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Sample records for preparing selenium films

  1. Preparation of selenium coatings onto beryllium foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, E.D.; Tassano, P.L.; Reiss, R.H.; Griggs, G.E.

    1984-09-01

    A technique for preparing selenium films onto 50.8 microns thick beryllium foils is described. The selenium was deposited in vacuum from a resistance heated evaporation source. Profilometry measurements of the coatings indicate deposit thicknesses of 5.5, 12.9, 37.5, 49.8 and 74.5 microns. The control of deposition rate and of coating thickness was facilitated using a commercially available closed-loop programmable thin film controller. The x-ray transmission of the coated substrates was measured using a tritiated zirconium source. The transmissivities of the film/substrate combination are presented for the range of energies from 4 to 20 keV. 15 references, 3 figures

  2. Selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillings, Lisa L.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Selenium (Se) was discovered in 1817 in pyrite from copper mines in Sweden. It is a trace element in Earth’s crust, with an abundance of three to seven orders of magnitude less than the major rock-forming elements. Commercial use of selenium began in the United States in 1910, when it was used as a pigment for paints, ceramic glazes, and red glass. Since that time, it has had many other economic uses—notably, in the 1930s and 1940s, when it was used in rectifiers (which change alternating current to direct current), and in the 1960s, when it began to be used in the liner of photocopier drums. In the 21st century, other compounds have replaced selenium in these older products; modern uses for selenium include energy-efficient windows that limit heat transfer and thin-film photovoltaic cells that convert solar energy into electricity.In Earth’s crust, selenium is found as selenide minerals, selenate and selenite salts, and as substitution for sulfur in sulfide minerals. It is the sulfide minerals, most commonly those in porphyry copper deposits, that provide the bulk of the selenium produced for the international commodity market. Selenium is obtained as a byproduct of copper refining and recovered from the anode slimes generated in electrolytic production of copper. Because of this, the countries that have the largest resources and (or) reserves of copper also have the largest resources and (or) reserves of selenium.Because selenium occurs naturally in Earth’s crust, its presence in air, water, and soil results from both geologic reactions and human activity. Selenium is found concentrated naturally in soils that overlie bedrock with high selenium concentrations. Selenium mining, processing, use in industrial and agricultural applications, and disposal may all contribute selenium to the environment. A well-known case of selenium contamination from agricultural practices was discovered in 1983 in the Kesterson National Wildlife Refuge in California. There

  3. Selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Information Supplement Fact Sheets Frequently Asked Questions Making Decisions What you Need To Know About Supplements Dietary ... understand how selenium in food and dietary supplements affects heart health. Cognitive decline Blood selenium levels decrease as people age, ...

  4. Chronopotentiometric stripping analysis of selenium using mercury film electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suturović Zvonimir J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the most important experimental factors in chronopotentiometric stripping analysis (CSA of selenium( IV using mercury film working electrode was examined. Interferences of copper, iron and lead were investigated as well. The possibility of avoiding prolonged deaeration of the solution was examined by applying medium exchange modification of the technique, where the dissolution of the deposit was performed in calcium-chloride solution. Detection limits obtained for the modification of the CSA with prior deaeration and medium exchange modification were 0.4 μg/dmJ and 1.15μg/dmJ, respectively. Accuracy of the defined techniques has been confirmed by analysing reference material (RM 8436 -wheat durum flour. The results obtained by applying both modifications of the technique showed a very good agreement of total selenium content with declareted value.

  5. Low-temperature photoluminescence of CuSe2 nano-objects in selenium thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Gilić

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of CuSe2 nanoparticles embedded in selenium matrix were prepared by vacuum evaporation method on a glass substrate at room temperature. The optical properties of the films were investigated by photoluminescence spectroscopy (T=20-300K and UV-VIS spectroscopy (T = 300K. Surface morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The band gap for direct transition in CuSe2 was found to be in the range of 2.72-2.75 eV and that for indirect transition is in the range of 1.71-1.75 eV determined by UV-VIS spectroscopy. On the other hand, selenium exhibits direct band gap in the range of 2.33-2.36 eV. All estimated band gaps slightly decrease with the increase of the film thickness. Photoluminescence spectra of the thin films clearly show emission bands at about 1.63 and 2.32 eV at room temperature, with no shift observed with decreasing temperature. A model was proposed for explaining such anomaly.

  6. Thin film solar cells by selenization sulfurization using diethyl selenium as a selenium precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Kadam, Ankur A.

    2009-12-15

    A method of forming a CIGSS absorber layer includes the steps of providing a metal precursor, and selenizing the metal precursor using diethyl selenium to form a selenized metal precursor layer (CIGSS absorber layer). A high efficiency solar cell includes a CIGSS absorber layer formed by a process including selenizing a metal precursor using diethyl selenium to form the CIGSS absorber layer.

  7. Systems and methods for solar cells with CIS and CIGS films made by reacting evaporated copper chlorides with selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, David S.; Noufi, Rommel

    2015-06-09

    Systems and methods for solar cells with CIS and CIGS films made by reacting evaporated copper chlorides with selenium are provided. In one embodiment, a method for fabricating a thin film device comprises: providing a semiconductor film comprising indium (In) and selenium (Se) upon a substrate; heating the substrate and the semiconductor film to a desired temperature; and performing a mass transport through vapor transport of a copper chloride vapor and se vapor to the semiconductor film within a reaction chamber.

  8. Preparation of thin vyns films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, R.; Chedin, P.; Gizon, A.

    1965-01-01

    The fabrication of thin films of VYNS resin (copolymer of chloride and vinyl acetate) of superficial density from 3 to 50 μg/cm 2 with solutions in cyclohexanone is presented. Study and discussion of some properties compared with formvar film (polyvinyl formals). It appears that both can be used as source supports but formvar films are prepared more easily and more quickly, in addition they withstand higher temperatures. The main quality of VYNS is that they can be easily separated even several days after their preparation [fr

  9. Preparation and characterization of a laboratory scale selenomethionine-enriched bread. Selenium bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martínez, María; Pérez-Corona, Teresa; Caímara, Carmen; Madrid, Yolanda

    2015-01-14

    This study focuses on the preparation at lab scale of selenomethionine-enriched white and wholemeal bread. Selenium was supplemented either by adding selenite directly to the dough or by using lab-made selenium-enriched yeast. The best results were obtained when using fresh selenium-enriched yeast. The optimum incubation time for selenomethionine-enriched yeast preparation, while keeping formation of selenium byproducts to a minimum, was 96 h. Selenium content measured by isotope dilution analysis (IDA)-ICP-MS in Se-white and Se-wholemeal bread was 1.28 ± 0.02 μg g–1 and 1.16 ± 0.02 μg g–1 (expressed as mean ± SE, 3 replicates), respectively. HPLC postcolumn IDA-ICP-MS measurements revealed that selenomethionine was the main Se species found in Se-enriched bread, which accounted for ca. 80% of total selenium. In vitro gastrointestinal digestion assay provided selenium bioaccessibility values of 100 ± 3% and 40 ± 1% for white and wholemeal Se-enriched bread, respectively, being selenomethionine the main bioaccessible Se species in white bread, while in wholemeal bread this compound was undetectable.

  10. Mixed Surfactant Template Method for Preparation of Nanometer Selenium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Lin Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Selenium nanoparticles have been synthesized in an aqueous solution by using sodium dodecyl sulfate and polyvinyl alcohol as a soft template. The factors on synthesis, such as reaction time, concentration of reactants and ultrasonic irradiation were studied. The uniform stable selenium nanospheres were obstained in the conditions of 1.0 (mass fraction sodium dodecyl sulfate, 1.0 (mass fraction polyvinyl alcohol, n(Vc:n(H2SeO3=7:1 and 7 minutes after the initiation of the reaction at room temperature. The average particle size of selenium is about 30 nm. The product was characterized by UV and TEM. Finally the applications of the red element nanometer selenium in anti-older cosmetics are presented.

  11. Oromucosal film preparations: classification and characterization methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Maren; Woertz, Christina; Kleinebudde, Peter; Breitkreutz, Jörg

    2013-09-01

    Recently, the regulatory authorities have enlarged the variety of 'oromucosal preparations' by buccal films and orodispersible films. Various film preparations have entered the market and pharmacopoeias. Due to the novelty of the official monographs, no standardized characterization methods and quality specifications are included. This review reports the methods of choice to characterize oromucosal film preparations with respect to biorelevant characterization and quality control. Commonly used dissolution tests for other dosage forms are not transferable for films in all cases. Alternatives and guidance on decision, which methods are favorable for film preparations are discussed. Furthermore, issues about requirements for film dosage forms are reflected. Oromucosal film preparations offer a wide spectrum of opportunities. There are a lot of suggestions in the literature on how to control the quality of these innovative products, but no standardized tests are available. Regulatory authorities need to define the standards and quality requirements more precisely.

  12. Spray pyrolysis process for preparing superconductive films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, H.M.; Yee, I.Y.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a spray pyrolysis method for preparing thin superconductive film. It comprises: preparing a spray pyrolysis solution comprising Bi,Sr,Ca and Cu metals in a solvent; heating a substrate to a first temperature; spraying the solution onto the heated substrate to form a film thereon; heating the film and substrate to a second temperature of about 700 degrees-825 degrees C, the second temperature being higher than the first temperature; heating the film and substrate to a third temperature of about 870 degrees-890 degrees C to melt the film; once the film and substrate reach the third temperature, further heat treating the film and substrate; cooling the film and substrate to ambient temperature. This patent also describes a spray pyrolysis method for preparing thin superconductive films. It comprises: preparing a spray pyrolysis solution comprising Bi, Ca and Cu metals and fluxing agent in a solvent; heating a substrate to a first temperature; spraying the solution onto the heated substrate to form a film thereon; heating the film and substrate to a second temperature about 700 degrees-825 degrees C, the second temperature being higher than the first temperature; heating the film and substrate at a third temperature about 840 degrees-860 degrees C; and cooling the film and substrate to ambient temperature

  13. Preparation and antioxidant properties of selenium nanoparticles-loaded chitosan microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai K

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Kaikai Bai,1,2 Bihong Hong,1,2 Jianlin He,1,2 Zhuan Hong,1,2 Ran Tan1,2 1Third Institute of Oceanography, 2Engineering Research Center of Marine Biological Resource, Comprehensive Utilization, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs, as a special form of selenium (Se supplement, have attracted worldwide attention due to their favorable properties and unique bioactivities. Herein, an eco-friendly and economic way to prepare stable SeNPs is introduced. SeNPs were synthesized in aqueous chitosan (CTS and then embedded into CTS microspheres by spray-drying, forming selenium nanoparticles-loaded chitosan microspheres (SeNPs-M. The physicochemical properties including morphology, elemental state, size distribution and surface potential were investigated. Institute of Cancer Research mice were used as model animal to evaluate the bioactivities of SeNPs-M. Trigonal-phase SeNPs of ~35 nm were synthesized, and SeNPs-M physically embedding those SeNPs were successfully prepared. Amazingly, acute toxicity test indicated that SeNPs-M were much safer than selenite in terms of Se dose, with a LD50 of around 18-fold of that of selenite. In addition, SeNPs-M possessed powerful antioxidant activities, as evidenced by a dramatic increase of both Se retention and the levels of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase. The design of SeNPs-M can offer a new way for further development of SeNPs with a higher efficacy and better biosafety. Thus, SeNPs-M may be a potential candidate for further evaluation as an Se supplement with antioxidant properties and be used against Se deficiency in animals and human beings. Keywords: selenium, nano, microsphere, chitosan, antioxidant

  14. Postgrowth tuning of the bandgap of single-layer molybdenum disulfide films by sulfur/selenium exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Quan; Isarraraz, Miguel; Wang, Chen S; Preciado, Edwin; Klee, Velveth; Bobek, Sarah; Yamaguchi, Koichi; Li, Emily; Odenthal, Patrick Michael; Nguyen, Ariana; Barroso, David; Sun, Dezheng; von Son Palacio, Gretel; Gomez, Michael; Nguyen, Andrew; Le, Duy; Pawin, Greg; Mann, John; Heinz, Tony F; Rahman, Talat Shahnaz; Bartels, Ludwig

    2014-05-27

    We demonstrate bandgap tuning of a single-layer MoS2 film on SiO2/Si via substitution of its sulfur atoms by selenium through a process of gentle sputtering, exposure to a selenium precursor, and annealing. We characterize the substitution process both for S/S and S/Se replacement. Photoluminescence and, in the latter case, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy provide direct evidence of optical band gap shift and selenium incorporation, respectively. We discuss our experimental observations, including the limit of the achievable bandgap shift, in terms of the role of stress in the film as elucidated by computational studies, based on density functional theory. The resultant films are stable in vacuum, but deteriorate under optical excitation in air.

  15. Effect of Probiotic Preparation Enriched with Selenium on Qualitative Parameters of Table Eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mellen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment the effects of the diet for laying hens supplemented with probiotic product with an organic form of selenium on egg weight, albumen quality, yolk quality and egg shell quality were studied. Isa Brown hens (n=90 were randomly divided at the age of 17 weeks into three groups (30 birds per group. Hens in all groups consumed the complete feed mixture ad libitum. In the control group water for drinking contained no additions. In the first experimental group probiotic product was added to the water, in the second experimental group the same probiotic preparation enriched with 0.8 to 1 mg of organic selenium per 1 g of the product was added to the water. The probiotic preparations were administered at the dose of 15 mg per 6 l of water daily, in both experimental groups. Monitored physical parameters of eggs: egg weight (g, specific egg weight (g/cm3​​, albumen weight (g, albumen height (mm, albumen index, Haugh units (HJ, yolk weight (g, yolk index, yolk color (°HLR, egg shell weight, egg shell specific weight (g/cm3, egg shell strength (N/cm2, the average eggshell thickness (µm. Experiment lasted 48 weeks. The results showed that egg weight was slightly higher in both experimental groups compared with the control group, differences between the groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05. The values ​​in the order of groups: 60.97 ± 4.97, 61.18 ± 5:00; 61.75 ± 5.89 (g ± SD. Was found insignificant impact of the add probiotic preparation and probiotic preparation enriched with selenium on the quality parameters of table eggs. Yolk index, albumen index, Haugh units and the average egg shell thickness were only slightly, statistically insignificant higher in the experimental groups (P> 0.05.

  16. Layer-by-Layer Nanoassembly of Copper Indium Gallium Selenium Nanoparticle Films for Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hemati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of CIGS nanoparticles interdigited with polymers have been fabricated through a cost-effective nonvacuum film deposition process called layer-by-layer (LbL nanoassembly. CIGS nanoparticles synthesized by heating copper chloride, indium chloride, gallium chloride, and selenium in oleylamine were dispersed in water, and desired surface charges were obtained through pH regulation and by coating the particles with polystyrene sulfonate (PSS. Raising the pH of the nanoparticle dispersion reduced the zeta-potential from +61 mV at pH 7 to −51 mV at pH 10.5. Coating the CIGS nanoparticles with PSS (CIGS-PSS produced a stable dispersion in water with −56.9 mV zeta-potential. Thin films of oppositely charged CIGS nanoparticles (CIGS/CIGS, CIGS nanoparticles and PSS (CIGS/PSS, and PSS-coated CIGS nanoparticles and polyethylenimine (CIGS-PSS/PEI were constructed through the LbL nanoassembly. Film thickness and resistivity of each bilayer of the films were measured, and photoelectric properties of the films were studied for solar cell applications. Solar cell devices fabricated with a 219 nm CIGS film, when illuminated by 50 W light-source, produced 0.7 V open circuit voltage and 0.3 mA/cm2 short circuit current density.

  17. Texture control and growth mechanism of WSe{sub 2} film prepared by rapid selenization of W film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongchao [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Chongyi Zhangyuan Tungsten Industry Corporation Limited, Ganzhou 341300 (China); Gao, Di; Li, Kun; Pang, Mengde; Xie, Senlin [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Rutie, E-mail: llrrtt@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zou, Jianpeng [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • We present a highly efficient method for preparing WSe{sub 2} film by rapid selenization. • The W film phase composition has little effect on WSe{sub 2} film orientation. • W film density is a critical factor that influences the WSe{sub 2} orientation. • A growth model was proposed for two kinds of WSe{sub 2} film textures. - Abstract: The tungsten diselenide (WSe{sub 2}) films with different orientation present unique properties suitable for specific applications, such as WSe{sub 2} with a C-axis⊥substrate for optoelectronics and WSe{sub 2} with a C-axis // substrate for electrocatalysts. Orientation control of WSe{sub 2} is essential for realizing the practical applications. In this letter, a WSe{sub 2} film has been prepared via rapid selenization of a magnetron-sputtered tungsten (W) film. The influence of the magnetron-sputtered W film on WSe{sub 2} film growth was studied systematically. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy were used to evaluate the morphology, microstructure and phase composition of the W and WSe{sub 2} films. The substrate temperature has a significant effect on the W film phase composition, but little effect on the WSe{sub 2} film orientation. The WSe{sub 2} orientation can be controlled by changing the W film microstructure. A dense W film that is deposited at low pressure is conducive to the formation of WSe{sub 2} with a C-axis⊥substrate, whereas a porous W film deposited at high pressure favors the formation of WSe{sub 2} with a C-axis // substrate. A growth model for the WSe{sub 2} film with different texture has been proposed based on the experimental results. The direction of selenium (Se) vapor diffusion differs at the top and side surfaces. This is a key factor for the preparation of anisotropic WSe{sub 2} films. Highly oriented WSe{sub 2} films with a C-axis⊥substrate grow from the dense W film deposited at low pressure because Se vapor

  18. Retention of health-related beneficial components during household preparation of selenium-enriched African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fillets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierke-Klemeyer, S.; Larsen, R.; Oehlenschlaeger, J.; Nunes, M.L.; Schram, E.; Luten, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Industrial processing and heat treatment of fish muscle generally lead to losses of water-soluble components, some of which may have beneficial health effects. The aim of this work was to determine the retention of taurine, selenium and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids when preparing African catfish

  19. Magnetostrictive thin films prepared by RF sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carabias, I.; Martinez, A.; Garcia, M.A.; Pina, E.; Gonzalez, J.M.; Hernando, A.; Crespo, P.

    2005-01-01

    Fe 80 B 20 thin films have been prepared by ion beam sputtering magnetron on room temperature. The films were fabricated on different substrates to compare the different magnetic and structural properties. In particular the growth of films on flexible substrates (PDMS, Kapton) has been studied to allow a simple integration of the system in miniaturized magnetostrictive devices. X-ray diffraction patterns indicate that films are mainly amorphous although the presence of some Fe nanoparticles cannot be ruled out. The coercive field of thin films ranges between 15 and 35 Oe, depending on substrate. Magnetostriction measurements indicate the strong dependence of the saturation magnetostriction with the substrate. Samples on flexible substrates exhibit a better performance than samples deposited onto glass substrates

  20. [Selenium treatment in thyreopathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotak, Štefan

    Selenium (latin Selenium) is a micronutrient embedded in several proteins. In adults, the thyroid is the organ with the highest amount of selenium per gram of tissue. Selenium levels in the body depend on the characteristics of the population and its diet and geographic area. In the thyroid, selenium is required for the antioxidant function and for the metabolism of thyroid hormones. The literature suggests that selenium supplementation of patients with Hashimotos thyroiditis is associated with a reduction in antithyroperoxidase antibody levels. Selenium supplementation also in mild Graves orbitopathy is associated with delayed progression of ocular disorders. As a consequence of this observation The European Group on Graves Orbitopathy recommend six months selenium preparates supportive therapy for patients with mild form of Graves orbitopathy.Key words: Graves-Basedows disease - Hashimotos thyroiditis - selenium - supplementation.

  1. Thin films prepared from tungstate glass matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montanari, B.; Ribeiro, S.J.L.; Messaddeq, Y. [Departamento de Quimica Geral e Inorganica, Instituto de Quimica, Sao Paulo State University-UNESP, CP 355, CEP 14800-900, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Li, M.S. [Instituto de Fisica, USP, CP 369, CEP 13560-970, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Poirier, G. [Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, UNIFAL-MG, CEP 37130-000, Alfenas-MG (Brazil)], E-mail: gael@unifal-mg.edu.br

    2008-01-30

    Vitreous samples containing high concentrations of WO{sub 3} (above 40% M) have been used as a target to prepare thin films. Such films were deposited using the electron beam evaporation method onto soda-lime glass substrates. These films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), perfilometry, X-ray energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS), M-Lines and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. In this work, experimental parameters were established to obtain stable thin films showing a chemical composition close to the glass precursor composition and with a high concentration of WO{sub 3}. These amorphous thin films of about 4 {mu}m in thickness exhibit a deep blue coloration but they can be bleached by thermal treatment near the glass transition temperature. Such bleached films show several guided modes in the visible region and have a high refractive index. Controlled crystallization was realized and thus it was possible to obtain WO{sub 3} microcrystals in the amorphous phase.

  2. Preparation and mechanical properties of edible rapeseed protein films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung-Ae; Lim, Geum-Ok; Song, Kyung Bin

    2011-03-01

    Edible films were manufactured from rapeseed oil extraction residues. To prepare rapeseed protein (RP) films, various concentrations of plasticizers and emulsifiers were incorporated into the preparation of a film-forming solution. The optimal conditions for the preparation of the RP film were 2% sorbitol/0.5% sucrose as plasticizer and 1.5% polysorbate 20 as an emulsifier. In addition, RP blend films were prepared. Gelidium corneum or gelatin was added to improve the physical properties of the RP film, and the highest tensile strength value of the films was 53.45 MPa for the 3% RP/4% gelatin film. Our results suggest that the RP-gelatin blend film is suitable for applications in food packaging. Edible RP films prepared in the present investigation can be applied in food packaging.

