WorldWideScience

Sample records for preparing social workers

  1. School Social Workers' Perceptions of Graduate Education Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovak, Karen; Joseph, Alfred Louis, Jr.; Broussard, Anne

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the perceptions of school social workers' (SSWers') graduate education training on contemporary issues facing students in schools as well as issues related to this host practice setting. SSWers who completed a specific school social work program were compared with those who did not on perceived graduate education preparation…

  2. Preparing School Social Work for the Future: An Update of School Social Workers' Tasks in Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckover, Christopher A.; Vasquez, Matthew L.; Van Housen, Stephanie L.; Saunders, Jeanne A.; Allen, Larry

    2013-01-01

    The authors begin this article by highlighting clinical social casework as a historic trend in school social work practice. They then identify two major shifts in current education policy related to school social work practice. One shift is an emphasis on a multilevel intervention approach, and the other is the differentiation between academic and…

  3. Sociocultural factors of teenage pregnancy in Latino communities: preparing social workers for culturally responsive practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Elizabeth; Pecukonis, Edward V; Zhou, Kelly

    2014-11-01

    Despite gains in reducing teenage pregnancy during the past 20 years, disparities in teenage pregnancy rates persist: The teenage pregnancy rate in Latino communities is now nearly double the average rate of teenage pregnancy in the United States. Considering the significant risks teenage pregnancy and parenting pose to both the teenager and the child, and that social workers are already often working in communities with populations at risk, this is not only a major public health issue, but one that the field of social work is well positioned to actively address. This article synthesizes pertinent literature on some of the social and cultural influences important for understanding this phenomenon. Implications for social work practice are discussed.

  4. Preparation of social workers for serving individuals with developmental disabilities: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePoy, E; Miller, M

    1996-02-01

    A survey was sent to program directors of 498 social work schools to explore the developmental disabilities content in their curricula. The survey measured developmental disabilities content in terms of course content, practice opportunities, research opportunities, and value content. The response rate was 28.9%. Results indicated that very few schools offered developmental disabilities content in their curricula, and those that did offered it primarily as a field practica experience. Survey findings raise concerns about how well social work students are being prepared for practice in the field of developmental disabilities.

  5. China's Migrant Workers' Social Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Sifeng; Zhang Wenxue; Wang Lijian; Zhang Li

    2010-01-01

    Based on the definition of migrant workers and migrant workers'social security,systems,policies and regulations and status quo of specific safeguard project of social security have been analyzed.Authors draw following conclusions: China's social security systems of migrant workers show diversification and differentiation trend; national-level policies take on diversification and local-level regulations take on differentiation; social welfare and social assistance have deficiency; coverage rate of social insurance items is extremely low.

  6. Information Literacy for Social Workers: University at Albany Libraries Prepare MSW Students for Research and Practice

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    Mary Jane Brustman

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In a series of workshops, University at Albany librarians collaborate with the School of Social Welfare to impart information literacy skills to Master in Social Work students. The rationale, curriculum, and embedded ACRL information literacy standards are discussed. Also presented are assessments and a discussion of the challenges of implementation.

  7. Social Workers in Combat: Application of Advanced Practice Competencies in Military Social Work and Implications for Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Michael W.; Weiss, Eugenia L.

    2015-01-01

    This article illustrates the types of situations that U.S. uniformed social workers have experienced in combat deployments to Iraq and Afghanistan with the purpose of preparing current and future social workers to effectively serve military and veteran clients in either military or civilian settings. Vignettes demonstrate the application of the…

  8. Educating Today's School Social Workers: Are School Social Work Courses Responding to the Changing Context?

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    Berzin, Stephanie Cosner; O'Connor, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    School social work takes place within the dynamic context of the educational landscape, yet research indicates that school social work practice has been slow to adjust to the demands of that landscape. Little research has assessed whether school social workers are being adequately prepared to address the educational shifts that underlie today's…

  9. The mental suffering of social workers

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    Marcel Sassolas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dealing with the mental suffering of the social workers means interesting to unpleasant or painful events that affect the daily working practice. The present work illustrates what can be the painful experiences, their nature and origin, and the conditions in which they appear, also highlighting the evolution, or the way in which social workers react to their appearance, if they do them away or if they are charged. The work focuses finally on external factors which influence or determine the way in which these feelings are metabolized by the operators.Keywords: Social workers; Managing negative emotions; Care work

  10. Charles Dickens, Social Worker in His Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Arlene Bowers

    2012-01-01

    As the world marks the 200th anniversary of Charles Dickens's birth, social workers may take note of the contributions Dickens made to 19th century social reform. Ever the advocate for people who were poor and oppressed, Dickens, in his timeless fictional narratives, continues to have relevance for contemporary social justice advocacy. This…

  11. Social Workers as Civic-Minded Professionals

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    Sarah E. Twill

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined civic-mindedness among a sample of social work educators, community practitioners and new graduates. Using a web-based survey, researchers administered Hatcher’s (2008 Civic-Minded Professional scale. Results indicated that traditional and field faculty were more civic-minded than new graduates and other practitioners. Social work educators who focused on raising civic awareness in courses were more civic-minded than colleagues. New graduates who had participated in club service events were more civic-minded; however, there was no significant differences between groups based on number of community service courses completed. Social workers, whether faculty or not, who had participated in collaborative research were more civic-minded. The authors conclude that how social workers view their commitment to civic engagement has implications. Social workers need to be vigilant in our commitment to well-being in society. Intentional practices could be implemented to strengthen the partnership among groups.

  12. National Association of Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Child Welfare Clinical Social Work Ethnicity & Race Health LGBT School Social Work Careers Continuing Education Credentials & Certifications Career Center Specialty Practice Sections CE Approval Program Advocacy Social Justice Policy Issues Sign-On Letters & Statements Political Action for Candidate ...

  13. School Social Workers' Perceptions of Cyberbullying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovak, Karen; Singer, Jonathan B.

    2011-01-01

    Although cyberbullying is a growing concern among students, parents, and school personnel, there has been little research exploring school social workers (SSWs) at the elementary, middle, and high school levels about their perceptions of the seriousness and pervasiveness of this issue as well as their responses to it. Data for this study came from…

  14. Formando Trabajadores Sociales en Suecia Forming social workers in Sweden

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    Norma Montesino

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo discute cierta contradicción existente entre el contenido de la Educación en Trabajo Social de Suecia y las realidades cambiantes del sistema de bienestar sueco. La integración social de todos los ciudadanos ya no forma parte de las políticas que rigen las actividades de bienestar sueco, sin embargo, este enfoque sigue siendo una premisa en muchos de los contenidos de la educación institucionalizada de los trabajadores sociales en Suecia.This article discusses a certain contradiction that exists between the contents of the Swedish social work education and the changing realities of the Swedish welfare system. The social integration of all citizens is no longer part of the policies that direct the Swedish welfare activities, however, this approach continues to be taken for granted as a premise in several of the contents of the social workers' institutionalized education in Sweden.

  15. The social worker. A member of the primary care team?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falloon, D

    1998-12-01

    The primary health care team at present does not include social workers as routine members. If however, we, accept the World Health Organization definition of health, which includes social well being, then it follows that the social worker should be considered as a member of the health team to attend to this aspect of health in the service delivery mix. This paper presents the experience of a social worker assigned to the August Town/Hermitage Type III health centre during the period March 1995 to February 1996 and her contribution to patient welfare. The expected roles of the social worker and his or her contribution to the health team are outlined.

  16. Training Social Workers in Personal Finance: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despard, Mathieu R.; Chowa, Gina A. N.

    2013-01-01

    Social workers have opportunities to help individuals and families with their financial problems in a variety of practice settings, yet receive no formal training to do so. Using data from an online survey of social workers and other human service professionals ("N"?=?56) who completed or expressed interest in a financial social work…

  17. Organizational Justice and Social Workers' Intentions to Leave Agency Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kuen; Solomon, Phyllis; Jang, Cinjae

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact of organizational justice on social workers' intention to leave Korean social service agencies. Specifically, this study concentrated on the moderating effect of organizational justice on the relationship between burnout and intention to leave. The authors surveyed 218 front-line social workers from 51 social…

  18. Older Workers in Changing Social Policy Patterns

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    Nathalie Burnay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-CA X-NONE X-NONE Compared to other European countries, the employment rate of older workers in Belgium is rather low. This paper argues that one of the most relevant factors underlying the problems of this low employment rate in Belgium is the social policies directed at older workers. Indeed, when unemployment became a widespread phenomenon in the1970s and 80s, early-retirement schemes were designed to alleviate the financial implications on an aging workforce. The government encouraged anyone over 50 to leave the labour market through early retirement schemes, unemployment payment programs, medical retirement, and career breaks. These practises were based on a wide consensus of government, business, and workers.However, for some years now, international organizations have been concerned about the viability of pension systems and their ability to achieve their objectives. In recent years, different factors have led policy makers to rethink this policy. But changing the trend and keeping people on the job has proven more difficult than foreseen. The transformations of public policies begun at the dawn of the 21st century radically changed the balance between the state, workers, and employers, who had all previously seen early retirement as favourable. This paper also tries to show how early retirement is not simply a desire to escape, but can also be explained as an aggression against the person by the labour market. Leaving professional life early thus seems more to be a case of necessity, in fact not a choice at all, but an obligation, or even a sacrifice, and must be seen in the perspective of professional duties and their evolution.

  19. Older Workers in Changing Social Policy Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Burnay

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-CA X-NONE X-NONE Compared to other European countries, the employment rate of older workers in Belgium is rather low. This paper argues that one of the most relevant factors underlying the problems of this low employment rate in Belgium is the social policies directed at older workers. Indeed, when unemployment became a widespread phenomenon in the1970s and 80s, early-retirement schemes were designed to alleviate the financial implications on an aging workforce. The government encouraged anyone over 50 to leave the labour market through early retirement schemes, unemployment payment programs, medical retirement, and career breaks. These practises were based on a wide consensus of government, business, and workers.However, for some years now, international organizations have been concerned about the viability of pension systems and their ability to achieve their objectives. In recent years, different factors have led policy makers to rethink this policy. But changing the trend and keeping people on the job has proven more difficult than foreseen. The transformations of public policies begun at the dawn of the 21st century radically changed the balance between the state, workers, and employers, who had all previously seen early retirement as favourable. This paper also tries to show how early retirement is not simply a desire to escape, but can also be explained as an aggression against the person by the labour market. Leaving professional life early thus seems more to be a case of necessity, in fact not a choice at all, but an obligation, or even a sacrifice, and must be seen in the perspective of professional duties and their evolution.

  20. Informal Workers in Thailand: Occupational Health and Social Security Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongtip, Pornpimol; Nankongnab, Noppanun; Chaikittiporn, Chalermchai; Laohaudomchok, Wisanti; Woskie, Susan; Slatin, Craig

    2015-08-01

    Informal workers in Thailand lack employee status as defined under the Labor Protection Act (LPA). Typically, they do not work at an employer's premise; they work at home and may be self-employed or temporary workers. They account for 62.6 percent of the Thai workforce and have a workplace accident rate ten times higher than formal workers. Most Thai Labor laws apply only to formal workers, but some protect informal workers in the domestic, home work, and agricultural sectors. Laws that protect informal workers lack practical enforcement mechanisms and are generally ineffective because informal workers lack employment contracts and awareness of their legal rights. Thai social security laws fail to provide informal workers with treatment of work-related accidents, diseases, and injuries; unemployment and retirement insurance; and workers' compensation. The article summarizes the differences in protections available for formal and informal sector workers and measures needed to decrease these disparities in coverage.

  1. Electronic information systems and social work: principles of participatory design for social workers

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    Philip Gillingham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of electronic information systems (IS to human service organizations has been heavily critiqued, most notably for the ways that they may undermine frontline social work practice. Socio-technical design has been proposed as one means to redesign IS and a key element of this approach is the involvement of practitioners in the design process. Social workers, though, may be ill-prepared to engage in such processes. Reflecting on the findings of a program of research which aims to contribute to future designs of IS that support frontline practice, the aim in this article is to provide some guidance for social workers that will assist them to be active and effective participants in the future development of IS.

  2. Becoming a Social Worker in Wales: Language, Teaching, and Inclusivity in Professional Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakeford, Mark; Lynn, Elisabeth

    1999-01-01

    Explores education and training issues related to preparing (Welsh) social workers for practice in a bilingual community. Traces official language use in Wales, draws on authors' personal histories, considers Welsh-language status, and explores connections between language and social work. Training is inclusive, but needs improvement. Contains 28…

  3. Preparing Engineers for Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandvoort, H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I introduce the contributions to a special section of the journal: one devoted to the question of how engineering curricula can or should contribute to the preparation of graduates for socially responsible decision making and conduct. The special section is motivated by the circumstance that, although there is broad agreement that…

  4. Preparing Engineers for Social Responsibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandvoort, H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper I introduce the contributions to a special section of the journal: one devoted to the question of how engineering curricula can or should contribute to the preparation of graduates for socially responsible decision making and conduct. The special section is motivated by the circumstance that, although there is broad agreement that…

  5. Commitment of Licensed Social Workers to Aging Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Kelsey; Bonifas, Robin; Gammonley, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to identify client, professional, and employment characteristics that enhance licensed social workers' commitment to aging practice. A series of binary logistic regressions were performed using data from 181 licensed, full-time social workers who reported aging as their primary specialty area as part of the 2004 NASW's national…

  6. Effects of Age Expectations on Oncology Social Workers' Clinical Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Annemarie; Choi, Namkee G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the influence of oncology social workers' expectations regarding aging (ERA) and ERA with cancer (ERAC) on their clinical judgment. Methods: Oncology social workers (N = 322) were randomly assigned to one of four vignettes describing a patient with lung cancer. The vignettes were identical except for the patent's age…

  7. Social Workers' Role in the Canadian Mental Health Care System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towns, Ashley M.; Schwartz, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Using Canadian survey data this research provides social workers in Canada with a better understanding of their role in the Canadian mental health care system. Methods: By analyzing data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 1.2 Mental Health and Well-being, the role of social workers in the Canadian mental health system was…

  8. Burnout in Hospital Social Workers Who Work with AIDS Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktay, Julianne S.

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 128 hospital social workers who worked with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients. Found that hospital AIDS social workers had slightly higher rates of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization on Maslach Burnout Inventory but also felt substantially higher level of personal accomplishment. Age, autonomy, and belonging to…

  9. Modern Social Support Structures: Online Social Networks and their Implications for Social Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kala Chakradhar

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Mapping and assessing social networks and the quality of their social support is a valuable intervention strategy for social workers. These networks have now spread onto the digital realm in the form of Online Social Networks (OSNs. This study investigated the nature of social support provided by such networks to their users in a rural mid-South University (USA and explored parallels with the current understanding of social support in conventional social networks. A web-based survey administered to college students revealed that users of these online networks were predominantly undergraduate first year students, female, single, unemployed and from a variety of academic disciplines. The examination of the components of OSNs appears to mirror those of offline networks. They also seem to complement the effects of each other while contributing to an individual's support system. The paper concludes with critical implications of such online social networking for University students and social workers in practice and education.

  10. Community health workers and their value to social work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Michael S; Gunter, Kathryn E; Palmisano, Gloria

    2010-04-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) play a vital and unique role in linking diverse and underserved populations to health and social service systems. Despite their effectiveness, as documented by empirical studies across various disciplines including public health, nursing, and biomedicine, the value and potential role of CHWs in the social work practice and research literature has been largely absent. Thus, this article introduces social workers to CHWs, their role in promoting culturally appropriate practice, and their utility in collaboration with social workers in community settings. This integrative review also discusses current challenges identified by the CHW literature, including potential barriers to the expansion of CHW programs, as well as issues of training, certification, and sustainability. The review also discusses the close alignment of CHWs with social work values and principles of social justice, suggesting opportunities for enhanced social work practice and research.

  11. Oncology Social Workers' Attitudes toward Hospice Care and Referral Behavior

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    Becker, Janet E.

    2004-01-01

    Members of the Association of Oncology Social Workers completed a survey, which included the Hospice Philosophy Scale (HPS) assessing the likelihood of the worker referring a terminally ill patient to hospice, background and experience, and demographics. The respondents held overwhelmingly favorable attitudes toward hospice philosophy and care,…

  12. A Model of Comparative Ethics Education for Social Workers

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    Pugh, Greg L.

    2017-01-01

    Social work ethics education models have not effectively engaged social workers in practice in formal ethical reasoning processes, potentially allowing personal bias to affect ethical decisions. Using two of the primary ethical models from medicine, a new social work ethics model for education and practical application is proposed. The strengths…

  13. Economic Inequality and Economic Crisis: A Challenge for Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Gertrude Schaffner

    2012-01-01

    To social workers, extreme economic inequality is primarily a violation of social justice, but this article shows how growing economic inequality since the mid-1970s was not only unjust, but also dysfunctional to the U.S. economy and linked to the recent economic crisis with its devastating effects, particularly on the social work clientele. The…

  14. Economic Inequality and Economic Crisis: A Challenge for Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Gertrude Schaffner

    2012-01-01

    To social workers, extreme economic inequality is primarily a violation of social justice, but this article shows how growing economic inequality since the mid-1970s was not only unjust, but also dysfunctional to the U.S. economy and linked to the recent economic crisis with its devastating effects, particularly on the social work clientele. The…

  15. The social worker as moral citizen: ethics in action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, S S

    1997-05-01

    Social workers today face some of the most complex ethical dilemmas in the history of the profession. This article presents a framework of moral citizenship to guide ethical social work practice. The framework includes the action philosophies of philosopher Hannah Arendt and Lutheran theologian Paul Tillich integrated with concepts of professional responsibility and the unique contributions of social work pioneer Charlotte Towle. Social conscience and social consciousness, including awareness, thinking, feeling, and action, are major components of the framework.

  16. An Invitation for Social Workers To Employ Conflict Management.

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    Linville, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    This article looks at how a social worker is able to use conflict management as described by William Purkey and John Schmidt in their book on invitational counseling in order to better engage the hardest to reach clients. (GCP)

  17. Thinking Like a Social Worker: Examining the Meaning of Critical Thinking in Social Work

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    Mathias, John

    2015-01-01

    "Critical thinking" is frequently used to describe how social workers ought to reason. But how well has this concept helped us to develop a normative description of what it means to think like a social worker? This critical review mines the literature on critical thinking for insight into the kinds of thinking social work scholars…

  18. Burnout in Social Workers Treating Children as Related to Demographic Characteristics, Work Environment, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamama, Liat

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sense of burnout among 126 social workers who directly treat children and adolescents within the human service professions. Burnout was investigated in relation to social workers' demographic characteristics (age, family status, education, and seniority at work), extrinsic and intrinsic work conditions, and social support by…

  19. Burnout in Social Workers Treating Children as Related to Demographic Characteristics, Work Environment, and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamama, Liat

    2012-01-01

    This study examined sense of burnout among 126 social workers who directly treat children and adolescents within the human service professions. Burnout was investigated in relation to social workers' demographic characteristics (age, family status, education, and seniority at work), extrinsic and intrinsic work conditions, and social support by…

  20. Reproduction, social behavior, and aging trajectories in honeybee workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Luke; Kuster, Ryan; Rueppell, Olav

    2014-02-01

    While a negative correlation between reproduction and life span is commonly observed, specialized reproductive individuals outlive their non-reproductive nestmates in all eusocial species, including the honeybee, Apis mellifera (L). The consequences of reproduction for individual life expectancy can be studied directly by comparing reproductive and non-reproductive workers. We quantified the life span consequences of reproduction in honeybee workers by removal of the queen to trigger worker reproduction. Furthermore, we observed the social behavior of large cohorts of workers under experimental and control conditions to test for associations with individual life expectancy. Worker life expectancy was moderately increased by queen removal. Queenless colonies contained a few long-lived workers, and oviposition behavior was associated with a strong reduction in mortality risk, indicating that a reproductive role confers a significant survival advantage. This finding is further substantiated by an association between brood care behavior and worker longevity that depends on the social environment. In contrast, other in-hive activities, such as fanning, trophallaxis, and allogrooming did not consistently affect worker life expectancy. The influence of foraging varied among replicates. An earlier age of transitioning from in-hive tasks to outside foraging was always associated with shorter life spans, in accordance with previous studies. In sum, our studies quantify how individual mortality is affected by particular social roles and colony environments and demonstrate interactions between the two. The exceptional, positive association between reproduction and longevity in honeybees extends to within-caste plasticity, which may be exploited for mechanistic studies.

  1. Economic inequality and economic crisis: a challenge for social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Gertrude Schaffner

    2012-07-01

    To social workers, extreme economic inequality is primarily a violation of social justice, but this article shows how growing economic inequality since the mid-1970s was not only unjust, but also dysfunctional to the U.S. economy and linked to the recent economic crisis with its devastating effects, particularly on the social work clientele. The article identifies interrelated changes in ideology, the market economy, and government policies since the mid-1970s; contrasts the political economy of this period with the preceding post-World War II decades when the trend was toward a "shared prosperity"; and shows how increased economic inequality and political consequences that undermined democracy itself contributed to the economic meltdown. The analysis has implications for the direction of social reform and for broadening the constituency of social movements in pursuit of the social work mission of social justice. How social workers can contribute to such movements and to a reduction of economic and political inequality is explored.

  2. Developing effective leadership competencies in military social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Jennifer L; Howard, Reginald W

    2014-01-01

    Military social workers are facing transformative times in that demand for military social work has increased and become more complex, challenging, and diverse due to the last 13 years of combat experiences. Developing military social work leaders must be deliberate, continuous, and progressive in order to impact and improve organizational performance in the healthcare delivery system. The transformational leadership model has been proven to be effective in both the military and social service organizations. The strength of this leadership model coincides well with the values of the social work profession. Incorporating leadership development in a clinical Master of Social Work program has the potential to improve service provision and offer strategies for military social workers to effectively manage the ongoing challenges in the field of social work.

  3. Social cohesion, social participation, and HIV related risk among female sex workers in Swaziland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonner, Virginia A; Kerrigan, Deanna; Mnisi, Zandile; Ketende, Sosthenes; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Baral, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social cohesion among sex workers and social participation of sex workers in the larger community, and HIV-related risk in Swaziland using respondent-driven sampling. Relationships between social cohesion, social participation, and HIV-related risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. HIV prevalence among the sample was 70.4% (223/317). Social cohesion was associated with consistent condom use in the past week (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-3.90) and was associated with fewer reports of social discrimination, including denial of police protection. Social participation was associated with HIV testing (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.36-4.03) and using condoms with non-paying partners (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.13-3.51), and was inversely associated with reported verbal or physical harassment as a result of selling sex (AOR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33-0.91). Both social capital constructs were significantly associated with collective action, which involved participating in meetings to promote sex worker rights or attending HIV-related meetings/ talks with other sex workers. Social- and structural-level interventions focused on building social cohesion and social participation among sex workers could provide significant protection from HIV infection for female sex workers in Swaziland.

  4. Social cohesion, social participation, and HIV related risk among female sex workers in Swaziland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia A Fonner

    Full Text Available Social capital is important to disadvantaged groups, such as sex workers, as a means of facilitating internal group-related mutual aid and support as well as access to broader social and material resources. Studies among sex workers have linked higher social capital with protective HIV-related behaviors; however, few studies have examined social capital among sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. This cross-sectional study examined relationships between two key social capital constructs, social cohesion among sex workers and social participation of sex workers in the larger community, and HIV-related risk in Swaziland using respondent-driven sampling. Relationships between social cohesion, social participation, and HIV-related risk factors were assessed using logistic regression. HIV prevalence among the sample was 70.4% (223/317. Social cohesion was associated with consistent condom use in the past week (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.30-3.90 and was associated with fewer reports of social discrimination, including denial of police protection. Social participation was associated with HIV testing (AOR = 2.39, 95% CI: 1.36-4.03 and using condoms with non-paying partners (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.13-3.51, and was inversely associated with reported verbal or physical harassment as a result of selling sex (AOR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33-0.91. Both social capital constructs were significantly associated with collective action, which involved participating in meetings to promote sex worker rights or attending HIV-related meetings/ talks with other sex workers. Social- and structural-level interventions focused on building social cohesion and social participation among sex workers could provide significant protection from HIV infection for female sex workers in Swaziland.

  5. Identity of Social Workers Working with Immigrants with an International Protection in Slovakia

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    Martina ZAKOVA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Migration is an issue that concerns every country in the world. Slovakia, for a longer period of time, was a country whose people were leaving, mainly due to political persecution and lack of freedom of religion. After the change of political regime and the establishment of the Slovak Republic, that since 1993, Slovakia ranks among the countries to which inhabitants of other countries are coming and are looking for a new home, a new job or protection from persecution. In 1993 the first refugee camp was established in Slovakia and successively also other camps were opened. With the arrival of refugees to Slovakia social workers has begun to work with these clients. This paper focuses more on the immigrants who do not come to Slovakia voluntarily, i.e. refugees. In this paper, when we write about immigrants we think with persons granted asylum and also with persons with a subsidiary protection status. The aim of the study was to explore how social workers perceive themselves as workers with immigrants with international protection. In Slovakia, social workers working with these clientele are social workers who work for one of two nongovernmental organizations. We particularly focused on their professional identity, what is formed by the profession of social work. Another part of our interest was social workers’ motivation to work in this field of social work. Qualitative research strategy was used. Semi-structured interviews with social workers working with immigrants were conducted. All of the participants were graduated in social work, with at least a bachelor degree. Most of the Slovak social workers from this field took part in this research. The data were analyzed using the program Atlas.Ti. Findings describe how social workers working with immigrants identify themselves, what they consider the core of their profession and how this differs from other social work fields. This paper was prepared as a part of the project The Identity of Social

  6. Violent Events: School Social Workers' Perception and Response

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    Cawood, Natalie Diane

    2013-01-01

    This article reports findings from a national web-based survey of 250 members of the School Social Work Association of America (SSWAA). This study examines the types of violent events reported by school social workers and the practitioner's perception of the problem of interpersonal violence in the school context. It identifies interventions being…

  7. School Social Workers and a Renewed Call to Advocacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Alfred L., Jr.; Slovak, Karen; Broussard, C. Anne

    2010-01-01

    This article calls for school social workers to work in schools to reform school systems that have historically failed and are currently failing African American children. While the hope of education is to assist students to realize their potential, school systems across the nation are not reaching this goal. School social work has a duty, a…

  8. Violent Events: School Social Workers' Perception and Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawood, Natalie Diane

    2013-01-01

    This article reports findings from a national web-based survey of 250 members of the School Social Work Association of America (SSWAA). This study examines the types of violent events reported by school social workers and the practitioner's perception of the problem of interpersonal violence in the school context. It identifies interventions being…

  9. Community Health Workers and Their Value to Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Michael S.; Gunter, Kathryn E.; Palmisano, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) play a vital and unique role in linking diverse and underserved populations to health and social service systems. Despite their effectiveness, as documented by empirical studies across various disciplines including public health, nursing, and biomedicine, the value and potential role of CHWs in the social work…

  10. Moral Development and Social Worker Ethical Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groessl, Joan

    2013-01-01

    This study examined both the moral development levels using the Defining Issues Test-2 (DIT--2) and ethical decision-making using the Professional Opinion Scale (POS) of social workers who provide field supervision to students within accredited social work programs in Wisconsin. Using the moral development theory of Kohlberg (1981) which defined…

  11. Workplace Congruence and Occupational Outcomes among Social Service Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, John R.; Shier, Micheal L.; Nicholas, David

    2016-01-01

    Workplace expectations reflect an important consideration in employee experience. A higher prevalence of workplace congruence between worker and employer expectations has been associated with higher levels of productivity and overall workplace satisfaction across multiple occupational groups. Little research has investigated the relationship between workplace congruence and occupational health outcomes among social service workers. This study sought to better understand the extent to which occupational congruence contributes to occupational outcomes by surveying unionised social service workers (n = 674) employed with the Government of Alberta, Canada. Multiple regression analysis shows that greater congruence between workplace and worker expectations around workloads, workplace values and the quality of the work environment significantly: (i) decreases symptoms related to distress and secondary traumatic stress; (ii) decreases intentions to leave; and (iii) increases overall life satisfaction. The findings provide some evidence of areas within the workplace of large government run social welfare programmes that can be better aligned to worker expectations to improve occupational outcomes among social service workers. PMID:27559216

  12. Science and pseudoscience in developmental disabilities: guidelines for social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyer, Bruce A; Pignotti, Monica

    2010-01-01

    Individuals with a developmental disability can now be provided a variety of empirically supported treatments that have been shown to be useful in promoting educational attainments, social and vocational skills, and self-care, and in reducing behavioral problems. Unfortunately, a large number of pseudoscientific or bogus therapies continue to be offered to this population and their families. We review the characteristics of pseudoscientific and bogus treatments and provide several examples of unsupported or harmful interventions offered by contemporary social workers and other human service professionals, to the detriment of people with disabilities. We encourage social workers to identify pseudoscientific interventions and avoid providing these, in favor of using empirically supported treatments.

  13. Workers prepare the tent for FIRST robotic competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Workers at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex make final preparations in the huge tent for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition March 9-11. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing at KSC, 16 are Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  14. Social workers' roles in addressing the complex end-of-life care needs of elders with advanced chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Betty J

    2013-01-01

    This study examined social workers' roles in caring for low-income elders with advanced chronic disease in an innovative, community-based managed care program, from the perspective of elders, family, team members, and social workers. The results are drawn from a larger longitudinal, multimethod case study. Sources of data include survey reports of needs addressed by social workers for 120 deceased elders, five focus groups with interdisciplinary team members, and in-depth interviews with 14 elders and 10 of their family caregivers. A thematic conceptual matrix was developed to detail 32 distinctive social work roles that address divergent needs of elders, family, and team members. Distinctive perceptions of social workers' roles were identified for the different stakeholder groups (i.e., elders, family caregivers, team members, and social workers). Findings from this study may inform supervisors and educators regarding training needs of those preparing to enter the rapidly growing workforce of gerontological social workers who may be called upon to care for elders at the end of life. Training is particularly warranted to help social workers gain the skills needed to more successfully treat symptom management, depression, anxiety, agitation, grief, funeral planning, and spiritual needs that are common to the end of life.

  15. Oral health of foreign domestic workers: exploring the social determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoli; Chan, Chi Wai; Mak, Siu Lun; Ng, Zevon; Kwong, Wai Hang; Kot, Ching Ching Shirley

    2014-10-01

    Foreign domestic helpers constitute a significant proportion of migrant workers worldwide. This population subgroup provides an opportunity for understanding social determinants of oral health in immigrant community. A random sample of 122 Indonesian domestic helpers in Hong Kong completed a questionnaire on their demographic background, social characteristics (competency in local languages, immigration history, living condition, social connections, and leisure activities) and oral health behaviours (knowledge, attitudes, practice and self-efficacy). Their tooth status and periodontal health were assessed. Participants tended to start flossing after settling in Hong Kong. Favourable oral health knowledge was found in more acculturated participants, as indicated by proficiency in local languages and immigration history. Engagement in social and/or religious activities and decent living condition provided by employers were associated with favourable oral health behaviours and/or better oral health. Social determinants explained 13.2 % of variance in caries severity. Our findings support the significant impact of social circumstances on oral health of domestic workers.

  16. Theory, Demonstration and Methods Research on Social Security of Migrant Workers by Domestic Scholar

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Zhen; Wang, Weifang

    2011-01-01

    Social security of migrant workers has been significant in dissolving social contradictions and achieving the economic and social development in China during the transitional period. The researches of domestic scholar on social security of migrant workers can be classified into three categories. Firstly, theoretical analysis on social security of migrant workers, including researches on the appeal of social security and misunderstanding of recognition, theory-construction of rural worker soci...

  17. Incarcerated sex workers and HIV prevention in China: social suffering and social justice countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Joseph; Ren, Xin; Sapio, Flora

    2010-01-01

    Sex workers in China are routinely coercively detained through administrative mechanisms outside of legal procedures, but very little is known about the anthropologic and public health context of these policies. This biosocial analysis of female Chinese sex worker detention uses ethnographic, legal, and public health data to describe social suffering and countervailing social justice responses among incarcerated sex workers (ISW) in China. Compared to sex workers not detained in China, ISW face substantive inequalities inscribed in physical and psychological suffering. Chinese sex worker detention camp practices may not only systematically increase HIV/syphilis risk among ISW, but also work to narrow women's social spheres of influence, a particularly cruel tragedy in a Chinese social system that highly values social and personal connections. A limited empiric analysis of Guangxi Province STI clinic data shows that cities detaining sex workers have higher mean HIV prevalence compared to cities that do not detain sex workers. While incipient medical and legal movements in China have generated momentum for expanding ISW services and resources, there is still substantial variation in the implementation of laws that ensure basic life-saving medical treatments. Post-incarceration social justice programs for sex workers linking women to essential STI/HIV resources, reconnecting broken social lives, and helping restore interpersonal relationships are urgently needed.

  18. Are Empathy and Compassion Bad for the Professional Social Worker?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nilsson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that social workers and other professional helpers who work with traumatized individuals run a risk of developing compassion fatigue or secondary traumatic stress. Some researchers have hypothesized that helpers do this as a result of feeling too much empathy or too much compassion for their clients, thereby implying that empathy and compassion may be bad for the professional social worker. This paper investigates these hypotheses. Based on a review of current research about empathy and compassion it is argued that these states are not the causes of compassion fatigue. Hence, it is argued that empathy and compassion are not bad for the professional social worker in the sense that too much of one or the other will lead to compassion fatigue.

  19. Analysis of Social Worker and Educator's Areas of Intervention through Multimedia Concept Maps and Online Discussion Forums in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Cano, Esteban; López Meneses, Eloy; Sánchez-Serrano, José Luis Sarasola

    2015-01-01

    This diachronic study describes an innovative university experience consisting of the development of multimedia concept maps (MCM) in relation to social educators and social workers main intervention areas and an active discussion in online forums about the results obtained. These MCMs were prepared by students who attended the Information…

  20. Transnational Social Workers: Making the Profession a Transnational Professional Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Bartley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws on research conducted in New Zealand from 2009 to 2011 with overseas-qualified social workers as members of a global profession experiencing both great international demand for their skills and unparalleled flows of professional transnationalism. In line with the international social work literature, this cohort of migrant professionals offers a range of needed skill and expertise as well as unique challenges to local employers, client communities, and the social work profession as a whole. With a specific focus on mixed-methods data dealing with participants' induction experiences and engagement with professional bodies, this paper argues that migrant social workers have created in New Zealand a transnational professional space that demands a response from local social work stakeholders.

  1. Burnout and Physical Health among Social Workers: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hansung; Ji, Juye; Kao, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The high risk of burnout in the social work profession is well established, but little is known about burnout's impact on the physical health of social workers. This article examines the relationship between burnout and physical health, using data from a longitudinal study of social workers. California-registered social workers (N = 406) were…

  2. Burnout and Physical Health among Social Workers: A Three-Year Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hansung; Ji, Juye; Kao, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    The high risk of burnout in the social work profession is well established, but little is known about burnout's impact on the physical health of social workers. This article examines the relationship between burnout and physical health, using data from a longitudinal study of social workers. California-registered social workers (N = 406) were…

  3. Social Physics and the Flow of Migrant Peasant Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Li; Yun-Lin, Wang

    Social physics is an old and new discipline. In the seventeenth century, when physics as we know it was gradually taking shape, natural philosophers were attempting to apply the concepts and methods of statistical physics to society as a whole. The social physics is the use of natural way of thinking, the basic principles of universal rules, systems and methods of calculation means the social, economic and other complex issues of qualitative and quantitative analysis of complex subjects. In the direction of natural and social sciences Cross-full, it could be easy to understand the flow of migrant peasant workers preference choice of this complex issue.

  4. School Social Workers and Multiculturalism: Changing the Environment for Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Alfred L.; Slovak, Karen; Broussard, C. Anne; Webster, Paula Sunanon

    2012-01-01

    Dropping out, a phenomenon heavily concentrated in communities of color, hampers the academic success of multicultural students. Multiculturalism can help make school an inviting place for vulnerable youths, and school social workers (SSWRs) are in a position to advocate for school environments that are conducive to academic success. The present…

  5. Prevalence of Secondary Traumatic Stress among Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bride, Brian E.

    2007-01-01

    Social workers are increasingly being called on to assist survivors of childhood abuse, domestic violence, violent crime, disasters, and war and terrorism. It has become increasingly apparent that the psychological effects of traumatic events extend beyond those directly affected. Secondary traumatic stress (STS) is becoming viewed as an…

  6. Social Service Worker Programs Transfer Guide Matrix and Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Phyllis

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to identity the transferability of Social Service Worker (SSW) certificate and diploma level courses/programs among British Columbia (BC) post- secondary institutions. Although it continues to be necessary for receiving institutions to review courses a student completed at the sending institution, a matrix has been…

  7. Components of Job Satisfaction in Psychiatric Social Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, Anne; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Surveyed 188 psychiatric social workers, finding overall positive level of job satisfaction. Overall job satisfaction was found to be primarily determined by position satisfaction. Major correlate of position satisfaction was professional respect received from other disciplines and not specific tasks performed. Results showed importance of…

  8. [Freelance nurses and social care workers working with the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douguet, Florence; Vilbrod, Alain

    2013-05-01

    Freelance nurses are in contact with an array of professionals working to help elderly people to continue living at home. In particular they form close ties with social service assistants and home care support workers. Between diverging perspectives and actual collaboration, these relationships seem atthe very least extremely contrasting.

  9. Certification of School Social Workers and Curriculum Content of Programs Offering Training in School Social Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, Ann Marie; Bye, Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the status of certification requirements for school social workers across the United States and the policy context in which certification is embedded. The article also details findings of a study on the curriculum available at various schools of social work offering training in school social work. The article makes a case for…

  10. Research on Issues concerning Social Security for Migrant Workers in Harmonious Society

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hua

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the status quo of social security for migrant workers in China, and points out that there are deep system and concept reasons for the lack of labor rights and interests security, social security, equality and the right to development, political participation channels for the current migrant workers. This article then expounds the adverse effects of lack of social security for migrant workers on building a harmonious society: the lack of social security for migrant worker...

  11. Economic Status and Social Attitudes of Migrant Workers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peilin Li; Wei Li

    2007-01-01

    Migrant workers, meaning those who used to be farmers but have left rural areas and found jobs in cities as a result of economic reform and rapid development in China, have made a significant contribution to the burgeoning labor market and played an important role in speeding up the transition from a planned to a market economy. This present paper considers the economic status and social attitudes of migrant workers. It is based on the analysis of a large-scale survey in 2006, which was conducted using questionnaires and covered 28 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions throughout the country. It was found that the income status of migrant workers depends heavily on the education and technical skills that they have developed, rather than on identity-based discrimination. Surprisingly,it was also found that those on less income and of lower economic and social status show more positive attitudes to society than those who are affluent and considered of higher social status. It is concluded that the decisive factor in attitude and behavior of migrant workers is historic rather than economic.

  12. SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AS A STRATEGY ACTIVATOR ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT OF WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Y. Hernández Hernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to determine the impact of Social Responsibility (SR as a trigger strategy of organizational commitment of workers in a company in the food sector. Focusing on the need to create links between company-worker to minimize this conflict given the set of state policies aimed at weakening the current capitalist system. The positivist approach is, of qualitative and quantitative court and field. We conclude that RS applied processes generate a high level of identification, belonging and membership, positive impact on the level of employee commitment to the company.

  13. Examining Self-Protection Measures Guarding Adult Protective Services Social Workers against Compassion Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, Dara

    2012-01-01

    Little research has focused on the risk factors, effects, and experiences of compassion fatigue among gerontological social workers. This qualitative study explores the experiences and perspectives of nine Adult Protective Services (APS) social workers in relation to compassion fatigue. Results show that the APS social workers combined personal…

  14. 42 CFR 405.2450 - Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker... § 405.2450 Clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services. (a) For clinical psychologist or...) Of a type that the clinical psychologist or clinical social worker who furnishes the services...

  15. Hospice and palliative social workers' experiences with clients at risk of suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Karla T; Albright, David L; Parker Oliver, Debra; Gage, L Ashley; Lewis, Alexandria; Mooney, Megan J

    2016-12-01

    We sought to determine the frequency with which hospice and palliative social workers encounter patients, family caregivers, and other clients at risk of suicide, and to discover the extent to which hospice and palliative social workers feel prepared to address issues related to suicide in their professional practice. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of hospice and palliative social workers, recruiting a convenience sample of volunteer respondents through advertisements at professional conferences and listservs, and via social media accounts associated with national organizations, state hospice and palliative care associations, and individual healthcare professionals. Most respondents reported having worked with patients, family caregivers, or other clients who had exhibited warning signs of suicide during the previous year. Fewer respondents indicated that they had worked with patients and family members who had attempted or died by suicide. While the majority of respondents believed they possessed sufficient knowledge and skills to intervene effectively with individuals at risk of suicide, they indicated that additional education on this topic would be valuable for their professional practice. These study results suggest that suicide-related competencies are important in the practice of hospice and palliative social work. Future education and training efforts should include skill development in addition to knowledge building.

  16. Theory, Demonstration and Methods: Research on Social Security of Migrant Workers by Domestic Scholar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Social security of migrant workers has been significant in dissolving social contradictions and achieving the economic and social development in China during the transitional period. The researches of domestic scholar on social security of migrant workers can be classified into three categories. Firstly, theoretical analysis on social security of migrant workers, including researches on the appeal of social security and misunderstanding of recognition, theory-construction of rural worker social security, policy defects and equity construction in social security system of migrant workers. Secondly, real studies on social security of migrant workers, including researches on sequence of demand and influencing factors of social security of migrant workers as well as intrinsic motivation forming the perspective on social security. Lastly, road exploration of establishing social security system, including researches on the multi-level development of rural worker social security system, comparison of "Double-low method", "Guangdong Method" and "Shanghai Method" of the social security of migrant workers in Zhejiang Province and establishing multi-level social security system according to the hierarchy after the internal differentiation.

  17. Mothers' Perceptions of Social Work Helpgiving Practices: Implications for the Role of the School Social Worker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Kristina S.

    2012-01-01

    The Individual with Disabilities Act has strengthened the role of parents in their children's special education. School social workers are one of the educational professionals in attendance at IEP staffings, yet their role definition continues to be poorly articulated. This qualitative study investigated school social work helpgiving practices…

  18. Mothers' Perceptions of Social Work Helpgiving Practices: Implications for the Role of the School Social Worker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Kristina S.

    2012-01-01

    The Individual with Disabilities Act has strengthened the role of parents in their children's special education. School social workers are one of the educational professionals in attendance at IEP staffings, yet their role definition continues to be poorly articulated. This qualitative study investigated school social work helpgiving practices…

  19. Social Workers' Perspectives Regarding the DSM: Implications for Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLendon, Tara

    2014-01-01

    There is a decades-old debate in social work regarding the appropriateness of the use of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (DSM) by clinicians in this profession. Despite often contentious perspectives, there has been very little study regarding clinical social workers' experiences, attitudes, and beliefs about…

  20. Social loafing and social compensation: the effects of expectations of co-worker performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K D; Karau, S J

    1991-10-01

    Previous research has suggested that people tend to engage in social loafing when working collectively. The present research tested the social compensation hypothesis, which states that people will work harder collectively than individually when they expect their co-workers to perform poorly on a meaningful task. In 3 experiments, participants worked either collectively or coactively on an idea generation task. Expectations of co-worker performance were either inferred from participants' interpersonal trust scores (Experiment 1) or were directly manipulated by a confederate coworker's statement of either his intended effort (Experiment 2) or his ability at the task (Experiment 3). All 3 studies supported the social compensation hypothesis. Additionally, Experiment 3 supported the hypothesis that participants would not socially compensate for a poorly performing co-worker when working on a task that was low in meaningfulness.

  1. Education for what? Exploring directions for the professionalisation of social workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelt, Mariën van; Hutschemaekers, Giel; Sleegers, Peter; Hattum, Marion van

    2013-01-01

    The complexity of the daily practice of social workers in the Netherlands has increased, while the social appreciation for their work has decreased. Stakeholders involved in social work practice agreed that a master's programme for social workers could be an important step to improve the quality of

  2. Performance related pay (PRP) to social workers in Danish Job Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg Jensen, Maya; Rosdahl, Anders

    This paper discusses two issues: - Why has some Danish local employment administrations introduced performance related pay (PRP) for social workers while others have not? - Does PRP to social workers imply better efforts to bring long-term recipients of social assistance into employment?......This paper discusses two issues: - Why has some Danish local employment administrations introduced performance related pay (PRP) for social workers while others have not? - Does PRP to social workers imply better efforts to bring long-term recipients of social assistance into employment?...

  3. Preparing rural migrant workers for new jobs amid crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张车伟; 王智勇

    2009-01-01

    Referencing statistical yearbooks and census data,we first estimate the total number of rural migrant workers in China at about 238 million in 2008,including 71.4 million working across provinces.We also estimate how many migrant workers will be affected by the financial crisis and may lose their jobs.The coastal areas are the hardest hit.We predict that China in the first half of 2009 will face the most serious employment situation since the dawn of the new century, and that structural unemployment of rural migrant workers is the main problem.We estimate that around 34.18 million rural migrant workers would be facing the risk of structural unemployment.In order to cope with the shocks to rural migrant workers’ employment,the government should put a policy emphasis on adjusting rural migrant workers to new jobs.

  4. Problems of New Generation Migrant Workers from the Perspective of Social Discrimination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The correlation of migrant workers and other social problems are studied from the aspects of the concept of "migrant workers" and social discrimination,"new generation" and mobility of social class,and the gender structure of new generation migrant workers.The results show that the "worker" in the "migrant worker" comes from the "work for other people";although the "migrant worker" has the sense of discrimination,it really reflects the survival states of a certain social class;comparing with the first class migrant workers,the new generation migrant workers are the second generation of migrant workers,and their social position has not changed basically.The unfairness of social mobility is included among the "poor second generation","rich second generation" and "officer second generation",which may lead to the hardening of social class and the appear of opposite classes;the new generation migrant workers are subverting their fathers’ psychological recognition of "man dominates the outside and the woman dominates the inside" by the imbalanced sex structure,which is characterized by more women and less men.The social problems concerning new generation migrant workers caused by the sex discrepancy are directly related to the construction of the framework which comes up to the human moral and the stable improvement of the whole social ideological and cultural level.

  5. A look into the emotions experienced by social workers attending terminally ill

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Cerros Rodriguez

    2016-01-01

    Since its inception Social Work has faced a common denominator: human suffering in all its manifestations. To address these situations, the social worker requires a set of skills and tools to respond professionally to the subject that requires professional services. But what happens when we talk about the physical and emotional pain experienced by patients in terminal stage? Where the social worker attends and accompanies long way to them, what emotions experienced Social Workers?, suffer fro...

  6. [Social representations on aging by primary care health workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Cristina Katya Torres Teixeira; Alves, Maria do Socorro Costa Feitosa; Silva, Antonia Oliveira; Paredes, Maria Adelaide Silva; Rodrigues, Tatyanni Peixoto

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to get to know the social representations on aging developed by primary care health workers. This is an exploratory study involving 204 primary health care workers, in the city of João Pessoa, in the state of Paraíba. For data collection we used a semi-structured interview. The data obtained from 204 interviews was analyzed with the help of the Alceste software version 2010. The results indicated five classes or categories: vision of aging,psychosocial dimensions, a time of doubts, aging as a process, and aging versus disease, with positive content: joy, care, children, retirement, caregiver rights, maturity and wisdom, as well as negative factors: impairments, decadence, neglect, fragility, limitation, wrinkles, dependency and disease. It was observed that these meanings associated with aging express the need for total and humanized elderly care.

  7. School Social Workers as Response to Intervention Change Champions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deneca Winfrey Avant

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available School social workers (SSWs are known for serving students with social, emotional, and academic needs. Implementing Response to Intervention (RTI/Multi-Tiered System of Supports (MTSS is one avenue in which SSWs play an integral role by guiding the development and implementation of student interventions. RTI/MTSS requires substantive and multifaceted system changes that involve more than simply adopting new approaches. This paradigm shift brings change which may not be desired or easily accepted by school systems. However, developing collaborative relationships and using effective leadership strategies throughout the RTI/MTSS transformation can be a pathway to success. A survey of 192 SSWs in Illinois revealed the challenges that SSWs experienced as the process of implementing RTI/MTSS transformed them into change leaders. This revelation was viewed as an opportunity to closely align social and emotional practices with students’ academic achievement.

