.2 mV, − 38.9 ± 5.8 mV and − 41.7 ± 5.1 mV for nC 60 , nC 70 , nC 76 and nC 84 , respectively), which provide electrostatic stability to the colloidal clusters. This energy-based modified solubilization technique to produce stable aqueous fullerenes will likely aid in future studies focusing on better applicability, determination of colloidal properties, and understanding of environmental fate, transport and toxicity of higher-order fullerenes. (paper)

  2. Free-anchored Nb2O5@graphene networks for ultrafast-stable lithium storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qinglin; Li, Mengjiao; Wang, Junyong; Jiang, Kai; Hu, Zhigao; Chu, Junhao

    2018-05-01

    Orthorhombic Nb2O5 (T-Nb2O5) has structural merit but poor electrical conductivity, limiting their applications in energy storage. Although graphene is frequently adopted to effectively improve its electrochemical properties, the ordinary modified methods cannot meet the growing demands for high-performance. Here, we demonstrate that different graphene modified routes play a vital role in affecting the electrochemical performances of T-Nb2O5. By only manual shaking within one minute, Nb2O5 nano-particles can be rapidly adsorbed onto graphene, then the free-anchored T-Nb2O5@graphene three-dimensional networks can be successfully prepared based on hydrogel method. As for the application in lithium-ion batteries, it performs outstanding rate character (129 mA h g-1 (25C rate), 110 mA h g-1 (50C rate) and 90 mA h g-1 (100C rate), correspond to 79%, 67% and 55% capacity of 0.5C rate, respectively) and excellent long-term cycling feature (˜70% capacity retention after 20000 cycles). Moreover, it still maintains similar ultrafast-stable lithium storage performances when Cu foil is substituted by Al foil as current collector. In addition, relevant kinetics mechanisms are also expounded. This work provides a versatile strategy for the preparation of graphene modified Nb2O5 or other types of nanoparticles.

  3. Highly stable supercapacitors with conducting polymer core-shell electrodes for energy storage applications

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan

    2015-01-14

    Conducting polymers such as polyaniline (PAni) show a great potential as pseudocapacitor materials for electrochemical energy storage applications. Yet, the cycling instability of PAni resulting from structural alteration is a major hurdle to its commercial application. Here, the development of nanostructured PAni-RuO2 core-shell arrays as electrodes for highly stable pseudocapacitors with excellent energy storage performance is reported. A thin layer of RuO2 grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on PAni nanofibers plays a crucial role in stabilizing the PAni pseudocapacitors and improving their energy density. The pseudocapacitors, which are based on optimized PAni-RuO2 core-shell nanostructured electrodes, exhibit very high specific capacitance (710 F g-1 at 5 mV s-1) and power density (42.2 kW kg-1) at an energy density of 10 Wh kg-1. Furthermore, they exhibit remarkable capacitance retention of ≈88% after 10 000 cycles at very high current density of 20 A g-1, superior to that of pristine PAni-based pseudocapacitors. This prominently enhanced electrochemical stability successfully demonstrates the buffering effect of ALD coating on PAni, which provides a new approach for the preparation of metal-oxide/conducting polymer hybrid electrodes with excellent electrochemical performance.

  4. Preparation of fine powdered composite for latent heat storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fořt, Jan, E-mail: jan.fort.1@fsv.cvut.cz; Trník, Anton, E-mail: anton.trnik@fsv.cvut.cz; Pavlíková, Milena, E-mail: milena.pavlikova@fsv.cvut.cz; Pavlík, Zbyšek, E-mail: pavlikz@fsv.cvut.cz [Department of Materials Engineering and Chemistry, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Thákurova 7, 166 29 Prague (Czech Republic); Pomaleski, Marina, E-mail: marina-pomaleski@fsv.cvut.cz [Faculty of Civil Engineering, Architecture and Urbanism, University of Campinas, R. Saturnino de Brito 224, 13083-889 Campinas – SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-07

    Application of latent heat storage building envelope systems using phase-change materials represents an attractive method of storing thermal energy and has the advantages of high-energy storage density and the isothermal nature of the storage process. This study deals with a preparation of a new type of powdered phase change composite material for thermal energy storage. The idea of a composite is based upon the impregnation of a natural silicate material by a reasonably priced commercially produced pure phase change material and forming the homogenous composite powdered structure. For the preparation of the composite, vacuum impregnation method is used. The particle size distribution accessed by the laser diffraction apparatus proves that incorporation of the organic phase change material into the structure of inorganic siliceous pozzolana does not lead to the clustering of the particles. The compatibility of the prepared composite is characterized by the Fourier transformation infrared analysis (FTIR). Performed DSC analysis shows potential of the developed composite for thermal energy storage that can be easily incorporated into the cement-based matrix of building materials. Based on the obtained results, application of the developed phase change composite can be considered with a great promise.

  5. Photophosphorylation capacity of stable spheroplast preparations of anabaena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, H

    1980-09-01

    Spheroplasts from Anabaena 7119 (formerly designated Nostoc muscorum) were prepared in the presence of serum albumin in 0.5 molar sucrose. Electron transport and photophosphorylation were preserved (> 70% of the maximum rate for 1 week). The pH profile of electron transport and photophosphorylation in the reactions H(2)O --> NADP, H(2)O --> methyl viologen, and H(2)O --> ferricyanide shows that uncoupling by ammonia is small throughout and increases slightly with higher pH. ADP + Pi increased NADP reduction from H(2)O by 2.5-fold. The ratios of ATP formed per electron pair transported ranged from 0.9 to 1.5. Effects of catalase and superoxide dismutase on the overall O(2) balance implicate pseudocyclic electron transport and phosphorylation. The quenching of 9-aminoacridine fluorescence indicates the formation of a Delta pH from 2 to 2.6 during illumination. This pH gradient is abolished by uncouplers; however, complete uncoupling is achieved only by 3-chlorocarbonyl cyanide phenylhydrazone or valinomycin + NH(4) (+). In the presence of NH(4) (+) alone, the membrane potential may act as the driving force for photophosphorylation.Increasing amounts of bovine serum albumin protected phosphorylation from uncoupling by silicomolybdic acid. 3-(3,4-Dichlorophenyl)-1, 1-dimethylurea-insensitive water oxidation by silicomolybdic acid provides evidence that the site for 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1, 1-dimethylurea action is on the acceptor and not donor side of photosystem II in the procaryote Anabaena. It is concluded that stable spheroplasts retain coupled electron transport approaching in vivo rates.

  6. Development of seasonal heat storage based on stable supercooling of a sodium acetate water mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Fan, Jianhua; Andersen, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    A number of heat storage modules for seasonal heat storages based on stable supercooling of a sodium acetate water mixture have been tested by means of experiments in a heat storage test facility. The modules had different volumes and designs. Further, different methods were used to transfer heat...... to and from the sodium acetate water mixture in the modules. By means of the experiments: • The heat exchange capacity rates to and from the sodium acetate water mixture in the heat storage modules were determined for different volume flow rates. • The heat content of the heat storage modules were determined....... • The reliability of the supercooling was elucidated for the heat storage modules for different operation conditions. • The reliability of a cooling method used to start solidification of the supercooled sodium acetate water mixture was elucidated. The method is making use of boiling CO2 in a small tank in good...

  7. Preparation, characterization, and thermal properties of starch microencapsulated fatty acids as phase change materials thermal energy storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable starch-oil composites can be prepared from renewable resources by excess steam jet-cooking aqueous slurries of starch and vegetable oils or other hydrophobic materials. Fatty acids such as stearic acid are promising phase change materials (PCMs) for latent heat thermal energy storage applica...

  8. Measurement of spin motions in a storage ring outside the stable polarization direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akchurin, N.; Badano, L.; Bravar, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro

    1993-06-01

    Polarized, stored beams are becoming a more and more important tool in nuclear and high energy physics. In order to measure the beam polarization in a storage ring the polarization vector of the stored beams has to aim, revolution for revolution, over a period of seconds to minutes, into the same, so-called ''stable'' direction. In this paper measurements at the Indiana University cooler ring (IUCF) are described in which for the first time in a storage ring oscillations of the polarization vector around this stable direction have been measured. The existence and the dynamics of such oscillations are, for instance, important for a new proposed technique for polarizing stored hadron beams

  9. Laboratory test of a prototype heat storage module based on stable supercooling of sodium acetate trihydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Kong, Weiqiang; Fan, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory test of a long term heat storage module utilizing the principle of stable supercooling of 199.5 kg of sodium acetate water mixture has been carried out. Avoiding phase separation of the incongruently melting salt hydrate by using the extra water principle increased the heat storage...... capacity. An external expansion vessel minimized the pressure built up in the module while heating and reduced the risk of instable supercooling. The module was stable supercooled at indoor ambient temperature for up to two months after which it was discharged. The energy discharged after activating...

  10. Long term thermal energy storage with stable supercooled sodium acetate trihydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Schultz, Jørgen M.; Johansen, Jakob Berg

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing stable supercooling of sodium acetate trihydrate makes it possible to store thermal energy partly loss free. This principle makes seasonal heat storage in compact systems possible. To keep high and stable energy content and cycling stability phase separation of the storage material must...... it expands and will cause a pressure built up in a closed chamber which might compromise stability of the supercooling. This can be avoided by having an air volume above the phase change material connected to an external pressure less expansion tank. Supercooled sodium acetate trihydrate at 20 °C stores up...

  11. A MODEL FOR PRODUCING STABLE, BROADBAND TERAHERTZ COHERENT SYNCHROTRON RADIATION IN STORAGE RINGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, Fernando; Byrd, John M.; Loftsdottir, Agusta; Martin, MichaelC.; Venturini, Marco

    2003-01-01

    We present a model for producing stable broadband coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz frequency region in an electron storage ring. The model includes distortion of bunch shape from the synchrotron radiation (SR), enhancing higher frequency coherent emission and limits to stable emission due to a microbunching instability excited by the SR. We use this model to optimize the performance of a source for CSR emission

  12. High-Performance Hydrogen Storage Nanoparticles Inside Hierarchical Porous Carbon Nanofibers with Stable Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guanglin; Chen, Xiaowei; Zhao, Yan; Li, Xingguo; Guo, Zaiping; Jensen, Craig M; Gu, Qinfen; Yu, Xuebin

    2017-05-10

    An effective route based on space-confined chemical reaction to synthesize uniform Li 2 Mg(NH) 2 nanoparticles is reported. The hierarchical pores inside the one-dimensional carbon nanofibers (CNFs), induced by the creation of well-dispersed Li 3 N, serve as intelligent nanoreactors for the reaction of Li 3 N with Mg-containing precursors, resulting in the formation of uniformly discrete Li 2 Mg(NH) 2 nanoparticles. The nanostructured Li 2 Mg(NH) 2 particles inside the CNFs are capable of complete hydrogenation and dehydrogenation at a temperature as low as 105 °C with the suppression of ammonia release. Furthermore, by virtue of the nanosize effects and space-confinement by the porous carbon scaffold, no degradation was observed after 50 de/rehydrogenation cycles at a temperature as low as 130 °C for the as-prepared Li 2 Mg(NH) 2 nanoparticles, indicating excellent reversibility. Moreover, the theoretical calculations demonstrate that the reduction in particle size could significantly enhance the H 2 sorption of Li 2 Mg(NH) 2 by decreasing the relative activation energy barrier, which agrees well with our experimental results. This method could represent an effective, general strategy for synthesizing nanoparticles of complex hydrides with stable reversibility and excellent hydrogen storage performance.

  13. Preparation of thermally stable nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite by hydrothermal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash Parthiban, S; Elayaraja, K; Girija, E K; Yokogawa, Y; Kesavamoorthy, R; Palanichamy, M; Asokan, K; Narayana Kalkura, S

    2009-12-01

    Thermally stable hydroxyapatite (HAp) was synthesized by hydrothermal method in the presence of malic acid. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was done on the synthesized powders. These analyses confirmed the sample to be free from impurities and other phases of calcium phosphates, and were of rhombus morphology along with nanosized particles. IR and Raman analyses indicated the adsorption of malic acid on HAp. Thermal stability of the synthesized HAp was confirmed by DTA and TGA. The synthesized powders were thermally stable upto 1,400 degrees C and showed no phase change. The proposed method might be useful for producing thermally stable HAp which is a necessity for high temperature coating applications.

  14. Highly stable supercapacitors with conducting polymer core-shell electrodes for energy storage applications

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan; Chen, Wei; Wang, Xianbin; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Wei, Nini; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2015-01-01

    commercial application. Here, the development of nanostructured PAni-RuO2 core-shell arrays as electrodes for highly stable pseudocapacitors with excellent energy storage performance is reported. A thin layer of RuO2 grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD

  15. Experimental investigations on prototype heat storage units utilizing stable supercooling of sodium acetate trihydrate mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannemand, Mark; Dragsted, Janne; Fan, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    Laboratory tests of two heat storage units based on the principle of stable supercooling of sodium acetate trihydrate (SAT) mixtures were carried out. One unit was filled with 199.5 kg of SAT with 9% extra water to avoid phase separation of the incongruently melting salt hydrate. The other unit...

  16. Preparation of Stable Amyloid-β Oligomers Without Perturbative Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Samuel A; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2018-01-01

    Soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers have become a focal point in the study of Alzheimer's disease due to their ability to elicit cytotoxicity. A number of recent studies have concentrated on the structural characterization of soluble Aβ oligomers to gain insight into their mechanism of toxicity. Consequently, providing reproducible protocols for the preparation of such oligomers is of utmost importance. The method presented in this chapter details a protocol for preparing an Aβ oligomer, with a primarily disordered secondary structure, without the need for chemical modification or amino acid substitution. Due to the stability of these disordered Aβ oligomers and the reproducibility with which they form, they are amenable for biophysical and high-resolution structural characterization.

  17. Forensic Applications of Light-Element Stable Isotope Ratios of Ricinus communis Seeds and Ricin Preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer, Helen W.; West, Jason B.; Ehleringer, James

    2013-01-01

    Seeds of the castor plant Ricinus communis, also known as castor beans, are of forensic interest because they are the source of the poison ricin. We have tested whether stable isotope ratios of castor seeds and ricin prepared by various methods can be used as a forensic signature. We collected over 300 castor seed samples from locations around the world and measured the C, N, O, and H stable isotope ratios of the whole seeds, oil, and three types of ricin preparations. Our results demonstrate that N isotope ratios can be used to correlate ricin prepared by any of these methods to source seeds. Further, stable isotope ratios distinguished >99% of crude and purified ricin protein samples in pair-wise comparison tests. Stable isotope ratios therefore constitute a valuable forensic signature for ricin preparations.

  18. Hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (lyral) in patch test preparations under varied storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Dathan; Hamann, Carsten R; Zimerson, Erik; Bruze, Magnus

    2013-01-01

    The common practice of preparing patch tests in advance has recently been called into question by researchers. It has been established that fragrance compounds are volatile and their testing efficacy may be affected by storage conditions and preparation. Allergens in fragrance mix I rapidly decrease in concentration after preapplication to test chambers. This study aimed to investigate the volatility of hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HICC) in petrolatum when stored in test chambers and to explore the correlation between vapor pressure and allergen loss in petrolatum during preparation and storage. Standardized HICC in petrolatum was prepared and stored in IQ Chambers and Finn Chambers with covers at 5°C, 25°C, and 35°C, and concentration was analyzed at intervals for up to 9 days using gel permeation chromatography. Changes in HICC concentrations were not statistically significant at 8 hours at 5°C, 25°C, and 35°C. After 9 days, HICC concentrations were found to fall approximately 30% when stored at 35°C, 10% at 25°C, and less than 5% at 5°C. There was no significant difference between IQ and Finn chambers. Hydroxyisohexyl 3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde concentrations are more stable in petrolatum than many other studied fragrance allergens, but HICC is still at risk for decreasing concentration when exposed to ambient air or heat for prolonged periods.

  19. Preparation and Characterization of Stable α-Synuclein Lipoprotein Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Cédric; Campioni, Silvia; Kowal, Julia; Maslennikov, Innokentiy; Gerez, Juan; Liu, Xiaoxia; Verasdonck, Joeri; Nespovitaya, Nadezhda; Choe, Senyon; Meier, Beat H; Picotti, Paola; Rizo, Josep; Stahlberg, Henning; Riek, Roland

    2016-04-15

    Multiple neurodegenerative diseases are caused by the aggregation of the human α-Synuclein (α-Syn) protein. α-Syn possesses high structural plasticity and the capability of interacting with membranes. Both features are not only essential for its physiological function but also play a role in the aggregation process. Recently it has been proposed that α-Syn is able to form lipid-protein particles reminiscent of high-density lipoproteins. Here, we present a method to obtain a stable and homogeneous population of nanometer-sized particles composed of α-Syn and anionic phospholipids. These particles are called α-Syn lipoprotein (nano)particles to indicate their relationship to high-density lipoproteins formed by human apolipoproteins in vivo and of in vitro self-assembling phospholipid bilayer nanodiscs. Structural investigations of the α-Syn lipoprotein particles by circular dichroism (CD) and magic angle solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS SS-NMR) spectroscopy establish that α-Syn adopts a helical secondary structure within these particles. Based on cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) α-Syn lipoprotein particles have a defined size with a diameter of ∼23 nm. Chemical cross-linking in combination with solution-state NMR and multiangle static light scattering (MALS) of α-Syn particles reveal a high-order protein-lipid entity composed of ∼8-10 α-Syn molecules. The close resemblance in size between cross-linked in vitro-derived α-Syn lipoprotein particles and a cross-linked species of endogenous α-Syn from SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells indicates a potential functional relevance of α-Syn lipoprotein nanoparticles. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Physico-chemical properties of ready to eat, shelf-stable pasta during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carini, E; Curti, E; Cassotta, F; Najm, N E O; Vittadini, E

    2014-02-01

    The changes in physico-chemical properties of RTE shelf stable pasta were studied during storage with a multianalytical and multidimensional approach (with special focus on water status) to understand the ageing process in this product. Pasta hardness and amylopectin recrystallisation increased, macroscopic water status indicators and proton molecular translational mobility remained constant, and significant changes were measured in the proton rotational molecular mobility indicators ((1)H FID, (1)H T2) during storage. Since the main changes observed in RTE pasta during storage were similar to those observed in other cereal-based products, it would be interesting to verify the effect of the anti-staling methods commonly used in the cereal processing industry in improving RTE pasta shelf-stability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Plutonium dioxide storage: Conditions for preparation and handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haschke, J.M.; Ricketts, T.E.

    1995-08-01

    Desorption and adsorption of plutonium dioxide are derived from production-scale experiments that demonstrate techniques of preparing weapons-grade material for extended storage. In combination with data from literature, results define conditions for preparing and certifying PuO 2 and provide essential information for developing and implementing a repackaging process compliant with DOE standards for safe storage of plutonium. As demonstrated by loss-on-ignition (LOI) analysis, adsorbates are effectively removed by heating the oxide in air at 950 C for two hours. After oxides are fired at this temperature, specific surface areas are consistently less than 5 m 2 /g. Due to this low surface area, water adsorption by fired oxide is limited to a maximum of 0.2 mass % at 50% relative humidity. Kinetic data for the adsorption process show that water is accommodated on the oxide surface by a sequence of distinct first-order steps comprising five types of adsorbate interaction and accumulating ten molecular layers of H 2 0 at 100% humidity. An equation defining the humidity dependence of the adsorption rate during the first step is applied in estimating time periods that a fired oxide may remain in given configurations without detrimental adsorption. Particle size measurements show that the source terms for environmental dispersal of oxides prepared by hydride-catalyzed reaction of metal and by oxalate calcination are approximately 20 and 0.1 mass %, respectively, and that the values are reduced by firing. Evidence for a chemical reaction between dioxide and water is discussed and practical applications of the results to oxide stabilization and LOI analysis are presented

  2. Heat storage in forest biomass significantly improves energy balance closure particularly during stable conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindroth, A.; Mölder, M.; Lagergren, F.

    2009-08-01

    Temperature measurements in trunks and branches in a mature ca. 100 years-old mixed pine and spruce forest in central Sweden were used to estimate the heat storage in the tree biomass. The estimated heat flux in the sample trees and data on biomass distributions were used to scale up to stand level biomass heat fluxes. The rate of change of sensible and latent heat storage in the air layer below the level of the flux measurements was estimated from air temperature and humidity profile measurements and soil heat flux was estimated from heat flux plates and soil temperature measurements. The fluxes of sensible and latent heat from the forest were measured with an eddy covariance system in a tower. The analysis was made for a two-month period in summer of 1995. The tree biomass heat flux was the largest of the estimated storage components and varied between 40 and -35 W m-2 on summer days with nice weather. Averaged over two months the diurnal maximum of total heat storage was 45 W m-2 and the minimum was -35 W m-2. The soil heat flux and the sensible heat storage in air were out of phase with the biomass flux and they reached maximum values that were about 75% of the maximum of the tree biomass heat storage. The energy balance closure improved significantly when the total heat storage was added to the turbulent fluxes. The slope of a regression line with sum of fluxes and storage as independent and net radiation as dependent variable, increased from 0.86 to 0.95 for half-hourly data and the scatter was also reduced. The most significant finding was, however, that during nights with strongly stable conditions when the sensible heat flux dropped to nearly zero, the total storage matched the net radiation nearly perfectly. Another interesting result was that the mean energy imbalance started to increase when the Richardson number became more negative than ca. -0.1. In fact, the largest energy deficit occurred at maximum instability. Our conclusion is that eddy

  3. High-energy, stable and recycled molecular solar thermal storage materials using AZO/graphene hybrids by optimizing hydrogen bonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen; Feng, Yiyu; Qin, Chengqun; Li, Man; Li, Shipei; Cao, Chen; Long, Peng; Liu, Enzuo; Hu, Wenping; Yoshino, Katsumi; Feng, Wei

    2015-10-21

    An important method for establishing a high-energy, stable and recycled molecular solar heat system is by designing and preparing novel photo-isomerizable molecules with a high enthalpy and a long thermal life by controlling molecular interactions. A meta- and ortho-bis-substituted azobenzene chromophore (AZO) is covalently grafted onto reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for solar thermal storage materials. High grafting degree and close-packed molecules enable intermolecular hydrogen bonds (H-bonds) for both trans-(E) and cis-(Z) isomers of AZO on the surface of nanosheets, resulting in a dramatic increase in enthalpy and lifetime. The metastable Z-form of AZO on RGO is thermally stabilized with a half-life of 52 days by steric hindrance and intermolecular H-bonds calculated using density functional theory (DFT). The AZO-RGO fuel shows a high storage capacity of 138 Wh kg(-1) by optimizing intermolecular H-bonds with a good cycling stability for 50 cycles induced by visible light at 520 nm. Our work opens up a new method for making advanced molecular solar thermal storage materials by tuning molecular interactions on a nano-template.

  4. Preparation and thermal properties of form stable paraffin phase change material encapsulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xing; Liu Hongyan; Wang Shujun; Zhang Lu; Cheng Hua

    2006-01-01

    Paraffin waxes are cheap and have moderate thermal energy storage density but low thermal conductivity and, hence, require large surface area to be used in energy storage. Form stable paraffin phase change materials (PCM) in which paraffin serves as a latent heat storage material and polyolefins act as a supporting material, because of paraffin leakage, are required to be improved. The form stable paraffin PCM in the present paper was encapsulated in an inorganic silica gel polymer successfully by in situ polymerization. The differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was used to measure its thermal properties. At the same time, the Washburn equation, which measures the wetting properties of powder materials, was used to test the hydrophilic-lipophilic properties of the PCMs. The result indicated that the enthalpy of the microencapsulated PCMs was reduced little, while their hydrophilic properties were enhanced largely

  5. Experimental and numerical investigation of form-stable dodecane/hydrophobic fumed silica composite phase change materials for cold energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jiajie; Ling, Ziye; Fang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Zhengguo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Form-stable dodecane/fumed silica composite for cold storage is prepared. • A suggesting hypothesis that explains infiltration mechanism is proposed. • The performance of the composite phase change material is investigated. • Numerical simulation of system is carried out and results fit well. - Abstract: A kind of form-stable composite phase change materials used for cold thermal energy storage is prepared by absorbing dodecane into the hydrophobic fumed silica. With relatively suitable pore diameter and hydrophobic groups, hydrophobic fumed silica is beneficial to the penetration and infiltration of dodecane and the leakage problem solving. Scanned by electron micrographs and Fourier transformation infrared, the composite phase change material is characterized to be just physical penetration. Besides, the differential scanning calorimeter and thermo gravimetric analysis reveals the high enthalpy, good thermal stability and cycling performance of this composite phase change material. What’s more, Hot-Disk thermal constants analyzer demonstrates that the composite phase change material has low thermal conductivity which is desired in cold storage application. In the experiment, a cold energy storage system is set up and the results from the experiment show that the system has excellent performance of cold storage by incorporating composite phase change material. Apart from that, the experimental data is found to have a great agreement with the numerical simulation which is carried out by using the commercial computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT.

  6. Measurement of spin motions in a storage ring outside the stable polarization direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akchurin, N.; McPherson, J.; Olchowski, F.; Onel, Y.; Badano, L.; Conte, M.; Bravar, A.; Penzo, A.; Hall, J.; Kreiser, H.

    1993-01-01

    Polarized, stored beams are becoming a more and more important tool in nuclear and high energy physics. In order to measure the beam polarization in a storage ring the polarization vector of the stored beam has to aim, revolution for revolution, over a period of seconds to minutes, into the same, so-called open-quote stableclose quotes, direction. In this paper measurements at the Indiana University Cooler Ring (IUCF) are described in which for the first time in a storage ring oscillations of the polarization vector around this stable direction have been measured. The existence and the dynamics of such oscillations are, for instance, important for a new proposed technique for polarizing stored hadron beams

  7. Radioreceptor assay for benzodiazepines in biological fluids using a new dry and stable receptor preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, J.

    1981-01-01

    A method for determination of benzodiazepines in human blood, plasma, saliva and urine has been developed. The method is based upon the competition between 3 H-flunitrazepam and biologically active benzodiazepines in biological fluids for brain specific receptors, prepared in a stable, dry form and easy to handle. The pharmacological specificity for benzodiazepines of the dry stable receptor preparation is closely similar to that of fresh membrane-bound rat brain receptors. The method is specific for biologically active benzodiazepines; it is relatively rapid, sensitive and reproducible, and can be performed at room temperature. (author)

  8. Lithium storage properties of multiwall carbon nanotubes prepared by CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, J.-O.; Andong National University,; Wang, G.X.; Liu, H.K.; Dou, S.X.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesised by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) method using acetylene gas. The XRD pattern of as prepared carbon nanotubes showed that the d 002 value is 3.44 Angstroms. The morphology and microstructure of carbon nanotubes were characterized by HRTEM. Most of carbon nanotubes are entangled together to form bundles or ropes. The diameter of the carbon nanotubes is in the range of 10 ∼ 20 nm. There is a small amount of amorphous carbon particles presented in the sample. However, the yield of carbon nanotubes is more than 95%. Electrochemical properties of carbon nanotubes were characterised via a variety of electrochemical testing techniques. The result of CV test showed that the Li insertion potential is quite low, which is very close to O V versus Li + /Li reference electrode, whereas the potential for Li de-intercalation is in the range of 0.2-0.4 V. There exists a slight voltage hysteresis between Li intercalation and Li de-intercalation, which is similar to the other carbonaceous materials. The intensity of redox peaks of carbon nanotubes decrease with scanning cycle, indicating that the reversible Li insertion capacity gradually decreases. The carbon nanotubes electrode demonstrated a reversible lithium storage capacity of 340 mAh/g with good cyclability at moderate current density. Further improvement of Li storage capacity is possible by opening the end of carbon nanotubes to allow lithium insertion into inner graphene sheet of carbon nanotubes. The kinetic properties of lithium insertion in carbon nanotube electrodes were characterised by a.c. impedance measurements. It was found that the lithium diffusion coefficient d Li decreases with an increase of Li ion concentration in carbon nanotube host

  9. Global analysis of all linear stable settings of a storage ring lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S Robin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The traditional process of designing and tuning the magnetic lattice of a particle storage ring lattice to produce certain desired properties is not straightforward. Often solutions are found through trial and error and it is not clear that the solutions are close to optimal. This can be a very unsatisfying process. In this paper we take a step back and look at the general stability limits of the lattice. We employ a technique we call GLASS (GLobal scan of All Stable Settings that allows us to rapidly scan and find all possible stable modes and then characterize their associated properties. In this paper we illustrate how the GLASS technique gives a global and comprehensive vision of the capabilities of the lattice. In a sense, GLASS functions as a lattice observatory clearly displaying all possibilities. The power of the GLASS technique is that it is fast and comprehensive. There is no fitting involved. It gives the lattice designer clear guidance as to where to look for interesting operational points. We demonstrate the technique by applying it to two existing storage ring lattices—the triple bend achromat of the Advanced Light Source and the double bend achromat of CAMD. We show that, using GLASS, we have uncovered many interesting and in some cases previously unknown stability regions.

  10. Activated carbon derived from waste coffee grounds for stable methane storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, K Christian; Baek, Seung Bin; Lee, Wang-Geun; Kim, Kwang S; Meyyappan, M

    2015-01-01

    An activated carbon material derived from waste coffee grounds is shown to be an effective and stable medium for methane storage. The sample activated at 900 °C displays a surface area of 1040.3 m"2 g"−"1 and a micropore volume of 0.574 cm"3 g"−"1 and exhibits a stable CH_4 adsorption capacity of ∼4.2 mmol g"−"1 at 3.0 MPa and a temperature range of 298 ± 10 K. The same material exhibits an impressive hydrogen storage capacity of 1.75 wt% as well at 77 K and 100 kPa. Here, we also propose a mechanism for the formation of activated carbon from spent coffee grounds. At low temperatures, the material has two distinct types with low and high surface areas; however, activation at elevated temperatures drives off the low surface area carbon, leaving behind the porous high surface area activated carbon. (paper)

  11. Hierarchically Macroporous Graphitic Nanowebs Exhibiting Ultra-fast and Stable Charge Storage Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Young Soo

    2018-02-01

    The macro/microstructures of carbon-based electrode materials for supercapacitor applications play a key role in their electrochemical performance. In this study, hierarchically macroporous graphitic nanowebs (HM-GNWs) were prepared from bacterial cellulose by high-temperature heating at 2400 °C. The HM-GNWs were composed of well-developed graphitic nanobuilding blocks with a high aspect ratio, which was entangled as a nanoweb structure. The morphological and microstructural characteristics of the HM-GNWs resulted in remarkable charge storage performance. In particular, the HM-GNWs exhibited very fast charge storage behaviors at scan rates ranging from 5 to 100 V s-1, in which area capacitances ranging from 8.9 to 3.8 mF cm-2 were achieved. In addition, 97% capacitance retention was observed after long-term cycling for more than 1,000,000 cycles.

  12. Experimental studies on seasonal heat storage based on stable supercooling of a sodium acetate water mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Dragsted, Janne; Fan, Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    to transfer heat to and from the module have been tested. Further, a solidification start method, based on a strong cooling of a small part of the salt water mixture in the module by boiling CO2 in a small brass tank in good thermal contact to the outer side of the module wall, has been tested. Tests......Laboratory tests of a 230 l seasonal heat storage module with a sodium acetate water mixture have been carried out. The aim of the tests is to elucidate how best to design a seasonal heat storage based on the salt water mixture, which supercools in a stable way. The module can be a part...... of a seasonal heat storage, that will be suitable for solar heating systems which can fully cover the yearly heat demand of Danish low energy buildings. The tested module has approximately the dimensions 2020 mm x 1285 mm x 80 mm. The module material is steel and the wall thickness is 2 mm. Different methods...

  13. Preparation, characterization and thermal properties of styrene maleic anhydride copolymer (SMA)/fatty acid composites as form stable phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, Ahmet; Alkan, Cemil; Karaipekli, Ali; Onal, Adem

    2008-01-01

    Fatty acids such as stearic acid (SA), palmitic acid (PA), myristic acid (MA) and lauric acid (LA) are promising phase change materials (PCMs) for latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) applications, but high cost is the major drawback of them, limiting their utility area in thermal energy storage. The use of fatty acids as form stable PCMs will increase their feasibilities in practical applications due to the reduced cost of the LHTES system. In this regard, a series of styrene maleic anhydride copolymer (SMA)/fatty acid composites, SMA/SA, SMA/PA, SMA/MA, and SMA/LA, were prepared as form stable PCMs by encapsulation of fatty acids into the SMA, which acts as a supporting material. The encapsulation ratio of fatty acids was as much as 85 wt.% and no leakage of fatty acid was observed even when the temperature of the form stable PCM was over the melting point of the fatty acid in the composite. The prepared form stable composite PCMs were characterized using optic microscopy (OM), viscosimetry and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy methods, and the results showed that the SMA was physically and chemically compatible with the fatty acids. In addition, the thermal characteristics such as melting and freezing temperatures and latent heats of the form stable composite PCMs were measured by using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique, which indicated they had good thermal properties. On the basis of all the results, it was concluded that form stable SMA/fatty acid composite PCMs had important potential for practical LHTES applications such as under floor space heating of buildings and passive solar space heating of buildings by using wallboard, plasterboard or floors impregnated with a form stable PCM due to their satisfying thermal properties, easy preparation in desired dimensions, direct usability without needing additional encapsulation thereby eliminating the thermal resistance caused by the shell and, thus, reducing the cost of

  14. Study on thermal property of lauric–palmitic–stearic acid/vermiculite composite as form-stable phase change material for energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The form-stable composite phase change material of lauric–palmitic–stearic acid ternary eutectic mixture/vermiculite was prepared by vacuum impregnation method for thermal energy storage. The maximum mass fraction of lauric–palmitic–stearic acid ternary eutectic mixture retained in vermiculite was determined as 50 wt% without melted phase change material seepage from the composite phase change material. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope and scanning electron microscope were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the prepared lauric–palmitic–stearic acid ternary eutectic mixture/vermiculite form-stable composite phase change material, and the results indicate that lauric–palmitic–stearic acid ternary eutectic mixture was well confined into the layer porous structure of vermiculite by physical reaction. The melting and freezing temperatures and latent heats were measured by differential scanning calorimeter as 31.4°C and 30.3°C, and 75.8 and 73.2 J/g, respectively. Thermal cycling test showed that there was no significant change in the thermal properties of lauric–palmitic–stearic acid ternary eutectic mixture/vermiculite form-stable composite phase change material after 1000 thermal cycles. Moreover, 2 wt% expanded graphite was added to improve the thermal conductivity of lauric–palmitic–stearic acid ternary eutectic mixture/vermiculite form-stable composite phase change material. All results indicated that the prepared lauric–palmitic–stearic acid ternary eutectic mixture/vermiculite form-stable composite phase change material had suitable thermal properties and good thermal reliability for the application of thermal energy storage in building energy efficiency.

  15. Deep wells integrated with microfluidic valves for stable docking and storage of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yun-Ho; Kwon, Cheong Hoon; Kim, Sang Bok; Selimović, Seila; Sim, Woo Young; Bae, Hojae; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, we describe a microfluidic mechanism that combines microfluidic valves and deep wells for cell localization and storage. Cells are first introduced into the device via externally controlled flow. Activating on-chip valves was used to interrupt the flow and to sediment the cells floating above the wells. Thus, valves could be used to localize the cells in the desired locations. We quantified the effect of valves in the cell storage process by comparing the total number of cells stored with and without valve activation. We hypothesized that in deep wells external flows generate low shear stress regions that enable stable, long-term docking of cells. To assess this hypothesis we conducted numerical calculations to understand the influence of well depth on the forces acting on cells. We verified those predictions experimentally by comparing the fraction of stored cells as a function of the well depth and input flow rate upon activation of the valves. As expected, upon reintroduction of the flow the cells in the deep wells were not moved whereas those in shallow wells were washed away. Taken together, our paper demonstrates that deep wells and valves can be combined to enable a broad range of cell studies. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Stable preparations of tyrosine hydroxylase provide the solution structure of the full-length enzyme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezem, Maria T.; Baumann, Anne; Skjærven, Lars; Meyer, Romain; Kursula, Petri; Martinez, Aurora; Flydal, Marte I.

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of catecholamine neurotransmitters. TH is a highly complex enzyme at mechanistic, structural, and regulatory levels, and the preparation of kinetically and conformationally stable enzyme for structural characterization has been challenging. Here, we report on improved protocols for purification of recombinant human TH isoform 1 (TH1), which provide large amounts of pure, stable, active TH1 with an intact N-terminus. TH1 purified through fusion with a His-tagged maltose-binding protein on amylose resin was representative of the iron-bound functional enzyme, showing high activity and stabilization by the natural feedback inhibitor dopamine. TH1 purified through fusion with a His-tagged ZZ domain on TALON is remarkably stable, as it was partially inhibited by resin-derived cobalt. This more stable enzyme preparation provided high-quality small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data and reliable structural models of full-length tetrameric TH1. The SAXS-derived model reveals an elongated conformation (Dmax = 20 nm) for TH1, different arrangement of the catalytic domains compared with the crystal structure of truncated forms, and an N-terminal region with an unstructured tail that hosts the phosphorylation sites and a separated Ala-rich helical motif that may have a role in regulation of TH by interacting with binding partners. PMID:27462005

  17. Preparing side charging of PCM storage: theoretical and experimental investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesfay, A H; Nydal, O J; Hagos, F Y; Yohannes, K G; Kahsay, M B

    2015-01-01

    In Ethiopia, there is an abundant source of solar energy that is estimated to 5.3 kWh/m 2 /day. However, more than 90% of the society uses biomass as a main source of energy for cooking due to lack of technologies to convert this energy. Replacing these cooking activities by using renewable energy resources decreases pollution and reduces deforestation significantly. Using the solar energy in day time has no problem. For night time however, the system needs some kind of back-up system to make the daytime solar energy available. This back-up should have high-density energy storage and constant working temperature to perform a specific application. Latent heat storage using phase change materials (PCM) is one way of storing thermal energy. In the current study, a latent heat storage that uses a PCM material is used to store the solar energy aimed at utilizing solar energy for cooking Injera, main staple bread in Ethiopia. The PCM is a mixture of 60% NaNO 3 and 40% KNO 3 that are known as solar salts. The storage has a welded parallel aluminum fins with a gap of 40 mm in between to enhance the thermal conductivity during the charging-discharging process of the storage. The fins are extruded outside of the storage container to enable a side charging technique for the PCM. A prototype was developed with a solar salt of 17.5 kg and is tested for charging-discharging. The numerical simulation done on ANSYS and experimental results show an agreement and the system registered a 41.6% efficiency. (paper)

  18. Preparation of stable alginate microcapsules coated with chitosan or polyethyleneimine for extraction of heavy metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outokesh, Mohammad; Mimura, Hitoshi; Niibori, Yuichi; Tanaka, Kouichi

    2006-05-01

    Stable alginate microcapsules in dried form containing bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) monothiophosphinic acid (HA) were prepared by coating of fresh alginate microcapsules with chitosan or polyethyleneimine (PEI). The thickness of coatings was estimated by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), along with electron microscopy (SEM), as well as comparison of uptake percentage of coated and uncoated hollow capsules. Characterization of microcapsules was carried out by Ag(+) uptake experiments, destructive chemical analyses and thermogravimetric methods (TG and DTA). Chemical stability tests in HNO(3) and NaNO(3) media indicated that the coating with 4-double layer chitosan or mono-layer PEI led to an appreciable enhancement of impermeability in the range of pH > 1 or [Na(+)] microcapsules nearly completely hold their extractant content. Stable extractive microcapsules have an appreciable potential for the selective removal of heavy metal ions.

  19. Self-assembled air-stable magnesium hydride embedded in 3-D activated carbon for reversible hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, S S; Kim, Dong-Hyung; Yu, Jin-Young; Lee, Jung-Ho

    2017-06-01

    The rational design of stable, inexpensive catalysts with excellent hydrogen dynamics and sorption characteristics under realistic environments for reversible hydrogen storage remains a great challenge. Here, we present a simple and scalable strategy to fabricate a monodispersed, air-stable, magnesium hydride embedded in three-dimensional activated carbon with periodic synchronization of transition metals (MHCH). The high surface area, homogeneous distribution of MgH 2 nanoparticles, excellent thermal stability, high energy density, steric confinement by carbon, and robust architecture of the catalyst resulted in a noticeable enhancement of the hydrogen storage performance. The resulting MHCH-5 exhibited outstanding hydrogen storage performance, better than that of most reported Mg-based hydrides, with a high storage density of 6.63 wt% H 2 , a rapid kinetics loading in hydrogenation compared to that of commercial MgH 2 . The origin of the intrinsic hydrogen thermodynamics was elucidated via solid state 1 H NMR. This work presents a readily scaled-up strategy towards the design of realistic catalysts with superior functionality and stability for applications in reversible hydrogen storage, lithium ion batteries, and fuel cells.

  20. Organ culture storage of pre-prepared corneal donor material for Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhogal, Maninder; Matter, Karl; Balda, Maria S; Allan, Bruce D

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of media composition and storage method on pre-prepared Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) grafts. 50 corneas were used. Endothelial wound healing and proliferation in different media were assessed using a standard injury model. DMEK grafts were stored using three methods: peeling with free scroll storage; partial peeling with storage on the stroma and fluid bubble separation with storage on the stroma. Endothelial cell (EC) phenotype and the extent of endothelial overgrowth were examined. Global cell viability was assessed for storage methods that maintained a normal cell phenotype. 1 mm wounds healed within 4 days. Enhanced media did not increase EC proliferation but may have increased EC migration into the wounded area. Grafts that had been trephined showed evidence of EC overgrowth, whereas preservation of a physical barrier in the bubble group prevented this. In grafts stored in enhanced media or reapposed to the stroma after trephination, endothelial migration occurred sooner and cells underwent endothelial-mesenchymal transformation. Ongoing cell loss, with new patterns of cell death, was observed after returning grafts to storage. Grafts stored as free scrolls retained more viable ECs than grafts prepared with the fluid bubble method (74.2± 3% vs 60.3±6%, p=0.04 (n=8). Free scroll storage is superior to liquid bubble and partial peeling techniques. Free scrolls only showed overgrowth of ECs after 4 days in organ culture, indicating a viable time window for the clinical use of pre-prepared DMEK donor material using this method. Methods for tissue preparation and storage media developed for whole corneas should not be used in pre-prepared DMEK grafts without prior evaluation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Preparation of organo clays thermally stable to be employed as filler in PET nano composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, I.F.; Soares, A.P.S.; Silva, S.M.L.; Malta, O.M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Thermal stability of organically modified clays is fundamental to melt processing polymer nanocomposites, especially, poly(terephthalate ethylene) (PET). However, the use of organic salts with high thermal stability is factor essential to obtaining of organoclays with great thermal properties. This work has as purpose to evaluate the influence of organic modifier based on alkyl ammonium, alkyl phosphonium and aryl phosphonium, in the clay organic modification visa to improve thermal properties to use as filler in nanocomposites preparation, where temperatures at about 260 deg C will be employed. The most common, and commercially available, surfactants used for cation exchange reactions with montmorillonites, rendering them organophilic, are quaternary ammonium salts, that when present as cations in montmorillonite, typically begin degradation at above 200 deg C. However, organoclays prepared with quaternary alkyl phosphonium salts may be potentially useful for the organoclays preparation stable thermally. In this study bentonite clay from Bentonit Uniao Nordeste/PB was purified and organically modified with the organic salts reported above. Organoclays were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and analysis thermogravimetry. The results shown that the samples modified with the salts based on phosphonium presented higher thermal stability that the alkyl ammonium salt. (author)

  2. Preparation of stable tea seed oil nano-particle emulsions by a low energy method with non-ionic surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kanlayavattanakul

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tea seed oil nano-particle emulsions were prepared. Non-ionic surfactants containing Tween 80 and Span 80 (1:1, w/w were mixed with propanol (3-9:1, w/w to give Smix, which was thereafter mixed with tea seed oil. The mixture was titrated with water at 150 rpm to give clear or bluish and bluish-white emulsions. Twelve nano-particle emulsions with 64.64 to 72.73% Smix, 16.66 to 27.27% oil and 9.09 to 16.67% water with particle sizes between 207.00 to 430.10 nm, PDI of 0 to 0.4, ζ-potential of -42.00 to -49.63 mV, pH of 7.04 to 7.32 and 151.33 to 241.93 cps, were stable following an accelerated stability test and long term storage at room temperature and 4 and 45 ºC for 90 days, although one system (16.66% oil and 66.67% Smix was separated. This nano-particle emulsion formulation is concise and feasible for an industrial development of topical products containing tea seed oil.

  3. Preparation of stable tea seed oil nano-particle emulsions by a low energy method with non-ionic surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanlayavattanakul, M.; Lourith, N.

    2017-01-01

    Tea seed oil nano-particle emulsions were prepared. Non-ionic surfactants containing Tween 80 and Span 80 (1:1, w/w) were mixed with propanol (3-9:1, w/w) to give Smix, which was thereafter mixed with tea seed oil. The mixture was titrated with water at 150 rpm to give clear or bluish and bluish-white emulsions. Twelve nano-particle emulsions with 64.64 to 72.73% Smix, 16.66 to 27.27% oil and 9.09 to 16.67% water with particle sizes between 207.00 to 430.10 nm, PDI of 0 to 0.4, ζ-potential of -42.00 to -49.63 mV, pH of 7.04 to 7.32 and 151.33 to 241.93 cps, were stable following an accelerated stability test and long term storage at room temperature and 4 and 45 ºC for 90 days, although one system (16.66% oil and 66.67% Smix) was separated. This nano-particle emulsion formulation is concise and feasible for an industrial development of topical products containing tea seed oil. [es

  4. Thermally Stable Bulk Heterojunction Prepared by Sequential Deposition of Nanostructured Polymer and Fullerene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heewon Hwang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A morphologically-stable polymer/fullerene heterojunction has been prepared by minimizing the intermixing between polymer and fullerene via sequential deposition (SqD of a polymer and a fullerene solution. A low crystalline conjugated polymer of PCPDTBT (poly[2,6-(4,4-bis-(2-ethylhexyl-4H-cyclopenta [2,1-b;3,4-b′]dithiophene-alt-4,7(2,1,3-benzothiadiazole] has been utilized for the polymer layer and PC71BM (phenyl-C71-butyric-acid-methyl ester for the fullerene layer, respectively. Firstly, a nanostructured PCPDTBT bottom layer was developed by utilizing various additives to increase the surface area of the polymer film. The PC71BM solution was prepared by dissolving it in the 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE, exhibiting a lower vapor pressure and slower diffusion into the polymer layer. The deposition of the PC71BM solution on the nanostructured PCPDTBT layer forms an inter-digitated bulk heterojunction (ID-BHJ with minimized intermixing. The organic photovoltaic (OPV device utilizing the ID-BHJ photoactive layer exhibits a highly reproducible solar cell performance. In spite of restricted intermixing between the PC71BM and the PCPDTBT, the efficiency of ID-BHJ OPVs (3.36% is comparable to that of OPVs (3.87% prepared by the conventional method (deposition of a blended solution of polymer:fullerene. The thermal stability of the ID-BHJ is superior to the bulk heterojunction (BHJ prepared by the conventional method. The ID-BHJ OPV maintains 70% of its initial efficiency after thermal stress application for twelve days at 80 °C, whereas the conventional BHJ OPV maintains only 40% of its initial efficiency.

  5. Synthesis, characterization, and catalytic properties of stable mesoporous molecular sieve MCM-41 prepared from zeolite mordenite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shan; Dou Tao; Li Yuping; Zhang Ying; Li Xiaofeng; Yan Zichun

    2004-01-01

    Mesoporous molecular sieves (denoted as M-MCM-41) with ordered hexagonal structure have been successfully synthesized from the assembly of precursors from preformed zeolite Mordenite with CTAB surfactant micelle in alkaline media. The samples were characterized by XRD, N 2 adsorption, IR and DTG. The materials exhibit highly hydrothermal stability, as compared with conventional MCM-41. Characterization results indicate that the mesoporous walls of M-MCM-41 contain the secondary building units similar to those in microporous crystal of zeolite Mordenite. In catalytic dealkylation of C10 + aromatic hydrocarbon, M-MCM-41 shows higher activities in comparison with Mordenite and MCM-41, which would be ascribed to the combination of advantages of both MCM-41 (large pores) and Mordenite (strong acidity). Furthermore, this synthesis strategy could be used as a new general method for the preparation of hydrothermally stable mesoporous aluminosilicate materials under alkaline conditions

  6. Stability and uniformity of extemporaneous preparations of voriconazole in two liquid suspension vehicles at two storage temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kyvan Q; Hawkins, Michelle G; Taylor, Ian T; Wiebe, Valerie J; Tell, Lisa A

    2009-07-01

    To determine the stability and distribution of voriconazole in 2 extemporaneously prepared (compounded) suspensions stored for 30 days at 2 temperatures. Voriconazole suspensions (40 mg/mL) compounded from commercially available 200-mg tablets suspended in 1 of 2 vehicles. One vehicle contained a commercially available suspending agent and a sweetening syrup in a 1:1 mixture (SASS). The other vehicle contained the suspending agent with deionized water in a 3:1 mixture (SADI). Voriconazole suspensions (40 mg/mL in 40-mL volumes) were compounded on day 0 and stored at room temperature (approx 21 degrees C) or refrigerated (approx 5 degrees C). To evaluate distribution, room-temperature aliquots of voriconazole were measured immediately after preparation. Refrigerated aliquots were measured after 3 hours of refrigeration. To evaluate stability, aliquots from each suspension were measured at approximately 7-day intervals for up to 30 days. Voriconazole concentration, color, odor, opacity, and pH were measured, and aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were performed at various points. Drug distribution was uniform (coefficient of variation, suspensions. On day 0, 87.8% to 93.0% of voriconazole was recovered; percentage recovery increased to between 95.1% and 100.8% by day 7. On subsequent days, up to day 30, percentage recovery was stable (> 90%) for all suspensions. The pH of each suspension did not differ significantly throughout the 30-day period. Storage temperature did not affect drug concentrations at any time, nor was bacterial growth obtained. Extemporaneously prepared voriconazole in SASS and SADI resulted in suspensions that remained stable for at least 30 days. Refrigerated versus room-temperature storage of the suspensions had no effect on drug stability.

  7. Easy and industrially applicable impregnation process for preparation of diatomite-based phase change material nanocomposites for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konuklu, Yeliz; Ersoy, Orkun; Gokce, Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    The high porosity, high oil and water absorption capacity and low density of diatomite make it ideal for industrial applications. The porous structure of diatomite protects phase change materials (PCMs) from environmental factors as a supporting matrix and phase changes occur in nanopores of diatomite. Previous research on diatomite/PCMs composites aimed optimal composite preparation but many methods were feasible only in laboratory scale. In large scale industrial fabrication, easy, continuous and steady state methods are need to be performed. The main purpose of this study was to prepare leakage-free, thermally stable nanocomposite PCMs (nanoCPCMs) by an easy, continuous and steady state method for high temperature thermal energy storage applications. A series of nanoCPCMs with different paraffin:diatomite mass ratios were prepared. The properties of nanoCPCMs have been characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The leak (exudation) test was performed on prepared composites at higher temperatures (95 °C) in comparison with literature. As the optimum composite for thermal energy storage applications, thermal reliability of nanoCPCM was evaluated after 400 cycles of melting and freezing. NanoCPCM melted at 36.55 °C with latent heat of 53.1 J/g. - Highlights: • Diatomite-based phase change material nanocomposites were prepared. • An easy and industrially applicable impregnation process was developed. • Influence of diatomite: PCM mass ratio on thermal properties reported.

  8. Hydrothermally Stable Fe–W–Ti SCR Catalysts Prepared by Deposition–Precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Putluru, Siva Sankar Reddy; Schill, Leonhard; Mossin, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Fe/TiO2 based catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation and deposition–precipitation (DP). The catalysts were characterized by activity measurements, N2 physisorption, X-ray powder diffraction, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, H2......-temperature programmed reduction and NH3-temperature programmed desorption. The 3 wt% Fe–10 wt% WO3/TiO2 (3Fe–10WTi-DP) catalyst prepared by DP using ammonium carbamate as a precipitating agent was found to be the most active and hydrothermally stable with 11 vol% H2O in air at 650 °C for 3 h....... The hydrothermal stability of the catalyst can be attributed to the retained crystal structure, and mild change in acidic and redox properties of the catalyst. Furthermore, hydrothermal stability of the 3Fe–10WTi-DP catalyst is competitive with that of 3Fe–ZSM-5 and much better than 3V2O5–10WO3–TiO2 catalysts...

  9. Preparation and performance evaluation of novel alkaline stable anion exchange membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Muhammad; Bakangura, Erigene; Afsar, Noor Ul; Hossain, Md. Masem; Ran, Jin; Xu, Tongwen

    2017-07-01

    Novel alkaline stable anion exchange membranes are prepared from various amounts of N-methyl dipicolylamine (MDPA) and brominated poly (2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (BPPO). The dipicolylamine and MDPA are synthesized through condensation reaction and confirmed by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The morphologies of prepared membranes are investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), 1H NMR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical and physical properties of AEMs are tested comprising water uptake (WU), ion exchange capacity (IEC), alkaline stability, linear expansion ratio (LER), thermal stability and mechanical stability. The obtained hydroxide conductivity of MDPA-4 is 66.5 mS/cm at 80 °C. The MDPA-4 membrane shows good alkaline stability, high hydroxide conductivity, low methanol permeability (3.43 × 10-7 cm2/s), higher selectivity (8.26 × 107 mS s/cm3), less water uptake (41.1%) and lower linear expansion (11.1%) despite of high IEC value (1.62 mmol/g). The results prove that MDPA membranes have great potential application in anion exchange membrane fuel cell.

  10. Humid storage conditions increase the dissolution rate of diazepam from solid dispersions prepared by melt agglomeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anna Cecilia; Torstenson, Anette Seo

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of cooling mode and storage conditions on the dissolution rate of a solid dispersion prepared by melt agglomeration. The aim has been to relate this effect to the solid state properties of the agglomerates. The cooling mode had an effect on t...

  11. Bulk-scaffolded hydrogen storage and releasing materials and methods for preparing and using same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autrey, S Thomas [West Richland, WA; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J [Richland, WA; Gutowska, Anna [Richland, WA; Li, Liyu [Richland, WA; Li, Xiaohong S [Richland, WA; Shin, Yongsoon [Richland, WA

    2011-06-21

    Compositions are disclosed for storing and releasing hydrogen and methods for preparing and using same. These hydrogen storage and releasing materials exhibit fast release rates at low release temperatures without unwanted side reactions, thus preserving desired levels of purity and enabling applications in combustion and fuel cell applications.

  12. Microparticles variability in fresh frozen plasma: preparation protocol and storage time effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriebardis, Anastasios G; Antonelou, Marianna H; Georgatzakou, Hara T; Tzounakas, Vassilis L; Stamoulis, Konstantinos E; Papassideri, Issidora S

    2016-05-01

    Extracellular vesicles or microparticles exhibiting procoagulant and thrombogenic activity may contribute to the haemostatic potential of fresh frozen plasma. Fresh frozen plasma was prepared from platelet-rich plasma at 20 °C (Group-1 donors) or directly from whole blood at 4 °C (Group-2 donors). Each unit was aseptically divided into three parts, stored frozen for specific periods of time, and analysed by flow cytometry for procoagulant activity immediately after thaw or following post-thaw storage for 24 h at 4 °C. Donors' haematologic, biochemical and life-style profiles as well as circulating microparticles were analysed in parallel. Circulating microparticles exhibited a considerable interdonor but not intergroup variation. Fresh frozen plasma units were enriched in microparticles compared to plasma in vivo. Duration of storage significantly affected platelet- and red cell-derived microparticles. Fresh frozen plasma prepared directly from whole blood contained more residual platelets and more platelet-derived microparticles compared to fresh frozen plasma prepared from platelet-rich plasma. Consequently, there was a statistically significant difference in total, platelet- and red cell-derived microparticles between the two preparation protocols over storage time in the freezer. Preservation of the thawed units for 24 h at 4 °C did not significantly alter microparticle accumulation. Microparticle accumulation and anti-oxidant capacity of fresh frozen plasma was positively or negatively correlated, respectively, with the level of circulating microparticles in individual donors. The preparation protocol and the duration of storage in the freezer, independently and in combination, influenced the accumulation of microparticles in fresh frozen plasma units. In contrast, storage of thawed units for 24 h at 4 °C had no significant effect on the concentration of microparticles.

  13. Highly Stable Aqueous Zinc-ion Storage Using Layered Calcium Vanadium Oxide Bronze Cathode

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan

    2018-02-12

    Cost-effective aqueous rechargeable batteries are attractive alternatives to non-aqueous cells for stationary grid energy storage. Among different aqueous cells, zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs), based on Zn2+ intercalation chemistry, stand out as they can employ high-capacity Zn metal as anode material. Herein, we report a layered calcium vanadium oxide bronze as cathode material for aqueous Zn batteries. For the storage of Zn2+ ions in aqueous electrolyte, we demonstrate that calcium based bronze structure can deliver a high capacity of 340 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C, good rate capability and very long cycling life (96% retention after 3000 cycles at 80 C). Further, we investigate the Zn2+ storage mechanism, and the corresponding electrochemical kinetics in this bronze cathode. Finally, we show that our Zn cell delivers an energy density of 267 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 53.4 W kg-1.

  14. Highly Stable Aqueous Zinc-ion Storage Using Layered Calcium Vanadium Oxide Bronze Cathode

    KAUST Repository

    Xia, Chuan; Guo, Jing; Li, Peng; Zhang, Xixiang; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2018-01-01

    Cost-effective aqueous rechargeable batteries are attractive alternatives to non-aqueous cells for stationary grid energy storage. Among different aqueous cells, zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs), based on Zn2+ intercalation chemistry, stand out as they can employ high-capacity Zn metal as anode material. Herein, we report a layered calcium vanadium oxide bronze as cathode material for aqueous Zn batteries. For the storage of Zn2+ ions in aqueous electrolyte, we demonstrate that calcium based bronze structure can deliver a high capacity of 340 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C, good rate capability and very long cycling life (96% retention after 3000 cycles at 80 C). Further, we investigate the Zn2+ storage mechanism, and the corresponding electrochemical kinetics in this bronze cathode. Finally, we show that our Zn cell delivers an energy density of 267 Wh kg-1 at a power density of 53.4 W kg-1.