  3. Comparison of digital selenium radiography with an analog screen-film system in the diagnostic process of pneumoconiosis according to ILO classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaehringer, M.; Winnekendonk, G.; Gossmann, A.; Krueger, K.; Krug, B.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic value of digital selenium radiography in patients with pneumoconiosis. For this purpose chest X-rays by digital selenium radiography and analog screen-film system were compared according to the ILO classification of pneumoconiosis. Method: After approval of the study by the local ethic commission and the Federal German Office for Radiation Protection 50 patients were subjected to X-rays by digital selenium radiography (Thoravision; Philips Medical Systems, Hamburg, Germany) and analog screen-film system of the same day within the scope of an industrial medicine preventive checkup. Four investigators rated the chest X-rays according to the ILO classification of pneumoconiosis. Results: The findings demonstrated by chest X-rays according to ILO classification were rated similar by digital selenium radiography and analog screen film systems. Image quality of the digital pictures was rated significantly better. Conclusion: The use of digital selenium radiography in evaluating chest X-rays according to the ILO classification does not result in over- or underestimation of pulmonary pathologies. Hence, in the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis, digital selenium radiography can replace the tested analog screen-film system. (orig.) [de

  4. Thin film preparation of semiconducting iron pyrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smestad, Greg P.; Ennaoui, Ahmed; Fiechter, Sebastian; Hofmann, Wolfgang; Tributsch, Helmut; Kautek, Wolfgang

    1990-08-01

    Pyrite (Fe52) has been investigated as a promising new absorber material for thin film solar cell applications because of its high optical absorption coefficient of 1OL cm1, and its bandgap of 0.9 to 1.0 eV. Thin layers have been prepared by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition, MOCVD, Chemical Spray Pyrolysis, CSP, Chemical Vapor Transport, CVT, and Sulfurization of Iron Oxide films, 510. It is postulated that for the material FeS2, if x is not zero, a high point defect concentration results from replacing 2 dipoles by single S atoms. This causes the observed photovoltages and solar conversion efficiencies to be lower than expected. Using the Fe-O-S ternary phase diagram and the related activity plots, a thermodynamic understanding is formulated for the resulting composition of each of these types of films. It is found that by operating in the oxide portion of the phase diagram, the resulting oxidation state favors pyrite formation over FeS. By proper orientation of the grains relative to the film surface, and by control of pinholes and stoichiometry, an efficient thin film photovolatic solar cell material could be achieved.

  5. In{sub 6}Se{sub 7} thin films by heating thermally evaporated indium and chemical bath deposited selenium multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ornelas, R.E.; Avellaneda, D. [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon-66450 (Mexico); Shaji, S. [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon-66450 (Mexico); Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon-CIIDIT, Apodaca, N.L (Mexico); Castillo, G.A.; Roy, T.K. Das [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon-66450 (Mexico); Krishnan, B., E-mail: kbindu_k@yahoo.com [Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon-66450 (Mexico); Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon-CIIDIT, Apodaca, N.L (Mexico)

    2012-05-15

    Indium selenide (In{sub 6}Se{sub 7}) thin films were prepared via selenization of thermally evaporated indium thin films by dipping in sodium selenosulphate solution followed by annealing in nitrogen atmosphere. First, indium was thermally evaporated on glass substrate. Then, the indium coated glass substrates were dipped in a solution containing 80 ml 0.125 M sodium selenosulphate and 1.5 ml dilute acetic acid (25%) for 5 min. Glass/In-Se layers were annealed at 200-400 Degree-Sign C in nitrogen atmosphere (0.1 Torr) for 30 min. X-ray diffraction studies showed the formation of monoclinic In{sub 6}Se{sub 7}. Morphology of the thin films formed at different conditions was analyzed using Scanning electron microscopy. The elemental analysis was done using Energy dispersive X-ray detection. Electrical conductivity under dark and illumination conditions was evaluated. Optical band gap was computed using transmittance and reflectance spectra. The band gap value was in the range 1.8-2.6 eV corresponding to a direct allowed transition. We studied the effect of indium layer thickness and selenium deposition time on the structure, electrical and optical properties of In{sub 6}Se{sub 7} thin films.

  6. Methods of making copper selenium precursor compositions with a targeted copper selenide content and precursor compositions and thin films resulting therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Calvin J [Lakewood, CO; Miedaner, Alexander [Boulder, CO; van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Ginley, David S [Evergreen, CO; Leisch, Jennifer [Denver, CO; Taylor, Matthew [West Simsbury, CT; Stanbery, Billy J [Austin, TX

    2011-09-20

    Precursor compositions containing copper and selenium suitable for deposition on a substrate to form thin films suitable for semi-conductor applications. Methods of forming the precursor compositions using primary amine solvents and methods of forming the thin films wherein the selection of temperature and duration of heating controls the formation of a targeted species of copper selenide.

  7. Selenium-based digital radiography of the cervical spine. Comparison with screen-film radiography for the depiction of anatomic details

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, K.; Diederich, S.; Wormanns, D.; Link, T.M.; Lenzen, H.; Heindel, W.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To compare selenium-based digital radiography with conventional screen-film radiography of the cervical spine. Materials and Methods: In a prospective study X-ray images of the cervical spine were obtained in 25 patients using selenium-based digital radiography and conventional screen-film radiography. All images were clinically indicated. Selenium-based digital radiography and conventional screen-film radiography were used in a randomized order. Four radiologists independently evaluated all 50 examinations for the visibility of 76 anatomic details according to a five-level confidence scale (1=not visible, 5=very good visibility). From the evaluation of these anatomic details scores for the upper and middle cervical spine, the cervicothoracic junction and the cervical soft tissues were calculated. The scores for selenium-based digital radiography and conventional screen-film radiography were compared using Wilcoxon's signed rank test. Results: From a total of 15,200 observations (608 per patient) the following scores were calculated for selenium-based digital radiography and for screen-film radiography, respectively: Upper cervical spine 3.88 and 3.94; middle cervical spine 4.60 and 4.48; cervico-thoracic junction 3.64 and 2.62; cervical soft tissue 4.47 and 3.46. The differences between the last two scores were statistically significant (p [de

  8. Magnetooptical garnet films: preparation, characterisation, application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goernert, P.; Lorenz, A.; Lindner, M.; Richert, H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: In contemporary magnetooptics both Kerr effect and Faraday effect are applied. The Kerr effect of metals and alloys - such as Fe, Ni, Co, FePt, CoPt, MnBi, PtMnSb - with thicknesses 300 μm are established as commercial isolators in optical systems and for developments of waveguide applications. Bi-REIG is prepared mostly by conventional liquid phase epitaxy (LPE) in PbO-B 2 O 3 -Bi 2 O 3 based solvents and sometimes by laser ablation and as nanocrystalline powders. In each case high Faraday rotation and low optical absorption is necessary. Additionally, magnetooptical sensors should possess high sensitivity and a large dynamic range. All these demands can be fulfilled with (REBi) 3 (FeGaAl) 5 O 12 LPE layers. Here we discuss some new results concerning preparation, characterisation, and application of Bi-TmIG and Bi-DyIG LPE layers on high-quality gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG) or lattice matched Ca-, Mg-, Zr-substituted GGG substrates. Optimization of flux melt composition and under cooling result in sensor films with a Faraday rotation of e.g. -1.2 0 /μm at a wavelength of l=590 nm and saturation induction of Bs=70 mT. Such films are already applied for forensic investigations. However, the responsivity of the garnet films is restricted by their coercivity Hc. Surface defects are found to give rise to pinned magnetic domains correlated with typical hysteresis. Obviously, Hc and the formation of pits are due to misfit stress and substrate surface quality. Besides, it is shown that an increase of working temperature leads to smaller coercivities. (authors)

  9. Electrochemical and Thermal Studies of Prepared Conducting Chitosan Biopolymer Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlaing Hlaing Oo; Kyaw Naing; Kyaw Myo Naing; Tin Tin Aye; Nyunt Wynn

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, chitosan based conducting bipolymer films were prepared by casting and solvent evaporating technique. All prepared chitosan films were of pale yellow colour, transparent, and smooth. Sulphuric acid was chosen as the cross-linking agent. It enhanced conduction pathway in cross-linked chitosan films. Mechanical properties, solid-state, and thermal behavior of prepared chitosan fimls were studied by means of a material testing machine, powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG-DTG), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). By the XRD diffraction pattern, high molecular weight of chitosan product indicates the semi-crystalline nature, but the prepared chitosan film and doped chitosan film indicate significantly lower in crystallinity prove which of the amorphous characteristics. In addition, DSC thermogram of pure chitosan film exhibited exothermic peak around at 300 C, indicating polymer decomposition of chitosan molecules in chitosan films. Furthermore, these DSC thermograms clearly showed that while pure chitosan film display exothermal decomposition, the doped chitosan films mainly endothermic characteristics. The ionic conductivity of doped chitosan films were in the order of 10 to 10 S cm , which is in the range of semi-conductor. These results showed that cross-linked chitoson films may be used as polymer electrolyte film to fabricate solid state electrochemical cells

  10. Preparation of self-supporting thin metal target films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiuying; Ge Suxian; Yin Jianhua; Yin Xu; Jin Genming

    1989-01-01

    The preparation method and equipment for thin metal self-supporting target without oil contamination are described. The influence of target films contaminated by oil vapor on accuracy of nuclear-physics experimental data are also discussed. The analytical results on carbon content in the prepared films of three elements show that the equipment is very effective for eliminating contamination

  11. Preparation and characterization of vanadium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monfort, O.; Plesch, G. [Comenius University of Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia); Roch, T. [Comenius University of Bratislava, Faculty of Mathematics Physics and Informatics, Department of Experimental Physics, 84248 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-04-16

    The thermotropic VO{sub 2} films have many applications, since they exhibit semiconductor-conductor switching properties at temperature around 70 grad C. Vanadium oxide thin films were prepared via sol-gel method. Spin coater was used to depose these films on Si/SiO{sub 2} and lime glass substrates. Thin films of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} can be reduced to metastable VO{sub 2} thin films at the temperature of 450 grad C under the pressure of 10{sup -2} Pa. These films are then converted to thermotropic VO{sub 2} at 700 grad C in argon under normal pressure. (authors)

  12. Silk fibroin/pullulan blend films: Preparation and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shivananda, C. S.; Rao, B. Lakshmeesha; Madhukumar, R.; Asha, S. [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri – 574 199 (India); Sarojini, B. K. [Department of Industrial Chemistry, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri, Mangalore –574 199 (India); Somashekhar, R. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysore – 570 006 (India); Sangappa, Y., E-mail: syhalabhavi@yahoo.co.in [Department of Studies in Physics, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri – 574 199 (India); School of Material Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2016-05-23

    In this work silk fibroin/pullulan blend films have been prepared by solution casting method. The blend films were examined for structural, and thermal properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimatric (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The XRD results indicate that with the introduction of pullulan, the interaction between SF and pullulan in the blend films induced the conformation transition of SF films and amorphous phase increases with increasing pullulan ratio. The thermal properties of the blend films were improved significantly in the blend films.

  13. Selenium Sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selenium sulfide, an anti-infective agent, relieves itching and flaking of the scalp and removes the dry, ... Selenium sulfide comes in a lotion and is usually applied as a shampoo. As a shampoo, selenium ...

  14. Pd-Ni-MWCNT nanocomposite thin films: preparation and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowski, Mirosław; Czerwosz, ElŻbieta; Sobczak, Kamil

    2017-08-01

    The properties of nanocomposite palladium-nickel-multi-walled (Pd-Ni-MWCNT) films deposited on aluminum oxide (Al2O3) substrate have been prepared and investigated. These films were obtained by 3 step process consisted of PVD/CVD/PVD methods. The morphology and structure of the obtained films were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) techniques at various stages of the film formation. EDX spectrometer was used to measurements of elements segregation in the obtained film. TEM and STEM (Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy) observations showed MWCNTs decorated with palladium nanoparticles in the film obtained in the last step of film formation (final PVD process). The average size of the palladium nanoparticles observed both on MWCNTs and carbonaceous matrix does not exceed 5 nm. The research was conducted on the use of the obtained films as potential sensors of gases (e.g. H2, NH3, CO2) and bio-sensors or optical sensors.

  15. Preparation and properties of antimony thin film anode materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SU Shufa; CAO Gaoshao; ZHAO Xinbing

    2004-01-01

    Metallic antimony thin films were deposited by magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition. Electrochemical properties of the thin film as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries were investigated and compared with those of antimony powder. It was found that both magnetron sputtering and electrodeposition are easily controllable processes to deposit antimony films with fiat charge/discharge potential plateaus. The electrochemical performances of antimony thin films, especially those prepared with magnetron sputtering, are better than those of antimony powder. The reversible capacities of the magnetron sputtered antimony thin film are above 400 mA h g-1 in the first 15 cycles.

  16. Preparation of Modified Films with Protein from Grouper Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecante, A.; Granados-Navarrete, S.; Martínez-García, C.

    2016-01-01

    A protein concentrate (PC) was obtained from Grouper fish skin and it was used to prepare films with different amounts of sorbitol and glycerol as plasticizers. The best performing films regarding resistance were then modified with various concentrations of CaCl2, CaSO4 (calcium salts), and glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) with the purpose of improving their mechanical and barrier properties. These films were characterized by determining their mechanical properties and permeability to water vapor and oxygen. Formulations with 5% (w/v) protein and 75% sorbitol and 4% (w/v) protein with a mixture of 15% glycerol and 15% sorbitol produced adequate films. Calcium salts and GDL increased the tensile fracture stress but reduced the fracture strain and decreased water vapor permeability compared with control films. The films prepared represent an attractive alternative for being used as food packaging materials. PMID:27597950

  17. Preparation of Modified Films with Protein from Grouper Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Valdivia-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A protein concentrate (PC was obtained from Grouper fish skin and it was used to prepare films with different amounts of sorbitol and glycerol as plasticizers. The best performing films regarding resistance were then modified with various concentrations of CaCl2, CaSO4 (calcium salts, and glucono-δ-lactone (GDL with the purpose of improving their mechanical and barrier properties. These films were characterized by determining their mechanical properties and permeability to water vapor and oxygen. Formulations with 5% (w/v protein and 75% sorbitol and 4% (w/v protein with a mixture of 15% glycerol and 15% sorbitol produced adequate films. Calcium salts and GDL increased the tensile fracture stress but reduced the fracture strain and decreased water vapor permeability compared with control films. The films prepared represent an attractive alternative for being used as food packaging materials.

  18. Preparation and Evaluation of Buccal Bioadhesive Films Containing Clotrimazole

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, S.; Jain, S.; Muthu, M. S.; Tiwari, S.; Tilak, R.

    2008-01-01

    Buccal bioadhesive films, releasing topical drugs in the oral cavity at a slow and predetermined rate, provide distinct advantages over traditional dosage forms. The aim of present study was to prepare and evaluate buccal bioadhesive films of clotrimazole for oral candidiasis. The film was designed to release the drug at a concentration above the minimum inhibitory concentration for a prolonged period of time so as to reduce the frequency of administration of the available conventional dosage...

  19. Preparation and characterization of gelatin/cerium(Ⅲ) film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄崇军; 黄雅钦; 田娜; 童元建; 殷瑞贤

    2010-01-01

    A novel gelatin film with antibacterial activity was prepared by electrostatic crosslinking using cerium (Ⅲ) nitrate hexahydrate as the crosslinking agent. The structure and properties of the films were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectra, tensile tests, thermogravimetric analysis, static drop contact angle and disc diffusion method. The results showed that cross-linking could not only improve the thermal and mechanical properties and lower the hydrophilic property of the films, but also make...

  20. Preparation of Nb thin films with bulk transition temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peirce, L H [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee (USA). Dept. of Physics

    1984-08-01

    Thin films (1000-2000 A) of Nb were prepared with bulk transition temperatures (9.25 K) by evaporation from an electron gun. Necessary substrate temperatures, evaporation rates and H/sub 2/O pressures were determined.

  1. Methods of Selenium Supplementation: Bioavailability and Determination of Selenium Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodnar, Malgorzata; Szczyglowska, Marzena; Konieczka, Piotr; Namiesnik, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Selenium, a "dual-surface" element, maintains a very thin line between a level of necessity and harmfulness. Because of this, a deficiency or excess of this element in an organism is dangerous and causes health-related problems, both physically and mentally. The main source of selenium is a balanced diet, with a proper selection of meat and plant products. Meanwhile, the proper assimilation of selenium into these products depends on their bioavailability, bioaccessibility, and/or bioactivity of a given selenium compound. From the time when it was discovered that selenium and its compounds have a significant influence on metabolic processes and in many countries throughout the world, a low quantity of selenium was found in different parts of the environment, pressure was put upon an effective and fast method of supplementing the environment with the help of selenium. This work describes supplementation methods applied with the use of selenium, as well as new ideas for increasing the level of this element in various organisms. Based on the fact that selenium appears in the environment at trace levels, the determination of total amount of selenium or selenium speciation in a given sample demands the selection of appropriate measurement methods. These methods are most often comprised of a sample preparation technique and/or a separation technique as well as a detection system. The work presents information on the subject of analytical methods used for determining selenium and its compounds as well as examples in literature of their application.

  2. Nanocomposite film prepared by depositing xylan on cellulose nanowhiskers matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qining Sun; Anurag Mandalika; Thomas Elder; Sandeep S. Nair; Xianzhi Meng; Fang Huang; Art J. Ragauskas

    2014-01-01

    Novel bionanocomposite films have been prepared by depositing xylan onto cellulose nanowhiskers through a pH adjustment. Analysis of strength properties, water vapour transmission, transparency, surface morphology and thermal decomposition showed the enhancement of film performance. This provides a new green route to the utilization of biomass for sustainable...

  3. Preparation of YBCO superconducting films by spray pyrolysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora Alonso, M.; Leyva Fabelo, A.; Rubio Frias, E.; Pupo Gonzalez, I.; Lopez Sanchez, D.

    1994-01-01

    The methodology for the preparation of YBCO superconducting films on Zr 2O (Y) substrates by spray pyrolysis method is reported. The transition temperature of these films is superior than the boiling temperature of liquid 2N . Other critical parameters are similar to those reported by other authors using the same technique

  4. Preparation and evaluation of buccal bioadhesive films containing clotrimazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, S; Jain, S; Muthu, M S; Tiwari, S; Tilak, R

    2008-01-01

    Buccal bioadhesive films, releasing topical drugs in the oral cavity at a slow and predetermined rate, provide distinct advantages over traditional dosage forms. The aim of present study was to prepare and evaluate buccal bioadhesive films of clotrimazole for oral candidiasis. The film was designed to release the drug at a concentration above the minimum inhibitory concentration for a prolonged period of time so as to reduce the frequency of administration of the available conventional dosage forms. The different proportions of sodium carboxymethylcellulose and carbopol 974P (CP 974P) were used for the preparation of films. Carbopol was used to incorporate the desired bioadhesiveness in the films. The films were prepared by solvent casting method and evaluated for bioadhesion, in vitro drug release and effectiveness against Candida albicans. In vitro drug release from the film was determined using a modified Franz diffusion cell while bioadhesiveness was evaluated with a modified two-arm balance using rabbit intestinal mucosa as a model tissue. Films containing 5% CP 974P of the total polymer were found to be the best with moderate swelling along with favorable bioadhesion force, residence time and in vitro drug release. The microbiological studies revealed that drug released from the film could inhibit the growth of C. albicans for 6 h. The drug release mechanism was found to follow non-Fickian diffusion.

  5. Preparation and performance of Ecobras/bentonite biodegrading films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Ana Nery M.; Melo, Nadja M.C.; Canedo, Eduardo L.; Carvalho, Laura H.; Araujo, Arthur R.A.

    2011-01-01

    Compounds based on the biodegradable polymer Ecobras and bentonite clay in its pristine, sonicated, and organically modified with a quaternary ammonium salt forms were prepared as flat films. Clays and compounds were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical properties of the films were determined according to pertinent ASTM standards. Reasonable properties, higher than those of the matrix, were obtained with compounds prepared with purified clays and organoclays, particularly for low clay loading. (author)

  6. Novel transparent and flexible nanocomposite film prepared from chrysotile nanofibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Kun, E-mail: kliu@csu.edu.cn [School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zhu, Binnan; Feng, Qiming [School of Minerals Processing and Bioengineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Duan, Tao [Joint Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology and Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621010 (China)

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, chrysotile nanofibres, obtained from physicochemical dispersion of natural chrysotile, were used to prepare nanofibre sheets by vacuum filtration. As-prepared sheets were then impregnated by UV-curable resin and cured by ultraviolet light to fabricate the flexible and transparent nanocomposite films. Observed from SEM, the transparent films showed a smooth surface and a typical sandwich structure in cross section, viz. nanofibre sheet filled with resin was sandwiched by two layers of resin. XRD patterns indicated the amorphous nature of cured resin and characteristic crystallographic structure of chrysotile in nanocomposite films. Though the nanofibre sheets were white in colour, and nanofibre contents in nanocomposites were as much as 43.4 wt%, the nanocomposite films displayed an excellent optical transparency with about 85% light transmittance in the visible light range. Tensile tests showed that the addition of nanofibres resulted in a great improvement in mechanical strength of the nanocomposite films; with the increase of nanofibre contents, the modulus and tensile strength of nanocomposite films increased gradually. - Graphical abstract: Photos show the experimental phenomenon. The white nanofibre sheets can be written or printed like paper, and it's very interested that the handwriting is clearly visible from the front and back of the transparent films prepared from nanofibre sheets by vacuum impregnation and UV curing. This phenomenon can be attributed to the increase of transparency of film, which results from the replacement of air interstices in nanofibre sheet by resin with higher refractive index. Visible light can pass easily through the transparent film without obvious loss, but can be apparently adsorbed and scattered by ink particles that adhered to nanofibres and embedded in resin. - Highlights: • A flexible and transparent film is prepared from chrysotile nanofibres. • The nanofibre sheet is sandwiched by two

  7. Novel transparent and flexible nanocomposite film prepared from chrysotile nanofibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Kun; Zhu, Binnan; Feng, Qiming; Duan, Tao

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, chrysotile nanofibres, obtained from physicochemical dispersion of natural chrysotile, were used to prepare nanofibre sheets by vacuum filtration. As-prepared sheets were then impregnated by UV-curable resin and cured by ultraviolet light to fabricate the flexible and transparent nanocomposite films. Observed from SEM, the transparent films showed a smooth surface and a typical sandwich structure in cross section, viz. nanofibre sheet filled with resin was sandwiched by two layers of resin. XRD patterns indicated the amorphous nature of cured resin and characteristic crystallographic structure of chrysotile in nanocomposite films. Though the nanofibre sheets were white in colour, and nanofibre contents in nanocomposites were as much as 43.4 wt%, the nanocomposite films displayed an excellent optical transparency with about 85% light transmittance in the visible light range. Tensile tests showed that the addition of nanofibres resulted in a great improvement in mechanical strength of the nanocomposite films; with the increase of nanofibre contents, the modulus and tensile strength of nanocomposite films increased gradually. - Graphical abstract: Photos show the experimental phenomenon. The white nanofibre sheets can be written or printed like paper, and it's very interested that the handwriting is clearly visible from the front and back of the transparent films prepared from nanofibre sheets by vacuum impregnation and UV curing. This phenomenon can be attributed to the increase of transparency of film, which results from the replacement of air interstices in nanofibre sheet by resin with higher refractive index. Visible light can pass easily through the transparent film without obvious loss, but can be apparently adsorbed and scattered by ink particles that adhered to nanofibres and embedded in resin. - Highlights: • A flexible and transparent film is prepared from chrysotile nanofibres. • The nanofibre sheet is sandwiched by two

  8. Deposition of selenium coatings on beryllium foils. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erikson, E.D.; Tassano, P.L.; Reiss, R.H.; Griggs, G.E.