  8. Spanish Language Self-Efficacy Beliefs among Spanish-Speaking Social Workers: Implications for Social Work Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriaza, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Limited research exists about Spanish-speaking social workers that provide bilingual social work services. To date, studies have not exclusively focused on actual language competence of bilingual social workers or even their self-perceived language beliefs. This study reviews the results of a cross-sectional Internet-based survey exploring…

  9. Factors affecting social workers' inclusion of animals in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E; Kawam, Elisa

    2013-04-01

    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors contribute to this inclusion, especially because there is a lack of attention in social work education and research to animal-human relationships. This study used logistical regression to examine the impact of certain demographic, knowledge, and practice variables on the inclusion of animals in social work practice. Findings include that knowing other social workers who include animals in practice and primary client population served were significant for inclusion of animals in assessment, animal-assisted intervention, and treating clients for animal abuse or loss of an animal. Although practitioners' having a companion animal was positively related to including animals in interventions and treating clients for loss of an animal, contributing to animal welfare through volunteering at shelters or financially contributing to animal groups did not have an effect on inclusion of animals in practice. Implications for these and other findings are discussed, and recommendations for social work research, education, and practice are offered.

  10. Male Social Workers Working with Men Who Batter: Dilemmas in Gender Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Benjamin; Buchbinder, Eli; Eisikovits, Zvi

    2011-01-01

    Research into the impact of dealing with intimate partner violence has focused mainly on women who treated victims. The present article explores the interaction between male social workers and battering men. The sample included 15 male social workers who worked with battering men in social services. Data collection was performed through…

  11. Male Social Workers Working with Men Who Batter: Dilemmas in Gender Identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Benjamin; Buchbinder, Eli; Eisikovits, Zvi

    2011-01-01

    Research into the impact of dealing with intimate partner violence has focused mainly on women who treated victims. The present article explores the interaction between male social workers and battering men. The sample included 15 male social workers who worked with battering men in social services. Data collection was performed through…

  12. How Israeli social workers perceive adolescent girls in prostitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Einat; Lugasi, Reut

    2015-04-01

    The phenomenon of girls in prostitution poses great challenges to professionals who work with adolescent girls at risk and in distress. Prostitution is socially stigmatized and seen as something shameful. However, current theory and research show adolescent girls in prostitution to be victims of violence, exploitation and trauma. This naturalistic qualitative study examined the views of 15 social workers at six Adolescent Girls Treatment Units in Israel on prostitution and on adolescent girls in prostitution. Data was collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The participants struggled to link the term "prostitution" with the adolescent girls in their care. The findings explore the source this perceived conflict, and its manifestation in the participants' professional intervention with the girls. The discussion examines the participants' professional discourse about adolescent girls in prostitution, and offers explanations for their difficulty in associating the adolescent girls in their care with prostitution.

  13. Social determinants of workers' health in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, Aurora; Partanen, Timo; Felknor, Sarah; Corriols, Marianela

    2011-01-01

    This communication summarizes the available data on work-related determinants of health in Central America. The Central American working population is young and moving from agriculture toward industry and services. Ethnicity, gender, migration, subemployment and precarious work, informality, rural conditions, low-level educational, poverty, ubiquitous worksite health hazards, insufficient occupational health services, low labor inspection density, and weak unions define the constellation of social determinants of workers' health in Central America. Data are, however, scanty both for hazards and work-related illnesses and injuries. Governments and industries have the responsibility of opening decent work opportunities, especially for those facing multiple inequalities in social determinants of health. A first step would be the ratification and implementation of the ILO Convention (187) on occupational safety and health by the seven national governments of the region.

  14. Living Up to the Code's Exhortations? Social Workers' Political Knowledge Sources, Expectations, and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felderhoff, Brandi Jean; Hoefer, Richard; Watson, Larry Dan

    2016-01-01

    The National Association of Social Workers' (NASW's) Code of Ethics urges social workers to engage in political action. However, little recent research has been conducted to examine whether social workers support this admonition and the extent to which they actually engage in politics. The authors gathered data from a survey of social workers in Austin, Texas, to address three questions. First, because keeping informed about government and political news is an important basis for action, the authors asked what sources of knowledge social workers use. Second, they asked what the respondents believe are appropriate political behaviors for other social workers and NASW. Third, they asked for self-reports regarding respondents' own political behaviors. Results indicate that social workers use the Internet and traditional media services to stay informed; expect other social workers and NASW to be active; and are, overall, more active than the general public in many types of political activities. The comparisons made between expectations for others and their own behaviors are interesting in their complex outcomes. Social workers should strive for higher levels of adherence to the code's urgings on political activity. Implications for future work are discussed.

  15. Who Hires Social Workers? Structural and Contextual Determinants of Social Service Staffing in Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Amy Restorick; Bowblis, John R

    2017-02-01

    Although nurse staffing has been extensively studied within nursing homes (NHs), social services has received less attention. The study describes how social service departments are organized in NHs and examines the structural characteristics of NHs and other macro-focused contextual factors that explain differences in social service staffing patterns using longitudinal national data (Certification and Survey Provider Enhanced Reports, 2009-2012). NHs have three patterns of staffing for social services, using qualified social workers (QSWs); paraprofessional social service staff; and interprofessional teams, consisting of both QSWs and paraprofessionals. Although most NHs employ a QSW (89 percent), nearly half provide social services through interprofessional teams, and 11 percent rely exclusively on paraprofessionals. Along with state and federal regulations that depend on facility size, other contextual and structural factors within NHs also influence staffing. NHs most likely to hire QSWs are large facilities in urban areas within a health care complex, owned by nonprofit organizations, with more payer mixes associated with more profitable reimbursement. QSWs are least likely to be hired in small facilities in rural areas. The influence of policy in supporting the professionalization of social service staff and the need for QSWs with expertise in gerontology, especially in rural NHs, are discussed. © 2016 National Association of Social Workers.

  16. Value differences between social workers and members of the working and middle classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R

    2003-01-01

    Although significant differences in values between social workers and clients are widely understood to affect the efficacy of service provision, no studies have sought to examine how the values affirmed by social workers may differ from those held by members of the working and middle classes. Therefore, this study examines the degree of value similarity between social workers and consumers. Based on "new-class" theory, two hypotheses are proposed. First, graduate social workers affirm value positions to the left of working- and middle-class clients. Second, bachelor's-level social workers affirm value positions in between those of graduate workers and clients. Both hypotheses were supported. The implications for the divergence in value frameworks for advocacy, practice, and education are discussed.

  17. Social workers' involvement in advance care planning: a systematic narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia L W; Chow, Amy Y M

    2017-07-10

    Advance care planning is a process of discussion that enables competent adults to express their wishes about end-of-life care through periods of decisional incapacity. Although a number of studies have documented social workers' attitudes toward, knowledge about, and involvement in advance care planning, the information is fragmented. The purpose of this review was to provide a narrative synthesis of evidence on social workers' perspectives and experiences regarding implementation of advance care planning. Six databases were searched for peer-reviewed research papers from their respective inception through December 2016. All of the resulting studies relevant to both advance care planning and social worker were examined. The findings of relevant studies were synthesized thematically. Thirty-one articles met the eligibility criteria. Six research themes were identified: social workers' attitudes toward advance care planning; social workers' knowledge, education and training regarding advance care planning; social workers' involvement in advance care planning; social workers' perceptions of their roles; ethical issues relevant to advance care planning; and the effect of social work intervention on advance care planning engagement. The findings suggest that there is a consensus among social workers that advance care planning is their duty and responsibility and that social workers play an important role in promoting and implementing advance care planning through an array of activities. This study provides useful knowledge for implementing advance care planning through illustrating social workers' perspectives and experiences. Further studies are warranted to understand the complexity inherent in social workers' involvement in advance care planning for different life-limiting illnesses or within different socio-cultural contexts.

  18. Regulation of host workers' oviposition by the social parasite ant Polyergus samurai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuneoka, Yousuke

    2014-07-01

    Polyergus samurai, an obligatory social parasite ant, lacks the ability to perform usual colony tasks. It depends completely on host Formica japonica workers. In the mixed colony, arrhenotokous reproduction by host workers must be detrimental to the parasites. This study, conducted under artificial rearing conditions, investigated the behavioral influence by P. samurai worker on the production of host workers' male eggs. Host workers started laying eggs when the P. samurai queen was removed, but most eggs were destroyed by P. samurai workers. In a queenless condition, P. samurai workers showed frequent intraspecific dominance interactions, but few interspecific ones. After a short while the P. samurai worker started laying eggs, the F. japonica worker stopped laying eggs. The ovary had no mature oocyte. These results suggest that both the P. samurai queen and dominant workers can inhibit host workers' oviposition. A mesh experiment revealed that the dominant P. samurai workers were able to inhibit host workers' oviposition without contacts. The dominant workers and queens of P. samurai frequently received grooming and trophallaxis from host workers just as a host queen does, suggesting that the parasites secreted similar products to those of the host queen to inhibit the host workers' oviposition.

  19. Social interactions and their connection to aggression and ovarian development in orphaned worker bumblebees (Bombus impatiens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbald, E D; Plowright, C M S

    2014-03-01

    This study examines the social dynamics of reproductive conflict. Orphaned worker bumblebees (Bombus impatiens) with comparatively high or low levels of social activity were paired to determine whether aggression and reproduction could be traced to earlier social interactions. The workers were paired according to their levels of social activity (a socially active+another socially active worker, socially active+socially inactive, and two socially inactive workers). The presence or absence of brood was also manipulated. The absence of brood increased both aggression and ovarian development, suggesting that aggression and reproduction are associated or that there is a third variable that affects both. Socially active pairs were significantly more aggressive: here, social activity can be taken as an early indicator of aggression. No such effect, however, was obtained on ovarian development as the socially active pairs did not differ on their degree of ovarian development compared to the others. Within the socially active+socially inactive pairs, the socially active worker did not have more developed ovaries and was not more aggressive than her socially inactive partner. Results highlight that environmental conditions (the absence of brood) can predict ovarian development and although social activity can be observed prior to aggression, differences in aggression do not translate into differences in ovarian development under these conditions.

  20. Intellectual Workers and Their Work in Social Theory and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvillier, Rolande

    1974-01-01

    An analysis of intellectual work and the relationship between intellectual workers and their work, the quality of intellectual work, and worker's rights demonstrates there are far greater differences between intellectual workers and other workers than commonly supposed. Their work must not be dehumanized--a present danger. (AG)

  1. Social Workers' Attitudes toward Peer-Reviewed Literature: The Evidence Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Social workers from one state chapter of the National Association of Social Workers were surveyed to assess their use of and attitudes toward the peer-reviewed literature and their engagement in evidence-based practice. Results reveal that, in general, the practitioners in this study did not read the peer-reviewed literature, particularly articles…

  2. Hope as a Strategy in Supervising Social Workers of Terminally Ill Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itzhaky, Haya; Lipschitz-Elhawi, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on supervision of social workers who feel despair and hopelessness in treating terminally ill patients. The emotional difficulties that may lead to these feelings are discussed. A special model of supervision that relates to hope as a strategy to help social workers cope with such difficulties is presented. The model suggests…

  3. Social Workers' Attitudes toward Peer-Reviewed Literature: The Evidence Base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Social workers from one state chapter of the National Association of Social Workers were surveyed to assess their use of and attitudes toward the peer-reviewed literature and their engagement in evidence-based practice. Results reveal that, in general, the practitioners in this study did not read the peer-reviewed literature, particularly articles…

  4. Effects of Age Expectations on Oncology Social Workers' Clinical Judgment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlon, Annemarie; Choi, Namkee G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the influence of oncology social workers' expectations regarding aging (ERA) and ERA with cancer (ERAC) on their clinical judgment. Methods: Oncology social workers (N = 322) were randomly assigned to one of four vignettes describing a patient with lung cancer. The vignettes were identical except for the…

  5. A Quest for Meaning: Hospice Social Workers and Patients with End-Stage Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Sara; Swails, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    Research shows that few social workers are interested in working with cognitively impaired older adults, such as those with Alzheimer's disease or a related dementia. As the number of individuals with dementia grows, the demand for social workers to provide services to patients with dementia will increase. Although much attention has been given to…

  6. Assessing the Impact of Ongoing National Terror: Social Workers in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Pnina; Shamai, Michal

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the connections between social workers' personal and professional exposure to national terror in Israel and their professional and personal distress experienced due to ongoing terror attacks. Data were collected from 406 social workers from Israel who worked in agencies that provide help to victims of…

  7. Social Workers' Orientation toward the Evidence-Based Practice Process: A Dutch Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwet, Renske J. M.; Kolmer, Deirdre M. Beneken genaamd; Schalk, René

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study assesses social workers' orientation toward the evidence-based practice (EBP) process and explores which specific variables (e.g. age) are associated. Methods: Data were collected from 341 Dutch social workers through an online survey which included a Dutch translation of the EBP Process Assessment Scale (EBPPAS), along with…

  8. Assessing the Impact of Ongoing National Terror: Social Workers in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, Pnina; Shamai, Michal

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the connections between social workers' personal and professional exposure to national terror in Israel and their professional and personal distress experienced due to ongoing terror attacks. Data were collected from 406 social workers from Israel who worked in agencies that provide help to victims of…

  9. Ethical Issues in the Social Worker's Role in Physician-Assisted Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manetta, Ameda A.; Wells, Janice G.

    2001-01-01

    Presents results of an exploratory study of social workers' views on physician-assisted suicide (PAS), situations in which PAS would be favored, and whether there is a difference in education or training on mental health issues, ethics, or suicide between social workers who favor PAS and those who oppose PAS. (BF)

  10. Suicide Prevention in Social Work Education: How Prepared Are Social Work Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteen, Philip J.; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Sharpe, Tanya L.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of suicide suggests social workers will encounter clients at risk for suicide, but research shows social workers receive little to no training on suicide and suicide prevention and feel unprepared to work effectively with clients at risk. Baseline results from a randomized intervention study of the Question, Persuade, and Refer…

  11. Suicide Prevention in Social Work Education: How Prepared Are Social Work Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteen, Philip J.; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Sharpe, Tanya L.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of suicide suggests social workers will encounter clients at risk for suicide, but research shows social workers receive little to no training on suicide and suicide prevention and feel unprepared to work effectively with clients at risk. Baseline results from a randomized intervention study of the Question, Persuade, and Refer…

  12. Job satisfaction and turnover intent among hospital social workers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Greg L

    2016-08-01

    Feelings of job satisfaction and turnover intentions among social workers affect work quality for both social workers and the people for whom they provide services. Existing literature on job satisfaction among hospital social workers is limited, and is overly focused on issues of compensation. There is job satisfaction research with hospital nurses available for comparison. Other informative social work research on job satisfaction and turnover exists in mental health and generally, across settings. Research on turnover intent in social work is primarily from child welfare settings and may not generalize. The literature notes gaps and contradictions about predictors of job satisfaction and turnover intent. Using a large national dataset of hospital social workers, this research clarifies and fills gaps regarding hospital social workers, and explores how Herzberg's theory of work can clarify the difference between sources of job dissatisfaction and job satisfaction. Findings include hospital social workers reporting high job satisfaction and that demographics do not contribute to the predictive models. The findings do support centralized social work departments and variety in the job functions of hospital social workers, and are consistent with the theoretical framework.

  13. Intrinsic worker mortality depends on behavioral caste and the queens' presence in a social insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmeier, Philip; Negroni, Matteo Antoine; Kever, Marion; Emmling, Stefanie; Stypa, Heike; Feldmeyer, Barbara; Foitzik, Susanne

    2017-04-01

    According to the classic life history theory, selection for longevity depends on age-dependant extrinsic mortality and fecundity. In social insects, the common life history trade-off between fecundity and longevity appears to be reversed, as the most fecund individual, the queen, often exceeds workers in lifespan several fold. But does fecundity directly affect intrinsic mortality also in social insect workers? And what is the effect of task on worker mortality? Here, we studied how social environment and behavioral caste affect intrinsic mortality of ant workers. We compared worker survival between queenless and queenright Temnothorax longispinosus nests and demonstrate that workers survive longer under the queens' absence. Temnothorax ant workers fight over reproduction when the queen is absent and dominant workers lay eggs. Worker fertility might therefore increase lifespan, possibly due to a positive physiological link between fecundity and longevity, or better care for fertile workers. In social insects, division of labor among workers is age-dependant with young workers caring for the brood and old ones going out to forage. We therefore expected nurses to survive longer than foragers, which is what we found. Surprisingly, inactive inside workers showed a lower survival than nurses but comparable to that of foragers. The reduced longevity of inactive workers could be due to them being older than the nurses, or due to a positive effect of activity on lifespan. Overall, our study points to behavioral caste-dependent intrinsic mortality rates and a positive association between fertility and longevity not only in queens but also in ant workers.

  14. Intrinsic worker mortality depends on behavioral caste and the queens' presence in a social insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmeier, Philip; Negroni, Matteo Antoine; Kever, Marion; Emmling, Stefanie; Stypa, Heike; Feldmeyer, Barbara; Foitzik, Susanne

    2017-04-01

    According to the classic life history theory, selection for longevity depends on age-dependant extrinsic mortality and fecundity. In social insects, the common life history trade-off between fecundity and longevity appears to be reversed, as the most fecund individual, the queen, often exceeds workers in lifespan several fold. But does fecundity directly affect intrinsic mortality also in social insect workers? And what is the effect of task on worker mortality? Here, we studied how social environment and behavioral caste affect intrinsic mortality of ant workers. We compared worker survival between queenless and queenright Temnothorax longispinosus nests and demonstrate that workers survive longer under the queens' absence. Temnothorax ant workers fight over reproduction when the queen is absent and dominant workers lay eggs. Worker fertility might therefore increase lifespan, possibly due to a positive physiological link between fecundity and longevity, or better care for fertile workers. In social insects, division of labor among workers is age-dependant with young workers caring for the brood and old ones going out to forage. We therefore expected nurses to survive longer than foragers, which is what we found. Surprisingly, inactive inside workers showed a lower survival than nurses but comparable to that of foragers. The reduced longevity of inactive workers could be due to them being older than the nurses, or due to a positive effect of activity on lifespan. Overall, our study points to behavioral caste-dependent intrinsic mortality rates and a positive association between fertility and longevity not only in queens but also in ant workers.

  15. 女工:一个重生的社会阶层%Woman Workers:An Reliving Social Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李若建

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the change of woman workers from 1982 to 2000. there is a great replacement between old and new woman workers. The floating woman worker is a different social group compared local woman worker . The change of the woman worker is the result of the changing China in the world-system.

  16. Research on Issues concerning Social Security for Migrant Workers in Harmonious Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua; ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the status quo of social security for migrant workers in China,and points out that there are deep system and concept reasons for the lack of labor rights and interests security,social security,equality and the right to development,political participation channels for the current migrant workers. This article then expounds the adverse effects of lack of social security for migrant workers on building a harmonious society: the lack of social security for migrant workers poses an enormous hidden trouble to the social stability,restricting the urbanization process in China,and hampering China’s agricultural development. To improve social security for migrant workers and promote the harmonious development of society,it is necessary to adhere to " people-oriented" outlook of development,give full play to migrant workers’ social creativity; implement the development strategy of comparative advantage,enhance material basis of social security for migrant workers; break the trade barriers between urban and rural areas,build unified urban-rural labor market; based on the actual situation of various regions, use hierarchical classification method to progressively improve the social security mechanism for migrant workers.

  17. Overview of Researches on Social Capital,Human Capital and Social Integration of New Generation Migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjing; LUAN; Honghong; LU; Yulin; TONG; Danna; LU

    2013-01-01

    With urbanization and socio-economic development,new generation migrant workers play an increasingly important role in urban construction. However,for a long time,their social integration situation in inflow places is not ideal. Academic circle has done a lot of researches,but no effective strategy is so far put forward. Through analysis of domestic and foreign researches,it is found that social capital and human capital have an important influence on social integration of new generation migrant workers. This paper takes this as starting point,combines characteristics of new generation migrant workers,and overviews theories and empirical researches of domestic and foreign famous scholars,to explore the relationship between social capital and human capital and social integration of new generation migrant workers.

  18. Learning in Context: Preparing Latino Workers for Careers and Continuing Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Elizabeth; Oppenheim, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Adult education services, including education for those lacking basic literacy and numeracy, preparation for the high school equivalency diploma, and English-as-a-second-language courses, play a crucial role in bridging the basic skills gap for Latinos and other workers with limited formal education and training. With recent policy and program…

  19. Opinions of Social Workers in Turkey About the Principles on Die with Dignity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duyan, Veli; Serpen, Ayşe Sezen; Duyan, Gülsüm; Yavuz, Sutay

    2016-12-01

    The conditions how people will spend their very last moments are an increasingly debated topic in Turkey. This study is planned to learn the opinions of Social Workers in Turkey on "Principles of a good death." The results of this study reveal that social workers in Turkey agree with principles of a good death in general. The degree of support for some specific principles changes by the sex and age of the participants. Despite the significant support given to principles by social workers, majority of them do not think that these principles are currently followed in medical and care institutions in Turkey.

  20. Contextual Factors Impacting Practice Beliefs and Practice Behaviors among Social Workers with Lesbian and Gay Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Mary H

    2015-01-01

    In this study the author explores contextual factors that impact practice beliefs and behaviors among social workers with lesbian and gay clients. The Gay Affirmative Practice scale was used to measure levels of gay affirmative practice beliefs and practice behaviors among social workers in a medical setting. A model is presented that illustrates how contextual factors related to education, training, relationships with lesbian and gay individuals, and religiosity affects social workers' practice behaviors. The results illustrate the importance of educational exposure and affirming practice beliefs on practice behaviors.

  1. A look into the emotions experienced by social workers attending terminally ill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cerros Rodriguez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since its inception Social Work has faced a common denominator: human suffering in all its manifestations. To address these situations, the social worker requires a set of skills and tools to respond professionally to the subject that requires professional services. But what happens when we talk about the physical and emotional pain experienced by patients in terminal stage? Where the social worker attends and accompanies long way to them, what emotions experienced Social Workers?, suffer from emotional exhaustion? This paper documents the preliminary results of the qualitative research conducted to explore the emotions experienced by social workers involved professionally with terminally ill. It is theoretically supported from cognitive theory of emotions of Richard Lazarus. It was carried out 25 depth interviews to social workers at three public and one private institutions, specialized in care for patients in terminal stage, located in the city of Guadalajara Jalisco, Mexico: the Jalisco Institute of Pain Relief and Palliative Care (PALIA, Specialty Hospital of the Mexican Social Security Institute, the Regional Hospital Valentin Gomez Farias and Shelter Fray Antonio Alcalde AC. Among the main emotions expirienced by social workers include sadness, pride and depression.

  2. Social Support and Sexual Risk Among Establishment-Based Female Sex Workers in Tijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Shonali Mona; Toller Erausquin, Jennifer; Park, Kyuwon; Anglade, Debbie

    2015-08-01

    Social support can affect health outcomes of female sex workers. In this inductive feminist grounded theory study based on 20 in-depth interviews, we explore how establishment-based female sex workers in Tijuana perceive the impact of the connections among women on their lives and health. Participants elected to discuss the importance of social support from mothers, sisters, friends, and co-workers, and the empowering and disempowering aspects of these relationships. In previous studies, scholars demonstrated the efficacy of formal organization of female sex workers in promoting the mitigation of sexual and HIV risk. We show the importance of informal ties with other women. Some participants mentioned competitive relationships, others talked about cooperation and the desire for a venue to learn from one another. Social interactions with other women are especially empowering when female sex workers can openly engage in "woman talk" that may contribute to the mitigation of sexual and HIV risk.

  3. Personality in social insects: How does worker personality determine colony personality?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noa PINTER-WOLLMAN

    2012-01-01

    Social insect colonies and the workers comprising them,each exhibit consistent individual differences in behavior,also known as ‘personalities'.Because the behavior of social insect colonies emerges from the actions of their workers,individual variation among workers' personality may be important in determining the variation we observe among colonies.The reproductive unit of social insects,on which natural selection acts,is the colony,not individual workers.Therefore,it is important to understand what mechanisms govern the observed variation among colonies.Here I propose three hypotheses that address how consistent individual differences in the behavior of workers may lead to consistent individual differences in the behavior of colonies:1.Colonies differ consistently in their average of worker personality; 2.The distribution but not the average of worker personalities varies consistently among colonies; and 3.Colony personality does not emerge from its worker personality composition but from consistent external constraints.I review evidence supporting each of these hypotheses and suggest methods to further investigate them.The study of how colony personality emerges from the personalities of the workers comprising them may shed light on the mechanisms underlying consistent individual differences in the behavior of other animals.

  4. Analysis on Vocational Education and Social Mobility of New Generation Migrant Workers:A Case Study of Shijiazhuang City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongyan; LIU

    2013-01-01

    Based on survey data of current situations of new generation migrant workers vocational education and its influence on social mobility in Shijiazhuang City, the author believes that there are many drawbacks in vocational education of new generation migrant workers, including low participationt and varied training environment of enterprises. In addition, the influence of vocational education of migrant workers on social mobility is not very satisfactory. Finally, it presents countermeasures for improving vocational education, to promote social mobility of new generation migrant workers.

  5. [Concomitant influence of occupational and social risk factors on health of workers engaged into powder metallurgy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, P Z; Zaĭtseva, N V; Kostarev, V G; Lebedeva-Nesevria, N A; Shliapnikov, D M

    2012-01-01

    Results of health risk evaluation in workers engaged into powder metallurgy, using complex of hygienic, medical, epidemiologic and sociologic studies, enable to define priority occupational and social risk factors, to assess degree of their influence on the workers' health and to identify occupationally induced diseases.

  6. Atherosclerotic risk and social jetlag in rotating shift-workers : First evidence from a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantermann, Thomas; Duboutay, Françoise; Haubruge, Damien; Kerkhofs, Myriam; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Skene, Debra J

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify atherosclerotic risk using pulse wave velocity (PWV) in steel workers employed in different shift-work rotations, and to elucidate its relationship to social jetlag and shift schedule details. PARTICIPANTS: Male workers in a steel factory (n=77, 32 fa

  7. Atherosclerotic risk and social jetlag in rotating shift-workers : first evidence from a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantermann, Thomas; Duboutay, Françoise; Haubruge, Damien; Kerkhofs, Myriam; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Skene, Debra J

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify atherosclerotic risk using pulse wave velocity (PWV) in steel workers employed in different shift-work rotations, and to elucidate its relationship to social jetlag and shift schedule details. PARTICIPANTS: Male workers in a steel factory (n=77, 32 fa

  8. What Is My Role? Establishing Teacher and Youth Worker Responsibilities in Social Action Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Shira Eve

    2013-01-01

    In this research, I analyze the roles of teachers and youth workers from a community-based organization in the context of two high school social action projects. Both the teachers and the youth workers assumed distinct roles while working together during the civic project enactments. The teachers were largely positioned as responsible for…

  9. Atherosclerotic risk and social jetlag in rotating shift-workers : First evidence from a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kantermann, Thomas; Duboutay, Françoise; Haubruge, Damien; Kerkhofs, Myriam; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Skene, Debra J

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify atherosclerotic risk using pulse wave velocity (PWV) in steel workers employed in different shift-work rotations, and to elucidate its relationship to social jetlag and shift schedule details. PARTICIPANTS: Male workers in a steel factory (n=77, 32

  10. Faithful but Different: Clinical Social Workers Speak Out about Career Motivation and Professional Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Carolyn; Maschi, Tina; O'Brien, Helen; Morgen, Keith; Ward, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe licensed clinical social workers' (LCSWs) professional motivation to pursue a social work career and the decision to enter clinical practice. It used a probability sample of 245 New Jersey LCSWs and the Social Work Values Survey as part of an anonymous self-administered mail survey. Descriptive analyses…

  11. Faithful but Different: Clinical Social Workers Speak Out about Career Motivation and Professional Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Carolyn; Maschi, Tina; O'Brien, Helen; Morgen, Keith; Ward, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe licensed clinical social workers' (LCSWs) professional motivation to pursue a social work career and the decision to enter clinical practice. It used a probability sample of 245 New Jersey LCSWs and the Social Work Values Survey as part of an anonymous self-administered mail survey. Descriptive analyses…

  12. Practice Guidelines for School Social Workers: A Modified Replication and Extension of a Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudt, Marlys M.; Cherry, Donna J.; Watson, Melanie

    2005-01-01

    Based on a review of intervention studies in 13 social work journals, one group of researchers organized the targets of interventions and the interventions tested in relation to them as a first step to develop practice guidelines for social workers. The authors replicated and extended that work to the specialty of school social work by reviewing…

  13. 25 CFR 20.318 - What case management responsibilities does the social services worker have?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What case management responsibilities does the social... HUMAN SERVICES FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE AND SOCIAL SERVICES PROGRAMS Direct Assistance Employment Requirements § 20.318 What case management responsibilities does the social services worker have? In...

  14. Knowledge of Normal and Pathological Memory Aging in College Students, Social Workers, and Health Care Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, Katie E.; Allen, Priscilla D.; Jackson, Erin M.; Hawley, Karri S.; Brigman, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The Knowledge of Memory Aging Questionnaire (KMAQ) measures laypersons' knowledge of normal memory changes and pathological memory deficits in adulthood. In Experiment 1, undergraduate and graduate social work students and social work practitioners completed the KMAQ. Social workers and graduate students were more accurate on the pathological than…

  15. Social Workers as Research Psychotherapists in an Investigation of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy among Rural Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, A; Scogin, F; Presnell, A; Morthland, M; Kaufman, A

    2013-06-01

    A large proportion of service providers in our country are social workers. The use of social workers as mental health therapists however, has not been adequately evaluated in the literature. This aim of this study was to evaluate a sample of clinically trained, masters-level social workers in their delivery of in-home Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) to a group of primarily rural, medically frail older adults. The social workers in this study received extensive didactic and experiential CBT training. Audio-taped sessions were randomly selected and evaluated independently. Results showed that the social workers adequately delivered CBT as measured by the Cognitive Therapy Scale (CTS). Older adult participants also evidenced pre-post treatment improvements suggesting that the social workers' delivery of CBT facilitated improvement. These results suggest that social workers can be viable providers of CBT in clinical and research settings.

  16. Running between the raindrops: the obligation dilemma of the social worker in the nursing home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Sagit; Ayalon, Liat

    2015-02-01

    The authors examined perspectives of social workers working in nursing homes concerning their obligation to the older adult, the family, and the facility, and identified the dilemmas and difficulties that arise from these sometimes conflicting obligations. Authors conducted semistructured in-depth interviews with 15 social workers employed in nursing homes in Israel. Inter-theme consistencies and contradictions were elucidated, and descriptive and then interpretive categories were created to represent interview data. Social workers acknowl- edged their multiple, often contradictory loyalties to the older resident, the management of the institution, the staff, and the resident's family. The obligation dilemma was particularly evident in relocation decisions and suspected cases of elder abuse. The findings highlight the importance of the obligation dilemma in the work experience of social workers. Potential, implications for the care provided to older adults in nursing homes are discussed.

  17. Elaboration of communicativeness of future social workers through the participation in institute’s volunteerism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uliya Galyshinskaya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to definition of communicativeness structure of future social workers and highlighting its main components. Significant part of the article is played by the definition of the volunteerism role in elaborating communicativeness of students.

  18. Assessment in Child Protection : social workers' voices in England and Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibeke Samsonsen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Good quality assessment in Child Protection is crucial to ensure adequate protection and provision. This article explores social workers` experiences with two different Child Protection assessment models: the “professional judgment model”, exemplified by Norway, and the “structured assessment model”, exemplified by England. The aim is to explore the experiences of social workers who carry out assessments in England and Norway, and compare and discuss these experiences in light of “accountability” theory.

  19. Managing resistance to change: the social worker's role in case management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan-Stern, Mary

    2005-01-01

    From time to time in my responsibilities as a medical social worker, I become involved with a "complicated" case. Translation: a case was referred to the social worker to intervene and "fix" the problem because no one else knew what to do with the client or the issues surrounding the client. Necessity is the mother of invention, so when all else failed, that was my cue to be creative.

  20. [Evaluation of social demographic aspect of life quality of coal extraction workers in Kouzbass enterprises].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivoĭlov, V M; Semenikhin, V A; Odintseva, O V; Shternis, T A

    2014-01-01

    For assessing influence of social factors on life quality of workers in coal extraction enterpirses of Kemerovo region, the authors used questionnaire SF-36. Life quality parameters of workers engaged into coal extraction in Kemerovo region appeared to lower with age from 20 to 64 years. Life quality parameters on scales of pain, physical functioning and general health are invertedly correlated with age and length of service in hazardous work conditions for coal extraction workers. Life quality of the miners is influenced by the following factors: marital status, educational level and income level of the workers.

  1. Social signals and aversive learning in honey bee drones and workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arian Avalos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The dissemination of information is a basic element of group cohesion. In honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus 1758, like in other social insects, the principal method for colony-wide information exchange is communication via pheromones. This medium of communication allows multiple individuals to conduct tasks critical to colony survival. Social signaling also establishes conflict at the level of the individual who must trade-off between attending to the immediate environment or the social demand. In this study we examined this conflict by challenging highly social worker honey bees, and less social male drone honey bees undergoing aversive training by presenting them with a social stress signal (isopentyl acetate, IPA. We utilized IPA exposure methods that caused lower learning performance in appetitive learning in workers. Exposure to isopentyl acetate (IPA did not affect performance of drones and had a dose-specific effect on worker response, with positive effects diminishing at higher IPA doses. The IPA effects are specific because non-social cues, such as the odor cineole, improve learning performance in drones, and social homing signals (geraniol did not have a discernible effect on drone or worker performance. We conclude that social signals do generate conflict and that response to them is dependent on signal relevance to the individual as well as the context. We discuss the effect of social signal on learning both related to its social role and potential evolutionary history.

  2. Social signals and aversive learning in honey bee drones and workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Eddie; Vallejo, Lianna; Pérez, María E.; Abramson, Charles I.; Giray, Tugrul

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The dissemination of information is a basic element of group cohesion. In honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus 1758), like in other social insects, the principal method for colony-wide information exchange is communication via pheromones. This medium of communication allows multiple individuals to conduct tasks critical to colony survival. Social signaling also establishes conflict at the level of the individual who must trade-off between attending to the immediate environment or the social demand. In this study we examined this conflict by challenging highly social worker honey bees, and less social male drone honey bees undergoing aversive training by presenting them with a social stress signal (isopentyl acetate, IPA). We utilized IPA exposure methods that caused lower learning performance in appetitive learning in workers. Exposure to isopentyl acetate (IPA) did not affect performance of drones and had a dose-specific effect on worker response, with positive effects diminishing at higher IPA doses. The IPA effects are specific because non-social cues, such as the odor cineole, improve learning performance in drones, and social homing signals (geraniol) did not have a discernible effect on drone or worker performance. We conclude that social signals do generate conflict and that response to them is dependent on signal relevance to the individual as well as the context. We discuss the effect of social signal on learning both related to its social role and potential evolutionary history. PMID:27895050

  3. Social signals and aversive learning in honey bee drones and workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avalos, Arian; Pérez, Eddie; Vallejo, Lianna; Pérez, María E; Abramson, Charles I; Giray, Tugrul

    2017-01-15

    The dissemination of information is a basic element of group cohesion. In honey bees (Apis mellifera Linnaeus 1758), like in other social insects, the principal method for colony-wide information exchange is communication via pheromones. This medium of communication allows multiple individuals to conduct tasks critical to colony survival. Social signaling also establishes conflict at the level of the individual who must trade-off between attending to the immediate environment or the social demand. In this study we examined this conflict by challenging highly social worker honey bees, and less social male drone honey bees undergoing aversive training by presenting them with a social stress signal (isopentyl acetate, IPA). We utilized IPA exposure methods that caused lower learning performance in appetitive learning in workers. Exposure to isopentyl acetate (IPA) did not affect performance of drones and had a dose-specific effect on worker response, with positive effects diminishing at higher IPA doses. The IPA effects are specific because non-social cues, such as the odor cineole, improve learning performance in drones, and social homing signals (geraniol) did not have a discernible effect on drone or worker performance. We conclude that social signals do generate conflict and that response to them is dependent on signal relevance to the individual as well as the context. We discuss the effect of social signal on learning both related to its social role and potential evolutionary history.

  4. Coping with the Obligation Dilemma: Prototypes of Social Workers in the Nursing Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Sagit; Ayalon, Liat

    2016-07-01

    We examined the ways in which the social worker is coping with obligation dilemma in an Israeli nursing home. The research was conducted using semi-structured, in-depth interviews carried out with fifteen social workers employed in nursing homes. The interviews were analysed thematically, using constant comparisons. The three themes were concerned with the social worker's place in the nursing home, her relationship with the management and staff, and her coping with the obligation dilemma. These themes highlighted the difference between the interviewees. On the background of this difference, four prototypes of nursing home's social workers were defined: the managerial, the contented, the fighter and the frustrated. From analysing the findings, the significant place of the personal and environmental factors that influence the ways in which the social worker deals with these four themes emerges. Our findings suggest that the strengthening, empowerment and support of social workers in institutions can directly enhance the health, security, emotional well-being and quality of life of nursing home residents.

  5. Preparation for Social Service Leadership: Field Work and Virtual Organizations that Promote Critical Thinking in Administration Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Gray, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how to prepare professional social workers for real-world nonprofit leadership roles. A pilot course assignment that incorporates a quasi-organization fieldwork simulation developed by the author is described. Development and application of critical thinking skills are reviewed, the course objective is explained, and methods…

  6. Colony insularity through queen control on worker social motivation in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulay, Raphaël; Katzav-Gozansky, Tamar; Vander Meer, Robert K; Hefetz, Abraham

    2003-05-01

    We investigated the relative contribution of the queen and workers to colony nestmate recognition cues and on colony insularity in the Carpenter ant Camponotus fellah. Workers were either individually isolated, preventing contact with both queen and workers (colonial deprived, CD), kept in queenless groups, allowing only worker-worker interactions (queen deprived, QD) or in queenright (QR) groups. Two weeks post-separation QD and QR workers were amicable towards each other but both rejected their CD nestmates, which suggests that the queen does not measurably influence the colony recognition cues. By contrast, aggression between QD and QR workers from the same original colony was apparent only after six months of separation. This clearly demonstrates the power of the Gestalt and indicates that the queen is not a dominant contributor to the nestmate recognition cues in this species. Aggression between nestmates was correlated with a greater hydrocarbon (HC) profile divergence for CD than for QD and QR workers, supporting the importance of worker-worker interactions in maintaining the colony Gestalt odour. While the queen does not significantly influence nestmate recognition cues, she does influence colony insularity since within 3 days QD (queenless for six months) workers from different colony origins merged to form a single queenless colony. By contrast, the corresponding QR colonies maintained their territoriality and did not merge. The originally divergent cuticular and postpharyngeal gland HC profiles became congruent following the merger. Therefore, while workers supply and blend the recognition signal, the queen affects worker-worker interaction by reducing social motivation and tolerance of alien conspecifics.

  7. Social distance towards female sex workers and its relations to authoritarianism, social dominance orientation and self-respect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karić Tijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explored the in-group and outer-group social distance towards sex workers and its relations to authoritarianism, social dominance orientation and self-respect. The sample consisted of 92 participants from the general population and 45 female sex workers (age 18-50. The instruments used were the Bogardus social distance scale, the Authoritarianism scale UPA-S, the Social dominance orientation scale and the Rosenberg self-respect scale. The results indicate a rather high social distance towards sex workers, including the distance by the general population being higher than the distance of the sex workers towards their own group. The correlation of authoritarianism and social distance was significant, as was the correlation between authoritarian aggressiveness and stoicism and social distance. The relationship between social dominance orientation and self-respect and social distance in our research has been statistically insignificant, however it demonstrates the expected trends. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON179002: Efekti egzistencijalne nesigurnosti na pojedinca i porodicu u Srbiji

  8. Corporate Social Responsibility and Workers' Well-being in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    wellbeing of workers in the Nigerian banking system. The objective was to ... services such as intensive care, surgeries and other life threatening diseases. Keywords: Corporate ..... Electronic Journal of Discipline and Governance. Volume 8 ...

  9. Preservice Teachers' Perspectives on Their Preparation for Social Justice Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Lasisi

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates preservice teachers' perspectives on their preparation to use social justice teaching in rural schools, how they implemented the concept in their classrooms, and the challenges they faced. The findings suggest that even though coursework may have prepared the participants to integrate social justice principles and practices…

  10. Drivers of change: Learning from the lived experiences of nursing home social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ahyoung Anna; Lee, Sharon Narae; Armour, Marilyn

    2016-01-01

    In response to the growing attention to integrated health care and the cultural change movement in nursing homes, this study examines the lived experiences of nursing home social workers to better understand their role perceptions, job satisfaction, and relationship with other staff members. Hermeneutic phenomenology was used in order to understand the lived experience of being a nursing home social worker. Ten nursing home social workers were recruited from a southern state and individual interviews were conducted. From the interviews, four themes emerged: challenge, coping, mattering, and rewarding. Guided by identity negotiation theory and social identity theory, these findings are discussed. Also, implications for social work education, nursing home administration, and policy is discussed.

  11. Linking Emotional Labor, Public Service Motivation, and Job Satisfaction: Social Workers in Health Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Chul-Young; Moon, M Jae; Yang, Seung-Bum; Jung, Kwangho

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the determinants of emotional laborers'--social workers in health care organizations--job satisfaction and their public service motivation in using a structural equation model and provides empirical evidence regarding what contributes to job satisfaction or burnout in these workers. Among several latent variables, this study confirmed that false face significantly decreases the job satisfaction of social worker and is positively associated with burnout. In addition, commitment to public interest increases social workers' job satisfaction significantly. This study has implications for the management of emotional labor. By educating emotional laborers to reappraise situations to increase their job satisfaction and avoid burnout, reappraisal training and education are expected to result in increases in positive emotions and decreases in negative emotions, and to improve employees' performance in their organizations.

  12. Policing Intimate Partner Violence: Attitudes toward Risk Assessment and Collaboration with Social Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Lasher, Allison; Messing, Jill Theresa; Hart, Bill

    2017-05-05

    Risk-informed collaborative police-social service interventions are an emerging strategy intended to enhance offender accountability and victim-survivors' safety in intimate partner violence (IPV) cases. These interventions use risk assessment to determine appropriate interventions and enhance the police response for dangerous offenders by engaging in collaboration with social work advocates. Because little is known about the responsiveness of police officers to risk-informed collaborative interventions, this study examines police officer (N = 544) attitudes toward IPV risk assessment and collaboration with social workers. The majority of police officers did not believe a social worker would be helpful at the scene of an IPV incident. However, those who agreed that a social worker would be helpful were more likely to be knowledgeable about the dynamics of IPV. Officers who believed risk assessment was important were more likely to believe that the police response to IPV is necessary. Finally, officers' perceived knowledge about risk for homicide was not consistently associated with actual knowledge about IPV. These findings suggest a need for knowledgeable social workers to collaborate with police, particularly in high-risk cases, and to offer training for officers on risk factors for homicide, coercive control, and misperceptions about IPV. © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.

  13. Social workers' attributions towards individuals with dual diagnosis of intellectual disability and mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araten-Bergman, T; Werner, S

    2017-02-01

    The present study aimed to explore the applicability of the attribution model to social workers' attributions towards clients with dual diagnosis of intellectual disability and psychiatric illness. Specifically, the study examined the relations between social workers' attribution of responsibility, causality, stereotypes of dangerousness, their emotional reactions and behavioural reactions towards clients with dual diagnosis. Social workers (N = 279) completed questionnaires measuring attributions of responsibility, causation and dangerousness, and reported on their emotional and behavioural reactions to clients diagnosed with DD. Most social workers reported high levels of helping behaviours. The strongest predictor of discriminatory behaviours was the stereotype of dangerousness. Social workers who reported feeling less anger and more pity towards clients with DD tended to report higher levels of helping behaviour. But contrary to attribution theory, fear and anger did not predict discriminatory behaviours. The results are discussed in relation to the core values of social work and to professional identity. © 2016 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Social workers' role in tempering inequality in healthcare in hospitals and clinics: a study in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Nehami; Shalit, Hani; Kum, Yishay; Tal, Malka

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents an empirical examination of the role social workers play in tempering inequality in medical care. Data were collected in 2011 through face-to-face, semi-structured, in-depth interviews with 60 social workers employed in hospitals and clinics in Israel and selected through purposive sampling. The interviews probed the social workers' perceptions of the scope, causes and manifestations of inequality in health and healthcare and the actions they took to ameliorate it. The interviews were analysed using grounded theory. The findings show that all the social workers were acutely aware of the inequalities in their places of work, regarded reducing the inequalities as a major part of their role and made efforts to do so. They facilitated communication between doctors and patients of low socioeconomic status and advocated for such patients with medical staff and administration, as well as with the country's medical and social welfare bureaucracies. The paper details the means they used and the challenges they faced. The study highlights the important role that social workers play in reducing inequality in healthcare.

  15. Mental, physical and social health problems of call centre workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Bhuyar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Call centre workers in BPO face unique occupational hazards - mental, physical and psychosocial. Material & Method: A sample 100 call centre workers of both sexes and from two cities Pune and Mumbai were surveyed by both qualitative and quantitative methods for the above health problems. Results: A high proportion of workers faced sleep disturbances and associated mental stress and anxiety. Sleep disturbance and anxiety was significantly more in international call centres compared to domestic. There was also disturbance in circadian rhythms due to night shift. Physical problems such as musculoskeletal disorders, obesity, eye, and hearing problems were also present. Psychosocial problems included disruption in family life, use of tobacco and alcohol, and faulty eating habits. Conclusion: Better personal management, health education and more research is indicated to study the health problems in this emerging occupation.

  16. Systematically Identifying Relevant Research: Case Study on Child Protection Social Workers' Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Paula; Taylor, Brian J.; Campbell, Anne; McQuilkin, Janice

    2012-01-01

    Context: The development of a consolidated knowledge base for social work requires rigorous approaches to identifying relevant research. Method: The quality of 10 databases and a web search engine were appraised by systematically searching for research articles on resilience and burnout in child protection social workers. Results: Applied Social…

  17. Perceived Levels of Cultural Competence for School Social Workers: A Follow-up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasley, Martell L.; Archuleta, Adrian; Miller, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to report on findings from a follow-up study that examined the relationship among social work education programs, postgraduate professional development, and school social workers' perceived levels of cultural competence in practice with urban minority youth. The initial study demonstrated that African Americans…

  18. Training Is an Investment with Return in Temporary Workers: A Social Exchange Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambel, Maria Jose; Sobral, Filipa

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyse whether a social exchange relationship between temporary workers and organizations is possible. The authors aim to consider whether, when training is perceived by an employee as an organizational practice that promotes his or her employability, this entails a social exchange relationship.…

  19. Work Stress, Burnout, and Social and Personal Resources among Direct Care Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray-Stanley, Jennifer A.; Muramatsu, Naoko

    2011-01-01

    Work stress is endemic among direct care workers (DCWs) who serve people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Social resources, such as work social support, and personal resources, such as an internal locus of control, may help DCWs perceive work overload and other work-related stressors as less threatening and galvanize them to cope…

  20. Discussion of Late-Life Suicide: How Social Workers Perceive and Intervene in Elderly Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yujin

    2013-01-01

    As the prevalence of suicide among the elderly has developed in recent years into one of the more serious social problems in South Korea, preventing these elderly suicides has emerged as a national priority. Korean social workers play a major role in the recent elderly suicide prevention efforts that were implemented starting in 2007. The purpose…

  1. Systematically Identifying Relevant Research: Case Study on Child Protection Social Workers' Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Paula; Taylor, Brian J.; Campbell, Anne; McQuilkin, Janice

    2012-01-01

    Context: The development of a consolidated knowledge base for social work requires rigorous approaches to identifying relevant research. Method: The quality of 10 databases and a web search engine were appraised by systematically searching for research articles on resilience and burnout in child protection social workers. Results: Applied Social…

  2. The Fiduciary Relationship: The Legal Basis for Social Workers' Responsibilities to Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutchins, Herb

    1991-01-01

    Examines nature of fiduciary relationships between social workers and clients, and describes ways they shape professional conduct. Reviews cases that have contributed to evolution of fiduciary principles in helping professions, and discusses significance of these cases for social work practice. Sees confidentiality, informed consent, and conflict…

  3. Work Stress, Burnout, and Social and Personal Resources among Direct Care Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray-Stanley, Jennifer A.; Muramatsu, Naoko

    2011-01-01

    Work stress is endemic among direct care workers (DCWs) who serve people with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Social resources, such as work social support, and personal resources, such as an internal locus of control, may help DCWs perceive work overload and other work-related stressors as less threatening and galvanize them to cope…

  4. Perceptions of the hospital ethical environment among hospital social workers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Greg L

    2015-01-01

    Hospital social workers are in a unique context of practice, and one where the ethical environment has a profound influence on the ethical behavior. This study determined the ratings of ethical environment by hospital social workers in large nationwide sample. Correlates suggest by and compared to studies of ethical environment with nurses are explored. Positive ratings of the ethical environment are primarily associated with job satisfaction, as well as working in a centralized social work department and for a non-profit hospital. Religiosity and MSW education were not predictive. Implications and suggestions for managing the hospital ethical environment are provided.