  15. Preparation of thermally stable microcapsules with a chitosan-silica hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hong-Yi; Chen, Hui-Huang

    2014-09-01

    Addition of microcapsules with a high dielectric constant and low specific heat capacity to a battered layer was designed to create a higher temperature in the crust than in the prefried fish nuggets to prevent the water vapor in the fish nuggets from migrating to the crust during microwave heating. Therefore, chitosan-silica hybrids and soybean oil were utilized to prepare the shell and core of the thermally stable microcapsules (MC(CS)), respectively. The MC(CS) were prepared by sol-gel coacervation from an oil-in-water emulsion. The sodium silicate was hydrolyzed and coacervated through polymerization for 24 h at pH 5. The zeta potential analysis indicated that chitosan with a positive charge and silica with a negative charge interacted through electrostatic attraction to form a hybrid shell. The volume mean particle size and encapsulation efficiency of the MC(CS) were 9.6 ± 0.2 μm and 75.6% ± 1.3%, respectively, when oil/chitosan = 0.2 and chitosan/silica = 0.5 (w/w). In addition to H-bonding and electrostatic attraction, Si-O-N bonds were formed between chitosan and silica. Dehydration of the bound water in the MC(CS) was observed in the range of 25 to 250 °C in the differential scanning calorimetry thermal analysis, with the lack of apparent thermal peaks indicating its high thermal stability. The decrease of force to cut the crust observed by texture analysis as well as the increase of hedonic score by consumer acceptance test revealed the addition of 1% MC(CS) significantly improved the crispness of the crust in the microwave-reheated nuggets. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Preparation and properties of highly conductive palmitic acid/graphene oxide composites as thermal energy storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrali, Mohammad; Latibari, Sara Tahan; Mehrali, Mehdi; Indra Mahlia, Teuku Meurah; Cornelis Metselaar, Hendrik Simon

    2013-01-01

    PA/GO (palmitic acid/graphene oxide) as PCMs (phase change materials) prepared by vacuum impregnation method, have high thermal conductivity. The GO (graphene oxide) composite was used as supporting material to improve thermal conductivity and shape stabilization of composite PCM (phase change material). SEM (Scanning electronic microscope), FT-IR (Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope) and XRD (X-ray diffractometer) were applied to determine microstructure, chemical structure and crystalloid phase of palmitic acid/GO composites, respectively. DSC (Differential scanning calorimeter) test was done to investigate thermal properties which include melting and solidifying temperatures and latent heat. FT-IR analysis represented that the composite instruction of porous palmitic acid and GO were physical. The temperatures of melting, freezing and latent heats of the composite measured through DSC analysis were 60.45, 60.05 °C, 101.23 and 101.49 kJ/kg, respectively. Thermal cycling test showed that the form-stable composite PCM has good thermal reliability and chemical stability. Thermal conductivity of the composite PCM was improved by more than three times from 0.21 to 1.02. As a result, due to their acceptable thermal properties, good thermal reliability, chemical stability and great thermal conductivities, we can consider the prepared form-stable composites as highly conductive PCMs for thermal energy storage applications. - Highlights: • Novel composite PCM with high thermal conductivity and latent heat storage. • New thermal cycling test for thermal reliability of composite PCMs. • Increasing thermal conductivity of composite PCM with graphene oxide. • Increasing thermal stability of phase change material by adding graphene oxide

  17. Purification of Ovine Respiratory Complex I Results in a Highly Active and Stable Preparation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, James A.; Degliesposti, Gianluca; Fiedorczuk, Karol; Skehel, Mark; Sazanov, Leonid A.

    2016-01-01

    NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the largest (∼1 MDa) and the least characterized complex of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Because of the ease of sample availability, previous work has focused almost exclusively on bovine complex I. However, only medium resolution structural analyses of this complex have been reported. Working with other mammalian complex I homologues is a potential approach for overcoming these limitations. Due to the inherent difficulty of expressing large membrane protein complexes, screening of complex I homologues is limited to large mammals reared for human consumption. The high sequence identity among these available sources may preclude the benefits of screening. Here, we report the characterization of complex I purified from Ovis aries (ovine) heart mitochondria. All 44 unique subunits of the intact complex were identified by mass spectrometry. We identified differences in the subunit composition of subcomplexes of ovine complex I as compared with bovine, suggesting differential stability of inter-subunit interactions within the complex. Furthermore, the 42-kDa subunit, which is easily lost from the bovine enzyme, remains tightly bound to ovine complex I. Additionally, we developed a novel purification protocol for highly active and stable mitochondrial complex I using the branched-chain detergent lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol. Our data demonstrate that, although closely related, significant differences exist between the biochemical properties of complex I prepared from ovine and bovine mitochondria and that ovine complex I represents a suitable alternative target for further structural studies. PMID:27672209

  18. Nisin Migration in Shelf Stable, Tuna-Filled Tortillas During Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-22

    INGREDIENTS AND PROCESSING ..........................................................................4 2.4 TUNA WRAP STORAGE...Leung, 1986 and Taub, 2003), meat (Pavey, 1972; Powers, 1981; Yang, 1997 and Richardson, 1995), seafood (Dymsza, 1979), eggs (Richardson, 2008 and...Incorporation of Preservatives, such as nitrites and antioxidants. (4) Thermal pasteurization by baking. (5) Appropriate Packaging, such as the

  19. Eggs and Poultry Purchase, Storage, and Preparation Practices of Consumers in Selected Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadri Koppel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to begin characterizing purchase, storage, handling, and preparation of poultry products and eggs by selected consumers in three Asian countries: India, Korea, and Thailand. Approximately 100 consumers in each location were recruited to participate in this study. The consumers were surveyed about eggs and poultry purchase behavior characteristics, such as temperatures and locations, storage behavior, such as storage locations in the refrigerator or freezer, preparation behavior, such as washing eggs and poultry before cooking, and handling behavior, such as using cutting boards during cooking. The results indicated differences in purchase and storage practices of raw eggs. Most Korean consumers purchased refrigerated eggs and stored the eggs in the refrigerator, while Indian and Thai consumers bought eggs that were stored at room temperature, but would refrigerate the eggs at home. Approximately half of the consumers in each country froze raw meat, poultry, or seafood. Food preparation practices showed potential for cross-contamination during cooking, such as using the same cutting board for different kinds of foods or not washing hands with soap and water. The results presented in this pilot study may lead to development of educational messages and raising consumer awareness of food safety practices in Asian countries.

  20. Eggs and Poultry Purchase, Storage, and Preparation Practices of Consumers in Selected Asian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri; Suwonsichon, Suntaree; Chitra, Uma; Lee, Jeehyun; Chambers, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to begin characterizing purchase, storage, handling, and preparation of poultry products and eggs by selected consumers in three Asian countries: India, Korea, and Thailand. Approximately 100 consumers in each location were recruited to participate in this study. The consumers were surveyed about eggs and poultry purchase behavior characteristics, such as temperatures and locations, storage behavior, such as storage locations in the refrigerator or freezer, preparation behavior, such as washing eggs and poultry before cooking, and handling behavior, such as using cutting boards during cooking. The results indicated differences in purchase and storage practices of raw eggs. Most Korean consumers purchased refrigerated eggs and stored the eggs in the refrigerator, while Indian and Thai consumers bought eggs that were stored at room temperature, but would refrigerate the eggs at home. Approximately half of the consumers in each country froze raw meat, poultry, or seafood. Food preparation practices showed potential for cross-contamination during cooking, such as using the same cutting board for different kinds of foods or not washing hands with soap and water. The results presented in this pilot study may lead to development of educational messages and raising consumer awareness of food safety practices in Asian countries. PMID:28234307

  1. Preparation and thermal energy storage properties of paraffin/expanded graphite composite phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhengguo; Zhang, Ni; Peng, Jing; Fang, Xiaoming; Gao, Xuenong; Fang, Yutang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► EG was obtained by microwave irradiation to prepare the paraffin/EG composite PCM. ► Composite PCM was characterized by XRD to investigate the chemical compatibility. ► Temperature profiles of the composite PCM were obtained during thermal energy storage. -- Abstract: The paraffin/expanded graphite (EG) composite phase change material (PCM) was prepared by absorbing liquid paraffin into EG, in which paraffin was chosen as the PCM. EG was produced by microwave irradiation performed at room temperature. It was found that the EG prepared at 800 W irradiation power for 10 s exhibited the maximum sorption capacity of 92 wt% for paraffin. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that paraffin was uniformly dispersed in the pores of EG. Differential scanning calorimeter analysis indicated that the melting temperature of the composite PCM was close to that of paraffin, and its latent heat was equivalent to the calculated value based on the mass fraction of paraffin in the composite. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the composite PCM was just a combination of paraffin with EG, and no new substance was produced. Thermal energy storage performance of the composite PCM was tested in a latent thermal energy storage (LTES) system. Transients of axial and radial temperature profiles were obtained in the LTES for the composite PCM and paraffin. The thermal energy storage charging duration for the composite PCM was reduced obviously compared to paraffin.

  2. Preparation and Thermal Properties of Eutectic Hydrate Salt Phase Change Thermal Energy Storage Material

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Lin; Chen, Xi

    2018-01-01

    In this study, a new cold storage phase change material eutectic hydrate salt (K2HPO4·3H2O–NaH2PO4·2H2O–Na2S2O3·5H2O) was prepared, modified, and tested. The modification was performed by adding a nucleating agent and thickener. The physical properties such as viscosity, surface tension, cold storage characteristics, supercooling, and the stability during freeze-thaw cycles were studied. Results show that the use of nucleating agents, such as sodium tetraborate, sodium fluoride, and nanoparti...

  3. Stable isotope enrichment in laboratory ant colonies: effects of colony age, metamorphosis, diet, and fat storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecologists use stable isotopes to infer diets and trophic levels of animals in food webs, yet some assumptions underlying these inferences have not been thoroughly tested. We used laboratory-reared colonies of Solenopsis invicta Buren (Formicidae: Solenopsidini) to test the effects of metamorphosis,...

  4. Storage of vacuum-packaged smoked bologna sausage prepared from Nile tilapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayse Aline Ferreira Silva Bartolomeu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Changes in smoked bologna sausage manufactured with Niletilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, and wheat fibers in refrigerated storage (6 ± 2°C during 30 days were evaluated. Minced fish (MF obtained from waste (parings from the filleting fish operations of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus was used as raw material. In this experiment, were determined Staphylococcus count, the detection of Salmonella sp. (day 0, psychrotrophic count, total and fecal coliforms at45°C, the acceptance sensory test (days 0 and 30, water activity, instrumental color, pH and lipid oxidation analysis (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances - TBARS days 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 of storage. Lipid oxidation (TBARS and water activity provided significant differences among storage days. However it was concluded that the bologna sausage remained stable and with acceptable quality for 30 days of storage may be a new alternative to adding value to fish products, because the researched microorganisms had a low count, changes in pH were not significant and sensory test indicated good acceptance of the product during the 30 days of storage.

  5. X-ray-sensitive storage phosphors with the optically stable luminescent centres

    CERN Document Server

    Gorin, G B; Zvezdova, N P; Kochubey, D I; Sedova, Y G; Kochubey, D I; Kulipanov, G N; Lyakh, V V; Pindyurin, V F

    2000-01-01

    NaCl, KCl, KBr and LiF crystals doped by In, Tl, Ni, Pd and Ca were investigated as X-ray-sensitive materials. Influence of the way of doping of an impurity and growing of a crystal on such parameters of a material as: sensitivity to ionising radiation; radiative, optical and thermal stability of the image, obtained after an irradiation is investigated. As a result of the work, media for recording of the X-ray images are developed. These allow to reproduce the images in a mode of a photoluminescence. Spatial resolution and the dynamic range of registration of the developed materials concede to similar parameters of commercial storage luminophores like 'Image Plates' based on BaFBr : La. At the same time, as distinct from 'Image Plates', the developed radiophotoluminophores allow a long storage and multiple readout of the information recorded.

  6. Highly stable aqueous zinc-ion storage using a layered calcium vanadium oxide bronze cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Chuan; Guo, Jing; Li, Peng; Zhang, Xixiang; Alshareef, Husam N. [Materials Science and Engineering, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal (Saudi Arabia)

    2018-04-03

    Cost-effective aqueous rechargeable batteries are attractive alternatives to non-aqueous cells for stationary grid energy storage. Among different aqueous cells, zinc-ion batteries (ZIBs), based on Zn{sup 2+} intercalation chemistry, stand out as they can employ high-capacity Zn metal as the anode material. Herein, we report a layered calcium vanadium oxide bronze as the cathode material for aqueous Zn batteries. For the storage of the Zn{sup 2+} ions in the aqueous electrolyte, we demonstrate that the calcium-based bronze structure can deliver a high capacity of 340 mA h g{sup -1} at 0.2 C, good rate capability, and very long cycling life (96 % retention after 3000 cycles at 80 C). Further, we investigate the Zn{sup 2+} storage mechanism, and the corresponding electrochemical kinetics in this bronze cathode. Finally, we show that our Zn cell delivers an energy density of 267 W h kg{sup -1} at a power density of 53.4 W kg{sup -1}. (copyright 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Sample preparation and storage can change arsenic speciation in human urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann, J; Lai, V W; Cullen, W R; Ma, M; Lu, X; Le, X C

    1999-11-01

    Stability of chemical speciation during sample handling and storage is a prerequisite to obtaining reliable results of trace element speciation analysis. There is no comprehensive information on the stability of common arsenic species, such as inorganic arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)], monomethylarsonic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, and arsenobetaine, in human urine. We compared the effects of the following storage conditions on the stability of these arsenic species: temperature (25, 4, and -20 degrees C), storage time (1, 2, 4, and 8 months), and the use of additives (HCl, sodium azide, benzoic acid, benzyltrimethylammonium chloride, and cetylpyridinium chloride). HPLC with both inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and hydride generation atomic fluorescence detection techniques were used for the speciation of arsenic. We found that all five of the arsenic species were stable for up to 2 months when urine samples were stored at 4 and -20 degrees C without any additives. For longer period of storage (4 and 8 months), the stability of arsenic species was dependent on urine matrices. Whereas the arsenic speciation in some urine samples was stable for the entire 8 months at both 4 and -20 degrees C, other urine samples stored under identical conditions showed substantial changes in the concentration of As(III), As(V), monomethylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid. The use of additives did not improve the stability of arsenic speciation in urine. The addition of 0.1 mol/L HCl (final concentration) to urine samples produced relative changes in inorganic As(III) and As(V) concentrations. Low temperature (4 and -20 degrees C) conditions are suitable for the storage of urine samples for up to 2 months. Untreated samples maintain their concentration of arsenic species, and additives have no particular benefit. Strong acidification is not appropriate for speciation analysis.

  8. Purification of Ovine Respiratory Complex I Results in a Highly Active and Stable Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letts, James A; Degliesposti, Gianluca; Fiedorczuk, Karol; Skehel, Mark; Sazanov, Leonid A

    2016-11-18

    NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) is the largest (∼1 MDa) and the least characterized complex of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Because of the ease of sample availability, previous work has focused almost exclusively on bovine complex I. However, only medium resolution structural analyses of this complex have been reported. Working with other mammalian complex I homologues is a potential approach for overcoming these limitations. Due to the inherent difficulty of expressing large membrane protein complexes, screening of complex I homologues is limited to large mammals reared for human consumption. The high sequence identity among these available sources may preclude the benefits of screening. Here, we report the characterization of complex I purified from Ovis aries (ovine) heart mitochondria. All 44 unique subunits of the intact complex were identified by mass spectrometry. We identified differences in the subunit composition of subcomplexes of ovine complex I as compared with bovine, suggesting differential stability of inter-subunit interactions within the complex. Furthermore, the 42-kDa subunit, which is easily lost from the bovine enzyme, remains tightly bound to ovine complex I. Additionally, we developed a novel purification protocol for highly active and stable mitochondrial complex I using the branched-chain detergent lauryl maltose neopentyl glycol. Our data demonstrate that, although closely related, significant differences exist between the biochemical properties of complex I prepared from ovine and bovine mitochondria and that ovine complex I represents a suitable alternative target for further structural studies. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. Preparation of meta-stable phases of barium titanate by Sol-hydrothermal method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahalakshmi Selvaraj

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Two low-cost chemical methods of sol–gel and the hydrothermal process have been strategically combined to fabricate barium titanate (BaTiO3 nanopowders. This method was tested for various synthesis temperatures (100 °C to 250 °C employing barium dichloride (BaCl2 and titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4 as precursors and sodium hydroxide (NaOH as mineralizer for synthesis of BaTiO3 nanopowders. The as-prepared BaTiO3 powders were investigated for structural characteristics using x-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The overall analysis indicates that the hydrothermal conditions create a gentle environment to promote the formation of crystalline phase directly from amorphous phase at the very low processing temperatures investigated. XRD analysis showed phase transitions from cubic - tetragonal - orthorhombic - rhombohedral with increasing synthesis temperature and calculated grain sizes were 34 – 38 nm (using the Scherrer formula. SEM and TEM analysis verified that the BaTiO3 nanopowders synthesized by this method were spherical in shape and about 114 - 170 nm in size. The particle distribution in both SEM and TEM shows that as the reaction temperature increases from 100 °C to 250 °C, the particles agglomerate. Selective area electron diffraction (SAED shows that the particles are crystalline in nature. The study shows that choosing suitable precursor and optimizing pressure and temperature; different meta-stable (ferroelectric phases of undoped BaTiO3 nanopowders can be stabilized by the sol-hydrothermal method.

  10. Preparation and characterization of a novel polymeric based solid-solid phase change heat storage material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Peng; Gu Xiaohua; Cheng Bowen; Wang Yufei

    2009-01-01

    Here we reported a two-step procedure for preparing a novel polymeric based solid-solid phase change heat storage material. Firstly, a copolymer monomer containing a polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether (MPEG) phase change unit and a vinyl unit was synthesized via the modification of hydrogen group of MPEG. Secondly, by copolymerization of the copolymer monomer and phenyl ethylene, a novel polymeric based solid-solid phase change heat storage material was prepared. The composition, structure and properties of the novel polymeric based solid-solid phase change material were characterized by IR, 1 H NMR, DSC, WAXD, and POM, respectively. The results show that the novel polymeric based solid-solid phase change material possesses of excellent crystal properties and high phase change enthalpy.

  11. Preparation and properties studies of halogen-free flame retardant form-stable phase change materials based on paraffin/high density polyethylene composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Yibing; Wei Qufu; Huang Fenglin; Gao Weidong

    2008-01-01

    The halogen-free flame retardant form-stable phase change materials (PCM) based on paraffin/high density polyethylene (HDPE) composites were prepared by using twin-screw extruder technique. The structures and properties of the form-stable PCM composites based on intumescent flame retardant system with expandable graphite (EG) and different synergistic additives, such as ammonium polyphosphate (APP) and zinc borate (ZB) were characterized by scanning electronic microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), dynamic Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and Cone calorimeter test. The TGA results showed that the halogen-free flame retardant form-stable PCM composites produced a larger amount of charred residue at 700 deg. C, although the onset of weight loss of the halogen-free flame retardant form-stable PCM composites occurred at a lower temperature due to the thermal decomposition of flame retardant. The DSC measurements indicated that the additives of flame retardant had little effect on the thermal energy storage property, and the temperatures of phase change peaks and the latent heat of the paraffin showed better occurrence during the freezing process. The dynamic FTIR monitoring results revealed that the breakdowns of main chains (HDPE and paraffin) and formations of various residues increased with increasing thermo-oxidation temperature. It was also found from the Cone calorimeter tests that the peak of heat release rate (PHRR) decreased significantly. Both the decrease of the PHRR and the structure of charred residue after combustion indicated that there was a synergistic effect between the EG and APP, contributing to the improved flammability of the halogen-free flame retardant form-stable PCM composites

  12. Large and stable reversible lithium-ion storages from mesoporous SnO2 nanosheets with ultralong lifespan over 1000 cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao; Jiang, Bin; Guo, Jinxue; Xie, Yaping; Tang, Lin

    2014-12-01

    The major challenge to promote the commercialization of SnO2 anode materials is to construct unique structures and/or composites that could alleviate the volume effect and extend the lifespan. This study develops an efficient synthetic solution for the preparation of mesoporous SnO2 nanosheets, which involves an evaporation-induced selfassembly process and the following thermal treatment. Surfactant F127 is used as the soft template to form abundant cores. The as-prepared sample intrinsically inherits flexible sheet-like structure and porous features, as characterized with XRD, SEM, TEM and BET techniques. Based on these combining structural benefits, the sample is utilized as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries and exhibits excellent Li+ storage performance such as large and stable reversible capacity, good rate capability, and especially the outstanding durable cycling life of over 1000 cycles, which meets the demands of practical applications. The structural changes of SnO2 nanosheets are observed from the decomposed electrodes after different electrochemical cycles. Moreover, this synthesis strategy may offer an alternative and universal approach for synthesis of other transitional metal oxides or their binary composites as high-performance anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  13. Modeling and preparation of activated carbon for methane storage II. Neural network modeling and experimental studies of the activated carbon preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namvar-Asl, Mahnaz; Soltanieh, Mohammad; Rashidi, Alimorad

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the activated carbon (AC) preparation for methane storage. Due to the need for the introduction of a model, correlating the effective preparation parameters with the characteristic parameters of the activated carbon, a model was developed by neural networks. In a previous study [Namvar-Asl M, Soltanieh M, Rashidi A, Irandoukht A. Modeling and preparation of activated carbon for methane storage: (I) modeling of activated carbon characteristics with neural networks and response surface method. Proceedings of CESEP07, Krakow, Poland; 2007.], the model was designed with the MATLAB toolboxes providing the best response for the correlation of the characteristics parameters and the methane uptake of the activated carbon. Regarding this model, the characteristics of the activated carbon were determined for a target methane uptake. After the determination of the characteristics, the demonstrated model of this work guided us to the selection of the effective AC preparation parameters. According to the modeling results, some samples were prepared and their methane storage capacity was measured. The results were compared with those of a target methane uptake (special amount of methane storage). Among the designed models, one of them illustrated the methane storage capacity of 180 v/v. It was finally found that the neural network modeling for the assay of the efficient AC preparation parameters was financially feasible, with respect to the determined methane storage capacity. This study could be useful for the development of the Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG) technology

  14. Caution on the storage of waters and aqueous solutions in plastic containers for hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Jorge E

    2012-11-30

    The choice of containers for storage of aqueous samples between their collection, transport and water hydrogen ((2)H) and oxygen ((18)O) stable isotope analysis is a topic of concern for a wide range of fields in environmental, geological, biomedical, food, and forensic sciences. The transport and separation of water molecules during water vapor or liquid uptake by sorption or solution and the diffusive transport of water molecules through organic polymer material by permeation or pervaporation may entail an isotopic fractionation. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the extent of such fractionation. Sixteen bottle-like containers of eleven different organic polymers, including low and high density polyethylene (LDPE and HDPE), polypropylene (PP), polycarbonate (PC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and perfluoroalkoxy-Teflon (PFA), of different wall thickness and size were completely filled with the same mineral water and stored for 659 days under the same conditions of temperature and humidity. Particular care was exercised to keep the bottles tightly closed and prevent loss of water vapor through the seals. Changes of up to +5‰ for δ(2)H values and +2.0‰ for δ(18)O values were measured for water after more than 1 year of storage within a plastic container, with the magnitude of change depending mainly on the type of organic polymer, wall thickness, and container size. The most important variations were measured for the PET and PC bottles. Waters stored in glass bottles with Polyseal™ cone-lined PP screw caps and thick-walled HDPE or PFA containers with linerless screw caps having an integrally molded inner sealing ring preserved their original δ(2)H and δ(18)O values. The carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen stable isotope compositions of the organic polymeric materials were also determined. The results of this study clearly show that for precise and accurate measurements of the water stable isotope composition in aqueous solutions, rigorous sampling and

  15. Preparation of SnO 2 /Carbon Composite Hollow Spheres and Their Lithium Storage Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Lou, Xiong Wen; Deng, Da; Lee, Jim Yang; Archer, Lynden A.

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we present a novel concept of structural design for preparing functional composite hollow spheres and derived double-shelled hollow spheres. The approach involves two main steps: preparation of porous hollow spheres of one component and deposition of the other component onto both the interior and exterior surfaces of the shell as well as in the pores. We demonstrate the concept by preparing SnO2/carbon composite hollow spheres and evaluate them as potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. These SnO2/carbon hollow spheres are able to deliver a reversible Li storage capacity of 473 mA h g-1 after 50 cycles. Unusual double-shelled carbon hollow spheres are obtained by selective removal of the sandwiched porous SnO2 shells. © 2008 American Chemical Society.

  16. Preparation of SnO 2 /Carbon Composite Hollow Spheres and Their Lithium Storage Properties

    KAUST Repository

    Lou, Xiong Wen

    2008-10-28

    In this work, we present a novel concept of structural design for preparing functional composite hollow spheres and derived double-shelled hollow spheres. The approach involves two main steps: preparation of porous hollow spheres of one component and deposition of the other component onto both the interior and exterior surfaces of the shell as well as in the pores. We demonstrate the concept by preparing SnO2/carbon composite hollow spheres and evaluate them as potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries. These SnO2/carbon hollow spheres are able to deliver a reversible Li storage capacity of 473 mA h g-1 after 50 cycles. Unusual double-shelled carbon hollow spheres are obtained by selective removal of the sandwiched porous SnO2 shells. © 2008 American Chemical Society.

  17. Preparation of Mg2FeH6 Nanoparticles for Hydrogen Storage Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Niaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium (Mg and iron (Fe nanoparticles are prepared by thermal decomposition of bipyridyl complexes of metals. These prepared Mg-Fe (2 : 1 nanoparticles are hydrogenated under 4 MPa hydrogen pressure and 673 K for 48 hours to achieve Mg2FeH6. Their structural analysis was assessed by applying manifold techniques. The hydrogen storage properties of prepared compound were measured by Sieverts type apparatus. The desorption kinetics were measured by high pressure thermal desorption spectrometer (HP-TDS. More than 5 wt% hydrogen released was obtained by the Mg2FeH6 within 5 min, and during rehydrogenation very effective hydrogen absorption rate was observed by the compound.

  18. Preparation and characterization of sepiolite-based phase change material nanocomposites for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konuklu, Yeliz; Ersoy, Orkun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Sepiolite-based phase change material nanocomposites were prepared. • An easy direct impregnation process was used. • This paper is one of the first study about sepiolite-based phase change material nanocomposites. • Influence of PCM type on thermal properties of nanocomposites was reported. - Abstract: This paper is one of the first study about the preparation and characterization of sepiolite-based phase change material nanocomposites for thermal energy storage applications. Sepiolite is an important natural fibrous raw material. Nanoscale fibrous tubular structure of sepiolite becomes important in nanocomposite preparation. In this study, sepiolite/paraffin and sepiolite/decanoic acid nanocomposites were manufactured by the direct impregnation method. By the preparation of nanocomposites, PCM move in tubular channels of sepiolite, phase changing occurs in these tubes and surface area increases like as in microencapsulation. The structure and properties of nanocomposites PCMs (CPCM) have been characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The SEM results prove the successful preparation of phase change material/sepiolite nanocomposites and point out that the fibers of sepiolite is modified with phase change materials in the nanocomposite. The phase change enthalpies of melting and freezing were about 62.08 J/g and −62.05 J/g for sepiolite/paraffin nanocomposites and 35.69 J/g and −34.55 J/g for sepiolite/decanoic acid nanocomposites, respectively. The results show that PCM/sepiolite nanocomposites were prepared successfully and their properties are very suitable for thermal energy storage applications.

  19. Air-stable magnesium nanocomposites provide rapid and high-capacity hydrogen storage without using heavy-metal catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ki-Joon; Moon, Hoi Ri; Ruminski, Anne M.; Jiang, Bin; Kisielowski, Christian; Bardhan, Rizia; Urban, Jeffrey J.

    2011-04-01

    Hydrogen is a promising alternative energy carrier that can potentially facilitate the transition from fossil fuels to sources of clean energy because of its prominent advantages such as high energy density (142 MJ kg-1 ref. 1), great variety of potential sources (for example water, biomass, organic matter), light weight, and low environmental impact (water is the sole combustion product). However, there remains a challenge to produce a material capable of simultaneously optimizing two conflicting criteria—absorbing hydrogen strongly enough to form a stable thermodynamic state, but weakly enough to release it on-demand with a small temperature rise. Many materials under development, including metal-organic frameworks, nanoporous polymers, and other carbon-based materials, physisorb only a small amount of hydrogen (typically 1-2 wt%) at room temperature. Metal hydrides were traditionally thought to be unsuitable materials because of their high bond formation enthalpies (for example MgH2 has a ΔHf˜75 kJ mol-1), thus requiring unacceptably high release temperatures resulting in low energy efficiency. However, recent theoretical calculations and metal-catalysed thin-film studies have shown that microstructuring of these materials can enhance the kinetics by decreasing diffusion path lengths for hydrogen and decreasing the required thickness of the poorly permeable hydride layer that forms during absorption. Here, we report the synthesis of an air-stable composite material that consists of metallic Mg nanocrystals (NCs) in a gas-barrier polymer matrix that enables both the storage of a high density of hydrogen (up to 6 wt% of Mg, 4 wt% for the composite) and rapid kinetics (loading in <30 min at 200 °C). Moreover, nanostructuring of the Mg provides rapid storage kinetics without using expensive heavy-metal catalysts.

  20. Influence of preparation and storage conditions on photoluminescence of porous silicon powder with embedded Si nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychto, Leszek; Balaguer, Maria; Pastor, Ester; Chirvony, Vladimir; Matveeva, Eugenia

    2008-01-01

    The time changes of photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of porous silicon (porSi) powder during storing in different ambients have been reported. A porous silicon material with embedded Si nanocrystals of size of few nanometers was prepared by an electrochemical method from 10 to 20 Ωcm p-type Si wafers, and both constant and pulse current anodization regimes were used. A powder with a submicron average particle size was obtained by simple mechanical lift-off of the porous layer followed by additional manual milling. The air, hexane, and water as storage media were used, and modification by a nonionic surfactant (undecylenic acid) of the porSi surface was applied in the latter case. Dependence of PL characteristics on preparation and storage conditions was then studied. A remarkable blue shift of a position of PL maximum was observed in time for porSi powders in each storage media. In water suspension a many-fold build-up (10-30) of PL intensity in a time scale of few days was accompanied by an observed blue shift. Photoluminescence time behavior of porSi powders was described by a known mechanism of the change of porSi PL from free exciton emission of Si nanocrystals to luminescence of localized oxidized states on the Si nanocrystal surface.

  1. Influence of preparation and storage conditions on photoluminescence of porous silicon powder with embedded Si nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bychto, Leszek, E-mail: leszek.bychto@tu.koszalin.pl; Balaguer, Maria; Pastor, Ester; Chirvony, Vladimir; Matveeva, Eugenia, E-mail: eumat@upvnet.upv.e [Technical University of Valencia, Nanophotonics Technology Center (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    The time changes of photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of porous silicon (porSi) powder during storing in different ambients have been reported. A porous silicon material with embedded Si nanocrystals of size of few nanometers was prepared by an electrochemical method from 10 to 20 {Omega}cm p-type Si wafers, and both constant and pulse current anodization regimes were used. A powder with a submicron average particle size was obtained by simple mechanical lift-off of the porous layer followed by additional manual milling. The air, hexane, and water as storage media were used, and modification by a nonionic surfactant (undecylenic acid) of the porSi surface was applied in the latter case. Dependence of PL characteristics on preparation and storage conditions was then studied. A remarkable blue shift of a position of PL maximum was observed in time for porSi powders in each storage media. In water suspension a many-fold build-up (10-30) of PL intensity in a time scale of few days was accompanied by an observed blue shift. Photoluminescence time behavior of porSi powders was described by a known mechanism of the change of porSi PL from free exciton emission of Si nanocrystals to luminescence of localized oxidized states on the Si nanocrystal surface.

  2. Influence of preparation and storage conditions on photoluminescence of porous silicon powder with embedded Si nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychto, Leszek; Balaguer, Maria; Pastor, Ester; Chirvony, Vladimir; Matveeva, Eugenia

    2008-12-01

    The time changes of photoluminescence (PL) characteristics of porous silicon (porSi) powder during storing in different ambients have been reported. A porous silicon material with embedded Si nanocrystals of size of few nanometers was prepared by an electrochemical method from 10 to 20 Ωcm p-type Si wafers, and both constant and pulse current anodization regimes were used. A powder with a submicron average particle size was obtained by simple mechanical lift-off of the porous layer followed by additional manual milling. The air, hexane, and water as storage media were used, and modification by a nonionic surfactant (undecylenic acid) of the porSi surface was applied in the latter case. Dependence of PL characteristics on preparation and storage conditions was then studied. A remarkable blue shift of a position of PL maximum was observed in time for porSi powders in each storage media. In water suspension a many-fold build-up (10-30) of PL intensity in a time scale of few days was accompanied by an observed blue shift. Photoluminescence time behavior of porSi powders was described by a known mechanism of the change of porSi PL from free exciton emission of Si nanocrystals to luminescence of localized oxidized states on the Si nanocrystal surface.

  3. Preparation and properties of 1-tetradecanol/1,3:2,4-di-(3,4-dimethyl) benzylidene sorbitol gelatinous form-stable phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Tuo; Song, Jian; Niu, Libo; Feng, Rongxiu

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The 1,3:2,4-di-(3,4-dimethyl) benzylidene sorbitol can self-assemble to form three-dimensional network and immobilized the 1-tetradecanol. As a result, the gel-to-sol transition temperature of the composite PCM increased and the 1-tetradecanol leakage decreased. Highlights: ► First used of 1,3:2,4-di-(3,4-dimethyl) benzylidene sorbitol in alcohol-based PCMs. ► A new method of doping with exfoliated graphite is presented. ► A possible mechanism for decreasing leakage has been proposed based on SEM results. ► The prepared composite PCMs showed a high-energy storage density. ► The addition of exfoliated graphite enhanced the thermal conductivity of the PCMs. - Abstract: A 1-tetradecanol (TD)/1,3:2,4-di-(3,4-dimethyl) benzylidene sorbitol (DMDBS) composite was prepared as a novel form-stable phase change material (PCM), and the properties of the composites such as the gel-to-sol transition temperature, the latent heat, the microstructure and the thermal storage performance were characterized. The composite was prepared by impregnating DMDBS into TD and the maximum feasible weight percentage of TD was determined to be 94.2 wt%. The gel-to-sol transition temperature of the composite PCM was 158.3–180.0 °C, which is well above the melting point of 1-tetradecanol. Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) was used to determine the melting and freezing enthalpies of 1-tetradecanol in the composite PCM and the values are 218.5 and 215.3 J g −1 , respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that 1-tetradecanol dispersed in the three-dimensional network formed by DMDBS. The relationship between the amount of DMDBS additive and the leakage was also discussed. The thermal conductivity of the composite PCM was improved by doping with exfoliated graphite

  4. Transfer of radioactivity of HSA-containing samples of /sup 125/I insulin preparations during their storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopoldova, J [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague

    1982-10-01

    In /sup 125/I insulin preparations, preserved in the form of lyophilized solutions with human serum albumin, the transfer of radioactivity from the insulin molecules to the higher molecular weight fractions was observed. After one month storage this transfer corresponded to 7% of the total radioactivity and it increased proportionally to the length of the storage of iodinated preparations under simultaneous decrease of their biological activity. The results obtained with stored /sup 125/I insulin preparations and these preparations irradiated with external gamma-source were compared and discussed.

  5. 76 FR 62055 - Wabash Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. PF11-6-000] Wabash Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Wabash Gas Storage Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Public Scoping Meeting The staff of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ...

  6. 75 FR 65475 - Tallulah Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP10-494-000] Tallulah Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Tallulah Gas Storage Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Onsite Environmental Review October 18, 2010. The staff of the Federal...

  7. Preparation and Hydrogen Storage Properties of Mg-Rich Mg-Ni Ultrafine Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin Zou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, Mg-rich Mg-Ni ultrafine powders were prepared through an arc plasma method. The phase components, microstructure, and hydrogen storage properties of the powders were carefully investigated. It is found that Mg2Ni and MgNi2 could be obtained directly from the vapor state reactions between Mg and Ni, depending on the local vapor content in the reaction chamber. A nanostructured MgH2 + Mg2NiH4 hydrogen storage composite could be generated after hydrogenation of the Mg-Ni ultrafine powders. After dehydrogenation, MgH2 and Mg2NiH4 decomposed into nanograined Mg and Mg2Ni, respectively. Thermogravimetry/differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC analyses showed that Mg2NiH4 phase may play a catalytic role in the dehydriding process of the hydrogenated Mg ultrafine particles.

  8. Building Energy Storage Panel Based on Paraffin/Expanded Perlite: Preparation and Thermal Performance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangfei; Zhong, Yuliang; Rong, Xian; Min, Chunhua; Qi, Chengying

    2016-01-25

    This study is focused on the preparation and performance of a building energy storage panel (BESP). The BESP was fabricated through a mold pressing method based on phase change material particle (PCMP), which was prepared in two steps: vacuum absorption and surface film coating. Firstly, phase change material (PCM) was incorporated into expanded perlite (EP) through a vacuum absorption method to obtain composite PCM; secondly, the composite PCM was immersed into the mixture of colloidal silica and organic acrylate, and then it was taken out and dried naturally. A series of experiments, including differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM), best matching test, and durability test, have been conducted to characterize and analyze the thermophysical property and reliability of PCMP. Additionally, the thermal performance of BESP was studied through a dynamic thermal property test. The results have showed that: (1) the surface film coating procedure can effectively solve the leakage problem of composite phase change material prepared by vacuum impregnation; (2) the optimum adsorption ratio for paraffin and EP was 52.5:47.5 in mass fraction, and the PCMP has good thermal properties, stability, and durability; and (3) in the process of dynamic thermal performance test, BESP have low temperature variation, significant temperature lagging, and large heat storage ability, which indicated the potential of BESP in the application of building energy efficiency.

  9. Building Energy Storage Panel Based on Paraffin/Expanded Perlite: Preparation and Thermal Performance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangfei Kong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the preparation and performance of a building energy storage panel (BESP. The BESP was fabricated through a mold pressing method based on phase change material particle (PCMP, which was prepared in two steps: vacuum absorption and surface film coating. Firstly, phase change material (PCM was incorporated into expanded perlite (EP through a vacuum absorption method to obtain composite PCM; secondly, the composite PCM was immersed into the mixture of colloidal silica and organic acrylate, and then it was taken out and dried naturally. A series of experiments, including differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, scanning electron microscope (SEM, best matching test, and durability test, have been conducted to characterize and analyze the thermophysical property and reliability of PCMP. Additionally, the thermal performance of BESP was studied through a dynamic thermal property test. The results have showed that: (1 the surface film coating procedure can effectively solve the leakage problem of composite phase change material prepared by vacuum impregnation; (2 the optimum adsorption ratio for paraffin and EP was 52.5:47.5 in mass fraction, and the PCMP has good thermal properties, stability, and durability; and (3 in the process of dynamic thermal performance test, BESP have low temperature variation, significant temperature lagging, and large heat storage ability, which indicated the potential of BESP in the application of building energy efficiency.

  10. Carbon storage as affected by different site preparation techniques two years after mixed forest stand installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, F.; Figueiredo, T. de; Martins, A.

    2014-06-01

    Aim of study: This study aims at evaluating the impact of site preparation techniques prior to plantation on carbon storage and distribution in a young mixed stand of Pseudotsuga menziesii (PM) and Castanea sativa (CS). Area of study: The experimental field was established near Macedo de Cavaleiros, Northern Portugal, at 700 m elevation, mean annual temperature 12 degree centigrade and mean annual rainfall 678 mm. Material and methods: The experimental layout includes three replicates, where the different treatments corresponding to different tillage intensities were randomly distributed (high, moderate and slight intensity), in plots with an area of 375 m{sup 2} each. Twenty six months after forest stand installation, samples of herbaceous vegetation (0.49 m{sup 2} quadrat), forest species (8 PM and 8 CS) and mineral soil (at 0-5, 5-15, 15-30 and 30-60 cm depth) were collected in 15 randomly selected points in each treatment, processed in laboratory and analyzed for carbon by elemental carbon analyzer. Main results: The results obtained showed that: (i) more than 90% of the total carbon stored in the system is located in the soil, increasing in depth with tillage intensity; (ii) the contribution of herbaceous vegetation and related roots to the carbon storage is very low; (iii) the amount of carbon per tree is higher in CS than in PM; (iv) the global carbon storage was affected by soil tillage generally decreasing with the increase of tillage intensity. Accordingly, carbon storage capacity as affected by the application of different site preparation techniques should be a decision support tool in afforestation schemes. (Author)

  11. Preparation, chemical composition and storage studies of quamachil (Pithecellobium dulce L.) aril powder

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Galla Narsing; Nagender, Allani; Satyanarayana, Akula; Rao, Dubasi Govardhana

    2010-01-01

    Quamachil aril powder samples were prepared and evaluated for chemical composition and sensory quality by packing in two packaging systems during storage for six months. The protein contents were 12.4 and 15.0% in white and pink aril powders respectively. The titrable acidity of white and pink aril powders were 2.4 and 4.8% respectively. Ca and Fe contents in white aril powder samples were 60 and 12 mg/100 g where as in pink aril powder 62 and 16 mg/100 g, respectively. The anthocyanin conten...

  12. Water enriched in the rare stable isotopes : Preparation, measurement and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faghihi, Vahideh

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is water with increased abundances of the rare stable isotopes 2H and 18O (and to some extent also 17O). Such artificially enriched (or "labelled") waters are often used in biomedicine, for establishing the total amount of body water (and thus body composition) of humans

  13. Solvothermal preparation of micro/nanostructured TiO_2 with enhanced lithium storage capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jie; Wang, Chao; Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Gongxuan; Tang, Chengchun; Wu, Tian

    2017-01-01

    Facile and controllable preparation of TiO_2 is of prime importance to elaborately tailor and then fully exploit its intriguing functionalities in energy storage, catalysis and environmental remediation. Herein, a solvothermal method combined with post annealing is conducted, in which the hydrolysis of tetrabutyl titanate is controlled by the in-situ generated water during solvothermal treatment. By controlling synthetic conditions (i.e. reactant ratio, solvothermal temperature and reaction time), we manage to tailor the morphologies of TiO_2. Specially, three typical structures (nanoparticle, nanoneedle and nanorod) are studied to reveal the growth mechanism and the effects of the synthesis conditions. Nanoneedle-structured TiO_2 shows higher specific capacity and enhanced cycle stability as anode material for lithium ion batteries. - Highlights: • Controllable preparation of nano-TiO_2 is achieved by a solvothermal method. • TiO_2 morphology is tailored by tuning reactant ratio, temperature and duration. • Needle structured TiO_2 shows enhanced lithium storage capability.

  14. Physicochemical properties and storage stability of soybean protein nanoemulsions prepared by ultra-high pressure homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Mukherjee, Dipaloke; Chang, Sam K C

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of the ultrahigh pressure homogenization (pressure, protein concentration, oil phase fraction, pH, temperature, and ionic strength) and storage on the properties of nanoemulsions (100-500nm range), which were stabilized by laboratory-prepared soybean protein isolate (SPI), β-conglycinin (7S) and glycinin (11S). The nanoemulsions made with SPI, 7S and 11S proteins exhibited considerable stability over various ionic strengths (0-500mM NaCl), pH (7), thermal treatments (30-60°C) and storage (0-45days). The far-UV spectra of SPI, 7S, 11S dispersions, and SPI-, 7S-, 11S protein-stabilized nanoemulsions were analyzed for the protein structural changes following lipid removal. The ultra-high pressure homogenization changed the secondary structure of SPI, 7S, 11S proteins in the nanoemulsions, and enhanced their stability. This study demonstrated that SPI, 7S, and 11S proteins can be used as effective emulsifiers in nanoemulsions prepared by ultra-high pressure homogenization. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Modified Montmorillonite/Paraffin Phase Change Microcapsules for Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIN Sen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The phase change microcapsules of modified montmorillonite/paraffin were prepared by Pickering emulsion method. Analytic techniques of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy(SEM, infrared spectroscopy(FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry(DSC and thermogravimetry(TG were utilized for characterizing chemical structure, morphology and thermal properties. Results show that modified montmorillonite as a new type wall material has excellent performance for protecting core material of paraffin. FTIR spectra of phase change of modified montmorillonite/paraffin microcapsules shows that their characteristic peaks match with corresponding peaks of pure paraffin and modified montmorillonite. DSC results indicate that modified montmorillonite/paraffin microcapsules have similar solid-liquid phase change temperature with pure paraffin. The phase transition enthalpy values of microcapsules with paraffin contents varying from 55% to 80% are 110.5-147.2J/g, indicating that microcapsules have excellent thermal storage performance and the phase change properties can be adjusted by changing contents of paraffin. TG results confirm that modified montmorillonite/paraffin microcapsules have outstanding thermal stability. The presented study indicates that modified montmorillonite is a suitable wall material for preparing paraffin microcapsule. Modified montmorillonite/paraffin microcapsules have advantages of low cost and high performance with a great application potential in the field of thermal storage.

  16. Solvothermal preparation of micro/nanostructured TiO{sub 2} with enhanced lithium storage capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jie [School of Physics and Mechanical & Electronical Engineering, Hubei University of Education, Wuhan, 430205 (China); Wang, Chao [Department of Architecture and Material Engineering, Hubei University of Education, Wuhan, 430205 (China); Zheng, Ping; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Gongxuan [College of Chemistry and Life Science, Hubei University of Education, Wuhan, 430205 (China); Tang, Chengchun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Wu, Tian, E-mail: twu@whu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Mechanical & Electronical Engineering, Hubei University of Education, Wuhan, 430205 (China); College of Chemistry and Life Science, Hubei University of Education, Wuhan, 430205 (China); Department of Architecture and Material Engineering, Hubei University of Education, Wuhan, 430205 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Facile and controllable preparation of TiO{sub 2} is of prime importance to elaborately tailor and then fully exploit its intriguing functionalities in energy storage, catalysis and environmental remediation. Herein, a solvothermal method combined with post annealing is conducted, in which the hydrolysis of tetrabutyl titanate is controlled by the in-situ generated water during solvothermal treatment. By controlling synthetic conditions (i.e. reactant ratio, solvothermal temperature and reaction time), we manage to tailor the morphologies of TiO{sub 2}. Specially, three typical structures (nanoparticle, nanoneedle and nanorod) are studied to reveal the growth mechanism and the effects of the synthesis conditions. Nanoneedle-structured TiO{sub 2} shows higher specific capacity and enhanced cycle stability as anode material for lithium ion batteries. - Highlights: • Controllable preparation of nano-TiO{sub 2} is achieved by a solvothermal method. • TiO{sub 2} morphology is tailored by tuning reactant ratio, temperature and duration. • Needle structured TiO{sub 2} shows enhanced lithium storage capability.

  17. Preparation process of a stable non radioactive carrier intended for radiodiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molinski, V.J.; Wilczewski, J.A.

    1976-01-01

    The description is given of a stable non radioactive carrier with a pH of around 2 and around 4, for cardiological studies, exploring the blood in circulation and exploring the brain, after labelling with sup(99m)Tc. It includes human serum albumin (SAH) and stannous tartrate, the proportion in weight between the SAH and stannous tartrate being between around 50:1 and around 150:1 [fr

  18. Colloid stable sorbents for cesium removal: Preparation and application of latex particles functionalized with transition metals ferrocyanides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avramenko, Valentin [Institute of Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 159 ave 100-letiya Vladivostoka, Vladivostok 690022 (Russian Federation); Bratskaya, Svetlana, E-mail: sbratska@ich.dvo.ru [Institute of Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 159 ave 100-letiya Vladivostoka, Vladivostok 690022 (Russian Federation); Zheleznov, Veniamin; Sheveleva, Irina [Institute of Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 159 ave 100-letiya Vladivostoka, Vladivostok 690022 (Russian Federation); Voitenko, Oleg [Far Eastern Federal University, Laboratory of Electron Microscopy and Image Processing, 27, Oktyabr' skaya Street, Vladivostok 690950 (Russian Federation); Sergienko, Valentin [Institute of Chemistry, Far Eastern Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, 159 ave 100-letiya Vladivostoka, Vladivostok 690022 (Russian Federation)

    2011-02-28

    In this paper we suggest a principally new approach to preparation of colloid stable selective sorbents for cesium uptake using immobilization of transition metals (cobalt, nickel, and copper) ferrocyanides in nanosized carboxylic latex emulsions. The effects of ferrocyanide composition, pH, and media salinity on the sorption properties of the colloid stable sorbents toward cesium ions were studied in solutions containing up to 200 g/L of sodium nitrate or potassium chloride. The sorption capacities of the colloid sorbents based on mixed potassium/transition metals ferrocyanides were in the range 1.3-1.5 mol Cs/mol ferrocyanide with the highest value found for the copper ferrocyanide. It was shown that the obtained colloid-stable sorbents were capable to penetrate through bulk materials without filtration that made them applicable for decontamination of solids, e.g. soils, zeolites, spent ion-exchange resins contaminated with cesium radionuclides. After decontamination of liquid or solid radioactive wastes the colloid-stable sorbents can be easily separated from solutions by precipitation with cationic flocculants providing localization of radionuclides in a small volume of the precipitates formed.

  19. Preparation of activated carbon from waste plastics polyethylene terephthalate as adsorbent in natural gas storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliusman; Nasruddin; Sanal, A.; Bernama, A.; Haris, F.; Ramadhan, I. T.

    2017-02-01

    The main problem is the process of natural gas storage and distribution, because in normal conditions of natural gas in the gas phase causes the storage capacity be small and efficient to use. The technology is commonly used Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) and Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG). The weakness of this technology safety level is low because the requirement for high-pressure CNG (250 bar) and LNG requires a low temperature (-161°C). It takes innovation in the storage of natural gas using the technology ANG (Adsorbed Natural Gas) with activated carbon as an adsorbent, causing natural gas can be stored in a low pressure of about 34.5. In this research, preparation of activated carbon using waste plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET). PET plastic waste is a good raw material for making activated carbon because of its availability and the price is a lot cheaper. Besides plastic PET has the appropriate characteristics as activated carbon raw material required for the storage of natural gas because the material is hard and has a high carbon content of about 62.5% wt. The process of making activated carbon done is carbonized at a temperature of 400 ° C and physical activation using CO2 gas at a temperature of 975 ° C. The parameters varied in the activation process is the flow rate of carbon dioxide and activation time. The results obtained in the carbonization process yield of 21.47%, while the yield on the activation process by 62%. At the optimum process conditions, the CO2 flow rate of 200 ml/min and the activation time of 240 minutes, the value % burn off amounted to 86.69% and a surface area of 1591.72 m2/g.

  20. Accelerated Thermal Cycling Test of Microencapsulated Paraffin Wax/Polyaniline Made by Simple Preparation Method for Solar Thermal Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silakhori, Mahyar; Naghavi, Mohammad Sajad; Metselaar, Hendrik Simon Cornelis; Mahlia, Teuku Meurah Indra; Fauzi, Hadi; Mehrali, Mohammad

    2013-04-29

    Microencapsulated paraffin wax/polyaniline was prepared using a simple in situ polymerization technique, and its performance characteristics were investigated. Weight losses of samples were determined by Thermal Gravimetry Analysis (TGA). The microencapsulated samples with 23% and 49% paraffin showed less decomposition after 330 °C than with higher percentage of paraffin. These samples were then subjected to a thermal cycling test. Thermal properties of microencapsulated paraffin wax were evaluated by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). Structure stability and compatibility of core and coating materials were also tested by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR), and the surface morphology of the samples are shown by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). It has been found that the microencapsulated paraffin waxes show little change in the latent heat of fusion and melting temperature after one thousand thermal recycles. Besides, the chemical characteristics and structural profile remained constant after one thousand thermal cycling tests. Therefore, microencapsulated paraffin wax/polyaniline is a stable material that can be used for thermal energy storage systems.

  1. Legume Protein Isolates for Stable Acidic Emulsions Prepared by Premix Membrane Emulsification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ladjal Ettoumi, Yakoub; Berton-Carabin, Claire; Chibane, Mohamed; Schroën, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Proteins originating from dry legumes are not that much used in food formulations, yet, they are interesting components from a sustainability point of view, and could have interesting functional properties, e.g. for emulsion preparation. Therefore, this work focuses on the potential of the water

  2. Chemical stability of insulin. 1. Hydrolytic degradation during storage of pharmaceutical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brange, J; Langkjaer, L; Havelund, S; Vølund, A

    1992-06-01

    Hydrolysis of insulin has been studied during storage of various preparations at different temperatures. Insulin deteriorates rapidly in acid solutions due to extensive deamidation at residue AsnA21. In neutral formulations deamidation takes place at residue AsnB3 at a substantially reduced rate under formation of a mixture of isoAsp and Asp derivatives. The rate of hydrolysis at B3 is independent of the strength of the preparation, and in most cases the species of insulin, but varies with storage temperature and formulation. Total transformation at B3 is considerably reduced when insulin is in the crystalline as compared to the amorphous or soluble state, indicating that formation of the rate-limiting cyclic imide decreases when the flexibility of the tertiary structure is reduced. Neutral solutions containing phenol showed reduced deamidation probably because of a stabilizing effect of phenol on the tertiary structure (alpha-helix formation) around the deamidating residue, resulting in a reduced probability for formation of the intermediate imide. The ratio of isoAsp/Asp derivative was independent of time and temperature, suggesting a pathway involving only intermediate imide formation, without any direct side-chain hydrolysis. However, increasing formation of Asp relative to isoAsp derivative was observed with decreasing flexibility of the insulin three-dimensional structure in the formulation. In certain crystalline suspensions a cleavage of the peptide bond A8-A9 was observed. Formation of this split product is species dependent: bovine greater than porcine greater than human insulin. The hydrolytic cleavage of the peptide backbone takes place only in preparations containing rhombohedral crystals in addition to free zinc ions.

  3. High-Temperature Thermochemical Storage with Redox-Stable Perovskites for Concentrating Solar Power, CRADA Number: CRD-14-554

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhiwen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-05

    As part of a Federal Opportunity Announcement (FOA) Award, the project will be led by Colorado School of Mines (CSM) to explore and demonstrate the efficacy of highly reducible, redox-stable oxides to provide efficient thermochemical energy storage for heat release at temperatures of 900 degrees Celcius or more. NREL will support the material development for its application in a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant. In the project, NREL will provide its inventive system design, chemical looping for CSP, and use it as a platform to accommodate the chemical processes using a cost effective perovskite materials identified by CSM. NREL will design a 5-10kW particle receiver for perovskite reduction to store solar energy and help the development of a fluidized-bed reoxidation reactor and system integration. NREL will develop the demonstration receiver for on-sun test in the 5-10 kWt range in NREL's high flux solar furnace. NREL will assist in system analysis and provide techno-economic inputs for the overall system configuration.

  4. Preparation of novel stable antibacterial nanoparticles using hydroxyethylcellulose and application in paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Dafu; Chen, Yan; Zhang, Youwei

    2016-01-20

    Taking advantage of the self-assembly between the components, novel stable antibacterial nanoparticles were efficiently fabricated via a facile one-step co-polymerization of acrylic acid (AA) and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) on a mixed aqueous solution of poly(hexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride) (PHMG) and hydroxyethylcellulose (HEC). The z-average hydrodynamic diameters of the nanoparticles ranged from 220 nm to 450 nm. The inner layer of the nanoparticles is composed of water-insoluble interpolymer complexes of PHMG and PAA networks, while the outer layer is composed of PHMG and HEC. The nanoparticles are stabilized by electrostatic interactions, hydrogen bonding interactions, and the chemical bonds. The nanoparticle solution remained stable in a wide pH range of 2.0-12.0 and at salt concentrations below 0.25 mol/L. The nanoparticles were incorporated into handsheets using a dipping treatment. The resulted handsheets exhibited excellent antimicrobial activities even after multiple water washing treatments. The nanoparticles are promising in fabricating paper, water-based coatings and textiles with permanent antibacterial activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation and flammability of high density polyethylene/paraffin/organophilic montmorillonite hybrids as a form stable phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yibing; Hu, Yuan; Song, Lei; Kong, Qinghong; Yang, Rui; Zhang, Yinping; Chen, Zuyao; Fan, Weicheng

    2007-01-01

    A kind of form stable phase change material (PCM) based on high density polyethylene (HDPE), paraffin, organophilic montmorillonite (OMT) and intumescent flame retardant (IFR) hybrids is prepared by using a twin screw extruder technique. This kind of form stable PCM is made of paraffin as a dispersed phase change material and HDPE as a supporting material. The structure of the montmorillonite (MMT) and OMT is characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM). The analysis indicates that the MMT is a kind of lamellar structure, and the structure does not change after organic modification. However, the structure of the hybrid is evidenced by the XRD and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). Its thermal stability, latent heat and flame retardant properties are given by the Thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) method and cone calorimeter, respectively. Synergy is observed between the OMT and IFR. The XRD result indicates that the paraffin intercalates into the silicate layers of the OMT, thus forming a typically intercalated hybrid. The SEM investigation and DSC result show that the additives of OMT and IFR have hardly any effect on the HDPE/paraffin three dimensional netted structure and the latent heat. In TGA curves, although the onset of weight loss of flame-retardant form stable PCMs occur at a lower temperature than that of form stable PCM, flame-retardant form stable PCMs produce a large amount of char residue at 700 o C. The synergy between OMT and IFR leads to the decrease of the heat release rate (HRR), contributing to improvement of the flammability performance

  6. Preparation of stable magnetic nanofluids containing Fe3O4@PPy nanoparticles by a novel one-pot route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Baobao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Stable magnetic nanofluids containing Fe3O4@Polypyrrole (PPy nanoparticles (NPs were prepared by using a facile and novel method, in which one-pot route was used. FeCl3·6H2O was applied as the iron source, and the oxidizing agent to produce PPy. Trisodium citrate (Na3cit was used as the reducing reagent to form Fe3O4 NPs. The as-prepared nanofluid can keep long-term stability. The Fe3O4@PPy NPs can still keep dispersing well after the nanofluid has been standing for 1 month and no sedimentation is found. The polymerization reaction of the pyrrole monomers took place with Fe3+ ions as the initiator, in which these Fe3+ ions remained in the solution adsorbed on the surface of the Fe3O4 NPs. Thus, the core-shell NPs of Fe3O4@PPy were obtained. The particle size of the as-prepared Fe3O4@PPy can be easily controlled from 7 to 30 nm by the polymerization reaction of the pyrrole monomers. The steric stabilization and weight of the NPs affect the stability of the nanofluids. The as-prepared Fe3O4@PPy NPs exhibit superparamagnetic behavior.