    1984-01-01

    A technique for preparing selenium films on 50.8 micrometers thick beryllium foils is described. The selenium was deposited in vacuum from a resistance heated evaporation source. A water-cooled enclosure was used to minimize contamination of the vacuum system and to reduce the exposure of personnel to toxic and obnoxious materials. Profilometry measurements of the coatings indicated selenium thicknesses of 5.5, 12.9, 37.5, 49.8 and 74.5 micrometers. The control of deposition rate and of coating thickness was facilitated using a commercially available closed-loop programmable deposition controller. The x-ray transmission of the coated substrates was measured using a tritiated zirconium source. The transmissivities of the film/substrate combination are presented for the range of energies from 4 to 20 keV

  9. Preparation of cuxinygazsen (X=0-2, Y=0-2, Z=0-2, N=0-3) precursor films by electrodeposition for fabricating high efficiency solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N.; Contreras, Miguel A.; Keane, James; Tennant, Andrew L.; Tuttle, John R.; Ramanathan, Kannan; Noufi, Rommel

    1998-03-24

    High quality thin films of copper-indium-gallium-diselenide useful in the production of solar cells are prepared by electrodepositing at least one of the constituent metals onto a glass/Mo substrate, followed by physical vapor deposition of copper and selenium or indium and selenium to adjust the final stoichiometry of the thin film to approximately Cu(In,Ga)Se.sub.2. Using an AC voltage of 1-100 KHz in combination with a DC voltage for electrodeposition improves the morphology and growth rate of the deposited thin film. An electrodeposition solution comprising at least in part an organic solvent may be used in conjunction with an increased cathodic potential to increase the gallium content of the electrodeposited thin film.

  10. Novel selenium containing boro-phosphate glasses: Preparation and structural study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciceo-Lucacel, R.; Radu, T.; Ponta, O.; Simon, V.

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized a new boro-phosphate glass system with different %mol SeO 2 content by conventional melt quenching technique. All samples were obtained in a glassy state with the vitreous structure confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed some non-homogeneous domains on the glasses surface, and their tendency to link each other once the selenium oxide content increases. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) indicated similar elemental composition in different regions of each sample. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine the nature of chemical bonding and the elemental composition at the sample surfaces, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to determine the structural groups in the obtained glass structure. Based on FT-IR results, the glass structure at short range order consists mainly of small phosphate units such as pyrophosphate (i.e. P 2 O 7 4− dimmers or terminating groups at the end of phosphate chains) and some metaphosphate (i.e. PO 3 − middle groups in the phosphate chains) units. The boron atoms are mainly placed in three-coordinated sites in BØ 3 or BØ 2 O − units. A small contribution of BØ 4 − units was also detected from the FT-IR spectra of glasses. For SeO 2 content higher than 5 mol%, the modifier role of selenium ions is strongly reflected on the local structure dominated in this case by pyrophosphate units. - Highlights: • New P 2 O 5 -CaO-B 2 O 3 -SeO 2 glasses synthesized by conventional melt quenching method. • Evidences for the Se ions modifier role in the local structure by FT-IR and XPS. • Significant advances in understanding the structural properties of the new system

  11. Novel selenium containing boro-phosphate glasses: preparation and structural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciceo-Lucacel, R; Radu, T; Ponta, O; Simon, V

    2014-06-01

    We synthesized a new boro-phosphate glass system with different %mol SeO2 content by conventional melt quenching technique. All samples were obtained in a glassy state with the vitreous structure confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed some non-homogeneous domains on the glasses surface, and their tendency to link each other once the selenium oxide content increases. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) indicated similar elemental composition in different regions of each sample. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine the nature of chemical bonding and the elemental composition at the sample surfaces, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to determine the structural groups in the obtained glass structure. Based on FT-IR results, the glass structure at short range order consists mainly of small phosphate units such as pyrophosphate (i.e. P2O7(4-) dimmers or terminating groups at the end of phosphate chains) and some metaphosphate (i.e. PO3(-) middle groups in the phosphate chains) units. The boron atoms are mainly placed in three-coordinated sites in BØ3 or BØ2O(-) units. A small contribution of BØ4(-) units was also detected from the FT-IR spectra of glasses. For SeO2 content higher than 5mol%, the modifier role of selenium ions is strongly reflected on the local structure dominated in this case by pyrophosphate units. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Surface preparation for the heteroepitactic growth of ceramic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norton, M.G.; Summerfelt, S.R.; Carter, C.B.

    1990-01-01

    The morphology, composition, and crystallographic orientation of the substrate influence the nucleation and growth of deposited thin films. A method for the preparation of controlled, characteristic surfaces is reported. The surfaces are suitable for the heteroepitactic growth of thin films. When used in the formation of electron-transparent thin foils, the substrates can be used to investigate the very early stages of film growth using transmission electron microscopy. The substrate preparation involves the cleaning and subsequent annealing to generate a surface consisting of a series of steps. The step terraces are formed on the energetically stable surface, and controlled nucleation and growth of films at step edges is found. The substrate materials prepared using this technique include (001) MgO, (001) SrTiO 3 , and (001) LaAlO 3

  13. Barium titanate thick films prepared by screen printing technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana M. Vijatović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The barium titanate (BaTiO3 thick films were prepared by screen printing technique using powders obtained by soft chemical route, modified Pechini process. Three different barium titanate powders were prepared: i pure, ii doped with lanthanum and iii doped with antimony. Pastes for screen printing were prepared using previously obtained powders. The thick films were deposited onto Al2O3 substrates and fired at 850°C together with electrode material (silver/palladium in the moving belt furnace in the air atmosphere. Measurements of thickness and roughness of barium titanate thick films were performed. The electrical properties of thick films such as dielectric constant, dielectric losses, Curie temperature, hysteresis loop were reported. The influence of different factors on electrical properties values was analyzed.

  14. NdFeB thick films prepared by tape casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, B.; Schwarzer, S.; Rahmig, A.; Toepfer, J.

    2003-01-01

    NdFeB films of thickness between 100 and 800 μm were prepared by tape casting of a slurry containing 84-95 wt% of commercial NdFeB powder (MQP-B, -Q and -S). After curing the flexible green tapes at 120 deg. C non-porous magnetic films are obtained. The remanence of the films is in the range of 350-450 mT and the coercivity is between 300 and 800 kA/m depending on the type of MQP powder used. The magnetic properties of the films are discussed in relation to film composition and type of magnetic material. For MEMS applications the thick films are magnetized with a multi-pole stripe pattern with 1 mm pole pitch. The induction at the surface of the films was measured with a Hall probe and compared to theoretical calculations. The results indicate that the films are completely magnetized regardless of the film thickness. Tape-casted NdFeB thick films are promising candidates for applications in micro-systems or actuators. Miniaturization of the magnet components is one of the key issues in the development of electromagnetic micro-systems, thus creating a need for replacement of small sintered magnets by magnetic thick film components. Other applications include encoders

  15. Commissioning a hobby cutting device for radiochromic film preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari, Somayeh; Francis, Kirby E; Kairn, Tanya; Crowe, Scott B

    2017-06-01

    In addition to a high spatial resolution and well characterised dose response, one of the major advantages of radiochromic film as a dosimeter is that sheets of film can be cut into pieces suitable for use as calibration films, and for in vivo and phantom measurements. The cutting of film is typically done using scissors or a guillotine, and this process can be time-consuming, limited in precision, requires extensive handling and does not allow holes to be cut from the film without cutting from an existing edge. This study investigated the use of a Brother ScanNCut hobby cutting system for EBT3 film preparation. The optimal operating parameters (blade size, pressure, speed) that resulted in precise cuts with minimal delamination at cut edges were identified using test cutting patterns. These parameters were then used to cut a large film insert for a stereotactic head phantom for comparison against an insert cut with scissors. While the hobby cutting system caused a wider region of delamination at the film edge (1.8 mm) compared to scissors (1 mm), the hobby cutting system was found to be able to produce reproducible cuts more efficiently and more accurately than scissors. The use of the hobby cutting system is recommended for complex phantom inserts (containing sharp corners or holes for alignment rods) or in situations where large numbers of film pieces need to be prepared.

  16. Preparation of InSe Thin Films by Thermal Evaporation Method and Their Characterization: Structural, Optical, and Thermoelectrical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarita Boolchandani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The indium selenium (InSe bilayer thin films of various thickness ratios, InxSe(1-x (x = 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, were deposited on a glass substrate keeping overall the same thickness of 2500 Ǻ using thermal evaporation method under high vacuum atmosphere. Electrical, optical, and structural properties of these bilayer thin films have been compared before and after thermal annealing at different temperatures. The structural and morphological characterization was done using XRD and SEM, respectively. The optical bandgap of these thin films has been calculated by Tauc’s relation that varies within the range of 1.99 to 2.05 eV. A simple low-cost thermoelectrical power measurement setup is designed which can measure the Seebeck coefficient “S” in the vacuum with temperature variation. The setup temperature variation is up to 70°C. This setup contains a Peltier device TEC1-12715 which is kept between two copper plates that act as a reference metal. Also, in the present work, the thermoelectric power of indium selenide (InSe and aluminum selenide (AlSe bilayer thin films prepared and annealed in the same way is calculated. The thermoelectric power has been measured by estimating the Seebeck coefficient for InSe and AlSe bilayer thin films. It was observed that the Seebeck coefficient is negative for InSe and AlSe thin films.

  17. Novel selenium containing boro-phosphate glasses: Preparation and structural study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciceo-Lucacel, R.; Radu, T., E-mail: teodora.radu@phys.ubbcluj.ro; Ponta, O.; Simon, V.

    2014-06-01

    We synthesized a new boro-phosphate glass system with different %mol SeO{sub 2} content by conventional melt quenching technique. All samples were obtained in a glassy state with the vitreous structure confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed some non-homogeneous domains on the glasses surface, and their tendency to link each other once the selenium oxide content increases. Energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) indicated similar elemental composition in different regions of each sample. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to determine the nature of chemical bonding and the elemental composition at the sample surfaces, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy was used to determine the structural groups in the obtained glass structure. Based on FT-IR results, the glass structure at short range order consists mainly of small phosphate units such as pyrophosphate (i.e. P{sub 2}O{sub 7}{sup 4−} dimmers or terminating groups at the end of phosphate chains) and some metaphosphate (i.e. PO{sub 3}{sup −} middle groups in the phosphate chains) units. The boron atoms are mainly placed in three-coordinated sites in BØ{sub 3} or BØ{sub 2}O{sup −} units. A small contribution of BØ{sub 4}{sup −} units was also detected from the FT-IR spectra of glasses. For SeO{sub 2} content higher than 5 mol%, the modifier role of selenium ions is strongly reflected on the local structure dominated in this case by pyrophosphate units. - Highlights: • New P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-CaO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SeO{sub 2} glasses synthesized by conventional melt quenching method. • Evidences for the Se ions modifier role in the local structure by FT-IR and XPS. • Significant advances in understanding the structural properties of the new system.

  18. The preparation of three selenium-containing Cordyceps militaris polysaccharides: Characterization and anti-tumor activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Zhu, Zhen-Yuan; Sun, Xiaoli; Gao, Hui; Zhang, Yong-Min

    2017-06-01

    In the present work, three fractions of selenized Cordyceps militaris polysaccharides (SeCPS) named SeCPS- I, SeCPS- II and SeCPS- III were isolated and purified by ultra-filtration. Their selenium content were measured as 541.3, 863.7 and 623.3μg/g respectively by a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. The monosaccharide comformation analysis showed that they were mainly consisted of D-Mannose, D-Glucose, and D-Galactose in mole ratios of 1:7.63:0.83, 1:1.34:0.31 and 1:3.77:0.41 respectively. Their structure characteristics were compared by IFR and NMR spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Congo red (CR) spectrophotometric method were used to investigate their morphological characteristics and conformational transition. SeCPS-II showed the strongest anti-tumor effects judging from the result of in vitro anti-tumor assays against two tumor cell lines (hepatocellular carcinoma HepG-2 cells and lung adenocarcinom A549 cells). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Microstructure and properties of manganese dioxide films prepared by electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, G. Moses; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2008-01-01

    Nanostructured manganese dioxide films were obtained by galvanostatic, pulse and reverse pulse electrodeposition from 0.01 to 0.1 M KMnO 4 solutions. The deposition yield was investigated by in situ monitoring the deposit mass using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Obtained films were studied by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, energy dispersive spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. The QCM and electron microscopy data were utilized for the investigation of deposition kinetics and film formation mechanism. It was shown that the deposition rate and film microstructure could be changed by variation of deposition conditions. The method allowed the fabrication of dense or porous films. The thickness of dense films was limited to ∼0.1 μm due to the insulating properties of manganese dioxide and film cracking, attributed to drying shrinkage. Porous and crack-free 1-2 μm films were obtained using galvanostatic or reverse pulse deposition from 0.02 M KMnO 4 solutions. It was shown that film porosity is beneficial for the charge transfer during deposition and crack prevention in thick films. Moreover, porous nanostructured films showed good capacitive behavior for applications in electrochemical supercapacitors. The porous nanostructured films prepared in the reverse pulse regime showed higher specific capacitance (SC) compared to the SC of the galvanostatic films. The highest SC of 279 F/g in a voltage window of 1 V was obtained in 0.1 M Na 2 SO 4 solutions at a scan rate of 2 mV/s

  20. Preparation and properties of low resistivity molybdenum silicide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beddies, G.; Hofmann, K.; Bretschneider, W.; Zscheile, H.D.; Bogdanowa, P.; Helms, H.; Wickleder, K.H.

    1983-01-01

    Using different sputtering methods and target variants Mo/Si mixed films are prepared. After the deposition these thin films are amorphous. Isothermal annealing in vacuum leads to the formation of crystalline phases. The crystallization of the hexagonal phase of MoSi 2 is connected with an increase in stress. The formation of the tetragonal phase causes a great decrease of the specific resistance

  1. Patterned magnetite films prepared via soft lithography and thermal decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Lijuan; Li, Zhaoqiang; Li Wei; Nie Yaru; Chen Zhimin; Wang Yanping; Yang Bai

    2006-01-01

    A method for the fabrication of patterned magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) films is presented. We first prepared an ordered 2D array of Fe(acac) 3 through a selective deposition technique on patterned self-assembled monolayers. Using thermal decomposition at elevated temperature (300 o C), we transformed the patterned Fe(acac) 3 into patterned Fe 3 O 4 films in a short reaction time. These patterned films have been confirmed by using optical photographs, field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy

  2. Preparation and characterization of Zn Se thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Ganchev, M; Stratieva, N; Gremenok, V; Zaretskaya, E; Goncharova, O

    2003-01-01

    Chemical bath deposition technique for preparation of ZnSe thin films is presented. The influence of bath temperature and duration of deposition on film growth and quality has been studied. The effect of post-deposition annealing in different ambient is also discussed. It has been determined that heat treatment removes the oxygen-containing phase from the as-deposited films and improves crystallinity. The optical and electric properties of the deposits show their potential for an alternative buffer layer in chalcopyrite-based solar cells.

  3. A New Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Selenium in Cosmetic and Pharmaceutical Preparations after Preconcentration with Cloud Point Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Soruraddin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace amounts of selenium (IV was described. In this method, all selenium spices reduced to selenium (IV using 6 M HCl. Cloud point extraction was applied as a preconcentration method for spectrophotometric determination of selenium (IV in aqueous solution. The proposed method is based on the complexation of Selenium (IV with dithizone at pH < 1 in micellar medium (Triton X-100. After complexation with dithizone, the analyte was quantitatively extracted to the surfactant-rich phase by centrifugation and diluted to 5 mL with methanol. Since the absorption maxima of the complex (424 nm and dithizone (434 nm overlap, hence, the corrected absorbance, Acorr, was used to overcome the problem. With regard to the preconcentration, the tested parameters were the pH of the extraction, the concentration of the surfactant, the concentration of dithizone, and equilibration temperature and time. The detection limit is 4.4 ng mL-1; the relative standard deviation for six replicate measurements is 2.18% for 50 ng mL-1 of selenium. The procedure was applied successfully to the determination of selenium in two kinds of pharmaceutical samples.

  4. Preparation and Characterization of Chitosan—Agarose Composite Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a growing interest to develop biodegradable functional composite materials for food packaging and biomedicine applications from renewable sources. Some composite films were prepared by the casting method using chitosan (CS and agarose (AG in different mass ratios. The composite films were analyzed for physical-chemical-mechanical properties including tensile strength (TS, elongation-at-break (EB, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR, swelling ratio, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and morphology observations. The antibacterial properties of the composite films were also evaluated. The obtained results reveal that an addition of AG in varied proportions to a CS solution leads to an enhancement of the composite film’s tensile strength, elongation-at-break, and water vapor transmission rate. The composite film with an agarose mass concentration of 60% was of the highest water uptake capacity. These improvements can be explained by the chemical structures of the new composite films, which contain hydrogen bonding interactions between the chitosan and agarose as shown by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis and the micro-pore structures as observed with optical microscopes and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The antibacterial results demonstrated that the films with agarose mass concentrations ranging from 0% to 60% possessed antibacterial properties. These results indicate that these composite films, especially the composite film with an agarose mass concentration of 60%, exhibit excellent potential to be used in food packaging and biomedical materials.

  5. Preparation of biaxially oriented TlCu-1234 thin films

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, N A; Tateai, F; Kojima, T; Ishida, K; Terada, N; Ihara, H

    1999-01-01

    The single phase of TlCu-1234 superconductor thin films is prepared for the first time by the amorphous phase epitaxy (APE) method, which is thallium treatment of sputtered amorphous phase at 900 degrees C for 1 h. The amorphous $9 phase is prepared by sputtering from the stoichiometric target composition CuBa/sub 2/Ca/sub 3/Cu/sub 4/O/sub 12-y/. The films on the SrTiO/sub 3/ substrate are aligned biaxially after the thallium treatment. Highly reproducible $9 TlCu-1234 films are prepared by this method. The XRD reflected a predominant single phase with the c-axis lattice constant of 18.74 AA. This lattice constant value is in between that of Cu-1234 (17.99 AA) and Tl-1234 (19.11 AA) . The $9 pole figure measurements of (103) reflection of the films showed a-axis-oriented crystals with Delta phi =0.8 degrees . The composition of the films after energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) measurements is Tl/sub 0.8/Cu/sub 0.2/Ba/sub $9 2/Ca/sub 3/Cu/sub 4/O /sub 12-y/. From the resistivity measurements, the T/sub c/ is 113 K...

  6. Electrochemical preparation of hematite nanostructured films for solar hydrogen production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebadzadeh T.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Photoelectrochemical water splitting is a clean and promising technique for using a renewable source of energy, i.e., solar energy, to produce hydrogen. In this work electrochemical formation of iron oxyhydroxide and its conversion to hematite (α- Fe2O3 through thermal treatment have been studied. Oxyhydroxide iron compounds have been prepared onto SnO2/F covered glass substrate by potential cycling with two different potential sweep rate values; then calcined at 520 °C in air to obtain α-Fe2O3 nanostrutured films for their implementation as photoanode in a photoelectrochemical cell. X-ray diffraction analysis allowed finding that iron oxides films have nanocrystalline character. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that films have nanostructured morphology. The obtained results are discussed considering the influence of potential sweep rate employed during the preparation of iron oxyhydroxide film on optical, structural and morphological properties of hematite nanostructured films. Results show that films have acceptable characteristics as photoanode in a photoelectrochemical cell for hydrogen generation from water.

  7. Preparation of mesoporous silica films SBA-15 over different substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, V.O.; Sousa, E.M.B. de; Macedo, W.A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Mesoporous materials have been target of frequent interest due to its wide application possibilities, for example development of gas sensors, catalysis, molecules transportation, pharmaceuticals release, synthesis of auto-organized nanostructures, among others. The possibilities of application are enhanced when such materials are disposed in the form of thin and ultrathin films. In this work the preparation of mesoporous SBA-15 silica films is explored by means of the dipcoating technique of a sol-gel on different substrates (glass slides, stainless steel, copper), using the surfactant poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)- block-poly(ethylene glycol), known as P123, a block copolymer. Synthesis parameters surfactant concentration, aging time and temperature were investigated. In this work we present the morphological and structural characterization of the prepared films, which were obtained using atomic force microscopy and x-ray fluorescence and diffraction. (author)

  8. Preparation of boron-nitrogen films by sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klose, S.; Winde, B.

    1980-01-01

    Hard boron-nitrogen films adherent to various substrates can be prepared by sputtering. IR investigations suggest the existence of cubic boron nitride in certain layers. Transmission electron microscope studies have shown a quasi-amorphous structure irregularly incorporating crystallites of zinc blende structure of some nm in diameter

  9. Synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide thin films prepared by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zinc oxide thin films were prepared with ammonia/ammonium chloride buffer as the reaction moderating agent in the chemical bath deposition technique. An observable color change during the reaction due to variations in the reactants concentration indicated the existence of the cupric (CuO) and cuprous (Cu2O) oxides ...

  10. Preparation of DNA films for studies under vacuum conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smialek, M. A.; Balog, Richard; Jones, N. C.

    2010-01-01

    process. Using a transmission electron microscope we also examined the structure of the DNA films which are formed upon evacuation and how the proposed adducts influence the preparation process. It was found that the addition of bases cause the DNA to aggregate, noting that a base is required...