  5. Influence of Migrant Workers Returning to Hometown on the Changes of Village Social Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Wei; ZHANG Hong

    2012-01-01

    Based on field survey data of Village Z in Henan Province and from the perspective of the end of villages,we studied the influence of migrant workers returning to hometown on the changes of village social structure from village social interaction and village right reconstruction.Survey results show that social interaction centers of migrant workers returning to hometown for starting an undertaking move outside,which has exceeded the range of rural society of acquaintances and promoted the breaking of the traditional social relationship network " Differential Model of Association".In addition,migrant workers returning to hometown actively participate in building village rights and show more passionate political enthusiasm and practice of modern democratic concept.Furthermore,it not only speeds up disintegration of China’s small peasant economy and division of traditional farmers,but also is an important opportunity for realizing farmers’ self-ending and village ending,as well as urban and rural integration.

  6. Latex allergy in Bozyaka Social Security Hospital workers, Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kose Sukran; MandIraclo(g)glu Aliye

    2004-01-01

    @@ Latex glove used in healthcare settings has risen dramatically since around 1987. The increased threat of contracting HIV, hepatitis B, and other infectious agents during the course of delivering health care to patients has created the need for barrier protection. 1 Studies have estimated that the prevalence of latex allergy in healthcare workers ranged from 2.9% up to 17%.2

  7. Chinese migrant worker representation and institutional change: social or centralist corporatism?

    OpenAIRE

    Croucher, Richard; Miles, Lilian

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that the Chinese state has more highly articulated policies to deal with social disturbance than previously recognized by specialists. It does so by highlighting and critically analyzing the policies followed to improve the opportunities for migrant worker representation. The state has adopted a three-pronged policy. It has improved migrant worker rights, encouraged the official unions to help enforce these rights and allowed NGOs to offer certain services. The official un...

  8. SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF PROFESSIONAL ETHICS AMONG WORKERS IN INDUSTRIAL UNITS (A CASE STUDY OF INDUSTRIAL WORKERS IN ARDABIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davoud Abdollahi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Professional ethics is a factor that is under the influence of external factors and with the help of individual conscience causes adherence in a person. As professional ethics is properly guided and strengthened by social or environmental elements, its effects will appear on the output or final product in a desirable way. The present study examines the social influential factors on individual’s level of professional ethics in the workplace. For this purpose, 400 workers in both branches of industrial townships of Ardabil participated in this study. The data for this study was collected from administering a researcher-made questionnaire (consisting of 78 questions, interview, and observation. The findings revealed that socio-cultural factors primarily and individual-personality factors secondarily, affect the person’s work ethics. In addition, social factors such as intimate relationship, gender, education, skill, income, religious belief, and job stability have a positive impact on a person's work ethics.

  9. Social Workers as Research Psychotherapists in an Investigation of Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy among Rural Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Avani; Scogin, Forrest; Presnell, Andrew; Morthland, Martin; Kaufman, Allan V.

    2013-01-01

    This is a report on the treatment fidelity of in-home cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) delivered by a sample of clinically trained, master's-level social workers to a group of primarily rural, medically frail older adults as part of the Project to Enhance Aged Rural Living (PEARL) clinical trial. The social workers in this study received brief didactic and experiential CBT training. Audiotaped sessions were randomly selected and evaluated by independent reviewers. Results showed that the social workers adequately delivered CBT as measured by the Cognitive Therapy Scale. Older adult participants also evidenced pre- posttreatment improvements, suggesting that the social workers' delivery of CBT facilitated improvement. PMID:25949093

  10. Personal and Professional Values: Relationships Between Social Workers' Reproductive Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Ethical Decision-Making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Virginia Ramseyer Winter; Shanna K Kattari; Stephanie Begun; Kimberly McKay

    2016-01-01

    .... However, there is currently a dearth of research investigating social workers' attitudes about sexual health, and ethical decision- making concerning sharing reproductive knowledge and resources with their clients...

  11. Male social workers working with men who batter: dilemmas in gender identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Benjamin; Buchbinder, Eli; Eisikovits, Zvi

    2011-06-01

    Research into the impact of dealing with intimate partner violence has focused mainly on women who treated victims. The present article explores the interaction between male social workers and battering men. The sample included 15 male social workers who worked with battering men in social services. Data collection was performed through semistructured interviews. The main theme emerging from the interviews describes the reconstruction and renegotiation of the worker's professional and personal self in light of his experiences with violent clients. Two major motifs describing their experience emerged: The first is self-doubt arising from adopting a broad definition of violence, thus creating increased sensitization to and inclusion of a wide range of behaviors under the term violence . The second motif is related to compromising with reality by renegotiating their identity as aggressive, at times, but not violent. Findings were discussed in the light of the constructionist perspective.

  12. The Compassion Fatigue Scale: Its Use With Social Workers Following Urban Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Richard E; Figley, Charles R; Boscarino, Joseph A

    2008-05-01

    OBJECTIVE: The present study has two goals: to assess the difference between secondary trauma and job burnout and to examine the utility of secondary trauma in predicting psychological distress. METHOD: The data come from a survey of social workers (N = 236) living in New York City 20 months following the September 11 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC). RESULTS: Social workers' involvement in WTC recovery efforts is related to secondary trauma but not burnout. Analyses also reveal that both secondary trauma and burnout are related to psychological distress after controlling for other risk factors. CONCLUSION: This study supports the importance of compassion fatigue as a risk factor for social workers counseling traumatized clients and its association with psychological problems.

  13. Challenges to HIV service provision: the commonalities for nurses and social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivier, C; Dykeman, M

    2003-10-01

    Interdisciplinary collaboration can be enhanced through an understanding of the challenges and needs associated with service provision. This study explores the experiences of 192 service providers, with additional comparisons of nurses and social workers. Service providers reported fear of contracting HIV, feeling helpless, problems getting up-to-date information, grief and inadequate referral resources. Except for many more nurses expressing worry about contracting HIV, nurses and social workers shared many of the same problems. In addition, both groups were concerned with the comprehensive health needs of people living with HIV/AIDS. Moreover, they demonstrated shared professional values such as the importance of self-awareness and professional knowledge, positive and non-judgemental attitudes, and non-discriminatory treatment of client groups. This commonality makes nurses and social workers natural allies in responding to the many challenges associated with HIV service provision. Study findings support collaboration in the areas of service delivery, policy development, advocacy and professional development.

  14. Social Support and Its Impact on Ethnic Identity and HIV Risk among Migrant Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehadeh, Nancy; Rubens, Muni; Attonito, Jennifer; Jennings, Terri

    2017-03-09

    Migrant workers are disproportionately affected by HIV due to poverty, social isolation, lack of access to and availability of health care services, acculturation, language barriers, constant mobility, and lack of knowledge. This study examined the impact of changes in social support on ethnic identity and HIV risk behaviors among migrant workers in South Florida. For this study, baseline and 6-month follow-up data were collected from an HIV intervention study among migrant workers in South Florida (n = 270) who reported unprotected sex in the past 30 days. The Multigroup Identity Measure was used to assess ethnic identity and the Social Provisions Scale examined the degree to which respondents' social relationships provide various dimensions of social support. Social support was a significant predictor of ethnic identity and of ethnic identity subscales, ethnic identity belonging and ethnic identity explore. There were small but statistically significant short-term changes in ethnic identity and ethnic identity subscales among the migrant workers over the 6-month time period assessed after controlling for the intervention. Future studies should be conducted over a longer period of time to better assess this relationship and possible factors to reduce HIV risk behaviors. There is a need to focus on improving the quality of health and reduce HIV and other risks experienced by this marginalized community.

  15. Construction Strategies of Social Security System for Wan-jiang Urban Belt’s Migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Theoretical debate and practice exploration on social security of migrant workers were introduced.The political direction and security layer on social security for migrant workers in Wan-jiang urban belt were analyzed:the first layer is to implement wage payment guarantee and employment injury insurance;the second layer is to emphasize serious disease insurance and endowment insurance;the third layer is unemployed insurance and social assistance.The primary strategy of building a social security system for migrant workers in Wan-jiang urban belt was put up:wage payment guarantee system that is united in certain regions should be promoted;employment injury insurance system that is undertaken by enterprises should be built;a social health care system for serious diseases should be set up;multi-layers endowment insurance system for migrant workers should be created;vocational training and training in how to start a business should be built as well as the unemployment insurance system;social assistant system based on the basic cost of living allowances should be set up.

  16. Biographical Research as a Cognitive and Practical Approach for Social Workers: An Interview with Catherine Delcroix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Delcroix

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this interview, the sociologist Catherine DELCROIX depicts an action research project with social workers and its consequences. The social workers were concerned about problems in a housing estate in Nantes Nord (the Northern part of Nantes with many low-income immigrant families from the Maghreb. They contacted Catherine DELCROIX and asked her to help them understand the destructive behavior of local young people and the—as it appeared to them—indifference of their fathers. She guided the social workers in a self-reflexive action research project in which the workers asked fathers, mothers and their adolescent children for life-history interviews. Interviewing and interpreting the interviews together changed the preconceived ideas of the social workers about the immigrants. But there were unanticipated further consequences as well, which affected the entire community and the families. Through forming an association, the fathers created a forum of articulation and participation in public, and they became "coaches" for their children. They were able to counter the effects of "discredit," a concept that Catherine DELCROIX formulated in this research. One important finding is the relevance of a narrated "family memory" in this context since young people understood better who they were, where they came from, and what they could hope for. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801600

  17. The Role of Social Media in Community Building for Illegal Vietnamese Migrant Workers in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony LE DUC

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vietnamese migrant workers in Thailand along with those from other neighboring countries increasingly play an important role in the local economy. They are also an important source of income for the sending country. However, the illegal status of Vietnamese workers in Thailand presents a number of challenges both individually and communally. This paper explores the difficulties faced by Vietnamese who come to this country to make a living. These difficulties arise not only from having to work illegally, but also from social, cultural, and linguistic barriers that they must confront in the Thai environment. It proposes that these difficulties are partially made easier by the availability of social media, in particular Facebook. The prevalent use of Facebook among Vietnamese migrant workers in Thailand helps to build community by connecting family, friends, and faith groups together, by serving as a resource for important news and information pertaining to legal and social issues that directly affect them, and by serving as a means for community support in time of crisis. This paper argues that social media, as seen in the case of Vietnamese migrant workers, can effectively be used by community and religious leaders to provide various types of support for migrant workers living in diaspora.

  18. Using Social Justice Vignettes to Prepare Students for Social Action Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell Storms, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    One of the learning goals for social justice education courses is to prepare students for social action engagement. Teaching students about issues related to social justice is complex. Prior studies have found a positive relationship between student enrollment in social justice education courses and action-oriented outcomes. While these findings…

  19. What Social Workers Should Know About Ethics: Understanding and Resolving Ethical Dilemmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine P. Congress

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing ethical issues and dilemmas that arise in professional practice is crucial for social work practitioners, educators, and students. After a discussion about the limited, although growing, literature on social work ethics, the ten main tenets form the most current NASW Code of Ethics are presented. These topics include limits to confidentiality, confidentiality and technology, confidentiality in family and group work, managed care, cultural competence, dual relationships, sexual relationships, impairment and incompetence of colleagues, application to administrators and relevance to social work educators. In addition to understanding the Code of Ethics, social workers can use the ETHIC model of decision making for resolving ethical dilemmas. This easy to use five step process includes examining personal, agency, client, and professional values, thinking about ethical standards and relevant laws, hypothesizing about consequences, identifying the most vulnerable, and consulting with supervisors and colleagues. A case example involving confidentiality, HIV/AIDS and family therapy demonstrates how social workers can use the ETHIC model.

  20. Social Worker Performance in the Spanish Administration of Justice on Marital Breakdown Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Gómez Gómez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Family Courts in Madrid and Barcelona have social workers to assist the judge in deciding on family matters. These professionals do their job in the SATAF (Servei d’Assesorament Técnic en l’Ambit de Family in Barcelona and Madrid Psychosocial Teams. This study seeks to unveil a real situation which has been hidden in controversies as well as scientific and popular debates. The study also seeks to understand how social workers in the field of justice are placed in that reality.

  1. Health social workers sources of knowledge for decision making in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Fiona; Henderson, Annabel; Quayle, Carol

    2017-10-01

    This article presents findings from research examining knowledge social workers in a health network in Victoria, Australia identified as informing their decision-making. Data for 13 patients, and in-depth interviews with six social workers who worked with these patients, were studied. A thematic analysis of interviews revealed that participants identified reliance on past experience and contextual/situational information as underpinning their decisions, demonstrating their commitment to person-in-environment perspectives. However, despite the availability of a repository of empirical evidence, no respondent made use of this. This study provided insight into health practitioners' sources of knowledge, highlighting gaps and areas for further exploration.

  2. Social worker assessment of bad news delivery by emergency medicine residents: a novel direct-observation milestone assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Alice Ann; Spear-Ellinwood, Karen; Berman, Melissa; Nisson, Peyton; Rhodes, Suzanne Michelle

    2016-09-01

    The skill of delivering bad news is difficult to teach and evaluate. Residents may practice in simulated settings; however, this may not translate to confidence or competence during real experiences. We investigated the acceptability and feasibility of social workers as evaluators of residents' delivery of bad news during patient encounters, and assessed the attitudes of both groups regarding this process. From August 2013 to June 2014, emergency medicine residents completed self-assessments after delivering bad news. Social workers completed evaluations after observing these conversations. The Assessment tools were designed by modifying the global Breaking Bad News Assessment Scale. Residents and social workers completed post-study surveys. 37 evaluations were received, 20 completed by social workers and 17 resident self-evaluations. Social workers reported discussing plans with residents prior to conversations 90 % of the time (18/20, 95 % CI 64.5, 97.8). Social workers who had previously observed the resident delivering bad news reported that the resident was more skilled on subsequent encounters 90 % of the time (95 % CI 42.2, 99). Both social workers and residents felt that prior training or experience was important. First-year residents valued advice from social workers less than advice from attending physicians, whereas more experienced residents perceived advice from social workers to be equivalent with that of attending physicians (40 versus 2.9 %, p = 0.002). Social worker assessment of residents' abilities to deliver bad news is feasible and acceptable to both groups. This formalized self-assessment and evaluation process highlights the importance of social workers' involvement in delivery of bad news, and the teaching of this skill. This method may also be used as direct-observation for resident milestone assessment.

  3. The Preparation of Inclusive Social Justice Education Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celoria, Davide

    2016-01-01

    This article is intended to spark dialogue and debate related to the preparation of inclusive social justice education leaders in a time of colorblindness. Drawing attention to the reductionist construction of the professional standards for educational leaders when it comes to preparing educational leaders who are ready to address and eliminate…

  4. Factors Affecting Social Workers' Inclusion of Animals in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E.; Kawam, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors…

  5. Factors Affecting Social Workers' Inclusion of Animals in Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley-Curtiss, Christina; Rogge, Mary E.; Kawam, Elisa

    2013-01-01

    Experts suggest that social work practitioners can improve their client service with a more thorough understanding of the impact of other animals on individuals and families. Studies indicate that some social work practitioners are including animals in their practices through assessment and interventions. Little is known about what factors…

  6. University Preparation of Social Justice Leaders for K-12 Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Rosmary Sandie M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the social justice principles embedded in California State University (CSU) Educational Administration Preparation Programs. More specifically, this study explored the intended, implemented, and assessed curriculum relative to social justice and critical consciousness, and investigated if differences exist…

  7. A meta-ethnography of the acculturation and socialization experiences of migrant care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Ken H M; Chiang, Vico C L

    2015-02-01

    To report a meta-ethnography of qualitative research studies exploring the acculturation and socialization experiences of migrant care workers. Migrant care workers are increasingly participating in health and social care in developed countries. There is a need to understand this increasingly socioculturally diversified workforce. A comprehensive search through 12 databases and a manual search of journals related to transculture for studies on socialization and acculturation experiences (published 1993-2013) was completed. The inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed studies on the acculturation or socialization experiences of migrant care workers published in English in any country, using a qualitative or mixed-methods approach. This meta-ethnography employed the seven-phase Noblit and Hare method with reciprocal translation, refutational synthesis and lines-of-argument to synthesize qualitative studies. Three main themes were identified: (a) schema for the migration dream: optimism; (b) the reality of the migration dream: so close, yet so far; and (c) resilience: from chaos to order. A general framework of motivated psychosocial and behavioural adaptation was proposed. This meta-ethnography also revealed the vulnerabilities of migrant nurses in the process of acculturation and socialization. The general framework of behavioural and psychosocial adaptation revealed factors that impede and facilitate behavioural and psychosocial changes. Strategies to enrich external and internal resources should be targeted at encouraging multiculturalism and at improving the psychosocial resources of migrant care workers. It is suggested that research investigating the prominence of nursing vulnerabilities be conducted. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. We care don't we? Social workers, the profession and HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nigel

    2007-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS epidemic has impacted all levels of society from the individual to the macro-economic. The continuing spread of infection around the world means that traditional methods of care and support are put under extreme pressure and many families lose their capacity to cope. Social workers are involved in providing care, counseling and support to those affected, and in developing programmes and other interventions to prevent the spread of the disease. Prevention and behaviour change are vital, but access to treatment is an ethical imperative, particularly in developing countries where the epidemic is most prevalent. Social work is a profession uniquely situated to demonstrate leadership in multi-sectoral collaboration in responding to this pandemic. Consequently this paper briefly reviews the scale and current nature of the epidemic and then considers how social workers can help build more compassionate policies at an international level. Social workers can help to create awareness of the negative effects of poverty, tackle gender inequity, help build more effective coalitions and partnerships, and work with other concerned groups and organisations to end stigma and discrimination. Using case examples the paper considers how social workers can help develop caring strategies that improve the lives of those living with HIV and AIDS.

  9. Racism, anti-racist practice and social work: articulating the teaching and learning experiences of Black social workers

    OpenAIRE

    Wainwright, John

    2009-01-01

    In the mid 1990s a Black practice teacher programme was established in Manchester and Merseyside with the primary aim to increase the number of Black practice teachers in social work organisations, and in turn provide a supportive and encouraging learning environment for Black student social workers whilst on placement. In the north‐west of England research has been undertaken, to establish the quality of the practice teaching and student learning taking place with Black practice teachers and...

  10. Social Capital Theory: Another Lens for School Social Workers to Use to Support Students Living in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Maryah Stella; Altshuler, Sandra J.

    2009-01-01

    Schools have a wide range of connections with the child welfare system, with common interests in the care, well-being, and future life opportunities of children living in foster care. Children in foster care are often the most vulnerable students in the school system, and school social workers often serve as important resources for these children.…

  11. Temporary agency workers as outsiders: an application of the established-outsider theory on the social relations between temporary agency and permanent workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Bosmans

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Temporary agency workers are often portrayed as peripheral workers in organisations. Hence, they present a compelling illustration of the established-outsider theory of Elias and Scotson. According to this theory, differences in social cohesion, group charisma, and power of the members of subgroups within social entities can lead to an established-outsider figuration between these subgroups, which is maintained by processes of stigmatisation and exclusion. Applying a narrative approach, we focus on social relations between temporary agency and permanent workers along three routes. First, we show how and why social cohesion, group charisma, and power possession in the established group of permanent workers shape an established-outsider figuration. Second, we discuss how mechanisms such as stigmatisation and exclusion maintain this figuration. Third, we illustrate why temporary agency workers have the feeling of being stuck in their outsider situation. To accomplish our aims, we conducted in-depth interviews with temporary agency workers in Belgium. Our analyses are focused on temporary agency workers who encountered mainly negative experiences regarding temporary agency employment.

  12. Does workplace social capital associate with hazardous drinking among Chinese rural-urban migrant workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junling Gao

    Full Text Available The present study sought to investigate the associations between workplace social capital and hazardous drinking (HD among Chinese rural-urban migrant workers (RUMW.A cross sectional study with a multi-stage stratified sampling procedure was conducted in Shanghai during July 2012 to January 2013. In total, 5,318 RUMWs from 77 workplaces were involved. Work-place social capital was assessed using a validated and psychometrically tested eight-item measure. The Chinese version of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT was used to assess hazardous drinking. Control variables included gender, age, marital status, education level, salary, and current smoking. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was conducted to test whether individual- and workplace-level social capital was associated with hazardous drinking.Overall, the prevalence of HD was 10.6%. After controlling for individual-level socio-demographic and lifestyle variables, compared to workers in the highest quartile of individual-level social capital, the odds of HD for workers in the three bottom quartiles were 1.13(95%CI: 1.04-1.23, 1.17(95%CI: 1.05-1.56 and 1.26(95%CI: 1.13-1.72, respectively. However, contrary to hypothesis, there was no relationship between workplace-level social capital and hazardous drinking.Higher individual-level social capital may protect against HD among Chinese RUMWs. Interventions to build individual social capital among RUMWs in China may help reduce HD among this population.

  13. Sociological social workers: a history of the present?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Ian Frank

    2015-01-01

    I argue that there is a submerged cluster of people who, at one or other stage of their careers, took positions in relation to social problems, social work practice, modes of understanding, and research practice that reflected and anticipated ? knowingly or not ? something we might call a Chicago...... the presence of this distinctive strand of thinking and practice? Why did it drift into subterranean obscurity? Why should it matter to us? I communicate my sense that the work of these people was premised on a fruitful but never fully realised relationship between ?sociology? and ?social work?. Conjunctions...

  14. Social Workers' Orientations toward the Evidence-Based Practice Process: A Comparison with Psychologists and Licensed Marriage and Family Therapists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Danielle E.; Rubin, Allen

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the results from a large, cross-sectional survey of social workers, psychologists, and licensed marriage and family therapists (LMFTs) in Texas (N = 865) regarding their orientation toward and implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP). All social workers were recruited by e-mail using the state NASW Listserv (analysis…

  15. 42 CFR 405.2452 - Services and supplies incident to clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... psychologist and clinical social worker services. 405.2452 Section 405.2452 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... Qualified Health Center Services § 405.2452 Services and supplies incident to clinical psychologist and clinical social worker services. (a) Services and supplies incident to a clinical psychologist's...

  16. Exploring the Sacred-Secular Dialect in Everyday Social Work Practice: An Analysis of Religious Responses to Managerialism among Outreach Social Workers in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Julian M; Ho, Wai-Yip; Siu, Kaxton

    2016-07-01

    We examine the recent proliferation of religious discourses among front line social workers in the former British Colony of Hong Kong in order to explore the nature of 're-enchantment' in modern social work practice. In-depth qualitative interviews with twenty social workers who identify as 'Christian social workers' in a variety of social work organisations (both religious and secular) reveal the adoption of religious identities and discourses to navigate the encroachment of managerialism. A systematic analysis of these narratives suggests that Christian social workers evoke religion to reclaim feelings of authenticity in their work, to facilitate more personalised relationships with their clients, and to empower themselves following the introduction of managerialist policies. We illuminate the dialectical relationship between religious discourses and managerialism to critique claims in the literature about a 're-enchantment' in social work, and to understand the essence of religion in modern social work practice.

  17. [Preparation of healthcare workers against the threat of Ebola virus disease in Ivory Coast].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouassi, Damus Paquin; Ekra, Kouadio Daniel; Angbo-Effi, Odile; Kouakou Ahoussou, Éric Martial; Bliabo, Guy Modeste; Yéo, Nawa Samuel; Coulibaly, Daouda; Dagnan, N Cho Simplice

    2016-01-01

    Since the declaration of the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa, the government of Ivory Coast has organized the training of medical staff in all health regions of the country. This study was conducted one month after this training in order to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of health workers concerning Ebola virus disease in an Ivory Coast health region their preparation in relation to this disease. In May-June 2014, we conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study of 176 health workers from private and public health facilities in 5 health districts. Among the respondents, 15.5% attended the training on Ebola disease organized by the Ministry of Health. They knew that the disease is transmitted from animals to humans by body fluids (85.6%), and from human to human by body fluids of a sick person or a cadavre (82.8%). 96% said they were at risk of contracting the disease. In view of the persistent threat of the disease, ignorance of certain aspects of the disease could be a weakness in the prevention of nosocomial transmission of the disease. Knowledge of the disease should lead to adoption of prevention measures. However, routine use of protection equipment, including gloves, depends on its availability. The lack of infection prevention and control equipment could be a weak point in preparation of the response to an Ebola disease outbreak.

  18. Preparing Social Work Students for International Interdisciplinary Practice: A Teaching Model and Its Impact on Self-Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Zubaroglu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available To promote international social work education and prepare MSW graduates for international careers, several teaching models have been developed, including intensive teaching in international settings, hybrid teaching with study abroad components, and applied learning through service learning and international internships. Benefits of international social work education range from increased knowledge and skills in addressing global issues through policy and advocacy, to significant improvements in multi-cultural competence and awareness upon participation in structured cultural immersion programs. Current challenges for social workers in international development careers point to the need for an interdisciplinary approach to best address complex global social issues. This paper proposes an international interdisciplinary teaching model that aims to prepare social work students for international development practice. Based on a pilot study of the proposed model, students showed significant increases in the self-efficacy of interdisciplinary international knowledge and skills.

  19. EMPLOYEE REFERRAL, SOCIAL PROXIMITY AND WORKER DISCIPLINE: THEORY AND EVIDENCE FROM INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dhillon, Amrita; Iversen, Vegard; Torsvik, Gaute

    2013-01-01

    We study an important mechanism underlying employee referrals into informal low skilled jobs in developing countries. Employers can exploit social preferences between employee referees and potential workers to improve discipline. The profitability of using referrals increases with referee stakes in the firm, and, in most cases, with the strength of the social tie between the referee and the new recruit. We provide an empirical counterpart to these results using primary data covering low- and ...

  20. The Impact of Job Characteristics on Social and Human Service Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Reva I.; Eric G. Lambert; Pasupuleti, Sudershan; Ventura, Terry Cluse-Tolar and Lois A.

    2004-01-01

    The work environment characteristics of job stress, job variety, job autonomy, and supervision are theorized to affect the job satisfaction and organizational commitment of social and human service workers. Most research to date has focused upon the impact of these variables on job satisfaction, with little attention being paid to organizational commitment. To determine the effects these characteristics have on both job satisfaction and organizational commitment, data from a survey of social ...

  1. Social protection of migrant workers in Ukraine: striving towards European standards under crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliia FEDIRKO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to analyse the state of social protection for migrant workers in Ukraine. We investigated the legal status of migrant workers in Ukraine and carried out a comparative analysis of national and European experience in the area of protection of migrant workers’ rights. The author provides grounded support for a set of administrative measures aimed to implement the rights of migrant workers as a part of Ukraine’s international and European commitments. The practical significance of the article lies in the evaluation of Ukraine’s readiness to ratify Article 19 of the European Social Charter (revised “The right of migrant workers and their families to protection and assistance”. The author analyses the influence of the socio-political and economic crisis in Ukraine on the processes of external and internal migration, and on the social protection policies in the area of forced migrants. Also, the study assesses the social assistance provided to internally displaced persons. Finally, it suggests complex measures designed to counteract the negative migration trend.

  2. PAR as a way of organising a social workers labour union in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, John; Arnfjord, Steven

    Abstract, ALARA2015012:PAR as a way of organising a social workers labour union in Greenland for consideration and inclusion in the programme for the ALARA 9th Action Learning Action Research and 13th Participatory Action Research World Congress to be held at St. George Hotel and Conference Centre...

  3. Helping Foster Children in School: A Guide for Foster Parents, Social Workers and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGarmo, John

    2015-01-01

    "Helping Foster Children in School" explores the challenges that foster children face in schools and offers positive and practical guidance tailored to help the parents, teachers and social workers supporting them. Children in care often perform poorly at school both in terms of their behavior and their academic performance, with many…

  4. Reactive Attachment Disorder: Recognition, Action, and Considerations for School Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Steven R.; Paez, Doris

    2007-01-01

    School social workers are increasingly faced with students who have attachment issues, those who have been diagnosed with reactive attachment disorder (RAD), as well as the families affected by this disorder. In this article, key features of the RAD diagnosis are presented. Other psychiatric disorders associated and confused with RAD are also…

  5. Social identity, safety climate and self-reported accidents among construction workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Peter; Nørdam, Line; Jønsson, Thomas Faurholt

    2017-01-01

    The construction industry has one of the highest frequencies of work-related accidents. We examined whether construction workers predominantly identify themselves in terms of their workgroup or in terms of the construction site. In addition, we examined the associations between social identity an...

  6. Using Standardized Clients to Train Social Workers in Intimate Partner Violence Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgey, Mary Ann; Badger, Lee; Gilbert, Tracey; Hansen, Johna

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-based assessment in intimate partner violence (IPV) is critical to the accurate understanding of risk and to the development of interventions that increase safety. In this study standardized clients (actors) were used to train Army civilian social workers in evidence-based assessment of IPV and in the evaluation of the curriculum's…

  7. The Role of Empathy in Burnout, Compassion Satisfaction, and Secondary Traumatic Stress among Social Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagaman, M Alex; Geiger, Jennifer M; Shockley, Clara; Segal, Elizabeth A

    2015-07-01

    Social workers are at risk for experiencing burnout and secondary traumatic stress (STS) as a result of the nature of their work and the contexts within which they work. Little attention has been paid to the factors within a social worker's control that may prevent burnout and STS and increase compassion satisfaction. Empathy, which is a combination of physiological and cognitive processes, may be a tool to help address burnout and STS. This article reports on the findings of a study of social workers (N = 173) that explored the relationship between the components of empathy, burnout, STS, and compassion satisfaction using the Empathy Assessment Index and the Professional Quality of Life instruments. It was hypothesized that higher levels of empathy would be associated with lower levels of burnout and STS, and higher levels of compassion satisfaction. Findings suggest that components of empathy may prevent or reduce burnout and STS while increasing compassion satisfaction, and that empathy should be incorporated into training and education throughout the course of a social worker's career.

  8. Measuring Personal Growth of New Grandparents: A Practical Tool for Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubman--Ben-Ari, Orit; Ben Shlomo, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Two studies examined the validity of using the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) to assess growth following the transition to grandparenthood as an aid for social workers seeking to promote strengths-based interventions for this population. Method: In Study 1 (n = 210 grandparent/offspring pairs), first-time grandparents'…

  9. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Psychological and Physiological Illnesses: A Systematic Review for Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Katherine L.; Kim, Johnny S.; Franklin, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Social workers provide services to a variety of clients and are challenged with finding interventions that meet the multifaceted needs of diverse populations. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is becoming an increasingly popular therapy that offers flexibility and effectiveness in treating challenging cases. The purpose of this review is to…

  10. Use of Psychosocial Services Increases after a Social Worker-Mediated Intervention in Gynecology Oncology Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Yuko; Shah, Nina R.; Ward, Kristy K.; McHale, Michael T.; Alvarez, Edwin A.; Saenz, Cheryl C.; Plaxe, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the introduction of psychosocial services to gynecologic oncology outpatients by a social worker increases service use. During the initial six weeks (phase I), patients were referred for psychosocial services by clinic staff. During the second six weeks (phase II), a nurse introduced available…

  11. Adoption and the American Indian Child: A Manual for Social Service Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zokan delos Reyes, Louise

    Written for social service workers involved with Indian child welfare cases in which adoption through a state court is being considered, this manual presents basic information about the requirements of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA) in cases of Indian adoption. Background material explains that the ICWA--intended to establish…

  12. Does Ethics Education Influence the Moral Action of Practicing Nurses and Social Workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Christine; Danis, Marion; Soeken, Karen L.; O’Donnell, Patricia; Taylor, Carol; Farrar, Adrienne; Ulrich, Connie M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/methods This study investigated the relationship between ethics education and training, and the use and usefulness of ethics resources, confidence in moral decisions, and moral action/activism through a survey of practicing nurses and social workers from four United States (US) census regions. Findings The sample (n = 1215) was primarily Caucasian (83%), female (85%), well educated (57% with a master’s degree). no ethics education at all was reported by 14% of study participants (8% of social workers had no ethics education, versus 23% of nurses), and only 57% of participants had ethics education in their professional educational program. Those with both professional ethics education and in-service or continuing education were more confident in their moral judgments and more likely to use ethics resources and to take moral action. Social workers had more overall education, more ethics education, and higher confidence and moral action scores, and were more likely to use ethics resources than nurses. Conclusion Ethics education has a significant positive influence on moral confidence, moral action, and use of ethics resources by nurses and social workers. PMID:18576241

  13. Current Levels of Perceived Stress among Mental Health Social Workers Who Work with Suicidal Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Laura; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Sanders, Sara

    2011-01-01

    Mental health social workers are at increased risk of being confronted with fatal and nonfatal client suicidal behavior (CSB). Research has documented personal and professional reactions to CSB; however, empirical evidence describing the potential long-term effects is scarce. This study examined current reactions of perceived stress and continual…

  14. Should Social Workers Use "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frances, Allen; Jones, K. Dayle

    2014-01-01

    Up until now, social workers have depended on the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" ("DSM") as the primary diagnostic classification for mental disorders. However, the "DSM-5" revision includes scientifically unfounded, inadequately tested, and potentially dangerous diagnoses that may lead them…

  15. Perspectives of Foster Parents and Social Workers on Foster Placement Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Brian J.; McQuillan, Karen

    2014-01-01

    The potential human and financial costs of foster placement disruption for the children, families, professionals and agencies involved are widely accepted. This service evaluation identified and described perspectives of foster parents and social workers regarding placement disruptions in order to identify the main issues of concern and to derive…

  16. Association for Specialists in Group Work: Multicultural and Social Justice Competence Principles for Group Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Merchant, Niloufer; Skudrzyk, Bogusia; Ingene, Daphne

    2012-01-01

    The Association for Specialists in Group Work (ASGW) is committed to understanding how issues of multiculturalism and social justice affect all aspects of group work. This document reflects the updating and revision of a previous document entitled, "Principles for Diversity-Competent Group Workers," which was endorsed by ASGW in 1998 and published…

  17. A Nutrition Training Program for Social Workers Serving the Homebound Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanz, Karen; Scharf, Marjorie

    1985-01-01

    Homebound elderly adults experience more nutrition-related problems than their active age peers. This paper reports on the development, implementation, and evaluation of a demonstration program for training social workers serving the homebound in a large urban area agency on aging. Evaluations indicated that the training was favorably received and…

  18. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for Psychological and Physiological Illnesses: A Systematic Review for Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Katherine L.; Kim, Johnny S.; Franklin, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    Social workers provide services to a variety of clients and are challenged with finding interventions that meet the multifaceted needs of diverse populations. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is becoming an increasingly popular therapy that offers flexibility and effectiveness in treating challenging cases. The purpose of this review is to…

  19. Social Workers' Final Act of Service: Respectful Burial Arrangements for Indigent, Unclaimed, and Unidentified People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castex, Graciela M.

    2007-01-01

    Social workers have long been involved in identifying resources and making final arrangements for clients who die without an estate or have no heirs, who may be institutionalized or unknown to the community, or whose body may be unclaimed for burial. Absent quick intervention, these individuals are often at risk for an anonymous potter's field…

  20. GROWTH OF COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE BY LINKING KNOWLEDGE WORKERS THROUGH SOCIAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAROSLAVA KUBÁTOVÁ

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Collective intelligence can be defined, very broadly, as groups of individuals that do things collectively, and that seem to be intelligent. Collective intelligence has existed for ages. Families, tribes, companies, countries, etc., are all groups of individuals doing things collectively, and that seem to be intelligent. However, over the past two decades, the rise of the Internet has given upturn to new types of collective intelligence. Companies can take advantage from the so-called Web-enabled collective intelligence. Web-enabled collective intelligence is based on linking knowledge workers through social media. That means that companies can hire geographically dispersed knowledge workers and create so-called virtual teams of these knowledge workers (members of the virtual teams are connected only via the Internet and do not meet face to face. By providing an online social network, the companies can achieve significant growth of collective intelligence. But to create and use an online social network within a company in a really efficient way, the managers need to have a deep understanding of how such a system works. Thus the purpose of this paper is to share the knowledge about effective use of social networks in companies. The main objectives of this paper are as follows: to introduce some good practices of the use of social media in companies, to analyze these practices and to generalize recommendations for a successful introduction and use of social media to increase collective intelligence of a company.

  1. GROWTH OF COLLECTIVE INTELLIGENCE BY LINKING KNOWLEDGE WORKERS THROUGH SOCIAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava KUBA TOVA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Collective intelligence can be defined, very broadly, as groups of individuals that do things collectively, and that seem to be intelligent. Collective intelligence has existed for ages. Families, tribes, companies, countries, etc., are all groups of individuals doing things collectively, and that seem to be intelligent. However, over the past two decades, the rise of the Internet has given upturn to new types of collective intelligence. Companies can take advantage from the so-called Webenabled collective intelligence. Web-enabled collective intelligence is based on linking knowledge workers through social media. That means that companies can hire geographically dispersed knowledge workers and create so-called virtual teams of these knowledge workers (members of the virtual teams are connected only via the Internet and do not meet face to face. By providing an online social network, the companies can achieve significant growth of collective intelligence. But to create and use an online social network within a company in a really efficient way, the managers need to have a deep understanding of how such a system works.Thus the purpose of this paper is to share the knowledge about effective use of social networks in companies. The main objectives of this paper are as follows: to introduce some good practices of the use of social media in companies, to analyze these practices and to generalize recommendations for a successful introduction and use of social media to increase collective intelligence of a company.

  2. Social Capital and Community Participation among Migrant Workers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Neal A.; Perkins, Douglas D.; Xu, Qingwen

    2011-01-01

    In China, rapid development has prompted massive migration from rural to urban areas. Migrants' participation in Urban Residents Committees (URCs) and other community organizations offers opportunities for the development of social capital and democracy in contemporary China. We use 2006 survey data from a stratified convenience sample of 3,024…

  3. Social Capital and Community Participation among Migrant Workers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Neal A.; Perkins, Douglas D.; Xu, Qingwen

    2011-01-01

    In China, rapid development has prompted massive migration from rural to urban areas. Migrants' participation in Urban Residents Committees (URCs) and other community organizations offers opportunities for the development of social capital and democracy in contemporary China. We use 2006 survey data from a stratified convenience sample of 3,024…

  4. Evaluation of Social Performance and Related Factors in Iranian Central Iron Ore company workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein Halvani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psychological and social health is the main problems of workers population, which can increase productivity at work and physical and mental health and provide or decline in these aspects. Materials and Methods: this study was descriptive and crosses - sectional and has been performed on 388 Iranian central iron ore company workers. The tool of study was standard GHQ-28 question are that has been measured under social performance scale. Results: 49.3 and 49 percent of the people have favorable and average score from the state of the social function condition and 1.8 percent of people have severe social dysfunction and besides the employees have less work experienced that have more social dysfunction and there is a relationship between the P = 0.026. With satisfaction with the status of social dysfunction (P = 0 and with the consent of the income (P = 0 there is significant relationship. Conclusion: In this study, a significant percentage of mineworkers were not in good condition from health, social functioning. It reveals the importance of addressing health issues and vulnerable working class, Intervention studies conducted by employers to improve job satisfaction and increased income and received social support from him, can increase the health indicators related to the body and mind.

  5. Attitudes towards poverty, organizations, ethics and morals: Israeli social workers' shared decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Lia; Schwartz-Tayri, Talia

    2017-06-01

    Partnerships between service users and social workers are complex in nature and can be driven by both personal and contextual circumstances. This study sought to explore the relationship between social workers' involvement in shared decision making with service users, their attitudes towards service users in poverty, moral standards and health and social care organizations' policies towards shared decision making. Based on the responses of 225 licensed social workers from health and social care agencies in the public, private and third sectors in Israel, path analysis was used to test a hypothesized model. Structural attributions for poverty contributed to attitudes towards people who live in poverty, which led to shared decision making. Also, organizational support in shared decision making, and professional moral identity, contributed to ethical behaviour which led to shared decision making. The results of this analysis revealed that shared decision making may be a scion of branched roots planted in the relationship between ethics, organizations and Stigma. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Spaced retrieval technique--a cognitive tool for social workers and their clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, David E; Struzick, Tom; Farr, Kenneth

    2010-02-01

    Social workers frequently work with clients who have cognitive deficits that impair their ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living and reduce their quality of life. Borrowing from the cognitive aging literature, the Spaced Retrieval Technique can be used by social workers to help their clients retain information needed for more autonomous functioning. This technique consists of recalling information over progressively longer periods of time until the information is successfully consolidated into long-term memory. The retained information may include adhering to medication regimens, keeping doctor's appointments, and remembering to pay bills. This technique is established and employed in early Alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain injury, and HIV. Implications for social work practice are posited.

  7. Reports of workers: perceptions of physical and social aspects of the organizational environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís Manso

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The working world is a sphere of life that most people at some point in life you willexperience. Thus, it becomes essential to know and explore the views of workersabout their experiences and issues related to welfare and health. This study objective of this study is to identify and analyze the perceptions of workers about the physicaland social environment. Research participants were 12 subjects who became ill on the job and have been removed or needed psychological help from organizations of different segments. After approval of the research project by the Ethics Research was conducted to collect data through a script of semi-structured interview about personal, professional, social worker and perceptions about what the work represents in your life. The responses were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The accounts of the participants indicated the need for relief in relation to work on aspects of work flow and division of tasks with lower load. Other things that annoy workers refer to social relations, especially complaints of leadership posture in which they feel somewhat devalued. This research contributes to the expansion of knowledge about the subject and the need to encourage more investment in the area, to enable greater well-being of workers in general, particularly the bio psychosocial aspects.

  8. Professional Norms and Categorization Practices among Danish Social Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Marie Østergaard

    2012-01-01

    compare correspondences between professional norms and categorization practice to the regulative setting (sickness benefits or social welfare) to see whether this matters to the found relationships. The analysis shows a relationship between administrative reasoning and stereotyped categorization of social......What drives professionals working within a strong public regulative setting? This question has been given a lot of attention from different disciplinary perspectives among them public administration and political science. Here different aspects of what can be coined as “policy fidelity” has paved...... the way for an understanding of professionals as street-level bureaucrats whose working conditions first and foremost are characterized as cross pressured between policy goals, personal preferences, citizen pressure and professional norms (Lipsky 2010; Hupe & Hill; Winter 2008). However, more sociological...

  9. [Mortality among the workers of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social from 1983 to 1987].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Márquez, O; Camacho-Solís, R; Villarroel-Vargas, R; Tudón-Garcés, H; Campos-Fernández, M C; Moras-Sandoval, R M

    1992-01-01

    A study on mortality of 2,268 workers of the Mexican Social Security Institute was done during 1983-1987 in order to obtain accurate information to specifically determine to those, activities which promote the health and improve the life conditions of the workers of the aforementioned institution. This information relates to the first step of the study, so it doesn't lead us to value judgements, because it would fall into speculations. However, it creates an important data to subsequently explore, by means of further studies, in the casualty of the existing results.

  10. Agribusiness, Corporate Social Responsibility, and Health of Agricultural Migrant Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, María Isabel; Sabo, Samantha; Aranda Gallegos, Patricia; De Zapien, Jill Eileen Guernsey; Zapien, Antonio; Portillo Abril, Gloria Elena; Rosales, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Living conditions and health of migrant farmworkers could benefit from a health promotion model based on corporate social responsibility (CSR). To understand how Mexican agribusiness owners and general managers view and practice CSR. We interviewed 8 agribusiness owners/managers and 233 farmworkers using open-ended interviews and gathered anthropometrical data of 133 children from farmworkers families. To guide our analysis and discussion, we followed the two-dimension model of CSR proposed by Quazi and O'Brien. According to interviewee responses, mean percentage of agreement with CSR concept was 77.4%, with a range of 54-85.7%. Main health-related issues among farmworkers were infectious diseases, crowding, and access to health-care services; there were acute cases of undernutrition among farmworkers' children and diets were of poor quality. Agribusiness owners and managers understand and practice CSR according to a wide and modern view, which contradicts with farmworkers' living conditions and health. Quazi and O'Brien model should consider the social context, in which it is analyzed, and the social manifestations of community development as a tool for further analysis on the perceptions and actions of entrepreneurs.

  11. ROMANIAN SOCIAL CARE WORKERS' EXPOSURE TO WORKPLACE VIOLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana I. ZIGMAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Workplace violence in the social care sector is not a problem that appeared overnight. It was and still is a major concern, and its disastrous effects, on both organization and employees have been largely documented in various papers and studies around the world. This study analyses social care workers’ perceptions and experiences with workplace violence, phenomenon which, until a few years ago, has been largely ignored in the Romanian research field, and is still considered to this day a taboo subject in the organizational environment. Even if most employers recognize its general existence they tend to deny or refuse to accept that their institution or company is affected by it. The present paper will provide information concerning problematic issues in studying the phenomenon and will try to provide an image of the social care workers’ perception and attitude towards risk and workplace violence. The research will try to identify differences in experience, exposure and resistance to violence in the workplace based on various variables like sex or job characteristics.

  12. An Empirical Study on the Social Integration of Young Migrant Workers: A Case Study of Nanjing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tingting WANG

    2016-01-01

    Based on the empirical survey of 184 young migrant workers in Nanjing City,this paper makes an in-depth analysis of issues concerning the social integration of young migrant workers from economic integration,cultural integration and psychological integration. The survey results show that the overall level of social integration of young migrant workers is low; the dualistic household registration management system of urban and rural areas is the root cause,the lack of human capital,cultural capital and social capital is the underlying causes,and urban residents’ discrimination and exclusion is the external cause; to speed up the social integration of young migrant workers,the key is based on the actual needs of youth migrant workers to take practical measures to gradually integrate them into the city.

  13. "The Pain of Exile": What Social Workers Need to Know about Burmese Refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, D Christopher; Androff, David K

    2016-04-01

    Refugees from Burma have comprised the largest group of refugees resettling in the United States over the past decade, with nearly 90,000 people, and 19 percent of the total refugee population. However, very little literature exists that describes the cultural context and displacement experiences of this population. This article addresses that gap in the literature by examining historical, social, political, and cultural dimensions relevant to social work practice with Burmese refugees. Practice with Burmese refugees should be informed by knowledge of refugee policy, refugee resettlement, and social services delivery systems; the Burmese historical and political context; the community's specific strengths, needs, and cultural diversity; and human rights and social justice issues. Strong community partnerships between social workers and indigenous community leaders, between resettlement agencies and ethnic community-based organizations, and between different Burmese refugee groups are important to meeting short- and long-term social services needs and fostering successful adaptation and community integration.

  14. Value of social media in reaching and engaging employers in Total Worker Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Heidi; Hall, Jennifer

    2013-12-01

    To describe the initial use of social media by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Total Worker Health™ (TWH) Program and the University of Iowa Healthier Workforce Center for Excellence (HWCE) Outreach Program. Social media analytics tools and process evaluation methods were used to derive initial insights on the social media strategies used by the NIOSH and the HWCE. The on-line community size for the NIOSH TWH Program indicated 100% growth in 6 months; however, social media platforms have been slow to gain participation among employers. The NIOSH TWH Program and the HWCE Outreach Program have found social media tools as an effective way to expand reach, foster engagement, and gain understanding of audience interests around TWH concepts. More needs to be known about how to best use social media to reach and engage target audiences on issues relevant to TWH.

  15. Eight myths on motivating social services workers: theory-based perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latting, J K

    1991-01-01

    A combination of factors has made formal motivational and reward systems rare in human service organizations generally and virtually non-existent in social service agencies. The author reviews eight of these myths by reference to eight motivational theories which refute them: need theory, expectancy theory, feedback theory, equity theory, reinforcement theory, cognitive evaluation theory, goal setting theory, and social influence theory. Although most of these theories have been developed and applied in the private sector, relevant research has also been conducted in social service agencies. The author concludes with a summary of guidelines suggested by the eight theories for motivating human service workers.

  16. Linking the NIH strategic plan to the research agenda for social workers in health and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raveis, Victoria H; Gardner, Daniel S; Berkman, Barbara; Harootyan, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Although social work has a long and distinctive tradition of practice-relevant research aimed at enhancing the health and well-being of older adults, the profession has been underrepresented among the ranks of academic researchers and the National Institutes of Health's (NIH) scientific endeavors. In this article, the inherent capacities of social workers to generate and disseminate empirical health-related knowledge are discussed and recent developments in social work's geriatric research infrastructure are described. Emerging domains for advancing the profession's contribution to practice-relevant geriatric research on the federal level are identified and the next steps toward advancing the field's research agenda are posed.