  7. Improvements in or relating to the preparation for storage of fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bacci, M.; Price, M.S.T.

    1976-01-01

    The described method of preparing waste fission products for storage comprises forming the liquid waste into solid particles and then coating the particles with an impervious, heat conducting and mechanically strong material. The coating is preferably formed by at least one layer of silicon carbide, silicon nitride, germanium nitride, tungsten carbide, zirconium carbide or alumina. It may be necessary to provide an initial layer of a material that will adhere to the particle and to the coating, for example pyrolytic carbon. An example of application of the method is described. The coated particles may be subsequently dispersed in a matrix of a thermal conducting material, which may be a carbonaceous material, silicon carbide or stainless steel. (U.K.)

  8. Determining CO2 storage potential during miscible CO2 enhanced oil recovery: Noble gas and stable isotope tracers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jenna L.; McIntosh, Jennifer C.; Hunt, Andrew; Beebe, Thomas L; Parker, Andrew D; Warwick, Peter D.; Drake, Ronald; McCray, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations are fueling anthropogenic climate change. Geologic sequestration of anthropogenic CO2 in depleted oil reservoirs is one option for reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere while enhancing oil recovery. In order to evaluate the feasibility of using enhanced oil recovery (EOR) sites in the United States for permanent CO2 storage, an active multi-stage miscible CO2flooding project in the Permian Basin (North Ward Estes Field, near Wickett, Texas) was investigated. In addition, two major natural CO2 reservoirs in the southeastern Paradox Basin (McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon) were also investigated as they provide CO2 for EOR operations in the Permian Basin. Produced gas and water were collected from three different CO2 flooding phases (with different start dates) within the North Ward Estes Field to evaluate possible CO2 storage mechanisms and amounts of total CO2retention. McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon were sampled for produced gas to determine the noble gas and stable isotope signature of the original injected EOR gas and to confirm the source of this naturally-occurring CO2. As expected, the natural CO2produced from McElmo Dome and Doe Canyon is a mix of mantle and crustal sources. When comparing CO2 injection and production rates for the CO2 floods in the North Ward Estes Field, it appears that CO2 retention in the reservoir decreased over the course of the three injections, retaining 39%, 49% and 61% of the injected CO2 for the 2008, 2010, and 2013 projects, respectively, characteristic of maturing CO2 miscible flood projects. Noble gas isotopic composition of the injected and produced gas for the flood projects suggest no active fractionation, while δ13CCO2 values suggest no active CO2dissolution into formation water, or mineralization. CO2 volumes capable of dissolving in residual formation fluids were also estimated along with the potential to store pure-phase supercritical CO2. Using a combination

  9. Preparation and Thermal Properties of Eutectic Hydrate Salt Phase Change Thermal Energy Storage Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Liang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new cold storage phase change material eutectic hydrate salt (K2HPO4·3H2O–NaH2PO4·2H2O–Na2S2O3·5H2O was prepared, modified, and tested. The modification was performed by adding a nucleating agent and thickener. The physical properties such as viscosity, surface tension, cold storage characteristics, supercooling, and the stability during freeze-thaw cycles were studied. Results show that the use of nucleating agents, such as sodium tetraborate, sodium fluoride, and nanoparticles, are effective. The solidification temperature and latent heat of these materials which was added with 0, 3, and 5 wt% thickeners were −11.9, −10.6, and −14.8°C and 127.2, 118.6, 82.56 J/g, respectively. Adding a nucleating agent can effectively improve the nucleation rate and nucleation stability. Furthermore, increasing viscosity has a positive impact on the solidification rate, supercooling, and the stability during freeze-thaw cycles.

  10. Preparation, characterization, and thermal properties of microencapsulated phase change material for thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkan, Cemil; Sari, Ahmet; Karaipekli, Ali [Department of Chemistry, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60240 Tokat (Turkey); Uzun, Orhan [Department of Physics, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60240 Tokat (Turkey)

    2009-01-15

    This study is focused on the preparation, characterization, and determination of thermal properties of microencapsulated docosane with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) as phase change material for thermal energy storage. Microencapsulation of docosane has been carried out by emulsion polymerization. The microencapsulated phase change material (MEPCM) was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Thermal properties and thermal stability of MEPCM were measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). DSC analysis indicated that the docosane in the microcapsules melts at 41.0 C and crystallizes at 40.6 C. It has latent heats of 54.6 and -48.7 J/g for melting and crystallization, respectively. TGA showed that the MEPCM degraded in three distinguishable steps and had good chemical stability. Accelerated thermal cycling tests also indicated that the MEPCM had good thermal reliability. Based on all these results, it can be concluded that the microencapsulated docosane as MEPCMs have good potential for thermal energy storage purposes such as solar space heating applications. (author)

  11. Structure of hybrid organic-inorganic sols for the preparation of hydrothermally stable membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castricum, H.L.; Sah, A; Blank, D.H.A.; Ten Elshof, J.E. [Inorganic Materials Science, MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Geenevasen, J.A.J. [Van ' t Hoff Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Nieuwe Achtergracht 166, 1018 WV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kreiter, R.; Vente, J.F. [ECN Energy Efficiency in the Industry, Petten (Netherlands)

    2008-06-15

    A procedure for the preparation of hybrid sols for the synthesis of organic-inorganic microporous materials and thin film membranes is reported. We describe silane reactivity and sol structure for acid-catalysed colloidal sols from mixtures of either tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and methyltriethoxysilane (MTES), or bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTESE) and MTES. Early-stage hydrolysis and condensation rates of the individual silane precursors were followed with 29Si liquid NMR and structural characteristics of more developed sols were studied with Dynamic Light Scattering. Condensation was found to proceed at more or less similar rates for the different precursors. Homogeneously mixed hybrid colloids can therefore be formed from precursor mixtures. The conditions of preparation under which clear sols with low viscosity could be formed from BTESE/MTES were determined. These sols were synthesised at moderate water/silane and acid/silane ratios and could be applied for the coating of defect-free microporous membranes for molecular separations under hydrothermal conditions.

  12. Parametric Grid Information in the DOE Knowledge Base: Data Preparation, Storage, and Access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hipp, James R.; Moore, Susan G.; Myers, Stephen C.; Schultz, Craig A.; Shepherd, Ellen; Young, Christopher J.

    1999-01-01

    The parametric grid capability of the Knowledge Base provides an efficient, robust way to store and access interpolatable information which is needed to monitor the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. To meet both the accuracy and performance requirements of operational monitoring systems, we use a new approach which combines the error estimation of kriging with the speed and robustness of Natural Neighbor Interpolation (NNI). The method involves three basic steps: data preparation (DP), data storage (DS), and data access (DA). The goal of data preparation is to process a set of raw data points to produce a sufficient basis for accurate NNI of value and error estimates in the Data Access step. This basis includes a set of nodes and their connectedness, collectively known as a tessellation, and the corresponding values and errors that map to each node, which we call surfaces. In many cases, the raw data point distribution is not sufficiently dense to guarantee accurate error estimates from the NNI, so the original data set must be densified using a newly developed interpolation technique known as Modified Bayesian Kriging. Once appropriate kriging parameters have been determined by variogram analysis, the optimum basis for NNI is determined in a process they call mesh refinement, which involves iterative kriging, new node insertion, and Delauny triangle smoothing. The process terminates when an NNI basis has been calculated which will fir the kriged values within a specified tolerance. In the data storage step, the tessellations and surfaces are stored in the Knowledge Base, currently in a binary flatfile format but perhaps in the future in a spatially-indexed database. Finally, in the data access step, a client application makes a request for an interpolated value, which triggers a data fetch from the Knowledge Base through the libKBI interface, a walking triangle search for the containing triangle, and finally the NNI interpolation

  13. Nanotubes within transition metal silicate hollow spheres: Facile preparation and superior lithium storage performances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fan; An, Yongling; Zhai, Wei; Gao, Xueping [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution & Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Jinan 250100 (China); Feng, Jinkui, E-mail: jinkui@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution & Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Jinan 250100 (China); Ci, Lijie [Key Laboratory for Liquid–Solid Structural Evolution & Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Jinan 250100 (China); Xiong, Shenglin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The hollow Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and CuSiO{sub 3} were successfully prepared by a facile hydrothermal method using SiO{sub 2} nanosphere. • The hollow Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and CuSiO{sub 3} were tested as anode materials for lithium batteries. • The hollow Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, MnSiO{sub 3} and CuSiO{sub 3} delivered superior electrochemical performance. • The lithium storage mechanism is probe via cyclic voltammetry and XPS. - Abstract: A series of transition metal silicate hollow spheres, including cobalt silicate (Co{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}), manganese silicate (MnSiO{sub 3}) and copper silicate (CuSiO{sub 3}.2H{sub 2}O, CuSiO{sub 3} as abbreviation in the text) were prepared via a simple and economic hydrothermal method by using silica spheres as chemical template. Time-dependent experiments confirmed that the resultants formed a novel type of hierarchical structure, hollow spheres assembled by numerous one-dimensional (1D) nanotubes building blocks. For the first time, the transition metal silicate hollow spheres were characterized as novel anode materials of Li-ion battery, which presented superior lithium storage capacities, cycle performance and rate performance. The 1D nanotubes assembly and hollow interior endow this kind of material facilitate fast lithium ion and electron transport and accommodate the big volume change during the conversion reactions. Our study shows that low-cost transition metal silicate with rationally designed nanostructures can be promising anode materials for high capacity lithium-ion battery.

  14. Preparation and isolation of dithiolene thiophosphoryl molecules as stable, protected forms of dithiolene ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Kuppuswamy; Bollinger, James E; Fink, Mark; Donahue, James P

    2007-04-16

    The reaction of P4S10 with acyloins, RC(O)CH(OH)R, in refluxing dioxane, followed by the addition of alkylating agents, forms dithiolene thiophosphoryl thiolate compounds, (R2C2S2)P(S)(SR'), which are readily isolated and purified. The compounds that have been prepared and identified spectroscopically are those with R = p-anisyl, R' = Me (1); R = p-anisyl, R' = Bz (2); R = Ph, R' = Me (4); R = Et, R' = Bz (5). Compounds 1, 2, and 4 were structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography and found to possess a tetrahedral coordination geometry about the phosphorus atom, with overall Cs symmetry. In each case, the mirror plane bisects the dithiolene S-P-S chelate and contains the thiophosphoryl bond, which ranges in length from 1.9241(8) to 1.9361(7) A. The use of 2-(bromomethyl)naphthalene as organic electrophile in the P4S10/acyloin reaction produced bis(2-methylnaphthalenyl) disulfide as the only identifiable product. The substitution of Lawesson's reagent for P4S10 in reactions with acyloins produced deoxy acyloin rather than products resulting from chalcogen exchange. Compounds 1-2 and 4-5 are Group 5 analogues of 1,3-dithiol-2-ones, (R2C2S2)C=O, and undergo a similar hydrolysis in aqueous base to liberate ene-1,2-dithiolate dianions from which corresponding metal dithiolene complexes may be prepared. Deprotection of 1 in MeO-/MeOH, followed by the addition of NiCl2.6H2O and then I2, produces square planar [Ni(S2C2(C6H4-p-OCH3)2)2] (8) in 93% yield. A high-resolution structure of 8 (P) reveals dithiolene C-C and C-S bond lengths that are clearly indicative of the thionyl radical monoanionic nature of the ligand. The use of isolated (R2C2S2)P(S)(SR') compounds as a dithiolene ligand source for the preparation of metal dithiolene complexes offers the advantages of clean reactivity and high yield.

  15. The convenient preparation of stable aryl-coated zerovalent iron nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga A. Guselnikova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach for the in situ synthesis of zerovalent aryl-coated iron nanoparticles (NPs based on diazonium salt chemistry is proposed. Surface-modified zerovalent iron NPs (ZVI NPs were prepared by simple chemical reduction of iron(III chloride aqueous solution followed by in situ modification using water soluble arenediazonium tosylate. The resulting NPs, with average iron core diameter of 21 nm, were coated with a 10 nm thick organic layer to provide long-term protection in air for the highly reactive zerovalent iron core up to 180 °C. The surface-modified iron NPs possess a high grafting density of the aryl group on the NPs surface of 1.23 mmol/g. FTIR spectroscopy, XRD, HRTEM, TGA/DTA, and elemental analysis were performed in order to characterize the resulting material.

  16. Syntheses and study of pyrrolidinic nitroxide free radicals. Preparation of a nitroxide-type stable bi-radical; Synthese et etudes de radicaux libres nitroxydes pyrrolidiniques. Preparation d'un biradical stable du type nitroxyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupeyre, R M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires, Laboratoire de chimie organique physique

    1967-12-01

    Syntheses and study of pyrrolidinic nitroxide free radicals: These radicals are obtained by oxidation, with hydrogen peroxide, of pyrrolidinic amines prepared from triacetonamine by ring contraction. The U. V,, I. R, and E.P.R. spectral characteristics have been determined. The oxidation of these amines with hydrogen peroxide has led also to rupture of the pentagonal ring; some of the decomposition products have been identified. The high chemical stability of the nitroxide group has made it possible to synthesize and study a stable bi-radical. (author) [French] Syntheses et etudes de radicaux libres nitroxydes pyrrolidiniques: Ces radicaux sont obtenus par oxydation l'eau oxygenee d'amines pyrrolidiniques preparees a partir de la triacetonamine par contraction de cycle. Les caracteristiques spectroscopiques ultra-violettes, infra-rouge et resonance paramagnetique sont determinees. Cependant, 1'oxydation de ces amines a l'eau oxygenee a entraine la coupure du cycle pentagonal et identification de certaines substances de decomposition obtenues. La grande stabilite chimique de groupement nitroxyde a permis la synthese et l'etude d'un biradical stable. (auteur)

  17. Preparation and characterization of stable copper/zinc oxide/alumina catalysts for methanol synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeppener, R H; Doesburg, E B; Scholten, J J

    1986-08-15

    A series of Cu/ZnO/Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ catalysts for the low pressure methanol synthesis has been prepared by coprecipitation with a sodium carbonate solution from solutions of a mixture of the corresponding metal nitrates, followed by drying, calcination and reduction. The catalysts and their precursors were analyzed by techniques like X-ray diffraction, X-ray line broadening, differential thermal analysis, chemical analysis, adsorptive decomposition of N/sub 2/O and B.E.T.-measurements. The catalytic activity for the methanol synthesis was determined in a flow reactor under industrial conditions. Depending on the metal ion ratio in the initial metal nitrate solutions different compounds were formed during coprecipitation, like rosasite, malachite, Cu, Zn-hydrotalcite and a ternary compound which was called roderite. Its structure is unknown and it contains, besides Zn/sup 2+/, up to 28 at% Cu/sup 2+/ and up to 17 at% Al/sup 3+/. Addition of 7 at% Mg/sup 2+/ stabilizes the Cu, Zn-hydrotalcite structure but leads to a drastic decrease in catalytic activity. The rate of methanol production depends on the phase composition of the precursors. Rosasite containing precursors give the highest activity; hydrotalcite proves to be an excellent catalyst stabilizer which evokes the formation of small Cu and ZnO particles. Mg/sup 2+/ inhibits methanol production. 6 figs., 1 tab., 18 refs.

  18. Colloidally stable surface-modified iron oxide nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization and anti-tumor activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macková, Hana [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, AS CR, Heyrovsky Sq. 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Horák, Daniel, E-mail: horak@imc.cas.cz [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, AS CR, Heyrovsky Sq. 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Donchenko, Georgiy Viktorovich; Andriyaka, Vadim Ivanovich; Palyvoda, Olga Mikhailovna; Chernishov, Vladimir Ivanovich [Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, NASU, 9 Leontovich St., 01601 Kiev (Ukraine); Chekhun, Vasyl Fedorovich; Todor, Igor Nikolaevich [R. E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology, NASU, 45 Vasylkivska St., 03022 Kiev (Ukraine); Kuzmenko, Oleksandr Ivanovich [Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, NASU, 9 Leontovich St., 01601 Kiev (Ukraine)

    2015-04-15

    Maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles were obtained by co-precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) chlorides and subsequent oxidation with sodium hypochlorite and coated with poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) [P(DMAAm-AA)]. They were characterized by a range of methods including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), elemental analysis, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurements. The effect of superparamagnetic P(DMAAm-AA)-γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles on oxidation of blood lipids, glutathione and proteins in blood serum was detected using 2-thiobarbituric acid and the ThioGlo fluorophore. Finally, mice received magnetic nanoparticles administered per os and the antitumor activity of the particles was tested on Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in male mice line C57BL/6 as an experimental in vivo metastatic tumor model; the tumor size was measured and the number of metastases in lungs was determined. Surface-modified γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles showed higher antitumor and antimetastatic activities than commercial CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles and the conventional antitumor agent cisplatin. - Highlights: • Maghemite nanoparticles were prepared and characterized. • Poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) coating was synthetized. • Blood lipid, glutathione and protein peroxidation/oxidation was determined. • Antitumor effect of coated particles on Lewis lung carcinoma in mice was observed.

  19. Stable carbon isotope ratio profiling of illicit testosterone preparations--domestic and international seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, Lance; Cawley, Adam; Drury, Jason; Edey, Claire; Hasick, Nicole; Goebel, Catrin

    2014-10-01

    Gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS) is now established as a robust and mature analytical technique for the doping control of endogenous anabolic androgenic steroids in human sport. It relies on the assumption that the carbon isotope ratios of naturally produced steroids are significantly different to synthetically manufactured testosterone or testosterone prohormones used in commercial medical or dietary supplement products. Recent publications in this journal have highlighted the existence of black market testosterone preparations with carbon isotope ratios within the range reported for endogenous steroids (i.e. δ(13) C ≥ -25.8 ‰). In this study, we set out to profile domestic and international law enforcement seizures of illicit testosterone products to monitor the prevalence of 'enriched' substrates--which if administered to human subjects would be considered problematic for the use of current GC-C-IRMS methodologies for the doping control of testosterone in sport. The distribution of δ(13) C values for this illicit testosterone sample population (n = 283) ranged from -23.4 ‰ to -32.9 ‰ with mean and median of -28.6 ‰--comparable to previous work. However, only 13 out of 283 testosterone samples (4.6 %) were found to display δ(13) C values ≥ -25.8 ‰, confirming that in the vast majority of cases of illicit testosterone administration, current GC-C-IRMS doping control procedures would be capable of confirming misuse. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. An effective method for the preparation of high temperature stable anatase TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagan, Rachel; Synnott, Damian W.; McCormack, Declan E. [Centre for Research in Engineering Surface Technology (CREST), FOCAS Institute, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin St., Dublin 8 (Ireland); School of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin St., Dublin 8 (Ireland); Pillai, Suresh C., E-mail: pillai.suresh@itsligo.ie [Nanotechnology Research Group, Department of Environmental Sciences, Institute of Technology Sligo (Ireland); Centre for Precision Engineering, Materials and Manufacturing Research (PEM), Institute of Technology Sligo, Sligo (Ireland)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • A rapid preparation method for the N, F codoped TiO{sub 2} is reported. • Anatase stability was achieved by using N, F doping and a microwave process. • High temperature stable anatase up to 1200 °C is reported. • Production of ammonium oxofluorotitanates (NH{sub 4}TiOF{sub 3}) intermediate is reported. - Abstract: An efficient, rapid and straightforward method for the preparation of nitrogen and fluorine (N, F) codoped high temperature stable anatase using a microwave pre-treatment is reported. Using a single source, ammonium fluoride (NH{sub 4}F) for both nitrogen and fluorine, effective doping of the precursor titanium isopropoxide (TTIP) was possible. These samples were characterised for their structural and optical properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform IR (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy and UV–vis spectroscopy. In terms of the anatase to rutile transition enhancement using a novel microwave assisted technique, the sample prepared in a composition of 1:8 TiO{sub 2}: NH{sub 4}F at 1200 °C was seen to be most effective, having stable anatase present at 57.1% compared to undoped TiO{sub 2} being 100% rutile from 900 °C. This method involves the production of ammonium oxofluorotitanates (NH{sub 4}TiOF{sub 3}) at low temperatures. The inclusion of these intermediates greatly reduces the particle size growth and delays the anatase to rutile transition. The photocatalytic activity of these materials was studied by analysing the degradation of an organic dye, rhodamine 6G as a model system and the rate constant was calculated by pseudo-first-order kinetics. These results showed that the doped sample (0.0225 min{sup −1}) was three times more active than the undoped sample (0.0076 min{sup −1}) and over seven times faster than the commercial TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst standard Degussa P-25 calcined at 1200 °C (0.0030 min{sup −1}). The formation of intermediate compounds, oxofluorotitanates, was identified as the major

  1. Design and functionality of a segmented heat-storage prototype utilizing stable supercooling of sodium acetate trihydrate in a solar heating system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Englmair, Gerald; Moser, Christoph; Furbo, Simon

    2018-01-01

    acetate trihydrate composites to conserve the latent heat of fusion for long-term heat storage. A control strategy directed heat from a solar collector array to either the PCM storage or a water buffer storage. Several PCM units had to be charged in parallel when the solar collector output peaked at 16 k......A solar heating system with 22.4m2 of solar collectors, a heat storage prototype consisting of four 200 kg phase-change material (PCM) storage units, and a 735 L water tank was designed to improve solar heat supply in single-family houses. The PCM storage utilized stable supercooling of sodium......W. A single unit was charged with 27.4 kWh of heat within four hours on a sunny day, and the PCM temperature increased from 20 °C to 80 °C. The sensible heat from a single PCM unit was transferred to the water tank starting with about 32 kW of thermal power after it had fully melted at 80 °C. A mechanical...

  2. Preparation of Stable Superhydrophobic Coatings on Wood Substrate Surfaces via Mussel-Inspired Polydopamine and Electroless Deposition Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaili Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA chemistry and electroless deposition approaches were used to prepare stable superhydrophobic coatings on wood surfaces. The as-formed PDA coating on a wood surface exhibited a hierarchical micro/nano roughness structure, and functioned as an “adhesive layer” between the substrate and a metallic film by the metal chelating ability of the catechol moieties on PDA, allowing for the formation of a well-developed micro/nanostructure hierarchical roughness. Additionally, the coating acted as a stable bridge between the substrate and hydrophobic groups. The morphology and chemical components of the prepared superhydrophobic wood surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The PDA and octadecylamine (OA modified surface showed excellent superhydrophobicity with a water contact angle (CA of about 153° and a rolling angle (RA of about 9°. The CA further increased to about 157° and RA reduced to about 5° with the Cu metallization. The superhydrophobic material exhibited outstanding stability in harsh conditions including ultraviolet aging, ultrasonic washing, strong acid-base and organic solvent immersion, and high-temperature water boiling. The results suggested that the PDA/OA layers were good enough to confer robust, degradation-resistant superhydrophobicity on wood substrates. The Cu metallization was likely unnecessary to provide significant improvements in superhydrophobic property. However, due to the amazing adhesive capacity of PDA, the electroless deposition technique may allow for a wide range of potential applications in biomimetic materials.

  3. 77 FR 11527 - Bluewater Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP12-51-000] Bluewater Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed St. Clair River Crossing Replacement Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Onsite Environmental Review The staff of the Federal...

  4. 75 FR 26220 - Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Leader One Gas Storage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Leader One Energy, LLC] Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Planned Leader One Gas Storage Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of a Site Visit April 30, 2010. The staff of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC or...

  5. Quality Assessment of Platelet-Rich Fibrin-Like Matrix Prepared from Whole Blood Samples after Extended Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Kawabata

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The platelet-rich fibrin–like matrix (PRFM is usually prepared onsite and immediately used for regenerative therapy. Nonetheless, to meet the clinical necessity of preserving the PRFM without quality deterioration, we developed a method for preparation of PRFMs from short-term-stored whole blood (WB samples. In this study, to evaluate the practical expiration date of storage, we extended the storage time of WB samples from 2 to 7 days and assessed the quality of the resulting PRFMs. WB samples collected with acid-citrate-dextrose were stored with gentle agitation at ambient temperature. To prepare PRFMs, the stored WB samples were mixed with CaCl2 in glass tubes and centrifuged. Fibrin fiber networks, CD41 and CD62P expression, and Platelet Derived Growth Factor-BB (PDGF-BB levels were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, flow cytometry, and an Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA, respectively. Long-term storage had no significant effect on either blood cell counts or platelet functions tested. The resulting PRFMs were visually identical to freshly prepared ones. PDGF-BB levels did not markedly decrease in a time-dependent manner. However, fibrin fibers gradually became thinner after storage. Although the coagulation activity may diminish, we propose that PRFMs can be prepared—without evident loss of quality—from WB samples stored for up to 7 days by our previously developed method.

  6. Design Technique for the High-Boiling Propellant Storage and Preparation Facility at the Cosmodrome «Vostochny»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Denisov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The offered project of storage facility allows us to simplify and unitise the ground-based infrastructure objects. The storage facility implements a full preparatory cycle of the propellant components (PC in all parameters. Another problem the developers of complexes of groundbased equipment face now is bulk receipt of PC from manufacturer. The tanks of launch complexes cannot accept such volumes of propellant. It proves that there is a need to create a storage facility. The facility solves problems concerning the components receipt, temperature preparation, moisture content (drying, gas content, and supply to consumers. For preparation the perspective technologies with low power consumption are used.Receiving the propellant from the dispensing platform is carried out via filters of rough cleaning. Transfer from transport tankage goes using a pump. The received product passes through a gas separator to clean technological gas impurity.To prepare propellant temperature, a technology of cryogenic bubbling by boiling nitrogen is chosen. To improve efficiency of cryogenic bubbling it is advised to use the specialized capacities. Railway dimensions, admissible for the trainload goods across the railroads of Siberia and the Far East, define their sizes.As a drying technology and a gas content preparation the preliminary propellant filtration using vertical electro-separators is chosen to save a space. The chamber vertical electroseparators allow 2 — 3 times increase of dehydration capacity.The article presents calculations to prove that using the chosen cooling and drying technologies is efficient.Prepared PC can be supplied:• to transport-fueling containers (TFC with the subsequent transportation to the launch complexes either by the railway or by road;• to mobile fuelling tanks, which feed rocket-carrier tanks on arrival at the blast-off;• to transport capacities for transportation to the object outside the cosmodrome (spaceport;• directly

  7. Preparation, chemical composition and storage studies of quamachil (Pithecellobium dulce L.) aril powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Galla Narsing; Nagender, Allani; Satyanarayana, Akula; Rao, Dubasi Govardhana

    2011-02-01

    Quamachil aril powder samples were prepared and evaluated for chemical composition and sensory quality by packing in two packaging systems during storage for six months. The protein contents were 12.4 and 15.0% in white and pink aril powders respectively. The titrable acidity of white and pink aril powders were 2.4 and 4.8% respectively. Ca and Fe contents in white aril powder samples were 60 and 12 mg/100 g where as in pink aril powder 62 and 16 mg/100 g, respectively. The anthocyanin content in pink powder decreased from 50.5 to 11.2 and 14.1 mg/100 g in samples packed in polyethylene (PE) and metalised polyester polyethylene laminated pouches respectively. Total polyphenol amount increased in both the powders irrespective of packaging material. Sorption isotherms indicated that both white and pink aril powders were hygroscopic and equilibrated at low relative humidity of 28 and 32%, respectively.

  8. Preparation of nanoporous activated carbon and its application as nano adsorbent for CO2 storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashidi, Ali Morad; Kazemi, Davood; Izadi, Nosrat; Pourkhalil, Mahnaz; Jorsaraei, Abbas; Lotfi, Roghayeh; Ganji, Enseyeh

    2016-01-01

    Nanoporous activated carbons, as adsorbent for CO 2 storage, were prepared from walnut shells via two chemical processes including phosphoric acid treatment and KOH activation at high temperature. Specific surface area and porosities were controlled by KOH concentration and activation temperature. The obtained adsorbents were characterized by N2 adsorption at 77.3 K. Their carbon dioxide adsorption capacities were measured at different pressures at 290 K by using volumetric adsorption equipment. The KOH-treated nanoporous carbons typically led to the production of high specific surface areas and high micropore volumes and showed better performance for CO 2 adsorptions. The maximum experimental value for adsorption capacity happened when pressure increased from 5 to 10 bar (1.861- 2.873mmol·g -1 ). It was found that in order to improve the highest capacity of CO 2 adsorption for KOH-modified carbon (9.830-18.208mmol·g -1 ), a KOH: C weight ratio of 3.5 and activation temperature of 973 K were more suitable for pore development and micro-mesopore volume enhancement.

  9. Preparation and characterization of stearic acid/expanded graphite composites as thermal energy storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Guiyin; Li, Hui; Chen, Zhi; Liu, Xu

    2010-01-01

    Stearic acid/expanded graphite composites with different mass ratios were prepared by absorbing liquid stearic acid into the expanded graphite. In the composite materials, the stearic acid was used as the phase change material for thermal energy storage, and the expanded graphite acted as the supporting material. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and thermal diffusivity measurement were used to determine the chemical structure, crystalline phase, microstructure and thermal diffusivity of the composites, respectively. The thermal properties and thermal stability were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis. The thermal analysis results indicated that the materials exhibited the same phase transition characteristics as the stearic acid and their latent heats were approximately the same as the values calculated based on the weight fraction of the stearic acid in the composites. The microstructural analysis results showed that the stearic acid was well absorbed in the porous network of the expanded graphite, and there was no leakage of the stearic acid from the composites even when it was in the molten state.

  10. Doxycycline concentration over time after storage in a compounded veterinary preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papich, Mark G; Davidson, Gigi S; Fortier, Lisa A

    2013-06-15

    To determine the concentration of doxycycline compounded from doxycycline hyclate tablets into liquid formulations for oral administration in veterinary species and stored for 28 days. Evaluation study. Doxycycline hyclate tablets (100 mg) crushed and mixed with a 50:50 mixture of syrup and suspension vehicles for oral administration to produce 3 batches each of 2 doxycycline formulations: 33.3 and 166.7 mg/mL. Formulations were stored, protected from light, at room temperature (22° to 26°C [71.6° to 78.8°F]) and at a controlled cold temperature (refrigerated 2° to 8°C [35.6° to 46.4°F]). Doxycycline was extracted from the formulations, and concentration was measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography on days 0 (date of preparation), 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28. Concentrations were compared with those of a US Pharmacopeial Convention reference standard. Formulation quality at each point was also assessed through color change, formulation consistency, and suspension uniformity. On days 0, 1, 4, and 7, the concentration of each formulation was within 90% to 110% of the reference standard (range, 93% to 109%), which was deemed acceptable. However, doxycycline concentrations had decreased dramatically by day 14 and remained low for the duration of the study period. Doxycycline concentrations on days 14, 21, and 28 were all < 20% (range, 14% to 18%) of the reference standard, and the quality of the formulations decreased as well. No effect of storage temperatures on doxycycline concentration was identified. The concentration of doxycycline, compounded from commercial tablets in the vehicles evaluated to yield doses of 33.3 and 166.7 mg/mL, cannot be assured beyond 7 days.

  11. Rapid preparation of ultrafine BaSO{sub 3} by SO{sub 2} storage material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Fei; Sha, Feng; Qiao, Xian Shu; Zhao, Tian Xiang; Guo, Bo; Zhang, Jian Bin [College of Chemical Engineering, Inner Mongolia University of Technology, Huhhot (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    In this work, a green and efficient process was developed for the preparation of ultrafine BaSO{sub 3} with layered nanostructure surface via the reaction of BaCl{sub 2} with a SO{sub 2} storage material (SO{sub 2}SM) at room temperature. The absorption of SO{sub 2} with equimolar ethylenediamine (EDA) and ethylene glycol (EG) afforded SO{sub 2}SM, which not only offered alkyl sulfite but also released EDA and EG that served as efficient surfactants to promote the formation of BaSO{sub 3} with spherical morphology and porous structure in the process of synthesis of ultrafine BaSO{sub 3}. The factors affecting the morphology and size of BaSO{sub 3} particle were assessed by investigating the effects of SO{sub 2}SM concentration, BaCl{sub 2} concentration, stirring time and speed. It was found that a higher SO{sub 2}SM concentration led to a higher degree of supersaturation, and the particle size of BaSO{sub 3} could be reduced by increasing SO{sub 2}SM concentration. Moreover, under the identified optimal reaction conditions, ultrafine BaSO{sub 3} was obtained with an average diameter of 450 nm. In addition, a plausible formation process of BaSO{sub 3} was proposed to explain the observed reaction results. Overall, the developed process in this work provides an efficient method for the capture, utilization, and conversion of SO{sub 2} into a valuable chemical.

  12. Antioxidant activities of kombucha prepared from three different substrates and changes in content of probiotics during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caili Fu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Kombucha is a health-promoting fermented beverage worldwide. The present study compared the free-radical scavenging abilities and total reducing power (TRP of kombucha prepared from low-cost green tea (LGTK, black tea (BTK, and tea powder (TPK. LGTK had the highest scavenging abilities against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, superoxide anion and hydroxyl radicals, while BTK showed the highest TRP. Changes in content of probiotics in LGTK were investigated during storage as well. The number of acetic acid bacteria decreased moderately up to 10 days of storage. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB decreased significantly, and their survival rate was only 0.98% at the 8th day of storage.

  13. Preparation, thermal and flammability properties of a novel form-stable phase change materials based on high density polyethylene/poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate)/organophilic montmorillonite nanocomposites/paraffin compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Yibing; Song Lei; He Qingliang; Yang Dandan; Hu Yuan

    2008-01-01

    The paraffin is one of important thermal energy storage materials with many desirable characteristics (i.e., high heat of fusion, varied phase change temperature, negligible supercooling, self-nucleating, no phase segregation and cheap, etc.), but has low thermal stability and flammable. Hence, a novel form-stable phase change materials (PCM) based on high density polyethylene (HDPE)/poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA)/organophilic montmorillonite (OMT) nanocomposites and paraffin are prepared by twin-screw extruder technique. The structures of the HDPE-EVA/OMT nanocomposites and the form-stable PCM are evidenced by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The results of XRD and TEM show that the HDPE-EVA/OMT nanocomposites form the ordered intercalated nanomorphology. The form-stable PCM consists of the paraffin, which acts as a dispersed phase change material and the HDPE-EVA/OMT nanocomposites, which acts as the supporting material. The paraffin disperses in the three-dimensional net structure formed by HDPE-EVA/OMT nanocomposites. The thermal stability, latent heat and flammability properties are characterized by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), dynamic Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and cone calorimeter, respectively. The TGA and dynamic FTIR analyses indicate that the incorporation of suitable amount of OMT into the form-stable PCM increase the thermal stability. The DSC results show that the latent heat of the form-stable PCM has a certain degree decrease. The cone calorimeter shows that the heat release rate (HRR) has remarkably decreases with loading of OMT in the form-stable PCM, contributing to the improved flammability properties

  14. Preparation of an extruded fish snack using twin screw extruder and the storage characteristics of the product

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, S.K.; Basu, S.

    2003-01-01

    A value-added extruded fish product was prepared with corn flour (80%) and fish (sciaenid) powder (20%), using a twin-screw extruder. The effect of different parameters like moisture, temperature, fish powder concentration, speed of the extruder and die-diameter on expansion ratio and crisp texture were studied. The storage characteristics of the final product were studied using three different types of packaging under nitrogen flushing. The study revealed that aluminum foil is the best packa...

  15. 77 FR 42486 - Intent To Prepare an Integrated Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report; Environmental Impact...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... Water Supply Storage Reallocation Report; Environmental Impact Statement for Missouri River Municipal... Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), as amended and the 1958 Water Supply Act, as amended, the U.S. Army Corps of... purpose of the study is to determine if changes to the current allocation of storage for M&I water supply...

  16. Preparation of stable Pickering emulsions with short, medium and long chain fats and starch nanocrystals and their in vitro digestion properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering emulsions are receiving more attention as delivery systems in food and pharmaceuticals because they can be formulated with nontoxic food ingredients to form stable emulsions. In this study, 40-100 nm starch nanocrystals (SNCs) prepared from acid hydrolysis of waxy maize starches were used ...

  17. Chemical stability of insulin. 2. Formation of higher molecular weight transformation products during storage of pharmaceutical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brange, J; Havelund, S; Hougaard, P

    1992-06-01

    Formation of covalent, higher molecular weight transformation (HMWT) products during storage of insulin preparations at 4-45 degrees C was studied by size exclusion chromatography. The main products are covalent insulin dimers (CID), but in protamine-containing preparations the concurrent formation of covalent insulin-protamine (CIP) products takes place. At temperatures greater than or equal to 25 degrees C parallel or consecutive formation of covalent oligo- and polymers can also be observed. Rate of HMWT is only slightly influenced by species of insulin but varies with composition and formulation, and for isophane (NPH) preparations, also with the strength of preparation. Temperature has a pronounced effect on CID, CIP, and, especially, covalent oligo- and polymer formation. The CIDs are apparently formed between molecules within the hexameric unit common for all types of preparations and rate of formation is generally faster in glycerol-containing preparations. Compared with insulin hydrolysis reactions (see the preceding paper), HMWT is one order of magnitude slower, except for NPH preparations.

  18. Storage, preparation, and usage of fortified food aid among Guatemalan, Ugandan, and Malawian beneficiaries: a field study report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Jonathan P; Brodegard, William C; Pike, Oscar A; Steele, Frost M; Dunn, Michael L

    2008-09-01

    An important consideration in determining the ability of fortified food-aid commodities to meet the nutritional needs of beneficiaries is the manner in which commodities are utilized and prepared and the degree to which micronutrient losses occur during handling and cooking by the beneficiaries. A field study was conducted in Uganda, Malawi, and Guatemala to obtain data on storage, preparation, and usage of fortified blended foods provided by the US Agency for International Development. Interview and observational data on the use of corn-soy blend, cornmeal, soy-fortified cornmeal, soy-fortified bulgur, and fortified vegetable oil were collected from more than 100 households and two wet-feeding sites (where food is prepared and served by staff on-site) in 32 villages. Storage practices by beneficiaries appeared to be appropriate, and all commodities observed were free from off-flavors and odors. Cooking water was typically obtained from boreholes or open wells with a pH range of 4.7 to 7.7 Food preparation usually took place in covered areas with the use of an aluminum or clay pot over a wood-fueled fire. Thin or thick porridges were the most common dishes prepared from cereal-based products, with concentration ranges of 10% to 31% (wt/ wt) in water. Cooking times for porridges ranged from 5 to 53 minutes, with a mean of 26 minutes. Tortillas and beverages were other preparations commonly observed in Guatemala. Vegetable oil was typically used for pan frying. Cooking fuel could be saved and nutritional quality probably improved if relief agencies emphasized shorter cooking times. These data can be used to simulate preparation methods in the laboratory for assessment of the nutritional impact of cooking.

  19. Drug distribution and stability in extemporaneous preparations of meloxicam and carprofen after dilution and suspension at two storage temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Michelle G; Karriker, Margo J; Wiebe, Valerie; Taylor, Ian T; Kass, Philip H

    2006-09-15

    To determine dispersion uniformity and stability of meloxicam and carprofen in extemporaneous preparations stored for 28 days. Prospective study. Meloxicam and carprofen (commercial formulations) were compounded (day 0) with deionized water (DW), 1% methylcellulose gel (MCG), MCG and simple syrup (SS; 1:1 mixture), or a suspending and flavoring vehicle combination (SFVC; 1:1 mixture) to nominal drug concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 mg/mL and 1.25, 2.5, or 5.0 mg/mL, respectively. Preparations were stored at approximately 4 degrees C (39.2 degrees F) or 22 degrees C (71.6 degrees F). For each preparation, drug concentrations were determined and drug stability was evaluated at intervals during storage; on days 0 and 28, pH values were measured and bacterial cultures were initiated. In meloxicam-DW, meloxicam-MCG (0.25 mg/mL), and meloxicam-MCG (0.5 mg/mL) preparations, drug distribution was uniform (coefficient of variation 90% of the original drug concentration was maintained for 28 days. Despite uniform drug distribution of the carprofen-SFVC preparations, most retained > or = 90% of the original drug concentration for only 21 days. Use of the MCG-SS combination resulted in foamy preparations of unacceptable variability. After 28 days, pH decreased slightly in meloxicam-DW and meloxicam-MCG preparations (0.17 +/- 0.04 and 0.21 +/- 0.04, respectively). Carprofen-SFVC (2.5 mg/mL) and carprofen-MCG-SS (5.0 mg/mL) preparations stored at 22 degrees C for 28 days yielded bacterial growth. DW, MCG, and the SFVC can be used successfully for extemporaneous preparation of meloxicam and carprofen for administration to small exotic animals. Refrigeration is recommended for preparations of meloxicam-DW and carprofen-SFVC.

  20. Preparation of platinum-decorated porous graphite nanofibers, and their hydrogen storage behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung-Joo; Lee, Young-Seak; Park, Soo-Jin

    2008-02-15

    In this work, the hydrogen storage behaviors of porous graphite nanofibers (GNFs) decorated by Pt nanoparticles were investigated. The Pt nanoparticles were introduced onto the GNF surfaces using a well-known chemical reduction method. We investigated the hydrogen storage capacity of the Pt-doped GNFs for the platinum content range of 1.3-7.5 mass%. The microstructure of the Pt/porous GNFs was characterized by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The hydrogen storage behaviors of the Pt/GNFs were studied using a PCT apparatus at 298 K and 10 MPa. It was found that amount of hydrogen stored increased with increasing Pt content to 3.4 mass%, and then decreased. This result indicates that the hydrogen storage capacity of porous carbons is based on both their metal content and dispersion rate.

  1. A method and apparatus for preparing the storage of noxious substances, in particular radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The invention relates to the storage of radioactive substances. It deals with a method for storing a substance, in particular a noxious or radioactive substance, comprising trapping said substance in a solid substance by bombarding said solid substance with ions of the above substance, so that the latter reaches a certain concentration level in the solid substance. This is applicable to the storage of radioactive wastes [fr

  2. High-energy green supercapacitor driven by ionic liquid electrolytes as an ultra-high stable next-generation energy storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavel, Ranjith; Kannan, Aravindaraj G.; Ponraj, Rubha; Thangavel, Vigneysh; Kim, Dong-Won; Lee, Yun-Sung

    2018-04-01

    Development of supercapacitors with high energy density and long cycle life using sustainable materials for next-generation applications is of paramount importance. The ongoing challenge is to elevate the energy density of supercapacitors on par with batteries, while upholding the power and cyclability. In addition, attaining such superior performance with green and sustainable bio-mass derived compounds is very crucial to address the rising environmental concerns. Herein, we demonstrate the use of watermelon rind, a bio-waste from watermelons, towards high energy, and ultra-stable high temperature green supercapacitors with a high-voltage ionic liquid electrolyte. Supercapacitors assembled with ultra-high surface area, hierarchically porous carbon exhibits a remarkable performance both at room temperature and at high temperature (60 °C) with maximum energy densities of ∼174 Wh kg-1 (25 °C), and 177 Wh kg-1 (60 °C) - based on active mass of both electrodes. Furthermore, an ultra-high specific power of ∼20 kW kg-1 along with an ultra-stable cycling performance with 90% retention over 150,000 cycles has been achieved even at 60 °C, outperforming supercapacitors assembled with other carbon based materials. These results demonstrate the potential to develop high-performing, green energy storage devices using eco-friendly materials for next generation electric vehicles and other advanced energy storage systems.

  3. Self-Reconstructed Formation of a One-Dimensional Hierarchical Porous Nanostructure Assembled by Ultrathin TiO2 Nanobelts for Fast and Stable Lithium Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Yan, Xiaodong; Xu, Bingqing; Lan, Jinle; Yu, Yunhua; Yang, Xiaoping; Lin, Yuanhua; Nan, Cewen

    2018-06-06

    Owing to their unique structural advantages, TiO 2 hierarchical nanostructures assembled by low-dimensional (LD) building blocks have been extensively used in the energy-storage/-conversion field. However, it is still a big challenge to produce such advanced structures by current synthetic techniques because of the harsh conditions needed to generate primary LD subunits. Herein, a novel one-dimensional (1D) TiO 2 hierarchical porous fibrous nanostructure constructed by TiO 2 nanobelts is synthesized by combining a room-temperature aqueous solution growth mechanism with the electrospinning technology. The nanobelt-constructed 1D hierarchical nanoarchitecture is evolves directly from the amorphous TiO 2 /SiO 2 composite fibers in alkaline solutions at ambient conditions without any catalyst and other reactant. Benefiting from the unique structural features such as 1D nanoscale building blocks, large surface area, and numerous interconnected pores, as well as mixed phase anatase-TiO 2 (B), the optimum 1D TiO 2 hierarchical porous nanostructure shows a remarkable high-rate performance when tested as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries (107 mA h g -1 at ∼10 A g -1 ) and can be used in a hybrid lithium-ion supercapacitor with very stable lithium-storage performance (a capacity retention of ∼80% after 3000 cycles at 2 A g -1 ). The current work presents a scalable and cost-effective method for the synthesis of advanced TiO 2 hierarchical materials for high-power and stable energy-storage/-conversion devices.

  4. Development of shelf stable pork sausages using hurdle technology and their quality at ambient temperature (37±1°C) storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Kondaiah, N

    2008-05-01

    Shelf stable pork sausages were developed using hurdle technology and their quality was evaluated during ambient temperature (37±1°C) storage. Hurdles incorporated were low pH, low water activity, vacuum packaging and post package reheating. Dipping in potassium sorbate solution prior to vacuum packaging was also studied. Reheating increased the pH of the sausages by 0.17units as against 0.11units in controls. Incorporation of hurdles significantly decreased emulsion stability, cooking yield, moisture and fat percent, yellowness and hardness, while increasing the protein percent and redness. Hurdle treatment reduced quality deterioration during storage as indicated by pH, TBARS and tyrosine values. About 1 log reduction in total plate count was observed with the different hurdles as were reductions in the coliform, anaerobic, lactobacilli and Staphylococcus aureus counts. pH, a(w) and reheating hurdles inhibited yeast and mold growth up to day 3, while additional dipping in 1% potassium sorbate solution inhibited their growth throughout the 9 days storage. Despite low initial sensory appeal, the hurdle treated sausages had an overall acceptability in the range 'very good' to 'good' up to day 6.

  5. 77 FR 6793 - D'Lo Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the PROPOSED D...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. CP12-39-000] D'Lo Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the PROPOSED D'LO Gas Storage Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Onsite Environmental Review The staff of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission ...

  6. Preparation and properties of high storage stability polyester polyol dispersion for two-component waterborne polyurethane coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, H.; Hu, J. Q.; Wang, F.; Tu, W. P.

    2017-01-01

    A new type of polyester polyol dispersion with good storage stability was prepared based on a hydrophilic monomer 5-sodium sulfodimethyl isophthalate (5-SIPM), and frequently-used monomers such as neopentyl glycol (NPG), dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and trimethylolpropane (TMP) by the transpolycondensation and polycondensation method. The polyester polyol dispersion was characterized by FTIR and GPC. The proper content of these monomers were determined by the performance of polyester dispersion: the content of TMP was 15wt%, the content of NPG was 7.5wt% and the hydrophilic monomer 5-SIPM content was 5wt%. Two-component waterborne polyurethane (2K-WPU) coatings were prepared by Bayhydur® XP2487/1 and polyester polyol dispersions, which were stored before and after at 40 ° for 6 weeks, the prepared films have no differences in drying time, adhesion, pencil hardness, gloss and chemical resistance, the result also reveals that the polyester polyol dispersion have excellent storage stability resistance.

  7. Preparation of shape-stabilized co-crystallized poly (ethylene glycol) composites as thermal energy storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Yong; Wei, Ping; Jiang, Pingkai; Li, Zhi; Yan, Yonggang; Ji, Kejian; Deng, Weihua

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Shape-stabilized PEG composites were prepared by sol–gel process. • The increased energy storage ability of composite was from cocrystallization effect. • Diammonium phosphate improved flame retardancy properties of PEG composite. • PEG composites had potential to be used as thermal energy storage materials. - Abstract: Shape-stabilized co-crystallized poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) composites were prepared by sol–gel process. Tetraethoxysilane was utilized as supporting matrix precursor. The crystallization property as well as thermal energy storage properties of PEG was influenced by silica network. The combination of PEG 2k and PEG 10k with suitable ratio (3:1 by weight) led to synergistically increased fusion enthalpy attributed to cocrystallization effect. Furthermore, halogen-free flame retarded PEG composites were obtained using diammonium phosphate as flame retardant. With suitable composition, the latent heat value of flame retarded PEG composite was 96.7 kJ/kg accompanied with good thermal stability and improved flame retardancy properties. Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), polarized optical microscope (POM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to characterize the structure of PEG composites. Thermal stability properties of PEG composites were investigated by thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). Char residue obtained from muffle furnace of PEG composites was analyzed by SEM and FT-IR. Flame retardancy properties of PEG composites were estimated by pyrolysis combustion flow calorimeter. Results showed that it was potential for shape-stabilized halogen-free flame retarded PEG composite to be applied in thermal energy storage field

  8. Experiment study on the thermal properties of paraffin/kaolin thermal energy storage form-stable phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Peizhao; Liu, Chenzhen; Rao, Zhonghao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Different particle sizes of kaolin were employed to load paraffin. • The effects and reasons of particle size on thermal conductivity were studied. • Thermal property and thermal stability of the composites were investigated. • The leakage and thermal storage and release rate of the composites were studied. • The effect of vacuum impregnation method on thermal conductivity was investigated. - Abstract: In this paper, different particle sizes of kaolin were employed to incorporate paraffin via vacuum impregnation method. The paraffin/kaolin composites were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) and Thermogravimetry (TG). The results showed that the paraffin/kaolin composite with the largest particle size of kaolin (K4) has the highest thermal conductivity (0.413 W/(m K) at 20 °C) among the diverse composites. The latent heat capacity of paraffin/K4 is 119.49 J/g and the phase change temperature is 62.4 °C. In addition, the thermal properties and thermal conductivities of paraffin/K4 with different mass fraction of K4 (0–60%) were investigated. The thermal conductivities of the composites were explained in microcosmic field. The phonon mean free path determines the thermal conductivity, and it can be significantly affected by temperature and the contact surface area. The leaks, thermal storage and release properties of pure paraffin and paraffin/kaolin composites were investigated and the composites presented good thermal stabilities.

  9. Standard Test Method for Preparing Aircraft Cleaning Compounds, Liquid Type, Water Base, for Storage Stability Testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2002-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the stability in storage, of liquid, water-base chemical cleaning compounds, used to clean the exterior surfaces of aircraft. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  10. Preparation and storage stability of meat spread developed from spent hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was carried out to develop a meat spread as a healthier alternative to already existing meat products utilizing undervalued spent hen meat to add a new dimension to meat products. Materials and Methods: Carcasses were processed within 30 min of slaughter and conditioned at 4±1°C for about 24 h and then braised along with other ingredients to get the final product. The products were evaluated for proximate composition, peroxide values, pH, microbiological, and sensory qualities as per standard procedures. Results: The mean percent values for moisture, crude protein, ether extract, and total ash content of developed product were 58.75±0.32, 9.12±0.44, 11.19±0.16, and 2.35±0.17, respectively. No significant difference was observed for mean coliform and the yeast and mold counts with the progression of storage period, but samples differed significantly for mean pH, thiobarbituric acid and total viable plate count during storage of meat spread. A progressive decline in mean sensory scores was recorded along with the increase in storage time. Conclusion: The meat spread was found to be a good alternative to process the underutilized spent hens for its efficient utilization for product development.

  11. A Plasma-Assisted Route to the Rapid Preparation of Transition-Metal Phosphides for Energy Conversion and Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Hanfeng

    2017-06-06

    Transition-metal phosphides (TMPs) are important materials that have been widely used in catalysis, supercapacitors, batteries, sensors, light-emitting diodes, and magnets. The physical and chemical structure of a metal phosphide varies with the method of preparation as the electronic, catalytic, and magnetic properties of the metal phosphides strongly depend on their synthesis routes. Commonly practiced processes such as solid-state synthesis and ball milling have proven to be reliable routes to prepare TMPs but they generally require high temperature and long reaction time. Here, a recently developed plasma-assisted conversion route for the preparation of TMPs is reviewed, along with their applications in energy conversion and storage, including water oxidation electrocatalysis, sodium-ion batteries, and supercapacitors. The plasma-assisted synthetic route should open up a new avenue to prepare TMPs with tailored structure and morphology for various applications. In fact, the process may be further extended to the synthesis of a wide range of transition-metal compounds such as borides and fluorides at low temperature and in a rapid manner.

  12. Process to prepare stable trifluorostyrene containing compounds grafted to base polymers using a solvent/water mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Mark Gerrit; Yang, Zhen-Yu; Han, Amy Qi

    2010-06-15

    A fluorinated ion exchange polymer is prepared by grafting at least one grafting monomer derived from trifluorostyrene on to at least one base polymer in a organic solvent/water mixture. These ion exchange polymers are useful in preparing catalyst coated membranes and membrane electrode assemblies used in fuel cells.

  13. Characterization of polymethyl methacrylate/polyethylene glycol/aluminum nitride composite as form-stable phase change material prepared by in situ polymerization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Jiaoqun; Zhou, Weibin; Wang, Jun; Wang, Yan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Form-stable PMMA/PEG/AlN PCMs were prepared by in situ polymerization method. → AlN additive effectively enhanced the heat transfer property of composite PCMs. → The composites exhibited desirable thermal performance and electric insulativity. → The composites were available for the thermal management of electronic device. - Abstract: This work was focused on the preparation and characterization of a new type of form-stable phase change material (PCM) employed in thermal management. Using the method of in situ polymerization, polyethylene glycol (PEG) acting as the PCM and aluminum nitride (AlN) serving as the thermal conductivity promoter were uniformly encapsulated and embedded inside the three-dimensional network structure of PMMA matrix. When the mass fraction of PEG was below 70%, the prepared composite PCMs remained solid without leakage above the melting point of the PEG. XRD and FT-IR results indicated that the PEG was physically combined with PMMA matrix and AlN additive and did not participate in the polymerization. Thermal analysis results showed that the prepared composite PCMs possess available latent heat capacity and thermal stability, and the AlN additive was able to effectively enhance the heat transfer property of organic PCM. Moreover, the volume resistivity of composite achieved (5.92 ± 0.16) x 10 10 Ω cm when the mass ratio of AlN was 30%. To sum up, the prepared form-stable PCMs were competent for the thermal management of electronic device due to their acceptable thermal performance and electric insulativity.

  14. High-performance Electrochemical Energy Storage Electrodes Based on Nickel Oxide-coated Nickel Foam Prepared by Sparking Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuminjak, Yaowamarn; Daothong, Suphaporn; Kuntarug, Aekapong; Phokharatkul, Ditsayut; Horprathum, Mati; Wisitsoraat, Anurat; Tuantranont, Adisorn; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Singjai, Pisith

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • NiO particles (3-10 nm) were sparked on Ni foams with varying times (45-180 min). • Larger NiO nanoparticles were aggregated to foam-like structure at a longer time. • The optimal time of 45 min led to a high specific capacity of 920 C/g at 1 A/g. • The specific capacity remained as high as 699 (76% of 920) C/g at 20 A/g. • The optimal electrode exhibited 96% capacity retention after 1000 cycles at 4 A/g. - Abstract: In this work, high-performance electrochemical energy storage electrodes were developed based on nickel oxide (NiO)-coated nickel (Ni) foams prepared by a sparking method. NiO nanoparticles deposited on Ni foams with varying sparking times from 45 to 180 min were structurally characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. In addition, the electrochemical energy storage characteristics of the electrodes were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge-discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was found that NiO nanoparticles sparked on Ni foam with a longer time would be agglomerated and formed a foam-like network with large pore sizes and a lower surface area, leading to inferior charge storage behaviors. The NiO/Ni foam electrode prepared with the shortest sparking of 45 min displayed high specific capacities of 920 C g"-"1 (1840 F g"-"1) at 1 A g"-"1 and 699 (76% of 920) C g"-"1 at 20 A g"-"1 in a potential window of 0-0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl as well as a good cycling performance with 96% capacity retention at 4 A g"-"1 after 1000 cycles and a low equivalent series resistance of 0.4 Ω. Therefore, NiO/Ni foam electrodes prepared by the sparking method are highly promising for high-capacity energy storage applications.

  15. Preparation for tritiated waste management of fusion facilities: Interim storage WAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decanis, C., E-mail: christelle.decanis@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Centre de Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Canas, D. [CEA, DEN/DADN, Centre de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Derasse, F. [CEA, DEN, Centre de Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Pamela, J. [CEA, Agence ITER-France, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Fusion devices including ITER will generate tritiated waste. • Interim storage is the reference solution offering an answer for all types of tritiated radwaste. • Interim storage is a buffer function in the process management and definition of the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) is a key milestone in the facility development cycle. • Defining WAC is a relevant way to identify ahead of time the studies to be launched and the required actions to converge on a detailed design for example material specific studies, required treatment, interfaces management, modelling and monitoring studies. - Abstract: Considering the high mobility of tritium through the package in which it is contained, the new 50-year storage concepts proposed by the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) currently provide a solution adapted to the management of waste with tritium concentrations higher than the accepted limits in the disposals. The 50-year intermediate storage corresponds to 4 tritium radioactive periods i.e., a tritium reduction by a factor 16. This paper details the approach implemented to define the waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for an interim storage facility that not only takes into account the specificity of tritium provided by the reference scheme for the management of tritiated waste in France, but also the producers’ needs, the safety analysis of the facility and Andra’s disposal requirements. This will lead to define a set of waste specifications that describe the generic criteria such as acceptable waste forms, general principles and specific issues, e.g. conditioning, radioactive content, tritium content, waste tracking system, and quality control. This approach is also a way to check in advance, during the design phase of the waste treatment chain, how the future waste could be integrated into the overall waste management routes and identify possible key points that need further investigations (design changes, selection

  16. Preparation and thermal performance of polystyrene/n-tetradecane composite nanoencapsulated cold energy storage phase change materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Yutang; Yu, Huimin; Wan, Weijun; Gao, Xuenong; Zhang, Zhengguo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Average particle size of Tet/PS nanocapsules is smaller than the same type composite. • Latent heat of Tet/PS nanocapsules is as high as the same type composite. • Freeze–thaw cycle test and centrifugal sedimentation method are employed. • Tet/PS nanocapsules can be a candidate for cold thermal energy storage. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel polystyrene/n-tetradecane composite nanoencapsulated phase change material as latent functionally thermal fluid (LFTF) for cold thermal energy storage was synthesized by ultrasonic-assistant miniemulsion in situ polymerization. The morphology, chemical structure and thermal performances of the nanoencapsulated phase change material (NEPCM) were measured by particle size analyzer, transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG), respectively. The thermo-physical properties of the cool storage media were tested as well. The results showed that, a uniform spherical NEPCM with average diameter of 132 nm was prepared. The melting and freezing points and the latent heats of the NEPCMs was measured as 4.04 °C and −3.43 °C, 98.71 J g −1 and 91.27 J g −1 , respectively. The specific heat of its latex were determined as the maximum value of 4.822 J g −1 K −1 . The freeze–thaw cycle test indicated that the NEPCMs have good mechanical stability, and most capsules were still complete except some broken individuals from TEM images. Due to its good thermal properties and mechanical stability, the polystyrene/n-tetradecane NEPCM displays a good potential for cool energy storage

  17. Sampling, storage and sample preparation procedures for X ray fluorescence analysis of environmental materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    X ray fluorescence (XRF) method is one of the most commonly used nuclear analytical technique because of its multielement and non-destructive character, speed, economy and ease of operation. From the point of view of quality assurance practices, sampling and sample preparation procedures are the most crucial steps in all analytical techniques, (including X ray fluorescence) applied for the analysis of heterogeneous materials. This technical document covers recent modes of the X ray fluorescence method and recent developments in sample preparation techniques for the analysis of environmental materials. Refs, figs, tabs

  18. Well-based stable carbon isotope leakage monitoring of an aquifer overlying the CO2 storage reservoir at the Ketzin pilot site, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Martin; Myrttinen, Anssi; Zimmer, Martin; van Geldern, Robert; Barth, Johannes A. C.