  11. Preparing polymer brushes on polytetrafluoroethylene films by free radical polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wei; Chen Yiwang; Deng Qilan; Chen Lie; Zhou Lang

    2006-01-01

    Films of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) were exposed to sodium naphthalenide (Na/naphtha) etchant so as to defluorinate the surface for obtaining hydroxyl functionality. Surface-initiators were immobilized on the PTFE films by esterification of 4,4'-azobis(4-cyanopentanoic acid) (ACP) and the hydroxyl groups covalently linked to the surface. Grafting of polymer brushes on the PTFE films was carried out by the surface-initiated free radical polymerization. Homopolymers brushes of methyl methacrylate (MMA) were prepared by free radical polymerization from the azo-functionalized PTFE surface. The chemical composition and topography of the graft-functionalized PTFE surfaces were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FT-IR spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Water contact angles on PTFE films were reduced by surface grafting of MMA

  12. Free-standing graphene films prepared via foam film method for great capacitive flexible supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yucan; Ye, Xingke; Tang, Zhonghua; Wan, Zhongquan; Jia, Chunyang

    2017-11-01

    Recently, graphene films have always attracted attention due to their excellent characteristics in energy storage. In this work, a novel graphene oxide (GO) film with excellent mechanical properties, whose thickness was regulated simply via changing the concentration of the surfactant, was successfully prepared by foam film method. After chemical reduction, the reduced GO (rGO) films have excellent electrical conductivity of ∼172 S cm-1. Moreover, the supercapacitors based on the rGO films exhibit satisfied capacitive performance of ∼56 mF cm-2 at 0.2 mA cm-2 in 6 M KOH aqueous solution. Meanwhile, the flexible all solid state supercapacitors (FSSCs) based on the rGO films also show great volumetric capacitance of ∼2810 mF cm-3 at 12 mA cm-3 (∼1607 mF cm-3 at 613 mA cm-3) with polyvinyl alcohol-KOH gel electrolyte. Besides, after 10000 cycles and continuously bent to 180° for 300 times, the volumetric capacitance of the FSSC remains at 81.4% and 90.4% of its initial capacitance value, respectively. Therefore, the free-standing rGO films prepared via foam film method could be considered as promising electrode materials for high performance flexible supercapacitors.

  13. CuIn{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}Se{sub 2} thin films prepared by electron beam evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatachalam, M.; Kannan, M.D.; Jayakumar, S.; Balasundaraprabhu, R.; Nandakumar, A.K. [Thin Film Center, Department of Physics, PSG College of Technology (India); Muthukumarasamy, N. [Department of Physics, Coimbatore Institute of Technology (India)

    2008-05-15

    CuIn{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}Se{sub 2} bulk compound of three different compositions x=0.75, 0.80 and 0.85 have been prepared using individual elements of copper, indium, gallium and selenium. Thin films of CuIn{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}Se{sub 2} have been deposited using the prepared bulk by electron beam evaporation method. The structural studies carried on the deposited films revealed that films annealed at 400 C are crystalline in nature exhibiting chalcopyrite phase. The position of the (1 1 2) peak in the X-ray diffractogram corresponding to the chalcopyrite phase has been found to be dependent on the percentage of gallium in the films. The composition of the prepared bulk and thin films has been identified using energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The photoluminescence spectra of the CuIn{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}Se{sub 2} films exhibited sharp luminescence peaks corresponding to the band gap of the material. (author)

  14. Preparation and Characterization of K-Carrageenan/Nanosilica Biocomposite Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lokesh R. Rane

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to improve the performance properties of K-carrageenan (K-CRG by utilizing nanosilica (NSI as the reinforcing agent. The composite films were prepared by solution casting method. NSI was added up to 1.5% in the K-CRG matrix. The prepared films were characterized for mechanical (tensile strength, tensile modulus, and elongation at break, thermal (differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, barrier (water vapour transmission rate, morphological (scanning electron microscopy, contact angle, and crystallinity properties. Tensile strength, tensile modulus, and crystallinity were found to have increased by 13.8, 15, and 48% whereas water vapour transmission rate was found to have decreased by 48% for 0.5% NSI loaded K-CRG composite films. NSI was found to have formed aggregates for concentrations above 0.5% as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Melting temperature, enthalpy of melting, and degradation temperature of K-CRG increased with increase in concentration of NSI in K-CRG. Contact angle also increased with increase in concentration of NSI in K-CRG, indicating the decrease in hydrophilicity of the films improving its water resistance properties. This knowledge of the composite film could make beneficial contributions to the food and pharmaceutical packaging applications.

  15. Preparation and Characteristics of Biodegradable Polyurethane/Clay Nanocomposite Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong Woo [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Biodegradable polyurethane (PU)/clay nanocomposite films were prepared via extrusion compounding process followed by casting film process. Organically modified montmorillonite (denoted as C30B) with a large amount of hydroxyl groups on its surface was used for the formation of strong bonding with PU resin. From both XRD analysis and TEM observations, the intercalated and exfoliated structure, and dispersion state of silicate platelets in the compounded nanocomposite films were confirmed. In addition, the rheological and tensile properties, optical transparency, oxygen permeability of the prepared nanocomposites were investigated as a function of added nanoclay content, and moreover based on these results, the correlation between the morphology and the resulting properties of the nanocomposites could be presented. The inclusion of nanoclays at appropriate content resulted in remarkable improvement in the nanocomposite performance including tensile modulus, elongation, transparency, and oxygen barrier property, however at excess amount of nanoclays, reduction or very slight increase was observed due to poor dispersion. The biodegradability of the prepared nanocomposite film was evaluated by examining the deterioration in the barrier and tensile properties during degradation period under compost.

  16. Preparation of SnSe thin films by encapsulated selenization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabar D. Hutagalung; Samsudi Sakrani; Yussof Wahab

    1994-01-01

    Tin selenide thin films were prepared by encapsulated selenization. A stacked layer of evaporated Sn and Se films were annealed in a carbon block at temperatures 100 - 500 degree Celsius for 3 hours. X-ray analysis and SEM (Scanning electron) micrograph results showed that SnSe was initially formed at 150 degree Celsius with crystal size 30.0 nm and reached optimum formation at 200 daximum of 57.4 % yield of 5-decene. Other factors such as reaction temperatures, types of solvent and wt% of rhenium loadings influence the activity of the catalytic system

  17. Preparation of Track Etch Membrane Filters Using Polystyrene Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaewsaenee, Jerawut; Ratanatongchai, Wichian; Supaphol, Pitt; Visal-athaphand, Pinpan

    2007-08-01

    Full text: Polystyrene nuclear track etch membrane filters was prepared by exposed 13 .m thin film polystyrene with fission fragment. Nuclear latent track was enlarged to through hole on the film by etching with 80 o C 40% H 2 SO 4 with K 2 Cr 2 O 7 solution for 6-10 hour. The hole size was depend on concentration of etching solution and etching time with 1.3-3.4 .m hole diameter. The flow rate test of water was 0.79-1.56 mm cm-2 min-1 at 109.8-113.7 kPa pressure

  18. Preparation of Ta Te2 thin films by laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidan, M.D.; Alkhwam, M.; Alkhasm, M.

    2006-03-01

    The laser ablation system consisting of a vacuum chamber and Nd-YAG laser has been built for deposition TaTe 2 on three different substrates (Silicon, glass, and Aluminium). The surface topography of the prepared thin films has been studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). TaTe 2 powder was characterized by using x-ray diffraction. The crystallinity of the thin films was examined by x-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show no peaks corresponding TaTe 2 , but there are some indications to the Ta 3 N 5 . (author)

  19. Preparation of Ferroelectric Thin Films of Bismuth Layer Structured Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Hitoshi; Mihara, Takashi; Yoshimori, Hiroyuki; Araujo, Carlos

    1995-09-01

    Ferroelectric thin films of bismuth layer structured compounds, SrBi2Ta2O9, SrBi2Nb2O9, SrBi4Ti4O15 and their solid solutions, were formed onto a sputtered platinum layer on a silicon substrate using spin-on technique and metal-organic decomposition (MOD) method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and some electrical measurements were performed on the prepared thin films. XRD results of SrBi2(Ta1- x, Nb x)2O9 films (0≤x≤1) showed that niobium ions substitute for tantalum ions in an arbitrary ratio without any change of the layer structure and lattice constants. Furthermore, XRD results of SrBi2 xTa2O9 films (0≤x≤1.5) indicated that the formation of the bismuth layer structure does not always require an accurate bismuth content. The layer structure was formed above 50% of the stoichiometric bismuth content in the general formula. SrBi2(Ta1- x, Nb x)2O9 films with various Ta/Nb ratios have large enough remanent polarization for nonvolatile memory application and have shown high fatigue resistance against 1011 cycles of full switching of the remanent polarization. Mixture films of the three compounds were also investigated.

  20. Indium tin oxide films prepared via wet chemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legnani, C.; Lima, S.A.M.; Oliveira, H.H.S.; Quirino, W.G.; Machado, R.; Santos, R.M.B.; Davolos, M.R.; Achete, C.A.; Cremona, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, indium tin oxide (ITO) films were prepared using a wet chemical route, the Pechini method. This consists of a polyesterification reaction between an α-hydroxicarboxylate complex (indium citrate and tin citrate) with a polyalcohol (ethylene glycol) followed by a post annealing at 500 deg. C. A 10 at.% of doping of Sn 4+ ions into an In 2 O 3 matrix was successfully achieved through this method. In order to characterize the structure, the morphology as well as the optical and electrical properties of the produced ITO films, they were analyzed using different experimental techniques. The obtained films are highly transparent, exhibiting transmittance of about 85% at 550 nm. They are crystalline with a preferred orientation of [222]. Microscopy discloses that the films are composed of grains of 30 nm average size and 0.63 nm RMS roughness. The films' measured resistivity, mobility and charge carrier concentration were 5.8 x 10 -3 Ω cm, 2.9 cm 2 /V s and - 3.5 x 10 20 /cm 3 , respectively. While the low mobility value can be related to the small grain size, the charge carrier concentration value can be explained in terms of the high oxygen concentration level resulting from the thermal treatment process performed in air. The experimental conditions are being refined to improve the electrical characteristics of the films while good optical, chemical, structural and morphological qualities already achieved are maintained

  1. Properties of tungsten films prepared by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, K.Y.; Ting, C.Y.; Brodsky, S.B.; Fryer, P.M.; Davari, B.; Angillelo, J.; Herd, S.R.; Licata, T.

    1986-01-01

    High-rate magnetron sputtering is a relatively simple process to produce tungsten films with good electrical and mechanical properties, and it offers good uniformity, reproducibility, process flexibility, and high throughput. The purity of the sputtered films is affected by the target purity (cold-pressed 99.95%, chemical vapor deposited 99.99% and cast 99.999%), base pressure, deposition rate, and substrate bias. Typical resistivity in films of 2000 to 3000A thickness deposited on Si, poly-Si, and SiO/sub 2/ ranges from 10 to 12 μΩ-cm, and this may be compared with 6 and 11 μΩ-cm by high-temperature evaporation and chemical vapor deposition, respectively. The presence of biaxial stress caused by substrate scanning was determined by x-ray technique. The sputtered films exhibit high compressive stress when deposited at low Ar pressure. It decreases with increasing pressure, and eventually changes sign to become tensile, and increases further with increasing pressure. Effects of processing parameters on films properties, and a comparison of film properties prepared by evaporation and chemical vapor deposition are discussed

  2. DC magnetron sputtering prepared Ag-C thin film anode for thin film lithium ion microbatteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.; Tu, J.P.; Shi, D.Q.; Huang, X.H.; Wu, H.M.; Yuan, Y.F.; Zhao, X.B.

    2007-01-01

    An Ag-C thin film was prepared by DC magnetron co-sputtering, using pure silver and graphite as the targets. The microstructure and morphology of the deposited thin film were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Electrochemical performances of the Ag-C thin film anode were investigated by means of discharge/charge and cyclic voltammogram (CV) tests in model cells. The electrochemical impedance spectrum (EIS) characteristics and the chemical diffusion coefficient, D Li of the Ag-C thin film electrode at different discharging states were discussed. It was believed that the excellent cycling performance of the Ag-C electrode was ascribed to the good conductivity of silver and the volume stability of the thin film

  3. Preparation and characterization of sprayed FTO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Lefdil, M.; Diaz, R.; Bihri, H.; Aouaj, M. Ait; Rueda, F.

    2007-06-01

    Fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique with no further annealing. Films with 2.5% of fluorine grown at 400 °C present a single phase and exhibit a tetragonal structure with lattice parameters a = 4.687 Å and c = 3.160 Å. Scanning electron micrographs showed homogeneous surfaces with average grain size around 190 nm. The films are transparent in the visible zone and exhibit a high reflectance in the near infrared region. The best electrical resistivity was 6.3 × 10-4 Ω cm for FTO with 2.5% of fluorine. The ratio of transmittance in the visible to the sheet resistance are in the 0.57 × 10-2 1.96 × 10-2 {Ω }-1 range.

  4. ITO thin films prepared by a microwave heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuya, Masayuki; Ito, Nobuyuki; Shiozaki, Katsuyuki

    2007-01-01

    ITO thin films were prepared by irradiating 2.45 GHz of microwave with an output power of 700 W using a commercial kitchen microwave oven. A substrate temperature went up and down rapidly between 100 and 650 deg. C in a minute by a dielectric loss of SnO 2 layer pre-deposited on a glass substrate. We found that the electrical and optical properties of films were affected by the atmosphere in a microwave irradiation, while the sintering was completed within a few minutes. Although the electrical resistivity was not reduced below 5.0 x 10 -4 Ω.cm in this study, the results lead to the possibility of a practical rapid synthesis of ITO transparent conducting oxide films

  5. Investigation of electrical noise in selenium-immersed thermistor bolometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarpley, J. L.; Sarmiento, P. D.

    1980-01-01

    The selenium immersed, thermistor bolometer, IR detector failed due to spurious and escalating electrical noise outburst as a function of time at elevated temperatures during routine ground based testing in a space simulated environment. Spectrographic analysis of failed bolometers revealed selenium pure zones in the insulating selenium arsenic (Se-As) glass film which surrounds the active sintered Mn, Ni, Co oxide flake. The selenium pure film was identified as a potentially serious failure mechanism. Significant changes were instituted in the manufacturing techniques along with more stringent process controls which eliminated the selenium pure film and successfully produced 22study bolometers.

  6. Preparation and thermomechanical properties of Ag-PVA nanocomposite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, Anurag; Ram, S.

    2010-01-01

    Metal-polymer hybrid nanocomposites have been prepared from an aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and silver nitrate (AgNO 3 ). The silver nanoparticles were generated in PVA matrix by the reduction of silver ions with PVA molecule at 60-70 deg. C over magnetic stirrer. UV-vis analysis, X-ray diffraction studies, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and current-voltage analysis were used to characterize the nanocomposite films prepared. The X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that silver metal is present in face centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure. Average crystallite size of silver nanocrystal is 19 nm, which increases to 22 nm on annealing the film at 150 deg. C in air. This result is in good agreement with the result obtained from TEM. The UV-vis spectrum shows a single peak at 433 nm, arising from the surface plasmon absorption of silver nanocolloids. This result clearly indicates that silver nanoparticles are embedded in PVA. An improvement of mechanical properties (storage modulus) was also noticed due to a modification of PVA up to 0.5 wt% of silver content. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristic of nanocomposite films shows increase in current drawn with increasing Ag-content in the films.

  7. Preparation of molybdenum oxide thin films by MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, R. Martinez; Garcia, J.R. Vargas; Santes, V.; Gomez, E.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, molybdenum oxide films were prepared in a horizontal hot-wall MOCVD apparatus using molybdenum dioxide acetylacetonate as precursor. The molybdenum precursor was synthesized from acetylacetone and molybdenum oxide powder. Thermal gravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analyses (DTA) of the precursor suggested the formation of molybdenum oxides around 430 o C (703 K). Thus, a range of deposition temperatures varying from 350 to 630 o C (623-903 K) was explored to investigate the effects on the nature of the molybdenum oxide films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the films consisted of α-MoO 3 phase at deposition temperatures ranging from 400 to 560 o C (673-833 K). Crystalline α-MoO 3 films can be obtained from molybdenum dioxide acetylacetonate precursor, without need of a post-annealing treatment. The best crystalline quality was found in films having needle-like crystallites grown at deposition temperature of about 560 o C (833 K), which exhibit a strong (0 1 0) preferred orientation and a transparent visual appearance

  8. Preparation of molybdenum oxide thin films by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, R. Martinez [Depto. de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE-IPN, Mexico 07300, D.F. (Mexico); Garcia, J.R. Vargas [Depto. de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE-IPN, Mexico 07300, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: rvargasga@ipn.mx; Santes, V. [CIIEMAD-IPN, Miguel Othon de Mendizabal 485, Mexico 07700, D.F. (Mexico); Gomez, E. [Instituto de Quimica-UNAM, Circuito Exterior-Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico 04510, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-05-31

    In this study, molybdenum oxide films were prepared in a horizontal hot-wall MOCVD apparatus using molybdenum dioxide acetylacetonate as precursor. The molybdenum precursor was synthesized from acetylacetone and molybdenum oxide powder. Thermal gravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analyses (DTA) of the precursor suggested the formation of molybdenum oxides around 430 {sup o}C (703 K). Thus, a range of deposition temperatures varying from 350 to 630 {sup o}C (623-903 K) was explored to investigate the effects on the nature of the molybdenum oxide films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the films consisted of {alpha}-MoO{sub 3} phase at deposition temperatures ranging from 400 to 560 {sup o}C (673-833 K). Crystalline {alpha}-MoO{sub 3} films can be obtained from molybdenum dioxide acetylacetonate precursor, without need of a post-annealing treatment. The best crystalline quality was found in films having needle-like crystallites grown at deposition temperature of about 560 {sup o}C (833 K), which exhibit a strong (0 1 0) preferred orientation and a transparent visual appearance.

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Formalated Polyvinyl Alcohol Hydrogel Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Than Than Aye; Nyunt Win; San Myint

    2011-12-01

    A feasible hydrogen film was prepared from polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sample. The effect of chemical grafting on polyvinyl alcohol film was studied. Polyvinyl alcohol sample was mixed with distilled water and autoclaved at 121C for 60 minutes. An aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol was casted into a steel plate and dried for a certain time at room temperature. The obtained PVA film was immersed in formalation bath containing aqueous formaldehyde, sulphuric acid, anhydrous sodium sulphate with a weight ratio of (64:95:300) and 1 liter of distilled water at 60C for various hours. Effect of formalation time was studied varying 6, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours. Degree of formalation was also evaluated. Physical properties of the hydrogel film such as gel fraction, degree of swelling and mechanical properties such as tensile strength, elongation and hardness were determined before and after formalation of the PVA film. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic (FTIR) analysis, Thermogravimetric / Differential thermal analysis (DTA / TG) were also studied for characterization. It was found that the appropriate condition for formalation was occured at 24 hours formalation time of with the calculated degree of formalation 65.35% with the determined values (9.04 Mpa) for tensile strength, (241.92%) for elongation, (45.30 Shore D) for hardness, (280.36%) for degree of swelling and (68.32%) for gel fraction.

  10. Effect of Perovskite Film Preparation on Performance of Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaxian Pei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For the perovskite solar cells (PSCs, the performance of the PSCs has become the focus of the research by improving the crystallization and morphology of the perovskite absorption layer. In this thesis, based on the structure of mesoporous perovskite solar cells (MPSCs, we designed the experiments to improve the photovoltaic performance of the PSCs by improved processing technique, which mainly includes the following two aspects. Before spin-coating PbI2 solution, we control the substrate temperature to modify the crystal quality and morphology of perovskite films. On the other hand, before annealing, we keep PbI2 films for the different drying time at room temperature to optimize films morphology. In our trials, it was found that the substrate temperature is more important in determining the photovoltaic performance than drying time. These results indicate that the crystallization and morphology of perovskite films affect the absorption intensity and obviously influence the short circuit current density of MPSCs. Utilizing films prepared by mentioning two methods, MPSCs with maximum power conversion efficiency of over 4% were fabricated for the active area of 0.5 × 0.5 cm2.

  11. Deposition techniques for the preparation of thin film nuclear targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggleton, A.H.F.

    1987-07-01

    This review commences with a brief description of the basic principles that regulate vacuum evaporation and the physical processes involved in thin film formation, followed by a description of the experimental methods used. The principle methods of heating the evaporant are detailed and the means of measuring and controlling the film thickness are elucidated. Types of thin film nuclear targets are considered and various film release agents are listed. Thin film nuclear target behaviour under ion-bombardment is described and the dependence of nuclear experimental results upon target thickness and uniformity is outlined. Special problems associated with preparing suitable targets for lifetime measurements are discussed. The causes of stripper-foil thickening and breaking under heavy-ion bombardment are considered. A comparison is made between foils manufactured by a glow discharge process and those produced by vacuum sublimation. Consideration is given to the methods of carbon stripper-foil manufacture and to the characteristics of stripper-foil lifetimes are considered. Techniques are described that have been developed for the fabrication of special targets, both from natural and isotopically enriched material, and also of elements that are either chemically unstable, or thermally unstable under irradiation. The reduction of metal oxides by the use of hydrogen or by utilising a metallothermic technique, and the simultaneous evaporation of reduced rare earth elements is described. A comprehensive list of the common targets is presented

  12. Cells structure peculiarities of posterity testicle epithelium, when posterity was developing after using selenium-containing preparation in chronic irradiation condition in early ontogenesis period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnova, I.A.; Gajdukevich, E.G.; Banetskaya, N.V.; Amvros'ev, A.P.

    2002-01-01

    Female rats 4 month old were receiving sodium selenite (0.15 mg/kg) and vitamin E (5 mg/kg) daily during 10 days. After coupling, pregnant animals were irradiated with dose 3.1*10 -7 Gy/s during all pregnancy period and 16 days after birth with posterity. Posterity 30-40 days old and 6 month old was decapitated and testicles were investigated. Results of morphological and cytogenetic analysis of posterity testicle epithelium cells testify to radiation modification peculiarities of selenium-containing preparation

  13. Selenium essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Sams, Prashanth

    2015-01-01

    If you are a developer who wants to migrate from Selenium RC or any other automation tool to Selenium WebDriver, then this book is for you. Knowledge of automation tools is necessary to follow the examples in this book.