  17. Social Work Involvement in Advance Care Planning: Findings from a Large Survey of Social Workers in Hospice and Palliative Care Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Gary L; Cagle, John G; Christ, Grace H

    2017-03-01

    Few data are available describing the involvement and activities of social workers in advance care planning (ACP). We sought to provide data about (1) social worker involvement and leadership in ACP conversations with patients and families; and (2) the extent of functions and activities when these discussions occur. We conducted a large web-based survey of social workers employed in hospice, palliative care, and related settings to explore their role, participation, and self-rated competency in facilitating ACP discussions. Respondents were recruited through the Social Work Hospice and Palliative Care Network and the National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization. Descriptive analyses were conducted on the full sample of respondents (N = 641) and a subsample of clinical social workers (N = 456). Responses were analyzed to explore differences in ACP involvement by practice setting. Most clinical social workers (96%) reported that social workers in their department are conducting ACP discussions with patients/families. Majorities also participate in, and lead, ACP discussions (69% and 60%, respectively). Most respondents report that social workers are responsible for educating patients/families about ACP options (80%) and are the team members responsible for documenting ACP (68%). Compared with other settings, oncology and inpatient palliative care social workers were less likely to be responsible for ensuring that patients/families are informed of ACP options and documenting ACP preferences. Social workers are prominently involved in facilitating, leading, and documenting ACP discussions. Policy-makers, administrators, and providers should incorporate the vital contributions of social work professionals in policies and programs supporting ACP.

  18. The Impact of Western Social Workers in Romania - a Fine Line between Empowerment and Disempowerment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Ideally the social work profession promotes social change, problem solving in human relationships and the empowerment and liberation of people to enhance their well-being (IFSW 2004. The social work practice, however, often proves to be different. Social workers are always in the danger to make decisions for their clients or define problems according to their own interpretation and world view. In quite a number of cases, the consequence of such a social work practice is that the clients feel disempowered rather than empowered. This dilemma is multiplying when western social workers get involved in developing countries. The potential that intervention, with the intention to empower and liberate the people, turns into disempowerment is tremendously higher because of the differences in tradition, culture and society, on the one side and the power imbalance between the ‘West’ and the ‘Rest’ on the other side. Especially in developing countries, where the vast majority of people live in poverty, many Western social workers come with a lot of sympathy and the idea to help the poor and to change the world. An example is Romania. After the collapse of communism in 1989, Romania was an economically, politically and socially devastated country. The pictures of the orphanages shocked the western world. As a result many Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs, churches and individuals were bringing humanitarian goods to Romania in order to alleviate the misery of the Romanian people and especially the children. Since then, important changes in all areas of life have occurred, mostly with foreign financial aid and support. At the political level, democratic institutions were established, a liberal market economy was launched and laws were adapted to western standards regarding the accession into the European Union and the NATO. The western world has left its marks also at the grassroots level in form of NGOs or social service agencies established

  19. Female sex workers and the social context of workplace violence in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsulis, Yasmina; Lopez, Vera; Durfee, Alesha; Robillard, Alyssa

    2010-09-01

    Gender-based violence in the workplace impacts the physical and emotional wellbeing of sex workers and may lead to other health problems, such as PTSD and depression, drug abuse, and a greater likelihood of sexually transmitted infections. This study examines the social context of workplace violence and risk avoidance in the context of legal regulations meant to reduce harms associated with the industry. Ethnographic research, including 18 months of extended field observations and interviews with 190 female sex workers, is used to illustrate how sex workers in Tijuana, Mexico, experience and manage workplace violence. Multiple subthemes emerge from this analysis, including deciding where to work, working with a third party, avoiding theft, and dealing with police. These findings support the idea that the risk of violence is part of a larger "hierarchy of risk" that can result in a "tradeoff" of harms.

  20. Juvenile hormone, reproduction, and worker behavior in the neotropical social wasp Polistes canadensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giray, Tugrul; Giovanetti, Manuela; West-Eberhard, Mary Jane

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies of the division of labor in colonies of eusocial Hymenoptera (wasps and bees) have led to two hypotheses regarding the evolution of juvenile hormone (JH) involvement. The novel- or single-function hypothesis proposes that the role of JH has changed from an exclusively reproductive function in primitively eusocial species (those lacking morphologically distinct queen and worker castes), to an exclusively behavioral function in highly eusocial societies (those containing morphologically distinct castes). In contrast, the split-function hypothesis proposes that JH originally functioned in the regulation of both reproduction and behavior in ancestral solitary species. Then, when reproductive and brood-care tasks came to be divided between queens and workers, the effects of JH were divided as well, with JH involved in regulation of reproductive maturation of egg-laying queens, and behavioral maturation, manifested as age-correlated changes in worker tasks, of workers. We report experiments designed to test these hypotheses. After documenting age-correlated changes in worker behavior (age polyethism) in the neotropical primitively eusocial wasp Polistes canadensis, we demonstrate that experimental application of the JH analog methoprene accelerates the onset of guarding behavior, an age-correlated task, and increases the number of foraging females; and we demonstrate that JH titers correlate with both ovarian development of queens and task differentiation in workers, as predicted by the split-function hypothesis. These findings support a view of social insect evolution that sees the contrasting worker and queen phenotypes as derived via decoupling of reproductive and brood-care components of the ancestral solitary reproductive physiology. PMID:15728373

  1. Migrant female domestic workers: debating the economic, social and political impacts in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoh, B S; Huang, S; Gonzalez, J

    1999-01-01

    This article analyzes the impact of migrant female domestic workers on the socioeconomic and political context in Singapore. Although Singapore state policy opposes long-term immigration, there is a labor shortage which permits a transient work force of low-skilled foreign workers. In the late 1990s, Singapore had over 100,000 foreign maids, of whom 75% were from the Philippines, 20% were from Indonesia, and the rest were from Sri Lanka. Legislation ensures their short-term migrant status, restricts their numbers, and governs their employment. Migrant workers are also regulated through a stringent allocation system based on household income of employers and the need for caregivers for children. Work permits are conditioned on non-marriage to citizens of Singapore or pregnancy. Terms and conditions of migrant employment are not specified, which permits long hours of work and potential for inhumane treatment. Migrant women fulfill jobs not desired by natives and accept these jobs at lower wages. There is disagreement about the motivation for the maid levy and its need, fairness, and effectiveness in reducing demand for foreign maids. Most public discussion focuses on social values and morality of foreign maids. Politically, tensions arise over the legality of migration, which results from tourist worker migration to Singapore and circumvents Filipino labor controls. Most of the adjustment cases that come to the attention of OWWA are tourist workers. Policies should be gender sensitive.

  2. Social Work Preparation to Compete in Today's Scientific Marketplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurius, Paula S.

    2017-01-01

    As the scientific marketplace rapidly evolves, we must keep revisiting strategic preparation of our doctoral students and early career scholars to be successful innovators in these contexts. As an inherently integrative, change-oriented, community-engaged, and context-sensitive discipline, social work has enormous potential as a value-added…

  3. Social support and negative and positive outcomes of experienced traumatic events in a group of male emergency service workers

    OpenAIRE

    Ogińska-Bulik, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the relationship between perceived social support in the workplace and both negative (post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms) and positive outcomes (post-traumatic growth) of experienced traumatic events in a group of male emergency service workers. Data of 116 workers representing emergency services (37.1% firefighters, 37.1%, police officers and 30% medical rescue workers) who have experienced a traumatic event in their worksite were analyzed. The range of age...

  4. Influence of Social Support on Health-Related Quality of Life in New-Generation Migrant Workers in Eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Xing

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF has generally been used for patients,few studies in migrants who move from rural to urban within one country. Many studies asserted that social isolation presents a risk to individual health. Poor social networks are associated with worse QOL. This study examined health-related quality of life (HRQOL and social support in new-generation migrant workers and compared it with urban workers.Methods: Nine hundred thirty new-generation migrant workers and 939 urban controls completed the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire and Social Support Rating Scale (SSRS by stratified sampling in 2011. Spearman’s correlation was performed to clarify the relationship between social support and HRQOL in migrants. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to identify the variables that were associated with HRQOL.Results: The general health, psychological health, and environmental scores of QOL in new-generation migrant workers were lower than in urban workers. New-generation migrants had poorer social support compared with urban controls with regard to general support, objective support, and support utilization. A positive correlation was found between social support and HRQOL. Workers with a higher level of education achieved better psychological, environmental, and general scores than workers with a primary education. Physical, social, environmental, and general health was also closely connected with the age factor. Physical health scores were higher in males than in females.Conclusion: These data suggest that new-generation migrant workers have significant impairment in HRQOL and receive less social support. HRQOL may be affected by social support, education, age, and gender.

  5. Barriers to health and social services for street-based sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, Steven P; Surratt, Hilary L; Kiley, Marion C; Inciardi, James A

    2005-05-01

    Homelessness, poverty, drug abuse and violent victimization faced by street-based women sex workers create needs for a variety of health and social services, yet simultaneously serve as barriers to accessing these very services. The present study utilized interview (n = 586) and focus group (n = 25) data to examine the service needs and associated barriers to access among women sex workers in Miami, Florida. Women most often reported acute service needs for shelter, fresh water, transportation, crisis intervention, and drug detoxification, as well as long-term needs for mental and physical health care, drug treatment, and legal and employment services. Barriers included both structural (e.g., program target population, travel costs, office hours, and social stigma) and individual (e.g., drug use, mental stability, and fear) factors. Bridging these gaps is tremendously important from a public health perspective given the disease burden among this population. Recommendations include service staff training, outreach, and promising research directions.

  6. Conserved class of queen pheromones stops social insect workers from reproducing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Oystaeyen, Annette; Oliveira, Ricardo Caliari; Holman, Luke; van Zweden, Jelle S; Romero, Carmen; Oi, Cintia A; d'Ettorre, Patrizia; Khalesi, Mohammadreza; Billen, Johan; Wäckers, Felix; Millar, Jocelyn G; Wenseleers, Tom

    2014-01-17

    A major evolutionary transition to eusociality with reproductive division of labor between queens and workers has arisen independently at least 10 times in the ants, bees, and wasps. Pheromones produced by queens are thought to play a key role in regulating this complex social system, but their evolutionary history remains unknown. Here, we identify the first sterility-inducing queen pheromones in a wasp, bumblebee, and desert ant and synthesize existing data on compounds that characterize female fecundity in 64 species of social insects. Our results show that queen pheromones are strikingly conserved across at least three independent origins of eusociality, with wasps, ants, and some bees all appearing to use nonvolatile, saturated hydrocarbons to advertise fecundity and/or suppress worker reproduction. These results suggest that queen pheromones evolved from conserved signals of solitary ancestors.

  7. Social Workers' Perceived Role Clarity as Members of an Interdisciplinary Team in Brain Injury Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vungkhanching, Martha; Tonsing, Kareen N

    2016-08-11

    This study investigated social workers' role clarity as members of an interdisciplinary team in traumatic and acquired brain injury treatment settings. A total of 37 social workers from 7 Western countries completed an anonymous online survey questionnaire. The majority of participants have more than 10 years of experience working in brain injury treatment settings (59.5%), and about 54% have been in their current employment for more than 10 years. Findings revealed that there were significant positive correlations between perceived respect, team collaboration, and perceived value of self for team with role clarity. Multiple regression analysis revealed that perceived value of self for team was a significant predictor of role clarity (p < .05).

  8. Main tasks of social worker in reducing poverty for families with children and social inclusion policy in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrodele-Dubrovska I.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Social exclusion is an inability of an individual or a group of persons to integrate into society due to poverty, insufficient education, unemployment, discrimination or other causes in Latvia. Welfare of families is influenced not only by the employment of its members, but also by the amount of their salary. Limited amount of family’s financial resources make a person to refuse himself a lot of things or restrict expenses to minimum thus increasing the risk of exclusion of the household. When finding a solution of social problems faced by families with children it is essential to involve a social worker. Well-being of children must be in focus of social work practice, in addition taking the special care for their safety and welfare.

  9. Application of theory to family-centered care: a role for social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Family-centered care is an emerging trend in health care settings today. An explanation, principles, and a definition of family-centered care are offered and discussed. A theoretical framework, Balance Theory of Coordination, which can be utilized by social workers to develop and enhance family-centered care practices, is explained and discussed. Various family-centered care practices are examined within the context of Balance Theory of Coordination as examples.

  10. The Functions of Social Support in the Mental Health of Male and Female Migrant Workers in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Leung, Grace

    2008-01-01

    The study reported herein adopted a stress and coping framework to examine the functions of social support in protecting the mental health of migrant workers who experience migration stress during settlement in Shanghai, China. A total of 475 migrant workers from four major districts in Shanghai were recruited for a survey through multistage…

  11. Social marketing to plan a fall prevention program for Latino construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Nancy N; Shrestha, Pramen P

    2012-08-01

    Latino construction workers experience disparities in occupational death and injury rates. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration funded a fall prevention training program at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas in response to sharp increases in fall-related accidents from 2005 to 2007. The grant's purpose was to improve fall protection for construction workers, with a focus on Latinos. This study assessed the effectiveness of social marketing for increasing fall prevention behaviors. A multi-disciplinary team used a social marketing approach to plan the program. We conducted same day class evaluations and follow-up interviews 8 weeks later. The classes met trainee needs as evidenced by class evaluations and increased safety behaviors. However, Spanish-speaking Latinos did not attend in the same proportion as their representation in the Las Vegas population. A social marketing approach to planning was helpful to customize the training to Latino worker needs. However, due to the limitations of behavior change strategies, future programs should target employers and their obligation to provide safer workplaces. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Somatic experiencing treatment with social service workers following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, M Laurie; Vanslyke, Jan; Allen, Marisa

    2009-01-01

    In a disaster, social service workers are often survivors themselves.This study examines whether somatic intervention using a brief (one to two session) stabilization model now called the Trauma Resiliency Model (TRM), which uses the skills of Somatic Experiencing (SE), can reduce the postdisaster symptoms of social service workers involved in postdisaster service delivery.The study was implemented with a nonrandom sample of 142 social service workers who were survivors of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in New Orleans and Baton Rouge, Louisiana, two to three months after the disasters. Ninety-one participants received SE/TRM and were compared with a matched comparison group of 51 participants through the use of propensity score matching. All participants first received group psychoeducation. Results support the benefits of the brief intervention inspired by SE. The treatment group showed statistically significant gains in resiliency indicators and decreases in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Although psychological symptoms increased in both groups at the three to four month follow-up, the treatment group's psychological symptoms were statistically lower than those of the comparison group.

  13. [The social and hygienic aspects in the protection of the health of forest industry workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhmetzyanov, L M

    1990-01-01

    The study of social and hygiene aspects in the industry of forest exploitation permitted to point out the changes that occurred in the field of mechanization and automation of production processes, which radically influenced the working conditions and characteristics, as well as the health indices. The study approaches some economic, social and hygiene problems. Proposals are made regarding the improvement of medical care organization for workers, for example the drawing up of a complex programme of prophylaxis of diseases in the enterprises for wood industrialization and of utilization of the computation technique.

  14. Social Skills and Social Values Training for Future K-Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sail, Rahim M.; Alavi, Khadijah

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this paper is to determine the extent of acquisition of knowledge on social skills and social values by trainers of institutes and coaches of industries in training of trainers (ToT) programmes. It has been ascertained that social skills and social values can and must be taught to apprentices to enhance their…

  15. Social Skills and Social Values Training for Future K-Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sail, Rahim M.; Alavi, Khadijah

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The main purpose of this paper is to determine the extent of acquisition of knowledge on social skills and social values by trainers of institutes and coaches of industries in training of trainers (ToT) programmes. It has been ascertained that social skills and social values can and must be taught to apprentices to enhance their…

  16. Gene expression differences in relation to age and social environment in queen and worker bumble bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Almond, Edward J; Huggins, Timothy J; Parker, Joel D; Bourke, Andrew F G

    2016-05-01

    Eusocial insects provide special insights into the genetic pathways influencing aging because of their long-lived queens and flexible aging schedules. Using qRT-PCR in the primitively eusocial bumble bee Bombus terrestris (Linnaeus), we investigated expression levels of four candidate genes associated with taxonomically widespread age-related pathways (coenzyme Q biosynthesis protein 7, COQ7; DNA methyltransferase 3, Dnmt3; foraging, for; and vitellogenin, vg). In Experiment 1, we tested how expression changes with queen relative age and productivity. We found a significant age-related increase in COQ7 expression in queen ovary. In brain, all four genes showed higher expression with increasing female (queen plus worker) production, with this relationship strengthening as queen age increased, suggesting a link with the positive association of fecundity and longevity found in eusocial insect queens. In Experiment 2, we tested effects of relative age and social environment (worker removal) in foundress queens and effects of age and reproductive status in workers. In this experiment, workerless queens showed significantly higher for expression in brain, as predicted if downregulation of for is associated with the cessation of foraging by foundress queens following worker emergence. Workers showed a significant age-related increase in Dnmt3 expression in fat body, suggesting a novel association between aging and methylation in B. terrestris. Ovary activation was associated with significantly higher vg expression in fat body and, in younger workers, in brain, consistent with vitellogenin's ancestral role in regulating egg production. Overall, our findings reveal a mixture of novel and conserved features in age-related genetic pathways under primitive eusociality.

  17. Social capital at work: psychometric analysis of a short scale in Spanish among Mexican health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrovo, Alvaro J; Camacho-Avila, Anabel; García-Rivas, Javier; Juárez-García, Arturo

    2012-09-01

    Most studies on social capital and health are carried out with large home-based surveys, neglecting that many interactions among individuals occur in the workplace. The objective of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of a scale in Spanish used to measure social capital at work. The scale designed by Kouvonen et al was translated into Spanish and tested under classical test theory, item response theory, and confirmatory factorial analysis; 152 public health workers from different socio-cultural contexts participated in the survey. Internal consistency was high (Chronbach's alpha = 0.88). Social capital at work correlated properly with two Job Content Questionnaire dimensions. A ceiling effect was detected and item difficulty was quantified. The confirmatory factor analysis showed the expected theoretical components of social capital: bonding, bridging and trust. The scale has acceptable psychometric properties, thus it can be used in future studies.

  18. Strategies in the struggle to overcome educational exclusion: the role of social workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Menezes Pereira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the possibilities of disruption of exclusive practices in education through the actions performed by the social workers (ATES, who propose an emancipative popular education, which represents a contrary movement to the dominant hegemony. It consists of a case study with a qualitative approach (TRIVINÕS, 1987, presenting partial results of the research developed with agrarian reform settlers in the cities of São Gabriel and Santa Margarida dos Sul (State of Rio Grande do Sul. The assistance provided by social workers of several different fields is understood as a governmental policy, achieved through negotiations with the Ministry of Agriculture and with sectors of the settlement areas defi ned by the Instituto Nacional de Colonização e Reforma Agrária (National Institute for Colonization and Agrarian Reform - INCRA, being, therefore, a social movement directed related to the education. It is possible to conclude that, although receiving little attention of the capitalist State, these movements represent educational actions of an emancipative nature for the involved social actors.

  19. Integrating diversity into graduate social work education: a 30-year retrospective view by MSW-level African American social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Stan L; Hall, J Camille; Johnson, Oliver J

    2011-01-01

    The study surveyed a national sample of 100 African American master of social work graduates to retroactively assess perceived diversity content in Human Behavior courses before and after the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE) established accreditation standards on diversity. Seventy-one percent of the respondents were females, the mean age was 45.8 years, and their graduation years ranged from 1958 to 2002. Most graduated from northeastern schools (34%), followed by midwestern (28%), southeastern (22%), northwestern (11%), and southwestern (5%) schools. Investigators used the Preparation for Graduate Education Social Work Education Scale and the Human Behavior Survey Addendum (alpha = .97). There were no statistically significant differences on diversity content scores for participants enrolled before and after CSWE diversity standards were established, but graduates of historically Black colleges gave higher diversity content scores in every area. Study includes discussion and implications for Afrocentric theory and the need to prepare practitioners for future social work careers in multicultural communities.

  20. Social and psychological state of the Chornobyl clean up workers. Risk factors for negative changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzunov, V O; Loganovsky, K N; Krasnikova, L I; Bomko, M O; Belyaev, Yu M; Yaroshenko, Zh S; Domashevska, T Ye

    2016-12-01

    It is generally recognized that the Chornobyl nuclear accident caused strong psychosocial stress affecting the entire population of Ukraine, primarily people involved in recovery operations. But what are the reasons? What is the struc ture of stressors? What are their social, medical and biological consequences, what are strategy and preventive meas ures? Issues that require special research and development. To study social and psychological state of the Chornobyl cleanup workers 1986-1987, and to determine regularities of changes and dangerous risk factors. On the basis of Polyclinic of Radiation Registry, NRCRM, we conducted sample epidemiolog ical study of social and psychological state of the Chornobyl clean up workers 1986-1987. We used method of inter viewing based on «questionnaire», specially developed for this purpose. The study was conducted in October 2013 - May 2015. The sample numbered 235 males aged 18-50 at the time of the accident. Their average age was (31.3 ± 5.3) years at the time of the accident and (58.9 ± 5.3) at the time of survey. The results revealed that the Chornobyl nuclear accident and its consequences caused strong social and psychological stress among clean up workers 1986-1987. We have identified a set of factors closely related to the Chornobyl accident, they have caused a sustainable development of mental syndrome - «Anxiety about their own health and the health of family members, especially children». The other set of stressors which are not closely relat ed to the Chornobyl accident but are the result of the social and economic, social and political situation in the coun try. However the former was found to be the cause of such a psychological state as «dissatisfaction with the com pleteness and quality of life». Social and psychological state of the Chornobyl clean up workers 1986-1987 is estimated as «poor» and it integrally can be characterized as a state of chronic psychosocial stress. Mental syndrome

  1. Social support and recovery among Mexican female sex workers who inject drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiller, Sarah P; Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2013-07-01

    This qualitative study describes social support that female sex workers who inject drugs (FSW-IDUs) receive and recovery efforts in the context of relationships with family and intimate partners. We conducted thematic analysis of in-depth interviews with 47 FSW-IDUs enrolled in an intervention study to reduce injection/sexual risk behaviors in Tijuana, Mexico. FSW-IDUs received instrumental and emotional social support, which positively and negatively influenced recovery efforts. Participants reported how some intimate partners provided conflicting positive and negative support during recovery attempts. Problematic support (i.e., well-intended support with unintended consequences) occurred in strained family relationships, limiting the positive effects of support. Mexican drug treatment programs should consider addressing social support in recovery curricula through evidence-based interventions that engage intimate partners, children and family to better reflect socio-cultural and contextual determinants of substance abuse.

  2. Promoting the psychosocial health of the elderly- the role of social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Alice Ming-Lin

    2007-01-01

    With the ageing of the global population, the wellbeing of older people in different parts of the world merits special attention. However, recent findings on certain aspects of the psychosocial health of the elderly are far from reassuring. The first problem is the inconsistency in psychosocial indicators, which give simultaneous high life satisfaction scores and high suicide rates. The second problem is the significant weakening of the social support network of the elderly. This article analyses the service and policy implications of these two problems. Suggestions are then made on the role of social workers in promoting the psychosocial health of the elderly at different levels of intervention, which include the individual level, the family and social network level, the community level and the international level.

  3. Study on the Needs of Continuing Vocational Training for Social Workers in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preslava Dimitrova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The occupation of the social worker in modern times is challenged by the dynamically changing economic and social environment, growing requirements to their qulifications and competences and the needs of gaining new skills and permanen development and improvement. The aim of the presented study of defining the needs for continuing vocational training of specialists providing social services is to provide recommendations regarding the need of training for skills contributing to the increase in the degree of correspondence between labor supply and demand on the labor market, contributing to the improvement of the quality of the labor force in the country as a competitive factor with an increasing importance for successful economic development. The investigation and the specific examples discussed can be a solid basis for future studies and development of models for improvement the system of continuing and vocational training for acquiring the needed knowledge, skills and competences for effective work.

  4. Trends in work disability with mental diagnoses among social workers in Finland and Sweden in 2005-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rantonen, O; Alexanderson, K; Pentti, J; Kjeldgård, L; Hämäläinen, J; Mittendorfer-Rutz, E; Kivimäki, M; Vahtera, J; Salo, P

    2016-09-09

    Aims Social workers report high levels of stress and have an increased risk for hospitalisation with mental diagnoses. However, it is not known whether the risk of work disability with mental diagnoses is higher among social workers compared with other human service professionals. We analysed trends in work disability (sickness absence and disability pension) with mental diagnoses and return to work (RTW) in 2005-2012 among social workers in Finland and Sweden, comparing with such trends in preschool teachers, special education teachers and psychologists. Records of work disability (>14 days) with mental diagnoses (ICD-10 codes F00-F99) from nationwide health registers were linked to two prospective cohort projects: the Finnish Public Sector study, years 2005-2011 and the Insurance Medicine All Sweden database, years 2005-2012. The Finnish sample comprised 4849 employees and the Swedish 119 219 employees covering four occupations: social workers (Finland 1155/Sweden 23 704), preschool teachers (2419/74 785), special education teachers (832/14 004) and psychologists (443/6726). The reference occupations were comparable regarding educational level. Risk of work disability was analysed with negative binomial regression and RTW with Cox proportional hazards. Social workers in Finland and Sweden had a higher risk of work disability with mental diagnoses compared with preschool teachers and special education teachers (rate ratios (RR) 1.43-1.91), after adjustment for age and sex. In Sweden, but not in Finland, social workers also had higher work disability risk than psychologists (RR 1.52; 95% confidence interval 1.28-1.81). In Sweden, in the final model special education teachers had a 9% higher probability RTW than social workers. In Sweden, in the final model the risks for work disability with depression diagnoses and stress-related disorder diagnoses were similar to the risk with all mental diagnoses (RR 1.40-1.77), and the probability of RTW was 6% higher in

  5. Enhancing the Ethical Conduct of HIV Research with Migrant Sex Workers: Human Rights, Policy, and Social Contextual Influences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira M Goldenberg

    Full Text Available Migrant sex workers are often highly marginalized and disproportionately experience health and social inequities, including high prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and human rights violations. In recent years, research involving migrant sex workers has increased, yet many knowledge gaps remain regarding how best to protect research participant rights and welfare. Our objective was to identify key challenges and opportunities related to the responsible conduct of HIV research with migrant sex workers.Focus groups and interviews conducted with 33 female sex workers ≥18 years old at the Guatemala-Mexico border from June 2013-February 2014 were analyzed. Participants were recruited through community outreach by a local HIV prevention organization to sex work establishments such as bars, hotels, street corners, and truck stops.Key themes influencing research engagement for migrant sex workers included researcher mistrust and fear related to research participation, rooted in the social isolation frequently faced by recent migrants; intersecting concerns related to immigration status, fear of criminalization, and compliance with sex work regulations; and perceived benefits and risks of HIV/STI testing for migrants (e.g., immigration implications, stigma represent potential barriers and opportunities for the responsible conduct of research involving migrant sex workers.Results highlight the intersection between the human rights vulnerabilities of migrant sex workers and barriers to research participation, including social isolation of migrants and policy/legal barriers related to immigration and sex work. Findings illustrate the need for researchers to develop population-tailored procedures to address fears related to immigration and criminalization, and to reinforce positive and non-stigmatizing relationships with migrant sex workers. Community-led efforts to reduce stigma and foster community organization and supports for migrant

  6. Enhancing the Ethical Conduct of HIV Research with Migrant Sex Workers: Human Rights, Policy, and Social Contextual Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Jimenez, Teresita Rocha; Miranda, Sonia Morales; Mindt, Monica Rivera

    2016-01-01

    Background Migrant sex workers are often highly marginalized and disproportionately experience health and social inequities, including high prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and human rights violations. In recent years, research involving migrant sex workers has increased, yet many knowledge gaps remain regarding how best to protect research participant rights and welfare. Our objective was to identify key challenges and opportunities related to the responsible conduct of HIV research with migrant sex workers. Methods Focus groups and interviews conducted with 33 female sex workers ≥18 years old at the Guatemala-Mexico border from June 2013–February 2014 were analyzed. Participants were recruited through community outreach by a local HIV prevention organization to sex work establishments such as bars, hotels, street corners, and truck stops. Results Key themes influencing research engagement for migrant sex workers included researcher mistrust and fear related to research participation, rooted in the social isolation frequently faced by recent migrants; intersecting concerns related to immigration status, fear of criminalization, and compliance with sex work regulations; and perceived benefits and risks of HIV/STI testing for migrants (e.g., immigration implications, stigma) represent potential barriers and opportunities for the responsible conduct of research involving migrant sex workers. Conclusions Results highlight the intersection between the human rights vulnerabilities of migrant sex workers and barriers to research participation, including social isolation of migrants and policy/legal barriers related to immigration and sex work. Findings illustrate the need for researchers to develop population-tailored procedures to address fears related to immigration and criminalization, and to reinforce positive and non-stigmatizing relationships with migrant sex workers. Community-led efforts to reduce stigma and foster community organization

  7. Enhancing the Ethical Conduct of HIV Research with Migrant Sex Workers: Human Rights, Policy, and Social Contextual Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Shira M; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Jimenez, Teresita Rocha; Miranda, Sonia Morales; Mindt, Monica Rivera

    2016-01-01

    Migrant sex workers are often highly marginalized and disproportionately experience health and social inequities, including high prevalence of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and human rights violations. In recent years, research involving migrant sex workers has increased, yet many knowledge gaps remain regarding how best to protect research participant rights and welfare. Our objective was to identify key challenges and opportunities related to the responsible conduct of HIV research with migrant sex workers. Focus groups and interviews conducted with 33 female sex workers ≥18 years old at the Guatemala-Mexico border from June 2013-February 2014 were analyzed. Participants were recruited through community outreach by a local HIV prevention organization to sex work establishments such as bars, hotels, street corners, and truck stops. Key themes influencing research engagement for migrant sex workers included researcher mistrust and fear related to research participation, rooted in the social isolation frequently faced by recent migrants; intersecting concerns related to immigration status, fear of criminalization, and compliance with sex work regulations; and perceived benefits and risks of HIV/STI testing for migrants (e.g., immigration implications, stigma) represent potential barriers and opportunities for the responsible conduct of research involving migrant sex workers. Results highlight the intersection between the human rights vulnerabilities of migrant sex workers and barriers to research participation, including social isolation of migrants and policy/legal barriers related to immigration and sex work. Findings illustrate the need for researchers to develop population-tailored procedures to address fears related to immigration and criminalization, and to reinforce positive and non-stigmatizing relationships with migrant sex workers. Community-led efforts to reduce stigma and foster community organization and supports for migrant sex workers are

  8. Listening to the rural health workers in Papua New Guinea - the social factors that influence their motivation to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razee, Husna; Whittaker, Maxine; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Yap, Lorraine; Brentnall, Lee

    2012-09-01

    Despite rural health services being situated and integrated within communities in which people work and live, the complex interaction of the social environment on health worker motivation and performance in Low Middle Income Countries has been neglected in research. In this article we investigate how social factors impact on health worker motivation and performance in rural health services in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted with 33 health workers from three provinces (Central, Madang, and Milne Bay) in PNG between August and November 2009. They included health extension officers, community health workers and nursing officers, some of whom were in charge of the health centres. The health centres were a selection across church based, government and private enterprise health facilities. Qualitative analysis identified the key social factors impacting on health worker motivation and performance to be the local community context, gender roles and family related issues, safety and security and health beliefs and attitudes of patients and community members. Our study identified the importance of strong supportive communities on health worker motivation. These findings have implications for developing sustainable strategies for motivation and performance enhancement of rural health workers in resource poor settings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Social security status and mortality in Belgian and Spanish male workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Xavier; Vanroelen, Christophe; Deboosere, Patrick; Benavides, Fernando G

    2016-01-01

    To assess differences in mortality rates between social security statuses in two independent samples of Belgian and Spanish male workers. Study of two retrospective cohorts (Belgium, n=23,607; Spain, n=44,385) of 50-60 year old male employees with 4 years of follow-up. Mortality rate ratios (MRR) were estimated using Poisson regression models. Mortality for subjects with permanent disability was higher than for the employed, for both Belgium [MRR=4.56 (95% CI: 2.88-7.21)] and Spain [MRR=7.15 (95% CI: 5.37-9.51)]. For the unemployed/early retirees, mortality was higher in Spain [MRR=1.64 (95% CI: 1.24-2.17)] than in Belgium [MRR=0.88 (95% CI: 0.46-1.71)]. MRR differences between Belgium and Spain for unemployed workers could be partly explained because of differences between the two social security systems. Future studies should further explore mortality differences between countries with different social security systems. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Mosaicism may explain the evolution of social characters in haplodiploid Hymenoptera with female workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morpurgo, Giorgio; Babudri, Nora; Fioretti, Bernard; Catacuzzeno, Luigi

    2010-12-01

    The role of haplodiploidy in the evolution of eusocial insects and why in Hymenoptera males do not perform any work is presently unknown. We show here that within-colony conflict caused by the coexistence of individuals of the same caste expressing the same character in different ways can be fundamental in the evolution of social characters in species that have already reached the eusocial condition. Mosaic colonies, composed by individuals expressing either the wild-type or a mutant phenotype, inevitably occurs during the evolution of advantageous social traits in insects. We simulated the evolution of an advantageous social trait increasing colony fitness in haplodiploid and diplodiploid species considering all possible conditions, i.e. dominance/recessivity of the allele determining the new social character, sex of the castes, and influence of mosaicism on the colony fitness. When mosaicism lowered colony fitness below that of the colony homogeneous for the wild type allele, the fixation of an advantageous social character was possible only in haplodiploids with female castes. When mosaicism caused smaller reductions in colony fitness, reaching frequencies of 90% was much faster in haplodiploids with female castes and dominant mutations. Our results suggest that the evolution of social characters is easier in haplodiploid than in diplodiploid species, provided that workers are females.

  11. Psicologia social comunitária profissional Community social psychology and professional preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Beatriz Kochenborger Scarparo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente texto aborda questões relativas à construção da psicologia social comunitária no Brasil e as interfaces deste processo histórico com a formação profissional. Para tanto, apóia-se em dados sobre o contexto histórico e social brasileiro no decorrer da efetivação das práticas psicológicas em comunidades. Finalmente, o estudo propõe reflexões quanto ao descompasso entre a formação e os fenômenos sociais contemporâneos.The following paper approaches issues related to the Community Social Psychology's construction in Brazil and the interactions of this historical process with the professional preparation. For this purpose, the Brazilian historical and social context is taken into consideration in order to reach effective psychological practices in communities. In addition, it associates Community Social Psychology's characteristics with the professional preparation and the Psychology's construction. Finally, this paper considers reflections about the professional preparation and contemporaries social phenomena.

  12. Corporate culture and employment of people with disabilities: role of social workers and service provider organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Deepti; Soffer, Michal; Hernandez, Brigida; Adya, Meera; Akinpelu, Omolara; Levy, Joel M; Repoli, Elizabeth; Kramer, Michael; Blanck, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Corporate culture reflects an organization's value system and impacts the recruitment, retention, and promotion of employees. Individuals with disabilities are positively impacted by a corporate culture that espouses and establishes a diverse workforce as a priority. This article provides an overview of corporate culture and the employment of individuals with disabilities, and presents a case example of the corporate culture of a large not-for-profit disability service organization. With an in-depth understanding of corporate culture and disability issues, social workers can be particularly helpful to applicants and employees with disabilities as well as employers.

  13. 20 CFR 404.1402 - When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... When are railroad industry services by a non-vested worker covered under Social Security? If you are a... industry to be “employment” as defined in section 210 of the Social Security Act for the following purposes... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When are railroad industry services by a non...

  14. Social Workers' Roles in Facilitating the Collective Involvement of Low-Income, Culturally Diverse Parents in an Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alameda-Lawson, Tania; Lawson, Michael A.; Lawson, Hal A.

    2010-01-01

    Social workers have pivotal roles to play in facilitating collective parent involvement in economically poor school communities. Using a community-based, participatory, and empowerment-oriented approach to social work practice and research, this study provides empirical support for this claim. It examines the narratives of 17 economically poor…

  15. A Leadership Opportunity for School Social Workers: Bridging the Gaps in School Reentry for Juvenile Justice System Youths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldkind, Lauri

    2011-01-01

    Social work is frequently missing when policy and practice conversations turn to juvenile justice system youths. However, school social workers are well positioned to have a vital role in the readmission and reentry process for these young people. Formerly incarcerated youths present unique challenges for themselves, their families, and…

  16. Broadly Trained but Narrowly Used? Factors That Predict the Performance of Environmental versus Individual Tasks by School Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupper, David R.; Rocha, Cynthia; Jackson, Rebecca F.; Lodato, Gayle A.

    2014-01-01

    National and state surveys over the past several decades have concluded that school social workers, despite an awareness of and training in macro level practice strategies, are highly individualistic in their practice focus. Although clinical skills are necessary, they are insufficient for effective school social work practice in the 21st century.…

  17. Do Social Workers Apply "Love Thy Neighbor as Thyself" to Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transpersons in the South?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon-Dearing, Robin; Delavega, Elena

    2016-09-01

    Across the United States there has been a spate of legislative bills and initiatives that blatantly stigmatize and discriminate against the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. This study was a cross-sectional, exploratory survey designed to measure the attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors of Tennessee social workers and future social workers toward the LGBT population and toward proposed discriminatory legislation. A 3-way factorial ANOVA investigated the effects of political affiliation, religious affiliation, and social contact on the dependent measures. Significant main effects were found. Self-reported political affiliation was found to be the most important factor predicting LGBT acceptance and LGBT respect among this sample.

  18. Factors associated with the recruitment and retention of social workers in Wales: employer and employee perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sherrill; Huxley, Peter

    2009-05-01

    Despite acute staffing shortages in social work, workforce planning within the UK social care sector is compromised by poor workforce intelligence. This study aimed to inform the evidence base providing new data on recruitment and retention in Wales, examining what personal and organizational characteristics are associated with intentions to leave, and what initiatives or incentives might mediate that effect. A multi-method design facilitated comparisons between two data sources--a census of all 22 Welsh local authority employers about recruitment and retention practices and a survey of all social workers and senior practitioners employed in social services (n = 998; response rate 45.9%) about demography, workforce characteristics, working patterns, morale and plans and reasons for leaving one's job. Vacancy (mean 14.4%) and turnover (mean 15%) rates were statistically significantly higher in children's services than in adult services; vacancy rates were also higher in authorities that offered higher starting salaries. The provision of certain types of traineeship might also be associated with higher vacancy rates but these results should be treated with some caution. There was little evidence that recruitment and retention initiatives were associated with lower vacancy or turnover rates, despite employers' perceptions about their effectiveness. Social workers derived a lot of satisfaction from their work, but more than a quarter wanted to leave their job within 6 months, and almost as many were actively seeking alternative employment. Intention to leave was explained by job and employer satisfaction, and negative feelings about pay. Senior practitioners and staff members with longer lengths of service were less likely to want to leave, even if they were dissatisfied with their job or employer. Job and employer dissatisfaction was associated with retention initiatives related to facilities, good caseload management and home-working, suggesting that dissatisfied

  19. Discursive practices of outsourced workers and social construction of exclusion identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria da Glória Pereira Brito

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8077.2012v14n32p77This article aims to investigate the identity construction of outsourced workers who provide services in diverse production environments. We assume that the individual or collective identity is socially constructed in a socio-historical context and it is subject to continuous transformations derived from the dialectical relationship between objectivity and subjectivity. We adopt an interpretative theoretical and methodological approach attempts to understand, through discourse analysis of thirteen semi-structured interviews, employees of a company providing services of quality control at Belo Horizonte construct their identity. We noticed several negative representations of the outsourced work and the presence of a strong desire to be part of the worker’s actual hiring company.They feel discriminated against and excluded by workers effective. Their relationship with these workers can be seen as effectivea force field in which each individual seeks to exercise political power and demarcate their space.

  20. Application of liquid-based cytology preparation in micronucleus assay of exfoliated buccal epithelial cells in road construction workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Arul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Asphalts are bitumens that consist of complex of hydrocarbon mixtures and it is used mainly in road construction and maintenance. Aim: This study was undertaken to evaluate the micronucleus (MN assay of exfoliated buccal epithelial cells in road construction workers using liquid-based cytology (LBC preparation. Materials and Methods: Three different stains (May–Grunwald Giemsa, hematoxylin and eosin, and Papanicolaou were used to evaluate the frequency of MN in exfoliated buccal epithelial of 100 participants (fifty road construction workers and fifty administrative staff using LBC preparation. Statistical analysis was performed with Student's t-test, and P< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean frequency of MN for cases was significantly higher than that of controls (P = 0.001 regardless of staining method used and also cases with exposure period of more than 5 years had statistically significant difference (P < 0.05 than cases with < 5 years of exposure. Conclusion: The present study concluded that workers exposed to asphalts during road construction exhibit a higher frequency of MN in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells and they are under the significant risk of cytogenetic damage. LBC preparation has potential application for the evaluation of frequency of MN. This technique may be advocated in those who are occupationally exposed to potentially carcinogenic agents in view of improvement in the smear quality and visualization of cell morphology.

  1. Social support and negative and positive outcomes of experienced traumatic events in a group of male emergency service workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogińska-Bulik, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigates the relationship between perceived social support in the workplace and both negative (post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms) and positive outcomes (post-traumatic growth) of experienced traumatic events in a group of male emergency service workers. Data of 116 workers representing emergency services (37.1% firefighters, 37.1%, police officers and 30% medical rescue workers) who have experienced a traumatic event in their worksite were analyzed. The range of age of the participants was 21-57 years (M=35.27; SD=8.13). Polish versions of the Impact of Event Scale--Revised and the Post-traumatic Growth Inventory were used to assess the negative and positive outcomes of the experienced event. A perceived social support scale was measured by the scale What support you can count on. The data obtained from the study revealed the negative dependence of social support from supervisors with PTSD symptoms and positive--social support from co-workers with post-traumatic growth. Moreover the results of the study indicate the positive relationship between negative and positive outcomes of experienced traumatic events in the workplace. Perceived social support plays a more important role in gaining benefits from trauma than preventing negative outcomes of the experienced traumatic event. Support from co-workers, compared to support from supervisors, has greater importance.

  2. Culturally-Attuned Mentoring for Graduating Latina/o Social Workers to Foster Career Advancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Rojas Schwan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The underrepresentation of Latinas/os in the social work profession, especially in higher levels of administration, has been amply documented. Successful Latina/o professionals can address the need for Latina/o leadership in the field by mentoring new graduates and supporting their development and career planning as they enter the professional world. This article presents an innovative mentoring program for Latina/o social work professionals conceptualized and led by the Latina/o Network of the Latina/o Network of the Connecticut chapter of the National Association of Social Workers (NASW. The program matches a Latina/o master’s in social work graduating student with a senior Latina/o social work professional. The model of the mentoring program incorporates a coordinator, a liaison to each mentor-mentee dyad, a mentor-mentee developmental relationship, and group gatherings. A key aspect of the model is the attention to and inclusion of Latino cultural values of familismo, personalismo, confianza, and colectivismo, to foster the development of a sense of community. Empirical and anecdotal data illustrate the outcomes of the program. The implementation of the program, the lessons learned, and its applicability to other professionals and cultural groups are discussed.

  3. Equipping Social Workers to Address Spirituality in Practice Settings: AModel Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Hodge

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available While there is growing interest in incorporating clients’ spiritual beliefs and values into social work practice, several studies have shown that social workers lack the necessary training to address spiritual issues in a culturally competent manner. This paper addresses this need by providing an annotated spirituality training course for use in various settings. Topics or domains covered in the curriculum include ethics and values, research and theory on spirituality, the nation’s spiritual demographics, the cultures of major spiritual traditions, value conflicts, spiritual interventions, assessment approaches, and the rights of spiritual believers. A number of potential assignments are offered,which are designed to promote practitioner self-awareness, respect for spiritual diversity, and an enhanced ability to assess and operationalize spiritual strengths to ameliorate problems in practice settings.

  4. Empowering school personnel for positive youth development: the case of Hong Kong school social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Siu-ming

    2009-01-01

    While empowerment has become a popular concept in working with adolescents, few attempts have been made to explore the possibilities for empowering school personnel to create an environment in which young people can make maximum use of the opportunity to learn and grow. Based on the field experiences of 15 Hong Kong school social workers, this article examines how practitioners use various strategies to interact with school personnel to generate empowering practices in the school setting: namely, (1) exerting influence on school personnel in daily conversations and interactions; (2) creating an environment conducive to the teacher-student relationship; (3) achieving consensus with school personnel through lobbying and negotiation; and (4) collaborating with school personnel to organize life education and positive youth development programs. The findings provide valuable reference materials to guide other practitioners in applying the empowerment approach in actual practice. It also helps fill the gap in existing literature on empowerment and school social work.

  5. Coping Styles and Social Support in Emergency Workers: Family as a Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia NOVARA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the job of people working in emergency situations is such that they may experience high levels of stress. The study analyses the relationship between social support and coping in 182 Emergency Service professionals of three professional categories operating in dangerous situations: military, frontier police and firemen. The research confirms the relationship between coping and social support, emphasising the importance of the family source. The results also confirm what has been reported in literature about the prevalence of situational coping for professionals working in emergency situations. In this area, such research may provide a base for developing stress management programs in emergencies and for protecting and reinforcing the wellness of emergency workers, who, in turn, are victims as well.

  6. Implementing a community-based social marketing project to improve agricultural worker health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flocks, J; Clarke, L; Albrecht, S; Bryant, C; Monaghan, P; Baker, H

    2001-06-01

    The Together for Agricultural Safety project is a community-based social marketing project working to reduce the adverse health effects of pesticide exposure among fernery and nursery workers in Florida. In 3 years, the collaboration between university and community researchers has embodied many of the principles of community-based research while completing multiple stages of formative data collection required for a social marketing project. This hybrid approach to developing a health intervention for a minority community has been successful in its early stages because the community partners are organized, empowered, and motivated to execute research activities with the assistance of academic partners. However, this work has also been labor intensive and costly. This article describes the lessons learned by project partners and considers the limitations of this approach for agricultural health research.

  7. Reentry Program and Social Work Education: Training the Next Generation of Criminal Justice Social Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Nancy D; Treglia, Dan; Cnaan, Ram A

    2017-09-13

    Social work plays a marginal role in opposing the trend of mass incarceration and high rates of recidivism, and social work education offers limited opportunities for students to specialize in working with people who are currently or were previously incarcerated. How to train students of social work to work against mass-incarceration is still challenging. The authors devised and implemented an in-school social service agency devoted to working with people pre and post release from a prison system. The agency is a field practicum setting where interested students study and practice reentry work. In this article, the authors describe and assess the educational merit of this in-school agency. Findings from surveys of students and alumni suggest that the program attained its educational goals of connecting classroom education to practice experience and training students for careers in the criminal justice system. The authors also discuss pending challenges. The experience of the Goldring Reentry Initiative suggests that by developing their own social work agencies, the authors may be able to heighten their students educational experience and expand their contribution to social work practice broadly.

  8. Developing Social Capital In ‘Learning Borderlands’: Has the Federal Government's budget delivered for low-paid Australian workers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maree Keating

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The 2011 Australian federal budget confirmed generous funding for language, literacy and numeracy programs as well as skills recognition and training for older workers as part of a strategy to upgrade workforce skills. In considering possible responses to the announcement, many Australian adult education theorists and practitioners weighed up the contexts in which such programs could build the resources and increase the options of vulnerable workers. One such group of workers, retrenched factory workers, have benefitted from participation in union-run, integrated post-retrenchment programs, which have incorporated access to language, literacy and numeracy as well as vocational education and training programs. Such programs can build on the existing social capital amongst close-knit groups of workers as they develop the confidence to transform their work identities. This article draws on results from a study with a group of retrenched textile workers who accessed broad-based post-retrenchment support and subsequently participated in a high number of vocational education and training (VET courses before finding ongoing employment. The study suggests that VET participation plays a limited role in broadening the employment opportunities for retrenched factory workers who move into low-paid occupations. Whilst VET participation alongside other factors supported entry into some occupations, it played no role in supporting most workers in their transitions into non-manufacturing jobs.

  9. Social Psychiatry in the Waiting Room: What a Physician Can Learn about Occupational Stress from Workers Waiting to Be Examined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Magnavita

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Work-related stress is a major problem for mental health. The occupational physician has the opportunity to gather information on the perception of stress from workers in the course of regular medical examinations. Method. 1,231 subjects, engaged in 6 different occupations, were invited to compile the Demand/Control/Support and the Effort/Reward/Imbalance questionnaires. Results. A specific profile of work-related stress emerged for each group of workers. Radiology physicians reported high control over work, but also exceedingly high demand and effort, high overcommitment, low social support, and low rewards from work. Health care workers were often overcommitted but had high levels of reward and social support. Low levels of social support and reward were recorded for mature workers, while special force policemen engaged in law enforcement during the G8 meeting had high levels of social support and regards, so that their resulting stress levels were closer to the reference group of employees in an insurance company with no front-office. Conclusion. The practice of administering questionnaires to groups of workers who are subject to medical surveillance is useful for monitoring mental health and well-being.