    2014-05-01

    At the pilot site for CO2 storage in Ketzin, a new well-based leakage-monitoring concept was established, comprising geochemical and hydraulic observations of the aquifer directly above the CO2 reservoir (Wiese et al., 2013, Nowak et al. 2013). Its purpose was to allow early detection of un-trapped CO2. Within this monitoring concept, we established a stable carbon isotope monitoring of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). If baseline isotope values of aquifer DIC (δ13CDIC) and reservoir CO2 (δ13CCO2) are known and distinct from each other, the δ13CDIC has the potential to serve as an an early indicator for an impact of leaked CO2 on the aquifer brine. The observation well of the overlying aquifer was equipped with an U-tube sampling system that allowed sampling of unaltered brine. The high alkaline drilling mud that was used during well drilling masked δ13CDIC values at the beginning of the monitoring campaign. However, subsequent monitoring allowed observing on-going re-equilibration of the brine, indicated by changing δ13CDIC and other geochemical values, until values ranging around -23 ‰ were reached. The latter were close to baseline values before drilling. Baselineδ13CDIC and δ13CCO2 values were used to derive a geochemical and isotope model that predicts evolution of δ13CDIC, if CO2 from the reservoir would leak into the aquifer. The model shows that equilibrium isotope fractionation would have to be considered if CO2 dissolves in the brine. The model suggests that stable carbon isotope monitoring is a suitable tool to assess the impact of injected CO2 in overlying groundwater aquifers. However, more data are required to close gaps of knowledge about fractionation behaviour within the CO2(g) - DIC system under elevated pressures and temperatures. Nowak, M., Myrttinen, A., Zimmer, M., Wiese, B., van Geldern, R., Barth, J.A.C., 2013. Well-based, Geochemical Leakage Monitoring of an Aquifer Immediately Above a CO2 Storage Reservoir by Stable Carbon

  19. An investigation of storage and treatment options for radioactive wastes prepared for sea disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakerley, M.W.; Woodfine, B.C.

    1986-07-01

    A sea disposal of 3500 t of packaged waste using a specially converted ship was planned for 1983, but did not take place. The major part of this waste is currently stored at two UKAEA sites. The waste packages were made with the intention that they would be disposed of within about 18 months of packaging. It was not intended that they would be stored for long periods. All wastes are packaged in mild steel drums and the wastes are temporarily stored within buildings. The conditions under which the packages are stored and their present condition are described and possible storage and treatment options are investigated having regard to available disposal routes. (author)

  20. One-pot radioiodination of aryl amines via stable diazonium salts: preparation of 125I-imaging agents

    OpenAIRE

    Sloan, Nikki L.; Luthra, Sajinder K.; McRobbie, Graeme; Pimlott, Sally L.; Sutherland, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    An operationally simple, one-pot, two-step tandem procedure that allows the incorporation of radioactive iodine into aryl amines via stable diazonium salts is described. The mild conditions are tolerant of various functional groups and substitution patterns, allowing late-stage, rapid access to a wide range of 125I-labelled aryl compounds and SPECT radiotracers.

  1. A one-pot radioiodination of aryl amines via stable diazonium salts: preparation of 125I-imaging agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Nikki L; Luthra, Sajinder K; McRobbie, Graeme; Pimlott, Sally L; Sutherland, Andrew

    2017-10-05

    An operationally simple, one-pot, two-step tandem procedure that allows the incorporation of radioactive iodine into aryl amines via stable diazonium salts is described. The mild conditions are tolerant of various functional groups and substitution patterns, allowing late-stage, rapid access to a wide range of 125 I-labelled aryl compounds and SPECT radiotracers.

  2. Method of preparation of technetium-99m labelled radio-diagnostic agents and a stable non radio-active carrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A method of preparing improved technetium-99m labeled radiodiagnostic agents is described by reducing technetium-99m with stannous tartrate. Such radiodiagnostic agents are useful in scintigraphic examinations of the bone and lung

  3. Preparation and Low Temperature Short-term Storage for Synthetic Seeds of Caladium bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehpara MAQSOOD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient somatic embryo encapsulation and in vitro plant regeneration technique were established with Caladium bicolor, an important ornamental plant.Tuber derived embryogenic callus (95.50% was obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium amended with 0.5 mg L-1 α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA + 0.5 mg L-1 6-Benzyladenine (BA. The embryogenic callus later differentiated into somatic embryos in the same plant growth regulators (PGRs added medium (NAA and BA. The induced embryos matured and developed into plantlets in NAA and BA added media; maximum plantlets development was observed at 1.0 mg L-1 NAA + 1.0 mg L-1 BA supplemented medium. Synthetic seeds were produced by encapsulating embryos in gel containing 3.0% sucrose + 3.0% sodium alginate and 100 mM of calcium chloride.The highest synthetic seed germination (97.6% was observed on medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 NAA + 1.0 mg L-1 BA. The synthetic seeds were kept at low temperatures for storage; the encapsulated beads were viable and demonstrated good germination even after 12 weeks of storage at 4 °C. The plantlet recovery frequency was however declined with time. The synthetic seed derived plantlets were morphologically similar to the mother plant.

  4. Preparation and characterization of nano-sized phase change emulsions as thermal energy storage and transport media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; Zhang, P.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The nano-sized phase change emulsions are prepared by using D-phase method. • The thermo-physical and transport properties are experimentally investigated. • The influence of surfactant on the melting temperature and latent heat of water is clarified. • The phase change emulsion can be used as the heat transfer fluid in a thermal energy storage system. - Abstract: Phase change emulsion (PCE) is a kind of two-phase heat transfer fluid with phase change material (PCM) dispersed in carrier fluid. It has received intensive attractions in recent years due to the fact that it can be used as both the thermal energy storage material and transport medium simultaneously in a thermal energy storage system. In the present study, nano-sized PCEs are prepared by the D-phase method with n-hexadecane and n-octadecane as PCMs. The thermo-physical and transport properties are characterized to facilitate the applications. The droplet size distribution of the PCE is measured by a Photon Correlation Spectroscopy, and the results show that the droplet size distributions are similar at different mass fractions. The rheological behavior and viscosity of the PCE are measured by a rheometer, which shows that the PCEs at mass fractions below 30.0 wt% are Newtonian fluids, and the viscosities are dependent on both the mass fraction and temperature. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is employed to analyze the phase change characteristics of the PCE, and the results indicate large supercooling degree of water and PCM in the PCE. The melting temperature and latent heat of water in the PCE are much smaller than those of pure water. The thermal conductivities of the PCE with different mass fractions at different temperatures are measured by the transient hot-wire method. Furthermore, the energy transport characteristics of the PCEs are evaluated on the basis of the measured thermo-physical and transport properties. The results suggest that the PCEs show a drastic

  5. Study of Supported Nickel Catalysts Prepared by Aqueous Hydrazine Method. Hydrogenating Properties and Hydrogen Storage: Support Effect. Silver Additive Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcieszak, R.

    2006-06-01

    We have studied Ni or NiAg nano-particles obtained by the reduction of nickel salts (acetate or nitrate) by hydrazine and deposited by simple or EDTA-double impregnation on various supports (γ-Al 2 O 3 , amorphous or crystallized SiO 2 , Nb 2 O 5 , CeO 2 and carbon). Prepared catalysts were characterized by different methods (XRD, XPS, low temperature adsorption and desorption of N 2 , FTIR and FTIR-Pyridine, TEM, STEM, EDS, H 2 -TPR, H 2 -adsorption, H 2 -TPD, isopropanol decomposition) and tested in the gas phase hydrogenation of benzene or as carbon materials in the hydrogen storage at room temperature and high pressure. The catalysts prepared exhibited better dispersion and activity than classical catalysts. TOF's of NiAg/SiO 2 or Ni/carbon catalysts were similar to Pt catalysts in benzene hydrogenation. Differences in support acidity or preparation method and presence of Ag as metal additive play a crucial role in the chemical reduction of Ni by hydrazine and in the final properties of the materials. Ni/carbon catalysts could store significant amounts of hydrogen at room temperature and high pressure (0.53%/30 bars), probably through the hydrogen spillover effect. (author)

  6. UV-Induced Radical Photo-Polymerization: A Smart Tool for Preparing Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Energy Storage Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Gerbaldi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the preparation and characterization of quasi-solid polymer electrolyte membranes based on methacrylic monomers and oligomers, with the addition of organic plasticizers and lithium salt, are described. Noticeable improvements in the mechanical properties by reinforcement with natural cellulose hand-sheets or nanoscale microfibrillated cellulose fibers are also demonstrated. The ionic conductivity of the various prepared membranes is very high, with average values approaching 10-3 S cm-1 at ambient temperature. The electrochemical stability window is wide (anodic breakdown voltages > 4.5 V vs. Li in all the cases along with good cyclability in lithium cells at ambient temperature. The galvanostatic cycling tests are conducted by constructing laboratory-scale lithium cells using LiFePO4 as cathode and lithium metal as anode with the selected polymer electrolyte membrane as the electrolyte separator. The results obtained demonstrate that UV induced radical photo-polymerization is a well suited method for an easy and rapid preparation of easy tunable quasi-solid polymer electrolyte membranes for energy storage devices.

  7. UV-Induced Radical Photo-Polymerization: A Smart Tool for Preparing Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Energy Storage Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Gerbaldi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the preparation and characterization of quasi-solid polymer electrolyte membranes based on methacrylic monomers and oligomers, with the addition of organic plasticizers and lithium salt, are described. Noticeable improvements in the mechanical properties by reinforcement with natural cellulose hand-sheets or nanoscale microfibrillated cellulose fibers are also demonstrated. The ionic conductivity of the various prepared membranes is very high, with average values approaching 10-3 S cm-1 at ambient temperature. The electrochemical stability window is wide (anodic breakdown voltages > 4.5 V vs. Li in all the cases along with good cyclability in lithium cells at ambient temperature. The galvanostatic cycling tests are conducted by constructing laboratory-scale lithium cells using LiFePO4 as cathode and lithium metal as anode with the selected polymer electrolyte membrane as the electrolyte separator. The results obtained demonstrate that UV induced radical photo-polymerization is a well suited method for an easy and rapid preparation of easy tunable quasi-solid polymer electrolyte membranes for energy storage devices.

  8. Preparation, characterization and simulation studies of carbon nanotube electrodes for electrochemical energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meissner, Frank; Endler, Ingolf [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Keramische Technologien und Systeme (IKTS), Dresden (Germany); Lorrmann, Henning [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Silicatforschung (ISC), Wuerzburg (Germany); Pastewka, Lars [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik (IWM), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) was employed to synthesize multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) on different carrier materials for electrode applications. In the field of electrochemical energy storage it is essential to grow MWCNT on conducting substrates. For this reason titanium nitride (TiN) layers as well as a copper foil were used as substrates. The MWCNT grown on TiN layers show diameters of about 20 nm and lengths up to 13 {mu}m. In the case of copper foil substrates a remarkably higher nanotube diameter of several tens of nanometers was found. First electrochemical characterization via cyclic voltammetry shows the potential of MWCNT as electrodes for energy storage applications. The CNT were measured in an organic carbonate electrolyte vs. a lithium counter electrode with various scan rates. Until now the preliminary investigations by cyclic voltammetry for electrodes consisting of aligned MWCNT on TiN showed a capacity of around 130 F g{sup -1} in the range of 1 - 3 V vs. Li/Li{sup +}. In support of the experiments we construct a one dimensional Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) continuum model that has been shown to yield agreement with corresponding molecular dynamics simulations to model ion transport into these types of electrodes. Our simulations show that first the ions accumulate at the tips of the tubes because the inner volume of the electrodes is initially field-free. A homogeneous charge distribution is then established through diffusion. The PNP model is used to compute cyclic voltammograms which show qualitative agreement with the experiments. (orig.)

  9. Technology Maturation in Preparation for the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael L.; Doherty, Michael P.; Moder, Jeffrey P.

    2014-01-01

    In support of its goal to find an innovative path for human space exploration, NASA embarked on the Cryogenic Propellant Storage and Transfer (CPST) Project, a Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM) to test and validate key cryogenic capabilities and technologies required for future exploration elements, opening up the architecture for large in-space cryogenic propulsion stages and propellant depots. Recognizing that key Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) technologies anticipated for on-orbit (flight) demonstration would benefit from additional maturation to a readiness level appropriate for infusion into the design of the flight demonstration, the NASA Headquarters Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) authorized funding for a one-year technology maturation phase of the CPST project. The strategy, proposed by the CPST Project Manager, focused on maturation through modeling, concept studies, and ground tests of the storage and fluid transfer of CFM technology sub-elements and components that were lower than a Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of 5. A technology maturation plan (TMP) was subsequently approved which described: the CFM technologies selected for maturation, the ground testing approach to be used, quantified success criteria of the technologies, hardware and data deliverables, and a deliverable to provide an assessment of the technology readiness after completion of the test, study or modeling activity. The specific technologies selected were grouped into five major categories: thick multilayer insulation, tank applied active thermal control, cryogenic fluid transfer, propellant gauging, and analytical tool development. Based on the success of the technology maturation efforts, the CPST project was approved to proceed to flight system development.

  10. Probiotic viability and storage stability of yogurts and fermented milks prepared with several mixtures of lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani-López, E; Palou, E; López-Malo, A

    2014-05-01

    Currently, the food industry wants to expand the range of probiotic yogurts but each probiotic bacteria offers different and specific health benefits. Little information exists on the influence of probiotic strains on physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of yogurts and fermented milks. Six probiotic yogurts or fermented milks and 1 control yogurt were prepared, and we evaluated several physicochemical properties (pH, titratable acidity, texture, color, and syneresis), microbial viability of starter cultures (Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) and probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, and Lactobacillus reuteri) during fermentation and storage (35 d at 5°C), as well as sensory preference among them. Decreases in pH (0.17 to 0.50 units) and increases in titratable acidity (0.09 to 0.29%) were observed during storage. Only the yogurt with S. thermophilus, L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and L. reuteri differed in firmness. No differences in adhesiveness were determined among the tested yogurts, fermented milks, and the control. Syneresis was in the range of 45 to 58%. No changes in color during storage were observed and no color differences were detected among the evaluated fermented milk products. Counts of S. thermophilus decreased from 1.8 to 3.5 log during storage. Counts of L. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus also decreased in probiotic yogurts and varied from 30 to 50% of initial population. Probiotic bacteria also lost viability throughout storage, although the 3 probiotic fermented milks maintained counts ≥ 10(7)cfu/mL for 3 wk. Probiotic bacteria had variable viability in yogurts, maintaining counts of L. acidophilus ≥ 10(7) cfu/mL for 35 d, of L. casei for 7d, and of L. reuteri for 14 d. We found no significant sensory preference among the 6 probiotic yogurts and fermented milks or the control. However, the yogurt and fermented milk made with L. casei were better accepted. This

  11. Preparation and characterization of electrospun poly(phthalazinone ether nitrile ketone) membrane with novel thermally stable properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Gang; Zhang, Hao; Qian, Bingqing [Carbon Research Laboratory, Liaoning Key Lab for Energy Materials and Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Wang, Jinyan, E-mail: wangjinyan@dlut.edu.cn [Department of Polymer Science and Materials, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Jian, Xigao [Department of Polymer Science and Materials, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Qiu, Jieshan, E-mail: jqiu@dlut.edu.cn [Carbon Research Laboratory, Liaoning Key Lab for Energy Materials and Chemical Engineering, State Key Lab of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Poly (phthalazinone ether nitrile ketone) (PPENK) was used to successfully prepare nanofiber membranes by electrospinning. • Electrospun membrane exhibits a good thermostability. • Electrospun membrane. - Abstract: Electrospun nanofibrous membranes have several applications because of their excellent properties, such as high porosity, small fiber diameter, and large surface area. However, high-temperature resistant electrospun membranes remain a challenge because of the absence of precursors that offer spinnability, scalability, and superior thermal stability. In this study, poly(phthalazinone ether nitrile ketone) (PPENK) was used to successfully prepare nanofiber membranes by electrospinning. Electrospun PPENK membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and tensile stress–strain tests. Results indicated that the prepared electrospun membranes had a very high glass transition temperature, superior chemical resistance, and excellent mechanical strength. These desirable properties broaden their potential application in membranes and treatment of various hot fluid streams without strict temperature control.

  12. Preparation and characterization of macrocapsules containing microencapsulated PCMs (phase change materials) for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Pengju; Lu, Lixin; Qiu, Xiaolin; Tang, Yali; Wang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This paper was aimed to prepare, characterize and determine the comprehensive evaluation of promising composite macrocapsules containing microencapsulated PCMs (phase change materials) with calcium alginate gels as the matrix material. Macrocapsules containing microcapsules were fabricated by piercing-solidifying incuber method. Two kinds of microcapsules with n-tetradecane as core material, UF (urea-formaldehyde) and PMMA (poly(methyl methacrylate)) respectively as shell materials were prepared initially. For application concerns, thermal durability and mechanical property of macrocapsules were investigated by TGA (thermal gravimetric analysis) and Texture Analyser for the first time, respectively. The results showed excellent thermal stability and the compressive resistance of macrocapsules was sufficient for common application. The morphology and chemical structure of the prepared microcapsules and macrocapsules were characterized by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) and FT-IR (fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy method. Phase change behaviors and thermal durability of microcapsules and macrocapsules were investigated by DSC (differential scanning calorimetry). In order to improve latent heat of composite microcapsules, the core-shell weight ratio of tetradecane/UF shell microcapsules was chosen as 5.5:1 which obtained the phase change enthalpy of 194.1 J g −1 determined by DSC. In conclusion, these properties make it a feasible composite in applications of textile, building and cold-chain transportation. - Highlights: • We improved the phase change enthalpy with a higher core-shell ratio. • Urea-formaldehyde was firstly used as a shell material in the composite. • Mechanical and thermal durability property of the macrocapsules was firstly investigated in our work.

  13. Hydrogen storage properties in the Mg_0_._7_5Ta_0_._2_5 system prepared by mechanical milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez G, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium and most of its mixtures have slow sorption-desorption kinetics of hydrogen, which limits their technological application and their viability from the economic view point. Recently, has been observed that by the synthesis of advanced materials, using the mechanical milling technique, positive changes in the kinetics are introduced. In order to improve the sorption-desorption hydrogen properties, in the present work a mixture consisting of Mg_0_._7_5Ta_0_._2_5 was prepared using methanol as process control agent. To this end, the first methodological step was to carry out, by means of the mechanical milling technique, the synthesis of the mixture Mg_0_._7_5Ta_0_._2_5 in a Spex type vibratory mill at times of 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. Subsequently, the material was characterized by different analytical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy with elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction and N_2 physisorption analysis. Subsequently, hydrogen sorption experiments were carried out in a Parr reactor to evaluate the hydrogen storage capacity of the mixture, varying temperature parameters, pressure and time, in order to determine the optimal parameters of hydrogen sorption. The characterization of the hydrogen storage capacity was analyzed by the thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry technique coupled to a mass spectrometer. X ray diffraction analysis reveals that there is a mixture between the starting compounds, with an important refinement of the microstructure as a consequence of the mechanical milling process. The results of the hydrogen sorption tests at 1, 5 and 10 cycles showed that the storage of hydrogen in the Mg_0_._7_5Ta_0_._2_5 mixture can be carried out at a temperature of 25 degrees Celsius with a pressure of 2 atm and a contact time of 1 h. (Author)

  14. Preparation of Barley Storage Protein, Hordein, for Analytical Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doll, Hans; Andersen, Bente

    1981-01-01

    The extraction, reduction, and alkylation of barley hordein for routine electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels were studied to set up a simple preparation procedure giving well-resolved bands in the electrophoresis gel. Hordein was extracted from single crushed seeds or flour...... by aqueous 50% propan-2-ol containing a Tris-borate buffer, pH 8.6. The presence of the buffer facilitates the consecutive complete reduction of the extracted protein in the alcohol. Reduction and alkylation in the buffer containing propan-2-ol give sharper bands in the electrophoresis than reduction...

  15. Porous glass with high silica content for nuclear waste storage : preparation, characterization and leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aegerter, M.A.; Santos, D.I. dos; Ventura, P.C.S.

    1984-01-01

    Aqueous solutions simulating radioactive nuclear wastes (like Savanah River Laboratory) were incorporated in porous glass matrix with high silica content prepared by decomposition of borosilicate glass like Na 2 O - B 2 O 3 - SiO 2 . After sintering, the samples were submitted, during 28 days, to standard leaching tests MCC1, MCC5 (Soxhlet) and stagnating. The total weight loss, ph, as well as the integral and differential leaching rates and the accumulated concentrations in the leach of Si, Na, B, Ca, Mn, Al, Fe and Ni. The results are compared with the results from reference borosilicate glass, made by fusion, ceramic, synroc, concrets, etc... (E.G.) [pt

  16. Preparation of thermally stable anatase TiO2 photocatalyst from TiOF2 precursor and its photocatalytic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Kangle; Yu Jiaguo; Cui Longzhe; Chen Shulin; Li Mei

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The prepared anatase TiO 2 from TiOF 2 shows very high thermal stability (up to 1000 o C) and the 700 o C-calcined sample showed the highest photocatalytic activity. Display Omitted Research highlights: → TiOF 2 was prepared by a simple microwave assisted hydrothermal rout. → Anatase TiO 2 prepared by calcination of TiOF 2 shows high thermal stability. → F - play an important role in the improvement thermal stability of anatase TiO 2 . → The 700 o C-calcined sample shows the highest photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Preparation of anatase TiO 2 with high themal stability is of great importance for its environmental application. In this work, TiOF 2 was first synthesized by a simple microwave-assisted hydrothermal route using tetrabutyl titanate and hydrofluoric acid as precursors at 200 o C for 20 min. Then the resulted precipitates were calcined at different temperatures (300-1000 o C) for 2 h. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectrum, scanning electron microscopy, N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated using Brilliant Red X3B, an anionic azo dye, as the target organic molecule under UV light irradiation. The results showed that the prepared TiOF 2 exhibited weak or no photocatalytic activity. The phase transformation of TiOF 2 to anatase TiO 2 occurred at about 300 o C. The prepared anatase TiO 2 from TiOF 2 showed very high thermal stability and the anatase-to-rutile phase transformation temperature was up to 1000 o C. Fluoride ions played an important role in the improvement of thermal stability of anatase TiO 2 by strongly adsorbing on the crystal planes of anatase to stabilize the anatase structure. The 700 o C-calcined sample showed the highest photocatalytic activity due to its relative good crystallization and high specific surface areas.

  17. Acrylamide in potato crisps prepared from 20 UK-grown varieties: Effects of variety and tuber storage time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, J. Stephen; Briddon, Adrian; Dodson, Andrew T.; Muttucumaru, Nira; Halford, Nigel G.; Mottram, Donald S.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty varieties of field-grown potato were stored for 2 months and 6 months at 8 °C. Mean acrylamide contents in crisps prepared from all varieties at both storage times ranged from 131 μg/kg in Verdi to 5360 μg/kg in Pentland Dell. In contrast to previous studies, the longer storage period did not affect acrylamide formation significantly for most varieties, the exceptions being Innovator, where acrylamide formation increased, and Saturna, where it decreased. Four of the five varieties designated as suitable for crisping produced crisps with acrylamide levels below the European Commission indicative value of 1000 μg/kg (Saturna, Lady Rosetta, Lady Claire, and Verdi); the exception was Hermes. Two varieties more often used for French fries, Markies and Fontane, also produced crisps with less than 1000 μg/kg acrylamide. Correlations between acrylamide, its precursors and crisp colour are described, and the implications of the results for production of potato crisps are discussed. PMID:25842300

  18. UV-laser microdissection system - A novel approach for the preparation of high-resolution stable isotope records (δ13C/δ18O) from tree rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schollaen, Karina; Helle, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    Intra-annual stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) studies of tree rings at various incremental resolutions have been attempting to extract valuable seasonal climatic and environmental information or assessing plant ecophysiological processes. For preparing high-resolution isotope samples normally wood segments or cores are mechanically divided in radial direction or cut in tangential direction. After mechanical dissection, wood samples are ground to a fine powder and either cellulose is extracted or bulk wood samples are analyzed. Here, we present a novel approach for the preparation of high-resolution stable isotope records from tree rings using an UV-laser microdissection system. Firstly, tree-ring cellulose is directly extracted from wholewood cross-sections largely leaving the wood anatomical structure intact and saving time as compared to the classical procedure. Secondly, micro-samples from cellulose cross-sections are dissected with an UV-Laser dissection microscope. Tissues of interest from cellulose cross-sections are identified and marked precisely with a screen-pen and dissected via an UV-laser beam. Dissected cellulose segments were automatically collected in capsules and are prepared for stable isotope (δ13C and δ18O) analysis. The new techniques facilitate inter- and intra-annual isotope analysis on tree-ring and open various possibilities for comparisons with wood anatomy in plant eco-physiological studies. We describe the design and the handling of this novel methodology and discuss advantages and constraints given by the example of intra-annual oxygen isotope analysis on tropical trees.

  19. Preparation and characterization of novel anion phase change heat storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Lil, Qingshan; Sun, Jing; Di, Youbo; Zhao, Zhou; Yu, Wei'an; Qu, Yuan; Jiao, TiFeng; Wang, Guowei; Xing, Guangzhong

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, polyurethane phase change material was successfully prepared with TDI with BDO for hard segments and PEG for soft segments. Moreover, based on this the solid-solid phase change material, A-PCM1030 which can release anions was prepared with the successful addition of anion additives A1030 for the first time. Then the test of the above material was conducted utilizing FT-IR, DSC, TEM, WAXD and Air Ion Detector. The Results indicated that the polyurethane phase change material possesses excellent thermal stability since there was no appearance of liquid leakage and phase separation after 50 times warming-cooling thermal cycles. It also presented reversibility on absorbing and releasing heat. In addition, adding a little A1030 can increase the thermal stability and reduce phase transition temperatures, as well as reduce the undercooling of the polyurethane phase change material. In addition, the anion test results suggested that the supreme amount of anion released by A-PCM1030 could reach 2510 anions/cm3 under dynamic conditions, which is beneficial for human health.

  20. Lithium storage performance of carbon nanotubes prepared from polyaniline for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiang Xiaoxia; Huang Zhengzheng; Liu Enhui; Shen Haijie; Tian Yingying; Xie Hui; Wu Yuhu; Wu Zhilian

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Polyaniline nanotube is synthesized by the self-assembly method in aqueous media. → Carbon nanotubes were prepared from polyaniline nanotube by physical activation. → Activation leads to large surface area, and surface nitrogen and oxygen functional groups. → Such physical and chemical properties lead to the good electrochemical properties. → After 20 cycles, a reversible capacity of 728 mAh g -1 was obtained. - Abstract: Carbon nanotubes with large surface area and surface nitrogen and oxygen functional groups are prepared by carbonizing and activating of polyaniline nanotubes, which is synthesized by polymerization of aniline with the self-assembly method in aqueous media. The physicochemical properties of the carbon nanotubes are characterized by scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller, elemental analyses and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The surface area and pore diameter are 618.9 m 2 g -1 and 3.10 nm. The electrochemical properties of the carbon nanotubes as anode materials in lithium ion batteries are evaluated. At a current density of 100 mA g -1 , the activated carbon nanotube shows an enormously first discharge capacity of about 1370 mAh g -1 and a charge capacity of 907 mAh g -1 . After 20 cycling tests, the activated carbon nanotube retains a reversible capacity of 728 mAh g -1 . These indicate it may be a promising candidate for an anode material for lithium secondary batteries.

  1. A Method for Preparation, Storage and Activation of Large Populations of Immotile Sea Urchin Sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Geracimo E.; Fritch, Jennifer J.; Tash, Joseph S.

    1997-01-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylation is associated with initiation and modulation of sperm flagellar motility. Many studies aimed at examining the signal transduction mechanisms underlying the expression of motility have relied on detergent-permeabilized sperm reactivated with exogenous 32 P-ATP. However, the reactivation conditions allow variable levels of motility to be expressed and phosphorylation of many proteins that appear to be unrelated to sperm motility. Thus, identification of the few relevant proteins is difficult. We have developed a method to collect and keep sperm immotile until reactivated for analysis to normal motility levels. Artificial sea water (ASW) buffered with 5 mM 2-[N-morpholino]ethanesulfonic acid at pH 6.0 and containing 50 mM KCI, allows collection and storage of immotile sea urchin sperm for up to 96 h at 4-5 C. Motility under these conditions is essentially zero, but sperm is rapidly reactivated to normal motility by diluting with ASW to standard pH (8.0) and KCI concentration (10 mM).

  2. Preparation of Titanium nitride nanomaterials for electrode and application in energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shun Tang

    Full Text Available The Titanium nitride was made by the carbamide and titanic chloride precursors. XRD results indicate that the precursor ratio N:Ti 3:1 leads to higher crystallinity. SEM and EDX demonstrated that Ti and N elements were distributed uniformly with the ratio of 1:1. The TiN used as the electrode material for supercapacitor was also studied. The specific capacities were changed from 407 F.g−1 to 385 F.g−1, 364 F.g−1 and 312 F.g−1, when the current densities were changed from 1 A.g−1 to 2 A.g−1, 5 A.g−1 and 10 A.g−1, respectively. Chronopotentiometry tests showed high coulombic efficiency. Cycling performance of the TiN electrode was evaluated by CV at a scanning rate of 50 mV.s−1 for 20,000 cycles and there was about 9.8% loss. These results indicate that TiN is a promising electrode material for the supercapacitors. Keywords: Energy storage, Nanomaterials, Anode, Titanium nitride, Supercapacitors

  3. Purity and stability of online-prepared hemodiafiltration fluid after storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, V; Cruz, D; Vázquez-Rangel, A; Furlan, F; Grillone, R; Bonaccorsi, A; Cazzavillan, S; de Cal, M; Frisone, P; Morea, A; Brendolan, A; Rassu, M; Ronco, C

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) fluid can be used as dialysate for continuous renal replacement therapies, and thus HDF costs can be reduced. The aims of this study were to determine the purity of OL-HDF fluid and to verify the stability of the electrolyte composition and acid-base balance during its storage. OL-HDF fluid was collected in 70 individual bags and stored for up to 7 days. The following tests were performed daily in 10 bags: natural visible precipitation (macrocrystallization), sample collection for chemical analysis and fluid culture, limulus amebocyte lysate endotoxin test, standard culture of NALGENE® filters after passing of the fluid, and molecular analysis of bacterial DNA. The values of pH and pCO(2) showed a significant change starting at 24 h (p values were beyond the measurable range. Coefficient of variation for pCO(2) was as high as 25.7%. Electrolyte composition (Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), Ca(2+) and glucose) showed a statistically significant difference over time (p bags in future studies. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Hydrogen storage properties of Mg-23.3wt.%Ni eutectic alloy prepared via hydriding combustion synthesis followed by mechanical milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liquan Li; Yunfeng Zhu; Xiaofeng Liu

    2006-01-01

    A Mg-23.3wt.%Ni eutectic alloy was prepared by the process of hydriding combustion synthesis followed by mechanical milling (HCS+MM). The product showed a high hydriding rate at 373 K and the dehydrogenation started at temperature as low as 423 K. Several reasons contributing to the improvement in hydrogen storage properties were presented. The result of this study will provide attractive information for mobile applications of magnesium hydrogen storage materials, and the process of HCS+MM developed in this study showed its potential for synthesizing magnesium based hydrogen storage materials with novel hydriding/de-hydriding properties. (authors)

  5. Novel strategy for the preparation of graphene-encapsulated mesoporous metal oxides with enhanced lithium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Rong; Yue, Wenbo; Niu, Fangzhou; Ma, Jie

    2016-01-01

    As potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, mesoporous metal oxides show high reversible capacities but relatively poor cycle stability due to the structural collapse during cycles. Graphene-encapsulated mesoporous metal oxides may increase the electronic conductivity of the composite as well as stabilize the mesostructure of metal oxides, thereby enhancing the electrochemical performance of mesoporous metal oxides. Herein we describe a novel strategy for the preparation of graphene-encapsulated mesoporous metal oxides (SnO_2, Mn_3O_4), which exhibit superior electrochemical performance compared to pure mesoporous metal oxides. Moreover, some mesoporous metal oxides may be further reduced to low-valence metal oxides when calcined in presence of graphene. Mesoporous metal oxides with high isoelectric points are not essential for this synthesis method since metal oxides are connected with graphene through mesoporous silica template, thus expanding the types of graphene-encapsulated mesoporous metal oxides.

  6. Long-term stable, long-term safe storage of residues and radioactive waste. Contribution to discussion to the storage (final storage); Langzeitstabile, langzeitsichere Verwahrung von Rueckstaenden und radioaktiven Abfaellen. Beitrag zur Diskussion um Lagerung (Endlagerung)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lersow, Michael [DGGT e.V., Breitenbrunn/Erzgeb. (Germany). Ak 5.5 Tailings; Gellermann, Rainer [Nuclear Control and Consulting GmbH, Braunschweig (Germany)

    2015-09-15

    In this paper it is presented, where radioactive waste and residues occur, how these materials can be classified, which rules and regulations have to be complied with regarding the disposal and which geotechnical environmental constructions (final repositories) are suitable to guarantee a safe long-term disposal of these materials. Primary protection objective is ''to permanently prevent the transfer of toxic, radioactive contaminations into the biosphere by air, water or rock path or to keep the amount of contamination within a commonly accepted range''. Radionuclide inventories and the given time period considered for long-term safety are compared with. It is shown, that the site-specific disposal solutions cannot be justified by the radioactive inventory deposited there. The given period of 10{sup 6} years is critically evaluated. Based on this it is suggested to subdivide this period into two time periods with different prognosis reliabilities. Results of a specially designed long-term monitoring as part of the site-specific waste disposal solution should be considered for the long-term safety proof. A modular concept for the final storage of High Active Waste (HAW) is derived based on the critical evaluation of the long-term safety, including transmutation, provisional storage and monitoring module. A foundation model is proposed to guarantee the financial resources required for the disposal of HAW.

  7. Hydrogen storage in Mg-Ni-Fe compounds prepared by melt spinning and ball milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palade, P. [Settore Materiali, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy); National Institute for Physics of Materials, Atomistilor 105 bis, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Sartori, S. [Settore Materiali, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy); Maddalena, A. [Settore Materiali, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy); Principi, G. [Settore Materiali, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Universita di Padova, via Marzolo 9, 35131 Padova (Italy)]. E-mail: giovanni.principi@unipd.it; Lo Russo, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Lazarescu, M. [National Institute for Physics of Materials, Atomistilor 105 bis, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Schinteie, G. [National Institute for Physics of Materials, Atomistilor 105 bis, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Kuncser, V. [National Institute for Physics of Materials, Atomistilor 105 bis, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Filoti, G. [National Institute for Physics of Materials, Atomistilor 105 bis, P.O. Box MG-7, 077125 Bucharest-Magurele (Romania)

    2006-05-18

    Magnesium-rich Mg-Ni-Fe intermetallic compounds have been prepared by two different routes: (a) short time ball milling of ribbons obtained by melt spinning; (b) long time ball milling of a mixture of MgH{sub 2}, Ni and Fe powders. The first type of samples displays an hydrogen desorption kinetics better than the second one. Pressure composition isotherm measurements exhibit for both type of samples two plateaux, the lower and wider corresponding to the MgH{sub 2} phase and the upper and shorter corresponding to the Mg{sub 2}NiH{sub 4} phase. The presence of the two types of hydrides is confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Moessbauer spectroscopy shows that in melt spun and subsequently milled samples iron is mainly in a disordered structure and segregates after hydrogenation, while in directly milled powders remains mainly unalloyed. After multiple hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles the main part of iron is in metallic state in samples of both types, those of first type preserving better hydrogen desorption kinetics.

  8. Preparation of CMC-modified melamine resin spherical nano-phase change energy storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaofeng; Huang, Zhanhua; Zhang, Yanhua

    2014-01-30

    A novel carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)-modified melamine-formaldehyde (MF) phase change capsule with excellent encapsulation was prepared by in situ polymerization. Effects of CMC on the properties of the capsules were studied by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that the CMC-modified capsules had an average diameter of about 50nm and good uniformity. The phase change enthalpy of the capsules was increased and the cracking ratio decreased by incorporating a suitable amount of CMC. The optimum phase change enthalpy of the nanocapsules was 83.46J/g, and their paraffin content was 63.1%. The heat resistance of the capsule shells decreased after CMC modification. In addition, the nanocapsule cracking ratio of the nanocapsules was 11.0%, which is highly attractive for their application as nano phase change materials. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rambutan-like FeCO3 hollow microspheres: facile preparation and superior lithium storage performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yiren; Su, Liwei; Yang, Mei; Wei, Jinping; Zhou, Zhen

    2013-11-13

    Rambutan-like FeCO3 hollow microspheres were prepared via a facile and economic one-step hydrothermal method. The structure and morphology evolution mechanism was disclosed through time-dependent experiments. After undergoing the symmetric inside-out Ostwald ripening, the resultants formed microporous/nanoporous constructions composed of numerous one-dimensional (1D) nanofiber building blocks. Tested as anode materials of Li-ion batteries, FeCO3 hollow microspheres presented attractive electrochemical performances. The capacities were over 1000 mAh g(-1) for initial charge, ~880 mAh g(-1) after 100 cycles at 50 mA g(-1), and ~710 mAh g(-1) after 200 cycles at 200 mA g(-1). The 1D nanofiber assembly and hollow interior endow this material efficient contact with electrolyte, short Li(+) diffusion paths, and sufficient void spaces to accommodate large volume variation. The cost-efficient FeCO3 with rationally designed nanostructures is a promising anode candidate for Li-ion batteries.

  10. Form-stable LiNO_3–NaNO_3–KNO_3–Ca(NO_3)_2/calcium silicate composite phase change material (PCM) for mid-low temperature thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Zhu; Leng, Guanghui; Ye, Feng; Ge, Zhiwei; Liu, Chuanping; Wang, Li; Huang, Yun; Ding, Yulong

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The figure (a) displays the microstructure of calcium silicate and the inset figure is the LiNO_3–NaNO_3–KNO_3–Ca(NO_3)_2/calcium silicate composite PCM. Calcium silicate is used as a porous skeleton material which could absorb large amounts of the nitrate PCM in voids and prevent the PCM from leakage during phase change process. Figure (b) shows the heat capacity of the composite PCM and the inset figure is the DSC curve of the composite. It indicates that this composite has a low melting point (103.5 °C) and good energy storage property. Based on the novel LiNO_3–NaNO_3–KNO_3–Ca(NO_3)_2/calcium silicate composite PCM, this work involves fabrication process, thermal and microstructural characterization, and chemical and physical stability measurements. - Highlights: • A novel LiNO_3–NaNO_3–KNO_3–Ca(NO_3)_2/calcium silicate composite PCM was prepared. • It has a low melting point (103.5 °C) and could remain stable until 585.5 °C. • It could keep form-stable without leakage during phase change process. • Thermal conductivity of the composite PCM reaches up to 1.177 W m"−"1 K"−"1. • It shows good thermal reliability after 1000 times heating and cooling cycling. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel form-stable LiNO_3–NaNO_3–KNO_3–Ca(NO_3)_2/calcium silicate composite PCM was developed by cold compression and sintering. The eutectic quaternary nitrate is used as PCM, while calcium silicate is used as structural supporting material. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) shows the PCM and the supporting material have good chemical compatibility. This composite PCM has a low melting point (103.5 °C) and remain stable without decomposition until 585.5 °C. Moreover, this composite shows excellent long term stability after 1000 melting and freezing cycles. Thermal conductivity of the composite was measured to be 1.177 W m"−"1 K"−"1, and that could be increased by adding thermal conductivity enhancers into the composite

  11. Synthetic surfactant- and cross-linker-free preparation of highly stable lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles as potential oral delivery vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taoran; Xue, Jingyi; Hu, Qiaobin; Zhou, Mingyong; Chang, Chao; Luo, Yangchao

    2017-06-05

    The toxicity associated with concentrated synthetic surfactants and the poor stability at gastrointestinal condition are two major constraints for practical applications of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) as oral delivery vehicles. In this study, a synthetic surfactant-free and cross-linker-free method was developed to fabricate effective, safe, and ultra-stable lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPN). Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and dextran varying in molecular weights were first conjugated through Maillard reaction and the conjugates were exploited to emulsify solid lipid by a solvent diffusion and sonication method. The multilayer structure was formed by self-assembly of BSA-dextran micelles to envelope solid lipid via a pH- and heating-induced facile process with simultaneous surface deposition of pectin. The efficiency of different BSA-dextran conjugates was systematically studied to prepare LPN with the smallest size, the most homogeneous distribution and the greatest stability. The molecular interactions were characterized by Fourier transform infrared and fluorescence spectroscopies. Both nano spray drying and freeze-drying methods were tested to produce spherical and uniform pectin-coated LPN powders that were able to re-assemble nanoscale structure when redispersed in water. The results demonstrated the promise of a synthetic surfactant- and cross-linker-free technique to prepare highly stable pectin-coated LPN from all natural biomaterials as potential oral delivery vehicles.

  12. Stable Photocatalytic Paints Prepared from Hybrid Core-Shell Fluorinated/Acrylic/TiO2 Waterborne Dispersions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Bonnefond

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The contamination of air and water is one of the major concerns towards the development of a sustainable world in the 21st century. In this context many efforts are devoted to the design of photocatalytic paints able to degrade chemical and biological impurities present in air and water. In this work, the photocatalytic activity of hybrid films formed from the blends of pure acrylic or core/shell fluorinated/acrylic waterborne dispersions and photocatalytic titanium dioxide (TiO2 nanoparticle dispersions was first assessed. The films show photocatalytic activity (inactivation of the Escherichia coli bacteria under UV irradiation at the substrate-film interface, but very reduced activity in the air-film interface due to the substantially lower amount of the TiO2 nanoparticles in the vicinity of this interface. In a second step, the fluorinated/(methacrylic core-shell hybrid dispersions were used as binders in the formulation of waterborne photocatalytic paints and the stability of the paints, in terms of gloss retain and color change, was assessed during 5000 hours of accelerated weathering tests (QUV-B. Although a decrease in gloss retention and increased color change occurs during the first 1000 hours of exposure, no further change of these properties takes place, which is an excellent indication of stable photocatalytic paints.

  13. Human urine as test material in 1H NMR-based metabonomics: recommendations for sample preparation and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauridsen, Michael; Hansen, Steen H; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W; Cornett, Claus

    2007-02-01

    Metabonomic approaches are believed to have the capability of revolutionizing diagnosis of diseases and assessment of patient conditions after medical interventions. In order to ensure comparability of metabonomic 1H NMR data from different studies, we suggest validated sample preparation guidelines for human urine based on a stability study that evaluates effects of storage time and temperature, freeze-drying, and the presence of preservatives. The results indicated that human urine samples should be stored at or below -25 degrees C, as no changes in the 1H NMR fingerprints have been observed during storage at this temperature for 26 weeks. Formation of acetate, presumably due to microbial contamination, was occasionally observed in samples stored at 4 degrees C without addition of a preservative. Addition of a preserving agent is not mandatory provided that the samples are stored at -25 degrees C. Thus, no differences were observed between 1H NMR spectra of nonpreserved urines and urines with added sodium azide and stored at -25 degrees C, whereas the presence of sodium fluoride caused a shift of especially citrate resonances. Freeze-drying of urine and reconstitution in D2O at pH 7.4 resulted in the disappearance of the creatinine CH2 signal at delta 4.06 due to deuteration. A study evaluating the effects of phosphate buffer concentration on signal variability and assessment of the probability of citrate or creatinine resonances crossing bucket border (a boundary between adjacent integrated regions) led to the conclusion that a minimum buffer concentration of 0.3 M is adequate for normal urines used in this study. However, final buffer concentration of 1 M will be required for very concentrated urines.

  14. Preparation and characterization of flame retardant n-hexadecane/silicon dioxide composites as thermal energy storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guiyin; Li, Hui; Chen, Zhi; Liu, Xu

    2010-09-15

    Flame retardant n-hexadecane/silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) composites as thermal energy storage materials were prepared using sol-gel methods. In the composites, n-hexadecane was used as the phase change material for thermal energy storage, and SiO(2) acted as the supporting material that is fire resistant. In order to further improve flame retardant property of the composites, the expanded graphite (EG) was added in the composites. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope (FT-IR), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) were used to determine chemical structure, crystalloid phase and microstructure of flame retardant n-hexadecane/SiO(2) composites, respectively. The thermal properties and thermal stability were investigated by a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a thermogravimetric analysis apparatus (TGA), respectively. The SEM results showed that the n-hexadecane was well dispersed in the porous network of the SiO(2). The DSC results indicated that the melting and solidifying latent heats of the composites are 147.58 and 145.10 kJ/kg when the mass percentage of the n-hexadecane in the composites is 73.3%. The TGA results showed that the loading of the EG increased the charred residue amount of the composites at 700 degrees C, contributing to the improved thermal stability of the composites. It was observed from SEM photographs that the homogeneous and compact charred residue structure after combustion improved the flammability of the composites. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 14C measurement: effect of variations in sample preparation and storage on the counting efficiency for 14C using a carbo-sorb/permafluor E+ liquid scintillation cocktail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, S.J.; Milton, G.M.; Repta, C.J.W.

    1995-06-01

    The effect of variations in sample preparation and storage on the counting efficiency for 14 C using a Carbo-Sorb/PermafluorE+ liquid scintillation cocktail has been studied, and optimum conditions are recommended. (author). 2 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  16. Layered Ni(OH)2-Co(OH)2 films prepared by electrodeposition as charge storage electrodes for hybrid supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuyen; Boudard, Michel; Carmezim, M João; Montemor, M Fátima

    2017-01-04

    Consecutive layers of Ni(OH) 2 and Co(OH) 2 were electrodeposited on stainless steel current collectors for preparing charge storage electrodes of high specific capacity with potential application in hybrid supercapacitors. Different electrodes were prepared consisting on films of Ni(OH) 2 , Co(OH) 2 , Ni 1/2 Co 1/2 (OH) 2 and layered films of Ni(OH) 2 on Co(OH) 2 and Co(OH) 2 on Ni(OH) 2 to highlight the advantages of the new architecture. The microscopy studies revealed the formation of nanosheets in the Co(OH) 2 films and of particles agglomerates in the Ni(OH) 2 films. Important morphological changes were observed in the double hydroxides films and layered films. Film growth by electrodeposition was governed by instantaneous nucleation mechanism. The new architecture composed of Ni(OH) 2 on Co(OH) 2 displayed a redox response characterized by the presence of two peaks in the cyclic voltammograms, arising from redox reactions of the metallic species present in the layered film. These electrodes revealed a specific capacity of 762 C g -1 at the specific current of 1 A g -1 . The hybrid cell using Ni(OH) 2 on Co(OH) 2 as positive electrode and carbon nanofoam paper as negative electrode display specific energies of 101.3 W h g -1 and 37.8 W h g -1 at specific powers of 0.2 W g -1 and 2.45 W g -1 , respectively.

  17. The International Atomic Energy Agency circulation of laboratory air standards for stable isotope comparisons: Aims, preparation and preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, C.E.; Francey, R.J.; Steele, L.P.

    2002-01-01

    Ten air standards in high-pressure aluminium cylinders were prepared, covering a specified range of CO 2 concentration and δ 13 C and δ 18O isotopic composition, to be used for laboratory intercomparisons with the primary aim of merging global atmospheric CO 2 δ 13 C data sets. After establishing the stability of the standards, five were circulated between four laboratories with established high precision global monitoring networks to quantify differences between the measurement scales used in the laboratories. Measurements of CO 2 concentration in three of the four laboratories showed agreement to better than 0.2 ppm for the five standards. Measurements of N 2 O concentration reported by three of the laboratories agreed to better than 3 ppb after correction for known scaling factor differences, but a fourth laboratory reported results for two cylinders lower by about 20 ppb, contributing a δ 13 C uncertainty of about 0.012 per mille for these two cylinders. The reported measurements of the δ 13 C and δ 18O of CO 2 extracted from the air in the five standards showed large offsets between the laboratories of up to 0.1 per mille in δ 13 C and up to 1 per mille in δ 18O . Analysis of the results shows that about 40% of the offsets arises from differences in the procedures used in each laboratory to calculate the δ 13 C and δ 18 O values from the raw measurements and that the remainder arises from the pre-concentration step. Using one of the circulated standards to 'normalise' the others removes most of the inter-laboratory differences but there remains a non-linear response in one or more laboratories. The differences in δ 13 C that remain after normalisation are larger than the target precision of 0.01 per mille. (author)

  18. Preparation of nanoporous activated carbon and its application as nano adsorbent for CO{sub 2} storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashidi, Ali Morad; Kazemi, Davood; Izadi, Nosrat; Pourkhalil, Mahnaz; Jorsaraei, Abbas; Lotfi, Roghayeh [Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ganji, Enseyeh [Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Nanoporous activated carbons, as adsorbent for CO{sub 2} storage, were prepared from walnut shells via two chemical processes including phosphoric acid treatment and KOH activation at high temperature. Specific surface area and porosities were controlled by KOH concentration and activation temperature. The obtained adsorbents were characterized by N2 adsorption at 77.3 K. Their carbon dioxide adsorption capacities were measured at different pressures at 290 K by using volumetric adsorption equipment. The KOH-treated nanoporous carbons typically led to the production of high specific surface areas and high micropore volumes and showed better performance for CO{sub 2} adsorptions. The maximum experimental value for adsorption capacity happened when pressure increased from 5 to 10 bar (1.861- 2.873mmol·g{sup -1}). It was found that in order to improve the highest capacity of CO{sub 2} adsorption for KOH-modified carbon (9.830-18.208mmol·g{sup -1}), a KOH: C weight ratio of 3.5 and activation temperature of 973 K were more suitable for pore development and micro-mesopore volume enhancement.

  19. Preparation, characterization, and thermal properties of the microencapsulation of a hydrated salt as phase change energy storage materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jin; Wang, Tingyu; Zhu, Panpan; Xiao, Junbin

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Phase change point and fusion heat of samples are about 51 °Cand 150 J/g respectively. ► DSC results indicated the core material is not Na 2 HPO 4 ·12H 2 O but Na 2 HPO 4 ·7H 2 O. ► Encapsulation takes a significant role in reducing subcooling degree. - Abstract: Microcapsules loaded by disodium hydrogen phosphate heptahydrate (Na 2 HPO 4 ·7H 2 O) were prepared by means of the suspension copolymerization-solvent volatile method, with modified polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) as coating polymer under the conditions of various organic solvents. The formation of the microencapsulated phase change materials (MEPCMs)-PMMA/Na 2 HPO 4 ·7H 2 O was investigated and analyzed. The morphology of the resultant materials was characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and phase contrast microscope. Its final composition was confirmed by the Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR). Thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were adopted to reveal its thermal stability and thermal properties. Results indicated that the materials owned improved subcooling degree and good thermal properties, enabling the materials to be one promising phase change materials for thermal energy storage

  20. Effects of Emulsifiers on Preparing Spherical Urea-Formaldehyde Paraffin Capsules Modified by β-Cyclodextrin for Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urea-formaldehyde (UF paraffin capsules (B-UPCS modified by β-cyclodextrin (β-CD were successfully prepared with excellent energy storage capacity using different emulsifiers. B-UPCS were characterized by FT-IR, DSC SEM, optical microscopy, and laser particle size distribution analyzer. The effects of different emulsifiers and the stirring rate of emulsion on the microstructure, average particle diameter, and the content of paraffin were discussed in details. The results show that OP-10 for use with PCMs as emulsifier has a better emulsifying capacity, thermal stability, and mechanical stirring stability than SDBS for use with PCMs as emulsifier. As a result, the optimum dosage of OP-10 was 3% to 7%, and the suitable stirring rate of emulsion was 7500 to 12500 rpm. At this time, the spherical particle diameter of B-UPCS was about 1.0 μm, the paraffin content was 78%, and the enthalpy of B-UPCS can reach 161.0 J/g.

  1. Preparation, characterization, and thermal properties of the microencapsulation of a hydrated salt as phase change energy storage materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jin, E-mail: huangjiner@126.com [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, 510006 Guangzhou (China); Wang, Tingyu; Zhu, Panpan; Xiao, Junbin [School of Materials and Energy, Guangdong University of Technology, 510006 Guangzhou (China)

    2013-04-10

    Highlights: ► Phase change point and fusion heat of samples are about 51 °Cand 150 J/g respectively. ► DSC results indicated the core material is not Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}·12H{sub 2}O but Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}·7H{sub 2}O. ► Encapsulation takes a significant role in reducing subcooling degree. - Abstract: Microcapsules loaded by disodium hydrogen phosphate heptahydrate (Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}·7H{sub 2}O) were prepared by means of the suspension copolymerization-solvent volatile method, with modified polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) as coating polymer under the conditions of various organic solvents. The formation of the microencapsulated phase change materials (MEPCMs)-PMMA/Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4}·7H{sub 2}O was investigated and analyzed. The morphology of the resultant materials was characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and phase contrast microscope. Its final composition was confirmed by the Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR). Thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were adopted to reveal its thermal stability and thermal properties. Results indicated that the materials owned improved subcooling degree and good thermal properties, enabling the materials to be one promising phase change materials for thermal energy storage.

  2. THE USE OF A FACTORIAL DESIGN TO EVALUATE THE PHYSICAL STABILITY OF TABLETS PREPARED BY DIRECT COMPRESSION .2. SELECTION OF EXCIPIENTS SUITABLE FOR USE UNDER TROPICAL STORAGE-CONDITIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOS, CE; BOLHUIS, GK; LERK, CF; DEBOER, JH; DUINEVELD, CAA; SMILDE, AK; DOORNBOS, DA

    1991-01-01

    A factorial design has been used to study the influence of disintegrant concentration, storage temperature and relative humidity upon storage on the physical stability of tablets prepared by direct compression. Tablets prepared from a binary mixture of a filler-binder and a disintegrant were stored

  3. Preparation and thermal properties of mineral-supported polyethylene glycol as form-stable composite phase change materials (CPCMs) used in asphalt pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jiao; Lin, Feipeng; Liu, Ruohua; Xiao, Ting; Zheng, Jianlong; Qian, Guoping; Liu, Hongfu; Wen, Pihua

    2017-12-05

    Three kinds of mineral-supported polyethylene glycol (PEG) as form-stable composite phase change materials (CPCMs) were prepared to choose the most suitable CPCMs in asphalt pavements for the problems of asphalt pavements rutting diseases and urban heat islands. The microstructure and chemical structure of CPCMs were characterized by SEM, FT-IR and XRD. Thermal properties of the CPCMs were determined by TG and DSC. The maximum PEG absorption of diatomite (DI), expanded perlite (EP) and expanded vermiculite (EVM) could reach 72%, 67% and 73.6%, respectively. The melting temperatures and latent heat of CPCMs are in the range of 52-55 °C and 100-115 J/g, respectively. The results show that PEG/EP has the best thermal and chemical stability after 100 times of heating-cooling process. Moreover, crystallization fraction results show that PEG/EP has slightly higher latent heats than that of PEG/DI and PEG/EVM. Temperature-adjusting asphalt mixture was prepared by substituting the fine aggregates with PEG/EP CPCMs. The upper surface maximum temperature difference of temperature-adjusting asphalt mixture reaches about 7.0 °C in laboratory, and the surface peak temperature reduces up to 4.3 °C in the field experiment during a typical summer day, indicating a great potential application for regulating pavement temperature field and alleviating the urban heat islands.

  4. Interim storage study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlins, J.K.

    1998-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in the form of calcine and liquid and liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) will be processed to provide a stable waste form and prepare the waste to be transported to a permanent repository. Because a permanent repository will not be available when the waste is processed, the waste must be stored at ICPP in an Interim Storage Facility (ISF). This report documents consideration of an ISF for each of the waste processing options under consideration.