  14. Preparation of poly(vinylbenzyl chloride)-grafted PFA film by a simultaneous irradiation grafting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei, Geng; Shin, Jun Hwa; Nho, Young Chang; Lee, Youn Sik

    2009-01-01

    In this study, PFA-g-PVBC films were prepared by a radiation grafting of vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC) monomer onto poly(tetrafluoroethylene-co-perfluoro propyl vinyl ether) (PFA) films by simultaneous irradiation method. IR, TGA, and SEM-EDX instruments were utilized to confirm the successful preparation of the grafted film. The effects of several irradiation conditions, including the dose, VBC concentration, and film thickness on the degree of grafting of PFA-g-PVBC film were investigated

  15. Preparation and properties of thin films treatise on materials science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, K N

    1982-01-01

    Treatise on Materials Science and Technology, Volume 24: Preparation and Properties of Thin Films covers the progress made in the preparation of thin films and the corresponding study of their properties. The book discusses the preparation and property correlations in thin film; the variation of microstructure of thin films; and the molecular beam epitaxy of superlattices in thin film. The text also describes the epitaxial growth of silicon structures (thermal-, laser-, and electron-beam-induced); the characterization of grain boundaries in bicrystalline thin films; and the mechanical properti

  16. Preparation of CuGaSe2 absorber layers for thin film solar cells by annealing of efficiently electrodeposited Cu-Ga precursor layers from ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steichen, M.; Larsen, J.; Guetay, L.; Siebentritt, S.; Dale, P.J.

    2011-01-01

    CuGaSe 2 absorber layers were prepared on molybdenum substrates by electrochemical codeposition of copper and gallium and subsequential annealing in selenium vapour. The electrodeposition was made from a deep eutectic based ionic liquid consisting of choline chloride/urea (Reline) with a plating efficiency of over 85%. The precursor film composition is controlled by the ratio of the copper to gallium fluxes under hydrodynamic conditions and by the applied deposition potential. X-ray diffraction reveals CuGa 2 alloying during the electrodeposition and CuGaSe 2 formation after annealing. Photoluminescence (PL) and photocurrent spectroscopy revealed the good opto-electronic properties of the CuGaSe 2 absorber films. The absorber layers have been converted to full devices with the best device achieving 4.0 % solar conversion efficiency.

  17. Study on Preparation and Properties of PVC Film Modified by Rare Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The transparent PVC films were prepared by tape casting. In the process of preparation, rare earth nitrate, as a kind of modifier, was added to the solution of PVC and THF. These PVC films were tested after being crosslinked by ultraviolet light. It is found that the mechanical and physical properties of all the PVC films modified by rare earth nitrate are greatly enhanced.

  18. Epitaxial ternary nitride thin films prepared by a chemical solution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Hongmei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Feldmann, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wang, Haiyan [TEXAS A& M; Bi, Zhenxing [TEXAS A& M

    2008-01-01

    It is indispensable to use thin films for many technological applications. This is the first report of epitaxial growth of ternary nitride AMN2 films. Epitaxial tetragonal SrTiN2 films have been successfully prepared by a chemical solution approach, polymer-assisted deposition. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of the films are also investigated.

  19. Improvement of physical properties of IGZO thin films prepared by excimer laser annealing of sol–gel derived precursor films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsay, Chien-Yie; Huang, Tzu-Teng

    2013-01-01

    Indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) transparent semiconductor thin films were prepared by KrF excimer laser annealing of sol–gel derived precursor films. Each as-coated film was dried at 150 °C in air and then annealed using excimer laser irradiation. The influence of laser irradiation energy density on surface conditions, optical transmittances, and electrical properties of laser annealed IGZO thin films were investigated, and the physical properties of the excimer laser annealed (ELA) and the thermally annealed (TA) thin films were compared. Experimental results showed that two kinds of surface morphology resulted from excimer laser annealing. Irradiation with a lower energy density (≤250 mJ cm −2 ) produced wavy and irregular surfaces, while irradiation with a higher energy density (≥350 mJ cm −2 ) produced flat and dense surfaces consisting of uniform nano-sized amorphous particles. The explanation for the differences in surface features and film quality is that using laser irradiation energy to form IGZO thin films improves the film density and removes organic constituents. The dried IGZO sol–gel films irradiated with a laser energy density of 350 mJ/cm 2 had the best physical properties of all the ELA IGZO thin films. The mean resistivity of the ELA 350 thin films (4.48 × 10 3 Ω cm) was lower than that of TA thin films (1.39 × 10 4 Ω cm), and the average optical transmittance in the visible range (90.2%) of the ELA 350 thin films was slightly higher than that of TA thin films (89.7%). - Highlights: • IGZO semiconductor films were prepared by laser annealing of sol–gel derived films. • Surface roughness and resistivity of ELA samples were affected by energy density. • The ELA 350 IGZO film exhibited the best properties among all of ELA IGZO films. • Transmittance and resistivity of ELA 350 films are greater than those of TA films

  20. New diffusive gradients in a thin film technique for measuring inorganic arsenic and selenium(IV) using a titanium dioxide based adsorbent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, William W.; Teasdale, Peter R.; Panther, Jared G.

    2010-01-01

    A new diffusive gradients in a thin film (DGT) technique, using a titanium dioxide based adsorbent (Metsorb), has been developed and evaluated for the determination of dissolved inorganic arsenic and selenium. AsIII, AsV, and SeIV were found to be quantitatively accumulated by the adsorbent (uptake...... measurement of inorganic arsenic. Reproducibility of the technique in field deployments was good (relative standard deviation arsenic and 0.05 μg L-1 for SeIV. The results of this study confirmed that DGT with Metsorb was a reliable...... and robust method for the measurement of inorganic arsenic and the selective measurement of SeIV within useful limits of accuracy....

  1. Preparation and characterization of thick BSCCO 2223 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciancio, G; Avila, A; Malachevsky, M.T; Ovidio, C.A

    2002-01-01

    Among the most widespread applications for critical high-temperature ceramic superconductors are for silver veined tapes, with the superconductor in the middle. These tapes are prepared by the powder- in - tube method. To attain high densities of critical current, the ceramic material must have a certain texture, with the grains oriented with the c axis perpendicular to the direction in which the current circulates. In the system that was studied, the degree of orientation increases as the distance to the vein decreases, with the maximum being in the silver-ceramic inter-phase. Superconductor tapes become inconvenient when defining the ceramic, especially because of the orientation of their plates as a function of the distance to the silver. Although the silver can be dissolved by a chemical attack in order to uncover the ceramic, greater precaution is needed while manipulating the superconductor and obtaining representative data. The behavior of thick films of the compound BSCCO 2223, deposited on silver sheets, forming silver-ceramic composites, was studied. These sheets simulate the silver-ceramic inter-phase and the distribution of the grains towards the center in a thick tape. After the samples were prepared, the phases that were present were characterized by x-ray diffraction and the resulting microstructure was analyzed with a SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope). Its mechanical properties were evaluated, following the formation and propagation of cracks in real time using four point flexion microassays inside the SEM chamber, as well as generating tension-deformation curves. The method of preparation of the thick films is discussed and its influence on the results obtained with the different characterizations (cw)

  2. Preparation and characterisation of Al-doped Zn O thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.; Kassis, A.; Nounou, F.

    2010-12-01

    Al-doped Zn O thin films were prepared using RF magnetron sputtering under several preparation conditions (deposition pressure, RF power, substrate temperature). The films were optically and electrically characterized by measuring their transmission and resistance. Furthermore, x-ray diffraction spectroscopy was used in order to study the structural properties of these films. As a result of this study, the preparation conditions suitable for the highly conductive part of the window layer in solar cells were determined. (author)

  3. Surface Properties of a Novel Poly(vinyl alcohol Film Prepared by Heterogeneous Saponification of Poly(vinyl acetate Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Baek Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Almost general poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA films were prepared by the processing of a PVA solution. For the first time, a novel poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA film was prepared by the saponification of a poly(vinyl acetate (PVAc film in a heterogenous medium. Under the same saponification conditions, the influence of saponification time on the degree of saponification (DS was studied for the preparation of the saponified PVA film, and it was found that the DS varied with time. Optical microscopy was used to confirm the characteristics and surface morphology of the saponified PVA film, revealing unusual black globules in the film structure. The contact angle of the films was measured to study the surface properties, and the results showed that the saponified PVA film had a higher contact angle than the general PVA film. To confirm the transformation of the PVAc film to the PVA film, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction measurements, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy were employed.

  4. Preparation and Characterization of Some Polyethylene Modified- Starch Biodegradable Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badrana, A.S.; Ramadanb, A.M.; Ibrahim, N.A.; Kahild, T.; Hussienc, H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Blends of LDPE with soluble starch, wheat flour and commercial starch were prepared by mixing starch (or flour) with styrene then blending the mixture with LDPE, The starch percents vary between 5 and 50% of the total weight. Their physical and mechanical properties were recorded and compared with pure LDPE. It was observed that the increase in starch or wheat flour contents of the mixture was reversibly proportional to the tensile strength and % elongation. Samples were tested for water absorption. All of the samples were insoluble in cold and boiling water. Moisture uptake increased with immersion time and increasing starch content. The changes in the tensile strength of LDPE/starch (or wheat flour) after the course of thermal oxidation was measured. These results show negligible changes in the tensile strength of the control sample as compared to that of the samples containing the additives. Oxidation processes take advantage of the high temperatures (40-50 degree C) and the time. It was also observed that after 10 weeks of soil burial, the mechanical properties of the films decrease, mainly, due to starch removal from the films. Also, for the weight loss a drastic decrease was observed after 10 weeks of soil burial thereafter it preceded slowly. The LDPE/ starch strips showed weight loss after treating with a-amylase this due to hydrolysis and leaching of the starch. The rate of starch hydrolysis increases with the increase in starch content of the sample. The influence of addition of starch on the overall migration of these films, with different food simulant, was studied, at different temperatures (-4 degree. 25 degree and 40 degree C). All values were significantly lower than the upper limit for overall migration set by the EU (10 mg/dirf) for food grade plastics packaging materials

  5. Niobium and zirconium telluride thin films prepared by sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassem, M.; Pailharey, D.; Mathey, Y.

    2000-01-01

    A versatile procedure of sputter deposition, well adapted for getting a large of Te/M ratios (with M = Zr or Nb), has led to the synthesis of several highly anisotropic zirconium and niobium poly tellurides in thin film form. Upon tuning the two key parameters of the process, i.e., the Te percentage in the target and the substrate temperature during the deposition, preparation of systems ranging from ZrTe 0 .72 to ZrTe 6 .7, on the one hand, and from NbTe 1 .28 to NbTe 7 .84, on the other, has been achieved. Besides their amorphous or crystalline (with or without preferential orientations) behavior and their relationship to known structural types, the most striking feature of these films is their large departure from the stoichiometry of the bulk Mte x reference compounds. This peculiarity, together with the possible changes of composition under annealing, are described and interpreted in terms of variable of Te and M atoms trapped or intercalated within the parent structures. (author)

  6. TiCx thin films coatings prepared by reactive sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saoula, N.; Handa, K.; Kesri, R.

    2004-01-01

    demonstrate clearly the great influence of the variation of different parameters (deposition time, RF power, total pressure, gas mixture (Ar+CH 4 ) on the film growth rates and thickness. The aim of present work is to study their influence of gas mixture, more specifically of carbon content on the structure, composition and the hardness of TiC coatings, prepared using an RF sputtering system

  7. Characterization of film-forming solutions and films incorporating free and nanoencapsulated tea polyphenol prepared by gelatins with different Bloom values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelatin film-forming solutions and their films incorporating tea polyphenol (TP) and chitosan nanoparticles (CSNs) were prepared from gelatins with different Bloom values (100, 150 and 225). Blank gelatin film-forming solutions and films were prepared as controls. Gelatins with higher Bloom values h...

  8. Polysulfobetaine films prepared by electrografting technique for reduction of biofouling on electroconductive surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stach, Marek; Kronekova, Zuzana; Kasak, Peter; Kollar, Jozef; Pentrak, Martin; Micusik, Matej; Chorvat, Dusan; Nunney, Tim S.; Lacik, Igor

    2011-01-01

    The sulfobetaine films were prepared on stainless steel and golden surfaces. In the first step, the poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) film was created by employing the electrografting polymerization technique. In the second step, this film was modified to polysulfobetaine, i.e. the polymer film bearing the zwitterionic groups. The presence of the electrografted film and its modification were determined by contact angle measurements, infrared spectroscopy in reflectance mode and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The prepared films were homogeneous with the thickness from about 5 to 26 nm as determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The atomic force microscopy measurements showed the increase of surface roughness upon the surface coating. In vitro tests using adherent RAT-2 fibroblast cells and fluorescently labelled bovine serum albumin proteins showed that prepared polysulfobetaine films can be used in applications requiring the resistance against cell attachment and biofouling.

  9. Titanium-silicon films prepared by spin and dip-coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassar, Eduardo J.; Ciuffi, Katia J.; Goncalves, Rogeria R.; Messaddeq, Younes; Ribeiro, Sidney J.L.

    2003-01-01

    The conditions for the preparation of luminescent materials, consisting of Eu 3+ ions entrapped in a titanium matrix, in the form of a thin film, using the sol-gel process, are described. The films were obtained from sols prepared with TEOS and TEOT, in the presence of acetylacetone as the hydrolysis-retarding agent, using the dip-coating and spin-coating techniques. The influence of these techniques on the films based on titanium and silicon are presented. The Eu 3+ was used as a luminescent probe. The films have been characterized by luminescence, reflection and transmittance. The thickness of the films could be related to the preparation procedure. Transparent thin films have been prepared by dip-coating technique. (author)

  10. Preparation of transparent conducting zinc oxide films by rf reactive sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasanelli, L.; Valentini, A.; Losacco, A.

    1986-01-01

    Transparent conducting zinc oxide films have been prepared by reactive sputtering in a Ar/H/sub 2/ mixture. The optical and electrical properties of the films are presented and discussed. The effects of some post-deposition thermal treatment have been also investigated. ZnO/CdTe heterojunctions have been prepared by sputtering ZnO films on CdTe single crystals. The photovoltaic conversion efficiencies of the obtained solar cells was 6.8%

  11. Selenium biofortification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant foods are the major dietary sources of selenium (Se) in most countries around the world, followed by meats and seafood. For this reason, it is vital to increase Se uptake by plants and to produce crops with higher Se concentrations and bioavailability in their edible tissues. One of the most p...

  12. Preparation and adsorption properties of nano magnetite chitosan films for heavy metal ions from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasheen, M.R., E-mail: ragaei24@link.net [Water Pollution Research Department, Environmental Research Division, National Research Centre, 33-El Buhoth St., Dokki, Cairo, 12311 (Egypt); El-Sherif, Iman Y., E-mail: iman57us@yahoo.com [Water Pollution Research Department, Environmental Research Division, National Research Centre, 33-El Buhoth St., Dokki, Cairo, 12311 (Egypt); Tawfik, Magda E., E-mail: magdaemileta@yahoo.com [Polymers and Pigments Department, National Research Centre, 33-El Buhoth St., Dokki, Cairo, 12311 (Egypt); El-Wakeel, S.T., E-mail: shaimaa_tw@yahoo.com [Water Pollution Research Department, Environmental Research Division, National Research Centre, 33-El Buhoth St., Dokki, Cairo, 12311 (Egypt); El-Shahat, M.F., E-mail: elshahatmf@hotmail.com [Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Khalifa El-Maamon St., Abbasiya Sq., 11566, Cairo (Egypt)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Nano magnetite–chitosan films were prepared by casting method. • The efficiency of the prepared films for removing heavy metals was investigated. • The adsorption mechanism was studied using different isotherm and kinetic models. • Films reuse and metals recovery were studied. - Abstract: Nano magnetite chitosan (NMag–CS) film was prepared and characterized with different analytical methods. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirmed the formation of a pure magnetite structure and NMag–CS nanocomposite. TEM image of the film, revealed the uniform dispersion of magnetite nanoparticles inside chitosan matrix. The adsorption properties of the prepared film for copper, lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel metal ions were evaluated. Different factors affecting the uptake behavior by the composite films such as time, initial pH and film dose were investigated. The adsorption equilibrium attained using 2 g/L of the film after 120 min of reaction. The equilibrium data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich models. The adsorption kinetics followed the mechanism of the pseudo-second-order equation for all metals. The metals regenerated from films with an efficiency greater than 95% using 0.1 M ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) and films were successfully reused for adsorption.

  13. Improvement of physical properties of IGZO thin films prepared by excimer laser annealing of sol–gel derived precursor films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsay, Chien-Yie, E-mail: cytsay@fcu.edu.tw; Huang, Tzu-Teng

    2013-06-15

    Indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) transparent semiconductor thin films were prepared by KrF excimer laser annealing of sol–gel derived precursor films. Each as-coated film was dried at 150 °C in air and then annealed using excimer laser irradiation. The influence of laser irradiation energy density on surface conditions, optical transmittances, and electrical properties of laser annealed IGZO thin films were investigated, and the physical properties of the excimer laser annealed (ELA) and the thermally annealed (TA) thin films were compared. Experimental results showed that two kinds of surface morphology resulted from excimer laser annealing. Irradiation with a lower energy density (≤250 mJ cm{sup −2}) produced wavy and irregular surfaces, while irradiation with a higher energy density (≥350 mJ cm{sup −2}) produced flat and dense surfaces consisting of uniform nano-sized amorphous particles. The explanation for the differences in surface features and film quality is that using laser irradiation energy to form IGZO thin films improves the film density and removes organic constituents. The dried IGZO sol–gel films irradiated with a laser energy density of 350 mJ/cm{sup 2} had the best physical properties of all the ELA IGZO thin films. The mean resistivity of the ELA 350 thin films (4.48 × 10{sup 3} Ω cm) was lower than that of TA thin films (1.39 × 10{sup 4} Ω cm), and the average optical transmittance in the visible range (90.2%) of the ELA 350 thin films was slightly higher than that of TA thin films (89.7%). - Highlights: • IGZO semiconductor films were prepared by laser annealing of sol–gel derived films. • Surface roughness and resistivity of ELA samples were affected by energy density. • The ELA 350 IGZO film exhibited the best properties among all of ELA IGZO films. • Transmittance and resistivity of ELA 350 films are greater than those of TA films.

  14. Electrochemical preparation of poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erçarıkcı, Elif; Dağcı, Kader; Topçu, Ezgi; Alanyalıoğlu, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Poly(MB)/graphene thin films are prepared by a simple electrochemical approach. • Graphene layers in the film show a broad band in visible region of absorbance spectra. • Morphology of composite films indicates both disordered and ordered regions. • XRD reveals that nanocomposite films include rGO layers after electropolymerization process. • Chemically prepared graphene is better than electrochemically prepared graphene for electrooxidation of nitrite. - Abstract: Poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite thin films were prepared by electropolymerization of methylene blue in the presence of graphene which have been synthesized by two different methods of a chemical oxidation process and an electrochemical approach. Synthesized nanocomposite thin films were characterized by using cyclic voltammetry, UV–vis. absorption spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning tunneling microscopy techniques. Electrocatalytical properties of prepared poly(methylene blue)/graphene nanocomposite films were compared toward electrochemical oxidation of nitrite. Under optimized conditions, electrocatalytical effect of nanocomposite films of chemically prepared graphene through electrochemical oxidation of nitrite was better than that of electrochemically prepared graphene

  15. Effect of magnetic field on the growth of Be films prepared by thermal evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Kai; Luo, Bing-chi; Tan, Xiu-lan; Zhang, Ji-qiang; Wu, Wei-dong; Liu, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The Be films were prepared on Si (1 0 0) substrates with and without a magnetic field by thermal evaporation, respectively. • The grain diameter in the Be film transited from 300 nm to 18 nm by application of the magnetic field. • The surface roughness of the Be film decreased from 61 nm to 3 nm by application of the magnetic field. • The Be film grown with the magnetic field was easily oxidized due to its refined grains and the oxidation was gradually decreased with increasing the etching depth in the film. - Abstract: Grain refinement of beryllium deposits is studied as a significant subject for beryllium capsule in the Inertial Confinement Fusion project. The Be films were prepared on the Si (1 0 0) substrates by thermal evaporation with and without a magnetic field, respectively. The two separate groups of prepared Be films were characterized. The results showed the grain diameter in the Be film transited from 300 nm to 18 nm and the surface roughness of the Be film decreased from 61 nm to 3 nm by application of the magnetic field during the deposition process of Be coating. However, the Be film grown with the magnetic field was easily oxidized in comparison with that grown without magnetic field due to the refined grains, and the oxidation was gradually decreased with the increase of etching depth in the Be film. The reason for grain refinement of Be film was also qualitatively described

  16. Preparation of Surlyn films reinforced with cellulose nanofibres and feasibility of applying the transparent composite films for organic photovoltaic encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertngim, Anantaya; Phiriyawirut, Manisara; Wootthikanokkhan, Jatuphorn; Yuwawech, Kitti; Sangkhun, Weradesh; Kumnorkaew, Pisist; Muangnapoh, Tanyakorn

    2017-10-01

    This research concerns the development of Surlyn film reinforced with micro-/nanofibrillated celluloses (MFC) for use as an encapsulant in organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells. The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of fibre types and the mixing methods on the structure-properties of the composite films. Three types of cellulose micro/nanofibrils were prepared: the as-received MFC, the dispersed MFC and the esterified MFC. The fibres were mixed with Surlyn via an extrusion process, using two different mixing methods. It was found that the extent of fibre disintegration and tensile modulus of the composite films prepared by the master-batching process was superior to that of the composite system prepared by the direct mixing method. Using the esterified MFC as a reinforcement, compatibility between polymer and the fibre increased, accompanied with the improvement of the percentage elongation of the Surlyn composite film. The percentage of light transmittance of the Surlyn/MFC films was above 88, regardless of the fibre types and fibre concentrations. The water vapour transmission rate of the Surlyn/esterified MFC film was 65% lower than that of the neat Surlyn film. This contributed to the longer lifetime of the OPV encapsulated with the Surlyn/esterified MFC film.

  17. Trace Element Analysis of Selenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, M.S.A.

    2010-01-01

    The present thesis divided into four chapters as follows:Chapter (1):This chapter contains an introduction on different oxidation states of organic and inorganic species for selenium in environmental and biological samples, the process for separation of selenium from these samples and the importance of selenium as a component for these samples. Also gives notes about the techniques which are used in the elemental analysis for selenium species and the detection limits for selenium in these techniques, selenium species in human body and the importance of these species in protecting the body from the different types of cancer and the sources of selenium in environmental samples (soil and water) and distribution levels of selenium in these samples.Chapter (2):This chapter is divided into two parts :The first part deals with the sample collection process for environmental samples (underground water, soil) and the wet digestion ( microwave digestion ) process of soil samples. It also contains the theory of work of the closed microwave digestion system.The second part contains detailed information concerning the theoretical considerations of the used analytical techniques. These techniques include Hydride generation - Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (HG-AAS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA).Chapter (3): This chapter includes the methods of sampling, sample preparation, and sample digesition. The measures of quality assurance are disscused in this chapter. It describes in details the closed microwave digestion technique and the analytical methods used in this study which are present in Central Laboratory for Elemental and Isotopic Analysis (CLEIA) and the Egypt Second Research Reactor (ETRR-2). The described techniques are Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS 6 vario, Analytical Jena GmbH, Germany), JMS-PLASMAX2 Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) and the Egypt Second Research Reactor (NAA).