  10. Social Security for China’s Migrant Workers – Providing for Old Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Watson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “migrant workers” derives from the household registration system of China’s planned economy period. The continued existence of that system conflicts with the development of an integrated labour market. The current social security system, based on household registration and a large number of local pools, discriminates against migrant workers because of their mobility and the lack of mechanisms to transfer benefits between pools. As a result, migrants have made major contributions to China’s economic development but do not get the same benefits as urban residents. Faced with this challenge, China’s government has begun to introduce policy reforms to improve social security for migrants. This article explores this development through a focus on old-age insurance. It analyses the special needs of migrants, the obstacles facing policy development and the proposed solutions. It argues that social justice and social equity require the development of a system that treats all citizens equally, and that the logic of an integrated labour market will ultimately require a unified national system of old-age insurance.

  11. Preparing to caress: a neural signature of social bonding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Ramos Campagnoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is assumed that social bonds in humans have consequences for virtually all aspects of behavior. Social touch-based contact, particularly hand caressing, plays an important role in social bonding. Pre-programmed neural circuits likely support actions (or predispositions to act towards caressing contacts. We searched for pre-set motor substrates towards caressing by exposing volunteers to bonding cues and having them gently stroke a very soft cloth, a caress-like movement. The bonding cues were pictures with interacting dyads and the control pictures presented non-interacting dyads. We focused on the readiness potential, an electroencephalographic marker of motor preparation that precedes movement execution. The amplitude of the readiness potential preceding the grasping of pleasant emotional-laden stimuli was previously shown to be reduced compared with neutral ones. Fingers flexor electromyography measured action output. The rationale here is that stroking the soft cloth when previously exposed to bonding cues, a compatible context, would result in smaller amplitudes of readiness potentials, as compared to the context with no such cues. Exposure to the bonding pictures increased subjective feelings of sociability and decreased feelings of isolation. Participants who more frequently engage in mutual caress/groom a significant other in daily life initiated the motor preparation earlier, reinforcing the caress-like nature of the task. As hypothesized, readiness potentials preceding the caressing of the soft cloth were significantly reduced under exposure to bonding as compared to control pictures. Furthermore, an increased fingers flexor electromyographic activity was identified under exposure to the former as compared to the latter pictures. The facilitatory effects are likely due to the recruitment of pre-set cortical motor repertoires related to caress-like movements, emphasizing the distinctiveness of neural signatures for caress

  12. Higher brain centers for social tasks in worker ants, Camponotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Michiko; Watanabe, Hidehiro; Yokohari, Fumio

    2012-05-01

    Ants, eusocial insects, have highly elaborate chemical communication systems using a wide variety of pheromones. In the carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus, workers and queens have the female-specific basiconic sensilla on antennae. The antennal lobe, the primary processing center, in female carpenter ants contains about 480 glomeruli, which are divided into seven groups (T1–T7 glomeruli) based on sensory afferent tracts. The axons of sensory neurons in basiconic sensilla are thought to project to female-specific T6 glomeruli. Therefore, these sensilla and glomeruli are thought to relate to female-specific social tasks in the ants. By using dye filling into local neurons (LNs) and projection neurons (PNs) in the antennal lobe, we neuroanatomically revealed the existence of an isolated processing system for signals probably relating to social tasks in the worker ant. In the antennal lobe, two categories of glomeruli, T6 glomeruli and non-T6 glomeruli, are clearly segregated by LNs. Furthermore, axon terminals of uniglomerular PNs from the respective categories of glomeruli (T6 uni-PNs and non-T6 uni-PNs) are also segregated in the secondary olfactory centers, the calyces of the mushroom body and the lateral horn: T6 uni-PNs terminate in the outer layers of the basal ring and lip of mushroom body calyces and in the posterior region of the lateral horn, whereas non-T6 uni-PNs terminate in the middle and inner layers of the basal ring and lip and in the anterior region of the lateral horn. These findings suggest that information probably relating to social tasks might be isolated from other olfactory information and processed in a separate subsystem.

  13. Effects of immunostimulation on social behavior, chemical communication and genome-wide gene expression in honey bee workers (Apis mellifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Freddie-Jeanne

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social insects, such as honey bees, use molecular, physiological and behavioral responses to combat pathogens and parasites. The honey bee genome contains all of the canonical insect immune response pathways, and several studies have demonstrated that pathogens can activate expression of immune effectors. Honey bees also use behavioral responses, termed social immunity, to collectively defend their hives from pathogens and parasites. These responses include hygienic behavior (where workers remove diseased brood and allo-grooming (where workers remove ectoparasites from nestmates. We have previously demonstrated that immunostimulation causes changes in the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of workers, which results in altered worker-worker social interactions. Thus, cuticular hydrocarbons may enable workers to identify sick nestmates, and adjust their behavior in response. Here, we test the specificity of behavioral, chemical and genomic responses to immunostimulation by challenging workers with a panel of different immune stimulants (saline, Sephadex beads and Gram-negative bacteria E. coli. Results While only bacteria-injected bees elicited altered behavioral responses from healthy nestmates compared to controls, all treatments resulted in significant changes in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles. Immunostimulation caused significant changes in expression of hundreds of genes, the majority of which have not been identified as members of the canonical immune response pathways. Furthermore, several new candidate genes that may play a role in cuticular hydrocarbon biosynthesis were identified. Effects of immune challenge expression of several genes involved in immune response, cuticular hydrocarbon biosynthesis, and the Notch signaling pathway were confirmed using quantitative real-time PCR. Finally, we identified common genes regulated by pathogen challenge in honey bees and other insects. Conclusions These results demonstrate that

  14. Reproductive conflict in social insects: Male production by workers in a slave-making ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Elizabeth; Trindl, Andreas; Falk, Karl H.

    2005-01-01

    AbstractIn insect societies, workers cooperate but may also pursue their individual interests, such as laying viable male eggs. The case of obligatory slave-making ants is of particular interest because workers do not engage in maintenance activities and foraging. Therefore, worker egg laying...... by producing their own sons than workers in nonparasitic species. In this study we investigated worker reproduction in four natural colonies of the slave-making ant Polyergus rufescens, using highly variable microsatellite markers. Our results show that workers produce up to 100% of the males. This study thus...... presents the first direct evidence of an almost complete takeover of male reproduction by workers in ants....

  15. The role of autonomy and social support in the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havermans, Bo M; Boot, Cécile R L; Houtman, Irene L D; Brouwers, Evelien P M; Anema, Johannes R; van der Beek, Allard J

    2017-06-08

    Health care workers are exposed to psychosocial work factors. Autonomy and social support are psychosocial work factors that are related to stress, and are argued to largely result from the psychosocial safety climate within organisations. This study aimed to assess to what extent the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers can be explained by autonomy and social support. In a cross-sectional study, psychosocial safety climate, stress, autonomy, co-worker support, and supervisor support were assessed using questionnaires, in a sample of health care workers (N = 277). Linear mixed models analyses were performed to assess to what extent social support and autonomy explained the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress. A lower psychosocial safety climate score was associated with significantly higher stress (B = -0.21, 95% CI = -0.27 - -0.14). Neither co-worker support, supervisor support, nor autonomy explained the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress. Taken together, autonomy and both social support measures diminished the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress by 12% (full model: B = -0.18, 95% CI = -0.25 - -0.11). Autonomy and social support together seemed to bring about a small decrease in the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers. Future research should discern whether other psychosocial work factors explain a larger portion of this relation. This study was registered in the Netherlands National Trial Register, trial code: NTR5527 .

  16. Benefit adequacy among elderly Social Security retired-worker beneficiaries and the SSI federal benefit rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Kalman; Strand, Alexander; Davies, Paul; Sears, Jim

    2007-01-01

    of the FBR as a measure of benefit adequacy or the tradeoffs between potential target effectiveness and administrative simplicity. Based on a series of simulations, we assess the FBR as a potential foundation for minimum Social Security benefits and we examine the tradeoffs between administrative simplicity and target effectiveness using microdata from the 1996 panel of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Our empirical analysis is limited to Social Security retired-worker beneficiaries aged 65 or older. We start with the assessment of the FBR as a measure of benefit adequacy. We are particularly concerned about two types of error: (1) incorrectly identifying some Social Security beneficiaries as "economically vulnerable," and (2) incorrectly identifying others as "not economically vulnerable." Operationally we measure economic vulnerability by two alternative standards. One of our measures considers beneficiaries with family income below the official poverty threshold as vulnerable. Our second measure is more restrictive; it uses a family income threshold equal to 75 percent of the official poverty threshold. We find that a substantial minority of retired workers have Social Security benefits below the FBR. The results also show that the FBR-based measure of Social Security benefit adequacy is very imprecise in terms of identifying economically vulnerable people. We estimate that the vast majority of beneficiaries with Social Security benefits below the FBR are not economically vulnerable. Conversely, an FBR-level Social Security benefit threshold fails to identify some beneficiaries who are economically vulnerable. Thus an FBR-level minimum benefit would be poorly targeted in terms of both types of errors we are concerned about. An FBR-level minimum benefit would provide minimum Social Security benefits to many people who are clearly not poor. Conversely, an FBR-level minimum benefit would not provide any income relief to some who are poor. The

  17. Quantitative Neuropeptidome Analysis Reveals Neuropeptides Are Correlated with Social Behavior Regulation of the Honeybee Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bin; Fang, Yu; Feng, Mao; Hu, Han; Qi, Yuping; Huo, Xinmei; Meng, Lifeng; Wu, Bin; Li, Jianke

    2015-10-01

    Neuropeptides play vital roles in orchestrating neural communication and physiological modulation in organisms, acting as neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and neurohormones. The highly evolved social structure of honeybees is a good system for understanding how neuropeptides regulate social behaviors; however, much knowledge on neuropeptidomic variation in the age-related division of labor remains unknown. An in-depth comparison of the brain neuropeptidomic dynamics over four time points of age-related polyethism was performed on two strains of honeybees, the Italian bee (Apis mellifera ligustica, ITb) and the high royal jelly producing bee (RJb, selected for increasing royal jelly production for almost four decades from the ITb in China). Among the 158 identified nonredundant neuropeptides, 77 were previously unreported, significantly expanding the coverage of the honeybee neuropeptidome. The fact that 14 identical neuropeptide precursors changed their expression levels during the division of labor in both the ITb and RJb indicates they are highly related to task transition of honeybee workers. These observations further suggest the two lines of bees employ a similar neuropeptidome modification to tune their respective physiology of age polyethism via regulating excretory system, circadian clock system, and so forth. Noticeably, the enhanced level of neuropeptides implicated in regulating water homeostasis, brood pheromone recognition, foraging capacity, and pollen collection in RJb signify the fact that neuropeptides are also involved in the regulation of RJ secretion. These findings gain novel understanding of honeybee neuropeptidome correlated with social behavior regulation, which is potentially important in neurobiology for honeybees and other insects.

  18. Female genital mutilation/cutting: risk management and strategies for social workers and health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) is a traditional practice originating in Africa. Its worst forms cause irreparable harm to girls and women and have no medical justification. Based on a literature review of global responses to FGM/C and conversations with Australian women who migrated from FGM/C practicing countries, this paper provides some background on FGM/C and its epidemiology, outlining its prevalence, types, and health risks and complications for women and girls. It discusses risk-prevention strategies, first, for health practitioners in identifying, screening, and supporting women affected by FGM/C and, second, for welfare and social workers and health care professionals to identify, work with, and prevent girls from being cut. Consistent with international trends in addressing the risks of FGM/C, the paper suggests practice responses for coordinated responses between professionals, communities from practicing countries, and governments of different countries.

  19. Health as a context for social and gender activism: female volunteer health workers in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoodfar, Homa

    2010-01-01

    Having reversed its pronatalist policies in 1988, the Islamic Republic of Iran implemented one of the most successful family planning programs in the developing world. This achievement, particularly in urban centers, is largely attributable to a large women-led volunteer health worker program for low-income urban neighborhoods. Research in three cities demonstrates that this successful program has had a host of unintended consequences. In a context where citizen mobilization and activism are highly restricted, volunteers have seized this new state-sanctioned space and successfully negotiated many of the familial, cultural, and state restrictions on women. They have expanded their mandate from one focused on health activism into one of social, if not political, activism, highlighting the ways in which citizens blur the boundaries of state and civil society under restrictive political systems prevalent in many of the Middle Eastern societies.

  20. Preparing non-government organization workers to conduct health checks for people with serious mental illness in regional Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martin; Kruger, Mellissa; Walsh, Sandra M

    2016-06-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: People diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder have a life expectancy 10-15 years less than the general population. In rural and remote Australia, there is a shortage of health care professionals to provide physical health care for people living with a serious mental illness (SMI). A large proportion of the care for people living with a SMI is provided by non-government organizations (NGOs), often employing workers without formal qualifications. There has been minimal research regarding the experiences of NGO workers who have been trained to complete health checks to help people living with SMI to access primary care services. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This is the first study to examine the experiences of preparing NGO workers to use the health improvement profile (HIP) to support the physical health of people with SMI. It builds on previous studies that examined the use of the HIP by trained/qualified staff. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: This study highlights that NGO employees may have an important role in helping people with a SMI to address their physical health. Engaging lay workers to use the HIP increases their awareness of the importance of providing good physical health care for people with SMI. The use of a tool, such as the HIP, prepares NGO workers to support the physical health needs and enables them to describe meaningful improvements in the health of people with a SMI. Background The life expectancy of people living with a serious mental illness (SMI) is up to 10-15 years less than the general population. They experience difficulties in accessing timely and appropriate physical health care. People with SMI living in regional Australia experience additional barriers to accessing services. This is in part due to the difficulties associated with recruiting and retaining health professionals in regional Australia. Aim To explore the regional non-government organization (NGO

  1. Disability and sexuality as right to quality of life aspects view of social workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asta

    2015-12-01

    address the sexuality issues for people with mental disabilities view of social workers. Objectives of the study – describe the rights of mentally disabled individuals; address the concept of sexuality for people with mental disabilities; analyse social workers’ opinion about people with intellectual disabilities and sexuality. Social workers think that parents should assist any child – regardless of her/his abilities – to develop life skills. Societal discomfort – both with sexuality and also with the sexuality of people who live with disabilities – may mean that it is easier to view anyone who lives with disabilities as an ‘eternal child.’ This demeaning view ignores the need to acknowledge the young person’s sexuality and also denies her/his full humanity. The main problem thus is not the lack of sexual activity, but lack of sexual education. Without proper sex education, people with mental disabilities are at great risk to sexual exploitation, sexually transmitted diseases and unplanned pregnancy. Sex education must, therefore, encompass skills to prevent sex abuse and encouragement to report and seek treatment for unwanted sexual activity. Experts in the field agree that disabled individuals are entitled to a full sexual life. Sex education materials and programs do exist that are designed to meet the needs of people who live with physical, emotional, and mental disabilities. However, the conducted surveys revealed that social experts working in the field tend to avoid responsibilities and pass on the education related matters to the parents’ shoulders or suggest enrolling to sex education classes. Keywords: mental disability, sexuality, social workers.

  2. Social-Context Factors, Refusal Self-Efficacy, and Alcohol Use Among Female Sex Workers in China

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Excessive alcohol use is considered as a health risk behavior that may produce negative health outcomes. Examining predictors of alcohol use in a social or individual context can advance understanding of why people indulge in alcohol use. Our research on female sex workers (FSWs) examined associations among several social-context factors (alcohol use by family members, alcohol use by peers, and client-perpetrated pressure or violence), refusal self-efficacy, and alcohol use. Seven hundred FSW...

  3. School Social Workers in Texas: A Comparative Demographic Analysis of the Texas-Mexico Border and Non-Border Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Cecilia; Landeck, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the role of school social workers as potential agents of change in the educational system, with a special focus on their major demographic characteristics in Texas and along the Mexico border region. The border region of the state has chronic poverty and limited educational attainment levels and demonstrates a need for…

  4. Children at Risk from Domestic Violence and Their Educational Attainment: Perspectives of Education Welfare Officers, Social Workers and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Dorothy; Taylor, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Children who witness domestic violence may have impaired educational attainment as well as facing other challenges such as struggles with self-esteem and forming relationships. This qualitative study set in Northern Ireland explored the perceptions of Education Welfare Officers, child protection social workers and teachers in post-primary schools…

  5. The role of autonomy and social support in the relation between psychosocial safety climate and stress in health care workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans, H.; Boot, C.R.L.; Houtman, I.L.D.; Brouwers, E.P.M.; Anema, J.R.; Beek, A.J. van der

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health care workers are exposed to psychosocial work factors. Autonomy and social support are psychosocial work factors that are related to stress, and are argued to largely result from the psychosocial safety climate within organisations. This study aimed to assess to what extent the re

  6. What adult worker model? A critical look at recent social policy reform in Europe from a gender and family perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Analyses regularly feature claims that European welfare states are in the process of creating an adult worker model. The theoretical and empirical basis of this argument is examined here by looking first at the conceptual foundations of the adult worker model formulation and then at the extent to which social policy reform in western Europe fits with the argument. It is suggested that the adult worker formulation is under-specified. A framework incorporating four dimensions—the treatment of individuals vis-à-vis their family role and status for the purposes of social rights, the treatment of care, the treatment of the family as a social institution, and the extent to which gender inequality is problematized—is developed and then applied. The empirical analysis reveals a strong move towards individualization as social policy promotes and valorizes individual agency and self-sufficiency and shifts some childcare from the family. Yet evidence is also found of continued (albeit changed) familism. Rather than an unequivocal move to an individualized worker model then, a dual earner, gender-specialized, family arrangement is being promoted. The latter is the middle way between the old dependencies and the new “independence.” This makes for complexity and even ambiguity in policy, a manifestation of which is that reform within countries involves concurrent moves in several directions.

  7. School Social Workers in Texas: A Comparative Demographic Analysis of the Texas-Mexico Border and Non-Border Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Cecilia; Landeck, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the role of school social workers as potential agents of change in the educational system, with a special focus on their major demographic characteristics in Texas and along the Mexico border region. The border region of the state has chronic poverty and limited educational attainment levels and demonstrates a need for…

  8. Available Supports and Coping Behaviors of Mental Health Social Workers Following Fatal and Nonfatal Client Suicidal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Laura; Jacobson, Jodi M.; Sanders, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Research indicates that mental health social workers risk being confronted with fatal and nonfatal client suicidal behaviors during professional practice. Although reactions to client suicidal behavior have been documented, there is little empirical evidence about coping behaviors and available supports following client suicidal behavior. This…

  9. Professional Preparation of Students of Social Pedagogy in the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martincová, Jana; Andrysová, Pavla

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the professional preparation of future teachers of social pedagogy (social educators) in the context of current tasks which the social pedagogy in the Czech Republic still has. Based on the results of the research which aims to present the professional characteristics of students of social pedagogy, we propose an innovation of…

  10. Survivorship and Inheritance Rights for Same-Gender Couples: Relevance to Social Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Cordero

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Californians voted in November 2008 to ban the right to same-gender marriage in California. This paper summarizes data on changes in societal attitudes relative to homosexuals, same-gender couples, and their civil rights as reflected in Gallup and Princeton Survey Research Associates International poll data over the years through 2011. These findings report deeply entrenched and enduring divisions in American attitudes toward the rights and status of same-gender couples. Although historically a majority of Americans has consistently opposed same-gender marriage, Americans increasingly recognize the need to extend equality to same-gender couples in the form of employment rights, inheritance rights, Social Security, and health insurance benefits. This article explores existing and proposed policies regarding the rights of same-gender couples. In addition, it examines the implications and opportunities for advocacy by social workers who face the challenge of navigating the legal and personal obstacles that arise when their client’s same-gender relationships are not sanctioned by law.

  11. Female genital mutilation/cutting: risk management and strategies for social workers and health care professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costello S

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Susan Costello School of Global, Urban and Social Studies, RMIT University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C is a traditional practice originating in Africa. Its worst forms cause irreparable harm to girls and women and have no medical justification. Based on a literature review of global responses to FGM/C and conversations with Australian women who migrated from FGM/C practicing countries, this paper provides some background on FGM/C and its epidemiology, outlining its prevalence, types, and health risks and complications for women and girls. It discusses risk-prevention strategies, first, for health practitioners in identifying, screening, and supporting women affected by FGM/C and, second, for welfare and social workers and health care professionals to identify, work with, and prevent girls from being cut. Consistent with international trends in addressing the risks of FGM/C, the paper suggests practice responses for coordinated responses between professionals, communities from practicing countries, and governments of different countries. Keywords: female genital mutilation, female genital cutting, female circumcision, child protection, risk management 

  12. Social-cognitive determinants of hoist usage among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickett, Bridgette; Orbell, Sheina; Sheeran, Paschal

    2006-04-01

    Injuries caused by unsafe manual handling of patients are a major source of ill health in health care workers. The present study evaluated the ability of 4 classes of variable to predict use of a hoist when moving a heavily dependent patient. Variables examined were occupational role characteristics, such as hours of work and type of shift worked; biographics, including age and height; aspects of occupational context, such as number of hoists available and number of patients; and motivational variables specified by the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1985) and protection motivation theory (Rogers, 1983). Regression analyses showed that background and social-cognitive variables were able to account for 59% of variance in intention to use a hoist and 41% of variance in use of the hoist assessed 6 weeks later. Height, hoist availability, coworker injunctive norm, perceived behavioral control, response cost, response benefits, and social and physical costs of not using the hoist each explained independent variance in motivation to use a hoist at work. (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Environmental contamination, product contamination and workers exposure using a robotic system for antineoplastic drug preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessink, Paul J M; Leclercq, Gisèle M; Wouters, Dominique-Marie; Halbardier, Loïc; Hammad, Chaïma; Kassoul, Nassima

    2015-04-01

    Environmental contamination, product contamination and technicians exposure were measured following preparation of iv bags with cyclophosphamide using the robotic system CytoCare. Wipe samples were taken inside CytoCare, in the clean room environment, from vials, and prepared iv bags including ports and analysed for contamination with cyclophosphamide. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was also measured in environmental air and on the technicians hands and gloves used for handling the drugs. Exposure of the technicians to cyclophosphamide was measured by analysis of cyclophosphamide in urine. Contamination with cyclophosphamide was mainly observed inside CytoCare, before preparation, after preparation and after daily routine cleaning. Contamination outside CytoCare was incidentally found. All vials with reconstituted cyclophosphamide entering CytoCare were contaminated on the outside but vials with powdered cyclophosphamide were not contaminated on the outside. Contaminated bags entering CytoCare were also contaminated after preparation but non-contaminated bags were not contaminated after preparation. Cyclophosphamide was detected on the ports of all prepared bags. Almost all outer pairs of gloves used for preparation and daily routine cleaning were contaminated with cyclophosphamide. Cyclophosphamide was not found on the inner pairs of gloves and on the hands of the technicians. Cyclophosphamide was not detected in the stationary and personal air samples and in the urine samples of the technicians. CytoCare enables the preparation of cyclophosphamide with low levels of environmental contamination and product contamination and no measurable exposure of the technicians.

  14. Associations of self-efficacy, social support, and knowledge with fruit and vegetable consumption in Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, Osamu; Iriyama, Yae; Murayama, Nobuko; Saito, Toshiko; Yoshita, Katsushi

    Previous studies have suggested that self-efficacy, social support, and knowledge are primary psychosocial predictors of dietary behavior in adults. The present study aimed to investigate the associations of self-efficacy, social support, and knowledge with fruit and vegetable consumption in Japanese workers. From September to November 2014, a self-administered questionnaire was completed by Japanese workers at 8 workplaces in Niigata, Japan. Self-efficacy and social support for fruit and vegetable consumption were measured using a 3-item Likert scale across particular situations. Knowledge was measured using a single item about the recommended guidelines for fruit and vegetable consumption in Japan. Fruit and vegetable consumption was assessed using a validated, brief-type self-administered diet history questionnaire. Of the 457 respondents, 395 participants' data were analyzed. Scores in self-efficacy and social support showed a significant and positive association with fruit (p<0.001, p=0.002) and vegetable consumption (p=0.001, p=0.015). Knowledge was significantly and positively associated with vegetable consumption (p=0.015) but did not statistically differ in fruit consumption (p=0.645). The findings of this study suggest that selfefficacy and social support are positively associated with fruit and vegetable consumption in Japanese workers.

  15. Person-organization fit as a mediator of relationship between work environment and stress among social workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Waszkowska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational stress of social workers is associated with various psychosocial hazards in the work environment. Some of them affect person-organization fit (P-O fit. The aim of the study was to verify a hypothesis on the mediating role of P-O fit in the relationship between work environment and stress. Material and Methods: The research was based on a sample of 500 social workers directly involved in social work. The data were obtained using the Person-Organization Fit Questionnaire by Czarnota-Bojarska, the Work Environment Questionnaire developed by the Department of Occupational Psychology, Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Łódź, and the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10 by Cohen et al. Results: As revealed by the regression analysis of the 4 analyzed work environment factors, only organizational politics was significantly related with perceived stress. Complementary and supplementary dimensions of P-O fit and identification with organization were the mediators of the relationship between organizational policies and stress, but only complementary fit proved to be a total mediator. Conclusions: The results of the study suggest that person-organization fit, especially its complementary aspect, is an essential determinant of accomplishing the core functions of social work and good practice among social workers. Med Pr 2014;65(2:219–228

  16. What their terms of living and dying might be: hospice social workers discuss Oregon's Death with Dignity Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Elizabeth M; Miller, Pamela J

    2012-01-01

    This article presents data from a qualitative study of nine social work hospice practitioners and experts as they discuss Oregon's Death with Dignity Act. Three themes emerged from the analysis: (a) values regarding physician-assisted death; (b) agency policies about the option; and (c) the role of hospice social workers with physician-assisted death. Three states now allow terminally ill persons to obtain a lethal prescription if criteria are met. Two other states are actively considering and may pass similar legislation over time. Hospice social work practitioners work with patients and families as they consider this option and their voices reflect the complexities and nuances of these interactions.

  17. Finding what works: Predicting health or social service linkage in drug using, African American, female sex workers in Miami, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi-Minzi, Maria A; Surratt, Hilary L; O'Grady, Catherine L; Kurtz, Steven P

    2016-07-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) encounter numerous challenges in accessing health and social services. In this study of drug using, African American FSWs, the authors examine specific factors associated with health or social service linkage among participants in a randomized intervention trial. Respondent linkage was significantly associated with individual factors (living alone, severe internal mental distress, and traumatic victimization) and project-related variables (attending five case management sessions and client engagement rating). In the multivariate model, higher client engagement and session attendance remained significant. The researchers conclude by discussing the importance of intervention attendance and engagement as key contributors to health and social service linkage among FSWs.

  18. Gender and social geography: impact on Lady Health Workers mobility in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Zubia

    2012-10-16

    In Pakistan, where gendered norms restrict women's mobility, female community health workers (CHWs) provide doorstep primary health services to home-bound women. The program has not achieved optimal functioning. One reason, I argue, may be that the CHWs are unable to make home visits because they have to operate within the same gender system that necessitated their appointment in the first place. Ethnographic research shows that women's mobility in Pakistan is determined not so much by physical geography as by social geography (the analysis of social phenomena in space). Irrespective of physical location, the presence of biradaria members (extended family) creates a socially acceptable 'inside space' to which women are limited. The presence of a non-biradari person, especially a man, transforms any space into an 'outside space', forbidden space. This study aims to understand how these cultural norms affect CHWs' home-visit rates and the quality of services delivered. Data will be collected in district Attock, Punjab. Twenty randomly selected CHWs will first be interviewed to explore their experiences of delivering doorstep services in the context of gendered norms that promote women's seclusion. Each CHW will be requested to draw a map of her catchment area using social mapping techniques. These maps will be used to survey women of reproductive age to assess variations in the CHW's home visitation rates and quality of family planning services provided. A sample size of 760 households (38 per CHW) is estimated to have the power to detect, with 95% confidence, households the CHWs do not visit. To explore the role of the larger community in shaping the CHWs mobility experiences, 25 community members will be interviewed and five CHWs observed as they conduct their home visits. The survey data will be merged with the maps to demonstrate if any disjunctures exist between CHWs' social geography and physical geography. Furthermore, the impacts these geographies have on

  19. Process assessment of a peer education programme for HIV prevention among sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh : a social support framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafian, Isabelle

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluated the process of a peer education program for hotel-based sex workers in Dhaka, Bangladesh, with social support proposed as an organizing framework. Programme outcomes were examined through baseline and follow-up assessments. Sex workers naïve to peer education were assessed on socio-cognitive and behavioural variables; a subsample was reassessed at follow-up 23 weeks later on average. Process was assessed in terms of the content of peer education sessions. These sessions were recorded and coded into percentages of social support types provided by the peer educator to her audience: informational, instrumental, appraisal, emotional, companionship, non-support. Peer educators were classified into three "social support profiles" based on average proportions of emotional and informational support they provided. Seeing more peer educators with a high informational support profile was related to higher sex worker self-efficacy, self-reported STI symptoms, and self-reported condom use at follow-up; the same was true for the high emotional support profile and treatment seeking. Social support constituted a useful framework, but needs further exploration. This study provided a direct, in-depth examination of the process of peer education based on a comprehensive theoretical framework. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The perceptions of the personal and professional factors influencing social workers in Saudi hospitals: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalli, Nadir; Albrithen, Abdulaziz

    2011-01-01

    The perceptions of 10 social workers regarding the personal and professional characteristics influencing their practice at Saudi hospitals were examined using semi-structured interviews. A qualitative analysis employing a thematic approach informed by grounded theory was undertaken and produced three broad interrelated themes: "skills upgrading," "departmental support," and "personal experience in the workplace," which subsequently informed the development of the overarching theme of "personal and professional factors." The discussion illustrates social work practitioners are inhibited from effectively performing their roles. These include: (a) Deficiencies related to job training and professional skills updating where there is a lack of efficient and accessible inservice training programs, especially in relation to practical issues. Further, these perceptions relate to a lack of long-term educational opportunities that impact on individual practitioner's currency of skills, techniques and pedagogy enabling/disenabling him/her to excel at his/her job, (b) Obvious bureaucracy within the controlling hierarchy and difficulty with the dissemination of information between the social workers were perceived to detrimentally impact on a practitioner's ability to attend to one's work demands, and (c) Personal day to day work experiences, including counterproductive emotional feelings (high stress), increased dissatisfaction with the job, and ineffective communication within the workplace were seen as limiting the social workers' professional potential. This article will focus on how these themes were addressed in terms of qualitative interview data.

  1. The Role of Health Care Professionals in Breaking Bad News about Death: the Perspectives of Doctors, Nurses and Social Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Rassin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The way a death is notified to family members has a long-term effect on their coping with their loss. The words caregivers use and the sentiments they express can stay with their hearers for the rest of theirlife. Aims: To study the views of three caregivers groups—doctors, nurses and social workers—as to their role in breaking a death news in an ED.Methods: One hundred and fifteen health care professionals participated in the research (51 nurses, 38 doctors and 26 social workers. They completed a 72-item questionnaire comprising behaviour descriptions, attitudes and statements. Content validation of the questionnaire was conducted by the help of experts group, and the internal reliability, measures in all its parts was 0.78 on average (α = 0.78.Results: Doctors gave a higher score than the other groups to their responsibility for breaking bad news (p<0.005 and to the content of the information they provide. Social workers scored the mental support given the family significantly higher than doctors and nurses did (p<0.000. Nurses scored the instrumental support given(tissues, water to drink significantly higher than doctors and social workers (p<0.000. Breaking bad news caused social workers more mental distress than it did either doctors or nurses. All three groups gave a high score to the emotional exhaustion, sadness and identification this task caused them. Nurses felt more fear at theprospect of a notifying a death and made more effort to escape the task.Conclusions: The findings of the study will help develop performance guidelines for notifying a death and provide input for simulation and other training workshops.

  2. Organizations and social worker wellbeing: the intra-organizational context of practice and its impact on a practitioner's subjective well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shier, Micheal L; Graham, John R

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to better understand the varied factors that contribute to social worker subjective well-being (SWB) (the social science concept for happiness). Using qualitative methods of inquiry 19 social workers who reported having low to medium levels of workplace and profession satisfaction were interviewed to assess those factors within their lives that they perceived as impacting their well-being. One thematic category from the analysis was aspects of the intraorganizational context of workplaces that can impact social worker SWB. Respondents identified interpersonal workplace relationships, decision-making processes, management/supervisory dynamics, workload and workplace expectations, access to resources and infrastructure support, and inter-organizational relationships as key intra-organizational factors contributing to their overall wellbeing. In conclusion, these findings have practical application within organizations for structured policies and unstructured practices to improve social worker subjective well-being.

  3. Engineering as a Social Activity: Preparing Engineers to Thrive in the Changing World of Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Fredricka F.; Mann, Derek T. Y.; Harris, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Key macro-trends are combining to create a new work context for the practice of engineering. Telecommuting and virtual teams create myriad possibilities and challenges related to managing work and workers. Social network technology tools allow for unprecedented global, 24/7 collaboration. Globalization has created hyper-diverse organizations,…

  4. How French media have portrayed ADHD to the lay public and to social workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnou, Sébastien; Gonon, François

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Two models of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) coexist: the biomedical and the psychosocial. We identified in nine French newspapers 159 articles giving facts and opinions about ADHD from 1995 to 2015. We classified them according to the model they mainly supported and on the basis of what argument. Two thirds (104/159) mainly supported the biomedical model. The others either defended the psychodynamic understanding of ADHD or voiced both models. Neurological dysfunctions and genetic risk factors were mentioned in support of the biomedical model in only 26 and eight articles, respectively. These biological arguments were less frequent in the most recent years. There were fewer articles mentioning medication other than asserting that medication must be combined with psychosocial interventions (14 versus 57 articles). Only 11/159 articles claimed that medication protects from school failure. These results were compared to those of our two previous studies. Thus, both French newspapers and the specialized press read by social workers mainly defended either the psychodynamic understanding of ADHD or a nuanced version of the biomedical model. In contrast, most French TV programmes described ADHD as an inherited neurological disease whose consequences on school failure can be counteracted by a very effective medication. PMID:28532330

  5. Social and behavioural determinants of consistent condom use among hotel and bar workers in Northern Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, T; Sam, N; Manongi, R; Seage, G; Kapiga, S

    2003-10-01

    Bar and hotel workers (n=519) in Moshi, Tanzania were interviewed to obtain information about potential predictors of condom use. Samples were collected for the diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV. Consistent condom use was defined as always using condoms with sexual partners in the past five years. Overall consistent condom use in this population was 14.1%. In multivariate analyses, consistent condom use was inversely associated with low condom self-efficacy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.20; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.06-0.71), low condom knowledge (AOR, 0.11; CI, 0.01-0.80), and having more than three children (AOR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.09-0.54). Other significant predictors included perceived condom acceptability and using condoms when last exchanged sex for money or gift. These results indicate that increased specific condom knowledge, improved self-efficacy, and reduced social stigma could be effective strategies in the promotion of condom use in this population.

  6. Citizenship as practice: Handling communication problems in encounters between persons with dementia and social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jh, Österholm; L-C, Hydén

    2016-11-01

    The overall aim of the study was to investigate if and how persons with dementia were able to take part in negotiations for formal support, as cases of citizenship as practice The transcripts used for analysis were from 11 assessment meetings conducted in Sweden, in which the formal applicant was a person with dementia. The findings suggest that the actual participation of persons with dementia in assessment meetings varies. Communication problems were found in the meetings to different degrees and were dealt with differently and with various consequences. For those persons with dementia contributing at the same levels as the other participants, there was an attempt at mutual understanding. For those making fewer contributions, the other interlocutors took over the initiative and thus affected the practice of citizenship by persons with dementia in a negative way. The practice of citizenship is situation based and varies depending on all participants. When the person with dementia is able to participate in the conversation, social workers can facilitate for them to overcome communication problems by giving them more time and signaling acceptance. If the person with dementia has great problems in participating, the other participants can find different strategies to at least involve her or him in the conversation.

  7. Social Insurance and Truncated Benefits: Measuring the Impacts of Workers' Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Samuel K.

    2012-01-01

    This study addresses the indirect impacts of state-mandated workers' compensation benefits on workers' wages. The benefit structure of workers' compensation causes a fundamental estimation problem. I develop a new strategy to limit the biases inherent in earlier models. I utilize individual-level census data (between 1940 and 1990) to exploit benefit variation that occurs both across states and within the fifty states over time. The results suggest that wage offsets are not constant across ti...

  8. Willingness to pay for social health insurance among informal sector workers in Wuhan, China: a contingent valuation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xinping

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of the about 140 million informal sector workers in urban China do not have health insurance. A 1998 central government policy leaves it to the discretion of municipal governments to offer informal sector workers in cities voluntary participation in a social health insurance for formal sector workers, the so-called 'basic health insurance' (BHI. Methods We used the contingent valuation method to assess the maximum willingness to pay (WTP for BHI among informal sector workers, including unregistered rural-to-urban migrants, in Wuhan City, China. We selected respondents in a two-stage self-weighted cluster sampling scheme. Results On average, informal sector workers were willing to pay substantial amounts for BHI (30 Renminbi (RMB, 95% confidence interval (CI 27-33 as well as substantial proportions of their incomes (4.6%, 95% CI 4.1-5.1%. Average WTP increased significantly when any one of the copayments of the BHI was removed in the valuation: to 51 RMB (95% CI 46-56 without reimbursement ceiling; to 43 RMB (95% CI 37-49 without deductible; and to 47 RMB (95% CI 40-54 without coinsurance. WTP was higher than estimates of the cost of BHI based on past health expenditure or on premium contributions of formal sector workers. Predicted coverage with BHI declined steeply with the premium contribution at low contribution levels. When we applied equity weighting in the aggregation of individual WTP values in order to adjust for inequity in the distribution of income, mean WTP for BHI increased with inequality aversion over a plausible range of the aversion parameter. Holding other factors constant in multiple regression analysis, for a 1% increase in income WTP for BHI with different copayments increased by 0.434-0.499% (all p Conclusion Our results suggest that Chinese municipal governments should allow informal sector workers to participate in the BHI. From a normative perspective, BHI for informal sector workers is likely to

  9. Social Insurance and Truncated Benefits: Measuring the Impacts of Workers' Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel K. Allen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study addresses the indirect impacts of state-mandated workers' compensation benefits on workers' wages. The benefit structure of workers' compensation causes a fundamental estimation problem. I develop a new strategy to limit the biases inherent in earlier models. I utilize individual-level census data (between 1940 and 1990 to exploit benefit variation that occurs both across states and within the fifty states over time. The results suggest that wage offsets are not constant across time and may be larger for workers at lower-wage levels.

  10. THE IMPACT OF ADDITIONAL SUPPORT SERVICES ON CAREGIVERS OF HOSPICE PATIENTS AND HOSPICE SOCIAL WORKERS*†

    Science.gov (United States)

    EMPEÑO, JESSICA; RAMING, NATASHA T. J.; IRWIN, SCOTT A.; NELESEN, RICHARD A.; LLOYD, LINDA S.

    2014-01-01

    Family caregivers often suffer higher levels of physical and emotional distress when caring for a chronically or terminally ill family member. Providing this kind of care to a loved one at the end of life contributes to increased stress, health problems, and a decreased quality of life. The Hospice Caregiver Support Project provided support services to caregivers identified by the hospice social worker as needing this support and/or assistance. Results from the project show that offering additional services relieved caregiver stress by allowing the caregiver time away from their caregiving role and reducing feelings of guilt and worry, and increased hospice social worker satisfaction with their ability to respond to the needs of hospice patients and caregivers. PMID:23977779

  11. INTERVENTION WORKSHOP WITH YOUTH WORKER PROFESSIONALS AND SOCIAL IN- AND EXCLUSION OF DANISH YOUTH IN EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tim Vikær; Kaas, Lise Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    . This intervention was the first of an ongoing series of workshops with youth workers and teachers. There were two specific aims of the intervention workshop: 1. To bring together practitioners and researchers to reflect upon and discuss the importance of social community among youth in relation to education......This paper is part of the research project conducted by UCC on social communities and their relation to education among youth in institutional settings. A key objective of the research project is to investigate how professionals may cooperate to facilitate inclusive environments to ensure...... that children and young adults are able to participate in activities that may change and challenge positions of in- and exclusion. To fulfill this objective and to disseminate research findings to the practice field, the project has conducted an intervention workshop involving youth worker professionals...

  12. Validating the effects of social desirability on self-reported condom use behavior among commercial sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisky, Donald E; Ang, Alfonso; Sneed, Carl D

    2002-10-01

    Most studies on the transmission of HIV depend upon self-reports of risky behaviors. This study examines if there is social desirability bias with respect to self-reported condom use behavior, assesses the reliability of a self-reported condom use scale, and validates the self-reported findings with clinical sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis for commercial sex workers (N = 1,383) in the Philippines. The reliability of the condom use scale is .81, and results from confirmatory factor analysis indicate that the data fit the model well. Sex workers who reported using condoms consistently had significantly lower rates of sexually transmitted infections compared to those who never used a condom (t = 7.79, p social desirability bias existed with the self-reported condom use scale. Furthermore, the condom use measure was found to have a high level of concurrent validity with STI outcomes.

  13. The courage to face yourself : About being a social worker in an unknown culture and in unfamiliar situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kajsa Liisa Høiland

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available I have called this essay, The courage to face yourself; in it, I use stories from my internship in Cuba to reflect on being a Norwegian social worker in another country. I also consider the many challenges that arise in this situation, and focus on the two different cultures and their attendant values, norms and morals. The stories are also about being a social worker in an unfamiliar culture and being in new situations. They are about the importance of getting to know yourself, daring to fully face yourself and having the courage to be the person you want to be, both privately and professionally. They are about developing yourself through interactions with others. They are about giving voice to the uncomfortable and incomprehensible. They are about having the courage to be yourself.

  14. Preparing PhD-Level Clinical Social Work Practitioners for the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzoff, Joan; Drisko, James

    2015-01-01

    Social work doctoral programs are not adequately preparing students to educate future clinical practitioners. Social work is predominantly a practice profession. Social work's PhD programs must continue the education of excellent researchers while also educating for excellence in practice, teaching, field liaison, and the supervision of practice.…

  15. The Klout Challenge: Preparing Your Students for Social Media Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacile, Todd J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a newly developed class project to aid students in their social media knowledge and experience. "The Klout Challenge" uses a social media influence metric from Klout.com to assess students' level of engagement with others through social media sites. This project produces multiple benefits for students. Students…

  16. The Klout Challenge: Preparing Your Students for Social Media Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacile, Todd J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a newly developed class project to aid students in their social media knowledge and experience. "The Klout Challenge" uses a social media influence metric from Klout.com to assess students' level of engagement with others through social media sites. This project produces multiple benefits for students. Students…

  17. Booked for theWeek: A Survey of the Use of Bibliotherapy by Licensed Clinical Social Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Rich Vodde; Danny R. Dixon; Martha M. Giddings

    2003-01-01

    Despite its general acceptance, there has been no research exploring the actual use of bibliotherapy by Licensed Clinical Social Workers (LCSWs). This study sought to determine the extent to which LCSWs, represented by a random sample from one state, used bibliotherapy for specific problems, identified relevant variables that influence bibliotherapy use,and compiled a list of books currently used by respondents. Results suggest that bibliotherapy is used for numerous specific p...

  18. Unaccompanied Asylum-Seeking Refugee Children?s Forced Repatriation: Social Workers? and Police Officers? Health and Job Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Sundqvist, Johanna; Hansson, Jonas; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Ögren, Kenneth; Padyab, Mojgan

    2015-01-01

    During the past ten years the number of unaccompanied asylum-seeking refugee children has dramatically increased in Sweden. Some of them are permitted to stay in the receiving country, but some are forced back to their country of origin. Social workers and police officers are involved in these forced repatriations, and such complex situations may cause stressful working conditions. This study aimed to bridge the gap in knowledge of the relationship between general mental health and working wi...

  19. Institutional footprints in the addiction image : A focus-group study with Finnish and French general practitioners and social workers

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The concept of addiction is increasingly applied in order to understand various problematic behaviours. However, this inclusion remains disputed. The study examines the conceptualisation of addictions by analysing stimulated group discussions of general practitioners and social workers in Finland and France on the topics of alcoholism, pathological gambling and eating disorders. The dissertation consists of one methodological working-paper (I.), three empirical sub-studies (II., III., an...

  20. Positive Impacts of Social Media at Work: Job Satisfaction, Job Calling, and Facebook Use among Co-Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Brittany

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The number of Facebook users grew rapidly since its conception. Within today’s workplace, employees are increasingly connecting with each other on Facebook for interpersonal reasons. Due to sensational reports by media outlets of inappropriate social media use, many organizations are taking extreme measures about how their employees who utilize Facebook to connect with colleagues. Contrary to the negative assumptions, McAfee [1] states that social media within the workplace can promote positive dynamics. The present study uses McAfee’s argument to examine if a positive connection exists between colleagues who use Facebook to connect with each other. An online survey with questions involving Facebook use with co-workers, job satisfaction, and perceived job calling was completed by employees (N=70 at two high-tech companies in Northern California, USA. Results revealed that job satisfaction is positively correlated with intensity of Facebook use among co-workers. Furthermore, feeling called to one’s line of work was statistically significantly higher for the group of employees who spent the most amount of time interacting on Facebook with their co-workers than the group that spent the least amount of time. These results suggest that companies could begin to explore the positive benefits of social media use within the workplace.

  1. Social Worker Perceptions and Observations Regarding Men's Management of Hemophilia and Use of Community-Based Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolstad, Erik Bruce

    2015-08-01

    The study reported in this article was conducted in response to Utah service provider concerns that men with hemophilia may be disengaged from their local community-based support network. This study explored the challenges, adaptations, and needs of men with hemophilia from the perspective of Hemophilia Treatment Center (HTC) social workers. Utah's two active HTC social workers participated in face-to-face interviews. Fourteen HTC social workers from surrounding regions completed written interviews. The researcher used a qualitative, grounded theory approach to analyze the data. Resilience theory provided a lens for interpreting the results. Findings from these professionals indicate that men with hemophilia appear to be ambivalent toward services that are available to them for reasons that include work and insurance status, prior personal history with the bleeding disorders community, strength of relationship with local service providers, degree of customization of HTC services, and the desire to maintain personal independence. Understanding this dynamic may be helpful in developing services that are more specifically tailored to the needs of men with hemophilia, in addition to potentially providing stronger community-based support to men with other genetic disorders.

  2. A Game-based Intervention – a technical tool for social workers to combat Adolescent Dating-Violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Sorbring

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dating violence prevalence is increasing and effective prevention and intervention methods are needed in order to adress this growing social problem. The use of on-line game-based intervention programmes open ups new possibilities for social worker practice of interventions on a large scale. The purpose of this study was to examine young people´s experiences of a on line game-based intervention programme designed to adress dating-violence among youths. Swedish youths that took part in the intervention programme were interviewed in focus-groups. Results indicate that the use of a game as an intervention method for this socially sensitive topic was perceived as positive by the young people, seeing it as a new, engaging and interesting method. The findings from the study indicate that on-line game-based programme addressing dating violence between young people has the potential to be used as a technical tool in social work practice.

  3. 农民工社会保障的分类实施研究%Study on Classified Implementation of Social Security for Migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜毅; 王孔敬

    2011-01-01

    农民工为农村发展、城市繁荣和国家现代化建设做出了贡献,但他们的社会保障仍然不充分.由于农民工群体的异质性以及现行的农民工社会保障模式的单一性,无法满足农民工对社会保障的差异性需求,因此提出应将全体农民工纳入强制性工伤保险,提高农民工的社会福利,分类实施农民工的基本医疗保险、就业保障、社会养老保险及社会救助,满足不同层次农民工对社会保障的需求.%Migrant workers have made a significant contribution to urban prosperity, rural development and modernization of the state, but their social security is still insufficiency. Because the inhomogeneity of migrant workers and unicity of migrant workers social security mode not satisfying the various demands of migrant workers to social security, several countermeasures were put forward in order to satisfy the demands of different levels migrant workers to social security, such as whole migrant workers should be bring into mandatory employment injury insurance , improving migrant workers social welfare, basic medical insurance, employment security, social endowment insurance and social assistance should be classified implementation to satisfy demands of different layers migrant workers to social security.