  5. Interim storage report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawlins, J.K.

    1998-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in the form of calcine and liquid and liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) will be processed to provide a stable waste form and prepare the waste to be transported to a permanent repository. Because a permanent repository will not be available when the waste is processed, the waste must be stored at ICPP in an Interim Storage Facility (ISF). This report documents consideration of an ISF for each of the waste processing options under consideration

  6. Development of new ionic gelation strategy: Towards the preparation of new monodisperse and stable hyaluronic acid/β-cyclodextrin-grafted chitosan nanoparticles as drug delivery carriers for doxorubicin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihoub, Amina Ben; Saidat, Boubakeur; Bal, Youssef; Frochot, Céline; Vanderesse, Régis; Acherar, Samir

    2018-03-01

    In the present study, β-cyclodextrin-grafted chitosan nanoparticles (β-CD- g-CS NPs) were prepared using a new ionic gelation strategy involving a synergistic effect of NaCl (150 mmol/L), 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazineethanesulfonic acid (HEPES, 10 mmol/L), and water bath sonication. This new strategy afforded smaller and more monodisperse β-CD- g-CS NPs vs. the classical ionic gelation method. New HA/β-CD- g-CS NPs were also prepared using the above-mentioned strategy by adding hyaluronic acid (HA) to the β-CD- g-CS copolymer at different weight ratios until the ZP values conversion. The best result was obtained with the weight ratio of w(HA): w(β-CD- g-CS) = 2:1 and furnished new spherical and smooth HA/β-CD- g-CS NPs. Furthermore, the stability of β- CD- g-CS NPs and HA/β-CD- g-CS NPs at 4°C in physiological medium (pH 7.4) was compared for 3 weeks period and showed that HA/β-CD- g-CS NPs were more stable all maintaining their monodispersity and high negative ZP values compared to β-CD- g-CS NPs. Finally, preliminary study of HA/β-CD- g-CS NPs as carrier for the controlled release of the anticancer drug doxorubicin was investigated. These new HA/β-CD- g-CS NPs can potentially be used as drug delivery and targeting systems for cancer treatment.

  7. Properties of form-stable paraffin/silicon dioxide/expanded graphite phase change composites prepared by sol–gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Min; Wu, Zhishen; Tan, Jinmiao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Paraffin/SiO 2 /EG composite PCM was prepared with sol–gel method. ► The thermal conductivity of SiO 2 /paraffin/EG is 94.7% higher than paraffin. ► The latent heat of paraffin/SiO 2 /EG composite is 104.4 J/g. -- Abstract: A form-stable paraffin/silicon dioxide (SiO 2 )/expanded graphite (EG) composite phase change material (PCM) was prepared by sol–gel method. Silica gel acts as the supporting material and EG is used to increase the thermal conductivity. The mass fractions of silicon oxide and graphite are 20.8% and 7.2%, respectively. The composite PCM was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) method. Thermal properties and thermal stability of the composite PCM were studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The result shows that paraffin was well dispersed in the network of silica gel and there is no chemical reaction between them. The phase change temperature of the paraffin/SiO 2 composite and the paraffin/SiO 2 /EG composite are 27.53 °C and 27.72 °C, respectively. The latent heat of the paraffin/SiO 2 composite and the paraffin/SiO 2 /EG composite are 112.8 J/g and 104.4 J/g, respectively. The thermal conductivity of the SiO 2 /paraffin composite and the SiO 2 /paraffin/EG composite are 28.2% and 94.7% higher than that of paraffin.

  8. Stable beams

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    Stable beams: two simple words that carry so much meaning at CERN. When LHC page one switched from "squeeze" to "stable beams" at 10.40 a.m. on Wednesday, 3 June, it triggered scenes of jubilation in control rooms around the CERN sites, as the LHC experiments started to record physics data for the first time in 27 months. This is what CERN is here for, and it’s great to be back in business after such a long period of preparation for the next stage in the LHC adventure.   I’ve said it before, but I’ll say it again. This was a great achievement, and testimony to the hard and dedicated work of so many people in the global CERN community. I could start to list the teams that have contributed, but that would be a mistake. Instead, I’d simply like to say that an achievement as impressive as running the LHC – a machine of superlatives in every respect – takes the combined effort and enthusiasm of everyone ...

  9. 75 FR 78986 - East Cheyenne Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ..., East Cheyenne planned to do enhanced oil recovery (EOR) of petroleum reserves remaining in the storage... proposed project amendment under these general headings: Geology and soils; Land use; Water resources...

  10. [In vitro study of the flow duration of antibiotics solutions prepared in elastomeric infusion devices: effect of cold storage for 3 to 7days].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeon-Chapon, C; Robein-Dobremez, M-J; Pin, I; Trouiller, P; Allenet, B; Foroni, L

    2015-09-01

    Within the cystic fibrosis patients' home care, EMERAA network ("Together against Cystic fibrosis in Rhone-Alpes and Auvergne") organizes parenteral antibiotics cures at home prepared in elastomeric infusion devices by hospital pharmacies. However, patients and nurses found that the durations of infusion with these devices were often longer than the nominal duration of infusion indicated by their manufacturer. This study aimed to identify the potential different causes in relation to these discordances. Three hundred and ninety devices of two different manufacturers are tested in different experimental conditions: three antibiotics each at two different doses, duration of cold storage (three days or seven days) or immediate tests without cold storage, preparation and storage of the solution in the device (protocol Device) or transfer in the device just before measurement (protocol Pocket). All tests highlighted a longer flow duration for devices prepared according to the protocol Device versus the protocol Pocket (P=0.004). Flow duration is increased in the case of high doses of antibiotics with high viscosity such as piperacilline/tazobactam. The results of this in vitro study showed the impact of: (1) the time between the filling of the device and the flow of the solution; (2) cold storage of elastomeric infusion devices; (3) concentration of antibiotics and therefore the viscosity of the solution to infuse. It is therefore essential that health care teams are aware of factors, which may lead to longer infusion durations with these infusion devices. When the additional time for infusion remain acceptable, it should be necessary to inform the patient and to relativize these lengthening compared to many benefits that these devices provide for home care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Adaption to High Altitude: An Evaluation of the Storage Quality of Suspended Red Blood Cells Prepared from the Whole Blood of Tibetan Plateau Migrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Rui; Liu, Hua; Wang, Hong; Li, Xiaojuan; He, Zeng; Gangla, Meiduo; Zhang, Jingdan; Han, Dingding; Liu, Jiaxin

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia has been reported to cause the significant enhancement of hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct), which stabilizes at relatively high levels after an individual ascends to a high altitude. However, the quality of the suspended red blood cells (SRBCs) obtained from individuals at high altitudes such as Tibetan plateau migrants after storage has not been studied. In this study, we compared the storage quality of SRBCs prepared from Tibetan plateau and Deyang lowland populations by adding a normal volume of mannitol-adenine-phosphate (MAP), which is a common additive solution used in blood storage in Asian countries. The storage cell characteristics were examined on days 1, 7, 14 and 35.We found higher Hct and Hb levels and viscosity in the high altitude samples. The metabolic rates, including those for electrolytes and lactate, were higher in plateau SRBCs than in lowland SRBCs; these findings were consistent with the higher osmotic fragility and hemolysis of plateau SRBCs throughout the entire storage period. In addition, the reduction rates of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and oxygen tension to attain 50% oxygen saturation of Hb (P50) in plateau SRBCs were higher than those in lowland SRBCs, and the oxygen delivering capacity in plateau SRBCs was weaker than that in lowland SRBCs. We concluded that the storage quality of plateau SRBCs was inferior to that of lowland SRBCs when using the same concentration of MAP. We suggested that the optimal formula, including the MAP concentration or even a new additive solution, to store the plateau SRBCs must be assessed and regulated.

  12. Adaption to High Altitude: An Evaluation of the Storage Quality of Suspended Red Blood Cells Prepared from the Whole Blood of Tibetan Plateau Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Li, Xiaojuan; He, Zeng; Gangla, Meiduo; Zhang, Jingdan; Han, Dingding; Liu, Jiaxin

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia has been reported to cause the significant enhancement of hemoglobin (Hb) and hematocrit (Hct), which stabilizes at relatively high levels after an individual ascends to a high altitude. However, the quality of the suspended red blood cells (SRBCs) obtained from individuals at high altitudes such as Tibetan plateau migrants after storage has not been studied. In this study, we compared the storage quality of SRBCs prepared from Tibetan plateau and Deyang lowland populations by adding a normal volume of mannitol-adenine-phosphate (MAP), which is a common additive solution used in blood storage in Asian countries. The storage cell characteristics were examined on days1, 7, 14 and 35.We found higher Hct and Hb levels and viscosity in the high altitude samples. The metabolic rates, including those for electrolytes and lactate, were higher in plateau SRBCs than in lowland SRBCs; these findings were consistent with the higher osmotic fragility and hemolysis of plateau SRBCs throughout the entire storage period. In addition, the reduction rates of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and oxygen tension to attain 50% oxygen saturation of Hb (P50) in plateau SRBCs were higher than those in lowland SRBCs, and the oxygen delivering capacity in plateau SRBCs was weaker than that in lowland SRBCs. We concluded that the storage quality of plateau SRBCs was inferior to that of lowland SRBCs when using the same concentration of MAP. We suggested that the optimal formula, including the MAP concentration or even a new additive solution, to store the plateau SRBCs must be assessed and regulated. PMID:26637115

  13. Adaption to High Altitude: An Evaluation of the Storage Quality of Suspended Red Blood Cells Prepared from the Whole Blood of Tibetan Plateau Migrants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhong

    Full Text Available Hypoxia has been reported to cause the significant enhancement of hemoglobin (Hb and hematocrit (Hct, which stabilizes at relatively high levels after an individual ascends to a high altitude. However, the quality of the suspended red blood cells (SRBCs obtained from individuals at high altitudes such as Tibetan plateau migrants after storage has not been studied. In this study, we compared the storage quality of SRBCs prepared from Tibetan plateau and Deyang lowland populations by adding a normal volume of mannitol-adenine-phosphate (MAP, which is a common additive solution used in blood storage in Asian countries. The storage cell characteristics were examined on days 1, 7, 14 and 35.We found higher Hct and Hb levels and viscosity in the high altitude samples. The metabolic rates, including those for electrolytes and lactate, were higher in plateau SRBCs than in lowland SRBCs; these findings were consistent with the higher osmotic fragility and hemolysis of plateau SRBCs throughout the entire storage period. In addition, the reduction rates of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG and oxygen tension to attain 50% oxygen saturation of Hb (P50 in plateau SRBCs were higher than those in lowland SRBCs, and the oxygen delivering capacity in plateau SRBCs was weaker than that in lowland SRBCs. We concluded that the storage quality of plateau SRBCs was inferior to that of lowland SRBCs when using the same concentration of MAP. We suggested that the optimal formula, including the MAP concentration or even a new additive solution, to store the plateau SRBCs must be assessed and regulated.

  14. Hydrogen storage performances of LaMg{sub 11}Ni + x wt% Ni (x = 100, 200) alloys prepared by mechanical milling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yanghuan, E-mail: zhangyh59@sina.com [Key Laboratory of Integrated Exploitation of Baiyun Obo Multi-Metal Resources, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); Department of Functional Material Research, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); Wang, Haitao [Key Laboratory of Integrated Exploitation of Baiyun Obo Multi-Metal Resources, Inner Mongolia University of Science and Technology, Baotou 014010 (China); Department of Functional Material Research, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhai, Tingting; Yang, Tai; Yuan, Zeming; Zhao, Dongliang [Department of Functional Material Research, Central Iron and Steel Research Institute, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Amorphous and nanostructured alloys were prepared by mechanical milling. • The maximum discharge capacity of ball milled alloys reaches to 1053.5 mA h/g. • The addition of Ni significantly increases the discharge capacity. • Increasing milling time reduces the kinetic performances of ball milled alloys. - Abstract: In order to improve the hydrogen storage performances of Mg-based materials, LaMg{sub 11}Ni alloy was prepared by vacuum induction melting. Then the nanocrystalline/amorphous LaMg{sub 11}Ni + x wt% Ni (x = 100, 200) hydrogen storage alloys were synthesized by ball milling technology. The structure characterizations of the alloys were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The electrochemical hydrogen storage characteristics were tested by using programmed control battery testing system. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization curves and potential-step curves were also plotted by an electrochemical workstation (PARSTAT 2273). The results indicate that the as-milled alloys exhibit a nanocrystalline and amorphous structure, and the amorphization degree of the alloys visibly increases with extending milling time. Prolonging the milling duration markedly enhances the electrochemical discharge capacity and cyclic stability of the alloys. The electrochemical kinetics, including high rate discharge ability (HRD), charge transfer rate, limiting current density (I{sub L}), hydrogen diffusion coefficient (D), monotonously decrease with milling time prolonging.

  15. Mechanical ball-milling preparation of fullerene/cobalt core/shell nanocomposites with high electrochemical hydrogen storage ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Di; Gao, Peng; Shen, Xiande; Chang, Cheng; Wang, Longqiang; Wang, Ying; Chen, Yujin; Zhou, Xiaoming; Sun, Shuchao; Li, Guobao; Yang, Piaoping

    2014-02-26

    The design and synthesis of new hydrogen storage nanomaterials with high capacity at low cost is extremely desirable but remains challenging for today's development of hydrogen economy. Because of the special honeycomb structures and excellent physical and chemical characters, fullerenes have been extensively considered as ideal materials for hydrogen storage materials. To take the most advantage of its distinctive symmetrical carbon cage structure, we have uniformly coated C60's surface with metal cobalt in nanoscale to form a core/shell structure through a simple ball-milling process in this work. The X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman spectra, high-solution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) elemental mappings, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements have been conducted to evaluate the size and the composition of the composites. In addition, the blue shift of C60 pentagonal pinch mode demonstrates the formation of Co-C chemical bond, and which enhances the stability of the as-obtained nanocomposites. And their electrochemical experimental results demonstrate that the as-obtained C60/Co composites have excellent electrochemical hydrogen storage cycle reversibility and considerably high hydrogen storage capacities of 907 mAh/g (3.32 wt % hydrogen) under room temperature and ambient pressure, which is very close to the theoretical hydrogen storage capacities of individual metal Co (3.33 wt % hydrogen). Furthermore, their hydrogen storage processes and the mechanism have also been investigated, in which the quasi-reversible C60/Co↔C60/Co-Hx reaction is the dominant cycle process.

  16. Guide for the preparation of applications for licenses for the use of self-contained dry source-storage irradiators. Second proposed Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassin, N.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this regulatory guide is to provide assistance to applicants and licensees in preparing applications for new licenses, license amendments, and license renewals for the use of self-contained dry source-storage irradiators. These irradiators are constructed so that the sealed sources and the material being irradiated are contained in a shielded volume and there is no external radiation beam during the use of the irradiator. The radioisotopes most commonly used for these irradiators are cobalt-60 and cesium-137

  17. A Plasma-Assisted Route to the Rapid Preparation of Transition-Metal Phosphides for Energy Conversion and Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Hanfeng; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2017-01-01

    with the method of preparation as the electronic, catalytic, and magnetic properties of the metal phosphides strongly depend on their synthesis routes. Commonly practiced processes such as solid-state synthesis and ball milling have proven to be reliable routes

  18. Storage stability of margarines produced from enzymatically interesterified fats compared to those prepared by conventional methods - Chemical properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hong; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Pedersen, Lars Saaby

    2006-01-01

    margarines in a pilot plant. Storage stability studies were carried out at storage temperatures of 5 and 25øC for 12wk. Margarines from the enzymatically interesterified fats were compared to the margarines produced by the conventional methods (chemical interesterification and physical blending......In this study, four margarine hardstocks were produced, two from enzymatically interesterified fats at 80 and 100% conversion, one from chemically randomized fat and one from physically mixed fat. These four hardstocks, blended with 50% sunflower oil, were mainly used for the production of table...... interesterified fat had higher PV in weeks4, 8 and10 than the margarines produced from the enzymatically interesterified fats and the physically blended fat. These differences were not caused by different contents of tocopherols in the hardstocks. The differences between the processes for chemical and enzymatic...

  19. Reproducibility of NMR Analysis of Urine Samples: Impact of Sample Preparation, Storage Conditions, and Animal Health Status

    OpenAIRE

    Schreier, Christina; Kremer, Werner; Huber, Fritz; Neumann, Sindy; Pagel, Philipp; Lienemann, Kai; Pestel, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Spectroscopic analysis of urine samples from laboratory animals can be used to predict the efficacy and side effects of drugs. This employs methods combining 1H NMR spectroscopy with quantification of biomarkers or with multivariate data analysis. The most critical steps in data evaluation are analytical reproducibility of NMR data (collection, storage, and processing) and the health status of the animals, which may influence urine pH and osmolarity. Methods. We treated rats wit...

  20. Reproducibility of NMR analysis of urine samples: impact of sample preparation, storage conditions, and animal health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Christina; Kremer, Werner; Huber, Fritz; Neumann, Sindy; Pagel, Philipp; Lienemann, Kai; Pestel, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic analysis of urine samples from laboratory animals can be used to predict the efficacy and side effects of drugs. This employs methods combining (1)H NMR spectroscopy with quantification of biomarkers or with multivariate data analysis. The most critical steps in data evaluation are analytical reproducibility of NMR data (collection, storage, and processing) and the health status of the animals, which may influence urine pH and osmolarity. We treated rats with a solvent, a diuretic, or a nephrotoxicant and collected urine samples. Samples were titrated to pH 3 to 9, or salt concentrations increased up to 20-fold. The effects of storage conditions and freeze-thaw cycles were monitored. Selected metabolites and multivariate data analysis were evaluated after (1)H NMR spectroscopy. We showed that variation of pH from 3 to 9 and increases in osmolarity up to 6-fold had no effect on the quantification of the metabolites or on multivariate data analysis. Storage led to changes after 14 days at 4°C or after 12 months at -20°C, independent of sample composition. Multiple freeze-thaw cycles did not affect data analysis. Reproducibility of NMR measurements is not dependent on sample composition under physiological or pathological conditions.

  1. Reproducibility of NMR Analysis of Urine Samples: Impact of Sample Preparation, Storage Conditions, and Animal Health Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Schreier

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Spectroscopic analysis of urine samples from laboratory animals can be used to predict the efficacy and side effects of drugs. This employs methods combining 1H NMR spectroscopy with quantification of biomarkers or with multivariate data analysis. The most critical steps in data evaluation are analytical reproducibility of NMR data (collection, storage, and processing and the health status of the animals, which may influence urine pH and osmolarity. Methods. We treated rats with a solvent, a diuretic, or a nephrotoxicant and collected urine samples. Samples were titrated to pH 3 to 9, or salt concentrations increased up to 20-fold. The effects of storage conditions and freeze-thaw cycles were monitored. Selected metabolites and multivariate data analysis were evaluated after 1H NMR spectroscopy. Results. We showed that variation of pH from 3 to 9 and increases in osmolarity up to 6-fold had no effect on the quantification of the metabolites or on multivariate data analysis. Storage led to changes after 14 days at 4°C or after 12 months at −20°C, independent of sample composition. Multiple freeze-thaw cycles did not affect data analysis. Conclusion. Reproducibility of NMR measurements is not dependent on sample composition under physiological or pathological conditions.

  2. Preparation, thermal properties and thermal reliabilities of microencapsulated n-octadecane with acrylic-based polymer shells for thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Xiaolin [Advanced Materials Institute and Clearer Production Key Laboratory, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China); Song, Guolin; Chu, Xiaodong; Li, Xuezhu [Advanced Materials Institute and Clearer Production Key Laboratory, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Tang, Guoyi, E-mail: tanggy@tsinghua.edu.cn [Advanced Materials Institute and Clearer Production Key Laboratory, Graduate School at Shenzhen, Tsinghua University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Key Laboratory of Advanced Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Haidian District, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-01-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer n-Octadecane was encapsulated by p(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) and p(butyl acrylate). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microcapsules using divinylbenzene as crosslinking agent have better quality. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microcapsule with butyl methacrylate-divinylbenzene has highest latent heat. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microcapsule with butyl methacrylate-divinylbenzene has greatest thermal stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase change temperatures and enthalpies of the microcapsules varied little after thermal cycle. - Abstract: Microencapsulation of n-octadecane with crosslinked p(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) and p(butyl acrylate) (PBA) as shells for thermal energy storage was carried out by a suspension-like polymerization. Divinylbenzene (DVB) and pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA) were employed as crosslinking agents. The surface morphologies of the microencapsulated phase change materials (microPCMs) were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermal properties, thermal reliabilities and thermal stabilities of the as-prepared microPCMs were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The microPCMs prepared by using DVB exhibit greater heat capacities and higher thermal stabilities compared with those prepared by using PETA. The thermal resistant temperature of the microPCM with BMA-DVB polymer was up to 248 Degree-Sign C. The phase change temperatures and latent heats of all the as-prepared microcapsules varied little after 1000 thermal cycles.

  3. Preparation, thermal properties and thermal reliabilities of microencapsulated n-octadecane with acrylic-based polymer shells for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, Xiaolin; Song, Guolin; Chu, Xiaodong; Li, Xuezhu; Tang, Guoyi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► n-Octadecane was encapsulated by p(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) and p(butyl acrylate). ► Microcapsules using divinylbenzene as crosslinking agent have better quality. ► Microcapsule with butyl methacrylate–divinylbenzene has highest latent heat. ► Microcapsule with butyl methacrylate–divinylbenzene has greatest thermal stability. ► Phase change temperatures and enthalpies of the microcapsules varied little after thermal cycle. - Abstract: Microencapsulation of n-octadecane with crosslinked p(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) and p(butyl acrylate) (PBA) as shells for thermal energy storage was carried out by a suspension-like polymerization. Divinylbenzene (DVB) and pentaerythritol triacrylate (PETA) were employed as crosslinking agents. The surface morphologies of the microencapsulated phase change materials (microPCMs) were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Thermal properties, thermal reliabilities and thermal stabilities of the as-prepared microPCMs were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The microPCMs prepared by using DVB exhibit greater heat capacities and higher thermal stabilities compared with those prepared by using PETA. The thermal resistant temperature of the microPCM with BMA–DVB polymer was up to 248 °C. The phase change temperatures and latent heats of all the as-prepared microcapsules varied little after 1000 thermal cycles.

  4. A novel freeze-dried storage and preparation method for the determination of mycophenolic acid in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Qiang, Wei; Li, Ying; Cheng, Zeneng; Xie, Mengmeng

    2017-09-01

    Plasma samples were conventionally stored at freezing conditions until the time of detection. Such a technique, when carried out over an extended period, is energy consuming; in addition, preparation and transportation of stored samples is inconvenient. In this study, a freeze-dried storage and preparation method was proposed to determine the presence of mycophenolic acid (MPA) in plasma. Fresh plasma samples were freeze-dried using a device, and then stored at ambient temperature. After the stored samples were soaked with methanol spiked with the internal standard, high-performance liquid chromatography was conducted to detect MPA. The proposed method was demonstrated to be precise and accurate over the linear range of 0.5-50 μg mL -1 , with both intra- and inter-day precision being plasma concentration, time point of maximum plasma concentration and elimination half-life, among others, were consistent with the results in the published study. This proposed technique was proved to be simple, reproducible and energy saving. This approach could also simplify the storage and analysis of samples in clinical and scientific drug research. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Large angle production of stable particles heavier than the proton and a search for quarks at the CERN intersecting storage rings

    CERN Document Server

    Alper, B; Booth, P; Bulos, F; Carroll, L J; Damgaard, G; Duff, Brian G; Heymann, Franz F; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jönsson, L B; Klovning, A; Leistam, L; Lillethun, E; Lynch, G; Manning, Geoffrey; Prentice, M; Quarrie, D; von Dardel, Guy F; Weiss, J M

    1973-01-01

    Measurements have been performed on production of particles with mass >1.5 GeV/c/sup 2/ and charge >or=2/3 for theta /sub lab/=62.5 degrees and square root s=53 GeV. At p/sub T/=0.7 GeV/c the relative rate of production of antideuterons to pi /sup -/ is (5+or-1)*10/sup -5/. The deuteron to antideuteron ratio is 3.7+or-1.2. No new stable particle has been seen amongst 0.7*10/sup 8/ charged particles entering our detector. (7 refs).

  6. Storage of Nitrous Oxide (NOx in Diesel Engine Exhaust Gas using Alumina-Based Catalysts: Preparation, Characterization, and Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alsobaai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the nitrous oxide (NOx storage process using alumina-based catalysts (K2 O/Al2 O3 , CaO/Al2 O3,  and BaO/Al2 O3 . The feed was a synthetic exhaust gas containing 1,000 ppm of nitrogen monoxide (NO, 1,000 ppm i-C4 H10 , and an 8% O2  and N2  balance. The catalyst was carried out at temperatures between 250–450°C and a contact time of 20 minutes. It was found that NOx was effectively adsorbed in the presence of oxygen. The NOx storage capacity of K2 O/Al2 O3 was higher than that of BaO/Al2 O3.  The NOx storage capacity for K2 O/Al2 O3  decreased with increasing temperature and achieved a maximum at 250°C. Potassium loading higher than 15% in the catalyst negatively affected the morphological properties. The combination of Ba and K loading in the catalyst led to an improvement in the catalytic activity compared to its single metal catalysts. As a conclusion, mixed metal oxide was a potential catalyst for de-NOx process in meeting the stringent diesel engine exhaust emissions regulations. The catalysts were characterized by a number of techniques and measurements, such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, electron affinity (EA, a scanning electron microscope (SEM, Brunner-Emmett-Teller (BET to measure surface area, and pore volume and pore size distribution assessments.

  7. STORAGE OF CHEMICALLY PRETREATED WHEAT STRAW – A MEANS TO ENSURE QUALITY RAW MATERIAL FOR PULP PREPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terttu Heikkilä

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate effects of chemical pretreatment and storage on non-wood pulping and on pulp quality. The processes studied were hot water treatment followed by alkaline peroxide bleaching or soda cooking. The results showed that it is possible to store wheat straw outside for at least one year without significant changes in the raw material chemical composition and without adverse effects on the resulting pulp quality. The results are significant to the industry using non-woods to ensure the availability and the quality of the raw-material throughout the year in spite of the short harvesting time.

  8. Sensory properties during storage of crisps and French fries prepared with sunflower oil and high oleic sunflower oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemert, L.J. van

    1996-01-01

    A selected and trained descriptive sensory panel has assessed samples of crisps and French fries prepared on an industrial scale with either sunflower oil (SO) or high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO). Furthermore, crisps have been fried in these oils with or without dimethyl polysiloxane (DMPS).

  9. Boron-Doped Carbon Nano-/Microballs from Orthoboric Acid-Starch: Preparation, Characterization, and Lithium Ion Storage Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinhua Lu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A boron-doped carbon nano-/microballs (BC was successfully obtained via a two-step procedure including hydrothermal reaction (180°C and carbonization (800°C with cheap starch and H3BO3 as the carbon and boron source. As a new kind of boron-doped carbon, BC contained 2.03 at% B-content and presented the morphology as almost perfect nano-/microballs with different sizes ranging from 500 nm to 5 μm. Besides that, due to the electron deficient boron, BC was explored as anode material and presented good lithium storage performance. At a current density of 0.2 C, the first reversible specific discharge capacity of BC electrode reached as high as 964.2 mAh g–1 and kept at 699 mAh g–1 till the 11th cycle. BC also exhibited good cycle ability with a specific capacity of 356 mAh g–1 after 79 cycles at a current density of 0.5 C. This work proved to be an effective approach for boron-doped carbon nanostructures which has potential usage for lithium storage material.

  10. Preparation and catalytic effect of porous Co3O4 on the hydrogen storage properties of a Li-B-N-H system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A porous Co3O4 with a particle size of 1–3 µm was successfully prepared by heating Co-based metal organic frameworks MOF-74(Co up to 500 °C in air atmospheric conditions. The as-prepared porous Co3O4 significantly reduced the dehydrogenation temperatures of the LiBH4-2LiNH2 system and improved the purity of the released hydrogen. The LiBH4-2LiNH2-0.05/3Co3O4 sample started to release hydrogen at 140 °C and released hydrogen levels of approximately 9.7 wt% at 225 °C. The end temperature for hydrogen release was lowered by 125 °C relative to that of the pristine sample. Structural analyses revealed that the as-prepared porous Co3O4 is in-situ reduced to metallic Co, which functions as an active catalyst, reducing the kinetic barriers and lowering the dehydrogenation temperatures of the LiBH4-2LiNH2 system. More importantly, the porous Co3O4-containing sample exhibited partially improved reversibility for hydrogen storage in the LiBH4-2LiNH2 system.

  11. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)

  12. Fast preparation of Na0.44MnO2 nanorods via a high NaOH concentration hydrothermal soft chemical reaction and their lithium storage properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Cai; Li, Jiangang; Zhao, Pengxiang; Guo, Wenli; Yang, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a high NaOH concentration hydrothermal soft chemical reaction to prepare Na 0.44 MnO 2 nanorods. In this process, Na-birnessite precursors and concentrated NaOH solution are introduced into the hydrothermal reaction. As a result, the hydrothermal time can be significantly shortened from 96 to 24 h, the hydrothermal temperature can be reduced from 205 to 180 °C and the yield of Na 0.44 MnO 2 can be increased from about 0.6 to about 2.4 g/(mL . day), respectively. Furthermore, the obtained Na 0.44 MnO 2 nanorods with one-dimensional tunnel structures exhibit favorable electrochemical lithium storage properties, which make them promising for the cathode materials of lithium-ion batteries

  13. Uniform nanocrystalline AB{sub 5}-type hydrogen storage alloy: Preparation and properties as negative materials of Ni/MH battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Dongsheng; Li, Weishan; Hu, Shejun [Department of Chemistry, South China Normal University, 510631 (China); Xiao, Fangming; Tang, Renheng [Guangzhou Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research, 510651 (China)

    2006-05-15

    AB{sub 5}-type nanocrystalline hydrogen storage alloy was prepared by a twin-roll process. X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), pressure-composition isotherms (PCT), and charge-discharge cycling were used to characterize its performances. The alloy has a hexagonal CaCu{sub 5}-type structure and a uniform crystallite size of about 40nm. It shows good high-rate discharge ability (HRD). The initial discharge capacity of the alloy is high up to 312mAh/g, and its capacity loss is low, only about 20% after 400 cycles under 640mA/g. At the discharge current density of 2000mA/g, the high-rate discharge ability (HRD) is 90% and the discharge capacity 211mAh/g after 400 cycles, 85% of the initial capacity. (author)

  14. Polypyrrole: FeOx·ZnO nanoparticle solar cells with breakthrough open-circuit voltage prepared from relatively stable liquid dispersions

    KAUST Repository

    Zong, Baoyu; Ho, Pin; Zhang, Zhiguo; Ng, Gingmeng; Yao, Kui; Guo, Zaibing

    2014-01-01

    in open air from relatively stable liquid dark-color polypyrrole-based dispersions, which were synthesized using appropriate surfactants during the in situ polymerization of pyrrole with FeCl3 or both H2O2 and FeCl3 as the oxidizers. The performance

  15. Interface-modulated fabrication of hierarchical yolk-shell Co3O4/C dodecahedrons as stable anodes for lithium and sodium storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuzhu Wu; Jiashen Meng; Qi Li; Chaojiang Niu; Xuanpeng Wang; Wei Yang; Wei Li; Liqiang Mai

    2017-01-01

    Transition-metal oxides (TMOs) have gradually attracted attention from researchers as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and sodium-ion batteries (SIBs) because of their high theoretical capacity.However,their poor cycling stability and inferior rate capability resulting from the large volume variation during the lithiation/sodiation process and their low intrinsic electronic conductivity limit their applications.To solve the problems of TMOs,carbon-based metal-oxide composites with complex structures derived from metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as promising electrode materials for LIBs and SIBs.In this study,we adopted a facile interface-modulated method to synthesize yolk-shell carbon-based Co3O4 dodecahedrons derived from ZIF-67 zeolitic imidazolate frameworks.This strategy is based on the interface separation between the ZIF-67 core and the carbon-based shell during the pyrolysis process.The unique yolk-shell structure effectively accommodates the volume expansion during lithiation or sodiation,and the carbon matrix improves the electrical conductivity of the electrode.As an anode for LIBs,the yolk-shell Co3O4/C dodecahedrons exhibit a high specific capacity and excellent cycling stability (1,100 mAh·g-1 after 120 cycles at 200 mA·g-1).As an anode for SIBs,the composites exhibit an outstanding rate capability (307 mAh·g-1 at 1,000 mA·g-1 and 269 mAh·g-1 at 2,000 mA·g-1).Detailed electrochemical kinetic analysis indicates that the energy storage for Li+ and Na+ in yolk-shell Co3O4/C dodecahedrons shows a dominant capacitive behavior.This work introduces an effective approach for fabricating carbonbased metal-oxide composites by using MOFs as ideal precursors and as electrode materials to enhance the electrochemical performance of LIBs and SIBs.

  16. Preparation, characterization and thermal properties of PMMA/n-heptadecane microcapsules as novel solid-liquid microPCM for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, Ahmet; Alkan, Cemil; Karaipekli, Ali

    2010-01-01

    This study is focused on the preparation, characterization and thermal properties of microencapsulated n-heptadecane with polymethylmethacrylate shell. The PMMA/heptadecane microcapsules were synthesized as novel solid-liquid microencapsulated phase change material (microPCMs) by emulsion polymerization method. The chemical and thermal characterization of the microPCMs were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry analysis (TGA). The diameters of microPCMs were found in the narrow range (0.14-0.40 μm) under the stirring speed of 2000 rpm. The spherical surfaces of microPCMs were smooth and compact. The DSC results show that microPCMs have good energy storage capacity. Thermal cycling test showed that the microPCMs have good thermal reliability with respect to the changes in their thermal properties after repeated 5000 thermal cycling. TGA analyses also indicated that the microPCMs degraded in three steps and have good thermal stability. Based on all results, it can be considered that the PMMA/heptadecane microcapsules as novel solid-liquid microPCMs have good energy storage potential.

  17. Evaluation of the maladaptation of the test base in acrylic resin regarding the technique of preparation, place of measurement and storage time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Pereira de OLIVEIRA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The most used material for the preparation of the baseplates is the acrylic resin, but it can present distortions. Objective To evaluate preparation technique, region and storage time that presents less maladaptation of the base when made with self-cured acrylic resin. Material and method Models were created in gypsum type III simulating edentulous maxilla, as divided into 3 groups (n = 10: GC (control group thermopolymerizable acrylic resin; G1 - manual adaptation technique and G2 - drip technique. For the measurements, silicone by condensation of light consistency that was interposed between base and model was used. With a hydraulic press, 50 kg pressure was applied leading the base of the model. The obtained mold was measured in the palate, canine and molar regions with a digital caliper at the following times: immediately after the base polymerization, at 24, 48, 72, 96 hours and one week. The results were submitted to statistical analysis. Result G1 presented maladaptation of 0.43 mm ± 0.10, while G2 obtained 0.39 mm ± 0.11. The lowest maladaptation occurred in the CG. The palate region presented greater maladaptation (0.52 ± 0.07 and the canine region, the lowest (CD = 0.27 mm ± 0.07 and CE = 0.27 ± 0.09; There was no statistically significant difference for storage times. Conclusion G2 presented lower values than G1, with no statistically significant difference. The palate region presented greater maladaptation, followed by molars and canines. The bases continued to maladaptation the model after the immediate polymerization, with no statistically significant difference.

  18. Preparation and encapsulation performance of Al_2O_3-SiO_2-B_2O_3 glass-ceramic for high temperature thermal storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ruguang; Zhu, Jiaoqun; Zhou, Weibing; Cheng, Xiaomin; Liu, Fengli

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Al_2O_3-B_2O_3-SiO_2 has good chemical durability, corrosion resistance and dense structure. • The material rarely used in high temperature thermal storage. • The material was prepared and characterized in the paper. - Abstract: In this paper, Al_2O_3-SiO_2-B_2O_3 glass-ceramic was prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), further, the porosity was detected by Archimedes principle, thermo physical properties were investigated by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), respectively. The phase composition was detected by XRD, and the morphology was observed by SEM. The results indicated that the thermal conductivities of the Al_2O_3-SiO_2-B_2O_3 glass-ceramic were between 1.3 and 1.5 W·(m·K)"−"1, and the material had good thermal stability in the range of 300–900 °C. The porosity and apparent density were increased with the temperature. The porosity of Al_2O_3-SiO_2-B_2O_3 glass-ceramic in ranging from 1.2 to 9.6%, the apparent density were between 2.12 and 2.67 g·cm"−"3, and heat capacities were between 0.64 and 0.79 kJ/(kg·K). All the results indicated that the Al_2O_3-SiO_2-B_2O_3 glass-ceramic can be applied as encapsulation material in high temperature latent thermal energy storage.

  19. Storage of Buffy-coat-derived platelets in additive solutions: in vitro effects on platelets prepared by the novel TACSI system and stored in plastic containers with different gas permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandgren, P; Hild, M; Sjödin, A; Gulliksson, H

    2010-11-01

    The novel TACSI system is designed for automated preparation of platelets (PLTs) from pooled buffy coats (BCs). One TACSI device will handle 6 units at the same time. The aim of our in vitro study is to investigate the effects of using this automated equipment with subsequent storage in two different plastic containers and to compare these results with PLTs prepared by the OrbiSac system. Buffy-coat-derived PLTs (n=8) were prepared by using the TACSI system, including storage in polyvinyl chloride (PVC)-based plastic containers with di, n-decyl phthalate (DnDP) (TACSI R) and BTHC (TACSI T)-based plasticizers. As a reference, the OrbiSac System was used to prepare PLTs (n=8) with subsequent storage in a PVC plastic container with a citrate-based plasticizer (BTHC). In total, 16 TACSI and eight reference units, supplied by approximately 30% plasma and 70% SSP+, were analysed for various in vitro variables during the 7-day storage period. No significant difference in PLT counts, LDH, mean platelet volume (MPV) and adenosine triphosphate between the groups was detected. Glucose was lower (P6·8 (day 7) and swirling remained at the highest level (score=2) for all units throughout storage. Platelets prepared by the TACSI system with subsequent storage in two different PVC-based plastic containers were equivalent to reference PLTs with regard to in vitro characteristics during 7 days of storage. © 2010 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2010 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  20. The importance of hygiene in the domestic kitchen: implications for preparation and storage of food and infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Elizabeth C; Griffith, Christopher J

    2009-03-01

    Public concerns relating to food safety remain high with most attention focused on manufactured foods and those served in catering operations. However, previous data have suggested that the home may be the main location for cases of food-borne disease. The aim of this paper is to review the microbiological risks associated with hygiene in the domestic kitchen related to food and infant formula safety. Compared to other food sectors, research on consumer food hygiene, domestic food-handling and preparation of infant formula is relatively understudied. Behavioural and microbiological studies of consumer hygiene and the domestic kitchen have been reviewed to incorporate research relating to the safety of infant formula. Incidence data identify the home as an important location for acquiring food-borne disease. The domestic kitchen can be used for a variety of purposes and is often contaminated with potentially harmful micro-organisms such as Campylobacter and Salmonella. Consumer hygiene habits have frequently been found to be inadequate and relate both to microbial growth, survival and cross-contamination. Due to the reduced immune response of infants, the activities associated with the preparation of infant formula and associated bottles and equipment are of particular concern. Cumulatively, the data suggest that more effort should be made to educate the consumer in food hygiene, especially when the kitchen is used to reconstitute infant formula. This information needs to be provided in a form appropriate for use by consumers.

  1. Optimization of Pan Bread Prepared with Ramie Powder and Preservation of Optimized Pan Bread Treated by Gamma Irradiation during Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.J.; Joo, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to develop an optimal composite recipe for pan bread with ramie powder that has high sensory approval with all age groups and to estimate the DPPH radical scavenging activity and the pan bread shelf life after gamma irradiation. The sensory evaluation results showed significant differences in flavor (p less than 0.05), appearance (p less than 0.01), color (p less than 0.01), moistness (p less than 0.01), and overall quality (p less than 0.05) based on the amount of ramie powder added. As a result, the optimum formulations by numerical and graphical methods were calculated to be as follows: ramie powder 2.76 g (0.92%) and water 184.7 mL. Optimized pan bread with ramie powder and white pan bread were irradiated with gamma-rays at doses of 0, 10, 15, and 20 kGy. The total bacterial growth increased with the longer storage time and the least amount of ramie powder added. Consequently, these results suggest that the addition of ramie powder to pan bread provides added value to the bread in terms of increased shelf life

  2. Study on preparation of montmorillonite-based composite phase change materials and their applications in thermal storage building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiaoming; Zhang Zhengguo; Chen Zhonghua

    2008-01-01

    Three composite phase change materials (PCMs) were prepared by blending butyl stearate, dodecanol and RT20 with an organically modified montmorillonite (MMT), respectively. After the three composite PCMs were characterized by DSC, it was indicated that the RT20/MMT composite PCM was a good candidate for building applications due to its large latent heat, suitable phase change temperature and good performance stability. Compared with RT20, the RT20/MMT composite PCM exhibited higher heat transfer efficiency and had good compatibility with gypsum due to the combination with MMT. The composite gypsum boards containing RT20/MMT composite PCM had the function of reducing building energy consumption by reducing the indoor temperature variation, and the function was enhanced with the increase in the mass ratio of the RT20/MMT composite PCM

  3. Stable radiographic scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Stable compositions which are useful in the preparation of Technetium-99m-based scintigraphic agents are discussed. They are comprised of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester thereof in combination with a pertechnetate reducing agent or dissolved in oxidized pertechnetate-99m (sup(99m)TcO 4 - ) solution

  4. An investigation on hydrogen storage kinetics of nanocrystalline and amorphous Mg2Ni1-xCox (x = 0-0.4) alloy prepared by melt spinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanghuan; Li Baowei; Ren Huipin; Ding Xiaoxia; Liu Xiaogang; Chen Lele

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → The investigation of the structures of the Mg 2 Ni 1-x Co x (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) alloys indicates that a nanocrystalline and amorphous structure can be obtained in the experiment alloys by melt spinning technology. The substitution of Co for Ni facilitates the glass formation in the Mg 2 Ni-type alloy. And the amorphization degree of the alloys visibly increases with increasing Co content. → Both the melt spinning and Co substitution significantly improve the hydrogen storage kinetics of the alloys. The hydrogen absorption saturation ratio (R t a ) and hydrogen desorption ratio (R t d ) as well as the high rate discharge ability (HRD) increase with rising spinning rate and Co content. The hydrogen diffusion coefficient (D), the Tafel polarization curves and the electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) measurements show that the electrochemical kinetics notably increases with rising spinning rate and Co content. → Furthermore, all the as-spun alloys, when the spinning rate reaches to 30 m/s, have nearly same hydrogen absorption kinetics, indicating that the hydrogen absorption kinetics of the as-spun alloy is predominately controlled by diffusion ability of hydrogen atoms. - Abstract: In order to improve the hydrogen storage kinetics of the Mg 2 Ni-type alloys, Ni in the alloy was partially substituted by element Co, and melt-spinning technology was used for the preparation of the Mg 2 Ni 1-x Co x (x = 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) hydrogen storage alloys. The structures of the as-cast and spun alloys are characterized by XRD, SEM and TEM. The hydrogen absorption and desorption kinetics of the alloys were measured by an automatically controlled Sieverts apparatus. The electrochemical hydrogen storage kinetics of the as-spun alloys is tested by an automatic galvanostatic system. The hydrogen diffusion coefficients in the alloys are calculated by virtue of potential-step method. The electrochemical impedance spectrums (EIS) and the Tafel

  5. Preparation, microstructure and thermal properties of Mg−Bi alloys as phase change materials for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Dong; Sun, Zheng; Li, Yuanyuan; Cheng, Xiaomin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The microstructure and thermal properties of Mg−Bi alloys are determined. • The relationship between melting enthalpies and phase composition are studied. • The activation energy of Mg−54%Bi alloy is calculated by multiple DSC technology. • Mg−54%Bi alloy is proposed as a phase change material at high (>420 °C) temperature. - Abstract: Comparing with Al-based phase change material, Mg-based phase change material is getting more and more attention due to its high corrosion resistance with encapsulation materials based on iron. This study focuses on the characterization of Mg−36%Bi, Mg−54%Bi and Mg−60%Bi (wt. %) alloys as phase change materials for thermal energy storage at high temperature. The phase compositions, microstructure and phase change temperatures were investigated by X-ray diffusion (XRD), electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) analysis, respectively. The results indicates that the microstructure of Mg−36%Bi and Mg−54%Bi alloys are mainly composed of α-Mg matrix and α-Mg + Mg_3Bi_2 eutectic phases, Mg−60%Bi alloy are mainly composed of the Mg_3Bi_2 phase and α-MgMg_3Bi_2 eutectic phases. The melting enthalpies of Mg−36%Bi, Mg−54%Bi and Mg−60%Bi alloys are 138.2, 180.5 and 48.7 J/g, with the phase change temperatures of 547.6, 546.3 and 548.1 °C, respectively. The Mg−54%Bi alloy has the highest melting enthalpy in three alloys. The main reason may be that it has more proportion of α-Mg + Mg_3Bi_2 eutectic phases. The thermal expansion of three alloys increases with increasing temperature. The values of the thermal conductivity decrease with increasing Bi content. Besides, the activation energy of Mg−54%Bi was calculated by multiple DSC technology.

  6. Preparation and properties of shape-stabilized phase change materials based on fatty acid eutectics and cellulose composites for thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Lei; Tang, Yaojie; Fang, Guiyin

    2015-01-01

    Shape-stabilized fatty acid eutectics/carboxy methyl cellulose-1 composites as phase change materials (PCMs) were synthesized by absorbing liquid eutectics into the carboxy methyl cellulose-1 fibers. The chemical structure, crystalloid phase and morphology were determined by the Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope, X-ray diffractometer and scanning electronic microscope. The thermal properties and thermal stability were measured by the differential scanning calorimeter, thermogravimetric analyzer and the thermal cycling test, respectively. The results indicate that the eutectics are well adsorbed in the porous structure of the carboxy methyl cellulose-1. According to the DSC (differential scanning calorimeter) results, the composites melt at 32.2 °C with latent heat of 114.6 kJ/kg and solidify at 29.2 °C with latent heat of 106.8 kJ/kg. The thermal cycling test proves that the composites have good thermal reliability. It is envisioned that the prepared shape-stabilized PCMs have considerable potential for developing their roles in thermal energy storage. - Highlights: • The fatty acid eutectic/carboxy methyl cellulose-1 composites as PCMs were prepared. • Chemical structure and microstructure of composites were determined by FT-IR and SEM. • Thermal properties and stabilities were investigated by DSC and TGA. • The thermal cycling test confirmed that the composite has good thermal reliability

  7. Preparation and properties of palmitic-stearic acid eutectic mixture/expanded graphite composite as phase change material for energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Nan; Yuan, Yanping; Du, Yanxia; Cao, Xiaoling; Yuan, Yaguang

    2014-01-01

    A novel composite PCM (phase change material) with PA-SA (palmitic-stearic acid) eutectic mixture as PCM and EG (expanded graphite) as supporting material was prepared. The optimum absorption ratio of PA-SA/EG (Palmitic-stearic acid/expanded graphite) composite PCM was determined as PA-SA:EG = 13:1 (by mass). Scanning electron microscope and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy results show that PA-SA was uniformly distributed in the porous network structure of EG due to the physical action. Thermal property and thermal stability of the PA-SA/EG composite PCM were characterized by DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) and TGA (thermogravimetric analysis). DSC results indicated that the melting and freezing temperatures and latent heats of PA-SA/EG were measured as 53.89 °C and 54.37 °C, and 166.27 J/g and 166.13 J/g. TGA test results revealed that PA-SA/EG had a good thermal stability in working temperature range. Thermal cycling test results showed PA-SA/EG had a good thermal reliability after 720 thermal cycles. Thermal conductivity of the composite PCM was measured as 2.51 W/m K, much higher than that of PA-SA. The thermal energy storage and release rates of PA-SA/EG were also increased due to the high thermal conductivity of EG. In conclusion, the prepared PA-SA/EG composite PCM can be acted as a potential material for thermal energy storage due to the acceptable thermal properties, good thermal reliability and stability, high thermal conductivity. - Highlights: • PA-SA/EG (Palmitic-stearic acid/expanded graphite) composite PCM was prepared. • Optimum absorption ratio of PA-SA in EG was obtained as 13:1 (by mass). • Thermal conductivity and performance of PA-SA/EG have been significate improved. • PA-SA/EG has a good thermal reliability and thermal stability

  8. Polypyrrole: FeOx·ZnO nanoparticle solar cells with breakthrough open-circuit voltage prepared from relatively stable liquid dispersions

    KAUST Repository

    Zong, Baoyu

    2014-01-01

    Organic hybrid solar cells with a large open-circuit voltage, up to above that of 1.5 V standard battery voltage, were demonstrated using blends of polypyrrole: Fe2O3·ZnO nanoparticles as active-layers. The cell active-layers were readily coated in open air from relatively stable liquid dark-color polypyrrole-based dispersions, which were synthesized using appropriate surfactants during the in situ polymerization of pyrrole with FeCl3 or both H2O2 and FeCl3 as the oxidizers. The performance of the cells depends largely on the synthesized blend phase, which is determined by the surfactants, oxidizers, as well as the reactant ratio. Only the solar cells fabricated from the stable dispersions can produce both a high open-circuit voltage (>1.0 V) and short-circuit current (up to 7.5 mA cm-2) due to the relatively uniform porous network nanomorphology and higher shunt to series resistance ratio of the active-layers. The cells also display a relatively high power-conversion efficiency of up to ∼3.8%. This journal is

  9. The effect of table olive preparing methods and storage on the composition and nutrıtıve value of olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünal, Kemal

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Three types of table olives–green, kalamata and black- were prepared from Memecik variety olives, chemical composition and nutritive values were examined during the processing and storage. Data are provided for moisture, oil and its fatty acid composition, crude fiber and protein, total and reducing sugars, sodium chloride and ash, titratable acidity, pH value and some minerals in table olive flesh samples.The caloric values of three types of olives were calculated by using the content of protein, carbohydrates and oil. Results for three types of table olives obtained during processing and storage are discussed in detail.Tres tipos de aceitunas de mesa–verdes estilo español, negras naturales estilo kalamata y negras naturales – fueron preparadas a partir de aceitunas de la variedad Memecik y su composición química y valor nutritivo fue analizado durante su procesado y almacenamiento. Se determinaron: la humedad, la grasa y su composición en ácidos grasos, la fibra cruda y proteína, los azúcares totales y reductores, el cloruro sódico y la ceniza, la acidez, el pH y algunos minerales en muestras de pulpa de aceituna de mesa. El valor calórico de los tres tipos de aceitunas fueron calculados a partir del contenido en proteína, hidrato de carbono y grasa. Todos los resultados obtenidos durante el procesado y almacenamiento para los tres tipos de aceitunas de mesa son discutidos minuciosamente.

  10. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role that energy storage may have on the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include historical aspects of energy storage, thermal energy storage including sensible heat storage, latent heat storage, thermochemical heat storage, and seasonal heat storage, electricity storage including batteries, pumped hydroelectric storage, compressed air energy storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, and production and combustion of hydrogen as an energy storage option

  11. Near room temperature approaches for the preparation of air-stable and crystalline CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gujarathi, Yogini D.; Haram, Santosh K., E-mail: haram@chem.unipune.ac.in

    2016-04-15

    This work demonstrates an exotic role of CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} in a formation of stable phase of highly crystalline CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite, on a bulk scale. In the first method, a partially-reacted product obtained after co-grinding of precursors viz. CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}I and PbI{sub 2}was sonicated in CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} to form pure phase of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}. In second method, the precursors in γ-Butyrolactone were treated with CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} to form crystalline and phase-pure CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3}. X-ray Diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of stable and highly crystalline tetragonal phase of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite having space group I4cm. Well-defined rhombo-hexagonal dodecahedron crystals were seen in SEM and TEM images. Exceptional air stability of CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} so forms are attributed to adsorption of CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. Optical band gaps obtained from the diffused reflectance spectra (Kubelka–Munk analysis), matched very well with the one estimated from Cyclic Voltammetry (CV). Valence band and conduction band edge positions estimated from the CV analysis are in good agreement with the one reported from UV photoelectron spectroscopy. Both the samples gave steady state fluorescence at ca. 750 nm with quantum yields in the range 15–35.5%. - Highlights: • A role of CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} is brought out in formation of stable CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}PbI{sub 3} perovskite. • Cyclic voltammetry has been used to estimate the band edge positions. • Excellent fluorescence quantum yield, underlines the minimal structural defects.

  12. One-step preparation of long-term stable and flexible CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots/ethylene vinyl acetate copolymer composite films for white LEDs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yang; Lv, Ying; Guo, Ziquan; Dong, Liubing; Zheng, Jianghui; Chai, Chufen; Chen, Nan; Lu, Yijun; Chen, Chao

    2018-04-19

    CsPbBr3 perovskite quantum dots (PQDs)/ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) composite films were prepared via a one-step method, based on that both supersaturated recrystallization of CsPbBr3 PQDs and dissolution of EVA were realized in toluene. The prepared films display outstanding green emitting performance with high color purity of 92% and photoluminescence quantum yield of 40.5% at appropriate CsPbBr3 PQD loading. They possess long-term stable luminescent properties in the air and in water, benefiting from the effective protection of CsPbBr3 PQDs by EVA matrix. Besides, the prepared CsPbBr3 PQDs/EVA films are flexible enough to be repeatedly bent for 1000 cycles while keeping unchanged photoluminescence intensity. Optical properties of the CsPbBr3 PQDs/EVA films in white LEDs were also studied by experiments and theoretical simulation. Overall, facile preparation process, good long-term stability and high flexibility allow our green-emitting CsPbBr3 PQDs/EVA films to be applied in lighting applications and flexible displays.

  13. High-temperature electrochemical performance of low-cost La–Ni–Fe based hydrogen storage alloys with different preparation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qiannan [Department of Advanced Energy Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Zhu, Ding [Institute of New Energy and Low-Carbon Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Zhou, Wanhai; Zhong, Chenglin; Wu, Chaoling [Department of Advanced Energy Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Chen, Yungui, E-mail: ygchen60@aliyun.com [Department of Advanced Energy Materials, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Institute of New Energy and Low-Carbon Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Effects of four different preparation processes were studied at 20/60 °C. • All NS + HT, RS and RS + HT processes can optimize the thermodynamic performance. • The HT process can provoke the precipitation of A{sub 2}B{sub 7} and leads to a poor cycling life. • Al exhibits the most remarkable dissolution for all the alloys, especially at 60 °C. - Abstract: In order to optimize the microstructure and high temperature electrochemical performances of low-cost AB{sub 5}-type Ml(NiMnAl){sub 4.2}Co{sub 0.3}Fe{sub 0.5} hydrogen storage electrode alloys, four different preparation methods including normal solidification (NS), normal solidification and 900 °C heat treatment (NS + HT), rapid solidification (RS), rapid solidification and 900 °C heat treatment (RS + HT) were adopted in this work. All alloys exhibit CaCu{sub 5} type hexagonal structure and there is a small amount of A{sub 2}B{sub 7} phase in NS + HT and RS + HT alloys. It is found the using of HT process can decrease the hydrogen equilibrium plateau pressure, the plateau slope and hysteresis at 40, 60 and 80 °C. The NS + HT and RS + HT alloys also possess better activation, high rate discharge performance, larger discharge capacity, but poor cycling performance due to the existence of A{sub 2}B{sub 7} phase which can accelerate dissolution of Ni, Mn and Fe elements in KOH alkaline electrolyte. The RS process can make alloy exhibit the best cycling performance especially at 60 °C.

  14. Unpredictably Stable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke

    2014-01-01

    Is entrepreneurship a more stable career choice for high employment turnover individuals? We find that a transition to entrepreneurship induces a shift towards stayer behavior and identify job matching, job satisfaction and lock-in effects as main drivers. These findings have major implications...

  15. Storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pittman, F.K.

    1974-01-01

    Four methods for managing radioactive waste in order to protect man from its potential hazards include: transmutation to convert radioisotopes in waste to stable isotopes; disposal in space; geological disposal; and surface storage in shielded, cooled, and monitored containers. A comparison of these methods shows geologic disposal in stable formations beneath landmasses appears to be the most feasible with today's technology. (U.S.)

  16. Measurement of the ratio of C3+ and O4+ ions produced by ECRIS to prepare a laser cooling experiment at storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, X.L.; Wen, W.Q.; Ma, X.; Li, J.Y.; Feng, W.T.; Zhang, R.T.; Wang, Enliang; Yan, S.; Guo, D.L.; Hai, B.; Qian, D.B.; Zhang, P.; Xu, S.; Zhao, D.M.; Yang, J.; Zhang, D.C.; Li, B.; Gao, Y.; Huang, Z.K.; Wang, H.B.

    2014-01-01

    To prepare the upcoming laser cooling of relativistic C 3+ ion beams at the experimental Cooler Storage Ring (CSRe), a novel experiment was performed using a reaction microscope to determine the ratio of C 3+ ions in mixed ion beams of C 3+ and O 4+ that are produced by an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS). The mixed ion beams at an energy of 4 keV/u were directed to collide on a supersonic helium gas target. Using the single-electron capture channel and the coincidence technique, the fractions of C 3+ and O 4+ ions in the primary beam were obtained. Using different injection gases for ECRIS, including O 2 , CO, CO 2 , and CH 4 , at a fixed radio-frequency power of 300 W, the measured results showed that the fraction of C 3+ ions was greater than 70% for the injection gases of CO and CO 2 . These measured results are very important and helpful for the upcoming laser cooling experiments

  17. Storage-stable photosensitive composition and article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, W.J.; Larson, W.K.