  18. Preparation and Properties of Silver Nanowire-Based Transparent Conductive Composite Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ji-Li; Zhang, Hua-Yu; Wang, Hai-Jun

    2016-06-01

    Silver nanowire-based transparent conductive composite films with different structures were successfully prepared using various methods, including liquid polyol, magnetron sputtering and spin coating. The experimental results revealed that the optical transmittance of all different structural composite films decreased slightly (1-3%) compared to pure films. However, the electrical conductivity of all composite films had a great improvement. Under the condition that the optical transmittance was greater than 78% over the wavelength range of 400-800 nm, the AgNW/PVA/AgNW film became a conductor, while the AZO/AgNW/AZO film and the ITO/AgNW/ITO film showed 88.9% and 94% reductions, respectively, for the sheet resistance compared with pure films. In addition, applying a suitable mechanical pressure can improve the conductivity of AgNW-based composite films.

  19. Preparation and properties of carbohydrate-based composite films incorporated with CuO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Shiv; Wang, Long-Feng; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to develop the carbohydrate biopolymer based antimicrobial films for food packaging application. The nanocomposite films of various biopolymers and copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) were prepared by solvent casting method. The nanocomposite films were characterized using SEM, FTIR, XRD, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The thermal stability, UV barrier, water vapor permeability, and antibacterial activity of the composite films were also evaluated. The surface morphology of the films was dependent on the types of polymers used. The XRD revealed the crystallinity of CuONPs in the composite films. The addition of CuONPs increased the thickness, tensile strength, UV barrier property, relative humidity, and water vapor barrier property. The CuONPs incorporated composite films exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. The developed composite films could be used as a UV-light barrier antibacterial films for active food packaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of NdFeB thin films prepared by facing target sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivalingappa, L.; Mohan, S.; Ghantasala, M.K.; Sood, D.K.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we present the details of our work on the deposition and characterization of NdFeB thin films. These films were prepared using facing target sputtering technique. The silicon(100) substrates were maintained at a substrate temperature of 400 to 600 deg C during deposition. Film structure, composition and magnetic properties are analyzed using Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) techniques. Films deposited below 400 deg C were x-ray amorphous, while the onset of crystallinity was observed with the films deposited at 500 deg C. Typical film composition was Nd:Fe:B = 2.2:12.5:2. Film composition appear to be a function of deposition conditions. Oxygen has been found to be the main impurity in the films. Oxygen content in the film reduced as the substrate temperature is increased

  1. Hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium dioxide thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, Yoshiaki; Kawasaki, Hiroharu; Ohshima, Tamiko; Nakashima, Shouta; Kawazoe, Syuichi; Toma, Tetsuya

    2006-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) coated on titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films has been developed to supplement the defects of both TiO 2 and HAp. Thin films have been prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method using HAp and HAp(10%) + TiO 2 targets. X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows that there are many small peaks of Ca 1 0(PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 crystal, and no impurity other than HAp is detected in HAp films prepared using pure HAp target. The composition ratio of the film was analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). HAp coatings on TiO 2 thin films have been prepared using HAp(10%) + TiO 2 targets. XRD and XPS measurements suggest that crystalline HAp + TiO 2 thin films are obtained by the PLD method using HAp(10%) + TiO 2 target

  2. Preparation, characterization and optical properties of Gadolinium doped ceria thin films by pulsed laser deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaraju, P.; Vijaya Kumar, Y.; Vishnuvardhan Reddy, C.; Ramana Reddy, M.V.; Phase, D.M; Raghavendra Reddy, V.

    2013-01-01

    The growth of Gadolinium doped ceria thin films with controlled surface structure for device quality applications presents a significant problem for experimental investigation. In the present study gadolinium doped cerium oxide thin films were prepared by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and were studied for their surface structure evaluation in relation to the optimized operating conditions during the stage of film preparation. The deposition was made with gadolinium concentration of 10 mole% to ceria pellets. The films were deposited on quartz substrate in the presence of oxygen partial pressure of 1.5 x 10 -3 torr using KrF Excimer laser with laser energy 220 mJ at a substrate temperature 700℃. The effect of annealing temperature on 10 mole% GDC thin film was investigated. The film thickness was measured by using AMBIOS make XP-l stylus profiler. As prepared and annealed thin films were characterized for crystallinity, particle size and orientation by using G.I.XRD. The films were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM results gave a consistent picture of the evolution of GDC film surface morphologies and microstructures in terms of surface roughness, grain distribution and mean grain size. The optical transmittance spectra was used to determine the optical constants such as optical band gap, refractive index, extinction coefficient of as prepared and annealed thin films. (author)

  3. Preparation and characterization of porphyrin-polythiophene stacked films as prepared by electrochemical method under stirring condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawa, Kosuke; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Sunao

    2008-01-01

    Porphyrin-polythiophene (pTh) stacked films consisting of meso-tetrathienylporphyrin (TThP) and bithiophene (BiTh) were prepared on transparent indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes by sequential electrochemical scanning of applied potential between 0 and + 2 V vs Ag wire in the electrolyte solution of BiTh and TThP under stirring condition. First, the pTh films were prepared by electrochemical polymerization and then TThP was incorporated into the as-prepared pTh film by subsequent electrochemical scanning as described above in the TThP solution. The operation of solution stirring during electrochemical scanning achieved the formation of robust stacked films. UV/Vis and fluorescence spectra confirmed that the amount of TThP moiety increased with increasing the number of electrochemical scanning cycles in the TThP solution. In order to evaluate the incorporation profile of TThP, surface analyses and depth profiles of stacked films were carried out by XPS spectroscopy. The results suggested that all films formed porphyrin-polythiophene stacked structure precisely, and that TThP was exclusively incorporated around the outermost region of the pTh film

  4. Preparation of anatase TiO2 thin films by vacuum arc plasma evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, Toshihiro; Tsukada, Satoshi; Minami, Tadatsugu

    2006-01-01

    Anatase titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) thin films with high photocatalytic activity have been prepared with deposition rates as high as 16 nm/min by a newly developed vacuum arc plasma evaporation (VAPE) method using sintered TiO 2 pellets as the source material. Highly transparent TiO 2 thin films prepared at substrate temperatures from room temperature to 400 deg. C exhibited photocatalytic activity, regardless whether oxygen (O 2 ) gas was introduced during the VAPE deposition. The highest photocatalytic activity and photo-induced hydrophilicity were obtained in anatase TiO 2 thin films prepared at 300 deg. C, which correlated to the best crystallinity of the films, as evidenced from X-ray diffraction. In addition, a transparent and conductive anatase TiO 2 thin film with a resistivity of 2.6 x 10 -1 Ω cm was prepared at a substrate temperature of 400 deg. C without the introduction of O 2 gas

  5. Preparation of BiOBr thin films with micro-nano-structure and their photocatalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Rui [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Fan, Caimei, E-mail: fancm@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Zhang, Xiaochao, E-mail: zhang13598124761@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Wang, Yawen; Wang, Yunfang [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Zhang, Hui [Particle Technology Research Centre, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    A series of micro-nano-structure BiOBr thin films were prepared at a low temperature by the alcoholysis-coating method using BiBr{sub 3} as precursor. The as-prepared films were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller surface area. The obtained results indicated that micro-nano-structure tetragonal BiOBr films with different intensity ratios of (110) to (102) characteristic peaks could be synthesized through controlling the reaction temperature and the calcination temperatures. Furthermore, the photocatalytic activities of BiOBr thin films with different preparation conditions have been evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange (MO) under UV light irradiation, suggesting that the photocatalytic activity should be closely related to the solvent, the alcoholysis reaction temperature, and the calcining temperature. The best photocatalytic degradation efficiency of MO for BiOBr thin films reaches 98.5% under 2.5 h UV irradiation. The BiOBr thin films display excellent stability and their photocatalytic activity still remains above 90% after being used five times. The main reasons for the higher photocatalytic activity of micro-nano-structure BiOBr microspheres have been investigated. In addition, the possible formation mechanism of BiOBr thin films with micro-nano-structure and excellent photocatalytic activity was proposed and discussed. - Highlights: • The BiOBr film was prepared at low temperature via alcoholysis-coating method. • The optimum process conditions of preparing BiOBr film were discussed. • As-prepared BiOBr films were composed of micro-nano flake structures. • The BiOBr films demonstrated excellent photocatalytic activity. • The formation mechanism of BiOBr films with high activity was proposed.

  6. Characteristics of tungsten oxide thin films prepared on the flexible substrates using pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, Yoshiaki; Kawasaki, Hiroharu; Ohshima, Tamiko; Yagyuu, Yoshihito

    2008-01-01

    Tungsten trioxide (WO 3 ) thin films have been prepared on the flexible indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using WO 3 targets in oxygen gas. Color of the WO 3 film on the flexible ITO substrates depends on the oxygen gas mixture. The plasma plume produced by PLD using a Nd:YAG laser and WO 3 target is investigated by temporal and spatial-resolved optical emission spectroscopy. WO 3 films prepared on the flexible ITO substrates show electrochromic properties, even when the substrates are bent. The film color changes from blue to transparent within 10-20 s after the applied DC voltage is turned off

  7. Resistivity behavior of optimized PbTiO3 thin films prepared by spin coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurbaya, Z.; Wahid, M. H.; Rozana, M. D.; Alrokayan, S. A. H.; Khan, H. A.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Th is study presents the resistivity behavior of PbTiO3 thin films which were prepared towards metal-insulator-metal capacitor device fabrication. The PbTiO3 thin films were prepared through sol-gel spin coating method that involved various deposition parameters that is (1) different molar concentration of PbTiO3 solutions, (2) various additional PbAc-content in PbTiO3 solutions, and (3) various annealing temperature on PbTiO3 thin films. Hence, an electrical measurement of current versus voltage was done to determine the resistivity behavior of PbTiO3 thin films.

  8. A methodology for the preparation of nanoporous polyimide films with low dielectric constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Lizhong; Liu Jiugui; Wu Dezhen; Li Hangquan; Jin Riguang

    2006-01-01

    A method to generate nanoporous polyimide films with low dielectric constants was proposed. The preparation consisted of two steps. Firstly, a polyimide/silica hybrid film was prepared via sol-gel process. Secondly, the hybrid film was treated with hydrofluoric acid to remove the dispersed silica particles, leaving pores with diameters between 20 and 120 nm, depending on the size of silica particles. Both hybrid and porous films were subjected to a variety of characterizations including transmission electron microscopy observation, dielectric constant measurement and tensile strength measurement

  9. Plasma-polymerized SiOx deposition on polymer film surfaces for preparation of oxygen gas barrier polymeric films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, N.

    2003-01-01

    SiOx films were deposited on surfaces of three polymeric films, PET, PP, and Nylon; and their oxygen gas barrier properties were evaluated. To mitigate discrepancies between the deposited SiOx and polymer film, surface modification of polymer films was done, and how the surface modification could contribute to was discussed from the viewpoint of apparent activation energy for the permeation process. The SiOx deposition on the polymer film surfaces led to a large decrease in the oxygen permeation rate. Modification of polymer film surfaces by mans of the TMOS or Si-COOH coupling treatment in prior to the SiOx deposition was effective in decreasing the oxygen permeation rate. The cavity model is proposed as an oxygen permeation process through the SiOx-deposited Nylon film. From the proposed model, controlling the interface between the deposited SiOx film and the polymer film is emphasized to be a key factor to prepare SiOx-deposited polymer films with good oxygen gas barrier properties. (author)

  10. Effect of the thickness of a fluoropolymer film on the radiotically prepared fuel cell membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Beom Seok; Sohn, Joon Yong; Nho, Young Chang; Shin, Jun Hwa; Kim, Jong Il

    2010-01-01

    To observe the effect of the thickness of a fluoropolymer film on the radiotically prepared fuel cell membranes, fuel cell membranes with various thickness were prepared by simultaneous radiation grafting of styrene into polyethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) with various thicknesses (25, 50 and 100 μm) and subsequent sulfonation. The physico-chemical properties of the prepared membranes such as ion exchange capacity, water uptake, distribution of sulfonic acid group were evaluated in the correlation with the thickness of ETFE film. In additions, proton conductivity and methanol permeability of the prepared membranes were also evaluated. The results revealed that the proton conductivity and methanol permeability of the prepared membranes were largely affected by the thickness of ETFE film utilized as a base film

  11. Effect of the thickness of a fluoropolymer film on the radiotically prepared fuel cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Beom Seok; Sohn, Joon Yong; Nho, Young Chang; Shin, Jun Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Il [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    To observe the effect of the thickness of a fluoropolymer film on the radiotically prepared fuel cell membranes, fuel cell membranes with various thickness were prepared by simultaneous radiation grafting of styrene into polyethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) with various thicknesses (25, 50 and 100 {mu}m) and subsequent sulfonation. The physico-chemical properties of the prepared membranes such as ion exchange capacity, water uptake, distribution of sulfonic acid group were evaluated in the correlation with the thickness of ETFE film. In additions, proton conductivity and methanol permeability of the prepared membranes were also evaluated. The results revealed that the proton conductivity and methanol permeability of the prepared membranes were largely affected by the thickness of ETFE film utilized as a base film.

  12. Preparation of mesoporous silica thin films by photocalcination method and their adsorption abilities for various proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Katsuya, E-mail: katsuya-kato@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Nakamura, Hitomi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 2266-98 Anagahora, Shimoshidami, Moriyama-ku, Nagoya 463-8560 (Japan); Yamauchi, Yoshihiro; Nakanishi, Kazuma; Tomita, Masahiro [Department of Chemistry for Materials, Graduate School of Engineering, Mie University, 1577 Kurimamachiya-cho, Tsu, Mie 514-8570 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Mesoporous silica (MPS) thin film biosensor platforms were established. MPS thin films were prepared from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) via using sol–gel and spin-coating methods using a poly-(ethylene oxide)-block-poly-(propylene oxide)-block-poly-(ethylene oxide) triblock polymer, such as P123 ((EO){sub 20}(PO){sub 70}(EO){sub 20}) or F127 ((EO){sub 106}(PO){sub 70}(EO){sub 106}), as the structure-directing agent. The MPS thin film prepared using P123 as the mesoporous template and treated via vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation to remove the triblock copolymer had a more uniform pore array than that of the corresponding film prepared via thermal treatment. Protein adsorption and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on the synthesized MPS thin films were also investigated. VUV-irradiated MPS thin films adsorbed a smaller quantity of protein A than the thermally treated films; however, the human immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding efficiency was higher on the former. In addition, protein A–IgG specific binding on MPS thin films was achieved without using a blocking reagent; i.e., nonspecific adsorption was inhibited by the uniform pore arrays of the films. Furthermore, VUV-irradiated MPS thin films exhibited high sensitivity for ELISA testing, and cytochrome c adsorbed on the MPS thin films exhibited high catalytic activity and recyclability. These results suggest that MPS thin films are attractive platforms for the development of novel biosensors. - Highlights: • VUV-treated MPS thin films with removed polymer had uniform pore. • VUV-treated MPS thin films exhibited high sensitivity by ELISA. • Cytochrome c showed the catalytic activity and recyclability on synthesized films.

  13. Preparation of mesoporous silica thin films by photocalcination method and their adsorption abilities for various proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Katsuya; Nakamura, Hitomi; Yamauchi, Yoshihiro; Nakanishi, Kazuma; Tomita, Masahiro

    2014-01-01

    Mesoporous silica (MPS) thin film biosensor platforms were established. MPS thin films were prepared from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) via using sol–gel and spin-coating methods using a poly-(ethylene oxide)-block-poly-(propylene oxide)-block-poly-(ethylene oxide) triblock polymer, such as P123 ((EO) 20 (PO) 70 (EO) 20 ) or F127 ((EO) 106 (PO) 70 (EO) 106 ), as the structure-directing agent. The MPS thin film prepared using P123 as the mesoporous template and treated via vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation to remove the triblock copolymer had a more uniform pore array than that of the corresponding film prepared via thermal treatment. Protein adsorption and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on the synthesized MPS thin films were also investigated. VUV-irradiated MPS thin films adsorbed a smaller quantity of protein A than the thermally treated films; however, the human immunoglobulin G (IgG) binding efficiency was higher on the former. In addition, protein A–IgG specific binding on MPS thin films was achieved without using a blocking reagent; i.e., nonspecific adsorption was inhibited by the uniform pore arrays of the films. Furthermore, VUV-irradiated MPS thin films exhibited high sensitivity for ELISA testing, and cytochrome c adsorbed on the MPS thin films exhibited high catalytic activity and recyclability. These results suggest that MPS thin films are attractive platforms for the development of novel biosensors. - Highlights: • VUV-treated MPS thin films with removed polymer had uniform pore. • VUV-treated MPS thin films exhibited high sensitivity by ELISA. • Cytochrome c showed the catalytic activity and recyclability on synthesized films

  14. Comparison of digital selenium radiography with an analog screen-film system in the diagnostic process of pneumoconiosis according to ILO classification; Vergleich der digitalen Selenradiographie mit einem analogen Film-Folien-System in der Diagnostik von Staublungenerkrankungen anhand der ILO-Klassifikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaehringer, M.; Winnekendonk, G.; Gossmann, A.; Krueger, K.; Krug, B. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik; Piekarski, C.; Saupe, M. [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. und Poliklinik fuer Arbeitsmedizin, Sozialmedizin und Sozialhygiene; Braun, W. [Koeln Univ. (DE). Inst. fuer Medizinische Statistik, Informatik und Epidemiologie (IMSIE)

    2001-10-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to determine the diagnostic value of digital selenium radiography in patients with pneumoconiosis. For this purpose chest X-rays by digital selenium radiography and analog screen-film system were compared according to the ILO classification of pneumoconiosis. Method: After approval of the study by the local ethic commission and the Federal German Office for Radiation Protection 50 patients were subjected to X-rays by digital selenium radiography (Thoravision; Philips Medical Systems, Hamburg, Germany) and analog screen-film system of the same day within the scope of an industrial medicine preventive checkup. Four investigators rated the chest X-rays according to the ILO classification of pneumoconiosis. Results: The findings demonstrated by chest X-rays according to ILO classification were rated similar by digital selenium radiography and analog screen film systems. Image quality of the digital pictures was rated significantly better. Conclusion: The use of digital selenium radiography in evaluating chest X-rays according to the ILO classification does not result in over- or underestimation of pulmonary pathologies. Hence, in the diagnosis of pneumoconiosis, digital selenium radiography can replace the tested analog screen-film system. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Zur Ermittlung des Stellenwertes der digitalen Selenradiographie in der Diagnostik von Staublungenerkrankungen werden mittels Selenradiographie und einer analogen Film-Folienkombination angefertigte Thoraxuebersichtsaufnahmen im sagittalen Strahlengang anhand der ILO-Klassifikation fuer Staublungenerkrankungen verglichen. Methoden: Nach Genehmigung der Studie durch die oertliche Ethikkommission und das Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz wurden bei 50 Patienten im Rahmen einer arbeitsmedizinischen Vorsorgeuntersuchung am selben Tag Thoraxuebersichtsaufnahmen im sagittalen Strahlengang in analoger und digitaler Technik (Thoravision; Philips Medizin Systeme, Hamburg, Deutschland

  15. Applying RF Magnetron sputtering to prepare ZnO thin films and their characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad, M.; Kassis, A.

    2009-05-01

    ZnO thin films were prepared using Rf magnetron sputtering under several preparation conditions (different values of deposition pressure, Rf power, substrate temperature). The optical properties of these films were investigated by measuring their transmission in the spectral range (300-1000 nm), and the electrical properties were investigated by measuring their electrical resistance. Results have been discussed in terms of the modified Thornton model for sputtered thin metal oxide films. Preparation conditions for depositing the highly resistive transparent i-ZnO buffer layer and the highly conducting transparent n-ZnO window layer for solar cells were proposed. (author)

  16. Challenges of sample preparation for cross sectional EBSD analysis of electrodeposited nickel films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alimadadi, Hossein; Pantleon, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Thorough microstructure and crystallographic orientation analysis of thin films by means of electron backscatter diffraction requires cross section preparation of the film-substrate compound. During careful preparation, changes of the rather non-stable as-deposited microstructure must be avoided....... Different procedures for sample preparation including mechanical grinding and polishing, electropolishing and focused ion beam milling have been applied to a nickel film electrodeposited on top of an amorphous Ni-P layer on a Cu-substrate. Reliable EBSD analysis of the whole cross section can be obtained...

  17. Preparation and characterization of depolymerised chitosan films and crosslinked with sodium tripolyphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salazar, Max Carlos; Valderrama Negron, Ana

    2013-01-01

    This work has studied the preparation and characterization of chitosan films (CS) crosslinked with sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP), prepared by the solvent evaporation method. Initially we studied the depolymerization of chitosan with sodium nitrite to get different polymer molecular weights in the used polymer. For example, we obtained chitosans of 554.22kDa and 133.37kDa of molecular weight. Afterward, prepared and characterized chitosans films crosslinked with TPP, evidently the hydrogen bridge interaction with the polyanion through IR, SEM, TG; also was performed swelling studies, with the objective of identified the type of kinetic model in which enable explain said phenomenon in these films. (author)

  18. The preparation and corrosion resistance of Ce and Nd modified anodic films on aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qizheng; Tang Yuming; Zuo Yu

    2010-01-01

    Rare earth element Ce and Nd modified anodic films were prepared on aluminum surface by a relatively simple method: the aluminum samples were first immersed in Ni(NO 3 ) 2 solutions containing Ce or Nd salts at 90 deg. C, then were dried and anodized. The contents of Ce or Nd in the anodic films were from 0.5% to 0.9%, and about 4-5% Ni was also introduced in the films. The modified anodic films were more compact with much smaller pores and increased hardness. In neutral, acidic and basic NaCl solutions, the rare earth modified films showed obviously improved corrosion resistance. The Ce modified films showed better corrosion resistance than Nd modified films. The cracking resistance of the films under heating was also improved.

  19. Electrodeposited Fe-Co films prepared from a citric-acid-based plating bath

    OpenAIRE

    Yanai, Takeshi; Uto, H.; Shimokawa, Takaya; Nakano, Masaki; Fukunaga, Hirotoshi; Suzuki, K.