  4. A Social-Learning Approach to Hazard-Related Knowledge Exchange: Boundary Workers at the Geoscience-Humanitarian Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Keira; Hope, Max; McCloskey, John

    2014-05-01

    A Social-Learning Approach to Hazard-Related Knowledge Exchange: Boundary Workers at the Geoscience-Humanitarian Interface Keira Quinn (1), Dr Max Hope (1), Professor John McCloskey (1). (1)University of Ulster Peer-reviewed science has the potential to guide policy-makers and practitioners in developing robust responses to social problems and issues. Despite advances in hazard-related science, it can often be a challenge to translate findings into useful social applications. With natural hazards affecting 2.9 billion people between 2000 and 2012 the need for hazard science to be effectively communicated is undeniable. This is particularly so in humanitarian contexts as non-governmental organisations (NGOs) play a key role in the poorer nations most affected by natural disasters. Past methods of 'knowledge transfer' have tended to lead to misinterpretations and misrepresentations of science to the extent that it is often used incorrectly or not at all. 'Knowledge exchange' is currently heralded as a more effective means of bringing about successful communication and understanding, and is characterised by the presence of shared learning. Central to a knowledge exchange approach is an understanding of the social and organisational contexts within which learning takes place. Here we use Etienne Wenger's social-learning approach to analyse selected aspects of the social context influencing knowledge exchange across the geoscience-humanitarian interface. For Wenger (2000) Communities of Practice (CoP) are bounded organisational and social groups united by their own distinct values, goals and ways of working. The boundaries surrounding CoPs can act as barriers to knowledge exchange but can also create opportunities for new shared learning by challenging existing perspectives and practice. Drawing on the findings of ongoing qualitative research into communication and learning between earthquake scientists and humanitarian NGOs in UK/Ireland, this paper outlines a number

  5. Weaving Theory into Practice: Preparing Transformative Leaders for Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathleen M.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the effects of an alternative, transformative pedagogy that may assist us in responding to the urgent call for changes in the way educational leaders are prepared and developed. Within the contextual loom of preparation programs, the two theoretical perspectives of Transformative Learning Theory and Critical…

  6. [Migrant workers: evolution of the Israel health system approach to the new social issue].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Alex; Berlowitz, Yitzhak; Chemtob, Daniel

    2003-09-01

    The immigration of workers from poor countries to Israel began in earnest in 1993, and by 2003 their number had reached 250,000, the majority without work permits. In this article we describe the evolution of the Israeli approach to providing health services to migrant workers, noting particularly the swings between exclusion and inclusion, ranging from providing only the most minimal services to providing a complete health services package. The National Insurance Institute was the first to provide benefits to documented migrant workers, mandating compensation benefits for those injured at work or in terrorist incidents. The health care sector provided an ever-increasing package of health benefits for documented migrant workers, culminating in the Foreign Workers Law of 2000 obligating employers to insure workers with a health package similar to that of Israeli citizens. The provision of health services to undocumented migrant workers and their families arose more gradually, but ultimately included the full range of mother and child preventive health services, school health services, provision of ambulatory medical care by volunteer physicians members of human rights organization, the possibility of enrolling their children at a reduced premium in Meuchedet Health Fund, free diagnostic and treatment services for tuberculosis and sexually transmitted diseases, free antiretroviral treatment of HIV-positive pregnant women, and, finally, the ability to obtain gas masks for a token deposit prior to the Iraq War of 2003

  7. Adaptive reproduction schedule as a cause of worker policing in social hymenoptera: a dynamic game analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Hisashi; Tsuji, Kazuki

    2009-06-01

    Evolutionary theories predict conflicts over sex allocation, male parentage, and reproductive allocation in hymenopteran societies. However, no theory to date has considered the evolution when a colony faces these three conflicts simultaneously. We tackled this issue by developing a dynamic game model, focusing especially on worker policing. Whereas a Nash equilibrium predicts male parentage patterns that are basically the same as those of relatedness-based worker-policing theory (queen multiple mating impedes worker reproduction), we also show the potential for worker policing under queen single mating. Worker policing will depend on the stage of colony growth that is caused by interaction with reproductive allocation conflict or a trade-off between current and future reproduction. Male production at an early stage greatly hinders the growth of the work force and undermines future inclusive fitness of colony members, leading to worker policing at the ergonomic stage. This new mechanism can explain much broader ranges of existing worker-policing behavior than that predicted from relatedness. Predictions differ in many respects from those of models assuming operation of only one or two of the three conflicts, suggesting the importance of interactions among conflicts.

  8. Migrant Workers Should Be Provided with More Job Training, Legal Protection and Social Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宗成峰; 朱启臻

    2007-01-01

    Drawing on the survey results and interview data of 897 rural migrant workers in Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, the authors conduct an in-depth analysis of the background and current living conditions of rural migrant workers in the city; including their gender, age, educational background, vocation, length of employment, wage, work stability, work safety, housing conditions, medical treatment, leisure activities and life satisfaction. The findings indicate that migrant workers in Nanchang face difficult conditions and that the government and society must take measures to improve their situation.

  9. The differing perspectives of workers and occupational medicine physicians on the ethical, legal and social issues of genetic testing in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt-Rauf, Sherry I; Brandt-Rauf, Elka; Gershon, Robyn; Brandt-Rauf, Paul W

    2011-01-01

    Genetic testing in the workplace holds the promise of improving worker health but also raises ethical, legal, and social issues. In considering such testing, it is critical to understand the perspectives of workers, who are most directly affected by it, and occupational health professionals, who are often directly involved in its implementation. Therefore, a series of focus groups of unionized workers (n=25) and occupational medicine physicians (n=23) was conducted. The results demonstrated strikingly different perspectives of workers and physicians in several key areas, including the goals and appropriateness of genetic testing, and methods to minimize its risks. In general, workers were guided by a profound mistrust of the employer, physician, and government, while physicians were guided primarily by scientific and medical concerns, and, in many cases, by the business concerns distrusted by the workers.

  10. Relationship of work-family conflict, self-reported social support and job satisfaction to burnout syndrome among medical workers in southwest China: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shujuan; Liu, Danping; Liu, Hongbo; Zhang, Juying; Duan, Zhanqi

    2017-01-01

    Burnout is a psychosomatic syndrome widely observed in Chinese medical workers due to the increasing cost of medical treatment, excessive workload, and excessive prescribing behavior. No studies have evaluated the interrelationship among occupational burnout, work-family conflict, social support, and job satisfaction in medical workers. The aim of this study was to evaluate these relationships among medical workers in southwest China. This cross-sectional study was conducted between March 2013 and December 2013, and was based on the fifth National Health Service Survey (NHSS). A total of 1382 medical workers were enrolled in the study. Pearson correlation analysis and general linear model univariate analysis were used to evaluate the relationship of work-family conflict, self-reported social support, and job satisfaction with burnout syndrome in medical workers. We observed that five dimensions of job satisfaction and self-reported social support were negatively associated with burnout syndrome, whereas three dimensions of work-family conflict showed a positive correlation. In a four-stage general linear model analysis, we found that demographic factors accounted for 5.4% of individual variance in burnout syndrome (F = 4.720, Pburnout syndrome, and medical workers without administrative duties had more serious burnout syndrome than those with administrative duties. In conclusion, the present study suggests that work-family conflict and self-reported social support slightly affect the level of burnout syndrome, and that job satisfaction is a much stronger influence on burnout syndrome in medical workers of southwest China.

  11. 'I'm So Stressed!': A Longitudinal Model of Stress, Burnout and Engagement among Social Workers in Child Welfare Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Dnika J; Lizano, Erica Leeanne; Mor Barak, Michàlle E

    2016-06-01

    The well-documented day-to-day and long-term experiences of job stress and burnout among employees in child welfare organisations increasingly raise concerns among leaders, policy makers and scholars. Testing a theory-driven longitudinal model, this study seeks to advance understanding of the differential impact of job stressors (work-family conflict, role conflict and role ambiguity) and burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation) on employee disengagement (work withdrawal and exit-seeking behaviours). Data were collected at three six-month intervals from an availability sample of 362 front line social workers or social work supervisors who work in a large urban public child welfare organisation in the USA. The study's results yielded a good model fit (RMSEA = 0.06, CFI = 0.96, NFI = 0.94). Work-family conflict, role ambiguity and role conflict were found to impact work withdrawal and exit-seeking behaviours indirectly through burnout. The outcome variable, exit-seeking behaviours, was positively impacted by depersonalisation and work withdrawal at a statistically significant level. Overall, findings, at least in the US context, highlight the importance of further examining the development of job burnout among social workers and social work supervisors working in child welfare settings, as well as the utility of long-term administrative strategies to mitigate risks of burnout development and support engagement.

  12. ON THE ISSUE OF THE PROMOTION OF SOCIAL INNOVATION IN HUMAN CAPITAL OF OLDER WORKERS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila N. Ivanova-Schvets

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the promotion ofsocial innovation in human capital of olderworkers the management by employers. The article examines tools effects on various factors of competitiveness ofolder workers.

  13. Prediction of employer-employee relationships from sociodemographic variables and social values in Brunei public and private sector workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundia, Lawrence; Mahalle, Salwa; Matzin, Rohani; Nasir Zakaria, Gamal Abdul; Abdullah, Nor Zaiham Midawati; Abdul Latif, Siti Norhedayah

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the sociodemographic variables and social value correlates and predictors of employer-employee relationship problems in a random sample of 860 Brunei public and private sector workers of both genders. A quantitative field survey design was used and data were analyzed by correlation and logistic regression. The rationale and justification for using this approach is explained. The main sociodemographic correlates and predictors of employer-employee relationship problems in this study were educational level and the district in which the employee resided and worked. Other correlates, but not necessarily predictors, of employer-employee relationship problems were seeking help from the Bomo (traditional healer); obtaining help from online social networking; and workers with children in the family. The two best and most significant social value correlates and predictors of employer-employee relationship problems included interpersonal communications; and self-regulation and self-direction. Low scorers on the following variables were also associated with high likelihood for possessing employer-employee relationship problems: satisfaction with work achievements; and peace and security, while low scorers on work stress had lower odds of having employer-employee relationship problems. Other significant social value correlates, but not predictors of employer-employee relationship problems were self-presentation; interpersonal trust; peace and security; and general anxiety. Consistent with findings of relevant previous studies conducted elsewhere, there were the variables that correlated with and predicted employer-employee relationship problems in Brunei public and private sector workers. Having identified these, the next step, efforts and priority should be directed at addressing the presenting issues via counseling and psychotherapy with affected employees. Further research is recommended to understand better the problem and its

  14. Prediction of employer–employee relationships from sociodemographic variables and social values in Brunei public and private sector workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundia, Lawrence; Mahalle, Salwa; Matzin, Rohani; Nasir Zakaria, Gamal Abdul; Abdullah, Nor Zaiham Midawati; Abdul Latif, Siti Norhedayah

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the sociodemographic variables and social value correlates and predictors of employer–employee relationship problems in a random sample of 860 Brunei public and private sector workers of both genders. A quantitative field survey design was used and data were analyzed by correlation and logistic regression. The rationale and justification for using this approach is explained. The main sociodemographic correlates and predictors of employer–employee relationship problems in this study were educational level and the district in which the employee resided and worked. Other correlates, but not necessarily predictors, of employer–employee relationship problems were seeking help from the Bomo (traditional healer); obtaining help from online social networking; and workers with children in the family. The two best and most significant social value correlates and predictors of employer–employee relationship problems included interpersonal communications; and self-regulation and self-direction. Low scorers on the following variables were also associated with high likelihood for possessing employer–employee relationship problems: satisfaction with work achievements; and peace and security, while low scorers on work stress had lower odds of having employer–employee relationship problems. Other significant social value correlates, but not predictors of employer–employee relationship problems were self-presentation; interpersonal trust; peace and security; and general anxiety. Consistent with findings of relevant previous studies conducted elsewhere, there were the variables that correlated with and predicted employer–employee relationship problems in Brunei public and private sector workers. Having identified these, the next step, efforts and priority should be directed at addressing the presenting issues via counseling and psychotherapy with affected employees. Further research is recommended to understand better the

  15. Genetic basis for queen–worker dimorphism in a social insect

    OpenAIRE

    Volny, Veronica P.; Gordon, Deborah M.

    2002-01-01

    Eusocial insects are characterized by reproductive division of labor, cooperative brood care, and the presence of a sterile worker caste. It is generally accepted that caste determination, including the differentiation of females into sterile workers and reproductive queens, is determined by environmental factors. In contrast, we find that in the red harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex barbatus, an individual's genotype at a particular microsatellite locus predicts its caste. We propose that this mic...

  16. Appropriating social citizenship: women's labour, poverty, and entrepreneurship in the manual workers union of Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werbner, Pnina

    2010-01-01

    Interrogating critiques of the 'African labour aristocracy' thesis, the article proposes that public service industrial-class manual workers in Botswana form, if not a labour 'aristocracy' in the sense first defined by Saul and Arrighi, then a marginal worker 'elite'. They are privileged in having a regular salary above minimum pay, augmented by periodic lump-sum gratuity payments. This sets them apart from the other low-paid workers in the private sector, casual workers in the informal economy and a vast army of unemployed job seekers. In the absence of a national unemployment benefit scheme in Botswana, the article explores some of the strategies deployed by women members of the Manual Workers Union in their attempts to contend with the spectre of future unemployment and impoverishment. In gender terms, the article highlights the independence, autonomy and decision-making capacity of women trade unionist leaders, who straddle the worlds of workers' rights and citizens' rights, and manoeuvre their way through the maze of rules and regulations they encounter in both.

  17. Flexicurity as a measuring leakage protection of workers: between "social pollution" and "total security".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Massimo Cammalleri

    2012-01-01

    precarious and atypical jobs. Any form of employment is, therefore, considered in an nth community and every community is ordered from the least se­cure to the most se­cure, using as tertium comparationis standard employment, which is itself a point of bal­ance between flexibility and security, and it is therefore a community of flexicurity. In this way, each community expresses a degree of social participation in environmental pollution: from the max­imum produced by undeclared work to the minimum produced by labour standard. The adopted economic approach allows defining this pollution as a negative externality and, therefore, refer to its contrast in terms of internalization. Among the techniques of internalization, the preferred one is the Pigovian tax, because it can overcome the difficulties associated with the identification of taxable income in the un­declared work and in the informal sector. It has been observed, in fact, in an economic study on the ef­fects of social security contributions on the tax revenues (IRAP, that the insurance mechanism creates a re­gressive effect on the competitiveness of labour standards, making it less competitive in favour of precari­ous and atypical work and, thus, triggering a vicious cycle that increases social pollution. Developing from these economic studies, the paper proposes using an enforcement mechanism based on a social indirect tax on the output of the work, instead of a traditional insurance mechanism, such as that of flexinsur­ance, which is instead levied on the earnings of workers. Indeed, in the case of undeclared work these earnings are not reported and are not affected by the social security contributions. In this way, it is believed that on one hand you lose your interest in hiding most of the black job. On the other hand, a mechanism would be enforced that forces polluters to contribute to the financing of the security needed to address the pollution cre­ated. Because of the adopted ordering of communities

  18. Social care as first work experience in England: a secondary analysis of the profile of a national sample of migrant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Shereen; Manthorpe, Jill; Stevens, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Migrant workers are increasingly important to the care sector in England as well as in other developed countries. The profile of migrants is likely to continue changing due to reforms in immigration policy and legislation limiting the range of jobs open to migrants from non-EU countries while facilitating migration from the new European Union accession countries. This article reports on detailed secondary analysis of newly available data on the characteristics of migrants working in the care sector as their first job. The analysis was undertaken in 2009 as part of research investigating the contribution made by migrant care workers in England. The sample was identified from the new National Minimum Data Set for Social Care (NMDSSC), which is completed by social care employers in England. Workers whose ethnicity was identified as not White British and who had their previous job abroad were used as a proxy of recent migrants. The analysis shows that this group of workers has a significantly different profile compared with other workers. Recent migrants in the care sector were significantly younger and held higher qualifications relevant to social care; however, there were no significant gender differences. They were also significantly concentrated in the private and voluntary sectors and in direct care work. There were variations between recent migrants' ethnicity and their job roles, with Asian workers more prevalent in senior care positions. These findings have a number of possible implications for social care workforce and providers, particularly within the current context of changing migration rules and social care reforms.

  19. Prediction of employer–employee relationships from sociodemographic variables and social values in Brunei public and private sector workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mundia L

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lawrence Mundia, Salwa Mahalle, Rohani Matzin, Gamal Abdul Nasir Zakaria, Nor Zaiham Midawati Abdullah, Siti Norhedayah Abdul Latif Psychological Studies and Human Development Academic Group, Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah Institute of Education, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam Abstract: The purpose of the study was to identify the sociodemographic variables and social value correlates and predictors of employer–employee relationship problems in a random sample of 860 Brunei public and private sector workers of both genders. A quantitative field survey design was used and data were analyzed by correlation and logistic regression. The rationale and justification for using this approach is explained. The main sociodemographic correlates and predictors of employer–employee relationship problems in this study were educational level and the district in which the employee resided and worked. Other correlates, but not necessarily predictors, of employer–employee relationship problems were seeking help from the Bomo (traditional healer; obtaining help from online social networking; and workers with children in the family. The two best and most significant social value correlates and predictors of employer–employee relationship problems included interpersonal communications; and self-regulation and self-direction. Low scorers on the following variables were also associated with high likelihood for possessing employer–employee relationship problems: satisfaction with work achievements; and peace and security, while low scorers on work stress had lower odds of having employer–employee relationship problems. Other significant social value correlates, but not predictors of employer–employee relationship problems were self-presentation; interpersonal trust; peace and security; and general anxiety. Consistent with findings of relevant previous studies conducted elsewhere, there were the variables that correlated

  20. Community Health Workers as Social Marketers of Injectable Contraceptives: A Case Study from Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidert, Karen; Gessessew, Amanuel; Bell, Suzanne; Godefay, Hagos; Prata, Ndola

    2017-03-08

    Ethiopia has made notable progress in increasing awareness and knowledge of family planning and is considered a success story among funders and program planners. Yet unmet need among rural women (28.6%) is almost double that of urban women (15.5%), with a wide gap in total fertility rate depending on urban (2.6) or rural (5.5) residence. This study investigates the impact of a service delivery model that combines community-based distribution (CBD) of contraception with social marketing in Tigray, Ethiopia, to create a more sustainable approach to CBD. Between September 2011 and October 2013, 626 volunteer CHWs were recruited and trained to administer depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) injections and provide counseling and referrals to the health post for other methods; the project implementation period ended in June 2014. The CHWs received a supply of DMPA injections in the form of a microloan from a drug revolving fund; the CHWs charged women a minimal fee (5 birr, or US$0.29), determined based on willingness-to-pay data, for each DMPA injection; and the CHWs returned part of the fee (3 birr) to the drug revolving fund while keeping the remaining portion (2 birr). The CHWs also promoted demand for family planning through door-to-door outreach and community meetings. Existing health extension workers (HEWs) provided regular supervision of the CHWs, supplemented by in-depth supervision visits from study coordinators. Baseline and endline representative surveys of women of reproductive age, as well as of participating CHWs, were conducted. In addition, DMPA provision data from the CHWs were collected. Between October 2011 and June 2014, the CHWs served in total 8,604 women and administered an estimated 15,410 DMPA injections, equivalent to providing 3,853 couple-years of protection. There was a 25% significant increase in contraceptive use among surveyed women, from 30.1% at baseline to 37.7% at endline, with DMPA use largely responsible for this increase

  1. Community Health Workers as Social Marketers of Injectable Contraceptives: A Case Study from Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidert, Karen; Gessessew, Amanuel; Bell, Suzanne; Godefay, Hagos; Prata, Ndola

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ethiopia has made notable progress in increasing awareness and knowledge of family planning and is considered a success story among funders and program planners. Yet unmet need among rural women (28.6%) is almost double that of urban women (15.5%), with a wide gap in total fertility rate depending on urban (2.6) or rural (5.5) residence. This study investigates the impact of a service delivery model that combines community-based distribution (CBD) of contraception with social marketing in Tigray, Ethiopia, to create a more sustainable approach to CBD. Between September 2011 and October 2013, 626 volunteer CHWs were recruited and trained to administer depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) injections and provide counseling and referrals to the health post for other methods; the project implementation period ended in June 2014. The CHWs received a supply of DMPA injections in the form of a microloan from a drug revolving fund; the CHWs charged women a minimal fee (5 birr, or US$0.29), determined based on willingness-to-pay data, for each DMPA injection; and the CHWs returned part of the fee (3 birr) to the drug revolving fund while keeping the remaining portion (2 birr). The CHWs also promoted demand for family planning through door-to-door outreach and community meetings. Existing health extension workers (HEWs) provided regular supervision of the CHWs, supplemented by in-depth supervision visits from study coordinators. Baseline and endline representative surveys of women of reproductive age, as well as of participating CHWs, were conducted. In addition, DMPA provision data from the CHWs were collected. Between October 2011 and June 2014, the CHWs served in total 8,604 women and administered an estimated 15,410 DMPA injections, equivalent to providing 3,853 couple-years of protection. There was a 25% significant increase in contraceptive use among surveyed women, from 30.1% at baseline to 37.7% at endline, with DMPA use largely responsible for this

  2. Preparing Teachers for Social Justice Advocacy. Am I Walking My Talk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrell Storms, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    To prepare teacher candidates to become social justice advocates, teacher educators have to critically reflect on their curriculum and teaching strategies to examine whether they are "acting on their beliefs" about diversity and social justice. In this article the author examines teacher candidates' perceptions of how their experiences…

  3. ARE ROMANIAN COMPANIES PREPARED TO REPORT ON THEIR SOCIAL RESPONSABILITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria TĂTĂRUȘANU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, social responsibility of companies is a very important issue, both for Romanian researchers and for those from abroad, but also for companies, non-governmental and governmental institutions. It is not anymore only an idea launched by researchers, economists or philosophers, but it is also present in the official debates concerning regulations in the field and their updating at the European and even global level. The present work aims to analyse the social responsibility of the most important companies from Romania and their interest in reporting on the basis of different existent index in the area. The paper is an empirical study based on public information regarding social responsibility of the most valuables companies from Romania. Results are important for researchers, practitioners, institutions interested in contributing to the know-how and practices improvement in the mentioned area.

  4. Booked for theWeek: A Survey of the Use of Bibliotherapy by Licensed Clinical Social Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rich Vodde

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite its general acceptance, there has been no research exploring the actual use of bibliotherapy by Licensed Clinical Social Workers (LCSWs. This study sought to determine the extent to which LCSWs, represented by a random sample from one state, used bibliotherapy for specific problems, identified relevant variables that influence bibliotherapy use,and compiled a list of books currently used by respondents. Results suggest that bibliotherapy is used for numerous specific problems and LCSW endorsement of bibliotherapy by LCSWs is similar to that of respondents in other disciplines. Unlike studies involving other disciplines, LCSW usage patterns were not related to gender and less related to employment settings.

  5. Preparation for Computer Usage in Social Work: Student Consumer Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurius, Paula S.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A survey of students in a large master's program in social work investigated student training in and experience with computers and attitudes about computer applications for human service activities. The value of the findings in curriculum planning, practica development, computer resources management, and faculty and agency involvement are…

  6. The Effects of Social Information, Co-Worker Credibility and Social Cue Unanimity on Task Perceptions, Satisfaction, and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    realistically by utilizing mixed social cues. Moscovici (1976) asserts that "when an individual or subgroup influences a group, the main factor of success is...Because the research of Moscovici (1976), Allen (1965, 1975) and others has demonstrated that the presence of an individual whose 6 reported perceptions...reduction of conformity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 1975, 11, 215-233. Moscovici , S. Social influence and social change, London

  7. Peculiarities of Social Insurance of Workers of the Middle Volga Steamship Line During the Post-War Restoration Period (1945-1946

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    Gomanenko Olesya Aleksandrovna

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During the post-war restoration the work on social insurance in river transport was intensified. It were trade unions including councils of social insurance that dealt with social problems in the Volga Steamship Lines. Trade unions exercised control over the budget of social insurance, over labor safety, etc. In the Middle Volga Steamship Line (SVRP 15 councils for social insurance functioned. They included 140 insurance agents. Their task was to decrease incidence, traumatism, and also to improve the conditions of work and life of river transport workers. Tasks of councils of a social insurance included systematic supervision over a sanitary condition of shops and territories of the industrial enterprises of the steamship line. Financial support was allocated to families of veterans with many children and families in need. Insurance delegates together with a doctor of the health center in workshops registered workers needing additional food for health reasons. Insurance delegates gave social help to patients at home and in hospital. After the end of the war comprehensive plans of improving actions were put through. Financial and food position of river transport workers improved. However in 1946 in SVRP there was a small growth of incidence again. Those who needed treatment, and also the best workers were provided with permits in sanatorium. Managements of Volga Steamship lines showed care of children of river transport workers. During thewinter period camps were decorated with New Year trees, in summer – rest was arranged. On the accounting of the trade-union organizations of the Middle Volga basin families of the lost soldiers, the military personnel, disabled veterans and demobilized consisted. As for labor protection, that, despite increase in allocations for safety measures and labor protection in 1946 at the SVRP enterprises occurred increase in accidents. So, all efforts were directed on further improvement of financial and social

  8. Workers' Theatre as an Inquiry Process for Exploring Social Issues of the 1930s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilcoat, George W.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the worker's theater movement of the 1930s that attempted to unite actors and audience in devising solutions to societal problems. Maintains that re-enacting its dramatic forms is a thought-provoking way to introduce students to the issues of the time. Includes instructions for suggested activities. (MJP)

  9. Social modulation of stress reactivity and learning in young worker honey bees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Urlacher

    Full Text Available Alarm pheromone and its major component isopentylacetate induce stress-like responses in forager honey bees, impairing their ability to associate odors with a food reward. We investigated whether isopentylacetate exposure decreases appetitive learning also in young worker bees. While isopentylacetate-induced learning deficits were observed in guards and foragers collected from a queen-right colony, learning impairments resulting from exposure to this pheromone could not be detected in bees cleaning cells. As cell cleaners are generally among the youngest workers in the colony, effects of isopentylacetate on learning behavior were examined further using bees of known age. Adult workers were maintained under laboratory conditions from the time of adult emergence. Fifty percent of the bees were exposed to queen mandibular pheromone during this period, whereas control bees were not exposed to this pheromone. Isopentylacetate-induced learning impairments were apparent in young (less than one week old controls, but not in bees of the same age exposed to queen mandibular pheromone. This study reveals young worker bees can exhibit a stress-like response to alarm pheromone, but isopentylacetate-induced learning impairments in young bees are suppressed by queen mandibular pheromone. While isopentylacetate exposure reduced responses during associative learning (acquisition, it did not affect one-hour memory retrieval.

  10. Social modulation of stress reactivity and learning in young worker honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urlacher, Elodie; Tarr, Ingrid S; Mercer, Alison R

    2014-01-01

    Alarm pheromone and its major component isopentylacetate induce stress-like responses in forager honey bees, impairing their ability to associate odors with a food reward. We investigated whether isopentylacetate exposure decreases appetitive learning also in young worker bees. While isopentylacetate-induced learning deficits were observed in guards and foragers collected from a queen-right colony, learning impairments resulting from exposure to this pheromone could not be detected in bees cleaning cells. As cell cleaners are generally among the youngest workers in the colony, effects of isopentylacetate on learning behavior were examined further using bees of known age. Adult workers were maintained under laboratory conditions from the time of adult emergence. Fifty percent of the bees were exposed to queen mandibular pheromone during this period, whereas control bees were not exposed to this pheromone. Isopentylacetate-induced learning impairments were apparent in young (less than one week old) controls, but not in bees of the same age exposed to queen mandibular pheromone. This study reveals young worker bees can exhibit a stress-like response to alarm pheromone, but isopentylacetate-induced learning impairments in young bees are suppressed by queen mandibular pheromone. While isopentylacetate exposure reduced responses during associative learning (acquisition), it did not affect one-hour memory retrieval.

  11. Community health workers, social support and cervical cancer screening among high-risk groups in rural Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Patrick F; Belinson, Suzanne E; Ottolenghi, Emma; Smyth, Kathleen; Belinson, Jerome L

    2013-11-01

    Rural Mexico has a low screening prevalence and high burden of cervical cancer. One strategy to increase screening coverage utilizes community health workers (CHWs) to recruit high-risk women and address barriers. We conducted a systematic cross-sectional survey of 196 women residing in Chiapas, Mexico who were recruited by either CHWs or traditional means for screening. This analysis compares 110 rural women's risk factors, attitudes and knowledge of cervical cancer and socioeconomic factors stratified by type of recruitment. Women who were informed of screening by CHWs were more likely to be of high risk sub-groups and report higher scores of social support but were also more likely to endorse difficulty with access and fatalistic attitudes about cancer. Utilizing CWHs results in increased screening among high-risk women and increased social support for screening among rural women, addressing a significant barrier, but may have limited effects on other barriers.

  12. Social epidemiological analysis on coal worker with pneumoconiosis of migrant workers%农民工煤工尘肺患病情况社会流行病学分层分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡黎明; 梅正昌; 贾贤杰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the status of coal worker with pneumoconiosis (CWP) related social demographic factors among migrant workers, and provide evidence for implementing behavioral intervention and health education targeting to this population group. Methods Using the analytic hierarchy process of social epidemiology, the socialdemographic factors and the prevalence of coal worker's pneumoconiosis of 780 migrant workers at Chuxiong were investigated. Results The educational level was positively correlated with the score of occupational protection and negativelycorrelated with the prevalence of coal worker' s pneumoconiosis ( P<0.01 ); with the monthly income increasing, the prevalence of coal worker's pneumoconiosis was rising ( P < 0.01 ), the prevalence of coal worker' s pneumoconiosis was higher in the tunneling and mixing workers (P < 0.01), multivariate analysis showed that age, seniority, educational lev el and occupational protection knowledge score were influential factors for CWP. Conclusions Control and prevention of coal worker with pneumoconiosis should be strengthened by social demographic factors among migrant workers.%目的 了解农民工煤工尘肺患病与社会人口学因素的关系,为企业采取相应的防治措施提供科学依据.方法 对云南省楚雄州780名从事煤炭生产的农民工的社会人口学因素和煤工尘肺患病情况进行社会流行病学分层分析.结果 文化程度越低、职业保护知识得分越低,煤工尘肺患病率越高(P<0.01),随着月收入不断增加,煤工尘肺患病率不断升高(P<0.01),煤工尘肺检出率以掘进和混合工最高(P<0.01).多因素分析显示年龄、工龄、文化程度和职业保护知识得分是煤工尘肺患病的影响因素.结论 应针对不同社会人口学因素分层的人群开展职业病防治知识宣传工作.

  13. Social Structures and the Occupational Composition of Skilled Worker Immigrants to Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dryburgh, Heather

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishThe individual decision to immigrate is made in the context of larger socialstructures that influence the composition of the economic immigrant populationover time. Over the last 20 years, economic immigrants to Canada have facedchanging selection policies, cycles of economic recession and growth, increaseddemand for information technology skills, women's increased labour forceparticipation and an aging labour force. Using data from Statistics Canada'sLongitudinal Immigration Database (IMDB, this paper examines the flow ofeconomic immigrants to Canada by their occupational composition from 1980 to2000. Relative to Canadians, when all immigrants from this period are groupedtogether, their economic integration is slow and does not reach parity withCanadians before 16 years. Among skilled worker immigrants, whereas theearlier cohorts did well but did not improve much over time, later cohorts startedoff in a relatively worse position, but early indications show a fairly steep slopeto better relative average earnings. These differences support the need toexamine immigrant integration by both the class of immigrant and the context atthe time of immigration.FrenchLa décision d’immigrer est une décision personnelle prise dans le plus largecontexte des structures sociales qui, à leur tour, exercent une influence sur lacomposition de la population immigrante selon les époques. Pendant les vingtannées dernières, les immigrants économiques au Canada ont dû faire face à deschangements de polices de sélection, à des cycles de récession et de croissanceéconomique, à une demande accrue des techniques d’informatiques, à laparticipation accrue des femmes dans la population active et à une populationactive plus âgée. En s’appuyant sur les données de la Banque de donnéeslongitudinales sur les immigrants (BDIM, cet article examine le fluxd’immigrants économiques au Canada entre 1980 et 2000, selon la compositionde leurs m

  14. Social marketing ethics: report prepared for the National Social Marketing Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Eagle, L.; National Social Marketing Centre

    2009-01-01

    This report has been developed by Professor Lynn Eagle from the Bristol Social Marketing Centre, Bristol Business School University of West of England with contributions from\\ud staff at the National Social Marketing Centre.

  15. How personal resources predict work engagement and self-rated performance among construction workers: a social cognitive perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Laura; Salanova, Marisa; Martínez, Isabel M; Vera, María

    2014-06-01

    Traditionally, research focussing on psychosocial factors in the construction industry has focused mainly on the negative aspects of health and on results such as occupational accidents. This study, however, focuses on the specific relationships among the different positive psychosocial factors shared by construction workers that could be responsible for occupational well-being and outcomes such as performance. The main objective of this study was to test whether personal resources predict self-rated job performance through job resources and work engagement. Following the predictions of Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory and the motivational process of the Job Demands-Resources Model, we expect that the relationship between personal resources and performance will be fully mediated by job resources and work engagement. The sample consists of 228 construction workers. Structural equation modelling supports the research model. Personal resources (i.e. self-efficacy, mental and emotional competences) play a predicting role in the perception of job resources (i.e. job control and supervisor social support), which in turn leads to work engagement and self-rated performance. This study emphasises the crucial role that personal resources play in determining how people perceive job resources by determining the levels of work engagement and, hence, their self-rated job performance. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  16. Social representations of the health care of the Mbyá-Guarani indigenous population by health workers 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Mirian Benites; Shimizu, Helena Eri; Bermudez, Ximena Pamela Díaz

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the social representations of health care of the Mbyá-Guarani ethnic group by multidisciplinary teams from the Special Indigenous Health District in the south coast of Rio Grande do Sul state (Distrito Sanitário Especial Indígena Litoral Sul do Rio Grande do Sul), Brazil. Method: a qualitative method based on the theory of social representations was used. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews with 20 health workers and by participant observation. The interviews were analyzed with ALCESTE software, which conducts a lexical content analysis using quantitative techniques for the treatment of textual data. Results: there were disagreements in the health care concepts and practices between traditional medicine and biomedicine; however, some progress has been achieved in the area of intermedicality. The ethnic boundaries established between health workers and indigenous peoples based on their representations of culture and family, together with the lack of infrastructure and organization of health actions, are perceived as factors that hinder health care in an intercultural context. Conclusion: a new basis for the process of indigenous health care needs to be established by understanding the needs identified and by agreement among individuals, groups, and health professionals via intercultural exchange. PMID:28177056

  17. Social and structural factors associated with consistent condom use among female entertainment workers trading sex in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urada, Lianne A; Morisky, Donald E; Hernandez, Laufred I; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2013-02-01

    This paper examined socio-structural factors of consistent condom use among female entertainment workers at high risk for acquiring HIV in Metro Manila, Quezon City, Philippines. Entertainers, aged 18 and over, from 25 establishments (spa/saunas, night clubs, karaoke bars), who traded sex during the previous 6 months, underwent cross-sectional surveys. The 143 entertainers (42% not always using condoms, 58% always using condoms) had median age (23), duration in sex work (7 months), education (9 years), and 29% were married/had live-in boyfriends. In a logistic multiple regression model, social-structural vs. individual factors were associated with inconsistent condom use: being forced/deceived into sex work, less manager contact, less STI/HIV prevention knowledge acquired from medical personnel/professionals, not following a co-workers' condom use advice, and an interaction between establishment type and alcohol use with establishment guests. Interventions should consider the effects of physical (force/deception into work), social (peer, manager influence), and policy (STI/HIV prevention knowledge acquired from medical personnel/professionals) environments on consistent condom use.

  18. Populous, Precarious – Protected? The Paradox of Social Security for South Asian Agricultural Workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.A. Siegmann (Karin Astrid)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAbstract Social security is firmly rising on the international agenda. Discourses that depart from the assumption that societies can only afford a certain level of social expenditure give way to a recognition that social security is an important investment in development. New interventio

  19. Role and challenges of school social workers in facilitating and supporting the inclusiveness of children with special needs in regular schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doriana Balli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic of the society development is associated with extension of social problems, notably in educational context. The role of school, as the main public institution for social development of the students, is now obvious throughout the world. Consequently the role of social workers in schools is becoming essential, especially in terms of the inclusion of marginalized children from the opportunity of education, by impacting the educational system, to meet the diverse needs of all learners. Social work is focused on the welfare of individuals by increasing and developing their potential, so it goes hand in hand with inclusive education for children with disabilities, which emphasizes the children’ rights to obtain a definite, qualitative and suitable education in regular schools. The main focus of this study was to draw a clear panorama of the school social workers’ role towards the processes of inclusiveness of students with disabilities in Albanian regular schools. The data were collected via in-depth interviews with eight school social workers of the secondary schools in Korça region. The results showed that social service in schools is very important for helping students to develop social competences, intermediating parents in utilizing school and community resources, identifying and reporting bullying phenomenon, etc. School social workers could play a key role to implement the educational reform, which is being undertaken in Albania. Interviewees also shared their difficulties regarding the practical work, especially obstacles related to inclusive education processes.

  20. Using the Venom of a Snake for an Antidote: exploring strategies and services for sex workers in preparation for the World Cup 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, Janine Elizabeth

    2015-07-01

    This article considers the public health implications that were predicted by sex workers a year prior to the FIFA World Cup 2014, with considerations towards the Olympic Games in 2016. Primary research conducted in 2013 in Brazil's second largest city, Rio de Janeiro, gave sex workers and civil society organizations the opportunity to voice concerns of the everyday disadvantages faced by those involved in the sex industry, with emphasis on what could cause further detriments from acting as a double draw international sporting host. This research largely took place through invitation at the 2013 Rio State Conference on HIV/AIDS, Equality and Human Rights. Mixed methods research - pre-arrival questionnaires and interviews led by a semi-structured interview guide - was deemed suitable for the primary research collection. The use of the research software NVivo allowed data to be categorised into key themes to form the basis of this research article. Working with a Portuguese translator, case studies of transsexual sex workers and civil society organizations were developed. Police violence was the main re-occurring theme expressed as a continued fear, alongside the added increase of security measures that the games would bring, to reduce organized crime, and through the Pacification programme. The majority of sex workers and organizations believed that there was no support from the Brazilian government to continue to provide services of high demand, including social care and legal assistance. Sex workers also felt prejudice in receiving HIV/AIDS treatment from government-led health services. A desirable outcome for the sex worker community would be for the government to consider the following: recommendations devised for further health and well being support; an act or law of non-violence against them; and recommendations to decimalize the sex industry. The Brazilian government has received global recognition for its response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, however the

  1. Evidence of the paradoxical effect of social network support: A study among Filipino domestic workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Norman B; Mordeno, Imelu G; Latkin, Carl A; Hall, Brian J

    2017-09-01

    Labor migrants are at an increased risk for poor mental health. Post-migration stressors contribute significantly to this risk. Social network supports are vitally important to protect health but little is known about the role of social network supports among labor migrants. The current study evaluated the role of migration stressors on poor mental health among Filipino female domestic workers (FDW) and whether family and friend social network support (SNS) modified this relationship. Data were collected from 261 FDWs in Macau, China from May to September 2013. Hierarchical multiple regression was conducted to test for direct and moderating effects of social networks on psychological distress. Post-migration stress was associated with increased anxiety, depression, somatization, and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. SNS from family was not associated with the four psychological symptoms nor did it modify the association between stress and these symptoms. SNS from friends was positively associated with these symptoms, and significantly moderated the relationship between stress and these symptoms. Counterintuitive to the known buffering effects of SNS, greater SNS was associated with greater psychological symptoms among FDWs exposed to post-migration stressors. The present findings suggest that reliance on SNS to cope with post-migration stressors may worsen psychological distress. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Occupational, social, and relationship hazards and psychological distress among low-income workers: implications of the 'inverse hazard law'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Nancy; Kaddour, Afamia; Koenen, Karestan; Kosheleva, Anna; Chen, Jarvis T; Waterman, Pamela D; Barbeau, Elizabeth M

    2011-03-01

    Few studies have simultaneously included exposure information on occupational hazards, relationship hazards (eg, intimate partner violence) and social hazards (eg, poverty and racial discrimination), especially among low-income multiracial/ethnic populations. A cross-sectional study (2003-2004) of 1202 workers employed at 14 worksites in the greater Boston area of Massachusetts investigated the independent and joint association of occupational, social and relationship hazards with psychological distress (K6 scale). Among this low-income cohort (45% were below the US poverty line), exposure to occupational, social and relationship hazards, per the 'inverse hazard law,' was high: 82% exposed to at least one occupational hazard, 79% to at least one social hazard, and 32% of men and 34% of women, respectively, stated they had been the perpetrator or target of intimate partner violence (IPV). Fully 15.4% had clinically significant psychological distress scores (K6 score ≥ 13). All three types of hazards, and also poverty, were independently associated with increased risk of psychological distress. In models including all three hazards, however, significant associations with psychological distress occurred among men and women for workplace abuse and high exposure to racial discrimination only; among men, for IPV; and among women, for high exposure to occupational hazards, poverty and smoking. Reckoning with the joint and embodied reality of diverse types of hazards involving how people live and work is necessary for understanding determinants of health status.

  3. Sarampo em trabalhadores rurais: ensaio metodológico de epidemiologia social Measles in rural workers: a methodological essay in social epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo José Soares Pontes

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudando-se uma epidemia de sarampo ocorrida na Região de Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brasil, em 1984, identificou-se, pela elevada proporção de casos em maiores de 15 anos, uma característica epidemiológica particular na ocorrência desta enfermidade, representada pelo acometimento de trabalhadores rurais. Realizou-se um exercício metodológico de síntese entre a fase descritiva da epidemiologia clássica e o referencial teórico-metodológico da epidemiologia social, procurando-se incorporar aspectos do processo social da região, de forma a explicar aquela forma particular de ocorrência do sarampo como um modo de expressão daquele processo social. Ressaltou-se a necessidade de se rever a conceituação dos processos patológicos específicos ocorridos em diferentes grupos humanos tomando-se como referencial os processos sociais nos quais se inserem, de modo a permitir a captação de sua historicidade.The study of a measles epidemic in the Ribeirão Preto region, in 1984, showed a high proportion of cases occurring among people above 15 years of age. This finding hed to the identification of a particular characteristic of the disease's distribution in the area, i.e. the high incidence among rural workers (especially those restricted to colletive lodgings when working in agricultural and industrial activities related to sugar cane plantations. A methodological exercise of synthesis between the descriptive phase of the traditional epidemiology and the was carried out. This producere aimed at incorporating some aspects of the social process of the area with a view to explaining this particular distribution of measles as a result to that social process (i.e. the pattern of the occurrence of measles among rural workers is understood as a historically determined social event. Finally, the need to consider the appearance of specific diseases in different human groups according to the social process into whick they are inserted in disenssed in

  4. 我国农民工社会保障问题探析%Studing on social security problems of migrant rural workers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建萍

    2012-01-01

    Based on analyzing current problems in social security of China's migrant rural workers,the topic of constructing social security system for migrant rural workers was discussed,and its countermeasures were put forward.%在分析当前我国农民工社会保障现状及存在问题的基础上,就构建农民工社会保障制度问题进行探讨,提出对策建议。

  5. Preparing for Citizenship: Second Order Thinking Concepts in Social Science Education

    OpenAIRE

    Johan Sandahl

    2014-01-01

    Social Science as a school subject aims at making students knowledgeable in societal issues as well as preparing them for citizenship. Despite the strong position of Social Science in the Swedish school curricula little research has been done in the field. Previous research has mainly concentrated on factual knowledge and conceptual learning, or the role of deliberation in class activities. Less research has focused on the role of disciplinary thinking and how that might promote learning how ...

  6. 社会排斥与农民工社会支持体系构建%Study on Social Exclusion and Construction of Social Support System of Migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵常兴; 余博

    2014-01-01

    农民工由于受到社会资源、社会文化和社会流动的排斥,社会弱势地位进一步得到强化,向上代际流动受阻,出现阶层固化倾向。要改变这种弱势地位,必须增加农民工在城市的社会资本,以获取更高的社会支持。构建农民工社会支持体系,既要发挥农民工自身的主体作用,还需要政府、非政府组织和社会等多元主体共同努力。%The social status of migrant workers is future weakened because of the exclusion of social resources, social culture and social mobility. Their intergenerational flow is impeded and social hierarchy is increasing consolidated. In order to change the weak position in city, migrant workers must increase the social capital to obtain more social support. Constructing social support system for migrant workers not only needs migrant workers themselves to play a dominant role, but also needs government, non-governmental organizations and society to make efforts together.

  7. 构建农民工社会救助体系的思考%Reflections on the Construction of the Social Assistance System of Migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈媛

    2012-01-01

    农民工社会救助体系有明显的缺陷,其主要原因是农民工社会救助体系中立法的空缺、体制的限制、权利意识的淡薄、非政府组织等社会支持系统发展不完善,完善农民工社会救助的制度、落实农民工权利保护的法律依据、加强农民工权利的行政保护力度、重塑农民工权利的司法救助机制、建立专门的农民工社会支持系统等是完善农民工社会救助体系的主要措施。%Social assistance system of migrant workers has obvious defects in our country, mainly due to the legislation vacancies, institutional constraints, weak awareness of their rights, non-governmental organizations and the imperfect development of other socialsupport systems. Adjusting the administrative system of social assistance for migrant workers, improving the legal basis for the protection of the rights of migrant workers, strengthening the protection of the rights of migrant workers, remodeling judicial relief mechanism for the rights of migrant workers, and establishing specialized social support system for migrant workers are major measures to improve the social assistance system of migrant workers.

  8. Relationship of work-family conflict, self-reported social support and job satisfaction to burnout syndrome among medical workers in southwest China: A cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shujuan; Liu, Danping; Liu, Hongbo; Zhang, Juying; Duan, Zhanqi

    2017-01-01

    Background Burnout is a psychosomatic syndrome widely observed in Chinese medical workers due to the increasing cost of medical treatment, excessive workload, and excessive prescribing behavior. No studies have evaluated the interrelationship among occupational burnout, work-family conflict, social support, and job satisfaction in medical workers. The aim of this study was to evaluate these relationships among medical workers in southwest China. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted between March 2013 and December 2013, and was based on the fifth National Health Service Survey (NHSS). A total of 1382 medical workers were enrolled in the study. Pearson correlation analysis and general linear model univariate analysis were used to evaluate the relationship of work-family conflict, self-reported social support, and job satisfaction with burnout syndrome in medical workers. Results We observed that five dimensions of job satisfaction and self-reported social support were negatively associated with burnout syndrome, whereas three dimensions of work-family conflict showed a positive correlation. In a four-stage general linear model analysis, we found that demographic factors accounted for 5.4% of individual variance in burnout syndrome (F = 4.720, Pburnout syndrome, and medical workers without administrative duties had more serious burnout syndrome than those with administrative duties. Conclusions In conclusion, the present study suggests that work-family conflict and self-reported social support slightly affect the level of burnout syndrome, and that job satisfaction is a much stronger influence on burnout syndrome in medical workers of southwest China. PMID:28207821

  9. The effect of organizational conditions (role conflict, role ambiguity, opportunities for professional development, and social support) on job satisfaction and intention to leave among social workers in mental health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, Gila M

    2004-02-01

    This study examined the relationships between the organizational conditions of social workers practicing in mental health agencies and their job satisfaction and intention to leave. A sample of 259 social workers, practicing in sixteen mental health agencies in New York State completed a questionnaire that included several measures: role conflict, role ambiguity, social support, extent of opportunities for professional development, type of work activities, job satisfaction and intention to leave. Results showed that the organizational conditions are strong predictors for job satisfaction and intention to leave. The author suggests that it is possible to find an appropriate balance between the professional expectations of social workers and the business-driven aspect of the mental health care environment.

  10. Migrant Workers' Community in China: Relationships among Social Networks, Life Satisfaction and Political Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwen Xu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The millions of persons migrating from China´s rural areas to urban spaces have contributed greatly to the country´s decades-long economic growth, and the influx of migrants has changed the fabric of China´s urban social and economic life. These internal migrants, similar to many international immigrants, depend heavily on their social networks, which are often developed in their rural villages, for jobs, housing, financial assistance, and social support both during and after migration. Consequently, migrants´ networks function distinctly in well-being and behavior. Using data from the 2006 China General Social Survey, this article seeks to 1 investigate the existence of migrant sub-groups in China, 2 understand the characteristics of social networks among sub-groups, and 3 explore the relationships social networks hold to life satisfaction and political participation among China´s migrant population. This article asserts that China´s migrant population includes several sub-groups emerging on the basis of gender, education, age, and marital status, which in turn produce different patterns of ties and social interactions among their social networks. While this article finds very different employment patterns among migrant sub-groups, migrant networks do not appear to strongly influence perceptions and behaviors, such as life satisfaction and political participation. This article also argues that individual networks could facilitate the development of migrant communities in cities.