    1986-01-01

    A presensitized article having a radiation-sensitive layer comprising an adduct of an amorphous sulfopolyester and a diazonium resin is described which does not exhibit blocking on being stored in stacks for prolonged periods of time. The article can be exposed to radiation and developed via aqueous solvents to provide a lithographic plate that provides clean, scum-free copies, and that can be stored in a high humidity atmosphere without failure

  18. Mechanochemical Preparation of Stable Sub-100 nm γ-Cyclodextrin:Buckminsterfullerene (C60) Nanoparticles by Electrostatic or Steric Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Guyse, Joachim F R; de la Rosa, Victor R; Hoogenboom, Richard

    2018-02-21

    Buckminster fullerene (C 60 )'s main hurdle to enter the field of biomedicine is its low bioavailability, which results from its extremely low water solubility. A well-known approach to increase the water solubility of C 60 is by complexation with γ-cyclodextrins. However, the formed complexes are not stable in time as they rapidly aggregate and eventually precipitate due to attractive intermolecular forces, a common problem in inclusion complexes of cyclodextrins. In this study we attempt to overcome the attractive intermolecular forces between the complexes by designing custom γ-cyclodextrin (γCD)-based supramolecular hosts for C 60 that inhibit the aggregation found in native γCD-C 60 complexes. The approach entails the introduction of either repulsive electrostatic forces or increased steric hindrance to prevent aggregation, thus enhancing the biomedical application potential of C 60 . These modifications have led to new sub-100 nm nanostructures that show long-term stability in solution. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Micro/nano encapsulation of some paraffin eutectic mixtures with poly(methyl methacrylate) shell: Preparation, characterization and latent heat thermal energy storage properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarı, Ahmet; Alkan, Cemil; Bilgin, Cahit

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Four kinds of micro/nano capsules, PMMA/(C17-C24), PMMA/(C19-C18), PMMA/(C19-C24) and PMMA/(C20-C24), were synthesized successfully as novel encapsulated phase change materials (PCMs) for the different monomer/PEM ratios via emulsion polymerization. The FTIR spectroscopy analysis confirmed the polymerization reaction occurred around the PEMs to be used as core materials. The POM, SEM and PSD analysis results showed that the synthesized PMMA/PEM micro/nano capsules had spherical shape appearance and micro/nano sizes. DSC analysis measurements revealed that the prepared micro/nano capsules containing the highest PEM content had a melting temperature range of about 20–36 °C and latent heat capacities in the range of about 86–169 J/g. TGA findings demonstrated that the encapsulated PEMs had good thermal reliability and chemical stability even after subjecting them to 5000 melting/freezing cycles. Furthermore, the prepared micro/nano capsules had reasonable thermal conductivity values and fine melting–freezing reversibility. - Highlights: • PSD analysis results showed that the encapsulated PEMs had micro/nano sized-spheres. • The encapsulated PEMs melt in the temperature range of about 20–36 °C. • The encapsulated PEMs had latent heat capacities of in the range of about 86–169 J/g. • TGA results demonstrated that they had good thermal stability. • The encapsulated PEMs had good thermal conductivity and phase change reversibility. - Abstract: This work is aimed to prepare, characterize and determine the latent heat thermal energy storage properties of micro/nano encapsulated paraffin eutectic mixtures (PEMs) with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) shell. The eutectic combination ratios and optimum melting temperatures of C17-C24, C19-C18, C19-C24 and C20-C24 mixtures were find out prior to the encapsulation processes. Four kinds of micro/nano capsules, PMMA/(C17-C24), PMMA/(C19-C18), PMMA/(C19-C24) and PMMA/(C20-C24), were synthesized

  20. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark

    2016-08-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  1. Calcium stable isotope geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gausonne, Nikolaus; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree; Heuser, Alexander; Wombacher, Frank; Dietzel, Martin; Tipper, Edward; Schiller, Martin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.

  2. Stable particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samios, N.P.

    1993-01-01

    I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc

  3. Storage-battery electrodes. [preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1961-12-29

    Two incompatible thermoplastic resins are mixed with a powdered electrochemical active substance. The substance may be, for example, an oxide of cadmium, iron, lead, or zinc or nickel hydroxide. After the mixture is shaped into elements which are inserted into conducting sheaths for an electrode, the one resin is washed out to form a porous electrode. (RWR)

  4. Preparation of organo clays thermally stable to be employed as filler in PET nano composites; Preparacao de argilas organofilicas estaveis termicamente para serem empregadas como cargas em nanocompositos de PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, I.F. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (PGMTR/CCEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e da Natureza. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia de Materiais; Soares, A.P.S.; Silva, S.M.L. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEMa/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais; Malta, O.M.L. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife PE (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Exatas e da Natureza. Dept. de Quimica Fundamental

    2009-07-01

    Thermal stability of organically modified clays is fundamental to melt processing polymer nanocomposites, especially, poly(terephthalate ethylene) (PET). However, the use of organic salts with high thermal stability is factor essential to obtaining of organoclays with great thermal properties. This work has as purpose to evaluate the influence of organic modifier based on alkyl ammonium, alkyl phosphonium and aryl phosphonium, in the clay organic modification visa to improve thermal properties to use as filler in nanocomposites preparation, where temperatures at about 260 deg C will be employed. The most common, and commercially available, surfactants used for cation exchange reactions with montmorillonites, rendering them organophilic, are quaternary ammonium salts, that when present as cations in montmorillonite, typically begin degradation at above 200 deg C. However, organoclays prepared with quaternary alkyl phosphonium salts may be potentially useful for the organoclays preparation stable thermally. In this study bentonite clay from Bentonit Uniao Nordeste/PB was purified and organically modified with the organic salts reported above. Organoclays were characterized by X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and analysis thermogravimetry. The results shown that the samples modified with the salts based on phosphonium presented higher thermal stability that the alkyl ammonium salt. (author)

  5. Shelf stable intermediate moisture fruit cubes using radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Bibhuti B.; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Gautam, Satyendra; Chander, Ramesh; Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    A process has been developed to prepare shelf stable ready-to-eat (RTE) intermediate moisture pineapple slices and papaya cubes using radiation technology. The combination of hurdles including osmotic dehydration, blanching, infrared drying, and gamma radiation dose of 1 kGy successfully reduced the microbial load to below detectable limit. The shelf life of the intermediate moisture pineapple slices and papaya cubes was found to be 40 days at ambient temperature (28 ± 2 deg C). The control samples spoiled within 6 days. The RTE intermediate moisture fruit products were found to have good texture, colour and sensory acceptability during this 40 days storage. (author)

  6. Reproducible preparation of a stable polypyrrole-coated-silver nanoparticles decorated polypyrrole-coated-polycaprolactone-nanofiber-based cloth electrode for electrochemical sensor application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Guiting; Wang, Zhenzhen; Wang, Feng; Guo, Xiaoyu; Wen, Ying; Yang, Haifeng

    2015-11-01

    A piece of conductive cloth has been successfully constructed from polypyrrole-coated silver nanoparticle (Ag@PPy) composites decorated on electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers that formed the core-shell structure of Ag@PPy/PCL@PPy via a photo-induced one-step redox reaction. The photochemical reaction method both accelerated the rate of formation of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and enhanced the dispersion of Ag NPs at the surface of PCL@PPy film. The resulting Ag@PPy/PCL@PPy-based cloth was flexible enough to be cut and pasted onto a glass carbon electrode for the preparation of a biosensor. The resulting biosensor showed good electrochemical activity toward the reduction of H2O2 with low detection limit down to 1 μM (S/N = 3) and wide linear detection ranging from 0.01 mM to 3.5 mM (R2 = 0.990). This sensor has been applied to detect the trace H2O2 residual in milk. The cloth electrode has been proved to exhibit long-term stability, high selectivity, and excellent reproducibility.

  7. Reproducible preparation of a stable polypyrrole-coated-silver nanoparticles decorated polypyrrole-coated-polycaprolactone-nanofiber-based cloth electrode for electrochemical sensor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Li; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Guiting; Wang, Zhenzhen; Wang, Feng; Guo, Xiaoyu; Wen, Ying; Yang, Haifeng

    2015-01-01

    A piece of conductive cloth has been successfully constructed from polypyrrole-coated silver nanoparticle (Ag@PPy) composites decorated on electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofibers that formed the core–shell structure of Ag@PPy/PCL@PPy via a photo-induced one-step redox reaction. The photochemical reaction method both accelerated the rate of formation of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) and enhanced the dispersion of Ag NPs at the surface of PCL@PPy film. The resulting Ag@PPy/PCL@PPy-based cloth was flexible enough to be cut and pasted onto a glass carbon electrode for the preparation of a biosensor. The resulting biosensor showed good electrochemical activity toward the reduction of H 2 O 2 with low detection limit down to 1 μM (S/N = 3) and wide linear detection ranging from 0.01 mM to 3.5 mM (R 2  = 0.990). This sensor has been applied to detect the trace H 2 O 2 residual in milk. The cloth electrode has been proved to exhibit long-term stability, high selectivity, and excellent reproducibility. (paper)

  8. Porous stable poly(lactic acid)/ethyl cellulose/hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds prepared by a combined method for bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Daoyong; Li, Qing; Bai, Ningning; Dong, Hongzhou; Li, Daikun

    2018-01-15

    A major challenge in bone tissue engineering is the development of biomimetic scaffolds which should simultaneously meet mechanical strength and pore structure requirements. Herein, we combined technologies of high concentration solvent casting, particulate leaching, and room temperature compression molding to prepare a novel poly(lactic acid)/ethyl cellulose/hydroxyapatite (PLA/EC/HA) scaffold. The functional, structural and mechanical properties of the obtained porous scaffolds were characterized. The results indicated that the PLA/EC/HA scaffolds at the 20wt% HA loading level showed optimal mechanical properties and desired porous structure. Its porosity, contact angle, compressive yield strength and weight loss after 56days were 84.28±7.04%, 45.13±2.40°, 1.57±0.09MPa and 4.77±0.32%, respectively, which could satisfy the physiological demands to guide bone regeneration. Thus, the developed scaffolds have potential to be used as a bone substitute material for bone tissue engineering application. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Preparation of highly stable zeolite-alginate foam composite for strontium(90Sr) removal from seawater and evaluation of Sr adsorption performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hye-Jin; Kim, Byoung-Gyu; Ryu, Jungho; Park, In-Su; Chung, Kang-Sup; Lee, Sang Moon; Lee, Jin-Bae; Jeong, Hyeon Su; Kim, Hyunchul; Ryu, Taegong

    2018-01-01

    Alginate bead is a promising strontium (Sr) adsorbent in seawater, but highly concentrated Na ions caused over-swelling and damaged the hydrogel bead. To improve the mechanical stability of alginate bead, flexible foam-type zeolite-alginate composite was synthesized and Sr adsorption performance was evaluated in seawater; 1-10% zeolite immobilized alginate foams were prepared by freeze-dry technique. Immobilization of zeolite into alginate foam converted macro-pores to meso-pores which lead to more compact structure. It resulted in less swollen composite in seawater medium and exhibited highly improved mechanical stability compared with alginate bead. Besides, Sr adsorption efficiency and selectivity were enhanced by immobilization of zeolite in alginate foam due to the increase of Sr binding sites (zeolite). In particular, Sr selectivity against Na was highly improved. The 10% zeolite-alginate foam exhibited a higher log K d of 3.3, while the pure alginate foam exhibited 2.7 in the presence of 0.1 M Na. Finally, in the real seawater, the 10% zeolite-alginate foam exhibited 1.5 times higher Sr adsorption efficiency than the pure alginate foam. This result reveals that zeolite-alginate foam composite is appropriate material for Sr removal in seawater due to its swelling resistance as well as improved Sr adsorption performance in complex media. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazier, J.L.; Guinamant, J.L.

    1995-01-01

    According to the progress which has been realised in the technology of separating and measuring isotopes, the stable isotopes are used as preferable 'labelling elements' for big number of applications. The isotopic composition of natural products shows significant variations as a result of different reasons like the climate, the seasons, or their geographic origins. So, it was proved that the same product has a different isotopic composition of alimentary and agriculture products. It is also important in detecting the pharmacological and medical chemicals. This review article deals with the technology, like chromatography and spectrophotometry, adapted to this aim, and some important applications. 17 refs. 6 figs

  11. Stable Tetraquarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, Chris [Fermilab

    2018-04-13

    For very heavy quarks, relations derived from heavy-quark symmetry imply novel narrow doubly heavy tetraquark states containing two heavy quarks and two light antiquarks. We predict that double-beauty states will be stable against strong decays, whereas the double-charm states and mixed beauty+charm states will dissociate into pairs of heavy-light mesons. Observing a new double-beauty state through its weak decays would establish the existence of tetraquarks and illuminate the role of heavy color-antitriplet diquarks as hadron constituents.

  12. Stability of captopril in powder papers under three storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taketomo, C.K.; Chu, S.A.; Cheng, M.H.; Corpuz, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    The stability of captopril in powder papers under three different storage conditions was determined. Captopril 12.5-mg tablets were triturated with lactose to a final concentration of 2 mg of captopril in 100 mg of powder. A total of 240 powder papers were prepared and stored in class A prescription vials (80 papers), 002G plastic zip-lock bags (80 papers), and Moisture Proof Barrier Bags (80 papers). Immediately after preparation and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks of storage at room temperature, powder papers under each storage condition were reweighed and the contents were assayed for captopril concentration by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method. More than 90% of the initial captopril concentration was retained under all storage conditions during the first 12 weeks of the study. Captopril disulfide, a degradation product, was detected in one sample stored in a plastic zip-lock bag at 24 weeks. Captopril was stable for the entire 24-week period in powder papers stored in either the class A prescription vial or the Moisture Proof Barrier Bag. Captopril in powder papers is stable for at least 12 weeks when stored at room temperature under all three storage conditions

  13. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  14. Center for Hydrogen Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The main goals of this project were to (1) Establish a Center for Hydrogen Storage Research at Delaware State University for the preparation and characterization of selected complex metal hydrides and the determination their suitability for hydrogen ...

  15. Preparation and Characterization of PbO-SrO-Na2O-Nb2O5-SiO2 Glass Ceramics Thin Film for High-Energy Storage Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Feihu; Zhang, Qingmeng; Zhao, Hongbin; Wei, Feng; Du, Jun

    2018-03-01

    PbO-SrO-Na2O-Nb2O5-SiO2 (PSNNS) glass ceramic thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition technology on heavily doped silicon substrates. The influence of annealing temperatures on microstructures, dielectric properties and energy storage performances of the as-prepared films were investigated in detail. X-ray diffraction studies indicate that Pb2Nb2O7 crystallizes at 800°C and disappears at 900°C, while NaNbO3 and PbNb2O6 are formed at the higher temperature of 900°C. The dielectric properties of the glass ceramics thin films have a strong dependence on the phase assemblages that are developed during heat treatment. The maximum dielectric constant value of 171 was obtained for the film annealed at 800°C, owing to the high electric breakdown field strength, The energy storage densities of the PSNNS films annealed at 800°C were as large as 36.9 J/cm3, These results suggest that PSNNS thin films are promising for energy storage applications.

  16. Calcine Waste Storage at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. D. Staiger

    1999-06-01

    A potential option in the program for long-term management of high-level wastes at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, calls for retrieving calcine waste and converting it to a more stable and less dispersible form. An inventory of calcine produced during the period December 1963 to May 1999 has been prepared based on calciner run, solids storage facilities operating, and miscellaneous operational information, which gives the range of chemical compositions of calcine waste stored at INTEC. Information researched includes calciner startup data, waste solution analyses and volumes calcined, calciner operating schedules, solids storage bin capacities, calcine storage bin distributor systems, and solids storage bin design and temperature monitoring records. Unique information on calcine solids storage facilities design of potential interest to remote retrieval operators is given.

  17. Shelf-stable food through high dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placek, V. E-mail: pla@ujv.cz; Svobodova, V.; Bartonicek, B.; Rosmus, J.; Camra, M

    2004-10-01

    Irradiation of food with high doses (radappertization) is a way, how to prepare shelf-stable ready-to-eat food. The radappertization process requires that the food be heated at first to an internal temperature of at least 75 deg. C to inactivate autolytic enzyme, which could cause the spoilage during storage without refrigeration. In order to prevent radiation induced changes in sensory properties (off flavors, odors, undesirable color change, etc.) the food was vacuum packed and irradiated in frozen state at -30 deg. C or less to a minimum dose of 35 kGy. Such products have characteristics of fresh food prepared for eating even if they are stored for long time under tropical conditions. The wholesomeness (safety for consumption) has been confirmed during 40 years of testing. Within the NRI Rez 10 kinds of shelf-stable meat products have been prepared. The meat was cooked, vacuum packed in SiO{sub x}-containing pouch, freezed in liquid nitrogen and irradiated with electron beam accelerator. The microbial, chemical, and organoleptic properties have been tested.

  18. Shelf-stable food through high dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placek, V.; Svobodova, V.; Bartonicek, B.; Rosmus, J.; Camra, M.

    2004-01-01

    Irradiation of food with high doses (radappertization) is a way, how to prepare shelf-stable ready-to-eat food. The radappertization process requires that the food be heated at first to an internal temperature of at least 75 deg. C to inactivate autolytic enzyme, which could cause the spoilage during storage without refrigeration. In order to prevent radiation induced changes in sensory properties (off flavors, odors, undesirable color change, etc.) the food was vacuum packed and irradiated in frozen state at -30 deg. C or less to a minimum dose of 35 kGy. Such products have characteristics of fresh food prepared for eating even if they are stored for long time under tropical conditions. The wholesomeness (safety for consumption) has been confirmed during 40 years of testing. Within the NRI Rez 10 kinds of shelf-stable meat products have been prepared. The meat was cooked, vacuum packed in SiO x -containing pouch, freezed in liquid nitrogen and irradiated with electron beam accelerator. The microbial, chemical, and organoleptic properties have been tested

  19. Fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, C.; Alvarez-Miranda, A.

    2009-01-01

    ENSA is a well known manufacturer of multi-system primary components for the nuclear industry and is totally prepared to satisfy future market requirements in this industry. At the same time that ENSA has been gaining a reputation world wider for the supply of primary components, has been strengthening its commitment and experience in supplying spent fuel components, either pool racks or storage and transportation casks, and offers not only fabrication but also design capabilities for its products. ENSA has supplied Spent Fuel Pool Racks, in spain, Finland, Taiwan, Korea, China, and currently it is in the process of licensing its own rack design in the United States of America for the ESBWR along with Ge-Hitachi. ENSA has supplied racks for 20 pools and 22 different reactors and it has also manufactured racks under all available technologies and developed a design known as Interlock Cell Matrix whose main features are outlined in this article. Another ENSA achievement in rack technology is the use of remote control for re-racking activities instead of using divers, which improves the ALARA requirements. Regarding casks for storage and transportation, ENSA also has al leading worldwide position, with exports prevailing over the Spanish market where ENSA has supplied 16 storage and transportation casks to the Spanish nuclear power Trillo. In some cases, ENSA acts as subcontractor for other clients. Foreign markets are still a major challenge for ENSA. ENSA-is well known for its manufacturing capabilities in the nuclear industry, but has been always involved in design activities through its engineering division, which carries out different tasks: components Design; Tooling Design; Engineering and Documentation; Project Engineering; Calculations, Design and Development Engineering. (Author)

  20. Hydrogen storage compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Vajo, John J.; Cumberland, Robert W.; Liu, Ping

    2011-04-19

    Compositions for hydrogen storage and methods of making such compositions employ an alloy that exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The composition includes a ternary alloy including magnesium, boron and a metal and a metal hydride. The ternary alloy and the metal hydride are present in an amount sufficient to render the composition capable of hydrogen storage. The molar ratio of the metal to magnesium and boron in the alloy is such that the alloy exhibits reversible formation/deformation of BH.sub.4.sup.- anions. The hydrogen storage composition is prepared by combining magnesium, boron and a metal to prepare a ternary alloy and combining the ternary alloy with a metal hydride to form the hydrogen storage composition.

  1. Influence of sintering temperature on microstructures and energy-storage properties of barium strontium titanate glass-ceramics prepared by sol-gel process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jia; Zhang, Yong; Song, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Qian; Yang, Dongliang; Chen, Yongzhou [Beijing Key Laboratory of Fine Ceramics, State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)

    2015-12-15

    The sol-gel processing, microstructures, dielectric properties and energy-storage properties of barium strontium titanate glass-ceramics over the sintering temperature range of 1000-1150 C were studied. Through the X-ray diffraction result, it is revealed that the crystallinity increases as the sintering temperature increased from 1000 to 1080 C and has reached a steady-state regime above 1100 C. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that with the increase of sintering temperature, the crystal size increased. Dielectric measurements revealed that the increase in the sintering temperature resulted in a significant increase in the dielectric constant, a strong sharpness of the temperature-dependent dielectric response and a pronounced decrease of the temperature of the dielectric maximum. The correlation between charge spreading behavior and activation energies of crystal and glass was discussed by the employment of the impedance spectroscopy studies. As a result of polarization-electric field hysteresis loops, both the charged and discharged densities increased with increasing sintering temperature. And the maximum value of energy storage efficiency was found to occur at 1130 C. Finally, the dependence of released energy and power densities calculated from the discharged current-time (I-t) curves on the sintering temperature was studied. The relationship between the energy storage properties and microstructure was correlated. Polarization-electric field hysteresis loops for the BST glass-ceramics sintered at different temperatures. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Study on preparing the absorbent of potassium nickel hexacyanoferrate (II) loaded zeolite for removal of cesium from radioactive waste solutions and followed method for stable solidification of spent composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Quynh Luong; Nguyen Hoang Lan; Nguyen Van Chinh; Nguyen Thu Trang; Vuong Huu Anh; Le Xuan Huu; Nguyen Thi Xuan; Le Van Duong

    2017-01-01

    The selective adsorption and stable immobilization of radioactive cesium, K-Ni-hexacyanoferrate (II) loaded zeolite (FC-zeolite) prepared by impregnation / precipitation method were studied. The uptake equilibrium of Cs + for composites FC-zeolite was attained within 8 h and estimated to be above 97% in Cs + 100 mg/l solution at pH 4-10. Maximum ion exchange capacity of Cs + ions (Q max ) for FC-zeoliteX was 112.5 and 69.7 mg/g in pure water and sea water, respectively. Those values for FC-zeolite A was 85.7 and 42.7 mg/g. Decontamination factor (DF) of FC-zeolite X for 134 Cs was 149.7 and 107.5 in pure water and sea water respectively. Study on synthesized zeolites (A and X) made of HUST was also conducted in similar manner. The values of Q max were 98.6 and 39.9 mg/g for zeolite A, and 69.5 and 20.8 mg/g for zeolite X in pure water and sea water, respectively. Decontamination factor (DF) of zeolite A and X for 134 Cs showed lower values. The spent CsFC-zeolite was solidificated in optimal experimental conditions: 5% Na 2 B 4 O 7 additives; calcination temperature at 900 o C for 2 h in air. Solid form was determined some of parameters: immobilization of Cs, compressive strength, volume reduction after calcination (%) and leaching rate of Cs + ions in deionization water. (author)

  3. Tritium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.

    1990-01-01

    This document represents a synthesis relative to tritium storage. After indicating the main storage particularities as regards tritium, storages under gaseous and solid form are after examined before establishing choices as a function of the main criteria. Finally, tritium storage is discussed regarding tritium devices associated to Fusion Reactors and regarding smaller devices [fr

  4. Stable Isotope Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...

  5. Hydrogen storage composition and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heung, Leung K; Wicks, George G.

    2003-01-01

    A hydrogen storage composition based on a metal hydride dispersed in an aerogel prepared by a sol-gel process. The starting material for the aerogel is an organometallic compound, including the alkoxysilanes, organometals of the form M(OR)x and MOxRy, where R is an alkyl group of the form C.sub.n H.sub.2n+1, M is an oxide-forming metal, n, x, and y are integers, and y is two less than the valence of M. A sol is prepared by combining the starting material, alcohol, water, and an acid. The sol is conditioned to the proper viscosity and a hydride in the form of a fine powder is added. The mixture is polymerized and dried under supercritical conditions. The final product is a composition having a hydride uniformly dispersed throughout an inert, stable and highly porous matrix. It is capable of absorbing up to 30 moles of hydrogen per kilogram at room temperature and pressure, rapidly and reversibly. Hydrogen absorbed by the composition can be readily be recovered by heat or evacuation.

  6. The SERI solar energy storage program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, R. J.; Wright, J. D.; Wyman, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    In support of the DOE thermal and chemical energy storage program, the solar energy storage program (SERI) provides research on advanced technologies, systems analyses, and assessments of thermal energy storage for solar applications in support of the Thermal and Chemical Energy Storage Program of the DOE Division of Energy Storage Systems. Currently, research is in progress on direct contact latent heat storage and thermochemical energy storage and transport. Systems analyses are being performed of thermal energy storage for solar thermal applications, and surveys and assessments are being prepared of thermal energy storage in solar applications. A ranking methodology for comparing thermal storage systems (performance and cost) is presented. Research in latent heat storage and thermochemical storage and transport is reported.

  7. Dielectronic recombination experiments at the storage rings: From the present CSR to the future HIAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z. K.; Wen, W. Q.; Xu, X.; Wang, H. B.; Dou, L. J.; Chuai, X. Y.; Zhu, X. L.; Zhao, D. M.; Li, J.; Ma, X. M.; Mao, L. J.; Yang, J. C.; Yuan, Y. J.; Xu, W. Q.; Xie, L. Y.; Xu, T. H.; Yao, K.; Dong, C. Z.; Zhu, L. F.; Ma, X.

    2017-10-01

    Dielectronic recombination (DR) experiments of highly charged ions at the storage rings have been developed as a precision spectroscopic tool to investigate the atomic structure as well as nuclear properties of stable and unstable nuclei. The DR experiment on lithium-like argon ions was successfully performed at main Cooler Storage Ring (CSRm) at Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) accelerator complex. The DR experiments on heavy highly charged ions and even radioactive ions are currently under preparation at the experimental Cooler Storage Ring (CSRe) at HIRFL. The current status of DR experiments at the CSRm and the preparation of the DR experiments at the CSRe are presented. In addition, an overview of DR experiments by employing an electron cooler and a separated ultra-cold electron target at the upcoming High Intensity heavy ion Accelerator Facility (HIAF) will be given.

  8. Assessment of radiation impact on the environment components while preparing for construction site of centralized storage facility for spent nuclear fuel (CSSNF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlovs'kij, L.Yi.; Gorodets'kij, D.V.; Syizov, A.O.; Kholodyuk, A.O.

    2016-01-01

    Predictive assessment of radiation impacts on the air environment, soil cover, staff, which is located in a residential area, staff of an adjacent to the CSSNF enterprises as a result of work to prepare the site for construction of CSSNF at the Chornobyl Exclusion Zone is presented. It is shown that radiation effects on components of the environment will not result in exceeding the reference levels of radiation safety

  9. Stable agents for imaging investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns highly stable compounds useful in preparing technetium 99m based scintiscanning exploration agents. The compounds of this invention include a pertechnetate reducing agent or a solution of oxidized pertechnetate and an efficient proportion, sufficient to stabilize the compounds in the presence of oxygen and of radiolysis products, of ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of this acid. The invention also concerns a perfected process for preparing a technetium based exploration agent, consisting in codissolving the ascorbic acid or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or ester of such an acid and a pertechnetate reducing agent in a solution of oxidized pertechnetate [fr

  10. Preparation and Lithium-Storage Performance of a Novel Hierarchical Porous Carbon from Sucrose Using Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxides as Template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Liluo; Chen, Yaxin; Song, Huaihe; Li, Ang; Chen, Xiaohong; Zhou, Jisheng; Ma, Zhaokun

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new hierarchical porous carbon containing slit-shaped mesopores and 3D carbon nanosheets were prepared using Mg-Al layered double hydroxides as template. • The hierarchical porous carbon electrode showed a high capacity and excellent cycle stability when used in lithium-ion battery. • The excellent performance is ascribed to its hierarchical porous structure, especially the mesoporous struture. - Abstract: Novel hierarchical porous carbons (NHPCs) containing 3D carbon nanosheets and slit-mesopores are prepared in this work, using MgAl-layered double hydroxides as template and sucrose as carbon source, and their electrochemical performances as anodes of lithium-ion batteries are also investigated. Owing to the existence of abundant carbon nanosheets and slit-mesopores, the NHPCs electrode exhibits the specific reversible capacity of 1151.9 mA h/g at the current density of 50 mA/g, which is significantly higher than other hierarchical porous carbons reported in previous literatures. The contributions of carbon nanosheets and mesopores to the electrochemical performance are further clarified by nitrogen adsorption-desorption test, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammograms and galvanostatic charge/discharge test. This work not only provides an easy and effective method to prepare hierarchical porous carbon materials, but also is beneficial for the design of high-performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries.

  11. Investigation on the thermodynamic analysis, preparation and characterization of LaNi5 - hydrogen storage alloy by magnesiothermic reduction diffusion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giresan G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation focuses on the preparation of LaNi5 intermetallic compound by “Metallothermic reduction diffusion process”. Experiments were carried out using oxides and chlorides of La and Ni metal powders as the raw materials with granular Mg powder as the reductant. The thermal reduction process was carried out at 900 ºC for 9 hrs in Ar atmosphere. After the completion of reaction, the contents were purified by treating with dilute acetic acid followed by de-ionized water. Thermodynamic feasibility studies were carried out to determine the probabilistic nature of formation of the desired compound. Thermal analysis was carried out to find the dissociation and decomposition temperature of the reactants. The phase purity and the elemental composition of the alloy were assessed by XRD and EDX analyses. The morphological features of the prepared powders were examined by SEM. From this study, it has been concluded that LaNi5 alloy can be prepared with an appreciable purity by the Metallothermic reduction diffusion process.

  12. Enhanced reversible lithium storage in a nano-Si/MWCNT free-standing paper electrode prepared by a simple filtration and post sintering process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Lu; Zhong Haoxiang; Zhang Lingzhi

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nano-Si/multi-wall carbon nanotube composite paper was prepared as free-standing electrode for lithium-ion batteries by a simple filtration method using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose as a dispersing/binding agent, followed by a thermal sintering process. The prepared paper electrode exhibited a significantly improved electrochemical performance, maintaining a specific capacity of 942 mAh g −1 after 30 cycles with a capacity fade of 0.46%/cycle. - Abstract: Nano-Si/(multi-wall carbon nanotube) (Si/MWCNT) composite paper was prepared as flexible electrode for lithium ion batteries by a simple filtration method using sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as a dispersing/binding agent, followed by a thermal sintering process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that nanosized Si particles were dispersed homogeneously and intertwined by the MWCNT throughout the whole paper electrode. After thermal sintering, Si/MWCNT paper electrode exhibited a significantly improved flexibility with a high Si content of 35.6 wt% as compared with before sintering, and retained a specific capacity of 942 mAh g −1 after 30 cycles with a capacity fade of 0.46%/cycle.

  13. Influence of storage and culinary preparation of irradiated potatoes on the cytogenetic activity of the extracts isolated from them. [Bone marrow cells of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipova, I.N.; Shillinger, Yu.I.; Zaytsev, A.N.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was made of the cytogenetic activity of extracts isolated from potatoes exposed to radiation in a dose of 10 krd: raw, stored for 4 months after exposure, and cooked after keeping for 1 day, 1 month and 4 months. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations (bridges and fragments) observed in the bone marrow cells of female mice given extracts from raw freshly irradiated potatoes was 2.5 times as high as the frequency observed for extracts taken from potatoes stored for 4 months after exposure, and twice as high as that observed for extracts taken from freshly irradiated cooked potatoes. No mutagenic properties were observed when the potatoes were cooked after more than a month of storage.

  14. Preparation, characterization and environmental/electrochemical energy storage testing of low-cost biochar from natural chitin obtained via pyrolysis at mild conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnacca, Giuliana; Guerretta, Federico; Vizintin, Alen; Benzi, Paola; Valsania, Maria C.; Nisticò, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    Chitin (a biopolymer obtained from shellfish industry) was used as precursor for the production of biochars obtained via pyrolysis treatments performed at mild conditions (in the 290-540 °C range). Biochars were physicochemical characterized in order to evaluate the pyrolysis-induced effects in terms of both functional groups and material structure. Moreover, such carbonaceous materials were tested as adsorbent substrates for the removal of target molecules from aqueous environment as well as in solid-gas experiments, to measure the adsorption capacities and selectivity toward CO2. Lastly, biochars were also investigated as possible cathode materials in sustainable and low-cost electrochemical energy storage devices, such as lithium-sulphur (Li-S) batteries. Interestingly, experimental results evidenced that such chitin-derived biochars obtained via pyrolysis at mild conditions are sustainable, low-cost and easy scalable alternative materials suitable for both environmental and energetic applications.

  15. In vitro storage of synthetic seeds: Effect of different storage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In vitro derived shoots of olive cv. Moraiolo were employed in synthetic seeds preparation by alginate encapsulation, and then stored in artificial endosperm solution at cold (4°C) and room storage (21 ± 2°C) conditions in interaction with different storage intervals of 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days to evaluate the comparative ...

  16. Stable large-scale CO2 storage in defiance of an energy system based on renewable energy - Modelling the impact of varying CO2 injection rates on reservoir behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannach, Andreas; Hauer, Rene; Martin, Streibel; Stienstra, Gerard; Kühn, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The IPCC Report 2014 strengthens the need for CO2 storage as part of CCS or BECCS to reach ambitious climate goals despite growing energy demand in the future. The further expansion of renewable energy sources is a second major pillar. As it is today in Germany the weather becomes the controlling factor for electricity production by fossil fuelled power plants which lead to significant fluctuations of CO2-emissions which can be traced in injection rates if the CO2 were captured and stored. To analyse the impact of such changing injection rates on a CO2 storage reservoir. two reservoir simulation models are applied: a. An (smaller) reservoir model approved by gas storage activities for decades, to investigate the dynamic effects in the early stage of storage filling (initial aquifer displacement). b. An anticline structure big enough to accommodate a total amount of ≥ 100 Mega tons CO2 to investigate the dynamic effects for the entire operational life time of the storage under particular consideration of very high filling levels (highest aquifer compression). Therefore a reservoir model was generated. The defined yearly injection rate schedule is based on a study performed on behalf of IZ Klima (DNV GL, 2014). According to this study the exclusive consideration of a pool of coal-fired power plants causes the most intensive dynamically changing CO2 emissions and hence accounts for variations of a system which includes industry driven CO2 production. Besides short-term changes (daily & weekly cycles) seasonal influences are also taken into account. Simulation runs cover a variation of injection points (well locations at the top vs. locations at the flank of the structure) and some other largely unknown reservoir parameters as aquifer size and aquifer mobility. Simulation of a 20 year storage operation is followed by a post-operational shut-in phase which covers approximately 500 years to assess possible effects of changing injection rates on the long-term reservoir

  17. Energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaier, U.

    1981-04-01

    Developments in the area of energy storage are characterized, with respect to theory and laboratory, by an emergence of novel concepts and technologies for storing electric energy and heat. However, there are no new commercial devices on the market. New storage batteries as basis for a wider introduction of electric cars, and latent heat storage devices, as an aid for solar technology applications, with satisfactory performance standards are not yet commercially available. Devices for the intermediate storage of electric energy for solar electric-energy systems, and for satisfying peak-load current demands in the case of public utility companies are considered. In spite of many promising novel developments, there is yet no practical alternative to the lead-acid storage battery. Attention is given to central heat storage for systems transporting heat energy, small-scale heat storage installations, and large-scale technical energy-storage systems.

  18. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  19. Critical evaluation of methodology commonly used in sample collection, storage and preparation for the analysis of pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in surface water and wastewater by solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David R; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2011-11-04

    The main aim of this manuscript is to provide a comprehensive and critical verification of methodology commonly used for sample collection, storage and preparation in studies concerning the analysis of pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in aqueous environmental samples with the usage of SPE-LC/MS techniques. This manuscript reports the results of investigations into several sample preparation parameters that to the authors' knowledge have not been reported or have received very little attention. This includes: (i) effect of evaporation temperature and (ii) solvent with regards to solid phase extraction (SPE) extracts; (iii) effect of silanising glassware; (iv) recovery of analytes during vacuum filtration through glass fibre filters and (v) pre LC-MS filter membranes. All of these parameters are vital to develop efficient and reliable extraction techniques; an essential factor given that target drug residues are often present in the aqueous environment at ng L(-1) levels. Presented is also the first comprehensive review of the stability of illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals in wastewater. Among the parameters studied are: time of storage, temperature and pH. Over 60 analytes were targeted including stimulants, opioid and morphine derivatives, benzodiazepines, antidepressants, dissociative anaesthetics, drug precursors, human urine indicators and their metabolites. The lack of stability of analytes in raw wastewater was found to be significant for many compounds. For instance, 34% of compounds studied reported a stability change >15% after only 12 h in raw wastewater stored at 2 °C; a very important finding given that wastewater is typically collected with the use of 24 h composite samplers. The stability of these compounds is also critical given the recent development of so-called 'sewage forensics' or 'sewage epidemiology' in which concentrations of target drug residues in wastewater are used to back-calculate drug consumption. Without an understanding of stability

  20. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    After having outlined the importance of energy storage in the present context, this document outlines that it is an answer to economic, environmental and technological issues. It proposes a brief overview of the various techniques of energy storage: under the form of chemical energy (hydrocarbons, biomass, hydrogen production), thermal energy (sensitive or latent heat storage), mechanical energy (potential energy by hydraulic or compressed air storage, kinetic energy with flywheels), electrochemical energy (in batteries), electric energy (super-capacitors, superconductor magnetic energy storage). Perspectives are briefly evoked

  1. Preparation and thermal characterization of oxalic acid dihydrate/bentonite composite as shape-stabilized phase change materials for thermal energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lipeng; Xie, Shaolei; Sun, Jinhe; Jia, Yongzhong

    2017-03-01

    Oxalic acid dihydrate (OAD) which has very high initial phase transition enthalpy is a promising phase change material (PCM). In this paper, shape-stabilized composite PCMs composed of OAD and bentonite were prepared by a facile blending method to overcome the problem of leakage. FT-IR results indicated the interactions between OAD and bentonite, such as the capillary force and the hydrogen bonding, resulting in the confined crystallization process. As a result, the OAD was confined to be amorphous. The thermogravimetric analysis and scanning electron microscope results showed that sample had the best coating effect when the amount of bentonite was 17.7%. The differential scanning calorimetry analyses demonstrated that a decrease in the OAD content was accompanied by a continuous decrease in the melting point and phase change enthalpy of the composites.

  2. Stability of solutions of antineoplastic agents during preparation and storage for in vitro assays. General considerations, the nitrosoureas and alkylating agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosanquet, A G

    1985-01-01

    In vitro drug sensitivity of tumour biopsies is currently being determined using a variety of methods. For these chemosensitivity assays many drugs are required at short notice, and this in turn means that the drugs must generally be stored in solution. There are, however, a number of potential problems associated with dissolving and storing drugs for in vitro use, which include (a) drug adsorption; (b) effects of freezing; (c) drug stability under the normal conditions of dilution and setting up of an in vitro assay; and (d) insolubility of drugs in normal saline (NS) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). These problems are considered in general, and some recommendations for use of solutions of drugs in in vitro assays are suggested. The nitrosoureas and alkylating agents are also investigated in greater detail in this respect. The nitrosoureas are found to be very labile in PBS at pH 7, with 5% degradation (t0.95) occurring in 10-50 min at room temperature. These values are increased about 10-fold on refrigeration and about 5- to 10-fold on reduction of the pH of the medium to pH 4-5. At pH 7 and room temperature, t0.95 is observed in under 1 h with the alkylating agents nitrogen mustard, chlorambucil, melphalan, 2,5-diaziridinyl-3,6-bis(2-hydroxyethylamino)-1,4-benzoquinone (BZQ), dibromodulcitol, dibromomannitol, treosulphan, and procarbazine. Of the other alkylating agents, 4-hydroperoxycylophosphamide (sometimes used in vitro in place of cyclophosphamide), busulphan, dianhydrogalactitol, aziridinylbenzoquinone (AZQ), and dacarbazine have a t0.95 of between 2 and 24 h, while ifosfamide and pentamethylmelamine are both stable in aqueous solution for greater than 7 days. About half the drugs studied in detail have been stored frozen in solution for in vitro use, although very little is known about their stability under these conditions.

  3. stableGP

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...

  4. Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina) Updated:Aug 21,2017 You may have heard the term “angina pectoris” or “stable angina” in your doctor’s office, ...

  5. Improved dehydriding property of polyvinylpyrrolidone coated Mg-Ni hydrogen storage nano-composite prepared by hydriding combustion synthesis and wet mechanical milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linglong Yao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP coated Mg95Ni5 nano-composites were prepared by hydriding combustion synthesis (HCS plus wet mechanical milling (WM with tetrahydrofuran (THF and donated as WM-x wt% PVP (x = 1, 3, 5 and 7 respectively. The phase compositions, microstructures and dehydriding property, as well as the co-effect of PVP and THF were investigated in detail. XRD results showed that the average crystal size of MgH2 in the milled Mg95Ni5 decreased from 23 nm without PVP to 18 nm with 1 wt% PVP. The peak temperature of dehydrogenation of MgH2 in the milled Mg95Ni5 decreased from 293.0 °C without THF to 250.4 °C with THF. The apparent activation energy for decomposition of MgH2 in WM-7 wt% PVP was estimated to be 66.94 kJ/mol, which is 37.70 kJ/mol lower than that of milled Mg95Ni5 without THF and PVP. PVP and THF can facilitate the refinement of particle size during mechanical milling process. Attributed to small particle sizes and synergistic effect of PVP and THF, the composites exhibit markedly improved dehydriding properties. Keywords: Mg-Ni-PVP, Composite, Mg-based alloy, Wet mechanical milling, Dehydriding temperature

  6. Hydrogen storage and hydrolysis properties of core-shell structured Mg-MFx (M=V, Ni, La and Ce) nano-composites prepared by arc plasma method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jianfeng; Zou, Jianxin; Lu, Chong; Zeng, Xiaoqin; Ding, Wenjiang

    2017-10-01

    In this work, core-shell structured Mg-MFx (M = V, Ni, La and Ce) nano-composites are prepared by using arc plasma method. The particle size distribution, phase components, microstructures, hydrogen sorption properties of these composites and hydrolysis properties of their corresponding hydrogenated powders are carefully investigated. It is shown that the addition of MFx through arc plasma method can improve both the hydrogen absorption kinetics of Mg and the hydrolysis properties of corresponding hydrogenated powders. Among them, the Mg-NiF2 composite shows the best hydrogen absorption properties at relatively low temperatures, which can absorb 3.26 wt% of H2 at 373 K in 2 h. Such rapid hydrogen absorption rate is mainly due to the formation of Mg2Ni and MgF2 on Mg particles during arc evaporation and condensation. In contrast, measurements also show that the hydrogenated Mg-VF3 composite has the lowest peak desorption temperature and the fastest hydrolysis rate among all the hydrogenated Mg-MFx composites. The less agglomeration tendency of Mg particles and VO2 covered on MgH2 particles account for the reduced hydrogen desorption temperature and enhanced hydrolysis rate.

  7. Preparation and characterizations of HDPE-EVA alloy/OMT nanocomposites/paraffin compounds as a shape stabilized phase change thermal energy storage material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Yibing; Hu Yuan; Song Lei; Lu Hongdian; Chen Zuyao; Fan Weicheng

    2006-01-01

    A kind of shape stabilized phase change nanocomposites materials (PCNM) based on high density polyethylene (HDPE)/ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) alloy, organophilic montmorillonite (OMT), paraffin and intumescent flame retardant (IFR) are prepared using twin-screw extruder technique. The structures of the HDPE-EVA alloy/OMT nanocomposites are evidenced by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that an ordered intercalated nanomorphology of the HDPE-EVA alloy/OMT nanocomposites is formed. Then the structures of the shape stabilized PCNM are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The HDPE-EVA alloy/OMT nanocomposites act as the supporting material and form the three-dimensional network structure. The paraffin acts as a phase change material and disperses in the three-dimensional network structure. Its latent heat is given by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) method. The SEM and DSC results show that the additives of IFR have little effect on the network structure and the latent heat of shape stabilized PCNM, respectively. The thermal stability properties are characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The TGA analysis results indicate that the flame retardant shape stabilized PCNM produce a larger amount of char residue at 800 deg. C than that of shape stabilized PCNM, although the onset of weight loss of the flame retardant shape stabilized PCNM occur at a lower temperature. The formed multicellular char residue contributes to the improvement of thermal stability performance. The probable combustion mechanisms are also discussed in this paper

  8. Radappertization of ready-to-eat shelf-stable, traditional Indian bread - Methi Paratha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoir, Shraddha A.; Muppalla, Shobita R.; Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Chawla, S. P.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-06-01

    Shelf-stable ready-to-eat (RTE) Methi Paratha (flavored Indian unleavened flat bread) was developed using combination of hurdles including radiation processing. The Methi Paratha was prepared using dough containing wheat flour, dried fenugreek leaves and spices. The samples were vacuum packed in multi-layered pouches and irradiated at 25 kGy in frozen conditions. Samples were evaluated for microbiological counts, lipid peroxidation and sensory attributes during storage under ambient conditions. Samples were found to be devoid of any viable microorganism throughout the storage period of 180 days. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value which indicates lipid peroxidation of samples did not show any significant increase with time. The Methi Paratha was found to be acceptable by the evaluating panelists.

  9. Neutron storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strelkov, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    The report is devoted to neutron storage (NS) and describes the history of experiments on the NS development. Great attention is paid to ultracold neutron (UCN) storage. The experiments on the UCN generation, transport, spectroscopy, storage and detection are described. Experiments on searching the UCN electric-dipole moment and electric charge are continued. Possible using of UCN for studying the nanoparticles is discussed [ru

  10. Energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odru, P.

    2010-01-01

    This book proposes a broad overview of the technologies developed in the domains of on-board electricity storage (batteries, super-capacitors, flywheels), stationary storage (hydraulic dams, compressed air, batteries and hydrogen), and heat storage (sensible, latent and sorption) together with their relative efficiency, their expected developments and what advantages they can offer. Eminent specialists of this domain have participated to the redaction of this book, all being members of the Tuck's Foundation 'IDees' think tank. (J.S.)

  11. Energy storage

    CERN Document Server

    Brunet, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Energy storage examines different applications such as electric power generation, transmission and distribution systems, pulsed systems, transportation, buildings and mobile applications. For each of these applications, proper energy storage technologies are foreseen, with their advantages, disadvantages and limits. As electricity cannot be stored cheaply in large quantities, energy has to be stored in another form (chemical, thermal, electromagnetic, mechanical) and then converted back into electric power and/or energy using conversion systems. Most of the storage technologies are examined: b

  12. Tritium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hircq, B.

    1989-01-01

    A general synthesis about tritium storage is achieved in this paper and a particular attention is given to practical application in the Fusion Technology Program. Tritium, storage under gaseous form and solid form are discussed (characteristics, advantages, disadvantages and equipments). The way of tritium storage is then discussed and a choice established as a function of a logic which takes into account the main working parameters

  13. Study of Supported Nickel Catalysts Prepared by Aqueous Hydrazine Method. Hydrogenating Properties and Hydrogen Storage: Support Effect. Silver Additive Effect; Catalyseurs de nickel supportes prepares par la methode de l'hydrazine aqueuse. Proprietes hydrogenantes et stockage d'hydrogene. Effet du support. Effet de l'ajout d'argent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcieszak, R

    2006-06-15

    We have studied Ni or NiAg nano-particles obtained by the reduction of nickel salts (acetate or nitrate) by hydrazine and deposited by simple or EDTA-double impregnation on various supports ({gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, amorphous or crystallized SiO{sub 2}, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, CeO{sub 2} and carbon). Prepared catalysts were characterized by different methods (XRD, XPS, low temperature adsorption and desorption of N{sub 2}, FTIR and FTIR-Pyridine, TEM, STEM, EDS, H{sub 2}-TPR, H{sub 2}-adsorption, H{sub 2}-TPD, isopropanol decomposition) and tested in the gas phase hydrogenation of benzene or as carbon materials in the hydrogen storage at room temperature and high pressure. The catalysts prepared exhibited better dispersion and activity than classical catalysts. TOF's of NiAg/SiO{sub 2} or Ni/carbon catalysts were similar to Pt catalysts in benzene hydrogenation. Differences in support acidity or preparation method and presence of Ag as metal additive play a crucial role in the chemical reduction of Ni by hydrazine and in the final properties of the materials. Ni/carbon catalysts could store significant amounts of hydrogen at room temperature and high pressure (0.53%/30 bars), probably through the hydrogen spillover effect. (author)

  14. Thermal performance study of form-stable composite phase change material with polyacrylic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Shin Yiing; Munusamy, Yamuna; Ong, Kok Seng; Chee, Swee Yong; Sanmuggam, Shimalaa

    2017-04-01

    Phase change material (PCM) is one of the most popular and widely used as thermal energy storage material because it is able to absorb and release a large amount of latent heat during a phase change process over a narrow temperature range. In this work, the form-stable composite PCM was prepared by blending of PMMA and myristic acid in different weight percentage. PMMA was used as a supporting material while myristic acid was used as PCM. Theoretically, PCM can be encapsulated in the support material after blending. However, a small amount of liquid PCMs can leak out from supporting material due to the volume change in phase change process. Therefore, a form-stable composite PCM with polyacrylic coating was studied. Leakage test was carried out to determine the leakage percentage of the form-stable composite PCM. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to characterize the chemical compatibility of the form-stable PCM composite while differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to study the melting, freezing point and the latent heat of melting and freezing for the form-stable composite PCM.

  15. Probe Storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gemelli, Marcellino; Abelmann, Leon; Engelen, Johannes Bernardus Charles; Khatib, M.G.; Koelmans, W.W.; Zaboronski, Olog; Campardo, Giovanni; Tiziani, Federico; Laculo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview of probe-based data storage research over the last three decades, encompassing all aspects of a probe recording system. Following the division found in all mechanically addressed storage systems, the different subsystems (media, read/write heads, positioning, data

  16. Evolution of clustered storage

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Van de Vyvre, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The session actually featured two presentations: * Evolution of clustered storage by Lance Hukill, Quantum Corporation * ALICE DAQ - Usage of a Cluster-File System: Quantum StorNext by Pierre Vande Vyvre, CERN-PH the second one prepared at short notice by Pierre (thanks!) to present how the Quantum technologies are being used in the ALICE experiment. The abstract to Mr Hukill's follows. Clustered Storage is a technology that is driven by business and mission applications. The evolution of Clustered Storage solutions starts first at the alignment between End-users needs and Industry trends: * Push-and-Pull between managing for today versus planning for tomorrow * Breaking down the real business problems to the core applications * Commoditization of clients, servers, and target devices * Interchangeability, Interoperability, Remote Access, Centralized control * Oh, and yes, there is a budget and the "real world" to deal with This presentation will talk through these needs and trends, and then ask the question, ...

  17. Bordism, stable homotopy and adams spectral sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Kochman, Stanley O

    1996-01-01

    This book is a compilation of lecture notes that were prepared for the graduate course "Adams Spectral Sequences and Stable Homotopy Theory" given at The Fields Institute during the fall of 1995. The aim of this volume is to prepare students with a knowledge of elementary algebraic topology to study recent developments in stable homotopy theory, such as the nilpotence and periodicity theorems. Suitable as a text for an intermediate course in algebraic topology, this book provides a direct exposition of the basic concepts of bordism, characteristic classes, Adams spectral sequences, Brown-Peter

  18. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The development of robust stable boundary layer parameterizations for use in NWP and climate models is hampered by the multiplicity of processes and their unknown interactions. As a result, these models suffer ...

  19. Preparation of Proper Immunogen by Cloning and Stable Expression of cDNA coding for Human Hematopoietic Stem Cell Marker CD34 in NIH-3T3 Mouse Fibroblast Cell Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaghat, Farzaneh; Abbasi-Kenarsari, Hajar; Majidi, Jafar; Movassaghpour, Ali Akbar; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Kazemi, Tohid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Transmembrane CD34 glycoprotein is the most important marker for identification, isolation and enumeration of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). We aimed in this study to clone the cDNA coding for human CD34 from KG1a cell line and stably express in mouse fibroblast cell line NIH-3T3. Such artificial cell line could be useful as proper immunogen for production of mouse monoclonal antibodies. Methods: CD34 cDNA was cloned from KG1a cell line after total RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis. Pfu DNA polymerase-amplified specific band was ligated to pGEMT-easy TA-cloning vector and sub-cloned in pCMV6-Neo expression vector. After transfection of NIH-3T3 cells using 3 μg of recombinant construct and 6 μl of JetPEI transfection reagent, stable expression was obtained by selection of cells by G418 antibiotic and confirmed by surface flow cytometry. Results: 1158 bp specific band was aligned completely to reference sequence in NCBI database corresponding to long isoform of human CD34. Transient and stable expression of human CD34 on transfected NIH-3T3 mouse fibroblast cells was achieved (25% and 95%, respectively) as shown by flow cytometry. Conclusion: Cloning and stable expression of human CD34 cDNA was successfully performed and validated by standard flow cytometric analysis. Due to murine origin of NIH-3T3 cell line, CD34-expressing NIH-3T3 cells could be useful as immunogen in production of diagnostic monoclonal antibodies against human CD34. This approach could bypass the need for purification of recombinant proteins produced in eukaryotic expression systems. PMID:25789221

  20. Dry storage cells for radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, D.J.; Paget, F.T.W.

    1982-01-01

    A facility for posting irradiated nuclear fuel from a preparation cell of a dry storage complex into storage canisters located in buckets within a clean cell comprises a telescopic tubular port member for sealably connecting the preparation cell to a canister. In operation the closure of the canister is screened against contamination and withdrawn from the canister into the preparation cell via a retractable grab prior to posting of the fuel into the canister. (author)

  1. Energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1962-07-01

    The papers on energy storage problems, given to the United Nations Conference on New Sources of Energy, Rome, 1961, are reviewed. Many aspects of the subject are discussed: comparisons between the costs of storing energy in batteries and in fuel cells; the use, efficiency and expected improvement of fuel cells; the principles involved in the chemical conversion of solar energy to chemical energy; the use of metal hydride fuel cells; the chemical conversion and storage of concentrated solar energy for which the solar furnace is used for photochemical reactions. Finally, the general costs of storing energy in any form and delivering it are analyzed with particular reference to storage batteries and fuel cells.

  2. Preparation of stable tea seed oil nano-particle emulsions by a low energy method with non-ionic surfactants; Preparación de emulsiones estables de nanopartículas de aceite de semilla de té mediante un método de baja energía con tensioactivos no iónicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanlayavattanakul, M.; Lourith, N.

    2017-07-01

    Tea seed oil nano-particle emulsions were prepared. Non-ionic surfactants containing Tween 80 and Span 80 (1:1, w/w) were mixed with propanol (3-9:1, w/w) to give Smix, which was thereafter mixed with tea seed oil. The mixture was titrated with water at 150 rpm to give clear or bluish and bluish-white emulsions. Twelve nano-particle emulsions with 64.64 to 72.73% Smix, 16.66 to 27.27% oil and 9.09 to 16.67% water with particle sizes between 207.00 to 430.10 nm, PDI of 0 to 0.4, ζ-potential of -42.00 to -49.63 mV, pH of 7.04 to 7.32 and 151.33 to 241.93 cps, were stable following an accelerated stability test and long term storage at room temperature and 4 and 45 ºC for 90 days, although one system (16.66% oil and 66.67% Smix) was separated. This nano-particle emulsion formulation is concise and feasible for an industrial development of topical products containing tea seed oil. [Spanish] Se prepararon emulsiones de nanopartículas de aceite de semilla de té. Se mezclaron tensioactivos no iónicos que contenían Tween 80 y Span 80 (1:1, p/p) con propanol (3-9: 1, p/p) para dar Smix que después se mezcló con aceite de semilla de té. La mezcla se valoró con agua a 150 rpm para dar emulsiones claras o azuladas y blanco azulado. Doce emulsiones de nanopartículas con 64,64 a 72,73% de Smix, 16,66 a 27,27% de aceite y 9,09 a 16,67% de agua con tamaños de partícula entre 207,00 y 430,10 nm, PDI de 0 a 0,4, potencial ζ de -42,00 a -49,63 mV, PH de 7,04 a 7,32 y 151,33 a 241,93 cps, se mantuvieron estables tras el ensayo de estabilidad acelerada y almacenamiento a largo plazo a temperatura ambiente y 4 y 45 ºC durante 90 días, aunque uno de los sistemas (16,66% de aceite y 66,67% de Smix) se desvió. Esta formulación de emulsión de nanopartículas es concisa y factible para un desarrollo industrial de productos tópicos que contienen aceite de semilla de té.

  3. Stability of fragrance patch test preparations applied in test chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowitz, M; Zimerson, E; Svedman, C; Bruze, M

    2012-10-01

    Petrolatum patch test preparations are for practical reasons often applied in test chambers in advance, several hours or even days before the patient is tested. As many fragrance compounds are volatile it may be suspected that petrolatum preparations applied in test chambers are not stable over time. To investigate the stability of petrolatum preparations of the seven chemically defined components in the fragrance mix (FM I) when stored in test chambers. Samples of petrolatum preparations applied in test chambers stored at room temperature and in a refrigerator for between 4 and 144 h were analysed using liquid chromatographic methods. The concentration decreased by ≥ 20% within 8 h in four of seven preparations stored in Finn chambers at room temperature. When stored in a refrigerator only the preparation of cinnamal had decreased by ≥ 20% within 24 h. The stability of preparations of cinnamal stored in IQ chambers with a plastic cover was slightly better, but like the preparations applied in Finn chambers, the concentration decreased by ≥ 20% within 4 h at room temperature and within 24 h in a refrigerator. Cinnamal and cinnamyl alcohol were found to be more stable when analysed as ingredients in FM I compared with when analysed in individual preparations. Within a couple of hours several fragrance allergens evaporate from test chambers to an extent that may affect the outcome of the patch test. Application to the test chambers should be performed as close to the patch test occasion as possible and storage in a refrigerator is recommended. © 2012 The Authors. BJD © 2012 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  5. Evolutionary Stable Strategy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General Article Volume 21 Issue 9 September 2016 pp 803- ... Keywords. Evolutionary game theory, evolutionary stable state, conflict, cooperation, biological games.

  6. Stable Boundary Layer Issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The

  7. DPM: Future Proof Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, Alejandro; Furano, Fabrizio; Hellmich, Martin; Keeble, Oliver; Rocha, Ricardo; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2012-01-01

    The Disk Pool Manager (DPM) is a lightweight solution for grid enabled disk storage management. Operated at more than 240 sites it has the widest distribution of all grid storage solutions in the WLCG infrastructure. It provides an easy way to manage and configure disk pools, and exposes multiple interfaces for data access (rfio, xroot, nfs, gridftp and http/dav) and control (srm). During the last year we have been working on providing stable, high performant data access to our storage system using standard protocols, while extending the storage management functionality and adapting both configuration and deployment procedures to reuse commonly used building blocks. In this contribution we cover in detail the extensive evaluation we have performed of our new HTTP/WebDAV and NFS 4.1 frontends, in terms of functionality and performance. We summarize the issues we faced and the solutions we developed to turn them into valid alternatives to the existing grid protocols - namely the additional work required to prov...

  8. Properties of cyclodextrins. II. Preparation of a stable β-cyclodextrin hydrate and determination of its water content and enthalpy of solution in water from 15 to 30.deg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiedenhof, N.; Lammers, J.N.J.J.