    2013-01-01

    Electrodeposited Fe-Co films are commonly prepared in a boric-acid-based bath. In this research, we applied citric acid instead of boric acid for the plating of Fe-Co films because boron in the waste bath is restricted by environmental-protection regulations in Japan. We evaluated the effect of citric acid on the magnetic and structural properties of the films. The saturation magnetization of the Fe-Co films slightly increased while the Fe content in the Fe-Co films decreased with increasing ...

  20. Preparation and characterization of milk protein films and their application for packaging of Cheddar cheese

    OpenAIRE

    Wagh, Y. R.; Pushpadass, Heartwin A.; Emerald, F. Magdaline Eljeeva; Nath, B. Surendra

    2013-01-01

    Casein and whey protein concentrate (WPC) films, plasticized with glycerol and sorbitol independently, were prepared by casting. The film thickness, water vapour and oxygen permeation and tensile and moisture sorption properties of the films were determined. The tensile strength (TS), tensile strain (TE) and elastic modulus (EM) of the films ranged from 0.71 to 4.58 MPa, 19.22 to 66.63 % and 2.05 to 6.93 MPa, respectively. The film properties were influenced by the type of biopolymer (casein ...

  1. Preparation and optical characterization of DNA-riboflavin thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Bjorn; Shin, Inchul; Kong, Byungjoo; Sauer, Gregor; Dugasani, Sreekantha Reddy; Khazaeinezhad, Reza; Jung, Woohyun; Joo, Boram; Oh, Kyunghwan

    2016-09-01

    Thin films of DNA biopolymer thin film are fabricated by a drop casting process on glass and silicon substrates, as well as freestanding. The refractive index is measured by elliposmetry and in bulk DNA film the refractive index is shown to be increased in the 600 to 900 nm DNA transparency window by doping with riboflavin. Further analysis with FT-IR, Raman, and XRD are used to determine whether binding between riboflavin and DNA occurs.

  2. Characterization of AZO and Ag based films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Dagang; Jiang, Shouxiang; Zhao, Hongmei; Shang, Songmin; Chen, Zhuoming

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Highly infrared reflective AZO and Ag based films were prepared. • Ag showed better crystallization on AZO film than on glass substrate. • Infrared reflection rate was inversely proportional to the film sheet resistance. • Film with infrared reflection of 97% in FIR region was acquired. - Abstract: Ag, AZO/Ag, Ag/AZO and AZO/Ag/AZO films were prepared on glass substrates by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technology. The prepared films were systematically investigated by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), UV–visible spectrophotometer, a four-point probe system and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The results indicated that Ag inner layer starts forming a continuous film at the thickness of 10 nm and Ag layer presents superior crystallization on AZO substrate than that on glass substrate. The continuous Ag inner layer film provided the highest average visible transmittance of 85.4% (AZO/Ag/AZO). The lowest sheet resistance of 3.21 Ω/sq and the highest infrared reflection rate of 97% in FIR region can be obtained on AZO/Ag (15 nm)/AZO film. The high infrared reflection property of the AZO/Ag/AZO coating makes it a promising candidate for solar control films

  3. Preparation and characterization of milk protein films and their application for packaging of Cheddar cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Y R; Pushpadass, Heartwin A; Emerald, F Magdaline Eljeeva; Nath, B Surendra

    2014-12-01

    Casein and whey protein concentrate (WPC) films, plasticized with glycerol and sorbitol independently, were prepared by casting. The film thickness, water vapour and oxygen permeation and tensile and moisture sorption properties of the films were determined. The tensile strength (TS), tensile strain (TE) and elastic modulus (EM) of the films ranged from 0.71 to 4.58 MPa, 19.22 to 66.63 % and 2.05 to 6.93 MPa, respectively. The film properties were influenced by the type of biopolymer (casein and whey protein concentrate), plasticizer and its concentration. Increasing the plasticizer concentration, increased the film thickness, TE and water vapour permeability (WVP), but decreased the TS and EM. As the concentration of plasticizer increased to the highest level, the film thickness increased from 0.168 to 0.305 mm for glycerol-plasticized films and from 0.251 to 0.326 mm for sorbitol-plasticized films. The film thickness increased because the amount of plasticizer in the film network increased and the amount of biopolymer remained same. Casein films showed superior tensile properties as compared to WPC films. The WVP of both casein and WPC films lied between 3.87 and 13.97 g.mm./(m(2).h.kPa). The moisture sorption isotherms of both films were typical of high-protein material, and were adequately described by the GAB model. The oxygen permeability of casein films was relatively lower than that of WPC films, regardless of the plasticizer used. The sensory data revealed that the organoleptic quality of Cheddar cheese was unaffected by milk-protein film packaging.

  4. Quasi-epitaxial barium hexaferrite thin films prepared by a topotactic reactive diffusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Siqin; Yue, Zhenxing; Zhang, Xiaozhi; Li, Longtu

    2014-01-01

    Quasi-epitaxial barium hexaferrite thin films (BaM) with crystallographic c-axis parallel to film normal were prepared through a topotactic reactive diffusion process using two-step solution deposition on c-plane sapphire. The two-step spin coating process involves preparing an epitaxial hematite film, coating the film with barium precursor solution and thermal annealing. The crystal orientation and magnetic anisotropy of BaM thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis, SEM observation and magnetic measurements. Hysteresis loops showed good magnetic anisotropy and high remanence ratio (RR) Mr/Ms = 0.97. The films fabricated by two-step spin coating process displayed wider rocking curve width but better magnetic anisotropy than one-step spin coating. The possible mechanism of this discrepancy is discussed in this paper.

  5. Quasi-epitaxial barium hexaferrite thin films prepared by a topotactic reactive diffusion process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Siqin; Yue, Zhenxing, E-mail: yuezhx@tsinghua.edu.cn; Zhang, Xiaozhi; Li, Longtu

    2014-01-30

    Quasi-epitaxial barium hexaferrite thin films (BaM) with crystallographic c-axis parallel to film normal were prepared through a topotactic reactive diffusion process using two-step solution deposition on c-plane sapphire. The two-step spin coating process involves preparing an epitaxial hematite film, coating the film with barium precursor solution and thermal annealing. The crystal orientation and magnetic anisotropy of BaM thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis, SEM observation and magnetic measurements. Hysteresis loops showed good magnetic anisotropy and high remanence ratio (RR) Mr/Ms = 0.97. The films fabricated by two-step spin coating process displayed wider rocking curve width but better magnetic anisotropy than one-step spin coating. The possible mechanism of this discrepancy is discussed in this paper.

  6. Characteristics of (Ti,Ta)N thin films prepared by using pulsed high energy density plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Wenran [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Chen Guangliang [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Li Li [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Lv Guohua [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Zhang Xianhui [College of Science, Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun 130022, Jilin Province (China); Niu Erwu [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Liu Chizi [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Yang Size [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)

    2007-07-21

    (Ti,Ta)N films were prepared by pulsed high energy density plasma (PHEDP) from a coaxial gun in N{sub 2} gas. The coaxial gun is composed of a tantalum inner electrode and a titanium outer one. Material characteristics of the (Ti,Ta)N film were investigated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction. The microstructure of the film was observed by a scanning electron microscope. The elemental composition and the interface of the film/substrate were analysed using Auger electron spectrometry. Our results suggest that the binary metal nitride film (Ti,Ta)N, can be prepared by PHEDP. It also shows that dense nanocrystalline (Ti,Ta)N film can be achieved.

  7. Radiolytic preparation of thin Au film directly on resin substrate using high-energy electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohkubo, Yuji, E-mail: okubo@upst.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Seino, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Takashi; Kugai, Junichiro [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ueno, Koji [Japan Electron Beam Irradiation Service Ltd., 5-3 Ozushima, Izumiohtsu, Osaka 595-0074 (Japan); Yamamoto, Takao A. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2016-04-01

    A novel method for preparing thin Au films directly on resin substrates using an electron beam was developed. The thin Au films were prepared on a resin substrate by the reduction of Au ions in an aqueous solution via irradiation with a high-energy electron beam (4.8 MeV). This reduction method required 7 s of the irradiation time of the electron beam. Furthermore, no reductant or catalyst was needed. As the concentration of Au ions in the precursor solution was increased, the amount of Au deposited on the resin substrate increased, too, and the structure of the prepared Au film changed. As a result, the film color changed as well. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscope images of the thus-prepared Au film indicated that the Au films were consisted of two layers: a particle layer and a bottom bulk layer. There was strong adhesion between the Au films and the underlying resin substrates. This was confirmed by the tape-peeling test and through ultrasonic cleaning. After both processes, Au remained on the resin substrates, while most of the particle-like moieties were removed. This indicated that the thin Au films prepared via irradiation with a high-energy electron beam adhered strongly to the resin substrates. - Highlights: • A thin gold (Au) film was formed by EBIRM for the first time. • The irradiation time of the electron beam was less than 10 s. • Thin Au films were obtained without reductant or catalyst. • Au films were consisted of two layers: a particle layer and a bottom bulk layer. • There was strong adhesion between the bottom bulk layer and the underlying resin substrates.

  8. Improvement in fatigue property for a PZT ferroelectric film device with SRO electrode film prepared by chemical solution deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, H.; Miwa, Y.; Suzuki, H.

    2007-01-01

    PZT films with (1 0 0) and (1 1 0) orientation were prepared by spin coating using the chemical solution deposition (CSD) method on an SRO/Si or a Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si substrate. The remnant polarization and the saturation polarization of the PZT/SRO/Si film were 21 and 35 μC/cm 2 , and those of the PZT/Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si film were 20 and 31 μC/cm 2 . The remnant polarization of the PZT/SRO/Si film maintained more than 10 8 switching cycles, and the fatigue property was observed for the PZT film fabricated on the Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si electrode

  9. Preparation of high quality superconducting thin MgB2 films for electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surdu, Andrei; Zdravkov, Vladimir; Sidorenko, Anatolie; Rossolenko, Anna; Ryazanov, Valerii; Bdikin, Igor; Kroemer, Oliver; Nold, Eberhard; Koch, Thomas; Schimmel, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    In this work we report the growth of high-Tc MgB 2 smooth films which are prepared in a two-step process: 1) deposition of the precursor films and 2) their annealing in Mg vapor with a specially designed, reusable reactor. Our method opens perspectives for the use of MgB 2 films in microelectronics, especially for high-frequency applications. (authors)

  10. Preparation and characterization of TiO[sub 2]/Sb thin films for solar energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badawy, W.A. (Dept. of Chemistry, Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt))

    1993-01-01

    Pure and antimony-incorporated TiO[sub 2] thin films were prepared using a spray-CVD method. The method allows for convenient incorporation of foreign atoms into the oxide matrix during film growth. The foreign atoms in the oxide film affects both the photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical properties of the n-Si/oxide heterojunction. The characteristics of the prepared oxide films were affected significantly by the presence of antimony on the oxide matrix. The increased conductivity of the Sb-containing oxide layers is reflected in the improved photovoltaic properties of the prepared n-Si/TiO[sub 2]-Sb heterojunctions, e.g. fill factor and solar conversion efficiency. The photoelectrochemical properties of the prepared devices revealed that the charge transfer step at the oxide/electrolyte interface leads to a deterioration of the cell quality. However, this drawback has been offset by the improved properties of the heterojunction. (orig.)

  11. YBa2Cu3O7 films prepared by aerosol MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, F.; Froehlich, K.; Haase, R.; Labeau, M.; Selbmann, D.; Senateur, J.P.; Thomas, O.

    1993-01-01

    In the present study we report on properties of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 films prepared by aerosol MOCVD. We give a short description of the process and we focus on the superconducting and related properties of the films deposited on SrTiO 3 , LaAlO 3 and NdGaO 3 single crystalline substrates. (orig.)

  12. The effect of formulation additives on the properties of films prepared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Method: Films were prepared by solvent casting method using Terminalia, xanthan gums and hydroxylpropy lmethylcellulose (HPMC). Terminlia was also combined with xanthan, HPMC at different ratios using propylene glycol and glycerol as plaasticizers. The films were characterized using adherence, folding endurance ...

  13. Quality by design approach for optimizing the formulation and physical properties of extemporaneously prepared orodispersible films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, J. Caroline; Dohmen, Willem M. C.; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.; Breitkreutz, Joerg; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Woerdenbag, Herman J.

    2015-01-01

    The quality by design (QbD) approach was applied for optimizing the formulation of extemporaneously prepared orodispersible films (ODFs) using Design-Expert Software. The starting formulation was based on earlier experiments and contained the film forming agents hypromellose and carbomer 974P and

  14. Preparation and characterization of LaNiO3 films grown by metal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Keywords. Conductive films; LaNiO3; metal–organic deposition; texture. 1. Introduction ... films on Si (111) and quartz substrates were first prepared with the 2-ethyl hexanotes of ..... Li A, Ge C, Lü P and Ming N 1996a Appl. Phys. Lett. 68. 1347.

  15. Zirconia thin film preparation by wet chemical methods at low temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popovici, M.; Graaf, de J.; Verschuuren, M.A.; Graat, P.C.J.; Verheijen, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study the preparation of zirconia thin films with a high refractive index at low temperature is aimed for. Two non-hydrolytic type approaches of wet chemical synthesis are presented. Both by sol–gel and colloid chemistry, highly transmissive, smooth thin films of zirconia cubic and/or

  16. Preparation and characterization of biocomposite film based on chitosan and kombucha tea as active food packaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashrafi, Azam; Jokar, Maryam

    2018-01-01

    An active film composed of chitosan and kombucha tea (KT) was successfully prepared using the solvent casting technique. The effect of incorporation of KT at the levels 1%–3% w/w on the physical and functional properties of chitosan film was investigated. The antimicrobial activity of chitosan...

  17. Structure and giant magnetoresistance of carbon-based amorphous films prepared by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, L.; He, M.F.; Liu, Z.W.; Zeng, D.C.; Gu, Z.F.; Cheng, G.

    2014-01-01

    Pure amorphous carbon (a-C) and Co-doped Co x C 1−x films were prepared on n-Si(100) substrates by dc magnetron sputtering. In Co–C films, the nano-sized amorphous Co particles were homogeneously dispersed in the amorphous cross-linked carbon matrix. The structures of a-C and Co x C 1−x films were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The results showed that the a-C films were diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. After doping cobalt into DLC film, the sp 3 -hybridized carbon content in DLC composite films almost had no change. The as-deposited Co x C 1−x granular films had larger value of magnetoresistance (MR) than the amorphous carbon film. A very high positive MR, up to 15.5% at magnetic field B = 0.8 T and x = 2.5 at.% was observed in a Co x C 1−x granular film with thickness of 80 nm at room temperature when the external magnetic field was perpendicular to the electric current and the film surface. With increase of the film thickness and Co-doped content, the MR decreased gradually. It remains a challenge to well explain the observed MR effect in the Co x C 1−x granular films. - Highlights: • The amorphous carbon films were diamond-like carbon films. • No carbide appearing, the Co–C composite films form a good metal/insulator system. • A high positive magnetoresistance, up to 15.5% at B = 0.8 T was observed in Co–C films

  18. Magnetic properties and crystal texture of Co alloy thin films prepared on double bias Cr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y.; Lambeth, D. N.; Lee, L.-L.; Laughlin, D. E.

    1993-05-01

    A double layer Cr film structure has been prepared by sputter depositing Cr on single crystal Si substrates first without substrate bias and then with various substrate bias voltages. Without substrate bias, Cr{200} texture grows on Si at room temperature; thus the first Cr layer acts like a seed Cr layer with the {200} texture, and the second Cr layer, prepared with substrate bias, tends to replicate the {200} texture epitaxially. CoCrTa and CoNiCr films prepared on these double Cr underlayers, therefore, tend to have a {112¯0} texture with their c-axes oriented in the plane of the film. At the same time, the bias sputtering of the second Cr layer increases the coercivity of the subsequently deposited magnetic films significantly. Comparison studies of δM curves show that the use of the double Cr underlayers reduces the intergranular exchange interactions. The films prepared on the Si substrates have been compared with the films prepared on canasite and glass substrates. It has also been found that the magnetic properties are similar for films on canasite and on glass.

  19. Preparation and characterization of epitaxially grown unsupported yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Götsch, Thomas; Mayr, Lukas [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Universität Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Stöger-Pollach, Michael [University Service Center for Transmission Electron Microscopy (USTEM), Vienna University of Technology, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Klötzer, Bernhard [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Universität Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Penner, Simon, E-mail: simon.penner@uibk.ac.at [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Universität Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Preparation of unsupported yttrium-stabilized zirconia films. • Control of ordering and epitaxy by temperature of deposition template. • Adjustment of film defectivity by deposition and post-oxidation temperature. • Reproducibility of target stoichiometry in the deposited films. • Lateral and vertical chemical homogeneity. - Abstract: Epitaxially grown, chemically homogeneous yttria-stabilized zirconia thin films (“YSZ”, 8 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) are prepared by direct-current sputtering onto a single-crystalline NaCl(0 0 1) template at substrate temperatures ≥493 K, resulting in unsupported YSZ films after floating off NaCl in water. A combined methodological approach by dedicated (surface science) analytical characterization tools (transmission electron microscopy and diffraction, atomic force microscopy, angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) reveals that the film grows mainly in a [0 0 1] zone axis and no Y-enrichment in surface or bulk regions takes place. In fact, the Y-content of the sputter target is preserved in the thin films. Analysis of the plasmon region in EEL spectra indicates a defective nature of the as-deposited films, which can be suppressed by post-deposition oxidation at 1073 K. This, however, induces considerable sintering, as deduced from surface morphology measurements by AFM. In due course, the so-prepared unsupported YSZ films might act as well-defined model systems also for technological applications.

  20. Photoinducedly electrochemical preparation of Prussian blue film and electrochemical modification of the film with cetyltrimethylammonium cation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Shouqing, E-mail: shouqing_liu@hotmail.co [Key Laboratory of Environmental Functional Materials of Jiangsu Province, College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009 (China); Li Hua; Sun Weihui; Wang Xiaomei; Chen Zhigang [Key Laboratory of Environmental Functional Materials of Jiangsu Province, College of Chemistry and Bioengineering, Suzhou University of Science and Technology, Suzhou 215009 (China); Xu Jingjuan; Ju Huangxian; Chen Hongyuan [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Life Science, Ministry of Education, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Cetyltrimethylammonium cations work as counter ions in Prussian blue film was observed and confirmed by cyclic voltammetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction measurements, scanning electronic microscopy and transmission electron microscope for the first time. {yields} Because the cetyltrimethylammonium cations in Prussian blue film are hydrophobic, the Prussian blue film is very stable even in alkali solution, which provides a technical basis for fabrication of stable biosensors. - Abstract: This work presents a photoinducedly electrochemical preparation of Prussian blue from a single sodium nitroprusside and insertion of cetyltrimethylammonium cations into Prussian blue as counter ions. The product of photoinducedly electrochemical reactions has a couple of voltammetric peaks at E{sup o} = 0.266 V in 0.2 mol l{sup -1} KCl solution, the measurements of X-ray powder diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy show that it is Prussian blue (PB). The formation mechanism of a pre-photochemical reaction and subsequent electrochemical reaction is suggested. The cyclic voltammetric treatment of the freshly as-prepared PB film in 1.0 mmol l{sup -1} cetyltrimethylammonium (CTA) bromide solution leads to the insertion of cetyltrimethylammonium cations into the channels of Prussian blue, which substitutes for potassium ions as counter ions in Prussian blue. The Prussian blue containing CTA counter ions shows two couples of voltammetric peaks at E{sup o} = -0.106 V and E{sup o} = 0.249 V in 0.2 mol l{sup -1} KCl solution containing 1.0 mmol l{sup -1} cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Compared with the electrochemical behaviors of KFeFe(CN){sub 6} in 0.1 mol l{sup -1} KOH alkali solution, CTAFeFe(CN){sub 6} shows relatively durable voltammetric currents due to the hydrophobic effects of cetyltrimethylammonium. The diffusion coefficients for CTA and potassium cations were estimated to be D{sub CTA} 1.25 x 10{sup -12} cm{sup 2} s

  1. Preparation and characterization of sponge film made from feathers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Wu, Xiaoqian [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Cao, Zhangjun [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Meihua [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Gao, Pin, E-mail: gaopin@mail.dhu.edu.cn [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2013-12-01

    Feather wastes generated from poultry farms will pose a problem for disposal, but they are sustainable resources of keratin. Reduction is one of the commonly used methods to obtain soluble keratin from feather. However, the residues generated during feather reduction reaction were rarely investigated. In this study, the residues were transformed into a porous and flexible sponge film by freeze-drying without pretreatment or addition of cross-linking agents. Glycerol was used to alter the physical and chemical characteristics of the sponge film. The film was characterized with a fiber strong stretch instrument, a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy, an elemental analyzer, a differential scanning calorimeter and an automatic air permeability apparatus. Tensile strength and melting point of the sponge film with the optimum glycerol content were 6.2 MPa and 170 °C respectively. Due to air permeability of 368 mm/s, the film can potentially be used in medicine, biology, textile, environmental technology, and so on. It is ecologically friendly and will produce additional benefits from the renewable materials. The film was utilized as adsorbents to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions and as a filtering material for air pollution. Its maximum Cr(VI) uptake capacity was about 148.8 mg/g and the removal rate of PM{sub 10} was 98.3%. - Graphical abstract: The reduction residues were made into a smooth, elastic, porous and flexible sponge film through freeze drying, no pretreatment and no cross-linking agent added. - Highlights: • The residue from feather waste reduction was turned into a sponge film. • A glycerol content of 5% produced a sponge with the optimum characteristics. • The sponge was uniform, stable up to 160 °C, and had an air permeability of 368 mm/s. • Feather-derived sponge film has potential applications in medicine and technology.