  11. Hospital Social Workers and Indirect Trauma Exposure: An Exploratory Study of Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Karen; Royse, David; Craig, Carlton

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the predictive ability of empathy (measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index), emotional separation (measured by the Maintenance of Emotional Separation Scale), occupational stress (measured by the Work-Related Strain Inventory), and social support (measured by the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support) on…

  12. Identifying Perceived Barriers and Facilitators to Culturally Competent Practice for School Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasley, Martell; Gourdine, Ruby; Canfield, James

    2010-01-01

    This study presents descriptive findings from self-reported qualitative and quantitative data on barriers and facilitators to culturally competent school social work practice. The study highlights the need for the development of evaluative methods for the purpose of examining how elements within the practice environment affect school social work…

  13. Social Protection and Economic Security of North African Migrant Workers in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA PARASCHIVESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay describes and analyses the situation of Maghrebis in France, as far as social security is concerned. The paradoxical situation experienced by these immigrants is related to their eligibility for social security and their discrimination on the labour market. As such, Maghrebis form the precarious layer of French society.

  14. Hospital Social Workers and Indirect Trauma Exposure: An Exploratory Study of Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badger, Karen; Royse, David; Craig, Carlton

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the predictive ability of empathy (measured by the Interpersonal Reactivity Index), emotional separation (measured by the Maintenance of Emotional Separation Scale), occupational stress (measured by the Work-Related Strain Inventory), and social support (measured by the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support) on…

  15. Night workers with circadian misalignment are susceptible to alcohol-induced intestinal hyperpermeability with social drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Garth R; Gorenz, Annika; Shaikh, Maliha; Desai, Vishal; Kaminsky, Thomas; Van Den Berg, Jolice; Murphy, Terrence; Raeisi, Shohreh; Fogg, Louis; Vitaterna, Martha Hotz; Forsyth, Christopher; Turek, Fred; Burgess, Helen J; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol-induced intestinal hyperpermeability (AIHP) is a known risk factor for alcoholic liver disease (ALD), but only 20-30% of heavy alcoholics develop AIHP and ALD. The hypothesis of this study is that circadian misalignment would promote AIHP. We studied two groups of healthy subjects on a stable work schedule for 3 mo [day workers (DW) and night workers (NW)]. Subjects underwent two circadian phase assessments with sugar challenge to access intestinal permeability between which they drank 0.5 g/kg alcohol daily for 7 days. Sleep architecture by actigraphy did not differ at baseline or after alcohol between either group. After alcohol, the dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) in the DW group did not change significantly, but in the NW group there was a significant 2-h phase delay. Both the NW and DW groups had no change in small bowel permeability with alcohol, but only in the NW group was there an increase in colonic and whole gut permeability. A lower area under the curve of melatonin inversely correlated with increased colonic permeability. Alcohol also altered peripheral clock gene amplitude of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in CLOCK, BMAL, PER1, CRY1, and CRY2 in both groups, and inflammatory markers lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, LPS, and IL-6 had an elevated mesor at baseline in NW vs. DW and became arrhythmic with alcohol consumption. Together, our data suggest that central circadian misalignment is a previously unappreciated risk factor for AIHP and that night workers may be at increased risk for developing liver injury with alcohol consumption.

  16. To test or not to test? Social welfare versus worker freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrin, B H

    1990-01-01

    Workplace testing for drug use is a form of warrantless search for incriminating evidence that if found will lead to an array of sanctions. An argument is presented that such testing is constitutionally impermissible, with two exceptions: (1) employers may use drug testing as a device to screen out prospective employees; and (2) employers may use involuntary workplace drug testing to help employees become drug free, so long as no further sanctions are involved. Of course, should workers accept employment in workplaces with prior existent drug-free rules, they have voluntarily submitted those rules, possibly including drug testing, and the explicit sanctions attached to them.

  17. Using social epidemiology and neuroscience to explore the relationship between job stress and frontotemporal cortex activity among workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Shingo; Nishimura, Yukika; Takizawa, Ryu; Koike, Shinsuke; Kinoshita, Akihide; Satomura, Yoshihiro; Sakakibara, Eisuke; Sakurada, Hanako; Yamagishi, Mika; Nishimura, Fumichika; Yoshikawa, Akane; Inai, Aya; Nishioka, Masaki; Eriguchi, Yosuke; Kakiuchi, Chihiro; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Kan, Chiemi; Umeda, Maki; Shimazu, Akihito; Hashimoto, Hideki; Kawakami, Norito; Kasai, Kiyoto

    2015-01-01

    Mental health problems, such as depression, are increasingly common among workers. Job-related stresses, including psychological demands and a lack of discretion in controlling one's own work environment, are important causal factors. However, the mechanisms through which job-related stress may affect brain function remain unknown. We sought to identify the relationship between job-related stress and frontotemporal cortex activation using near-infrared spectroscopy. Seventy-nine (45 females, 34 males) Japanese employees, aged 26-51 years, were recruited from respondents to the Japanese Study of Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood survey. Job-related stress was measured using the Japanese version of Job Content Questionnaire, which can index "job demand" and "job control". We found a significant correlation between higher "job demand" and smaller oxygenated hemoglobin [oxy-Hb] changes in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in female (r = -.54 to -.44). Significant correlations between higher "job control" and greater [oxy-Hb] changes in the right temporal cortex were observed among male, and in the combined sample (r = .46-.64). This initial cross-sectional observation suggests that elevated job-related stress is related to decrease frontotemporal cortex activation among workers. Integrating social epidemiology and neuroscience may be a powerful strategy for understanding how individuals' brain functions may mediate between the job-related stress or psychosocial work characteristics and public mental health.

  18. Some considerations about the contributions that social constructionism can offer to the study and intervention in workers` health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Bonetti Lima

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we search to weave some considerations about the Social Constructionism contributions to research and intervention on workers` health. The article begins with a brief passage over some of the main critical theories on health and work, and then it traces some considerations on this theme. We also present a research with workers who have got Repetitive Strain Injuries as an illustration of the importance of studying the process of production of senses in the scope of the relations between health and work. In this research, we could disentangle a historicity of the senses about repetitive strain injuries and coexisting with them, as an expression of the dialogic interanimations that the carriers of this disease construct in their everyday life (which also includes the researchers, whose discursive complexes were sometimes fighting, sometimes negotiating, sometimes adjusting different senses; promoting new discursive forms in time, as well as new materialities which promote new perspectives and possibilities of action in their lives.

  19. Workplace social capital, mental health and health behaviors among Brazilian female workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo; Canuto, Raquel; da Silva Garcez, Anderson; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have investigated the relationship between workplace social capital and mental health, yet few have sought to examine the mediating mechanisms. We sought to explore the role of workplace social capital on health related behaviors and on mental health among female employees in Brazil. A cross-sectional study was undertaken with 553 women aged 28-50 years working in the production line of a poultry processing plant. We assessed workplace social capital, common mental disorders, stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and health related behaviors (physical activity, healthy eating habits and co-occurrence of risk behaviors). We used structural equation modeling to clarify relationships between exposures, outcomes, and mediating variables. Our model demonstrated a direct effect of social capital on the outcomes studied. Higher workplace social capital was associated with lower stress and common mental disorders as well as more favorable health-related behaviors. Our model also showed an indirect effect of social capital on mental health and on behaviors that was mediated by lower levels of perceived stress. Workplace social cohesion may play an important role in the promotion of mental health and healthy behaviors among women employees.

  20. Theory and social practice of agency in combining breastfeeding and employment: A qualitative study among health workers in New Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer-Salim, Amal; Suri, Shobha; Dadhich, Jai Prakash; Faridi, Mohammad Moonis Akbar; Olsson, Pia

    2014-12-01

    Women's agency, or intentional actions, in combining breastfeeding and employment is significant for health and labour productivity. Previous research in India showed that mothers use various collaborative strategies to ensure a "good enough" combination of breastfeeding and employment. Bandura's theoretical agency constructs previously applied in various realms could facilitate the exploration of agency in an Indian context. To explore manifestations of agency in combining breastfeeding and employment amongst Indian health workers using Bandura's theoretical constructs of agency and women's experiences. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten women employees within the governmental health sector in New Delhi, India. Both deductive and inductive qualitative content analyses were used. Bandura's features and modes of agency revealed that intentionality is underpinned by knowledge, forethought means being prepared, self-reactiveness includes collaboration and that self-reflectiveness gives perspective. Women's interviews revealed four approaches to agency entitled: 'All within my stride or the knowledgeable navigator'; 'Much harder than expected, but ok overall'; This is a very lonely job'; and 'Out of my control'. Agency features and their elements are complex, dynamic and involve family members. Bandura's theoretical agency constructs are partially useful in this context, but additional social practice constructs of family structure and relationship quality are needed for better correspondence with women's experiences of agency. The variation in individual approaches to agency has implications for supportive health and workplace services. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Social workers as "experts" in the family court system: is evidence-based practice a missing link or host-created knowledge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Dana E

    2013-10-01

    The graduate school curriculum for social workers requires that students learn to critically distinguish between opinion-based knowledge and evidence-based practices, or empirically-supported interventions. Once graduated, licensed social workers are often called upon to offer diagnostic and predictive opinions as experts in a variety of macro-environments. When the family courts are that "host" environment, social workers proffer expert opinions that may categorize and label parents or children for purposes of a judge's allocation of physical or legal custody. In this article, it is suggested that the social work profession, within all three domains of education, practice, and research, should more precisely link the design and fidelity of an evidence-based practice (EBP) with its potential misapplication or warping when proffered as science in "host" environments like family courts. As Foucault and other scholars warn, the failure to verify that an intervention is applied correctly may actually enhance the risk of social injustice by interpreting and translating EBP knowledge in the non-empirical form of authority-by-license. This article, therefore, proposes that the social work profession, from the classroom to the field, has an obligation to thoroughly understand and engage interdisciplinary practices that assure respect for the strengths and limits of social work knowledge.

  2. Research on Social Work Support to the New Generation of Peasant Worker%新生代农民工社会工作支持研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐鸿铃; 齐芳

    2012-01-01

      The 80s new generation of peasant worker need new social support in the economic, social and psychological dimensions relative to the traditional peasant workers . The family and social work, school social work, corporate social work, community social work can provide social services to help the new generation of migrant workers overcome various difficulties in the city.%  作为“80后”的新生代农民工相对于传统农民工在经济、社会和心理层面对社会工作支持有新的利益诉求。社会工作可以从制度、社区、企业、家庭等层面针对该群体从不同角度提供最直接、最基本的社会服务,帮助他们融入城市。

  3. Individuals' perceptions of employment accommodation decisions and solutions: lessons for social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, Helen P; Thurman, Hanna; Cordingly, Kim

    2010-01-01

    Disability rights advocates in social work have claimed that employment opportunities for people with disabilities are an important part of personal empowerment and social inclusion. Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act is aimed at ensuring meaningful employment opportunities are available. Hahn and Raske (2005) state that social work needs to develop a research paradigm that values the inclusion of people with disabilities. This article examines these efforts by incorporating the voices of individuals with disabilities who accessed services at the Job Accommodation Network. Understanding individuals' perspectives could contribute to better accommodation outcomes for people with disabilities, employers, and advocacy professionals alike.

  4. Talking the talk, walking the walk: social network norms, communication patterns, and condom use among the male partners of female sex workers in La Romana, Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Clare; Latkin, Carl; Sweat, Michael D; Moreno, Luis; Ellen, Jonathan; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2009-06-01

    Male partners of female sex workers are rarely targeted by HIV prevention interventions in the commercial sex industry, despite recognition of their central role and power in condom use negotiation. Social networks offer a naturally existing social structure to increase male participation in preventing HIV. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between social network norms and condom use among male partners of female sex workers in La Romana, Dominican Republic. Male partners (N =318) were recruited from 36 sex establishments to participate in a personal network survey. Measures of social network norms included 1) perceived condom use by male social network members and 2) encouragement to use condoms from social network members. Other social network characteristics included composition, density, social support, and communication. The primary behavioral outcome was consistent condom use by male partners with their most recent female sex worker partner during the last 3 months. In general, men reported small, dense networks with high levels of communication about condoms and consistent condom use. Multivariate logistic regression revealed consistent condom use was significantly more likely among male partners who perceived that some or all of their male social network members used condoms consistently. Perceived condom use was, in turn, significantly associated with dense networks, expressing dislike for condoms, and encouragement to use condoms from social network members. Findings suggest that the tight social networks of male partners may help to explain the high level of condom use and could provide an entry point for HIV prevention efforts with men. Such efforts should tap into existing social dynamics and patterns of communication to promote pro-condom norms and reduce HIV-related vulnerability among men and their sexual partners.

  5. Aspen's Global 100: Beyond Grey Pinstripes 2009-2010--Preparing MBAs for Social and Environmental Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspen Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Beyond Grey Pinstripes is a research survey and alternative ranking of business schools that spotlights innovative full-time MBA programs leading the way in integrating social and environmental stewardship into their curriculum and scholarly research. These schools are preparing today's students--tomorrow's leaders--for future market realities by…

  6. Does Ethnicity Matter? Social Workers' Personal Attitudes and Professional Behaviors in Reporting Child Maltreatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ashton, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    .... However, ethnicity had no effect on the likelihood of reporting maltreatment. Findings suggest that social work values override personal-culture values in the execution of job-related responsibilities...

  7. Communication through in-person interpreters: a qualitative study of home care providers' and social workers' views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brämberg, Elisabeth B; Sandman, Lars

    2013-01-01

    To describe the experiences of home care providers and social workers in communication, via in-person interpreters, with patients who do not share a common language, and to offer suggestions for practice based on this description. The use of interpreters is essential for successful communication to provide equal access to health care for patients not sharing a common language with care providers. Successful bilingual communication is probably even more complex within the home care services with its focus on medical treatment, care and daily support in relation to the more exclusive focus on medical treatment within hospital care. An explorative, qualitative, descriptive study. Data were collected in seven focus group interviews. A total of 27 persons, working as registered nurses, assistant nurses and social workers in municipal home care, participated. The analysis was inspired by inductive content analysis. The results express a traditional view on interpretation where the in-person interpreter is supposed to act to a greater or lesser extent as an objective and neutral conduit or communicator of what is said. The interpreter is also expected to observe when medical terms and other concepts need to be explained, which thus exceeds the basic role as a communicator of what was said. This study emphasises the need to view the interpreter as an active and explicit party in a three-way communication. Viewing the interpreter as an active and explicit party in a three-way communication and as an essential part of the care team might reduce the possible threat to patient confidentiality, and could contribute to solve the problem of interpreting the patient's non-verbal signs. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. The effect of social networks and norms on the inter-regional migration intentions of knowledge-workers: The case of Saxony, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaplan, Sigal; Gruenwald, Luise; Hirte, Georg

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the migration intentions of current and future knowledge-workers in Saxony, Germany. A structural equation model (SEM) is applied to analyze the impact of social networks and norms on inter-regional migration, in addition to lifestyle and utilitarian location factors...

  9. Training needs of nurses and social workers in the end-of-life care for people with intellectual disabilities: a national survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkema, N.; Veer, A.J.E. de; Albers, G.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.; Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B.D.; Francke, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nurses and social workers caring for people with intellectual disabilities are increasingly confronted with clients in need of end-of-life care. Previous studies, however, suggest that professionals in intellectual disability care services lack knowledge and experience concerning end-of-

  10. 25 CFR 20.509 - What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... placed in foster care or residential care facility? 20.509 Section 20.509 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN... Assistance Foster Care § 20.509 What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care facility? When a child is placed in foster care or a residential care facility...

  11. School Social Workers' Perceived Understanding of Inner City and Urban Community and Neighborhood Risk and Protective Factors and Effectiveness in Practice Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasley, Martell; Randolph, Karen; Cho, Hyunkag

    2008-01-01

    This is an exploratory study that makes use of survey research methods and a convenience sample (N = 222) to examine how urban school social workers' perceived knowledge of neighborhood and community risk and protective factors affect their levels of self-reported effectiveness in practice tasks. Using hierarchical multiple regression, the…

  12. Continuing Education on Suicide Assessment and Crisis Intervention for Social Workers and Other Mental Health Professionals: A Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirick, Rebecca G.; Bridger, Joanna; McCauley, James; Berkowitz, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Historically, graduate training programs have not taught suicide assessment and intervention skills in depth; therefore, the development of effective continuing education offerings is relevant and necessary for practicing social workers. Although the ability to increase knowledge and confidence is critical, a focus on competency-based education…

  13. Reflecting on adolescents' evolving sexual and reproductive health rights: canvassing the opinion of social workers in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essack, Zaynab; Toohey, Jacintha; Strode, Ann

    2016-05-01

    In South Africa children under the age of 18 are legal minors and considered not fully capable of acting independently. However, in certain defined circumstances the law has granted minors the capacity to act independently, including regarding their sexual and reproductive health (SRH). This study explored the perspectives and practices of 17 social workers from KwaZulu-Natal on legislation relevant to adolescents' evolving sexual and reproductive health and rights and the decriminalisation of consensual underage sex. A key finding was that many social workers have conservative views about adolescent access to SRH advice and services and many were critical of the recent decriminalisation of underage consensual sex. In the main, social workers were concerned that adolescents lack the capacity to make SRH care decisions and that liberal laws promote underage sex rather than protect adolescents. Despite antagonistic views of SRH laws related to adolescents, many social workers felt that they are able to uphold their professional rather than personal views in their work. These findings are important given that a key barrier to adolescent access and uptake of SRH advice and services relates to concerns that they will be judged. Therefore service providers need to be regularly updated on adolescent SRH issues (including rights, laws, and policies) and be engaged in critical thinking about conflicting cultural, moral and personal judgements around adolescent sexuality. Such training should include counselling and communication skills that address issues on confidentiality, adolescents' dignity, privacy and best interests. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Roles of Social Movement Organizations for Securing Workers' Safety in Korea: A Case Study of Abolition of the 30-Minute Delivery Guarantee Program in Pizza Delivery Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Eun; Kim, Myoung-Hee

    2016-07-01

    Many restaurants in Korea maintain quick-delivery service programs to satisfy customers. This service allows delivery workers limited time to deliver, which frequently put them in danger. Most of the workers are young, work part-time, and are rarely organized into trade unions. In this article, through a case study of the social movement to abolish the 30-minute delivery guarantee program of pizza companies in Korea, we argue that social movements involving social movement organizations (SMOs) and individual citizens could serve as a means to rectify this problem. We show how the SMOs developed and expanded the movement using a framing perspective and how the general public became involved through social media. Data was collected via online searching. Interview scripts from key players of SMOs and unofficial documents they provided were also reviewed. Three SMOs primarily led the movement, successfully forming a frame that emphasized social responsibility. SMOs also utilized social media to link their standing frame with unmobilized citizens and to expand the movement. We identified contributing factors and limitations of the movement and drew lessons that could be applied to other sectors where workers are in vulnerable positions.

  15. [NEW INFORMATION FROM EXPERIENCE HYGIENIC EVALUATION OF HIGH TECHNOLOGY PREPARATION NANOMETALS AND POTENTIAL RISKS THEIR INFLUENCE ON THE WORKERS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachtenberg, I M; Yavorovsky, O P; Zinchenko, T O; Shevtsova, V M; Veremey, M I

    2015-01-01

    Identify and prevent possible adverse effects of nanostructures under conditions of industrial production is the primary hygienic problem is not resolved at this time. In order to approach to solve a series of physiological, hygienic and toxicological studies. Study of harmful production factors in different technologies of metal nanoparticles, analyzed the health of workers employed in manufacturing them. Also established specific mechanisms of toxicity of nanosilver nanometals for example, the technique of hygienic control over the content in the air of the working area metal nanoparticles, the data on the existing approaches to the hygienic standardization of nanoscale objects in the breathing zone of workers.

  16. Addressing the social determinants of health: a case study from the Mitanin (community health worker) programme in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Sulakshana; Schneider, Helen

    2014-09-01

    The Mitanin Programme, a government community health worker (CHW) programme, was started in Chhattisgarh State of India in 2002. The CHWs (Mitanins) have consistently adopted roles that go beyond health programme-specific interventions to embrace community mobilization and action on local priorities. The aim of this research was to document how and why the Mitanins have been able to act on the social determinants of health, describing the catalysts and processes involved and the enabling programmatic and organizational factors. A qualitative comparative case study of successful action by Mitanin was conducted in two 'blocks', purposefully selected as positive exemplars in two districts of Chhattisgarh. One case focused on malnutrition and the other on gender-based violence. Data collection involved 17 in-depth interviews and 10 group interviews with the full range of stakeholders in both blocks, including community members and programme team. Thematic analysis was done using a broad conceptual framework that was further refined. Action on social determinants involved raising awareness on rights, mobilizing women's collectives, revitalizing local political structures and social action targeting both the community and government service providers. Through these processes, the Mitanins developed identities as agents of change and advocates for the community, both with respect to local cultural and gender norms and in ensuring accountability of service providers. The factors underpinning successful action on social determinants were identified as the significance of the original intent and vision of the programme, and how this was carried through into all aspects of programme design, the role of the Mitanins and their identification with village women, ongoing training and support, and the relative autonomy of the programme. Although the results are not narrowly generalizable and do not necessarily represent the situation of the Mitanin Programme as a whole, the

  17. Analysis of Migrant Workers'Social Mentality under the View of Social Work---Based on the Data of 436 Migrant Workers in Qingdao%社会工作视阈下农民工社会心态问题探析--基于青岛市436名农民工数据的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘启营; 魏亚楠

    2014-01-01

    According to the survey of 436 migrant workers in Chengyang district of Qingdao ,this paper analyzes the problems of low sense of personal identification ,low social fairness ,low life satisfaction ,low sense of happiness and high career expectation existing in the migrant workers'social mentality .The causes of these problems are various , such as recessive exclusion to migrant workers in cities ,migrant workers'social psychological conflict ,and their low cultural capital .From the perspective of social work ,the countermeasures to solve the problems of migrant workers'social mentality are put forward ,such as to practice the social administrative ideas to meet migrant workers'demands for profits,further develop social service agencies for migrant workers to expand social service platform ,and provide team social work services ,community social work services and case social work services for migrant workers to solve practical problems .%根据对青岛市城阳区436名农民工的调查,分析了农民工社会心态存在的问题:农民工群体的身份认同感低;社会公平感偏低;生活满意度低;幸福感不高;职业期望值偏高。农民工社会心态问题的成因是多方面的,有城市社会隐性排斥、农民工群体的社会心理冲突、农民工自身文化资本不高等原因。从社会工作的视角提出了解决农民工社会心态问题的对策:践行社会行政理念,为农民工群体表达利益诉求;进一步发展服务于农民工群体的社会服务机构,拓展社会服务平台;为农民工群体提供小组社会工作服务、社区社会工作服务和个案社会工作服务,解决现实问题。

  18. Role of social workers to support single mothers: A case study of welfare receivers in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The women who lose their partners normally face tremendous challenges among their parents and in society. Women may lose their husbands for different reasons such as divorce, drug addiction, violence and migration. They may often look to build a new life very quickly but will find out that society does not treat them, properly. It is more difficult to find job and even a job opportunity does not provide sufficient pay. In this paper, we study the impact of different affecting parameters on empowering single mothers such as audacity, social responsibility, trouble shooting, flexibility, stress tolerance, etc. We choose 200 single mothers who receive welfare from the government of Iran and distribute a questionnaire among them based on four different questions associated with social, economical, feeling and empowering. The results indicate that audacity and social responsibility are the most important items while being optimistic, independent and flexibility are counted as having the least impact on empowering single mothers.

  19. Influence of Ethics Education on Moral Reasoning among Pre-Service Teacher Preparation and Social Work Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salopek, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    This comparative case study examines the influence of ethics education on moral reasoning among pre-service teacher preparation and social work students. This study specifically investigates the ethical values of students enrolled in a teacher preparation and social work education program by their fourth year of study; the degree of ethical…

  20. Attitudes towards people with depression and schizophrenia among social service workers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kamilla Bjørkøe; Vendsborg, Per; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mental health-related stigma is a major public health issue, and is an obstacle to the possibility for successful treatment, recovery, and reintegration. AIM: To examine attitudes towards mental illness among employees in the social services. METHODS: The study design was part...

  1. A Competency-Based Approach to Hiring School Counselors, Psychologists and Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Dennis P.; Probst, Carolyn J.

    2016-01-01

    Hiring decisions offer an immense opportunity for school leaders to influence the trajectory of their organizations in the immediate and long-term. However, very few school administrators have appropriate training, if any at all, in how to select the best candidates. Effective hiring for school counselors, psychologists, and social workers…

  2. Does a School Social Worker's Gender Matter? The Experience of Pregnant and Parenting Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio, Robert; Dixon, Donald M.

    2008-01-01

    Nearly one million adolescent girls in the United States become pregnant annually, which has significant negative social and economic consequences. The number of teen pregnancies totals 50,000 in Florida, where state statutes require that these adolescents be provided with ongoing education and other support services in schools. While school…

  3. Training Social Workers and Human Service Professionals to Address the Complex Financial Needs of Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Jodi Jacobson; Hopkins, Karen; Osteen, Philip; Callahan, Christine; Hageman, Sally; Ko, Jungyai

    2017-01-01

    In social work and other community-based human services settings, clients often present with complex financial problems. As a need for more formal training is beginning to be addressed, evaluation of existing training is important, and this study evaluates outcomes from the Financial Stability Pathway (FSP) project. Designed to prepare…

  4. The Criminalization of Domestic Violence: What Social Workers Need To Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danis, Fran S.

    2003-01-01

    This article reviews the social science, legal, and criminal justice literature regarding interventions used to stop domestic violence. Examines the theoretical foundations and effectiveness of police interventions, the use of protective orders, prosecutions and victim advocacy, court responses, and coordinated community responses to domestic…

  5. Social worker involvement in identifying problems and needs of families with mentally ill members

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalčíková N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to explore the impact of schizophrenia on the life of the patient and his family, in particular, which problems people with schizophrenia and their families face. We applied a qualitative research strategy and method of semi-structured interview. Qualitative analysis of the data demonstrated barriers in the working and financial areas of life of people with schizophrenia. In addition, schizophrenia negatively affects social interactions of patients which lead to their social isolation which is also derived from barriers at work. Families with this kind of patient suffer mainly in the economic sphere of life with the necessity to leave the job and take care of an ill member. These families also suffer from isolation, restriction of social contacts, reduction of free-time activities, and many other problems included within the barriers in social interactions. Family members suffer psychological stress and they badly cope with the situation if the ill member is hospitalized. In addition, the family meets with the structural discrimination in the form of lack of information about the disease, lack of day care centres network and similar barriers in communication with physicians and the other professionals.

  6. Modulation of social interactions by immune stimulation in honey bee, Apis mellifera, workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubert A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immune response pathways have been relatively well-conserved across animal species, with similar systems in both mammals and invertebrates. Interestingly, honey bees have substantially reduced numbers of genes associated with immune function compared with solitary insect species. However, social species such as honey bees provide an excellent environment for pathogen or parasite transmission with controlled environmental conditions in the hive, high population densities, and frequent interactions. This suggests that honey bees may have developed complementary mechanisms, such as behavioral modifications, to deal with disease. Results Here, we demonstrate that activation of the immune system in honey bees (using bacterial lipopolysaccharides as a non-replicative pathogen alters the social responses of healthy nestmates toward the treated individuals. Furthermore, treated individuals expressed significant differences in overall cuticular hydrocarbon profiles compared with controls. Finally, coating healthy individuals with extracts containing cuticular hydrocarbons of immunostimulated individuals significantly increased the agonistic responses of nestmates. Conclusion Since cuticular hydrocarbons play a critical role in nestmate recognition and other social interactions in a wide variety of insect species, modulation of such chemical profiles by the activation of the immune system could play a crucial role in the social regulation of pathogen dissemination within the colony.

  7. Hospital Bioethics: A Beginning Knowledge Base for the Neonatal Social Worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Ed

    1992-01-01

    Notes that life-saving advances in medicine have created difficult ethical and legal dilemmas for health care professionals. Presents beginning knowledge base for bioethical practice, especially in hospital neonatal units. Outlines key elements of bioethical decision making and examines potential social work role from clinical and organizational…

  8. The Right of Psychiatric Patients to Refuse Medication: Where Should Social Workers Stand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Kia J.

    1993-01-01

    Addresses differences among competence, commitment, and mental illness; the right to privacy; and the prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment. Reviews professional motivations in relation to both sides of controversy over rights of psychiatric patients to refuse medication. Presents position for social work profession that stands for…

  9. Future Law Enforcement Officers and Social Workers: Perceptions of Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Elizabeth C.; Carlan, Philip E.; Nored, Lisa S.

    2010-01-01

    This study compares perceptions of domestic violence for college students planning to work in law enforcement with students aspiring to careers in social work and non-law-enforcement criminal justice (N = 491). The study involves students attending four public universities across one Southern state who completed a survey (spring of 2006) measuring…

  10. Future Law Enforcement Officers and Social Workers: Perceptions of Domestic Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Elizabeth C.; Carlan, Philip E.; Nored, Lisa S.

    2010-01-01

    This study compares perceptions of domestic violence for college students planning to work in law enforcement with students aspiring to careers in social work and non-law-enforcement criminal justice (N = 491). The study involves students attending four public universities across one Southern state who completed a survey (spring of 2006) measuring…

  11. Using Social Semiotics to Prepare Mathematics Teachers to Teach for Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Elizabeth; Zolkower, Betina

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we propose that guiding teachers to examine the regulative/discursive norms of school mathematics with tools derived from social semiotics can serve two related goals: (1) to deconstruct the "math is math period!" disposition in prospective teachers by promoting their critical understanding of the symbolic domination work they…

  12. Condom Use During Commercial Sex Among Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in Sichuan China: A Social Cognitive Theory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Yang, Cui; Latkin, Carl A; Luan, Rongsheng; Nelson, Kenrad E

    2016-10-01

    There has been little theory-based research focusing on condom use among male clients of female sex workers (CFSW) in China. The current study applied social cognitive theory to condom use behaviors of CFSW in China. Face-to-face structured interviews were conducted among 584 CFSW recruited through snowball sampling. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression models were applied to examine factors associated with consistent condom use. A minority (30.65 %) of respondents reported using condoms consistently with FSW, and 7 of 12 social cognitive dimensions/subdimensions were found to be significantly influential. The most significant factors were self-efficacy [adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) = 2.11, 95 %, CI = 1.74-2.43] and personal pleasure reduction (APR = 0.3, 95 % CI = 0.15-0.6). HIV-related knowledge, perceived HIV susceptibility, condom cost, condom efficacy, and embarrassment of carrying condoms were not associated with consistent condom uses with FSW. Findings from the current study suggest future prevention programs should target sex venues, and condom access should ensure both quantity and quality. Peer education should focus on knowledge education and peer norms, and knowledge education should include information on HIV infection severity and how to increase pleasure with condom use.

  13. Social Structures and the Occupational Composition of Skilled Worker Immigrants to Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Dryburgh

    2005-12-01

    structures that influence the composition of the economic immigrant population over time. Over the last 20 years, economic immigrants to Canada have faced changing selection policies, cycles of economic recession and growth, increased demand for information technology skills, women’s increased labour force participation and an aging labour force. Using data from Statistics Canada’s Longitudinal Immigration Database (IMDB, this paper examines the flow of economic immigrants to Canada by their occupational composition from 1980 to 2000. Relative to Canadians, when all immigrants from this period are grouped together, their economic integration is slow and does not reach parity with Canadians before 16 years. Among skilled worker immigrants, whereas the earlier cohorts did well but did not improve much over time, later cohorts started off in a relatively worse position, but early indications show a fairly steep slope to better relative average earnings. These differences support the need to examine immigrant integration by both the class of immigrant and the context at the time of immigration.

  14. Socially-pedagogical terms of preparation of senior pupils to service in Military Powers of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryutin V.V.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The problem of preparation of senior pupils is investigational to military service. The social pedagogical terms of preparation of senior pupils are certain to military service. Adequate psychological pedagogical measures are developed on overcoming of tendency of subzero perception by the senior pupils of service in Military Powers of Ukraine. Basic directions the personal interest are rotined in harmonious, valuable psychical and physical development of the Ukrainian young people. The national orientation of military patriotic education of senior pupils is marked. It is based on ethnology and regional principles of education, respect to history of the people and state.

  15. A concept mapping exploration of social workers' and mental health nurses' understanding of the role of the Approved Mental Health Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressington, Daniel T; Wells, Harvey; Graham, Matthew

    2011-08-01

    This study uses concept mapping and participant interviews to explore how differing professional viewpoints and levels of knowledge held by social workers and mental health nurses affect perceptions of the Approved Mental Health Professional (AMHP) role during an interprofessional training programme. The results suggest that social workers entering the programme had a greater understanding of the role in comparison to mental health nurses; however, on completion of the programme, both professional groups demonstrated similar levels of learning. The study challenges assumptions that nurses may be inherently disadvantaged by their professional background in terms of learning about a role that is traditionally associated with social work practice. Study participants valued the concept mapping process and felt that the approach may be a valuable tool for clinical supervision.

  16. 'We talk, we do not have shame': addressing stigma by reconstructing identity through enhancing social cohesion among female sex workers living with HIV in the Dominican Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, Maria Augusta; Barrington, Clare; Kennedy, Caitlin; Perez, Martha; Donastorg, Yeycy; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2016-10-20

    This study explores social cohesion as a strategy used by female sex workers to address layered HIV and sex work-related stigma. Data derive from a thematic analysis of 23 in-depth interviews and 2 focus groups with female sex workers living with HIV enrolled in a multi-level HIV/STI prevention, treatment and care intervention in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Drawing on Foucault's conceptualisation of modern power, discipline and resistance, we argue that social cohesion provides the psychosocial space (of trust, solidarity and mutual aid) to subvert oppressive societal norms, enabling the reconstruction of identity. Among study participants, identity reconstruction happened through the production, repetition and performance of new de-stigmatised narratives that emerged and were solidified through collective interaction. Findings highlight that enabling the collective reconstruction of identity through social cohesion - rather than solely attempting to change individual beliefs - is a successful approach to addressing stigma.

  17. Health promotion viewed as processes of subjectification in the education of Danish Social and Healthcare Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehn-Christiansen, Sine

    2011-01-01

    analysis and post-structuralist theory, the article explores the processes of subjectification that result from the practices of health promotion within this particular educational setting. The article reveals how health promotion is transformed into an educational technology and is thus utilised to solve...... problems of both a social and moral character. It is shown how health promotion has a thorough impact on the students' possibilities of coming into being as ( professional) subjects. The article points to the conclusion that in this particular educational setting, health promotion constitutes......This article explores how health promotion is practised within a specific educational setting: the Danish Social and Health Education Programme. Here, health promotion is formally conceived as a strategy aimed at citizens - not at the students themselves. However, the students are generally...

  18. Expressing and responding to self-efficacy in client–social worker interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danneris, Sophie; Dall, Tanja

    2017-01-01

    -efficacy is important is not enough; knowing how to support self-efficacy becomes crucial. Based on observational data material from a qualitative study following 14 Danish vulnerable welfare recipients, we find that employability self-efficacy can be expressed by clients in strong, weak or ambiguous ways......Self-efficacy is a pivotal element when the long-term unemployed are to increase their chances of labour market participation, making the ways in which clients’ beliefs in their capabilities are reflected in the delivery of public employment services particularly relevant. While existing research...... has pointed to the importance of both meetings with social services and self-efficacy for return to work, little knowledge exists on how self-efficacy is managed in these meetings. However, if social work professionals are to effectively enhance clients’ self-efficacy, knowing that self...

  19. Comparing Students to Workers : The Effects of Social Framing on Behavior in Distribution Games

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, Jeffrey P.; Burks, Stephen V.; Verhoogen, Eric A.

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the external validity of Ultimatum and Dictator game behavior we conduct experiments in field settings with naturally occurring variation in 'social framing.' Our participants are students at Middlebury College, non-traditional students at Kansas City Kansas Community College (KCKCC), and employees at a Kansas City distribution center. Ultimatum game offers are ordered: KCKCC > employee > Middlebury. In the Dictator game employees are more generous than students in either locat...

  20. Entering the (Postgraduate) Field: Underrepresented Students' Acquisition of Cultural and Social Capital in Graduate School Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle; McCoy, Dorian L.

    2016-01-01

    Examining the role of humanities graduate preparation programs in facilitating underrepresented undergraduate students' socialization to the field (social context) of graduate education, this critical multisite case study finds that these programs are crucial to bidirectional anticipatory socialization for graduate education, where one gains new…

  1. A review on the occupational health and social security of unorganized workers in the construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, Guddi; Gangopadhyay, P K

    2011-01-01

    Construction is one of the important industries employing a large number of people on its workforce. A wide range of activities are involved in it. Due to the advent of industrialization and recent developments, this industry is taking a pivotal role for construction of buildings, roads, bridges, and so forth. The workers engaged in this industry are victims of different occupational disorders and psychosocial stresses. In India, they belong to the organized and unorganized sectors. However, data in respect to occupational health and psychosocial stress are scanty in our country. It is true that a sizable number of the workforce is from the unorganized sectors - the working hours are more than the stipulated hours of work - the work place is not proper - the working conditions are non-congenial in most of the cases and involve risk factors. Their wages are also not adequate, making it difficult for them to run their families. The hazards include handling of different materials required for construction, and exposure to harsh environmental conditions like sun, rain, and so on. On account of this, in adverse conditions, it results in accidents and adverse health conditions cause psychosocial strain and the like. They are victims of headache, backache, joint pains, skin diseases, lung disorders like silicosis, other muscular skeletal disorders, and so on. The repetitive nature of the work causes boredom and the disproportionate earning compared to the requirements puts them under psychological stress and strain and other abnormal behavioral disorders. The Government of India has realized the importance of this industry and has promulgated an Act in 1996. The state government are being asked to adhere to this, although only a few states have partially enforced it. In this article, attempts have been made to review some of the important available articles for giving a broad idea of the problem and for furtherance of research in this field.

  2. Social and cultural contexts of HIV risk behaviors among Thai female sex workers in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemoto, Tooru; Iwamoto, Mariko; Sakata, Maria; Perngparn, Usaneya; Areesantichai, Chitlada

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the number of indirect female sex workers (FSWs) who work at bars/clubs and massage parlors is substantially increasing in Thailand; however, there are huge gaps in knowledge about HIV risk behaviors among indirect FSWs. This study aimed to describe and understand HIV risk behaviors among Thai FSWs in Bangkok in relation to sociocultural factors and work environment (e.g., bars/clubs, massage parlors, brothels, and street). Based on venue-based purposive sampling methods, Thai FSWs were recruited for qualitative interviews (n=50) and survey interviews (n=205). Based on mixed methods, the study revealed that HIV risk and substance use behaviors among FSWs significantly differed depending on work venues, although there were no significant differences between work venues on some key risk behaviors (e.g., inconsistent condom use with primary partners and customers; willingness to engage in unsafe sex with customers). A multiple linear regression analysis revealed that FSWs who had used illicit drugs, were young, had low levels of self-esteem, or reported STIs had frequently engaged in unprotected vaginal sex with customers. Also, FSWs who worked at bars/clubs, were young, had higher income, or reported STIs had frequently engaged in sex with customers under the influence of alcohol. Qualitative interviews illustrated FSWs' alcohol and drug use due to their stressful life (e.g., long working hours and a large number of customers) and easy access to alcohol and drugs. FSWs had shown inaccurate knowledge about HIV prevention methods and engaged in risky behaviors, such as washing vagina with water or toothpaste after having had sex with customers. The HIV prevention strategies in Thailand need to be re-structured through implementing evidence-based HIV prevention intervention programs for FSWs, which must address sociocultural factors (e.g., self-esteem) and alcohol and drug use specific to work venues.

  3. A review on the occupational health and social security of unorganized workers in the construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guddi Tiwary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction is one of the important industries employing a large number of people on its workforce. A wide range of activities are involved in it. Due to the advent of industrialization and recent developments, this industry is taking a pivotal role for construction of buildings, roads, bridges, and so forth. The workers engaged in this industry are victims of different occupational disorders and psychosocial stresses. In India, they belong to the organized and unorganized sectors. However, data in respect to occupational health and psychosocial stress are scanty in our country. It is true that a sizable number of the workforce is from the unorganized sectors − the working hours are more than the stipulated hours of work - the work place is not proper − the working conditions are non-congenial in most of the cases and involve risk factors. Their wages are also not adequate, making it difficult for them to run their families. The hazards include handling of different materials required for construction, and exposure to harsh environmental conditions like sun, rain, and so on. On account of this, in adverse conditions, it results in accidents and adverse health conditions cause psychosocial strain and the like. They are victims of headache, backache, joint pains, skin diseases, lung disorders like silicosis, other muscular skeletal disorders, and so on. The repetitive nature of the work causes boredom and the disproportionate earning compared to the requirements puts them under psychological stress and strain and other abnormal behavioral disorders. The Government of India has realized the importance of this industry and has promulgated an Act in 1996. The state government are being asked to adhere to this, although only a few states have partially enforced it. In this article, attempts have been made to review some of the important available articles for giving a broad idea of the problem and for furtherance of research in this field.

  4. Qualitative Study on Clinico-Social Problems of Brick-Kiln Workers: A Study from Anand-Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar Sharma, Arun Varun, Mansi Patel

    2013-01-01

    Results: In the current study it was found that the condition of these migrant brick kiln workers is very pathetic on account of number of conditions. All the workers were migrant and marginal workers with migration duration of 8 months every year and then they are going back to the native place. These workers were mostly illiterate or had primary education. Females were unedu-cated. These workers are getting daily wages and there is no holi-day as such. The days these workers don’t work are non-paid days. Almost all these workers complained of bodily pains. Children in these families are usually suffering from respiratory tract infections, diarrhea and intestinal infections. Conclusions: Irrespective of the migration status, local gover-nance should do something for their benefit and health so that some decent work can be ensured.

  5. ALEXEY IVANOVICH MAKUSHIN – NOBLE DOCTOR AND SOCIAL WORKER (THE 150TH ANNIVERSARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Mendrina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to eminent doctor and social activist; depute of I Dumas of Russia, First in Tomsk duma doctor for providing free medical assistance for poor people, the only head of town not from merchant class, which Tomsk is obliged for conducting water supply and electric light. One of founders Tomsk Society of practical doctors, author of textbook «Course of hygiene for secondary schools as a manual for hygiene discussions with students» and «Eye diseases».

  6. 城市农民工社会排斥问题研究%The Study of Social Exclusion Problem for Migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨风

    2014-01-01

    综述社会排斥内涵与方式的基础上,从经济、社会、政治、文化、社会关系五个层面描述城市农民工社会排斥问题。从认识、户籍制度、管理政策、农民工人力资本和社会资本五个方面分析城市农民工社会排斥的原因。提出缓解城市农民工社会排斥问题的对策与建议。%This paper reviews the connotation and ways of social exclusion. It comprehensively analyzes social exclusion for migrant workers from five aspects of economic, social, political, cultural, and social relations. We summarize the reasons of social exclusion for migrant workers from cognition, household registration system, management policy, their own qualities and social capital. Countermeasures to cut social exclusion are proposed in the end.

  7. An evaluation of the effect of an educational intervention for Australian social workers on competence in delivering brief cognitive behavioural strategies: A randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moulding R

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Broad community access to high quality evidence-based primary mental health care is an ongoing challenge around the world. In Australia one approach has been to broaden access to care by funding psychologists and other allied health care professionals to deliver brief psychological treatments to general practitioners' patients. To date, there has been a scarcity of studies assessing the efficacy of social worker delivered psychological strategies. This study aims to build the evidence base by evaluating the impact of a brief educational intervention on social workers' competence in delivering cognitive behavioural strategies (strategies derived from cognitive behavioural therapy. Methods A randomised controlled trial design was undertaken with baseline and one-week follow-up measurement of both objective and self-perceived competence. Simulated consultations with standardised depressed patients were recorded on videotape and objective competence was assessed by blinded reviewers using the Cognitive Therapy Scale. Questionnaires completed by participants were used to measure self-perceived competence. The training intervention was a 15 hour face-to-face course involving presentations, video example consultations, written materials and rehearsal of skills in pairs. Results 40 Melbourne-based (Australia social workers enrolled and were randomised and 9 of these withdrew from the study before the pre training simulated consultation. 30 of the remaining 31 social workers (97% completed all phases of the intervention and evaluation protocol (16 from intervention and 14 from control group. The intervention group showed significantly greater improvements than the control group in objective competence (mean improvement of 14.2 (7.38-21.02 on the 66 point Cognitive Therapy Scale and in subjective confidence (mean improvement of 1.28 (0.84-1.72 on a 5 point Likert scale. On average, the intervention group improved from below to above

  8. Let’s Talk About Same Sex: How Social Workers Can Make Judges Listen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K. Boys

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have created a diverse toolbox of literature reporting that same sex cohabitating relationships are strikingly similar to heterosexual marriages in amicus curiae briefs submitted to the courts. However, judges are trained to fit information into legal frameworks and to ignore data that does not fit the rhetoric of a case. The following article aims to fit existing data on same sex relationships into the framework judges will use to decide whether same sex marriage can be prohibited. The primary precedent used to support same sex marriage is based on the analogy of a case prohibiting marriage discrimination based on race. The legal framework created by this case requires social work policy practitioners to frame research in terms of the evolution that has occurred in scientific understanding of same sex attraction and public opinion. A simple shift in the discourse used to frame the data can significantly impact whether judges listen.

  9. Effect of 5-HT2A Receptor Polymorphisms, Work Stressors, and Social Support on Job Strain among Petroleum Workers in Xinjiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Tang, Jinhua; Li, Rong; Zhao, Junling; Song, Zhixin; Ge, Hua; Lian, Yulong; Liu, Jiwen

    2016-12-19

    Previous studies have shown that work stressors and social support influence job strain. However, few studies have examined the impact of individual differences on job strain. In Xinjiang, there are a large number of petroleum workers in arid deserts. The present study investigated the effects of work stressors, social support, and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HTR2A) genotype on the etiology of job strain among petroleum workers in Xinjiang. A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and August 2013. A total of 700 workers were selected by a three-stage stratified sampling method. 5-HTR2A genotypes were determined with the SNaPshot single nucleotide polymorphism assay. Work stressors and job strain were evaluated with the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised questionnaire. Social support was assessed with the Chinese Social Support Rating Scale. Work overload and responsibility were significantly associated with job strain. Low social support was associated with severe vocational and interpersonal strain. High social support was a protective factor against job strain (odds ratio (OR) = 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14-0.76). The CC genotype of rs6313 and the AA genotype of rs2070040 were linked to severe vocational strain. Ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed that the CC genotype of rs6313 was linked to higher risk of job strain than the TT genotype (OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.10-3.23). These data provide evidence that work stressors, low social support, and 5-HTR2A gene polymorphism contributes to the risk of job strain.

  10. Effect of 5-HT2A Receptor Polymorphisms, Work Stressors, and Social Support on Job Strain among Petroleum Workers in Xinjiang, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yu; Tang, Jinhua; Li, Rong; Zhao, Junling; Song, Zhixin; Ge, Hua; Lian, Yulong; Liu, Jiwen

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that work stressors and social support influence job strain. However, few studies have examined the impact of individual differences on job strain. In Xinjiang, there are a large number of petroleum workers in arid deserts. The present study investigated the effects of work stressors, social support, and 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HTR2A) genotype on the etiology of job strain among petroleum workers in Xinjiang. A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and August 2013. A total of 700 workers were selected by a three-stage stratified sampling method. 5-HTR2A genotypes were determined with the SNaPshot single nucleotide polymorphism assay. Work stressors and job strain were evaluated with the Occupational Stress Inventory-Revised questionnaire. Social support was assessed with the Chinese Social Support Rating Scale. Work overload and responsibility were significantly associated with job strain. Low social support was associated with severe vocational and interpersonal strain. High social support was a protective factor against job strain (odds ratio (OR) = 0.32, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.14–0.76). The CC genotype of rs6313 and the AA genotype of rs2070040 were linked to severe vocational strain. Ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed that the CC genotype of rs6313 was linked to higher risk of job strain than the TT genotype (OR = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.10–3.23). These data provide evidence that work stressors, low social support, and 5-HTR2A gene polymorphism contributes to the risk of job strain. PMID:27999378

  11. A behaviour sentinel surveillance for female sex workers in the Social Hygiene Service in Hong Kong (1999-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Michael Kam Tim; Ho, King Man; Lo, Kuen Kong

    2002-12-01

    Behavioural serial sentinel surveillance survey for female sex workers (FSWs) was carried out in the Government Social Hygiene Clinics in Hong Kong during 1999 and 2000. A total of 1366 and 1451 FSWs participated in the questionnaire survey respectively. The results showed that the majority of FSWs attending the clinics were of Chinese ethnicity (83.8%, 87.6%) while Thai (13.0%, 9.49%) and Filipino (2.1%, 2.7%) were the main foreign ethnic groups. The karaoke night club was the most frequent reported workplace (32.0%, 32.6%) followed by a club (8.9%, 11.7%) and free-lancing (8.6%, 9.0%). The proportion of FSWs who always used condoms in vaginal sex with commercial sex partners was 70.9% and 75.0% respectively (P=0.038). Compared with previous results, a rising trend of condom use by FSWs in commercial sex was observed. However, there was a relatively low condom use during commercial oral sexual intercourse (30.7%, 36.6%) and sex with their regular sex partners in all forms of sexual activities. Client dislike is the main attributed factor for not wearing condoms. The point prevalence of both infectious syphilis and HIV infection was 0.1% in both years. These data are useful for planning, resource allocation and evaluation of outreach activities and STI services targeting at FSWs and their clients. They provide a sampling framework for further surveillance.