    1968-01-01

    The solubility of ß-cyclodextrin (ß-CD) in water has been measured by a refractive-index method at 15–30°. Evidence was obtained that the same, solid ß-CD hydrate phase is present in this temperature range. The formula of the hydrate was shown to be C42H70O35(12.0 ± 0.5)H20. A method for preparation

  9. Furan formation during storage and reheating of sterilised vegetable purées.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmers, Stijn; Grauwet, Tara; Buvé, Carolien; Van de Vondel, Lore; Kebede, Biniam T; Hendrickx, Marc E; Van Loey, Ann

    2015-01-01

    To this day, research for furan mitigation has mostly targeted the levels of food production and handling of prepared foods by the consumer. However, part of the furan concentrations found in commercially available food products might originate from chemical deterioration reactions during storage. A range of individual vegetable purées was stored at two different temperatures to investigate the effects of storage on the furan concentrations of shelf-stable, vegetable-based foods. After 5 months of storage at 35°C (temperature-abuse conditions), a general increase in furan concentrations was observed. The furan formation during storage could be reduced by storing the vegetable purées at a refrigerated temperature of 4°C, at which the furan concentrations remained approximately constant for at least 5 months. Following storage, the vegetable purées were briefly reheated to 90°C to simulate the effect of the final preparation step before consumption. Contrary to storage, furan concentrations decreased as a result of evaporative losses. Both refrigerated storage and the reheating step prior to consumption showed the potential of mitigation measures for furan formation in vegetable-based foods (e.g. canned vegetables, ready-to-eat soups, sauces or baby foods). Next to furan, the vegetable purées were analysed for 2- and 3-methylfuran. Tomato was very susceptible to the formation of both alkylated derivatives of furan, as opposed to the other vegetables in this study. Methylfuran concentrations rapidly decreased during storage, which was contrary to the results observed for furan.

  10. Magnetic hyaluronate hydrogels: preparation and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tóth, Ildikó Y.; Veress, Gábor; Szekeres, Márta; Illés, Erzsébet; Tombácz, Etelka

    2015-01-01

    A novel soft way of hyaluronate (HyA) based magnetic hydrogel preparation was revealed. Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared by co-precipitation. Since the naked MNPs cannot be dispersed homogenously in HyA-gel, their surface was modified with natural and biocompatible chondroitin-sulfate-A (CSA) to obtain CSA-coated MNPs (CSA@MNPs). The aggregation state of MNPs and that loaded with increasing amount of CSA up to 1 mmol/g was measured by dynamic light scattering at pH~6. Only CSA@MNP with ≥0.2 mmol/g CSA content was suitable for magnetic HyA-gel preparation. Rheological studies showed that the presence of CSA@MNP with up to 2 g/L did not affect the hydrogel's rheological behavior significantly. The results suggest that the HyA-based magnetic hydrogels may be promising formulations for future biomedical applications, e.g. as intra-articular injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis. - Highlights: • Novel hyaluronate(HyA)-based biocompatible magnetic hydrogels were prepared. • Chondroitin-sulfate-A coating is needed to disperse magnetite particles in HyA-gel. • Rheological behavior of hydrogels was independent of the magnetite content (<2 g/L). • Gels remained in stable and homogeneously dispersed state even after 90 days storage. • Magnetic HyA-gels are promising candidates for use as intra-articular injection

  11. Magnetic hyaluronate hydrogels: preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tóth, Ildikó Y., E-mail: Ildiko.Toth@chem.u-szeged.hu; Veress, Gábor; Szekeres, Márta; Illés, Erzsébet; Tombácz, Etelka, E-mail: tombacz@chem.u-szeged.hu

    2015-04-15

    A novel soft way of hyaluronate (HyA) based magnetic hydrogel preparation was revealed. Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) were prepared by co-precipitation. Since the naked MNPs cannot be dispersed homogenously in HyA-gel, their surface was modified with natural and biocompatible chondroitin-sulfate-A (CSA) to obtain CSA-coated MNPs (CSA@MNPs). The aggregation state of MNPs and that loaded with increasing amount of CSA up to 1 mmol/g was measured by dynamic light scattering at pH~6. Only CSA@MNP with ≥0.2 mmol/g CSA content was suitable for magnetic HyA-gel preparation. Rheological studies showed that the presence of CSA@MNP with up to 2 g/L did not affect the hydrogel's rheological behavior significantly. The results suggest that the HyA-based magnetic hydrogels may be promising formulations for future biomedical applications, e.g. as intra-articular injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis. - Highlights: • Novel hyaluronate(HyA)-based biocompatible magnetic hydrogels were prepared. • Chondroitin-sulfate-A coating is needed to disperse magnetite particles in HyA-gel. • Rheological behavior of hydrogels was independent of the magnetite content (<2 g/L). • Gels remained in stable and homogeneously dispersed state even after 90 days storage. • Magnetic HyA-gels are promising candidates for use as intra-articular injection.

  12. Preparation, purification and storage of radioinsulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo e Souza, I.T. de; Giannella Neto, D.; Wajchenberg, B.L.

    1988-01-01

    Stoichiometric iodination of porcine insulin was performed to the general method of Hunter and Greenwood with modifications recommented by Roth. These method was compared with radioiodination using Iodogen. Films of Iodogen react rapidly in the solid phase with aqueous mixtures of I and proteins. For two methods satisfactory activity of the labeled porcine insulin was obtained and the characteristics of the radioimmunoassay were studied. (author) [pt

  13. Metabolic studies in man using stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.; Jung, K.; Krumbiegel, P.

    1993-01-01

    In this project, stable isotope compounds and stable isotope pharmaceuticals were used (with emphasis on the application of 15 N) to study several aspects of nitrogen metabolism in man. Of the many methods available, the 15 N stable isotope tracer technique holds a special position because the methodology for application and nitrogen isotope analysis is proven and reliable. Valid routine methods using 15 N analysis by emission spectrometry have been demonstrated. Several methods for the preparation of biological material were developed during our participation in the Coordinated Research Programme. In these studies, direct procedures (i.e. use of diluted urine as a samples without chemical preparation) or rapid isolation methods were favoured. Within the scope of the Analytical Quality Control Service (AQCS) enriched stable isotope reference materials for medical and biological studies were prepared and are now available through the International Atomic Energy Agency. The materials are of special importance as the increasing application of stable isotopes as tracers in medical, biological and agricultural studies has focused interest on reliable measurements of biological material of different origin. 24 refs

  14. Thermally stable sintered porous metal articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gombach, A.L.; Thellmann, E.L.

    1980-01-01

    A sintered porous metal article is provided which is essentially thermally stable at elevated temperatures. In addition, a method for producing such an article is also provided which method comprises preparing a blend of base metal particles and active dispersoid particles, forming the mixture into an article of the desired shape, and heating the so-formed article at sintering temperatures

  15. Synthesis and investigation of novel shelf-stable, brain-specific chemical delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Obaid, Abdulrahman M.; Farag, Hassan A.; Khalil, Ashraf A.; Hamide, Sami G. Abdel; Ahmed, Hassan S.; Al-Affifi, Ahmed M.; Gadkariem Elrasheed, A.; El-Subbagh, Hussein I.; Al-Shabanah, Othman A.; El-Kashef, Hassan A.

    2006-01-01

    A 1, 4-dihydropyridine pyridinium salt type redox system is described as a general and flexible method for site-specific and sustained delivery of drugs into the brain. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) were used as a model example to be delivered into the brain. Chemical and biological oxidations of these compounds were investigated. The prepared 1, 4-dihydropyridines were subjected to various chemical and biological oxidations to evaluate their ability to cross blood brain barrier (BBB), and to be oxidized biologically into their corresponding quaternary compounds. 1-(Ethioxy-carbonylmethyl)-3, 5-bis[N-(2-fluoro-benzylideneamino)carbamoyl]-1, 4-dyhydropyridine (31) proved to cross BBB in adequate rate and converted by the oxidizing enzymes into the corresponding quaternary salt N-(ethoxycarbolynmethyl)-3, 5-bis[N-(2-fluorobenylideneamino)carbamoyl]pyridimium bromide(20). Stability studies of the synthesized chemical delivery systems (CDSs) at various pH values and temperatures showed the shelf life time of a solution containing compound 31 is 20.53 days at 5C, which recommended a lower storage temperature for such solutions. The prepared CDSs proved to be fairly stable for powder form storage. The stability of the prepared compounds is attributed to the conjugation of the two carboxylic functions at C3 and C5 of the pyridine ring with their adjacent double bonds. These results are in consistency with the original rationale design. (author)

  16. Perspective: Highly stable vapor-deposited glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    This article describes recent progress in understanding highly stable glasses prepared by physical vapor deposition and provides perspective on further research directions for the field. For a given molecule, vapor-deposited glasses can have higher density and lower enthalpy than any glass that can be prepared by the more traditional route of cooling a liquid, and such glasses also exhibit greatly enhanced kinetic stability. Because vapor-deposited glasses can approach the bottom of the amorphous part of the potential energy landscape, they provide insights into the properties expected for the "ideal glass." Connections between vapor-deposited glasses, liquid-cooled glasses, and deeply supercooled liquids are explored. The generality of stable glass formation for organic molecules is discussed along with the prospects for stable glasses of other types of materials.

  17. Normal modified stable processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2002-01-01

    Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process......This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...

  18. Applications of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.

    1991-06-01

    This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe

  19. Ultra High Pressure Homogenization of Soy Milk: Effect on Quality Attributes during Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaideep S. Sidhu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyzed soy milk prepared from whole dehulled soybeans. The traditional method of soy milk preparation leads to wastage of about 35% of soybean solids in the form of okara, which gets filtered out. In the current study, soy milk was prepared with practically 100% recovery of soybean solids and treated with continuous flow high pressure processing (207 and 276 MPa pressure, 121 and 145 °C exit temperatures, and 0.75 and 1.25 L/min flow rates, and the changes in the physical, chemical, microbial, and sensory properties during 28 days of storage at 4 °C were analyzed. The treated soy milk remained stable for 28 days. There was a significant reduction in the particle size of soybean solids which did not change during storage. The pH of the treated soy milk was significantly lower than the untreated soy milk and it reduced further upon storage. The soy milk was pasteurized with high pressure processing coupled with preheating. No lipoxygenase activity was detected. Compared to commercial samples, there was no significant difference in the astringency, bitterness, or chalkiness of soy milk prepared in the study.

  20. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  1. Interim dry fuel storage for magnox reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, N [National Nuclear Corporation, Risley, Warrington (United Kingdom); Ealing, C [GEC Energy Systems Ltd, Whetstone, Leicester (United Kingdom)

    1985-07-01

    In the UK the practice of short term buffer storage in water ponds prior to chemical reprocessing had already been established on the early gas cooled reactors in Calder Hall. Thus the choice of water pond buffer storage for MGR power plants logically followed the national policy decision to reprocess. The majority of the buffer storage period would take place at the reprocessing plant with only a nominal of 100 days targeted at the station. Since Magnox clad fuel is not suitable for long term pond storage, alternative methods of storage on future stations was considered desirable. In addition to safeguards considerations the economic aspects of the fuel cycle has influenced the conclusion that today the purchase of a MGR power plant with dry spent fuel storage and without commitment to reprocess would be a rational decision for a country initiating a nuclear programme. Dry storage requirements are discussed and two designs of dry storage facilities presented together with a fuel preparation facility.

  2. Interim dry fuel storage for magnox reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, N.; Ealing, C.

    1985-01-01

    In the UK the practice of short term buffer storage in water ponds prior to chemical reprocessing had already been established on the early gas cooled reactors in Calder Hall. Thus the choice of water pond buffer storage for MGR power plants logically followed the national policy decision to reprocess. The majority of the buffer storage period would take place at the reprocessing plant with only a nominal of 100 days targeted at the station. Since Magnox clad fuel is not suitable for long term pond storage, alternative methods of storage on future stations was considered desirable. In addition to safeguards considerations the economic aspects of the fuel cycle has influenced the conclusion that today the purchase of a MGR power plant with dry spent fuel storage and without commitment to reprocess would be a rational decision for a country initiating a nuclear programme. Dry storage requirements are discussed and two designs of dry storage facilities presented together with a fuel preparation facility

  3. Opportunities in independent gas storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, R.

    1999-01-01

    The range of business opportunities currently available for the midstream oil and gas business were discussed with particular focus on storage opportunities. Alberta Energy Co. (AEC) Ltd.'s two midstream business units include AEC Pipelines and Gas Processing, and AEC Storage and Hub Services. These two businesses provide the company with good investment returns, stable cash flow, and some significant strategic synergies with their exploration and production businesses. In 1988, the AECO C Hub in southeastern Alberta was created as an outgrowth of AEC's gas production operations on the Suffield block, where they had depleted gas reservoirs with high rock quality suitable for high deliverability storage. With the AECO C Hub, AEC was able to offer firm storage contracts of from 1 to 20 years, and to introduce short term interruptible parking and lending services, title exchange, a spot price index for greater price discovery, and an electronic nomination system. AEC is currently completing construction of their second commercial storage facility, the Wild Goose project, in northern California. D ebottlenecking' the Western Canada supply basin should provide additional opportunities for further expansion not only for AEC but also for other midstream service providers. Opportunities are especially available in the areas of new storage facilities to serve location-specific needs, replacement of declining storage capacity, replacement of retiring facilities, technological optimization of existing facilities, more flexible, higher deliverability facilities and commercial optimization of existing facilities. A map of the hubs and market centres of North America are included. 5 figs

  4. Lithium ion storage between graphenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Yue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we investigate the storage of lithium ions between two parallel graphene sheets using the continuous approximation and the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential. The continuous approximation assumes that the carbon atoms can be replaced by a uniform distribution across the surface of the graphene sheets so that the total interaction potential can be approximated by performing surface integrations. The number of ion layers determines the major storage characteristics of the battery, and our results show three distinct ionic configurations, namely single, double, and triple ion forming layers between graphenes. The number densities of lithium ions between the two graphenes are estimated from existing semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations, and the graphene sheets giving rise to the triple ion layers admit the largest storage capacity at all temperatures, followed by a marginal decrease of storage capacity for the case of double ion layers. These two configurations exceed the maximum theoretical storage capacity of graphite. Further, on taking into account the charge-discharge property, the double ion layers are the most preferable choice for enhanced lithium storage. Although the single ion layer provides the least charge storage, it turns out to be the most stable configuration at all temperatures. One application of the present study is for the design of future high energy density alkali batteries using graphene sheets as anodes for which an analytical formulation might greatly facilitate rapid computational results.

  5. Radioactive gas storage device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Eiji; Kobayashi, Yoshihiro.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention concerns a device of ionizing radioactive gases to be processed in gaseous nuclear fission products in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, etc., and injecting them into metal substrates for storage. The device comprises a vessel for a tightly closed type outer electrode in which gases to be processed are introduced, an electrode disposed to the inside of the vessel and the target material, a high DC voltage power source for applying high voltage to the electrodes, etc. There are disposed a first electric discharging portion for preparting discharge plasma for ion injection of different electrode distance and a second electric discharging portion for causing stable discharge between the vessel and the electrode. The first electric discharging portion for the ion injection provides an electrode distance suitable to acceleration sputtering and the second electric discharging portion is used for stable discharge. Accordingly, if the gas pressure in the radioactive gas storage device is reduced by the external disturbance, etc., since the second electric discharging portion satisfies the electric discharging conditions, the device can continue electric discharge. (K.M.)

  6. Dry spent fuel storage licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturz, F.C.

    1995-01-01

    In the US, at-reactor-site dry spent fuel storage in independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSI) has become the principal option for utilities needing storage capacity outside of the reactor spent fuel pools. Delays in the geologic repository operational date at or beyond 2010, and the increasing uncertainty of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) being able to site and license a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility by 1998 make at-reactor-site dry storage of spent nuclear fuel increasingly desirable to utilities and DOE to meet the need for additional spent fuel storage capacity until disposal, in a repository, is available. The past year has been another busy year for dry spent fuel storage licensing. The licensing staff has been reviewing 7 applications and 12 amendment requests, as well as participating in inspection-related activities. The authors have licensed, on a site-specific basis, a variety of dry technologies (cask, module, and vault). By using certified designs, site-specific licensing is no longer required. Another new cask has been certified. They have received one new application for cask certification and two amendments to a certified cask design. As they stand on the brink of receiving multiple applications from DOE for the MPC, they are preparing to meet the needs of this national program. With the range of technical and licensing options available to utilities, the authors believe that utilities can meet their need for additional spent fuel storage capacity for essentially all reactor sites through the next decade

  7. Energy Storage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bladergroen, B

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In commercial arena, the most recent developments in EES are in electrochemical storage, singling out Li-ion batteries and Vanadium Redox flow batteries, while power-to-gas/-fuels (electrolysis of water into hydrogen and subsequent methanisation...

  8. Liver Storage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-10-23

    Oct 23, 1971 ... The need for whole-organ preservation has become in- cre.asingly important ... ideally fulfil the same purpose as the circulation of blood through the body, ... Hepatic hypothermia produced by the introduction of cold electrolyte ... Recently, we reported successful hypothermic immersion storage for up to 8 ...

  9. Dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, Don.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental movement has consistently argued against disposal of nuclear waste. Reasons include its irretrievability in the event of leakage, the implication that reprocessing will continue and the legitimacy attached to an expanding nuclear programme. But there is an alternative. The author here sets out the background and a possible future direction of a campaign based on a call for dry storage. (author)

  10. Uses of stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axente, Damian

    1998-01-01

    The most important fields of stable isotope use with examples are presented. These are: 1. Isotope dilution analysis: trace analysis, measurements of volumes and masses; 2. Stable isotopes as tracers: transport phenomena, environmental studies, agricultural research, authentication of products and objects, archaeometry, studies of reaction mechanisms, structure and function determination of complex biological entities, studies of metabolism, breath test for diagnostic; 3. Isotope equilibrium effects: measurement of equilibrium effects, investigation of equilibrium conditions, mechanism of drug action, study of natural processes, water cycle, temperature measurements; 4. Stable isotope for advanced nuclear reactors: uranium nitride with 15 N as nuclear fuel, 157 Gd for reactor control. In spite of some difficulties of stable isotope use, particularly related to the analytical techniques, which are slow and expensive, the number of papers reporting on this subject is steadily growing as well as the number of scientific meetings organized by International Isotope Section and IAEA, Gordon Conferences, and regional meeting in Germany, France, etc. Stable isotope application development on large scale is determined by improving their production technologies as well as those of labeled compound and the analytical techniques. (author)

  11. Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, W.

    2010-01-01

    Storage rings are circular machines that store particle beams at a constant energy. Beams are stored in rings without acceleration for a number of reasons (Tab. 1). Storage rings are used in high-energy, nuclear, atomic, and molecular physics, as well as for experiments in chemistry, material and life sciences. Parameters for storage rings such as particle species, energy, beam intensity, beam size, and store time vary widely depending on the application. The beam must be injected into a storage ring but may not be extracted (Fig. 1). Accelerator rings such as synchrotrons are used as storage rings before and after acceleration. Particles stored in rings include electrons and positrons; muons; protons and anti-protons; neutrons; light and heavy, positive and negative, atomic ions of various charge states; molecular and cluster ions, and neutral polar molecules. Spin polarized beams of electrons, positrons, and protons were stored. The kinetic energy of the stored particles ranges from 10 -6 eV to 3.5 x 10 12 eV (LHC, 7 x 10 12 eV planned), the number of stored particles from one (ESR) to 1015 (ISR). To store beam in rings requires bending (dipoles) and transverse focusing (quadrupoles). Higher order multipoles are used to correct chromatic aberrations, to suppress instabilities, and to compensate for nonlinear field errors of dipoles and quadrupoles. Magnetic multipole functions can be combined in magnets. Beams are stored bunched with radio frequency systems, and unbunched. The magnetic lattice and radio frequency system are designed to ensure the stability of transverse and longitudinal motion. New technologies allow for better storage rings. With strong focusing the beam pipe dimensions became much smaller than previously possible. For a given circumference superconducting magnets make higher energies possible, and superconducting radio frequency systems allow for efficient replenishment of synchrotron radiation losses of large current electron or positron beams

  12. Sample collection and preparation of biofluids and extracts for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M; Al-Talla, Zeyad A; Kharbatia, Najeh M

    2015-01-01

    To maximize the utility of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in metabonomics research, all stages of the experimental design should be standardized, including sample collection, storage, preparation, and sample separation. Moreover, the prerequisite for any GC-MS analysis is that a compound must be volatile and thermally stable if it is to be analyzed using this technique. Since many metabolites are nonvolatile and polar in nature, they are not readily amenable to analysis by GC-MS and require initial chemical derivatization of the polar functional groups in order to reduce the polarity and to increase the thermal stability and volatility of the analytes. In this chapter, an overview is presented of the optimum approach to sample collection, storage, and preparation for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabonomics with particular focus on urine samples as example of biofluids.

  13. Radappertization of ready-to-eat shelf-stable, traditional Indian bread - Methi Paratha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhoir, Shraddha A.; Muppalla, Shobita R.; Kanatt, Sweetie R.; Chawla, S.P.; Sharma, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Shelf-stable ready-to-eat (RTE) Methi Paratha (flavored Indian unleavened flat bread) was developed using combination of hurdles including radiation processing. The Methi Paratha was prepared using dough containing wheat flour, dried fenugreek leaves and spices. The samples were vacuum packed in multi-layered pouches and irradiated at 25 kGy in frozen conditions. Samples were evaluated for microbiological counts, lipid peroxidation and sensory attributes during storage under ambient conditions. Samples were found to be devoid of any viable microorganism throughout the storage period of 180 days. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value which indicates lipid peroxidation of samples did not show any significant increase with time. The Methi Paratha was found to be acceptable by the evaluating panelists. - Highlights: • Shelf-stable ready-to-eat (RTE) Methi Paratha (flavored Indian unleavened flat bread) was developed. • A combination of hurdles irradiation, vacuum-packaging and natural antioxidants was used. • Methi Paratha was microbiologically safe and sensorialy acceptable for 180 days

  14. Licensing of spent fuel dry storage and consolidated rod storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-02-01

    The results of this study, performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), respond to the nuclear industry's recommendation that a report be prepared that collects and describes the licensing issues (and their resolutions) that confront a new applicant requesting approval from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for dry storage of spent fuel or for large-scale storage of consolidated spent fuel rods in pools. The issues are identified in comments, questions, and requests from the NRC during its review of applicants' submittals. Included in the report are discussions of (1) the 18 topical reports on cask and module designs for dry storage fuel that have been submitted to the NRC, (2) the three license applications for dry storage of spent fuel at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs) that have been submitted to the NRC, and (3) the three applications (one of which was later withdrawn) for large-scale storage of consolidated fuel rods in existing spent fuel storage pools at reactors that were submitted tot he NRC. For each of the applications submitted, examples of some of the issues (and suggestions for their resolutions) are described. The issues and their resolutions are also covered in detail in an example in each of the three subject areas: (1) the application for the CASTOR V/21 dry spent fuel storage cask, (2) the application for the ISFSI for dry storage of spent fuel at Surry, and (3) the application for full-scale wet storage of consolidated spent fuel at Millstone-2. The conclusions in the report include examples of major issues that applicants have encountered. Recommendations for future applicants to follow are listed. 401 refs., 26 tabs

  15. WORKSHOP: Stable particle motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, Alessandro G.

    1993-01-01

    Full text: Particle beam stability is crucial to any accelerator or collider, particularly big ones, such as Brookhaven's RHIC heavy ion collider and the larger SSC and LHC proton collider schemes. A workshop on the Stability of Particle Motion in Storage Rings held at Brookhaven in October dealt with the important issue of determining the short- and long-term stability of single particle motion in hadron storage rings and colliders, and explored new methods for ensuring it. In the quest for realistic environments, the imperfections of superconducting magnets and the effects of field modulation and noise were taken into account. The workshop was divided into three study groups: Short-Term Stability in storage rings, including chromatic and geometric effects and correction strategies; Long-Term Stability, including modulation and random noise effects and slow varying effects; and Methods for determining the stability of particle motion. The first two were run in parallel, but the third was attended by everyone. Each group considered analytical, computational and experimental methods, reviewing work done so far, comparing results and approaches and underlining outstanding issues. By resolving conflicts, it was possible to identify problems of common interest. The workshop reaffirmed the validity of methods proposed several years ago. Major breakthroughs have been in the rapid improvement of computer capacity and speed, in the development of more sophisticated mathematical packages, and in the introduction of more powerful analytic approaches. In a typical storage ring, a particle may be required to circulate for about a billion revolutions. While ten years ago it was only possible to predict accurately stability over about a thousand revolutions, it is now possible to predict over as many as one million turns. If this trend continues, in ten years it could become feasible to predict particle stability over the entire storage period. About ninety participants

  16. Monitored retrievable storage status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is preparing a proposal for Congressional consideration of the inclusion of a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility as part of the Federal Nuclear Waste Management System. The DOE plans to submit the proposal package to the Congress by January 15, 1986. The proposed preferred location of the MRS facility is the former Clinch River Breeder site in the state of Tennessee. If the Congress approves implementation of the MRS proposal, it is estimated that the facility could be licensed and operational in ten years

  17. Porous polymeric materials for hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Luping; Liu, Di-Jia; Yuan, Shengwen; Yang, Junbing

    2013-04-02

    A porous polymer, poly-9,9'-spirobifluorene and its derivatives for storage of H.sub.2 are prepared through a chemical synthesis method. The porous polymers have high specific surface area and narrow pore size distribution. Hydrogen uptake measurements conducted for these polymers determined a higher hydrogen storage capacity at the ambient temperature over that of the benchmark materials. The method of preparing such polymers, includes oxidatively activating solids by CO.sub.2/steam oxidation and supercritical water treatment.

  18. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  19. DPM: Future Proof Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Alejandro; Beche, Alexandre; Furano, Fabrizio; Hellmich, Martin; Keeble, Oliver; Rocha, Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    The Disk Pool Manager (DPM) is a lightweight solution for grid enabled disk storage management. Operated at more than 240 sites it has the widest distribution of all grid storage solutions in the WLCG infrastructure. It provides an easy way to manage and configure disk pools, and exposes multiple interfaces for data access (rfio, xroot, nfs, gridftp and http/dav) and control (srm). During the last year we have been working on providing stable, high performant data access to our storage system using standard protocols, while extending the storage management functionality and adapting both configuration and deployment procedures to reuse commonly used building blocks. In this contribution we cover in detail the extensive evaluation we have performed of our new HTTP/WebDAV and NFS 4.1 frontends, in terms of functionality and performance. We summarize the issues we faced and the solutions we developed to turn them into valid alternatives to the existing grid protocols - namely the additional work required to provide multi-stream transfers for high performance wide area access, support for third party copies, credential delegation or the required changes in the experiment and fabric management frameworks and tools. We describe new functionality that has been added to ease system administration, such as different filesystem weights and a faster disk drain, and new configuration and monitoring solutions based on the industry standards Puppet and Nagios. Finally, we explain some of the internal changes we had to do in the DPM architecture to better handle the additional load from the analysis use cases.

  20. Lauric Acid Hybridizing Fly Ash Composite for Thermal Energy Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawei Xu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash includes different mineral phases. This paper reported on the preparation of a novel lauric acid (LA/fly ash (FA composite by vacuum impregnation as a form-stable phase change material (PCM for thermal energy, and especially investigated the effect of the hydrochloric acid-treated fly ash (FAh on the thermal energy storage performance of the composites. The morphology, crystalline structure, and porous textures of the samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. The results indicated that hydrochloric acid treatment was beneficial to the increase of loading capacity and crystallinity of LA in the LA/FAh composite, which caused an enhanced thermal storage capacity with latent heats for melting and freezing of LA/FAh (80.94 and 77.39 J/g, higher than those of LA/FA (34.09 and 32.97 J/g, respectively. Furthermore, the mechanism of enhanced thermal storage properties was investigated in detail.

  1. Stable isotope studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, T.

    1992-01-01

    The research has been in four general areas: (1) correlation of isotope effects with molecular forces and molecular structures, (2) correlation of zero-point energy and its isotope effects with molecular structure and molecular forces, (3) vapor pressure isotope effects, and (4) fractionation of stable isotopes. 73 refs, 38 figs, 29 tabs

  2. Interactive Stable Ray Tracing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dal Corso, Alessandro; Salvi, Marco; Kolb, Craig

    2017-01-01

    Interactive ray tracing applications running on commodity hardware can suffer from objectionable temporal artifacts due to a low sample count. We introduce stable ray tracing, a technique that improves temporal stability without the over-blurring and ghosting artifacts typical of temporal post-pr...

  3. The Stable Concordance Genus

    OpenAIRE

    Kearney, M. Kate

    2013-01-01

    The concordance genus of a knot is the least genus of any knot in its concordance class. Although difficult to compute, it is a useful invariant that highlights the distinction between the three-genus and four-genus. In this paper we define and discuss the stable concordance genus of a knot, which describes the behavior of the concordance genus under connected sum.

  4. Some stable hydromagnetic equilibria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J L; Oberman, C R; Kulsrud, R M; Frieman, E A [Project Matterhorn, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    1958-07-01

    We have been able to find and investigate the properties of equilibria which are hydromagnetically stable. These equilibria can be obtained, for example, by wrapping conductors helically around the stellarator tube. Systems with I = 3 or 4 are indicated to be optimum for stability purposes. In some cases an admixture of I = 2 fields can be advantageous for achieving equilibrium. (author)

  5. Influence of storage period on properties of biopolymer packaging materials and pouches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulut Sandra N.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilayer biodegradable films based on pumpkin oil cake (PuOC and zein, as well as pouches made from these materials, were prepared, and the changes of their mechanical, physicochemical and barrier properties were analyzed during four weeks of storage. Heat seal quality of formed pouches and composition of the gas atmosphere in the pouches were also monitored. The results showed that the bilayer film had a thickness of 300 ± 10 (μm, and no its changes were observed during the storage time. The tensile strength of the tested film increased slightly in the third week, but the elongation at break showed a decreasing trend during the whole storage period. The decreases in the moisture content, total soluble matter and swelling of the obtained film, were also observed. After one month of storage, the O2 transmission rate of tested films, increased from 27 to 64 (ml/m2 24h 1 bar, and the CO2 gas transmission rate from 147 to 188 (ml/m2 24h 1 bar. The heat seal strength of the PuOC/Zein pouches decreased during the whole storage period. The percentage of O2 in PuOC/Zein pouches increased up to 7 times during the storage period; however, the percentage of CO2 decreased up to 18 times already after one week, and then remained stable in the rest of the storage period. These results are, to a smaller extent, due to the gas transmission rate through the material, especially for CO2 , and to a greater extent, due to the low heat seal strength, which decreased through the storage period, and probably influenced the content of the gases in the pouches.[Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 46010

  6. EPRI's pumped storage planning and evaluation guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, H.H.

    1991-01-01

    EPRI's Hydropower Pumped Storage Planning and Evaluation Guide was published in 1990. The Guide provides step-by-step procedures to: evaluate pumped-storage operation in a utility system, establish site development concept, estimate capital cost, and conduct economic analysis. The Guide provides a floppy diskette containing a production costing model simulating the chronologic operation of pumped storage in a generating system. It provides a series of estimating curves for the preparation of capital cost estimates. The paper presents how the Guide was organized and prepared, and highlights its contents

  7. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  8. Underground storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1965-06-10

    A procedure is described for making an underground storage cavity in a soluble formation. Two holes are drilled, and fluid is pumped into the first hole. This fluid is a non-solute for the formation material. Then pressure is applied to the fluid until the formation is fractured in the direction of the second hole. More non-solute fluid is injected to complete the fracture between the 2 holes. A solute fluid is then circulated between the 2 holes, which results in removal of that part of the formation next to the fracture and the forming of a chamber.

  9. Pumped storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, P.L.

    1991-01-01

    The privately financed 1,000 MW Rocky Point Pumped Storage Project located in central Colorado, USA, will be one of the world's highest head, 2,350 feet reversible pump/turbine projects. The project will offer an economical supply of peaking power and spinning reserve power to Colorado and other southwestern states. This paper describes how the project will be made compatible with the environmental conditions in the project area and the type of terrestrial mitigation measures that are being proposed for those situations where the project impacts the environment, either temporarily or permanently

  10. Forensic Stable Isotope Biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerling, Thure E.; Barnette, Janet E.; Bowen, Gabriel J.; Chesson, Lesley A.; Ehleringer, James R.; Remien, Christopher H.; Shea, Patrick; Tipple, Brett J.; West, Jason B.

    2016-06-01

    Stable isotopes are being used for forensic science studies, with applications to both natural and manufactured products. In this review we discuss how scientific evidence can be used in the legal context and where the scientific progress of hypothesis revisions can be in tension with the legal expectations of widely used methods for measurements. Although this review is written in the context of US law, many of the considerations of scientific reproducibility and acceptance of relevant scientific data span other legal systems that might apply different legal principles and therefore reach different conclusions. Stable isotopes are used in legal situations for comparing samples for authenticity or evidentiary considerations, in understanding trade patterns of illegal materials, and in understanding the origins of unknown decedents. Isotope evidence is particularly useful when considered in the broad framework of physiochemical processes and in recognizing regional to global patterns found in many materials, including foods and food products, drugs, and humans. Stable isotopes considered in the larger spatial context add an important dimension to forensic science.

  11. Study on polyethylene glycol/epoxy resin composite as a form-stable phase change material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Yutang; Kang Huiying; Wang Weilong; Liu Hong; Gao Xuenong

    2010-01-01

    Form-stable polyethylene glycol (PEG)/epoxy resin (EP) composite as a novel phase change material (PCM) was prepared using casting molding method. In this new material, PEG acts as the latent heat storage material and EP polymer serves as the supporting material, which provides structural strength and prevents the leakage of the melted PEG. The structure and morphology of the novel composite were observed using Fourier transformation infrared spectroscope (FTIR) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The thermo-mechanical property and transition behavior were characterized by polarizing optical microscope (POM), static thermo-mechanical analysis (TMA) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). The experimental results show that, as a result of the physical tangled function of the epoxy resin carrier to the PEG segment, the composite macroscopically presents the solid-solid phase change characteristic.

  12. Storage shaft definitive closure plug and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dardaine, M.

    1992-01-01

    A definitive closure plug system for radioactive waste storage at any deepness, is presented. The inherent weight of the closure materials is used to set in the plug: these materials display an inclined sliding surface in such a way that when the closure material rests on a stable surface of the shaft storage materials, the relative sliding of the different materials tends to spread them towards the shaft internal wall so as to completely occlude the shaft

  13. Gas storage materials, including hydrogen storage materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtadi, Rana F; Wicks, George G; Heung, Leung K; Nakamura, Kenji

    2013-02-19

    A material for the storage and release of gases comprises a plurality of hollow elements, each hollow element comprising a porous wall enclosing an interior cavity, the interior cavity including structures of a solid-state storage material. In particular examples, the storage material is a hydrogen storage material such as a solid state hydride. An improved method for forming such materials includes the solution diffusion of a storage material solution through a porous wall of a hollow element into an interior cavity.

  14. Interim storage of radioactive waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report covers all the principal aspects of production and interim storage of radioactive waste packages. The latest design solutions of waste storage facilities and the operational experiences of developed countries are described and evaluated in order to assist developing Member States in decision making and design and construction of their own storage facilities. This report is applicable to any category of radioactive waste package prepared for interim storage, including conditioned spent fuel, high level waste and sealed radiation sources. This report addresses the following issues: safety principles and requirements for storage of waste packages; treatment and conditioning methods for the main categories of radioactive waste; examples of existing interim storage facilities for LILW, spent fuel and high level waste; operational experience of Member States in waste storage operations including control of storage conditions, surveillance of waste packages and observation of the behaviour of waste packages during storage; retrieval of waste packages from storage facilities; technical and administrative measures that will ensure optimal performance of waste packages subject to various periods of interim storage

  15. STORAGE STABILITY OF PESTICIDES IN EXTRACT SOLVENTS AND SAMPLING MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demonstrating that pesticides are stable in field media and their extracts over extended storage periods allows operational flexibility and cost efficiency. Stability of the 31 neutral pesticides and 2 acid herbicides of the Agricultural Health Study exposure pilot was evaluate...

  16. Preparation and properties of hydrothermally stable gamma-alumina membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, Arian; Kruidhof, H.; Bredesen, Rune; Verweij, H.

    2001-01-01

    Supported mesoporous γ-Al2O3 membranes deteriorate and blister in steam-containing environments at high temperatures. This deterioration led us to the development of a new type of supported γ-Al2O3 membrane with significantly improved stability under hostile conditions. Two measures were taken to

  17. Compressed air energy storage: preliminary design and site development program in an aquifer. Final draft, Task 2: Volume 2 of 3. Characterize and explore potential sites and prepare research and development plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    The characteristics of sites in Indiana and Illinois which are being investigated as potential sites for compressed air energy storage power plants are documented. These characteristics include geological considerations, economic factors, and environmental considerations. Extensive data are presented for 14 specific sites and a relative rating on the desirability of each site is derived. (LCL)

  18. What's Up with the Storage Hierarchy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnet, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Ten years ago, Jim Gray observed that flash was about to replace magnetic disks. He also predicted that the need for low latency would make main memory databases commonplace. Most of his predictions have proven accurate. Today, who can make predictions about the future of the storage hierarchy......? Both main memory and storage systems are undergoing profound transformations. First, their design goals are increasingly complex (reconfigurable infrastructure at low latency, high resource utilization and stable energy footprint). Second, the status quo is not an option due to the shortcomings...... of existing solutions (memory bandwidth gap, inefficiency of generic memory/storage controllers). Third, new technologies are emerging (hybrid memories, non-volatile memories still under non-disclosure agreements, near-data processing in memory and storage). The impact of these transformations on the storage...

  19. Theory of stable allocations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Svetlana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Swedish Royal Academy awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Economics to Lloyd Shapley and Alvin Roth, for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design. These two American researchers worked independently from each other, combining basic theory and empirical investigations. Through their experiments and practical design they generated a flourishing field of research and improved the performance of many markets. Born in 1923 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Shapley defended his doctoral thesis at Princeton University in 1953. For many years he worked at RAND, and for more than thirty years he was a professor at UCLA University. He published numerous scientific papers, either by himself or in cooperation with other economists.

  20. Integrating new Storage Technologies into EOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Andreas J.; van der Ster, Dan C.; Rocha, Joaquim; Lensing, Paul

    2015-12-01

    The EOS[1] storage software was designed to cover CERN disk-only storage use cases in the medium-term trading scalability against latency. To cover and prepare for long-term requirements the CERN IT data and storage services group (DSS) is actively conducting R&D and open source contributions to experiment with a next generation storage software based on CEPH[3] and ethernet enabled disk drives. CEPH provides a scale-out object storage system RADOS and additionally various optional high-level services like S3 gateway, RADOS block devices and a POSIX compliant file system CephFS. The acquisition of CEPH by Redhat underlines the promising role of CEPH as the open source storage platform of the future. CERN IT is running a CEPH service in the context of OpenStack on a moderate scale of 1 PB replicated storage. Building a 100+PB storage system based on CEPH will require software and hardware tuning. It is of capital importance to demonstrate the feasibility and possibly iron out bottlenecks and blocking issues beforehand. The main idea behind this R&D is to leverage and contribute to existing building blocks in the CEPH storage stack and implement a few CERN specific requirements in a thin, customisable storage layer. A second research topic is the integration of ethernet enabled disks. This paper introduces various ongoing open source developments, their status and applicability.

  1. Bi-stable optical actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdener, Fred R.; Boyd, Robert D.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a bi-stable optical actuator device that is depowered in both stable positions. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition from one state to another. The optical actuator device may be maintained in a stable position either by gravity or a restraining device.

  2. Pyrolytic Carbon Nanosheets for Ultrafast and Ultrastable Sodium-Ion Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Se Youn; Kang, Minjee; Choi, Jaewon; Lee, Min Eui; Yoon, Hyeon Ji; Kim, Hae Jin; Leal, Cecilia; Lee, Sungho; Jin, Hyoung-Joon; Yun, Young Soo

    2018-04-01

    Na-ion cointercalation in the graphite host structure in a glyme-based electrolyte represents a new possibility for using carbon-based materials (CMs) as anodes for Na-ion storage. However, local microstructures and nanoscale morphological features in CMs affect their electrochemical performances; they require intensive studies to achieve high levels of Na-ion storage performances. Here, pyrolytic carbon nanosheets (PCNs) composed of multitudinous graphitic nanocrystals are prepared from renewable bioresources by heating. In particular, PCN-2800 prepared by heating at 2800 °C has a distinctive sp 2 carbon bonding nature, crystalline domain size of ≈44.2 Å, and high electrical conductivity of ≈320 S cm -1 , presenting significantly high rate capability at 600 C (60 A g -1 ) and stable cycling behaviors over 40 000 cycles as an anode for Na-ion storage. The results of this study show the unusual graphitization behaviors of a char-type carbon precursor and exceptionally high rate and cycling performances of the resulting graphitic material, PCN-2800, even surpassing those of supercapacitors. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Biomarker for Glycogen Storage Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-03

    Fructose Metabolism, Inborn Errors; Glycogen Storage Disease; Glycogen Storage Disease Type I; Glycogen Storage Disease Type II; Glycogen Storage Disease Type III; Glycogen Storage Disease Type IV; Glycogen Storage Disease Type V; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VII; Glycogen Storage Disease Type VIII

  4. Optimization Of Preparation And Validation Of Hepatitis C Irma Kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariyanto, Agus; Wayan, R.S.; Sukiyati, Dj.; Darwati, Siti; Yunita, Fitri; Mondrida, Gina; Sulaiman; Yulianti, Veronika; Setiowati, Sri

    2000-01-01

    Optimization of preparation and validation of hepatitis C IRMA kit have been done. Tracer was prepared by iodination of anti-hlgG with 125 I using Choramin-T and N-Bromosuksinimide as oxidizing agent. Iodinated anti-hlgG was purified using PD-10 and Sephadex G-50 column. Coated bead was prepared by immobilization of antigen HCV recombinant on polystyrene bead. To obtain a good quality of reagent some parameters were optimized i.e.: colim used for purification. To determine the validity of the kit, validation which include comparison study and determination of specificity and sensitivity have been performed. A good quality of tracer has been able to prepared with high yield (74%) and high P/N value (15). The quality of coated bead is also reasonably good (P/N 34.3), and gave a good density and dissociation index (0.335 and 0.99% respectively). Both tracer and coated bead were remain stable after 2 months storage at 4 o C. In comparison with Elisa kit, the specificity and sensitivity of the HCV IRMA kit is reasonably high, 88.6% and 92.3% respectively

  5. Geological storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthoux, A.

    1983-01-01

    Certain radioactive waste contains substances which present, although they disappear naturally in a progressive manner, a potential risk which can last for very long periods, of over thousands of years. To ensure a safe long-term handling, provision has been made to bury it deep in stable geological structures which will secure its confinement. Radioactive waste is treated and conditioned to make it insoluble and is then encased in matrices which are to immobilize them. The most radioactive waste is thus incorporated in a matrix of glass which will ensure the insulation of the radioactive substances during the first thousands of years. Beyond that time, the safety will be ensured by the properties of the storage site which must be selected from now on. Various hydrogeological configurations have been identified. They must undergo detailed investigations, including even the creation of an underground laboratory. This document also presents examples of underground storage installations which are due to be built [fr

  6. Preparation and rheological behavior of polymer-modified asphalts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Ali Akbar

    1999-09-01

    Different materials and methods were used to prepare and stabilize polymer-modified asphalts. Addition of thermoplastic elastomers improved some technically important properties of asphalt. Due to inherent factors like large density difference between asphalt and polyethylene, many physical methods in which the structure of asphalt is unchanged, failed to stabilize this system. The effect of addition of copolymers and a pyrolytic oil residue derived from used tire rubber were also studied and found to be ineffective on the storage stability of the polymer-asphalt emulsions while high and moderate temperature properties of the asphalt were found to be improved. Finally, the technique of catalytic grafting of polymer on the surface of high-density particles (e.g. carbon black) was used to balance the large density difference between asphalt and polymer. The resulting polymer-asphalts were stable at high temperatures and showed enhanced properties at low and high temperatures.

  7. Methods of preparing and using intravenous nutrient compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beigler, M.A.; Koury, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    A method for preparing a stable, dry-packaged, sterile, nutrient composition which upon addition of sterile, pyrogen-free water is suitable for intravenous administration to a mammal, including a human, is described. The method comprises providing the nutrients in a specific dry form and state of physical purity acceptable for intravenous administration, sealing the nutrients in a particular type of container adapted to receive and dispense sterile fluids and subjecting the container and its sealed contents to a sterilizing, nondestructive dose of ionizing radiation. The method results in a packaged, sterile nutrient composition which may be dissolved by the addition of sterile pyrogen-free water. The resulting aqueous intravenous solution may be safely administered to a mammal in need of nutrient therapy. The packaged nutrient compositions of the invention exhibit greatly extended storage life and provide an economical method of providing intravenous solutions which are safe and efficacious for use. (author)

  8. Report by the committee assessing fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, W.W.

    1977-11-01

    Various concepts for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel have been considered. Preliminary design studies and cost estimates have been prepared for the following concepts: two with water cooling - prolonged pool storage at a generating station and pool storage at a central site - , three with air cooling at a central site - ''canister'', ''convection vault'', and ''conduction vault'' - and one underground storage scheme in rock salt. Costs (1972 dollars) were estimated including transportation and a perpetual care fund for maintenance and periodical renewal of the storage facility. Part 2 provides details of the concepts and costing methods. All concepts gave moderate costs providing a contribution of about 0.1 m$/kWh to the total unit energy cost. Advantages and disadvantages of the respective schemes are compared. (author)

  9. Dry storage of irradiated nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolmie, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    In transferring radioactive material between the preparation and clean chambers of a dry storage complex, irradiated nuclear fuel is posted from the preparation chamber to a sealable canister supported in a closable bucket in the clean chamber, or a contaminated sealed canister is posted from a closed bucket in the clean chamber into the preparation chamber by using a facility comprising two coaxial tubes constituting a closable orifice between the two chambers, the tubes providing sealing means for the bucket, and masking means for the bucket and canister closures together with means for withdrawing the closures into the preparation chamber. (author)

  10. Effect of MWCNT on prepared cathode material (Li{sub 2}Mn{sub (x)}Fe{sub (1-x)}SiO{sub 4}) for energy storage applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agnihotri, Shruti, E-mail: cecm.appsc.sa@gmail.com; Rattan, Sangeeta; Sharma, A. L., E-mail: alsharmaiitkgp@gmail.com [Centre for Physical Sciences, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda-151001 (India)

    2016-05-06

    The electrode material Li{sub 2}MnFeSiO{sub 4} was successfully synthesized by standard sol–gel method and further modified with multiwalled carbon nano tube (MWCNT) to achieve better electrochemical properties. Our strategy helps us to improve the performance and storage capacity as compared with the bared material. This novel composite structure constructs an efficient cation (Li{sup +}) and electron channel which significantly enhance the Li{sup +} ion diffusion coefficient and reduced charge transfer resistance. Hence leads to high conductivity and specific capacity. Characterization technique like Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) has been used to confirm its morphology, structure and particle size which comes out to be of the order of ∼20 to 30 nm. Lesser particle size reveals better electrochemical properties. Electrical conductivity (∼10{sup −5} Scm{sup −1}) of MWCNT doped oxide cathode materials was recorded using ac impedance spectroscopy technique which reflects tenfold increment when compared with pure oxide cathode materials. Cyclic voltametery analysis has been done to calculate specific capacity and potential window of materials with and without CNTs. The results obtained from different techniques are well correlated and suitable for energy storage applications.

  11. Preparation and Low Temperature Short-term Storage for Synthetic Seeds of Caladium bicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehpara MAQSOOD

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient somatic embryo encapsulation and in vitro plant regeneration technique were established with Caladium bicolor, an important ornamental plant.Tuber derived embryogenic callus (95.50% was obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium amended with 0.5 mg L-1 α-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA + 0.5 mg L-1 6-Benzyladenine (BA. The embryogenic callus later differentiated into somatic embryos in the same plant growth regulators (PGRs added medium (NAA and BA. The induced embryos matured and developed into plantlets in NAA and BA added media; maximum plantlets development was observed at 1.0 mg L-1 NAA + 1.0 mg L-1 BA supplemented medium. Synthetic seeds were produced by encapsulating embryos in gel containing 3.0% sucrose + 3.0% sodium alginate and 100 mM of calcium chloride.The highest synthetic seed germination (97.6% was observed on medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L-1 NAA + 1.0 mg L-1 BA. The synthetic seeds were kept at low temperatures for storage; the encapsulated beads were viable and demonstrated good germination even after 12 weeks of storage at 4 °C. The plantlet recovery frequency was however declined with time. The synthetic seed derived plantlets were morphologically similar to the mother plant.

  12. Effective energy storage from a triboelectric nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Yunlong; Wang, Jie; Wang, Sihong; Li, Shengming; Wen, Zhen; Guo, Hengyu; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-03-11

    To sustainably power electronics by harvesting mechanical energy using nanogenerators, energy storage is essential to supply a regulated and stable electric output, which is traditionally realized by a direct connection between the two components through a rectifier. However, this may lead to low energy-storage efficiency. Here, we rationally design a charging cycle to maximize energy-storage efficiency by modulating the charge flow in the system, which is demonstrated on a triboelectric nanogenerator by adding a motion-triggered switch. Both theoretical and experimental comparisons show that the designed charging cycle can enhance the charging rate, improve the maximum energy-storage efficiency by up to 50% and promote the saturation voltage by at least a factor of two. This represents a progress to effectively store the energy harvested by nanogenerators with the aim to utilize ambient mechanical energy to drive portable/wearable/implantable electronics.

  13. The "g-2" Muon Storage Ring

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The "g-2" muon storage ring, shortly before completion in June 1974. Bursts of pions (from a target, hit by a proton beam from the 26 GeV PS) are injected and polarized muons from their decay are captured on a stable orbit. When the muons decay too, their precession in the magnetic field of the storage ring causes a modulation of the decay-electron counting rate, from which the muon's anomalous magnetic moment can be determined. In 1977, the "g-2" magnets were modified to build ICE (Initial Cooling Experiment), a proton and antiproton storage ring for testing stochastic and electron cooling. Later on, the magnets had a 3rd life, when the ion storage ring CELSIUS was built from them in Uppsala. For later use as ICE, see 7711282, 7802099, 7809081,7908242.

  14. Influência da coleta, da produção e da estocagem na qualidade dos concentrados de plaquetas Influence of collection, preparation and storage on the quality of platelet concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida V. Tostes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Como o controle de qualidade dos concentrados de plaquetas (CP, feito na data de seu vencimento, não possibilita distinguir o momento e o procedimento que determina a eventual redução de sua qualidade, decidimos investigar, separadamente, a influência da coleta, da produção e da estocagem sobre a qualidade deste hemocomponente. Foram avaliados, em 33 CP randômicos, diariamente, durante cinco dias, os seguintes parâmetros: a agregação, o número de plaquetas e leucócitos, a pO2 e pCO2, o pH, sódio e potássio, a presença de swirling, grumos, hemácias e lipemia e cultura para bactérias. Observamos maior queda da agregação plaquetária com pares de agonistas durante a produção dos CP (de 99,4% para 59,8%, pAs quality control of platelet concentrates obtained at the expiration date does not distinguish between the different stages that may cause reductions in quality, such as collection and storage, we decided to separately investigate the influence of collection, processing and storage on the quality of these blood components. This study evaluated 33 random platelet concentrates daily for five days for the following parameters: aggregation, number of platelets and leukocytes, PO2 and PCO2, pH, sodium and potassium, the presence of swirling, platelet clots, red blood cells and lipemia, and bacteria culture. We observed a greater decrease in platelet aggregation with pairs of agonists during the production of platelet concentrates (from 99.4% to 59.8%, p<0.05, followed by a gradual drop during storage reaching 40.4% on day five. During storage the following were also observed: 1. a gradual drop of platelet concentration (p<0.05 although the values always remained higher than 5x1010/70 mL; 2. a decrease in leukocyte concentration (p<0.05; 3. increases in pO2 and decreases in pCO2 (p<0.05; 4. increase in the pH (p<0.05 from day 4 and in concentrations of sodium and potassium (in general p<0.05; 5. swirling in all platelet

  15. One-dimensional stable distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Zolotarev, V M

    1986-01-01

    This is the first book specifically devoted to a systematic exposition of the essential facts known about the properties of stable distributions. In addition to its main focus on the analytic properties of stable laws, the book also includes examples of the occurrence of stable distributions in applied problems and a chapter on the problem of statistical estimation of the parameters determining stable laws. A valuable feature of the book is the author's use of several formally different ways of expressing characteristic functions corresponding to these laws.

  16. Facile, Large-Quantity Synthesis of Stable, Tunable-Color Silicon Nanoparticles and Their Application for Long-Term Cellular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yiling; Sun, Xiaotian; Wang, Siyi; Peng, Fei; Bao, Feng; Su, Yuanyuan; Li, Youyong; Lee, Shuit-Tong; He, Yao

    2015-06-23

    We herein introduce a facile, low-cost photochemical method capable of rapid (nanoparticles (SiNPs) of tunable optical properties (peak emission wavelength in the range of 470-560 nm) under ambient air conditions, by introducing 1,8-naphthalimide as a reducing agent and surface ligands. The as-prepared SiNPs feature robust storage stability and photostability preserving strong and stable fluorescent during long-term (>3 h) high-power UV irradiation, in contrast to the rapid fluorescence quenching within 2 h of conventional organic dyes and II-VI quantum dots under the same conditions. The as-prepared SiNPs serving as photostable nanoprobes are workable for cellular imaging in long-term manners. Our findings provide a powerful method for mild-condition and low-cost, large-quantity production of highly fluorescent and photostable SiNPs for various promising applications.

  17. The Design of Distributed Micro Grid Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ya-feng; Wang, Yan-ping

    2018-03-01

    Distributed micro-grid runs in island mode, the energy storage system is the core to maintain the micro-grid stable operation. For the problems that it is poor to adjust at work and easy to cause the volatility of micro-grid caused by the existing energy storage structure of fixed connection. In this paper, an array type energy storage structure is proposed, and the array type energy storage system structure and working principle are analyzed. Finally, the array type energy storage structure model is established based on MATLAB, the simulation results show that the array type energy storage system has great flexibility, which can maximize the utilization of energy storage system, guarantee the reliable operation of distributed micro-grid and achieve the function of peak clipping and valley filling.

  18. Experimental study on uranium alloys for hydrogen storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deaconu, M.; Meleg, T.; Dinu, A.; Mihalache, M.; Ciuca, I.; Abrudeanu, M.

    2013-01-01

    The heaviest isotope of hydrogen is one of critically important elements in the field of fusion reactor technology. Conventionally, uranium metal is used for the storage of heavier isotopes of hydrogen (D and T). Under appropriate conditions, uranium absorbs hydrogen to form a stable UH 3 compound when exposed to molecular hydrogen at the temperature range of 300-500 O C at varied operating pressure below one atmosphere. However, hydriding-dehydriding on pure uranium disintegrates the specimen into fine powder. The powder is highly pyrophoric and has low heat conductivity, which makes it difficult to control the temperature, and has a high possibility of contamination Due to the powdering effect as hydrogen in uranium, alloying uranium with other metal looks promising for the use of hydrogen storage materials. This paper has the aim to study the hydriding properties of uranium alloys, including U-Ti U-Mo and U-Ni. The uranium alloys specimens were prepared by melting the constituent elements by means of simultaneous measurements of thermo-gravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TGA-DTA) and studied in as cast condition as hydrogen storage materials. Then samples were thermally treated under constant flow of hydrogen, at various temperatures between 573-973 0 K. The structural and absorption properties of the products obtained were examined by thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). They slowly reacted with hydrogen to form the ternary hydride and the hydrogenated samples mainly consisted of the pursued ternary hydride bat contained also U or UO 2 and some transient phase. (authors)

  19. Elaborate strategy for preparing Li4Ti5O12-based anode materials with significantly improved lithium storage: TiO2 nanodots in-situ decoration and hierarchical structure construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Tian, Qinghua; Huang, Jun; Bao, Dongmei; Zhang, Zhengxi; Yang, Li

    2017-11-01

    Spinel Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) has attracted extensive attention as potential anode materials for power lithium-ion batteries due to its outstanding structural stability and remarkable safety. However, it's practical application yet be limited by such disadvantages of dissatisfied specific capacity, poor electron conductivity and low lithium-ion diffusion coefficient. Thus, design and preparation of LTO anodes with desirable performance is still a challenge. Herein, we have successfully and greatly improved the performance of LTO anodes, in terms of rate capability, life and specific capacity in particular via dot-to-face anatase TiO2in-situ decoration and hierarchical structure construction under a facile approach (directly using the tetrabutyl titanate as titanium source instead of specially prepared titanium oxide precursors). The as-prepared LTO-based anode (denoted as T-LTO) delivers an ultra-high reversible specific capacity of 196.5 mAh g-1 after 300 cycles at 20 mA g-1, and superior rate performance and even ultra-long life of more than 145.8 mAh g-1 at 28.5C between 1.0 and 3.0 V. The achieved outstanding electrochemical performance largely surpasses that of reportedly state-of-the-art LTO-based anode materials. This work may open up a broader vision into developing advanced LTO-based anode materials for lithium-ion batteries.