  12. Role of Medical Social Workers in Management of Anxiety and Stress Among Blood Donors with Transfusion Transmissible Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umakanth Siromani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Blood transfusion is a life-saving intervention and millions of lives are saved each year globally through this procedure. Unsafe transfusion practices put millions of people at risk of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs and it is mandatory to test the donated blood for blood borne infectious diseases. This is an alarming situation requiring immediate action in appropriate counseling of donors before and after testing of their blood. It is really a challenge for blood banks and motivators if a blood donor is positive for infectious diseases. What is the role of blood bank in helping or guiding the donors to overcome their anxiety and stress? How a medical social worker could psychologically support and guide them to act as cause ambassadors for voluntary blood donation? Guidance and counseling would help them to live positively. Health education, compassionate care and teaching coping mechanisms would encourage them in overcoming their stress and anxiety. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(1.000: 87-88

  13. Compassion Fatigue Following the September 11 Terrorist Attacks: A Study of Secondary Trauma among New York City Social Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscarino, Joseph A.; Figley, Charles R.; Adams, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Experience suggests that individuals working in the caring and psychotherapeutic professions are among those to provide mental health services to disaster victims suffering from psychological trauma following catastrophic events. Yet, few studies have focused on the emotional exhaustion from working with such clients, referred to as compassion fatigue (CF) in this study, and how CF differs from other occupational hazards, such as secondary trauma (ST) and job burnout. In the present study, we used recently validated scales to predict ST and job burnout related to providing services to those affected by the World Trade Center (WTC) attacks. Our study data were based on a random survey of 236 social workers living in New York City (NYC), over 80% of which reported being involved in post-WTC disaster counseling efforts. Our analyses indicated that controlling for demographic factors, years of counseling, and personal trauma history, ST was positively associated with WTC recovery involvement (p < .001) and negatively associated with having a supportive work environment (p < .01). In contrast, job burnout was negatively associated with having a supportive work environment (p < .01), but not associated with WTC involvement or WTC counseling efforts. We discuss these results in light of future conceptual and empirical research needs. PMID:15298076

  14. Mobile cultures of migrant workers in Southern China: Informal literacies in the negotiation of (new) social relations of the new working women

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, A; Lin, A

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the data collected through in-depth interviews of migrant workers in Southern China about their mobile cultures. In particular, we focus on understanding the role that mobile cultures play in female workers’ negotiation of their social and romantic relations and leisure space and how these negotiations are directly or indirectly facilitated by development of informal literacies through their frequent short message service communicative practices. These will help us u...

  15. Meeting Report: Institute for Social Security and Services for State Workers (ISSSTE) on Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia, Mexico City, Mexico, 3rd to 4th October 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarado Ibarra Martha; Aguilar Andrade Carolina; Báez Islas Pamela Elena; Cervantes Sánchez Israel; Chávez Aguilar Lénica Anahí; Choque Condori Diana Ingrith; de la Rosa Cano María Luisa; Espitia Ríos María Flores Villegas Luz Victoria; García Camacho Alinka Socorro; Gómez Rosas Patricia; Grimaldo Gómez Flavio Adrián; Hernández Ruiz Eleazar; Loera Fragoso Sergio José; Mena Zepeda Verónica; Merino Pasaye, Laura Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    From October 3 to 4, 2016, the fourth meeting of haematologists who belonged to the institute for social security and services for state workers (ISSSTE) was held, the meeting was held in Mexico City, Mexico. Attending this working meeting, medical fellows of the specialty of Haematology and Paediatric Haematology, as well as attached doctors of both specialties that work in different hospitals in Mexico City and the rest of the country, the purpose of the attendees to this consensus was disc...

  16. Employment models in social enterprises : does the mission matter for job quality, discrimination, and motivations of workers in low-skilled positions ?

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Social enterprises (SEs) represent a consequent number of jobs and are being established in increasingly diverse types of industries. Besides, employers and workers are starting to structure themselves in more visible and identifiable professional organizations. In this context, the existence of a specific employment model in SEs may be discussed, particularly with regards to (low-skilled) job quality. Nowadays, this question is even of upmost importance because such organizations are more an...

  17. EVOLUTIONARY EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE FOR SOCIAL WORKERS: STATUS AND THE PSYCHOLOGY OF GROUP VIOLENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyd Patterson Jr.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The significance of status Between nations and across cultures, threats to the social status of an individual or group motivate retaliatory violence. History provides countless examples of such violence, committed at all levels of society. Whether orchestrated by individuals or governments, the perpetrators almost invariably justify the violence as a necessary response to an existential threat. “Cultures of honor” such as the Southeastern United States condone the use of violence to protect one’s reputation and, unsurprisingly, this region of America has consistently produced the highest levels of per capita violence in the entire country.Additionally, religious texts warn of the destructive power of “pride,” placing it with envy, greed, wrath, lust, gluttony and sloth as one of the Seven Deadly Sins. Our personal experiences with road rage, school bullies and office politics all provide a regular stream of anecdotal evidence of the inexplicably powerful emotions driving those whose status has been threatened. As a former mental health counselor, criminal prosecutor and gang task force coordinator in the Southeastern United States, this author has personally observed numerous examples of pride’s destructive influence. Deadly bar fights, domestic violence and street gang conflicts frequently ensue from seemingly trivial offenses to one’s status. In American cities,simply spray painting over a rival gang’s graffiti can lead to retaliation murder. In fact, gang retaliation plays out so consistently that when a gang entrenched neighborhood gets shot up, the police can usually predict which neighborhood they will respond to for the next shooting.

  18. 基于《社会保险法》的农民工社会保险对策%Social Security of Migrant Workers Based on Social Security Law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李梅

    2012-01-01

    深入剖析了《社会保险法》关于农民工社会保险的主要突破,指出《社会保险法》的颁布实施,对于切实解决农民工的社会保险问题,更好地维护农民工参加社会保险和享受社会保险待遇的合法权益,逐步融入城市,促进社会主义和谐社会建设,具有十分重要的意义,进而提出了切实保障农民工社会保险权益的对策建议.%The paper deeply explored the breakthrough of the Social Security Law in the social security interests of migrant workers. The implementation of Social Security Law had great significance to solving the problems in the social insurance of migrant workers, better protecling the lawful rights of migrant workers to participate social insurance, enjoy its treatment and integrate into the urban life, and promoting the construction of harmonious socialist society.

  19. The connection between illness representations of Alzheimer's disease and burnout among social workers and nurses in nursing homes and hospitals: a mixed-methods investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinan-Altman, Shiri; Werner, Perla; Cohen, Miri

    2016-01-01

    To examine the relationship between Alzheimer's disease (AD) illness representations and burnout among social workers and nurses, based on the self-regulatory model. A mixed-methods study was conducted. First, 327 social workers and nurses completed measures of cognitive and emotional representations, burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, lack of personal accomplishment), role variables, knowledge about AD, emotion-focused coping, problem-focused coping, and demographic and occupational characteristics. Second, interviews were conducted with eight social workers and nurses to uncover their perceptions about AD and their burnout experience. Using structural equation modeling and controlling background variables, findings indicated that emotional representations were associated with burnout while only some of the cognitive illness representations were associated with burnout. While cognitive illness representations were associated directly to burnout, the association between emotional representations and burnout was mediated by emotion-focused coping. The trimmed model showed a good fit of the data and explained 32.2% of the variance in emotion-focused coping, 51% of the variance in emotional exhaustion, 37.7% of the variance in depersonalization, and 22.6% of the variance in lack of personal accomplishment. Interviews demonstrated that AD characteristics were perceived as affecting participants on both personal and professional levels; the participants expressed negative feelings towards AD and stated that these perceptions and feelings had led them to burnout. AD illness representations may be a risk factor for developing burnout. New directions for intervention programs, aiming to reduce burnout, should be examined.

  20. The promise and peril of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): using social science to inform prep interventions among female sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L; Robertson Bazzi, Angela M; Scheibe, Andrew; Adebajo, Sylvia; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2014-09-01

    Advances in biomedical interventions to prevent HIV offer great promise in reducing the number of new infections across sub- Saharan Africa, particularly among vulnerable populations such as female sex workers. Several recent trials testing pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have demonstrated efficacy, although others have been stopped early for futility. Given the importance and complexities of social and behavioural factors that influence biomedical approaches to prevention, we discuss several key areas of consideration moving forward, including trial participation, adherence strategies, social relationships, and the structural factors that shape PrEP interest, use, and potential effectiveness among female sex workers in sub-Saharan Africa. Our review highlights the importance of involving social scientists in clinical and community-based research on PrEP. We advocate for a shift away from a singular "re-medicalization" of the HIV epidemic to that of a "reintegration" of interdisciplinary approaches to prevention that could benefit female sex workers and other key populations at risk of acquiring HIV.

  1. The medical officer of health, the social worker, and the problem family, 1943 to 1968: the case of family service units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, P

    1998-12-01

    It has sometimes been assumed that the Report of the Seebohm Committee on the Local Authority and Allied Personal Social Services of 1968 and subsequent Local Authority (Social Services) Reorganization signalled a reduction in the influence of Medical Officers of Health in the care of poor and disorganized families and an increase in that of social workers. This article considers the role of Medical Officers of Health in the care of such families in the period after the Second World War, and their relationship with one of the key voluntary social work agencies in the field, Pacifist Service Units/Family Service Units. By examining the shift in responsibility from public health doctors to social workers and using the Bristol Family Service Unit as a case study, it argues that in many areas the Children and Young Persons Act of 1963 was used formally to transfer responsibility for such families to the Children's Departments and that the process was complete before the Seebohm Committee reported in 1968. It also suggests that those families in difficulty who remained the responsibility of the Public Health Department, and who were thought to have increased in number during the course of the 1960s, presented health visitors and public health doctors with a different range of problems, although they continued to be labelled problem families.

  2. 社会工作者职业心理素质结构探析%Social workers professional psychological quality structure analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晶晶

    2015-01-01

    社会工作者的职业心理素质是影响其职业发展的关键因素。本文讨论了社会工作职业心理素质的概念,结合社会工作职业的独特性,探析社会工作者职业心理素质的结构维度,将社会工作者职业心理素质结构划分为四个维度,每个维度中包含五个因素,并进一步讨论了每个维度中包含的五个因素与其对应的职业特征。%The social workers’ professional psychological quality is the key factor that affects the career development. This article discussed the concept of the psychological quality of the social work profession, combined with the uniqueness of the social work profession, analyze the structure of social workers professional psychological quality, divided social workers professional psychological quality structure into four dimensions, each dimension contains five factors, and discussed the five factors and their characteristics.

  3. The protective functions of relationships, social support and self-esteem in the life satisfaction of children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Daniel Fu Keung; Chang, Yingli; He, Xuesong; Wu, Qiaobing

    2010-03-01

    At present, China has approximately 20 million migrant school-aged children accompanying their parents in relocating to the cities. However, very little is known about them. Using a resilience framework, the present study attempted to examine the psychosocial factors affecting their life satisfaction in Shanghai, China. A total of 625 migrant children were recruited from 10 schools in Shanghai through a cross-sectional survey design using multi-stage cluster sampling method. The questionnaire included measures of life satisfaction, self-esteem, social support, relationships at school and the parent-child and peer relationships. Hierarchical regression analysis was performed to explore the relative effects of different relationship domains, self-esteem and social support on the life satisfaction of migrant children. The results suggested that parent-child and peer relationships significantly influenced the life satisfaction of children of migrant workers. Relationships in school did not exert such effect. Both social support and self-esteem had significant effects on the life satisfaction of migrant children. Relationship factors, social support and self-esteem are critical factors affecting the life satisfaction of migrant children. The findings and implications were discussed in relation to developmental and migration-related issues and the social contexts of the lives of children of migrant workers in Shanghai, China.

  4. BNFL's experience in preparing and implementing radiation protection programmes for the control of exposure to workers involved with the international transport of nuclear cargoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billing, D. [Spent Fuel Services, British Nuclear Fuels plc, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2004-07-01

    BNFL International Transport have successfully developed appropriate Radiation Protection Programmes for their business. The business supports BNFL's worldwide Nuclear Fuel Services with key customer bases in Europe, Japan and the UK, utilising marine, rail and road modal transports. Experience in the business spans over 4 decades. The preparation of RPP's for each aspect of its operations has been made relatively straight forward in that the key elements within the internationally recognised model RPP (by WNTI) were already in place in BNFL's procedures to satisfy current National UK and International Regulations. Arrangements are supported by Management systems which comply with International Standards for Quality Assurance. Exposure to key worker groups continues to be within Category 1 (less than 1mSv/y) of the IAEA Transport Regulations TS-R-1 (ST-1 revised).

  5. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  6. Disaster preparation and the functioning of a hospital social work department during the Gulf War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Shahar, I

    1993-01-01

    The nature of the Gulf War and its consequences for the public at the personal and community levels, called for considerable alterations in organization and management at the Chaim Sheba Medical Center, the largest government general hospital in Israel, with constant adaptation to the changing situation. The preparations and exercises preceding the state of emergency, combined with the knowledge and experience gained in similar situations in the past, equipped the staff of the Social Work Department to function adequately and to make appropriate decisions and changes in the face of moral and ethical dilemmas, as well as immediate physical threat. This article presents the rationale for the model of intervention that guided the hospital during the Gulf War in offering services to casualty victims and their families. Also discussed are the process of developing an organizational framework and its content that meets wartime demands, and the implications for social work practice in dealing with a war crisis.

  7. A Measure of the Quality of Educational Leadership Programs for Social Justice: Integrating LGBTIQ Identities into Principal Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Michael P.; Capper, Colleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate how aspiring principals in the United States are prepared for social justice leadership, by focusing particular attention on equitable leadership for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex, and questioning (LGBTIQ) persons as a measure of the preparation program's commitment to social…

  8. A Commentary on Innovation and Emerging Scientific Careers: Is Social Work Prepared to Compete in Today's Scientific Marketplace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, Jaih B.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to address some of the questions Dr. Paula S. Nurius presents in her article, "Innovation and Emerging Scientific Careers: Is Social Work Prepared to Compete in Today?s Scientific Marketplace?" Specifically, this article will focus on what we can do to better prepare our emerging research scholars to be…

  9. Social Determinants of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Families of Migrants participating in Mexico-Canada Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program: A Study in Guadalupe Zaragoza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Gines Martínez Fernández

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the social determinants of pulmonary tuberculosis in the families of migrant laborers registered in the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (SAWP and residing in Guadalupe Zaragoza Tlahuapan, Puebla, México. Methods: An exploratory cross-sectional study of the interaction between migration, social determinants, and pulmonary tuberculosis. Results: In this poor and patriarchal community, the SAWP offers financial opportunities for the men of Guadalupe Zaragoza. The remittances of these migrant workers have enabled their families to live in adequate housing, but their health situation is still vulnerable. Only half of the families have access to public health services or the special health programs for migrant worker families. 13% of migrant family members were infected with pulmonary tuberculosis as measured by the Quantiferon-TB test. The female partners of migrants typically do not study past elementary school, become housewives with no pay, are forced to take on added work in the household, and experience subjective symptoms of stress and fatigue. The children of Guadalupe Zaragoza are also vulnerable; the number of children in this community who can regularly attend school is below the national average because many children have to work. These families end up paying more for education, housing, and health services than the average Mexican family. Conclusions: In the families of SAWP migrant workers, the prevalence of latent pulmonary tuberculosis was found to be lower than the national average based on studies using the tuberculin test; this may be due to the greater specificity of the Quantiferon-TB Gold test. There is a significant risk of reactivation tuberculosis in these families due to the inequity in the social determinants of health.

  10. Health care and social issues of immigrant rescue and recovery workers at the World Trade Center site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Hoz, Rafael E; Hill, Scottie; Chasan, Rachel; Bienenfeld, Laura A; Afilaka, Aboaba A; Wilk-Rivard, Elizabeth; Herbert, Robin

    2008-12-01

    This article reviews the experience of a unique occupational group of World Trade Center (WTC) workers: immigrant workers. This group is comprised largely of men, laborers, who are first-generation immigrants. The majority of these workers are from Latin America (predominantly from Ecuador and Colombia) or from Eastern Europe (predominantly from Poland). Our data shows that the disease profile observed in these workers was what we have previously reported for WTC working population as a whole. Recent reports have begun to document the disproportionate burden of occupational hazards, injuries, and illnesses experienced by immigrant workers in the United States. The WTC experience of immigrants exemplified this burden but, additionally, highlighted that this burden is exacerbated by limitations in access to appropriate health care, disability and compensation benefits, and vocational rehabilitation services. A clinical program that was designed to address the complex medical and psychosocial needs of these workers in a comprehensive manner was successfully established. Full justice for these workers depends on larger societal changes.

  11. Enhanced Co-Worker Social Support in Isolated Work Groups and Its Mitigating Role on the Work-Family Conflict-Depression Loss Spiral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley P. McTernan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a loss spiral model (i.e., reciprocal relationships between work-family conflict and depression, moderated by co-worker support. We expected that the moderation effect due to co-worker support would be evident among those working in isolation (i.e., mining workers due to a greater level of intragroup attraction and saliency attributable to the proximity effects. We used a two wave panel study and data from a random population sample of Australian employees (n = 2793, [n = 112 mining, n = 2681 non-mining]. Using structural equation modelling we tested the reciprocal three way interaction effects. In line with our theory, co-worker support buffered the reciprocal relationship between WFC and depression, showing a protective effect in both pathways. These moderation effects were found in the mining industry only suggesting a proximity component moderates the social support buffer hypothesis (i.e., a three way interaction effect. The present paper integrates previous theoretical perspectives of stress and support, and provides insight into the changing dynamics of workplace relationships.

  12. Enhanced Co-Worker Social Support in Isolated Work Groups and Its Mitigating Role on the Work-Family Conflict-Depression Loss Spiral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTernan, Wesley P; Dollard, Maureen F; Tuckey, Michelle R; Vandenberg, Robert J

    2016-03-29

    This paper examines a loss spiral model (i.e., reciprocal relationships) between work-family conflict and depression, moderated by co-worker support. We expected that the moderation effect due to co-worker support would be evident among those working in isolation (i.e., mining workers) due to a greater level of intragroup attraction and saliency attributable to the proximity effects. We used a two wave panel study and data from a random population sample of Australian employees (n = 2793, [n = 112 mining, n = 2681 non-mining]). Using structural equation modelling we tested the reciprocal three way interaction effects. In line with our theory, co-worker support buffered the reciprocal relationship between WFC and depression, showing a protective effect in both pathways. These moderation effects were found in the mining industry only suggesting a proximity component moderates the social support buffer hypothesis (i.e., a three way interaction effect). The present paper integrates previous theoretical perspectives of stress and support, and provides insight into the changing dynamics of workplace relationships.

  13. Analysis on Social Influencing Factors on the Employment Arrangement of Migrant Workers%农民工就业安排的社会影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝慧娟

    2014-01-01

    农民工是推动经济发展和社会进步的重要力量。农民工的就业安排是社会普遍热切关注的问题,具备很强的社会性和现实性。影响农民工就业安排的社会因素较多,应根据这些社会影响因素提出相应的解决对策,以巩固农民工的社会地位,保护农民工的合法权益。%Migrant workers are an important force to promote economic development and social advancement.However,migrant worker structure is still vague,and we need to clarify it;we also need to reiterate migrant workers characteristics,which enable the society to have deeper understanding of migrant workers.Of course,the employment arrangement of migrant workers is generally the focus of the society,with a strong sociality and practicality.There are many social factors impacting migrant workers employment arrangement,so countermeasures should be implemented in allusion to these factors,so as to consolidate the social status of migrant workers,and pro-tect their legitimate rights and interests.

  14. ‘I'm So Stressed!’: A Longitudinal Model of Stress, Burnout and Engagement among Social Workers in Child Welfare Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Dnika J.; Lizano, Erica Leeanne; Mor Barak, Michàlle E.

    2016-01-01

    The well-documented day-to-day and long-term experiences of job stress and burnout among employees in child welfare organisations increasingly raise concerns among leaders, policy makers and scholars. Testing a theory-driven longitudinal model, this study seeks to advance understanding of the differential impact of job stressors (work–family conflict, role conflict and role ambiguity) and burnout (emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation) on employee disengagement (work withdrawal and exit-seeking behaviours). Data were collected at three six-month intervals from an availability sample of 362 front line social workers or social work supervisors who work in a large urban public child welfare organisation in the USA. The study's results yielded a good model fit (RMSEA = 0.06, CFI = 0.96, NFI = 0.94). Work–family conflict, role ambiguity and role conflict were found to impact work withdrawal and exit-seeking behaviours indirectly through burnout. The outcome variable, exit-seeking behaviours, was positively impacted by depersonalisation and work withdrawal at a statistically significant level. Overall, findings, at least in the US context, highlight the importance of further examining the development of job burnout among social workers and social work supervisors working in child welfare settings, as well as the utility of long-term administrative strategies to mitigate risks of burnout development and support engagement. PMID:27559215

  15. Social representations of the health care of the Mbyá-Guarani indigenous population by health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Mirian Benites; Shimizu, Helena Eri; Bermudez, Ximena Pamela Díaz

    2017-02-06

    to analyze the social representations of health care of the Mbyá-Guarani ethnic group by multidisciplinary teams from the Special Indigenous Health District in the south coast of Rio Grande do Sul state (Distrito Sanitário Especial Indígena Litoral Sul do Rio Grande do Sul), Brazil. a qualitative method based on the theory of social representations was used. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews with 20 health workers and by participant observation. The interviews were analyzed with ALCESTE software, which conducts a lexical content analysis using quantitative techniques for the treatment of textual data. there were disagreements in the health care concepts and practices between traditional medicine and biomedicine; however, some progress has been achieved in the area of intermedicality. The ethnic boundaries established between health workers and indigenous peoples based on their representations of culture and family, together with the lack of infrastructure and organization of health actions, are perceived as factors that hinder health care in an intercultural context. a new basis for the process of indigenous health care needs to be established by understanding the needs identified and by agreement among individuals, groups, and health professionals via intercultural exchange. analisar as representações sociais do cuidado em saúde entre trabalhadores que atuam em equipes multidisciplinares no Distrito Sanitário Especial Indígena Litoral Sul do Rio Grande do Sul, junto à etnia Mbyá-Guarani. utilizou-se método qualitativo, fundamentado na teoria das Representações Sociais. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas com 20 trabalhadores e da observação participante. As entrevistas analisadas com o software ALCESTE, o qual realiza a análise lexical de conteúdo por meio de técnicas quantitativas de tratamento de dados textuais. verificou-se que existe tensão entre as concepções e práticas de cuidado da

  16. In the Belly of the Beast: A Case Study of Social Work in a Managed Care Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa S. Patchner

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The employment of social workers within managed care organizations is a new phenomenon. As such, this case study utilized an exploratory-descriptive design that assessed social workers as case managers within a Medicaid HMO. The semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and participant observation suggested that the use of case management services, delivered primarily by social workers,was effective in addressing the bio-psychosocial needs of Medicaid consumers within a provider-driven HMO. Study findings recommend specific knowledge and skills that social workers need in order to prepare for practice within managed care environments.

  17. Developing social capital in 'learning borderlands': Has the federal government's budget delivered for low-paid Australian workers?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keating, Maree

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 Australian federal budget confirmed generous funding for language, literacy and numeracy programs as well as skills recognition and training for older workers as part of a strategy to upgrade workforce skills...

  18. Main Tendencies in Preparing PhD Dissertations in Social Sciences and Humanities in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Alpaydın

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkish doctorate programs are mainly composed of course work, preliminary examination, and dissertation stages. In these stages, naturally, several traditions and approaches are followed in different universities and graduate institutes. In this study, it is aimed to identify the main tendencies in preparing PhD dissertations in humanities and social sciences and to analyze the current situation in terms of production of academic knowledge and academic institutionalization in Turkey. Towards, the preparation processes for preliminary examinations and their contents, the procedures for the selection of advisors, dissertation subjects and research methodologies, and rationale for the study subjects, preference of research methodologies and academic writing techniques, and lastly relations with advisors and dissertation committee members are chosen for investigation. Quantitative methodology and survey technique has been used in the study to reach people who have completed their doctoral study on humanities and social sciences in 2011, 2012 and 2013 years in ten Turkish Universities that have given most doctoral graduates in social sciences. 405 people have responded the questionnaire form. The results indicate that the main motive behind selecting dissertation topics is related to career advancement, i.e securing a good position within the university system. Study found that systematic literature review is the most used research methodology and the reading-noting of all related sources than starting to write according to the materials is the most used academic writing technique in dis- sertations. Also, it is found that 1/3 of the participants had no chance to choose his/her advisors. Most of them perceived their relationship with their advisors positively, while admitting that the rate of advisors who actively contributed to the writing process is only 45 %.

  19. 农民工社会保障权的法律保护%The Legal Protection of Social Security Rights for Migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓锋

    2011-01-01

    As a basic and independent human right,social security should be an institutional right to migrant workers.While,the group of migrant workers are placed on the edge of social security system,their legal rights is not secured due to lack of legal the specific rights protection system.Considering the current situation of Chinese migrant and the necessity to construct the new countryside,the rights of migrant workers should be well protected.The paper analyzes the implementation mechanism of legal protection to the rights of migrant workers.%社会保障权作为一项基本的、独立的人权,是农民工应当具有的宪法权利,然而在我国由于法律及具体的执法、司法方面的欠缺,以及一直以来传统做法所造成的障碍,农民工处于社会保障的边缘地带,社会保障权不尽如人意。因此在建立社会主义和谐社会的历史背景下,充分考量中国农民的现实特征,从法律运行全过程对其法律保护的实现机制进行分析和探讨,使他们的权利得到切实保护。

  20. 中国农民工社会融入的代际比较%A Cross Generational Comparison of the Social Cohesion of Migrant Workers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培林; 田丰

    2012-01-01

    本文依据2011年中国社会科学院社会学研究所中国社会状况综合调查数据,描述了老一代农民工和新生代农民工在经济、社会、心理和身份四个层面的社会融入状况,分析了人力资本、社会资本和政策制度等因素对社会融入的影响。研究发现,新生代农民工社会融入状况与老一代农民工相比并没有根本差异;影响社会融入的人力资本因素更显著地体现在农民工的工作技能上;政策制度对农民工社会融入具有重要影响;农民工社会融入的经济—社会—心理—身份四个层次不存在递进关系,经济层次的融入并不必然带来其他层次的融入。%Although China' s urbanization has reached more than 50 percent, this rapid process is still incapable of measuring up with industrialization, leading to a prominent problem of hundreds of millions of migrant workers unable to integrate or merge themselves into the urban society. Based on the data of the Chinese Social Survey conducted by the Institute of Sociology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences in 2011 (CSS, CASS2011), this paper describes the social cohesion of the old and new generations of migrant workers on the economic, social, psychological, and identity dimensions, and analyzes the impact of human capital, social capital, and policy systems on their social cohesion. This study has found that, although there is no fundamental difference in the status of social cohesion across migrant generations, human capital, which affects social cohesion, is more significantly reflected in the migrant workers' job skills than years of education~ policy systems have also an important impact on social cohesion; migrant workers' social cohesion does not necessarily follow the economic-social-psychological-identity sequence~ and the cohesion at the economic level does not guarantee the cohesion at the other levels.

  1. Social and health reasons for lime juice vaginal douching among female sex workers in Borno State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkarim G. Mairiga

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vaginal douching with lime juice and other agents has been perceived to enhance sexual excitement through sensations of vaginal dryness, tightness or warmth, as well as prevent sexually transmitted infections and restore and tighten the vagina after delivery. Its effectiveness as a contraceptive has also been reported. However, the social and health reasons/consequences of such a practice have not been adequately documented in the communities of Borno State, Nigeria.Objectives: This study aimed to determine the extent of, reasons for, and the reproductive health effects of, the use of lime juice for vaginal douching among the commercial sex workers (CSWs in selected areas of the three senatorial regions of Borno State, Nigeria.Method: This was a community-based descriptive study conducted among female CSWs in selected communities of Borno State, Nigeria. A sample of 194 CSWs were randomly selected and interviewed on their sexual history and douching practices.Results: One hundred and twenty (62% respondents admitted practicing vaginal douching with lime juice, with 85% having been CSWs for a period greater than three years. More than half douched for sexual pleasure, hygiene and contraception. Significantly more lime juice users had increased susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs than non-users. Users had a higher prevalence of HIV infection than non-users. The Papanicouleaua (pap smear test for cervical lesions also showed that moderate to severe dysplastic changes were more prevalent among limejuice users.Conclusion: Many CSWs in this community use lime juice for douching, for various reasons. Indications are that its use is associated with a higher prevalence of sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV infections and dysplastic cervical changes. Owing to confounding issues, such as the number of sexual partners, frequency of sexual exposure per day and the duration of exposure, it cannot, therefore, be

  2. Responsibilities of Medical Social Workers in Dealing with Medical Disputes%论医院医务社工在医疗纠纷中的职责

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任益炯; 季庆英

    2013-01-01

    目的:医疗纠纷逐渐增多,使得医患关系日趋紧张,成为社会关注的焦点,有学者提出医院中的医务社工应该介入医疗纠纷,本文就医院医务社工在医疗纠纷中的职责进行探讨。方法通过文献回顾的方法,了解我国医务社工的职责以及在医疗纠纷中发挥的作用。结果在医疗行为进行过程中,医务社工的职责主要体现在,针对医患之间信息不对称的情况,通过调查、谈话等活动,弥补双方的信息不对称,预防可能发生的矛盾冲突,缓解医患关系。结论医务社工在医疗纠纷处理过程中,从专业的角度,运用个案工作、小组工作、社区工作等工作方法,在中间起到的是调和、缓冲的作用。医务社工坚持价值中立原则,理清自身的角色,明确自己的立场,从第三方的角度出发,不介入医学专业问题,使纠纷能得到合理合法的解决。%Objective As occurance rate of medical disputes was gradually increased , the doctor-patient relationship has become strained , which has become the hot issue of the society .Some scholars proposed that medi-cal social workers in hospital should be involved in the dealing with medical disputes , so in this paper we will dis-cuss about the responsibilities of medical social workers .Methods With the method of literature review , we try to understand the role of medical social workers as well as their responsibilities in dealing with medical disputes in China .Results In the process of medical care , due to the case of asymmetric information between doctors and pa-tients, medical social workers'responsibilities mainly reflect in making up for both the information asymmetry , pre-venting possible conflicts , and alleviating the doctor -patient relationship through surveys , conversations and other activities.Conclusion To alleviate the doctor-patient conflicts , medical social workers could use methods such as casework

  3. Existence Social Security Problems and Solutions of Migrant Workers%农民工社会保障存在的问题及建议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李怡清

    2015-01-01

    Migrant workers in the city’s contribution to economic and social development, but also should not enjoy social security rights and interests. In this paper, through the analysis of the problems and influencing factors of migrant workers’ social security system of our country, puts forward some suggestions to the development of the economy, solve the problem of migrant workers to promote the full employment of rural people.%农民工在为城市的经济社会发展做出贡献的同时,还没有享受到应有的社会保障权益。文章通过对当前农民工社会保障制度存在的问题以及产生原因分析,提出如何从发展经济、促进农民充分就业、提高农民工经济收入方面解决农民工社会保障问题的几点建议。

  4. Workers' Education and the ILO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigui, Albert

    1970-01-01

    In its concern to eliminate the imbalance between social and economic development, the International Labour Organisation has two objectives in its workers' education activities: to help workers protect themselves against the harmful effects of our technological society; and to strengthen their ability to discharge their social responsibilities.…

  5. No facultative worker policing in the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loope, Kevin J; Seeley, Thomas D; Mattila, Heather R

    2013-05-01

    Kin selection theory predicts that in colonies of social Hymenoptera with multiply mated queens, workers should mutually inhibit ("police") worker reproduction, but that in colonies with singly mated queens, workers should favor rearing workers' sons instead of queens' sons. In line with these predictions, Mattila et al. (Curr Biol 22:2027-2031, 2012) documented increased ovary development among workers in colonies of honey bees with singly mated queens, suggesting that workers can detect and respond adaptively to queen mating frequency and raising the possibility that they facultative police. In a follow-up experiment, we test and reject the hypothesis that workers in single-patriline colonies prefer worker-derived males and are able to reproduce directly; we show that their eggs are policed as strongly as those of workers in colonies with multiply mated queens. Evidently, workers do not respond facultatively to a kin structure that favors relaxed policing and increased direct reproduction. These workers may instead be responding to a poor queen or preparing for possible queen loss.

  6. No facultative worker policing in the honey bee ( Apis mellifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loope, Kevin J.; Seeley, Thomas D.; Mattila, Heather R.

    2013-05-01

    Kin selection theory predicts that in colonies of social Hymenoptera with multiply mated queens, workers should mutually inhibit ("police") worker reproduction, but that in colonies with singly mated queens, workers should favor rearing workers' sons instead of queens' sons. In line with these predictions, Mattila et al. (Curr Biol 22:2027-2031, 2012) documented increased ovary development among workers in colonies of honey bees with singly mated queens, suggesting that workers can detect and respond adaptively to queen mating frequency and raising the possibility that they facultative police. In a follow-up experiment, we test and reject the hypothesis that workers in single-patriline colonies prefer worker-derived males and are able to reproduce directly; we show that their eggs are policed as strongly as those of workers in colonies with multiply mated queens. Evidently, workers do not respond facultatively to a kin structure that favors relaxed policing and increased direct reproduction. These workers may instead be responding to a poor queen or preparing for possible queen loss.

  7. What is a "health" professional? The changing relationship of occupational therapists and social workers to therapy and healthcare in Quebec, 1940-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme, Julien

    2011-01-01

    Studies regarding the medicalization process generally focus on the way various physical and psychological conditions have been identified as "health" problems, within specific historical contexts. Less well known is how the therapeutic roles of certain "health" professionals were also a result of the confluence of particular historical events. By comparing the professional trajectories of Quebec's occupational therapists and hospital social workers from 1940 to 1985, this article demonstrates how professionals originally outside of the world of health care created new therapeutic roles for themselves within the constantly expanding institutional health care system.

  8. Identity of Street Workers Working with Drug Users and Sexworkers in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina LEVICKA

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Harm reduction refers to policies, programs and practices that aim to reduce harms associated with drugs using. Harm reduction activities are focusing on the prevention of harm, rather than on the prevention of drug use itself. It is an approach that falls under the field of public health, professionals working in this field in Slovakia, however, are mainly students or graduates of social work. Social workers work with the clients in their natural environment - on the street. Street workers work with drug users and often with people working in the sex business, so with clients who are marginalized. It is a difficult job, which in the general population often has a negative connotation. The aim of the study was to explore how social workers perceive themselves as harm reduction workers. We particularly focused on whether their professional identity is formed by the profession of social work or rather by the harm reduction philosophy. Another part of our interest was social workers’ motivation to work in this field of social work. Qualitative research strategy was used. Semi-structured interviews with harm reduction workers were conducted. The participants were working with drug users and sexworkers. All of the participants were graduated in social work, with at least a bachelor degree. Most of the Slovak street social workers from this field took part in this research. The data were analysed using the program Atlas.Ti. Findings describe how street social workers identify themselves, what they consider the core of their profession and how this differs from other social work fields. This paper was prepared as a part of the project The Identity of Social Work in the Context of Slovakia [APVV-0524-12] funded by the Slovak Research and Development Agency.

  9. Improving eye safety in citrus harvest crews through the acceptance of personal protective equipment, community-based participatory research, social marketing, and community health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovar-Aguilar, J Antonio; Monaghan, Paul F; Bryant, Carol A; Esposito, Andrew; Wade, Mark; Ruiz, Omar; McDermott, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    For the last 10 years, the Partnership for Citrus Workers Health (PCWH) has been an evidence-based intervention program that promotes the adoption of protective eye safety equipment among Spanish-speaking farmworkers of Florida. At the root of this program is the systematic use of community-based preventive marketing (CBPM) and the training of community health workers (CHWs) among citrus harvester using popular education. CBPM is a model that combines the organizational system of community-based participatory research (CBPR) and the strategies of social marketing. This particular program relied on formative research data using a mixed-methods approach and a multilevel stakeholder analysis that allowed for rapid dissemination, effective increase of personal protective equipment (PPE) usage, and a subsequent impact on adoptive workers and companies. Focus groups, face-to-face interviews, surveys, participant observation, Greco-Latin square, and quasi-experimental tests were implemented. A 20-hour popular education training produced CHWs that translated results of the formative research to potential adopters and also provided first aid skills for eye injuries. Reduction of injuries is not limited to the use of safety glasses, but also to the adoption of timely intervention and regular eye hygiene. Limitations include adoption in only large companies, rapid decline of eye safety glasses without consistent intervention, technological limitations of glasses, and thorough cost-benefit analysis.

  10. Considerations for preparing a randomized population health intervention trial: lessons from a South African–Canadian partnership to improve the health of health workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalee Yassi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Community-based cluster-randomized controlled trials (RCTs are increasingly being conducted to address pressing global health concerns. Preparations for clinical trials are well-described, as are the steps for multi-component health service trials. However, guidance is lacking for addressing the ethical and logistic challenges in (cluster RCTs of population health interventions in low- and middle-income countries. Objective: We aimed to identify the factors that population health researchers must explicitly consider when planning RCTs within North–South partnerships. Design: We reviewed our experiences and identified key ethical and logistic issues encountered during the pre-trial phase of a recently implemented RCT. This trial aimed to improve tuberculosis (TB and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV prevention and care for health workers by enhancing workplace assessment capability, addressing concerns about confidentiality and stigma, and providing onsite counseling, testing, and treatment. An iterative framework was used to synthesize this analysis with lessons taken from other studies. Results: The checklist of critical factors was grouped into eight categories: 1 Building trust and shared ownership; 2 Conducting feasibility studies throughout the process; 3 Building capacity; 4 Creating an appropriate information system; 5 Conducting pilot studies; 6 Securing stakeholder support, with a view to scale-up; 7 Continuously refining methodological rigor; and 8 Explicitly addressing all ethical issues both at the start and continuously as they arise. Conclusion: Researchers should allow for the significant investment of time and resources required for successful implementation of population health RCTs within North–South collaborations, recognize the iterative nature of the process, and be prepared to revise protocols as challenges emerge.

  11. Community Development Workers Programme: Mentoring for Social Transformation in the Public Service in Post-Apartheid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Hilary; Motlhake, Bona

    2008-01-01

    The new public sector community development workers (CDWs) programme was established in 2004 following ineffective service delivery through chronic under-spending on annual budgets in post-apartheid South Africa. CDWs receive training in learnerships within the National Skills Development Strategy to ensure access to and spending of local…

  12. How Social Relationships Influence Academic Health in the "Enterprise University": An Insight into Productivity of Knowledge Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditton, Mary J.

    2009-01-01

    The comparatively poor mental health status of academics at Australian universities compared with the general Australian workforce poses a public health challenge. Productivity of knowledge workers is a key issue for the new economy. Using the case of one university, I interviewed employees stratified by level of employment and showed that their…

  13. Milagros in the Mid-Columbia: An Integrated Lesson Plan. Sixth Grade Social Studies Unit on Mexican Migrant Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabay, Jerry

    Since the early 1950s, several programs have enticed thousands of rural Mexicans to migrate to California and the Northwest to be agricultural workers. The resultant demographic and cultural impacts have been immense. Hood River County (Oregon) schools are over 30 percent Hispanic. There is much ignorance and prejudice regarding the Hispanic…

  14. Social Cohesion Among Sex Workers and Client Condom Refusal in a Canadian Setting: Implications for Structural and Community-Led Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argento, Elena; Duff, Putu; Bingham, Brittany; Chapman, Jules; Nguyen, Paul; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Shannon, Kate

    2016-06-01

    Community empowerment can be a powerful determinant of HIV risk among sex workers (SWs). This study modeled the impact of social cohesion on client condom refusal among SWs in Vancouver. Longitudinal data were drawn from a prospective cohort of SWs (2010-2013). Lippman and colleagues' Social Cohesion Scale measured SWs' connectedness (i.e., perception of mutual aid, trust, support). Multivariable logistic regression examined the independent effect of social cohesion on client condom refusal. Of 654 SWs, 22 % reported baseline client condom refusal and 34 % over 3 years. The baseline median social cohesion score was 24 (IQR 20-29, range 4-45). In the final confounding model, for every one-point increase in the social cohesion score, average odds of condom refusal decreased by 3 % (AOR 0.97; 95 % CI 0.95-0.99). Community empowerment can have a direct protective effect on HIV risk. These findings highlight the need for a legal framework that enables collectivization and SW-led efforts in the HIV response.

  15. "I can't do this, it's too much": building social inclusion in cancer diagnosis and treatment experiences of Aboriginal people, their carers and health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treloar, Carla; Gray, Rebecca; Brener, Loren; Jackson, Clair; Saunders, Veronica; Johnson, Priscilla; Harris, Magdalena; Butow, Phyllis; Newman, Christy

    2014-04-01

    Social inclusion theory has been used to understand how people at the margins of society engage with service provision. The aim of this paper was to explore the cancer care experiences of Aboriginal people in NSW using a social inclusion lens. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 22 Aboriginal people with cancer, 18 carers of Aboriginal people and 16 health care workers. Participants' narratives described experiences that could be considered to be situational factors in social inclusion such as difficulties in managing the practical and logistic aspects of accessing cancer care. Three factors were identified as processes of social inclusion that tied these experiences together including socio-economic security, trust (or mistrust arising from historic and current experience of discrimination), and difficulties in knowing the system of cancer treatment. These three factors may act as barriers to the social inclusion of Aboriginal people in cancer treatment. This challenges the cancer care system to work to acknowledge these forces and create practical and symbolic responses, in partnership with Aboriginal people, communities and health organisations.

  16. 信息弱势、信息援助与城市农民工社会融入%Information Disadvantage, Information Assistance and Social Integration of Migrant Workers in the Urban

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德娟

    2012-01-01

    中国城市农民工已达1.6亿,但他们难以融入城市社会。社会融入不仅是社会经济问题,也是信息问题。对天津市和重庆市566名农民工的调查表明,城市农民工是信息弱势群体,缺乏现代信息交流工具和能力,信息缺失足其融入城市的巨大障碍;现代信息交流工具和信息渠道对城市农民工社会融入有显著影响。因此,公共图书馆应从服务、信息检索培训和提供公共信息设施等方面对其开展信息援助,促进其社会融入。%There are more than 160 million migrant workers in Chinese urban. But these migrant workers are hard to integrate into the urban society well. The social integration is not only a social economic problem, but also an information matter. The investigation into 566 migrant workers in Tianjin and Chongqing shows that migrant workers are information disadvantage groups, they are lack of modern information communication tools and abilities, the information default is the greatest obstacle for migrant workers when they integrate into the urban. It also shows that modern information communication tools and channels have the significant positive influence on the social integration of migrant workers. Therefore, public libraries should carry out the information assistance for migrant workers from services, the information retrieval training and providing public information infrastructures, in order to promote the social integration of migrant workers.

  17. A Study of the Social Construction of Work-Related Accidents “A Case study: workers of the coal mines of Koohbanan in Kerman and Tabas”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Movahed Majd

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In safety sciences, accidents are unintended and non-scheduled events happening as one or more consecutive incidents as a result of unsafe acts or unsafe conditions, or both. Despite growing improvements in safety sciences in recent decades, the concept of accident, as a non-social phenomenon, is defined as neutral and meaningless, which occurs in an unintended and non-scheduled way through workers or machines. A significant amount of the research carried out in this field, following the tradition of epidemiology and behavioral psychology and by reducing the problem of safety and work health to a technical issue, emphasizes the role of individuals’ risk factors and human error in the occurrence of accidents. These studies neglect social, economic, cultural and institutional contexts in the analysis of accidents and take no advantage of interdisciplinary findings, as a result of which such reports only provide a list of risk factors and the statistical distribution of events in terms of quantitative and demographic variables; thus, they disregard the process of the social construction of accidents and the problematic nature of the concept of accidents. Therefore, the present study intends to expose the limitations of safety sciences and its conventional technical approaches in the unilateral and one-dimensional explanation of work-related accidents. For this purpose, in this research, qualitative methodology has been used as the dominant methodology, and critical ethnography has been utilized for the research process, and also thematic analysis has been employed for data analysis. The findings of the study include seven main categories which are shown in the form of the social construction cycle of accidents. Finally, the results show that work-related accidents are mainly due to the conditions governing the organization, unequal power relations and workers’ experiences of work environment than carelessness and the individual and

  18. 农民工社会保障的人权维度分析%On the Human Rights Dimensions of the Social Security of Migrant Workers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯亮

    2014-01-01

    庞德认为,权利的本质就是一种“合理的期望”。农民工社会保障权就是这样一种合理的期望,最初是作为应用权利存在的,是人权最初和最完整的形态。本文旨从应然逻辑出发,从平等权、生存权、发展权三个人权维度视阈,具体考量和剖析农民工社会保障权的正当性、合理性与现实性。%Pound believed that the essence of the right is a "reasonable expectation". Social security rights of migrant workers is such a reasonable expectation, which existed initially as an application right, and it’s a first and most complete form of human rights. From a certain logic, this paper considers and analyses the legitimacy, rationality and reality of the social security rights of migrant workers in detail from three human rights dimensions of equal rights, survival rights, and development rights.

  19. New generation farmer worker social security protection’s present situation and countermeasure%新生代农民工社会保障现状及对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄春华

    2012-01-01

    This study social security of migrantwor-kers in Cenozoic research topic,and present situation of social security rights of migrant workers of new social investigation and found there are many migrant workers on the lack of reasonable new social security,many of the social security Cenozoic migrant workers basic,they get to protect the rights of participating insurance rate low social insurance,social welfare and social assistance difficult to enjoy a series of problems.Based on the maintenance of the social security rights Cenozoic migrant workers on the problem put forward the following tips: strengthening the development itself,Cenozoic migrant workers to change the Cenozoic urban social workers view and promote enterprise’s organization and staff common development and maintenance workers’ legal rights consciousness,strengthen government of social security of the propaganda and supervision,perfect social security legislation,make suitable Cenozoic of the migrant workers reasonable safeguard system.%本研究以新生代农民工的社会保障现状为研究主题,对新生代农民工社会保障权益的情况进行调查,发现社会上存在许多新生代农民工缺乏合理的社会保障,很多新生代农民工基本的社会保障权益得不到切实保护,他们社会保险参保率低、社会福利和社会救助难以享受等一系列问题。本文在维护新生代农民工的社会保障权益的问题上提出以下几点建议:加强新生代农民工的自身发展、改变城市社会对新生代农民工的看法,促进企业和员工共同发展以及加强企业维护职工合法权利的意识,加强政府的对社会保障的宣传力度和监督力度,完善社会保障立法,制定适合新生代农民工的合法合理的保障制度。

  20. Changes of Social Image of Migrant Workers from the Perspective of Social Appellation%社会称谓视角下的农民工社会形象变迁∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王道勇

    2016-01-01

    The social appellation of a group reflects the overall cognition and evaluation of the mainstream society. In the long river of history, especially since the reform and opening up, the rural population has a large number of social titles,such as refugees, runa⁃ways, migrant workers and the new generation of migrant workers. These social titles are in agreement with the acceptance of the main⁃stream society. Migrant workers′social image is a kind of shaping made by the mainstream society according to their own needs. The fu⁃ture new urbanization emphasis on the human core, urged to guide the return of migrant workers through the full cooperation of the com⁃munity, and realize the demise of migrant workers related social appellation finally.%一个群体的社会称谓反映了主流社会对该群体的总体认知和评价。在历史长河中尤其是改革开放以来,农村外出人口拥有众多的社会称谓,如流民、盲流、打工妹打工仔、农民工与新生代农民工等,这些社会称谓与主流社会对其的接纳程度相吻合,因此形成的农民工社会形象是在农民工主体缺位的背景下由主流社会根据自身需求而进行的一种适应性塑造。未来的新型城镇化强调以人为核心,亟须通过社会的全力合作,引导农民工主体回归,最终实现农民工相关社会称谓的消亡。