  20. Sustainable Solutions for Nuclear used Fuels Interim Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, Marc; Favet, Dominique; Issard, Herve; Le Jemtel, Amaury; Drevon, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    AREVA has a unique experience in providing sustainable solutions for used fuel management, fitted with the needs of different customers in the world and with regulation in different countries. These solutions entail both recycling and interim storage technologies. In a first part, we will describe the various types of solutions for Interim Storage of UNF that have been implemented around the world for interim storage at reactor or centralized Pad solution in canisters dry storage, vault type storages for dry storage, dry storage of transportation casks (dual purpose) pools for wet storage, The experience for all these different families of interim storages in which AREVA is involved is extensive and will be discussed with respect to the new challenges: increase of the duration of the interim storage (long term interim storage) increase of burn up of the fuels In a second part of the presentation, special recycling features will be presented. In that case, interim storage of the used fuels is ensured in pools. This provides in the long term good conditions for the behaviour of the fuel and its retrievability. With recycling, the final waste (Universal Canister of vitrified fission products and compacted hulls and end pieces): is stable and licensed in many countries for the final disposal (France, UK, Belgium, NL, Switzerland, Germany, Japan, upcoming: Spain, Australia, Italy). Presents neither safety criticality risks nor proliferation risks (AREVA conditioned HLW and LL-ILW are free of IAEA safeguard constraints thanks to AREVA process high recovery and purification yields). It can therefore be safely stored in interim storage for more than 100 years before final disposal. Some economic considerations will also be discussed. In particular, in the case of long term interim storage of used fuels, there are growing uncertainties regarding the future needs of repackaging and transportation, which can result in future cost overruns. Meanwhile, in the recycling policy

  1. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-12-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available for distribution within the United States for non-destructive research use from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Materials Research Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or in reprocessing

  2. Effects of storage and yogurt matrix on the stability of tocotrienols encapsulated in chitosan-alginate microcapsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Phui Yee; Tan, Tai Boon; Chang, Hon Weng; Tey, Beng Ti; Chan, Eng Seng; Lai, Oi Ming; Baharin, Badlishah Sham; Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Tan, Chin Ping

    2018-02-15

    Tocotrienol microcapsules (TM) were formed by firstly preparing Pickering emulsion containing tocotrienols, which was then gelled into microcapsules using alginate and chitosan. In this study, we examined the stability of TM during storage and when applied into a model food system, i.e. yogurt. During storage at 40°C, TM displayed remarkably lower tocotrienols loss (50.8%) as compared to non-encapsulated tocotrienols in bulk oil (87.5%). When the tocotrienols were incorporated into yogurt, the TM and bulk oil forms showed a loss of 23.5% and 81.0%, respectively. Generally, the tocotrienols were stable in the TM form and showed highest stability when these TM were added into yogurt. δ-Tocotrienol was the most stable isomer in both forms during storage and when incorporated into yogurt. The addition of TM into yogurt caused minimal changes in the yogurt's color and texture but slightly altered the yogurt's viscosity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Integrating new Storage Technologies into EOS

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Andreas J; Rocha, Joaquim; Lensing, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The EOS[1] storage software was designed to cover CERN disk-only storage use cases in the medium-term trading scalability against latency. To cover and prepare for long-term requirements the CERN IT data and storage services group (DSS) is actively conducting R&D; and open source contributions to experiment with a next generation storage software based on CEPH[3] and ethernet enabled disk drives. CEPH provides a scale-out object storage system RADOS and additionally various optional high-level services like S3 gateway, RADOS block devices and a POSIX compliant file system CephFS. The acquisition of CEPH by Redhat underlines the promising role of CEPH as the open source storage platform of the future. CERN IT is running a CEPH service in the context of OpenStack on a moderate scale of 1 PB replicated storage. Building a 100+PB storage system based on CEPH will require software and hardware tuning. It is of capital importance to demonstrate the feasibility and possibly iron out bottlenecks and blocking issu...

  4. Storage stability of biodegradable polyethylene glycol microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Era; Sheth, Saahil; Polito, Kristen; Sell, Scott A.; Zustiak, Silviya P.

    2017-10-01

    Degradable hydrogel microspheres are popular choices for multiple biomedical applications, including drug, protein, or cell carriers for minimally invasive delivery. Clinical transitioning of such new, sensitive pharmaceutical preparations requires investigation of storage methods that retain key properties for extended time. In this study, we sought to determine the influence of seven common storage conditions on the physical and mechanical properties of degradable polyethylene glycol (PEG) hydrogel microspheres: 25 °C, 4 °C, -80 °C, lyophilization/-20 °C, dimethyl sulfoxide/-80 °C, dimethyl sulfoxide/lyophilization/-20 °C, vacuum/-20 °C. We have outlined the storage conditions in detail and explained their effect on swelling ratio, stiffness and degradation rate post-storage. Additionally, we have implemented protein-loaded hydrogels to evaluate the effect of storage conditions on diffusivity as well as protein stability post-storage. We found that hydrogels could be stored short-term (1-4 d) under moist conditions (i.e. storage without drying) without a substantial loss of properties. For extended storage (7-28 d), they could be stored either at  -80 °C (moist condition) or vacuum drying (dry condition).

  5. Hydrogen storage properties in the Mg{sub 0.75}Ta{sub 0.25} system prepared by mechanical milling; Propiedades de almacenamiento de hidrogeno en el sistema Mg{sub 0.75}Ta{sub 0.25} preparado por molienda mecanica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez G, J. A.

    2016-07-01

    Magnesium and most of its mixtures have slow sorption-desorption kinetics of hydrogen, which limits their technological application and their viability from the economic view point. Recently, has been observed that by the synthesis of advanced materials, using the mechanical milling technique, positive changes in the kinetics are introduced. In order to improve the sorption-desorption hydrogen properties, in the present work a mixture consisting of Mg{sub 0.75}Ta{sub 0.25} was prepared using methanol as process control agent. To this end, the first methodological step was to carry out, by means of the mechanical milling technique, the synthesis of the mixture Mg{sub 0.75}Ta{sub 0.25} in a Spex type vibratory mill at times of 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. Subsequently, the material was characterized by different analytical techniques such as scanning electron microscopy with elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction and N{sub 2} physisorption analysis. Subsequently, hydrogen sorption experiments were carried out in a Parr reactor to evaluate the hydrogen storage capacity of the mixture, varying temperature parameters, pressure and time, in order to determine the optimal parameters of hydrogen sorption. The characterization of the hydrogen storage capacity was analyzed by the thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry technique coupled to a mass spectrometer. X ray diffraction analysis reveals that there is a mixture between the starting compounds, with an important refinement of the microstructure as a consequence of the mechanical milling process. The results of the hydrogen sorption tests at 1, 5 and 10 cycles showed that the storage of hydrogen in the Mg{sub 0.75}Ta{sub 0.25} mixture can be carried out at a temperature of 25 degrees Celsius with a pressure of 2 atm and a contact time of 1 h. (Author)

  6. Studies on processes of damage and the stability of two preparations of human growth hormone labelled with 125I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, M.L.C.Q.

    1978-01-01

    Two HGH preparations were studied to obtain stable 125 I labelled products, with high specific activity, good biding capacity and long shelf life. Alterations affecting unlabelled protein hormone were also considered. Modified polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and gel filtration chromatography on Sephadex were studied. The preparations studied were: HGH (NIH) and HGH always freshly prepared at IEA. The detection, study on nature and elimination of the interference of 'damaged' radioactive components was done by checking their presence and behaviour during labelling, purification or storage and comparing with some 'false labelling' (without HGH). Both hormones were labelled with a high specific activity, with immunoactivity up to three months. Loss in binding happened during storage for radioactive products as well as for unlabelled proteins. The absence of Bovine Serum Albumine (BSA) used as protein carrier and protector, produced a peak of aggregate; when presented, BSA carried a large amount of radioactivity forming most of the 'peak of the damage product' eluting from Sephadex. These two peaks interfere negatively in RIA and can effect calculations on specific activity, yield and absolute amount in term of mass of the labelled product. The best conditions for storage are at-20 0 C in dry lyophilized powder or frozen solution; at 4 0 C in solution the product is inactivated. Both labelled products showed an increased mobility in comparison with the unlabelled done. This can be attributed to a decreased isoelectric point due to the iodination of tyrosine or to alterations in the structure caused by reagents used in the labelling [pt

  7. Modified calcium oxide as stable solid base catalyst for Aldol

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A highly efficient and stable solid-base catalyst for Aldol condensation was prepared by modifying commercial CaO with benzyl bromide in a simple way. It was found that modified CaO can effectively catalyse the Aldol condensation of cyclohexanone and benzaldehyde, as well as various benzaldehydes, to produce ...

  8. Studies on certain quality attributes of meat pickle prepared from spent chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Ranjan Nath

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An attempt was made to develop a desirable meat pickle from the less tender and low demand spent chicken meat with the prime objective of its better marketability and wider acceptability amongst the non-vegetarian masses. Materials and Methods: Lean of culled spent meat was marinated for overnight and then pressure cooked and fried with spices and condiments to prepare a shelf stable meat pickle. Proximate composition, pH, TBA Values, Total viable plate count, Counts for yeast and moulds and sensory quality of the pickles were studied as per standard procedure. Results: The mean per cent moisture, crude protein, ether extract and total ash contents were 61.89±0.12, 17.28±0.56, 14.65±0.16 and 3.35±0.17 respectively. The product pH and the yeast and mould counts though did not differ significantly amongst the storage periods, yet there were significant differences (p<0.01 in TBA and total viable plate count amongst the storage periods. Organoleptic studies with score card method recorded a progressive decrease in the mean panel scores along with the increased storage periods. Conclusion: The spent chicken meat pickle was found to be acceptable for consumption up-to 90 days of storage at room temperature. [Vet World 2013; 6(3.000: 156-158

  9. Stable configurations in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronski, Jared C.; DeVille, Lee; Ferguson, Timothy; Livesay, Michael

    2018-06-01

    We present and analyze a model of opinion formation on an arbitrary network whose dynamics comes from a global energy function. We study the global and local minimizers of this energy, which we call stable opinion configurations, and describe the global minimizers under certain assumptions on the friendship graph. We show a surprising result that the number of stable configurations is not necessarily monotone in the strength of connection in the social network, i.e. the model sometimes supports more stable configurations when the interpersonal connections are made stronger.

  10. Development of Stable Isotope Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Do Young; Kim, Cheol Jung; Han, Jae Min

    2009-03-01

    KAERI has obtained an advanced technology with singular originality for laser stable isotope separation. Objectives for this project are to get production technology of Tl-203 stable isotope used for medical application and are to establish the foundation of the pilot system, while we are taking aim at 'Laser Isotope Separation Technology to make resistance to the nuclear proliferation'. And we will contribute to ensuring a nuclear transparency in the world society by taking part in a practical group of NSG and being collaboration with various international groups related to stable isotope separation technology

  11. Personnel Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, George, Ed.; Stodden, Robert, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Three articles comprise a section on personnel preparation in vocational education. Articles deal with two inservice programs in career/vocational education for the handicapped and a project to train paraprofessionals to assist special educators in vocational education. (CL)

  12. Final Report-- A Novel Storage Method for Concentrating Solar Power Plants Allowing Storage at High Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Jeffrey F.

    2014-09-29

    The main objective of the proposed work was the development and testing of a storage method that has the potential to fundamentally change the solar thermal industry. The development of a mathematical model that describes the phenomena involved in the heat storage and recovery was also a main objective of this work. Therefore, the goal was to prepare a design package allowing reliable scale-up and optimization of design.

  13. Solution preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results

  14. Metabolomic analysis of platelets during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paglia, Giuseppe; Sigurjónsson, Ólafur E; Rolfsson, Óttar

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Platelet concentrates (PCs) can be prepared using three methods: platelet (PLT)-rich plasma, apheresis, and buffy coat. The aim of this study was to obtain a comprehensive data set that describes metabolism of buffy coat-derived PLTs during storage and to compare it with a previously...... published parallel data set obtained for apheresis-derived PLTs. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: During storage we measured more than 150 variables in 8 PLT units, prepared by the buffy coat method. Samples were collected at seven different time points resulting in a data set containing more than 8000...... after their collection. The transition was evident in PLT produced by both production methods. Apheresis-derived PLTs showed a clearer phenotype of PLT activation during early days of storage. The activated phenotype of apheresis PLTs was accompanied by a higher metabolic activity, especially related...

  15. Influence of storage conditions on the physical and release ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effect of storage conditions on physical and release properties of lipophilic-based piroxicam suppositories with a view to determining the most desirable conditions for their storage. Piroxicam 20 mg suppositories were prepared by fusion method using cocoa butter, Witepsol H15® and Witepsol ...

  16. Storage of platelets: effects associated with high platelet content in platelet storage containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliksson, Hans; Sandgren, Per; Sjödin, Agneta; Hultenby, Kjell

    2012-04-01

    A major problem associated with platelet storage containers is that some platelet units show a dramatic fall in pH, especially above certain platelet contents. The aim of this study was a detailed investigation of the different in vitro effects occurring when the maximum storage capacity of a platelet container is exceeded as compared to normal storage. Buffy coats were combined in large-volume containers to create primary pools to be split into two equal aliquots for the preparation of platelets (450-520×10(9) platelets/unit) in SSP+ for 7-day storage in two containers (test and reference) with different platelet storage capacity (n=8). Exceeding the maximum storage capacity of the test platelet storage container resulted in immediate negative effects on platelet metabolism and energy supply, but also delayed effects on platelet function, activation and disintegration. Our study gives a very clear indication of the effects in different phases associated with exceeding the maximum storage capacity of platelet containers but throw little additional light on the mechanism initiating those negative effects. The problem appears to be complex and further studies in different media using different storage containers will be needed to understand the mechanisms involved.

  17. Fuel assembly storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiranuma, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To remove limitation of the number of storage of fuel assemblies to increase the number of storage thereof so as to relatively reduce the water depth required for shielding radioactive rays. Structure: Fuel assembly storage rack containers for receiving a plurality of spent fuel assembly racks are stacked in multi-layer fashion within a storage pool filled with water for shielding radioactive rays and removing heat. (Furukawa, Y.)

  18. Heat transport and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despois, J.

    1977-01-01

    Recalling the close connections existing between heat transport and storage, some general considerations on the problem of heat distribution and transport are presented 'in order to set out the problem' of storage in concrete form. This problem is considered in its overall plane, then studied under the angle of the different technical choices it involves. The two alternatives currently in consideration are described i.e.: storage in a mined cavity and underground storage as captive sheet [fr

  19. Storage in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanes, J.M.; Rottenberg, J.; Abiad, A.; Caudron, S.; Girault, Ph.

    2007-01-01

    Storage represents one of the key elements among the different modulation tools. How the problem of storage is put forward in Europe in front of the increasing uncertainty of the gas demand and prices? What are the policies implemented by storage facility operators? To what extend storage can amortize gas prices volatility or allow the market actors to take the best profit of this volatility? These are the questions debated at this workshop by four specialists of this domain. (J.S.)

  20. Methods for preparation of deuterated amino acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pshenichnikova, A.B.; Karnaukhova, E.N.; Zvonkova, E.N.

    1995-01-01

    The current state and prospects for the use of amino acids labeled with stable isotopes are considered. Methods for the preparation of deuterated amino acids, including synthetic, chemicoenzymatic, and biosynthetic ones, and deuterium exchange reactions are summarized. Problems in the preparation of optically pure amino acids are discussed. 120 refs., 15 figs

  1. Proceedings of solar energy storage options. Volume I. An intensive workshop on thermal energy storage for solar heating and cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-01-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 28 papers presented. Panel chairmen's summaries are included; the complete panel reports will be published in Volume II of the Solar Energy Storage Options Workshop proceedings. (WHK)

  2. Pit Water Storage Ottrupgaard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2000-01-01

    The pit water storage, a seasonal thermal storage, was built in 1993 with floating lid and hybrid clay-polymer for pit lining. The storage was leaking severe and solutions were to be found. In the paper solutions for pit lining and floating lids are discussed, cost estimations given and coming...

  3. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-03-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for distribution for nondestructive research use on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Research Materials Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or is in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  4. French days on stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    These first French days on stable isotopes took place in parallel with the 1. French days of environmental chemistry. Both conferences had common plenary sessions. The conference covers all aspects of the use of stable isotopes in the following domains: medicine, biology, environment, tracer techniques, agronomy, food industry, geology, petroleum geochemistry, cosmo-geochemistry, archaeology, bio-geochemistry, hydrology, climatology, nuclear and particle physics, astrophysics, isotope separations etc.. Abstracts available on CD-Rom only. (J.S.)

  5. Stable isotope research pool inventory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This report contains a listing of electromagnetically separated stable isotopes which are available for distribution within the United States for nondestructive research use from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on a loan basis. This inventory includes all samples of stable isotopes in the Material Research Collection and does not designate whether a sample is out on loan or in reprocessing. For some of the high abundance naturally occurring isotopes, larger amounts can be made available; for example, Ca-40 and Fe-56

  6. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1986-11-01

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  7. Preparation of binder-free porous ultrathin Ni(OH)2 nanoleafs using ZnO as pore forming agent displaying both high mass loading and excellent electrochemical energy storage performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Panpan; Miao, Chenxu; Cheng, Kui; Ye, Ke; Yin, Jinling; Cao, Dianxue; Wang, Guiling; Zhang, Xianfa

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Porous Ni(OH) 2 nanoleaf is prepared by using ZnO as pore forming agent. • The mass loading of active material on binder-free Ni(OH) 2 /NF electrode is as high as 10 mg. • The porous Ni(OH) 2 /NF electrode displays high specific capacitance of 1142C g −1 . - Abstract: Ni(OH) 2 has been reported widely as one of the most promising supercapactior electrode materials due to its high specific capacitance, yet which were only based on low mass loading. Thus, it is desirable to promote supercapacitor performance for high mass loading Ni(OH) 2 through optimizing microstructure. In this work, we first prepared crossed ultrathin Ni(OH) 2 /ZnO nanoleafs directly grown on nickel foam via hydrothermal method, and then we produced pores on the nanoleafs by dissolving ZnO in alkaline solution. Definitely, this unique structure design for high mass loading binder-free Ni(OH) 2 electrode could benefit the penetration of electrolyte and the transportation of electrons, efficiently improving the supercapacitor performance. The obtained porous Ni(OH) 2 /NF electrode exhibits a mass specific capacity of 1142C g −1 based on 10 mg active materials, equating to a areal specific capaciy of 11.4C cm −2 , and pleasant cycling stability with retention of 85% of initial capacity after 10000 charge-discharge cycles. The fabricated asymmetric device shows a high energy density of 42 Wh kg −1 (4.73 mWh cm −3 ) at power density of 105 W kg −1 (17 mW cm −3 ). These results demonstrate the optimized structure makes the high mass loading binder-free Ni(OH) 2 /NF electrode could also display excellent supercapacitor performance.

  8. Hygrothermal optimisation of museum storage spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Hans; Christensen, Jørgen Erik

    2013-01-01

    Despite the large economic and ecologic costs, museum storage spaces are often equipped with extensive air conditioning, to provide the desired stable interior climate. The new “passive conditioning” paradigm aims at resolving these costs: a high-hygrothermal-inertia building with a high-hygrothe......Despite the large economic and ecologic costs, museum storage spaces are often equipped with extensive air conditioning, to provide the desired stable interior climate. The new “passive conditioning” paradigm aims at resolving these costs: a high-hygrothermal-inertia building with a high...... and ecologic cost of conditioning, the paper finally assesses “concentrated dehumidification”: dehumidification during a part of the day only, while leaving the humidity free-running during the rest of the day. It is established that the hygric inertia of the interior air, building walls and stored objects...

  9. Burnup credit in a dry storage module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thornton, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Comparison of spent fuel storage expansion options available to Oconee Nuclear Station revealed that dry storage could be economically competitive with transshipment and rod consolidation. Economic competitiveness, however, mandated large unit capacity while existing cask handling facilities at Oconee severely limited size and weight. The dry storage concept determined to best satisfy these conflicting criteria is a 24 pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel assembly capacity NUTECH Horizontal Modular Storage (NUHOMS) system. The Oconee version of the NUHOMS system takes advantage of burnup credit in demonstrating criticality safety. The burnup credit criticality analysis was performed by Duke Power Company's Design Engineering Department. This paper was prepared to summarize the criticality control design features employed in the Oconee NUHOMS-24P DSC basket and to describe the incentives for pursuing a burnup credit design. Principal criticality design parameters, criteria, and analysis methodology are also presented

  10. Multi-Purpose Storage Complex description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, D.H.

    1993-01-01

    The Multi-Purpose Storage Complex will provide interim storage of radioactive material (irradiated fuel, cesium/strontium capsules, plutonium residuals, canisters of vitrified high-level waste glass, and other radioactive material) at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. A Storage Preparation and Shipping Facility is included that will have the capability to stabilize failed metal fuel, segregate high-level solid waste, and package/repackage any of the materials for interim storage/final disposal or subsequent processing. Current technology, both domestic and foreign, will be adapted with the expectation that no new technology will be required. This cost-effective approach will use fuel casks, transport systems, and/or modular vaults that have been licensed in the United States. The complex will have a central control room, and appropriate safeguards and security measures will be incorporated. A specific design objective will be to minimize the amount of secondary waste

  11. PENGARUH SUHU DAN KELEMBABAN UDARA TERHADAP PERUBAHAN MUTU TABLET EFFERVESCEN SARI BUAH SELAMA PENYIMPANAN [Influence of Temperature and Relative Humidity on the Quality of Fruit Juice Effervescent Tablet During Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ansar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the influence of temperature and relative humidity on the quality of the fruit juice effervescent tablet. Sample of the passion fruit effervescent tablet was prepared from passion fruit granular, aspartame, polyetilene glycol, citric acid, and sodium bicarbonate. Variable analyzed was dissolution rate of the tablet during storage. The results indicated that temperature and humidity significantly affect dissolution rate of the fruit juice effervescent tablet. The reason for the decrease in dissolution rate was because at high storage temperature (35oC, sodium bicarbonate was not stable. The bicarbonate amount gradually decreased because it reacted with citric acid. Consequently, when the tablet was dissolved, the reaction between sodium bicarbonate and citric acid was slow. At high relative humidity (85.5% of storage, the reaction occurred prior to the dissolution due to moisture intake.

  12. Efficient Solar Energy Harvesting and Storage through a Robust Photocatalyst Driving Reversible Redox Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yangen; Zhang, Shun; Ding, Yu; Zhang, Leyuan; Zhang, Changkun; Zhang, Xiaohong; Zhao, Yu; Yu, Guihua

    2018-06-14

    Simultaneous solar energy conversion and storage is receiving increasing interest for better utilization of the abundant yet intermittently available sunlight. Photoelectrodes driving nonspontaneous reversible redox reactions in solar-powered redox cells (SPRCs), which can deliver energy via the corresponding reverse reactions, present a cost-effective and promising approach for direct solar energy harvesting and storage. However, the lack of photoelectrodes having both high conversion efficiency and high durability becomes a bottleneck that hampers practical applications of SPRCs. Here, it is shown that a WO 3 -decorated BiVO 4 photoanode, without the need of extra electrocatalysts, can enable a single-photocatalyst-driven SPRC with a solar-to-output energy conversion efficiency as high as 1.25%. This SPRC presents stable performance over 20 solar energy storage/delivery cycles. The high efficiency and stability are attributed to the rapid redox reactions, the well-matched energy level, and the efficient light harvesting and charge separation of the prepared BiVO 4 . This demonstrated device system represents a potential alternative toward the development of low-cost, durable, and easy-to-implement solar energy technologies. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Effects of temperature on concrete cask in a dry storage facility for spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Weiqing; Wu Ruixian; Zheng Yukuan

    2011-01-01

    In the dry storage of spent nuclear fuels,concrete cask serves both as a shielding and a structural containment. The concrete in the storage facility is expected to endure the decay heat of the spent nuclear fuel during its service life. Thus, effects of the sustaining high temperature on concrete material need be evaluated for safety of the dry storage facility. In this paper, we report an experimental program aimed at investigating possible high temperature effects on properties of concrete, with emphasis on the mechanical stability, porosity,and crack-resisting ability of concrete mixes prepared using various amounts of Portland cement, fly ash, and blast furnace slag. The experimental results obtained from concrete specimens exposed to a temperature of 94 degree C for 90 days indicate that: (1) compressive strength of the concrete remains practically unchanged; (2) the ultrasonic pulse velocity, and dynamic modulus of elasticity of the concrete decrease in early stage of the high-temperature exposure,and gradually become stable with continuing exposure; (3) shrinkage of concrete mixes exhibits an increase in early stage of the exposure and does not decrease further with time; (4) concrete mixes containing pozzolanic materials,including fly ash and blast furnace slag, show better temperature-resisting characteristics than those using only Portland cement. (authors)

  14. Physicochemical stability of carfilzomib (Kyprolis®) containing solutions in glass vials, ready-to-administer plastic syringes and infusion bags over a 28-day storage period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Hee; Krämer, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Centralized aseptic preparation of ready-to-administer carfilzomib containing parenteral solutions in plastic syringes and polyolefine (PO) infusion bags needs profound knowledge about the physicochemical stability in order to determine the beyond-use-date of the preparations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical stability of carfilzomib solution marketed as Kyprolis® powder for solution for infusion. Reconstituted solutions and ready-to-administer preparations of Kyprolis® stored under refrigeration (2-8℃) or at room temperature (25℃) were analyzed at predetermined intervals over a maximum storage period of 28 days. Chemical stability of carfilzomib was planned to be determined with a stability-indicating reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography assay. Physicochemical stability was planned to be determined by visual inspection of clarity and color as well as pH measurement. The study results show that reconstituted carfilzomib containing parenteral solutions are stable in glass vials as well as diluted solutions in plastic syringes and PO infusion bags over a period of at least 28 days when stored light protected under refrigeration. When stored at room temperature, reconstituted and diluted carfilzomib solutions are physicochemically stable over 14 days and 10 days, respectively. The physicochemical stability of carfilzomib infusion solutions allows cost-saving pharmacy-based centralized preparation of ready-to-administer preparations.

  15. Thermal behavior of a heat exchanger module for seasonal heat storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    Experimental and theoretic investigations are carried out to study the heat transfer capacity rate of a heat exchanger module for seasonal heat storage with sodium acetate trihydrate (SAT) supercooling in a stable way. A sandwich heat storage test module has been built with the phase change...... material (PCM) storage box in between two plate heat exchangers. Charge of the PCM storage is investigated experimentally with solid phase SAT as initial condition. Discharge of the PCM storage with the presence of crystallization is studied experimentally. Fluid flow and heat transfer in the PCM module......, recommendations on how best to transfer heat to and from the seasonal heat storage module are given....

  16. Radioactive waste storage and disposal: the challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prince, A.T.

    1978-03-01

    Solutions to waste management problems are available. After radium is removed, tailings from uranium ores can be disposed of safely in well-designed retention areas. Work is being done on the processing of non-fuel reactor wastes through incineration, reverse osmosis, and evaporation. Spent fuels have been stored safely for years in pools; dry storage in concrete cannisters is being investigated. Ultimate disposal of high-level wastes will be in deep, stable geologic formations. (LL)

  17. Wind turbine storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, H.; Ilinca, A.; Perron, J.

    2005-01-01

    Electric power is often produced in locations far from the point of utilization which creates a challenge in stabilizing power grids, particularly since electricity cannot be stored. The production of decentralized electricity by renewable energy sources offers a greater security of supply while protecting the environment. Wind power holds the greatest promise in terms of environmental protection, competitiveness and possible applications. It is known that wind energy production is not always in phase with power needs because of the uncertainty of wind. For that reason, energy storage is the key for the widespread integration of wind energy into the power grids. This paper proposed various energy storage methods that can be used in combination with decentralized wind energy production where an imbalance exists between electricity production and consumption. Energy storage can play an essential role in bringing value to wind energy, particularly if electricity is to be delivered during peak hours. Various types of energy storage are already in use or are being developed. This paper identified the main characteristics of various electricity storage techniques and their applications. They include stationary or embarked storage for long or short term applications. A comparison of characteristics made it possible to determine which types of electricity storage are best suited for wind energy. These include gravity energy; thermal energy; compressed air energy; coupled storage with natural gas; coupled storage with liquefied gas; hydrogen storage for fuel cells; chemical energy storage; storage in REDOX batteries; storage by superconductive inductance; storage in supercondensers; and, storage as kinetic energy. 21 refs., 21 figs

  18. Preparation of redispersible liposomal dry powder using an ultrasonic spray freeze-drying technique for transdermal delivery of human epithelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fei; Guo, Shiyan; Gan, Yong; Zhang, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an ultrasonic spray freeze-drying (USFD) technique was used to prepare a stable liposomal dry powder for transdermal delivery of recombinant human epithelial growth factor (rhEGF). Morphology, particle size, entrapment efficiency, in vitro release, and skin permeability were systematically compared between rhEGF liposomal dry powder prepared using USFD and that prepared using a conventional lyophilization process. Porous and spherical particles with high specific area were produced under USFD conditions. USFD effectively avoided formation of ice crystals, disruption of the bilayer structure, and drug leakage during the liposome drying process, and maintained the stability of the rhEGF liposomal formulation during storage. The reconstituted rhEGF liposomes prepared from USFD powder did not show significant changes in morphology, particle size, entrapment efficiency, or in vitro release characteristics compared with those of rhEGF liposomes before drying. Moreover, the rhEGF liposomal powder prepared with USFD exhibited excellent enhanced penetration in ex vivo mouse skin compared with that for powder prepared via conventional lyophilization. The results suggest that ultrasonic USFD is a promising technique for the production of stable protein-loaded liposomal dry powder for application to the skin.

  19. Morphology-controlled synthesis of MoS{sub 2} nanostructures with different lithium storage properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiwen; Zhang, Zhian, E-mail: zza75@163.com; Chen, Yaqiong; Qu, Yaohui; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie

    2014-07-05

    Highlights: • MoS{sub 2} nanospheres, nanoribbons and nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method. • The surfactant and temperature control the shape and crystal structure of MoS{sub 2}. • MoS{sub 2} nanospheres exhibit the excellent lithium storage property. - Abstract: A one-step hydrothermal process was employed to prepare a series of MoS{sub 2} nanostructures via simply altering the surfactant as soft template and hydrothermal reaction temperature. Three kinds of MoS{sub 2} nanostructures (three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical nanospheres, one-dimensional (1D) nanoribbons, and large aggregated nanoparticles) were successfully achieved and investigated well by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis (BET). Electrochemical tests reveal that these MoS{sub 2} samples could deliver high initial discharge capacities (higher than 1050.0 mA h g{sup −1}), but various cycling performances. The hierarchical MoS{sub 2} nanospheres assembled by sheet-like subunits show the highest specific capacity of 1355.1 mA h g{sup −1}, and 66.8% of which can be retained after 50 cycles. The good lithium storage property of hierarchical MoS{sub 2} nanospheres can be attributed to the higher electrolyte/MoS{sub 2} contact area and stable 3D layered structure.

  20. Morphology-controlled synthesis of MoS2 nanostructures with different lithium storage properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiwen; Zhang, Zhian; Chen, Yaqiong; Qu, Yaohui; Lai, Yanqing; Li, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • MoS 2 nanospheres, nanoribbons and nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method. • The surfactant and temperature control the shape and crystal structure of MoS 2 . • MoS 2 nanospheres exhibit the excellent lithium storage property. - Abstract: A one-step hydrothermal process was employed to prepare a series of MoS 2 nanostructures via simply altering the surfactant as soft template and hydrothermal reaction temperature. Three kinds of MoS 2 nanostructures (three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical nanospheres, one-dimensional (1D) nanoribbons, and large aggregated nanoparticles) were successfully achieved and investigated well by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis (BET). Electrochemical tests reveal that these MoS 2 samples could deliver high initial discharge capacities (higher than 1050.0 mA h g −1 ), but various cycling performances. The hierarchical MoS 2 nanospheres assembled by sheet-like subunits show the highest specific capacity of 1355.1 mA h g −1 , and 66.8% of which can be retained after 50 cycles. The good lithium storage property of hierarchical MoS 2 nanospheres can be attributed to the higher electrolyte/MoS 2 contact area and stable 3D layered structure

  1. Fuel storage tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peehs, M.; Stehle, H.; Weidinger, H.

    1979-01-01

    The stationary fuel storage tank is immersed below the water level in the spent fuel storage pool. In it there is placed a fuel assembly within a cage. Moreover, the storage tank has got a water filling and a gas buffer. The water in the storage tank is connected with the pool water by means of a filter, a surge tank and a water purification facility, temperature and pressure monitoring being performed. In the buffer compartment there are arranged catalysts a glow plugs for recombination of radiolysis products into water. The supply of water into the storage tank is performed through the gas buffer compartment. (DG) [de

  2. Remain stable.; Schoen stabil bleiben.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teroerde, Michael; Schulz, Detlef [Helmut-Schmidt-Univ., Hamburg (Germany). Professur fuer Elektrische Energiesysteme; Eckoldt, Hans-Joerg [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Fachgebiet Magnetstromversorgung

    2013-11-15

    In the German power grid the increasing photovoltaic power plants and wind turbines provide due to their volatile energy supply high demands on the control of the power grid. In the case of malfunctions in the network short-term energy storage could participate in the grid control. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) belongs to the efficient short-term energy storage. A SMES system was investigated at DESY in Hamburg. [German] Im deutschen Stromnetz stellen die zunehmenden Photovoltaik- und Windkraftanlagen aufgrund ihrer stark schwankenden Energieeinspeisung hohe Anforderungen an die Regelung des Stromnetzes. Bei eventuell auftretenden Stoerungen im Netz koennten Kurzzeitenergiespeicher an der Netzregelung teilnehmen. Zu den effizienten Kurzzeitspeichern gehoeren supraleitende magnetische Energiespeicher (SMES). Ein SMES-System wurde bei DESY in Hamburg untersucht.

  3. Assessing storage adequacy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amirault, P.

    2004-01-01

    Government policy encourages the use of natural gas. It is expected that liquefied natural gas (LNG) and Arctic gas will make up 20 to 25 per cent of supply. This presentation provided an outlook of storage value based on a technical analysis by the National Petroleum Counsel (NPC) report. A moderately robust growth is expected in the residential and commercial load which may be partially offset by robust growth in electricity. The net result is an increase in storage requirements. It was concluded that there is a strong case for growth in storage demand but a lack of good sites for additional capacity. This will lead to higher storage values. The NPC sees the need for 1 Tcf more storage use by 2025, of which 700 Bcf will need to come from new storage. In particular, current storage levels may not be sufficient to meet a colder than normal winter, and deliverability is affected by field inventory. Most storage capacity was built before 1985, mostly by regulated entities. It is expected that only 250 to 400 Bcf will be added over the next 25 years in North America. If storage becomes scarce, prices will move to the marginal cost of new additions, and the upper limit on price will be determined by salt cavern storage. An increase of $1.00 in the price of leasing storage would add about $0.11 to the average price of consumed gas. tabs., figs

  4. Uniform-sized silicone oil microemulsions: preparation, investigation of stability and deposition on hair surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazir, Habiba; Lv, Piping; Wang, Lianyan; Lian, Guoping; Zhu, Shiping; Ma, Guanghui

    2011-12-01

    Emulsions are commonly used in foods, pharmaceuticals and home-personal-care products. For emulsion based products, it is highly desirable to control the droplet size distribution to improve storage stability, appearance and in-use property. We report preparation of uniform-sized silicone oil microemulsions with different droplets diameters (1.4-40.0 μm) using SPG membrane emulsification technique. These microemulsions were then added into model shampoos and conditioners to investigate the effects of size, uniformity, and storage stability on silicone oil deposition on hair surface. We observed much improved storage stability of uniform-sized microemulsions when the droplets diameter was ≤22.7 μm. The uniform-sized microemulsion of 40.0 μm was less stable but still more stable than non-uniform sized microemulsions prepared by conventional homogenizer. The results clearly indicated that uniform-sized droplets enhanced the deposition of silicone oil on hair and deposition increased with decreasing droplet size. Hair switches washed with small uniform-sized droplets had lower values of coefficient of friction compared with those washed with larger uniform and non-uniform droplets. Moreover the addition of alginate thickener in the shampoos and conditioners further enhanced the deposition of silicone oil on hair. The good correlation between silicone oil droplets stability, deposition on hair and resultant friction of hair support that droplet size and uniformity are important factors for controlling the stability and deposition property of emulsion based products such as shampoo and conditioner. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Spent fuel storage rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, Matsuo; Uchiyama, Yuichi.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the safety and facilitate the design by limiting the relative displacement in a storage rack. Constitution: The outer wall of a storage rack disposed in water within a fuel pool, the pool wall opposing to the storage rack and the structure between the opposing storages racks are made as a space for confining the pool water or a structure formed with a slight gap, for example, a combination of a recessed structure and a protruded structure. In such a constitution, a space for confirming the pool water is established and the pool water thus confined forms a flow resistance when the storage rack vibrates upon earthquakes, serves as a damper and significantly reduces the responsivity. Furthermore, the relative displacement in the storage rack is limited to inhibit excess earthquake forces to exert on setting bolts and rack clamping bolts of the storage rack. (Sekiya, K.)

  6. Nanoprodrugs of NSAIDs: Preparation and Characterization of Flufenamic Acid Nanoprodrugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bong-Seop Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated that hydrophobic derivatives of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAIDflufenamic acid (FA, can be formed into stable nanometer-sized prodrugs (nanoprodrugs that inhibit the growth of glioma cells, suggesting their potential application as anticancer agent. We synthesized highly hydrophobic monomeric and dimeric prodrugs of FA via esterification and prepared nanoprodrugs using spontaneous emulsification mechanism. The nanoprodrugs were in the size range of 120 to 140 nm and physicochemically stable upon long-term storage as aqueous suspension, which is attributed to the strong hydrophobic interaction between prodrug molecules. Importantly, despite the highly hydrophobic nature and water insolubility, nanoprodrugs could be readily activated into the parent drug by porcine liver esterase, presenting a potential new strategy for novel NSAID prodrug design. The nanoprodrug inhibited the growth of U87-MG glioma cells with IC50 of 20 μM, whereas FA showed IC50 of 100 μM, suggesting that more efficient drug delivery was achieved with nanoprodrugs.

  7. Amorphous formulations of indomethacin and griseofulvin prepared by electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Felipe L; Shearman, Gemma C; Gaisford, Simon; Williams, Gareth R

    2014-12-01

    Following an array of optimization experiments, two series of electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) fibers were prepared. One set of fibers contained various loadings of indomethacin, known to form stable glasses, and the other griseofulvin (a poor glass former). Drug loadings of up to 33% w/w were achieved. Electron microscopy data showed the fibers largely to comprise smooth and uniform cylinders, with evidence for solvent droplets in some samples. In all cases, the drug was found to exist in the amorphous physical state in the fibers on the basis of X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements. Modulated temperature DSC showed that the relationship between a formulation's glass transition temperature (Tg) and the drug loading follows the Gordon-Taylor equation, but not the Fox equation. The results of Gordon-Taylor analysis indicated that the drug/polymer interactions were stronger with indomethacin. The interactions between drug and polymer were explored in more detail using molecular modeling simulations and again found to be stronger with indomethacin; the presence of significant intermolecular forces was further confirmed using IR spectroscopy. The amorphous form of both drugs was found to be stable after storage of the fibers for 8 months in a desiccator (relative humidity <25%). Finally, the functional performance of the fibers was studied; in all cases, the drug-loaded fibers released their drug cargo very rapidly, offering accelerated dissolution over the pure drug.

  8. Energy Conversion and Storage Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairns, E.J.

    1992-03-01

    The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

  9. Sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Sample preparation prior to HPLC analysis is certainly one of the most important steps to consider in trace or ultratrace analysis. For many years scientists have tried to simplify the sample preparation process. It is rarely possible to inject a neat liquid sample or a sample where preparation may not be any more complex than dissolution of the sample in a given solvent. The last process alone can remove insoluble materials, which is especially helpful with the samples in complex matrices if other interactions do not affect extraction. Here, it is very likely a large number of components will not dissolve and are, therefore, eliminated by a simple filtration process. In most cases, the process of sample preparation is not as simple as dissolution of the component interest. At times, enrichment is necessary, that is, the component of interest is present in very large volume or mass of material. It needs to be concentrated in some manner so a small volume of the concentrated or enriched sample can be injected into HPLC. 88 refs

  10. Final version dry cask storage study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-02-01

    This report was prepared in response to Section 5064 of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 (the Amendments Act--Public Law 100-203), which directs the Secretary of Energy to conduct a study of the use of dry-cask-storage technology for storing spent fuel at the sites of civilian nuclear reactors until a geologic repository is available. In conducting this study, whose results are being reported to the Congress, the Secretary was to consider such factors as costs, effects on human health and the environment, and the extent to which the Nuclear Waste Fund can and should be used to provide funds for at-reactor storage. In addition, the Secretary was to consult with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), include NRC comments in the report, and solicit the views of State and local governments and the public. The study performed in response to these requirements was based largely on data published by the DOE or the NRC or included in documents issued by the DOE. Among the DOE documents are the 1987 MRS proposal to the Congress and a subsequent report, prepared to supply the Congress with additional information on the MRS facility. Because in evaluating dry storage at reactor sites it is necessary to take into account other options for meeting storage needs, this study covered all forms of at-reactor storage. 107 refs., 15 figs., 10 tabs

  11. Color stable manganese-doped phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Robert Joseph [Burnt Hills, NY; Setlur, Anant Achyut [Niskayuna, NY; Deshpande, Anirudha Rajendra [Twinsburg, OH; Grigorov, Ljudmil Slavchev [Sofia, BG

    2012-08-28

    A process for preparing color stable Mn.sup.+4 doped phosphors includes providing a phosphor of formula I; A.sub.x[MF.sub.y]:Mn.sup.+4 I and contacting the phosphor in particulate form with a saturated solution of a composition of formula II in aqueous hydrofluoric acid; A.sub.x[MF.sub.y]; II wherein A is Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, NR.sub.4 or a combination thereof; M is Si, Ge, Sn, Ti, Zr, Al, Ga, In, Sc, Y, La, Nb, Ta, Bi, Gd, or a combination thereof; R is H, lower alkyl, or a combination thereof; x is the absolute value of the charge of the [MF.sub.y] ion; and y is 5, 6 or 7. In particular embodiments, M is Si, Ge, Sn, Ti, Zr, or a combination thereof. A lighting apparatus capable of emitting white light includes a semiconductor light source; and a phosphor composition radiationally coupled to the light source, and which includes a color stable Mn.sup.+4 doped phosphor.

  12. Phase change materials in non-volatile storage

    OpenAIRE

    Ielmini, Daniele; Lacaita, Andrea L.

    2011-01-01

    After revolutionizing the technology of optical data storage, phase change materials are being adopted in non-volatile semiconductor memories. Their success in electronic storage is mostly due to the unique properties of the amorphous state where carrier transport phenomena and thermally-induced phase change cooperate to enable high-speed, low-voltage operation and stable data retention possible within the same material. This paper reviews the key physical properties that make this phase so s...

  13. [Current Treatment of Stable Angina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toggweiler, Stefan; Jamshidi, Peiman; Cuculi, Florim

    2015-06-17

    Current therapy for stable angina includes surgical and percutaneous revascularization, which has been improved tremendously over the last decades. Smoking cessation and regular exercise are the cornerstone for prevention of further cerebrovascular events. Medical treatment includes treatment of cardiovascular risk factors and antithrombotic management, which can be a challenge in some patients. Owing to the fact the coronary revascularization is readily accessible these days in many industrialized countries, the importance of antianginal therapy has decreased over the past years. This article presents a contemporary overview of the management of patients with stable angina in the year 2015.

  14. Criticality safety for TMI-2 canister storage at INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.R.; Briggs, J.B.; Ayers, A.L. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Canisters containing Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) core debris will be researched, stored, and prepared for final disposition at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The canisters will be placed into storage modules and assembled into a storage rack, which will be located in the Test Area North (TAN) storage pool. Criticality safety calculations were made (a) to ensure that the storage rack is safe for both normal and accident conditions and (b) to determine the effects of degradation of construction materials (Boraflex and polyethylene) on criticality safety

  15. Stable isotope dimethyl labelling for quantitative proteomics and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jue-Liang; Chen, Shu-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Stable-isotope reductive dimethylation, a cost-effective, simple, robust, reliable and easy-to- multiplex labelling method, is widely applied to quantitative proteomics using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. This review focuses on biological applications of stable-isotope dimethyl labelling for a large-scale comparative analysis of protein expression and post-translational modifications based on its unique properties of the labelling chemistry. Some other applications of the labelling method for sample preparation and mass spectrometry-based protein identification and characterization are also summarized. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Quantitative mass spectrometry’. PMID:27644970

  16. PC-Cluster based Storage System Architecture for Cloud Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, Tin Tin; Naing, Thinn Thu

    2011-01-01

    Design and architecture of cloud storage system plays a vital role in cloud computing infrastructure in order to improve the storage capacity as well as cost effectiveness. Usually cloud storage system provides users to efficient storage space with elasticity feature. One of the challenges of cloud storage system is difficult to balance the providing huge elastic capacity of storage and investment of expensive cost for it. In order to solve this issue in the cloud storage infrastructure, low ...

  17. Fundamentals of Coherent Synchrotron Radiation in Storage Rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sannibale, F.; Byrd, J.M.; Loftsdottir, A.; Martin, M.C.; Venturini, M.

    2004-01-01

    We present the fundamental concepts for producing stable broadband coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) in the terahertz frequency region in an electron storage ring. The analysis includes distortion of bunch shape from the synchrotron radiation (SR), enhancing higher frequency coherent emission and limits to stable emission due to a microbunching instability excited by the SR. We use these concepts to optimize the performance of a source for CSR emission

  18. Sensory properties and storage stability of salad cream from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sensory properties and storage stability of salad cream prepared from cassava starch and soy protein concentrates was studied. Cassava starch and soy protein concentrate blends were prepared with 30% soy protein concentrate and incorporated into 70% cassava starch. The cassava-soy protein concentrate blend was ...

  19. Canister storage building trade study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, C.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the impact of several technical issues related to the usage of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) to safely stage and store N-Reactor spent fuel currently located at K-Basin 100KW and 100KE. Each technical issue formed the basis for an individual trade study used to develop the ROM cost and schedule estimates. The study used concept 2D from the Fluor prepared ``Staging and Storage Facility (SSF) Feasibility Report`` as the basis for development of the individual trade studies.

  20. Canister storage building trade study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, C.E.

    1995-05-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the impact of several technical issues related to the usage of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) to safely stage and store N-Reactor spent fuel currently located at K-Basin 100KW and 100KE. Each technical issue formed the basis for an individual trade study used to develop the ROM cost and schedule estimates. The study used concept 2D from the Fluor prepared ''Staging and Storage Facility (SSF) Feasibility Report'' as the basis for development of the individual trade studies

  1. Underground storage of natural gas and LPG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The Symposium attended by over 200 participants from 23 member countries of the Economic Commission for Europe (ECE), representatives from Australia, Iraq, Israel, Kuwait as well as from 5 international organizations, provided an opportunity for existing and prospective gas markets in the ECE region to exchange experience and information on current trends and developments in natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas underground storage, especially in technical and regulatory matters, including economic, market and social considerations, that influence the planning, development and operations of gas storage facilities. Environmental and safety factors associated with such operations were also examined. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the presented papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Study for the selection of a supplementary spent fuel storage facility for KANUPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, W.; Iqbal, M.J.; Arshad, M.

    1999-01-01

    Steps taken for construction of the spent fuel facility of Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) are the following: choice of conceptual design and site selection; preliminary design and preparation of Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR); Construction of the facility and preparation of PSAR; testing/commissioning and loading of the storage facility. Characterisation of the spent fuel is essential for design of the storage facility. After comparison of various storage types, it seems that construction of dry storage facility based on concrete canisters at KANUPP site is a suitable option to enhance the storage capacity

  3. Large mass storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    The report of a committee to study the questions surrounding possible acquisition of a large mass-storage device is presented. The current computing environment at BNL and justification for an online large mass storage device are briefly discussed. Possible devices to meet the requirements of large mass storage are surveyed, including future devices. The future computing needs of BNL are prognosticated. 2 figures, 4 tables

  4. Possibility of stable quark stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, R.L.; Gleeson, A.M.; Pedigo, R.D.

    1976-08-01

    A recent zero temperature equation of state which contains quark-partons separated from conventional baryons by a phase transition is used to investigate the stability of quark stars. The sensitivity to the input physics is also considered. The conclusions, which are found to be relatively model independent, indicate that a separately identifiable class of stable objects called quark stars does not exist

  5. Radiation-stable polyolefin compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rekers, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to compositions of olefinic polymers suitable for high energy radiation treatment. In particular, the invention relates to olefinic polymer compositions that are stable to sterilizing dosages of high energy radiation such as a gamma radiation. Stabilizers are described that include benzhydrol and benzhydrol derivatives; these stabilizers may be used alone or in combination with secondary antioxidants or synergists

  6. Remote Preparation of an Atomic Quantum Memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, Wenjamin; Berner, Stefan; Volz, Juergen; Weber, Markus; Weinfurter, Harald

    2007-01-01

    Storage and distribution of quantum information are key elements of quantum information processing and future quantum communication networks. Here, using atom-photon entanglement as the main physical resource, we experimentally demonstrate the preparation of a distant atomic quantum memory. Applying a quantum teleportation protocol on a locally prepared state of a photonic qubit, we realized this so-called remote state preparation on a single, optically trapped 87 Rb atom. We evaluated the performance of this scheme by the full tomography of the prepared atomic state, reaching an average fidelity of 82%

  7. Benchmarking Cloud Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xing

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of cloud computing, many cloud storage systems like Dropbox, Google Drive and Mega have been built to provide decentralized and reliable file storage. It is thus of prime importance to know their features, performance, and the best way to make use of them. In this context, we introduce BenchCloud, a tool designed as part of this thesis to conveniently and efficiently benchmark any cloud storage system. First, we provide a study of six commonly-used cloud storage systems to ident...

  8. Extra-weak chemiluminescence produced by autoxidation of kampo extract preparations stored in heat-stressed conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, H; Hirayama, H; Yamamoto, T; Ishizawa, F; Mizugaki, M

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of extra-weak chemiluminescence (CL) measurement as a rapid method to estimate the stability of Kampo extract preparations. It was found that the Kampo drugs that emit little CL were stable, while those with higher CL were comparatively unstable with regard to the various stability markers, including change of coloration (browning), contents of specific ingredients, high molecular compounds, amino acids and sugars under various conditions of heat storage. Excellent correlation existed between the CL of Kampo drugs and the coloration (delta E* (ab)) and the other above-mentioned evaluation markers. From this investigation, it was deduced that the CL of Kampo drugs originates in the early stage of the Maillard reaction and reflects the stability of the preparations, and that CL is useful for estimating the stability of Kampo drugs.

  9. A new storage-ring light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alex [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-06-01

    A recently proposed technique in storage ring accelerators is applied to provide potential high-power sources of photon radiation. The technique is based on the steady-state microbunching (SSMB) mechanism. As examples of this application, one may consider a high-power DUV photon source for research in atomic and molecular physics or a high-power EUV radiation source for industrial lithography. A less challenging proof-of-principle test to produce IR radiation using an existing storage ring is also considered.

  10. Recommendation for basis for decision on a Danish ultimate storage for low and intermediate radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-12-01

    In 2003 the Danish Parliament consented to let the government start the preparation of a basis for decision on a Danish ultimate storage for low and intermediate radioactive wastes. The present report is the result of the preparation process, and it describes the fundamental safety and environmental principles for establishing an ultimate storage, including determining the principles for the site selection, storage construction, and safety analyses. (LN)

  11. A dedicated storage ring for Far-IR coherent synchrotron radiation at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barry, W.C.; Baptist, K.M.; Benjegerdes, R.J.; Biocca, A.K.; Byrd, J.M.; Byrne, W.E.; Cambie, D.; Chin, M.J.; Harkins, J.P.; Kwiatkowski, S.; Li, D.; Marks, S.; Martin, M.C.; McKinney, W.R.; Munson, D.V.; Nishimura, H.; Paterson, J.A.; Plate, D.W.; Rex, K.R.; Robin, D.S.; Rossi, S.L.; Sannibale, F.; Scarvie, T.; Schlueter, R.D.; Steier, C.A.; Stover, G.D.; Thur, W.G.; Jung, J.Y.; Zbasnik, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    We present the concepts for a storage ring dedicated to and optimized for the production of stable coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) over the far-infrared wavelength range from about 200 microns to 1 mm

  12. Technology of stable, prolonged-release eye-drops containing Cyclosporine A, distributed between lipid matrix and surface of the solid lipid microspheres (SLM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolska, Eliza; Sznitowska, Małgorzata

    2013-01-30

    The aim of this study was to prepare solid lipid microspheres (SLM) with incorporated Cyclosporine A (Cs), suitable for ocular application. For this purpose, SLM were formulated by using different lipids and three different nonionic surfactants. The SLM were produced using a hot emulsification method. The SLM dispersions contained 10, 20 or 30% of lipid (w/w) and up to 2% (w/w) of Cs. The size of the microspheres with Cs ranged from 1 to 15 μm. Physically stable SLM with Cs were prepared using Compritol, as a lipid matrix, and Tween 80, as a surfactant. In contrast, dispersion with Precirol alone, formed semi-solid gels during storage, while in formulations with Precirol and Miglyol, crystals of Cs were observed. In vitro release profile of Compritol formulations showed that 40% of Cs is released within 1h, while the release of the following 40% takes more time, depending on lipid content in the formulations. The large part of Cs, added to SLM formulations (from 45 to 80%), was found on the surface of microparticles, but no drug crystallization occurred during a long-term storage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Water Storage: Quo Vadis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smakhtin, V.

    2017-12-01

    Humans stored water - in various forms - for ages, coping with water resources variability, and its extremes - floods and droughts. Storage per capita, and other storage-related indicators, have essentially become one way of reflecting the progress of economic development. Massive investments went into large surface water reservoirs that have become the characteristic feature of the earth's landscapes, bringing both benefits and controversy. As water variability progressively increases with changing climate, globally, on one hand, and the idea of sustainable development receives strong traction, on another - it may be worth the while to comprehensively examine current trends and future prospects for water storage development. The task is surely big, to say the least. The presentation will aim to initiate a structured discussion on this multi-facet issue and identify which aspects and trends of water storage development may be most important in the context of Sustainable Development Goals, Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction, Paris Agreement on Climate Change, and examine how, where and to what extent water storage planning can be improved. It will cover questions like i) aging of large water storage infrastructure, the current extent of this trend in various geographical regions, and possible impacts on water security and security of nations; ii) improved water storage development planning overall in the context of various water development alternatives and storage options themselves and well as their combinations iii) prospects for another "storage revolution" - speed increase in dam numbers, and where, if at all this is most likely iv) recent events in storage development, e.g. is dam decommissioning a trend that picks pace, or whether some developing economies in Asia can do without going through the period of water storage construction, with alternatives, or suggestions for alleviation of negative impacts v) the role of subsurface storage as an

  14. A Pilot Stability Study of Dehydroepiandrosterone Rapid-dissolving Tablets Prepared by Extemporaneous Compounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Steven D; Vernak, Charlene; Zhao, Fang

    2017-01-01

    products. The dehydroepiandrosterone rapid-dissolving tablets investigated in this pilot study were physically and chemically stable during preparation and over six months of storage at 25°C and 60% relative humidity. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  15. Energy Storage of Polyarylene Ether Nitriles at High Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaohe; You, Yong; Mao, Hua; Li, Kui; Wei, Renbo; Liu, Xiaobo

    2018-03-01

    Polyarylene ether nitrile (PEN) was synthesized and used as film capacitors for energy storage at high temperature. Scanning electron microscopy observation indicated that the films of PEN have pinholes at nanoscales which restricted the energy storage properties of the material. The pinhole shadowing effect through which the energy storage properties of PEN were effectively improved to be 2.3 J/cm3 was observed by using the overlapped film of PEN. The high glass transition temperature (T g) of PEN was as high as 216 °C and PEN film showed stable dielectric constant, breakdown strength and energy storage density before the T g. The PEN films will be a potential candidate as high performance electronic storage materials used at high temperature.

  16. Licensing of spent fuel dry storage and consolidated rod storage: A Review of Issues and Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-02-01

    The results of this study, performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), respond to the nuclear industry's recommendation that a report be prepared that collects and describes the licensing issues (and their resolutions) that confront a new applicant requesting approval from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for dry storage of spent fuel or for large-scale storage of consolidated spent fuel rods in pools. The issues are identified in comments, questions, and requests from the NRC during its review of applicants' submittals. Included in the report are discussions of (1) the 18 topical reports on cask and module designs for dry storage fuel that have been submitted to the NRC, (2) the three license applications for dry storage of spent fuel at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs) that have been submitted to the NRC, and (3) the three applications (one of which was later withdrawn) for large-scale storage of consolidated fuel rods in existing spent fuel storage pools at reactors that were submitted tot he NRC. For each of the applications submitted, examples of some of the issues (and suggestions for their resolutions) are described. The issues and their resolutions are also covered in detail in an example in each of the three subject areas: (1) the application for the CASTOR V/21 dry spent fuel storage cask, (2) the application for the ISFSI for dry storage of spent fuel at Surry, and (3) the application for full-scale wet storage of consolidated spent fuel at Millstone-2. The conclusions in the report include examples of major issues that applicants have encountered. Recommendations for future applicants to follow are listed. 401 refs., 26 tabs.

  17. Preparing for faster filling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Following the programmed technical stop last week, operators focussed on preparing the machine for faster filling, which includes multibunch injection and a faster pre-cycle phase.   The LHC1 screen shot during the first multibunch injection operation. The LHC operational schedule incorporates a technical stop for preventive maintenance roughly every six weeks of stable operation, during which several interventions on the various machines are carried out. Last week these included the replacement of a faulty magnet in the SPS pre-accelerator, which required the subsequent re-setting of the system of particle extraction and transfer to the LHC. At the end of last week, all the machines were handed back for operation and work could start on accommodating all the changes made into the complex systems in order for normal operation to be resumed. These ‘recovery’ operations continued through the weekend and into this week. At the beginning of this week, operators succeeded in pro...

  18. Radioprotective preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanova, D.; Frattadochi, A.; Gattavecchia, E.; Ferri, E.; Tonnelli, D.

    1988-01-01

    The invention is intended for radiation injuries prophylaxis in mammals. It has an well expressed radioprotective effect against acute gamma irradiation on cellular level as well as a prolonged action when applied up to 48 hours before the acute irradiation. The preparation is a coprecipitate of the natural tripeptide glutathione (reduced form) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (pvp) in ratio 30-60/70-40. It is obtained by incubation method with subsequent lyophilization from water solution of the initial components. The molecular mass of the pvp is 20 till 360.10 3 . 2 claims

  19. Target preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinn, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    A few of the more interesting of the 210 targets prepared in the Laboratory last year are listed. In addition the author continues to use powdered silver mixed with /sup 9,10/BeO to produce sources for accelerator radio dating of Alaskan and South Polar snow. Currently, he is trying to increase production by multiple sample processing. Also the author routinely makes 3 μg/cm 2 cracked slacked carbon stripper foils and is continuing research with some degree of success in making enriched 28 Si targets starting with the oxide

  20. Energy Storage Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgqvist, Emma M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-07

    This presentation provides an overview on energy storage economics including recent market trends, battery terminology and concepts, value streams, challenges, and an example of how photovoltaics and storage can be used to lower demand charges. It also provides an overview of the REopt Lite web tool inputs and outputs.