  2. Preparation and characterization of sponge film made from feathers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Wu, Xiaoqian; Cao, Zhangjun; Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Meihua; Gao, Pin

    2013-01-01

    Feather wastes generated from poultry farms will pose a problem for disposal, but they are sustainable resources of keratin. Reduction is one of the commonly used methods to obtain soluble keratin from feather. However, the residues generated during feather reduction reaction were rarely investigated. In this study, the residues were transformed into a porous and flexible sponge film by freeze-drying without pretreatment or addition of cross-linking agents. Glycerol was used to alter the physical and chemical characteristics of the sponge film. The film was characterized with a fiber strong stretch instrument, a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy, an elemental analyzer, a differential scanning calorimeter and an automatic air permeability apparatus. Tensile strength and melting point of the sponge film with the optimum glycerol content were 6.2 MPa and 170 °C respectively. Due to air permeability of 368 mm/s, the film can potentially be used in medicine, biology, textile, environmental technology, and so on. It is ecologically friendly and will produce additional benefits from the renewable materials. The film was utilized as adsorbents to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions and as a filtering material for air pollution. Its maximum Cr(VI) uptake capacity was about 148.8 mg/g and the removal rate of PM 10 was 98.3%. - Graphical abstract: The reduction residues were made into a smooth, elastic, porous and flexible sponge film through freeze drying, no pretreatment and no cross-linking agent added. - Highlights: • The residue from feather waste reduction was turned into a sponge film. • A glycerol content of 5% produced a sponge with the optimum characteristics. • The sponge was uniform, stable up to 160 °C, and had an air permeability of 368 mm/s. • Feather-derived sponge film has potential applications in medicine and technology

  3. Preparation and Characterization of FC Films Coated on PET Substrates by RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Mei-lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorocarbon (FC films were prepared on polyethylene terephthalate (PET plates and PET fabrics respectively by a radiofrequency (RF magnetron sputtering technique using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE as a target. Scanning electron microscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to investigate the morphology, structure and composition of the obtained FC films. The hydrophobicity and uvioresistant properties of the FC film coated fabric were studied. The results show that the FC films were successfully deposited on the PET substrates by a RF magnetron sputtering. The deposited films are made up of four components -CF3, -CF2-, CF- and -C-. The proportions of the four components and surface morphologies of the deposited films vary with the sputtering conditions. Compared with the original fabric samples, the hydrophobicity of the FC film coated fabrics is quite good and improved significantly.

  4. The preparation and mechanical properties of Al-containing a-C : H thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guangan; Yan Pengxun; Wang Peng; Chen Youming; Zhang Junyan

    2007-01-01

    Al-containing hydrogenated amorphous carbon (Al-C : H) films were deposited on silicon substrates using a mid frequency magnetron sputtering Al target in an argon and methane gas mixture. The composition, surface morphology, hardness and friction coefficient of the films were characterized using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, nanoindentation and tribological tester. The Al-C : H films deposited at low CH 4 content show high surface roughness, low hardness and high friction coefficient, similar to metallic Al films; in contrast, the Al-C : H films prepared under high CH 4 content indicate low surface roughness, high hardness and low friction coefficient, close to that of hard a-C : H films as wear-resistance films

  5. Strong Flux Pinning of Nano-Sized Ysz Particles in Ybco Films Prepared by Mod Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, S.; Suo, H. L.; Liu, M.; Tang, X.; Wu, Z. P.; Zhao, Y.; Zhou, M. L.

    The YBCO films with doped YSZ nanoparticles have been prepared successfully by metal organic doepositon method using trifluoroacetates (TFA-MOD) through dissolving Zr organic salt into the YBCO precursor solution. The doped films have well in-plane and out-plane textures detected by both XRD Φ-scan and ω-scan. The YSZ nanoparticles with the size of about 5 ~ 15 nm were observed on the surface of the YBCO films using both FE-SEM and TEM. By comparing the superconducting properties, it was found that the doped YBCO films had lower Tc than that of undoped YBCO films. However, as increasing the applied magnetic field, Jc of the doped YBCO films were much better than that of undoped one. The Jc was as higher as 2.5 times than that of undoped YBCO film at 77 K and 1 T applied field.

  6. Optical properties of flexible fluorescent films prepared by screen printing technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we prepared a fluorescent film comprised phosphors and silicone on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate using a screen printing technology. The effects of mesh number and weight ratio of phosphors to silicone on the optical properties of the flexible films were investigated. The results indicate that the emission intensity of the film increase as the mesh decreased from 400 to 200, but the film surface gradually becomes uneven. The fluorescent film with high emission intensity and smooth surface can be obtained when the weight ratio of phosphor to gel is 2:1, and mesh number is 300. The luminous efficiency of the fabricated LEDs combined the fluorescent films with 460 nm Ga(InN chip module can reach 75 lm/W. The investigation indicates that the approach can be applied in the remote fluorescent film conversion and decreases the requirements of the particle size and the dispersion state of fluorescent materials.

  7. Optical properties of flexible fluorescent films prepared by screen printing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Ke, Taiyan; Chen, Shuijin; He, Xin; Zhang, Mei; Li, Dong; Deng, Jinfeng; Zeng, Qingguang

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we prepared a fluorescent film comprised phosphors and silicone on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate using a screen printing technology. The effects of mesh number and weight ratio of phosphors to silicone on the optical properties of the flexible films were investigated. The results indicate that the emission intensity of the film increase as the mesh decreased from 400 to 200, but the film surface gradually becomes uneven. The fluorescent film with high emission intensity and smooth surface can be obtained when the weight ratio of phosphor to gel is 2:1, and mesh number is 300. The luminous efficiency of the fabricated LEDs combined the fluorescent films with 460 nm Ga(In)N chip module can reach 75 lm/W. The investigation indicates that the approach can be applied in the remote fluorescent film conversion and decreases the requirements of the particle size and the dispersion state of fluorescent materials.

  8. Preparation of PANI/PSF conductive composite films and their characteristic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Yuying; Shang Xiuli; Kong Chao; Zhao Hongxiao; Hu Zhong'ai

    2006-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI)/polysulfone (PSF) composite films are successfully prepared by phase separation and one-step in-situ polymerization.It is found that the head-on face (in contact with solution) of the films is green while the back face is white.The chemical component and the surface morphology of both surfaces of the films are characterized by FT-IR spectra and SEM,respectively.The effect of the polymerization temperature,time and concentration of the reactants on the electrical properties of the films are discussed in details.The thermo-oxidative degradation of the films is studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA).The results indicate that the thermal stability of the PANI/PSF films is higher than that of the pure PSF film.

  9. Preparation and Properties of Moisture-absorbing Film Impregnated with Polyacrylic Acid Partial Sodium Salt Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Youn Suk; Park, Insik; Choi, Hong Yeol

    2014-01-01

    Moisture is a major factor causing the deteriorative physical change, microbial growth, and chemical reaction of the products. In this study, the moisture absorbing composite films have been prepared with moisture absorbing material of polyacrylic acid partial sodium salt (PAPSS) impregnated on LLDPE polymer for the functional packaging applications. The results showed that PAPSS impregnated film illustrated uniformly dispersed PAPSS particles in the LLDPE polymer matrix. The transparency of the PAPSS impregnated film decreased slightly at higher PAPSS concentrations. An increase in the PAPSS content for moisture-absorbing films showed a similar decrease in tensile strength, percent elongation at break, and tear strength. Their values of films impregnated with PAPSS of 0.5, 1, and 2% showed no significant difference. Meanwhile, 4% PAPSS films significantly decreased the values of mechanical properties compared to the films impregnated with different PAPSS levels. Values of the oxygen permeability and water vapor permeability for PAPSS impregnated films decreased significantly with greater PAPSS. The results indicate that 4% PAPSS impregnated in LLDPE films had high affinity of moisture absorbencies compared to the other films. The mathematical equation that best described the moisture sorption isotherm of each film sample was the GAB equation at 25 .deg. C. The crystallization and melting temperatures of PAPSS films were influenced by the addition of PAPSS material, but showed good thermal stability

  10. Preparation and Properties of Moisture-absorbing Film Impregnated with Polyacrylic Acid Partial Sodium Salt Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Youn Suk; Park, Insik [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hong Yeol [CJ Cheiljedang, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Moisture is a major factor causing the deteriorative physical change, microbial growth, and chemical reaction of the products. In this study, the moisture absorbing composite films have been prepared with moisture absorbing material of polyacrylic acid partial sodium salt (PAPSS) impregnated on LLDPE polymer for the functional packaging applications. The results showed that PAPSS impregnated film illustrated uniformly dispersed PAPSS particles in the LLDPE polymer matrix. The transparency of the PAPSS impregnated film decreased slightly at higher PAPSS concentrations. An increase in the PAPSS content for moisture-absorbing films showed a similar decrease in tensile strength, percent elongation at break, and tear strength. Their values of films impregnated with PAPSS of 0.5, 1, and 2% showed no significant difference. Meanwhile, 4% PAPSS films significantly decreased the values of mechanical properties compared to the films impregnated with different PAPSS levels. Values of the oxygen permeability and water vapor permeability for PAPSS impregnated films decreased significantly with greater PAPSS. The results indicate that 4% PAPSS impregnated in LLDPE films had high affinity of moisture absorbencies compared to the other films. The mathematical equation that best described the moisture sorption isotherm of each film sample was the GAB equation at 25 .deg. C. The crystallization and melting temperatures of PAPSS films were influenced by the addition of PAPSS material, but showed good thermal stability.

  11. Physical and Degradable Properties of Mulching Films Prepared from Natural Fibers and Biodegradable Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Tan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of plastic film in agriculture has the serious drawback of producing vast quantities of waste. In this work, films were prepared from natural fibers and biodegradable polymers as potential substitutes for the conventional non-biodegradable plastic film used as mulching material in agricultural production. The physical properties (e.g., mechanical properties, heat preservation, water permeability, and photopermeability and degradation characteristics (evaluated by micro-organic culture testing and soil burial testing of the films were studied in both laboratory and field tests. The experimental results indicated that these fiber/polymer films exhibited favorable physical properties that were sufficient for use in mulching film applications. Moreover, the degradation degree of the three tested films decreased in the following order: fiber/starch (ST film > fiber/poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA film > fiber/polyacrylate (PA film. The fiber/starch and fiber/PVA films were made from completely biodegradable materials and demonstrated the potential to substitute non-biodegradable films.

  12. Effects of Preparation Conditions on the CuInS2 Films Prepared by One-Step Electrodeposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongfeng Guan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CuInS2 thin films were prepared onto indium tin oxide (ITO substrates by sulfurization of electrodeposited CuxInySz precursor films under S atmosphere. The influences of deposition potential, Cu2+/In3+ ratio, sulfurization temperature, and sulfur content on the CuInS2 thin films were investigated. Phases and structures were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy; surface morphology was characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy; optical and electrical properties were characterized by UV-Vis absorption and Mott-Schottky curves, respectively. As a result, the optimal well-crystallized CuInS2 films preparation parameters were determined to be deposition potential of −0.8 V, Cu2+/In3+ ratio of 1.4, sulfur content of 1 g, and the sulfurization temperature of 550°C for 1 h; CuInS2 thin films prepared by one-step electrodeposition present the p-type semiconductor, with thickness about 4-5 μm and their optical band gaps in the range of 1.53~1.55 eV.

  13. Optimization of AZO films prepared on flexible substrates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    grey relational analysis, the optimization of these deposition process parameters for AZO thin films with multiple characteristics ... bias voltage, annealing temperature and plasma treatment deposition time (Pei et ... water and dried in nitrogen.

  14. High-mobility ultrathin semiconducting films prepared by spin coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, David B; Kosbar, Laura L; Murray, Conal E; Copel, Matthew; Afzali, Ali

    2004-03-18

    The ability to deposit and tailor reliable semiconducting films (with a particular recent emphasis on ultrathin systems) is indispensable for contemporary solid-state electronics. The search for thin-film semiconductors that provide simultaneously high carrier mobility and convenient solution-based deposition is also an important research direction, with the resulting expectations of new technologies (such as flexible or wearable computers, large-area high-resolution displays and electronic paper) and lower-cost device fabrication. Here we demonstrate a technique for spin coating ultrathin (approximately 50 A), crystalline and continuous metal chalcogenide films, based on the low-temperature decomposition of highly soluble hydrazinium precursors. We fabricate thin-film field-effect transistors (TFTs) based on semiconducting SnS(2-x)Se(x) films, which exhibit n-type transport, large current densities (>10(5) A cm(-2)) and mobilities greater than 10 cm2 V(-1) s(-1)--an order of magnitude higher than previously reported values for spin-coated semiconductors. The spin-coating technique is expected to be applicable to a range of metal chalcogenides, particularly those based on main group metals, as well as for the fabrication of a variety of thin-film-based devices (for example, solar cells, thermoelectrics and memory devices).

  15. High-mobility ultrathin semiconducting films prepared by spin coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitzi, David B.; Kosbar, Laura L.; Murray, Conal E.; Copel, Matthew; Afzali, Ali

    2004-03-01

    The ability to deposit and tailor reliable semiconducting films (with a particular recent emphasis on ultrathin systems) is indispensable for contemporary solid-state electronics. The search for thin-film semiconductors that provide simultaneously high carrier mobility and convenient solution-based deposition is also an important research direction, with the resulting expectations of new technologies (such as flexible or wearable computers, large-area high-resolution displays and electronic paper) and lower-cost device fabrication. Here we demonstrate a technique for spin coating ultrathin (~50Å), crystalline and continuous metal chalcogenide films, based on the low-temperature decomposition of highly soluble hydrazinium precursors. We fabricate thin-film field-effect transistors (TFTs) based on semiconducting SnS2-xSex films, which exhibit n-type transport, large current densities (>105Acm-2) and mobilities greater than 10cm2V-1s-1-an order of magnitude higher than previously reported values for spin-coated semiconductors. The spin-coating technique is expected to be applicable to a range of metal chalcogenides, particularly those based on main group metals, as well as for the fabrication of a variety of thin-film-based devices (for example, solar cells, thermoelectrics and memory devices).

  16. Preparation of transparent BN films with superhydrophobic surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoxing; Liu Yi; Wang Bo; Song Xuemei; Li Er; Yan Hui

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach was investigated to obtain the superhydrophobicity on surfaces of boron nitride films. In this method boron nitride films were deposited firstly on Si(1 0 0) and quartz substrate using a radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system, and then using CF 4 plasma treatment, the topmost surface area can be modified systematically. The results have shown that the water contact angle on such surfaces can be tuned from 67 deg. to 159 deg. The films were observed to be uniform. The surfaces of films consist of micro-features, which were confirmed by Atomic Force Micrograph. The chemical bond states of the films were determined by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, which indicate the dominance of B-N binding. According to the X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy analysis, the surface of film is mainly in BN phase. The micro-feature induced surface roughness is responsible for the observed superhydrophobic nature. The water contact angles measured on these surfaces can be modeled by the Cassie's formulation

  17. Preparation and characterization of sponge film made from feathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yuan; Wu, Xiaoqian; Cao, Zhangjun; Zhao, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Meihua; Gao, Pin

    2013-12-01

    Feather wastes generated from poultry farms will pose a problem for disposal, but they are sustainable resources of keratin. Reduction is one of the commonly used methods to obtain soluble keratin from feather. However, the residues generated during feather reduction reaction were rarely investigated. In this study, the residues were transformed into a porous and flexible sponge film by freeze-drying without pretreatment or addition of cross-linking agents. Glycerol was used to alter the physical and chemical characteristics of the sponge film. The film was characterized with a fiber strong stretch instrument, a Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy, an elemental analyzer, a differential scanning calorimeter and an automatic air permeability apparatus. Tensile strength and melting point of the sponge film with the optimum glycerol content were 6.2 MPa and 170°C respectively. Due to air permeability of 368 mm/s, the film can potentially be used in medicine, biology, textile, environmental technology, and so on. It is ecologically friendly and will produce additional benefits from the renewable materials. The film was utilized as adsorbents to remove Cr(VI) from aqueous solutions and as a filtering material for air pollution. Its maximum Cr(VI) uptake capacity was about 148.8 mg/g and the removal rate of PM10 was 98.3%. © 2013.

  18. Development of technology for the large-scale preparation of 60Co polymer film source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Udhayakumar, J.; Pardeshi, G.S.; Gandhi, Shymala S.; Chakravarty, Rubel; Kumar, Manoj; Dash, Ashutosh; Venkatesh, Meera

    2008-01-01

    60 Co sources (∼37 kBq) in the form of a thin film are widely used in position identification of perforation in offshore oil-well explorations. This paper describes the large-scale preparation of such sources using a radioactive polymer containing 60 Co. 60 Co was extracted into chloroform containing 8-hydroxyquinoline. The chloroform layer was mixed with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) polymer. A large film was prepared using the polymer solution containing the complex. The polymer film was then cut into circular sources, mounted on a source holder and supplied to various users

  19. Comparison of barium titanate thin films prepared by inkjet printing and spin coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vukmirović

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, barium titanate films were prepared by different deposition techniques (spin coating, office Epson inkjet printer and commercial Dimatix inkjet printer. As inkjet technique requires special rheological properties of inks the first part of the study deals with the preparation of inks, whereas the second part examines and compares structural characteristics of the deposited films. Inks were synthesized by sol-gel method and parameters such as viscosity, particle size and surface tension were measured. Deposited films were examined by optical and scanning electron microscopy, XRD analysis and Raman spectroscopy. The findings consider advantages and disadvantages of the particular deposition techniques.

  20. Cu2ZnSnSe4 Thin Film Solar Cell with Depth Gradient Composition Prepared by Selenization of Sputtered Novel Precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Fang-I; Yang, Jui-Fu; Chen, Wei-Chun; Kuo, Shou-Yi

    2017-11-22

    In this study, we proposed a new method for the synthesis of the target material used in a two stage process for preparation of a high quality CZTSe thin film. The target material consisting of a mixture of Cu x Se and Zn x Sn 1-x alloy was synthesized, providing a quality CZTSe precursor layer for highly efficient CZTSe thin film solar cells. The CZTSe thin film can be obtained by annealing the precursor layers through a 30 min selenization process under a selenium atmosphere at 550 °C. The CZTSe thin films prepared by using the new precursor thin film were investigated and characterized using X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. It was found that diffusion of Sn occurred and formed the CTSe phase and Cu x Se phase in the resultant CZTSe thin film. By selective area electron diffraction transmission electron microscopy images, the crystallinity of the CZTSe thin film was verified to be single crystal. By secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements, it was confirmed that a double-gradient band gap profile across the CZTSe absorber layer was successfully achieved. The CZTSe solar cell with the CZTSe absorber layer consisting of the precursor stack exhibited a high efficiency of 5.46%, high short circuit current (J SC ) of 37.47 mA/cm 2 , open circuit voltage (V OC ) of 0.31 V, and fill factor (F.F.) of 47%, at a device area of 0.28 cm 2 . No crossover of the light and dark current-voltage (I-V) curves of the CZTSe solar cell was observed, and also, no red kink was observed under red light illumination, indicating a low defect concentration in the CZTSe absorber layer. Shunt leakage current with a characteristic metal/CZTSe/metal leakage current model was observed by temperature-dependent I-V curves, which led to the discovery of metal incursion through the CdS buffer layer on the CZTSe absorber layer. This leakage current, also known as space charge-limited current, grew larger as the measurement temperature increased and

  1. Preparation and characterization of ZnTe thin films by SILAR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, S.S.; Mane, R.S.; Pathan, H.M.; Shaikh, A.V.; Joo, Oh-Shim; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2007-01-01

    Nanocrystalline zinc telluride (ZnTe) thin films were prepared by using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method from aqueous solutions of zinc sulfate and sodium telluride. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and optical absorption measurement techniques. The synthesized ZnTe thin films were nanocrystalline with densely aggregated particles in nanometer scale and were free from the voids or cracks. The optical band gap energy of the film was found to be thickness dependent. The elemental chemical compositional stoichiometric analysis revealed good Zn:Te elemental ratio of 53:47

  2. Preparation and properties of silk sericin/cellulose cross-linking films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Kunyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Silk sericin/cellulose cross-linked films were successfully prepared using glutaraldehyde as cross-linkinger. FTIR was applied to characterize the chemical structure of films. Cross-linked silk sericin film was found the peak intensity of FTIR for cross-linked film decreased markedly compared to pure silk sericin, which indicating cross-linking reaction has been occurred. The increasing value of swelling ratio also indicated the cross-linking has been happened. The cross-linking reaction increased the thermal decomposition temperature.

  3. Pharmaceutical films made from the waste material from the preparation of propolis extracts: development and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas de Alcântara Sica de Toledo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available abstract This study investigated the development and characterized the physicochemical properties of films obtained from by-products (BP from the preparation of propolis extracts. Films were produced in the presence and absence of a polymeric adjuvant (gelatin or ethylcellulose and propylene glycol by a solvent casting method. Density, surface topography by scanning electron microscopy, mechanical properties (folding endurance, tensile strength and percentage elongation, water vapour permeability (WVP, moisture uptake capacity, thermogravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR were determined. The films were a transparent, light greenish-yellow colour, with a uniform surface, and were flexible and easy to handle. The thickness and density of the preparations indicated that the compounds were homogeneously dispersed throughout the film. Mechanical properties were influenced by the film composition; films containing gelatin were more resistant to stress, while those containing ethylcellulose were more flexible. Increasing the adjuvant concentration decreased the elasticity and the rupture resistance, but increased the moisture uptake capacity and WVP of the formulations. BP was thermally stable as were the films. FTIR tests suggested interactions between BP and the adjuvants. This work could contribute to the utilization of BP to prepare films for food and pharmaceutical uses

  4. Optical properties of titanium di-oxide thin films prepared by dip coating method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sayari; Rahman, Kazi Hasibur; Kar, Asit Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were prepared by sol-gel dip coating method on ITO coated glass substrate. The sol was synthesized by hydrothermal method at 90°C. The sol was then used to make TiO2 films by dip coating. After dip coating the rest of the sol was dried at 100°C to make TiO2 powder. Thin films were made by varying the number of dipping cycles and were annealed at 500°C. XRD study was carried out for powder samples that confirms the formation of anatase phase. Transmission spectra of thin films show sharp rise in the violet-ultraviolet transition region and a maximum transmittance of ˜60%. Band gap of the prepared films varies from 3.15 eV to 3.22 eV.

  5. Degradability of polylactide films by commercial microbiological preparations for household composters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morawska Magda

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally friendly polymers such as polylactide are increasingly becoming available for use in packaging applications. The main advantages of polylactide packaging are evident. Polylactide is based on renewable resources and can be degraded in compost or soil. The studies on degradability of polylactide (PLA films by commercial preparation of mixture of multi-active saprophytic soil microorganisms, bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi have been done. Unmodified PLA film, metalized co-extruded PLA film and modified by silicon oxide PLA film were incubated in the liquid nutritious medium (TSB prepared to support the growth of microorganisms. The degradability of polylactide films was examined by macro and microscopic observations of surface, changes of mass and crystallinity of polymer samples before and after incubation. The obtained results indicate that the degradation of polylactide was accelerated by the presence of a biological vaccine. It was found that PLA degradation in the inoculated TSB broth was a result of both: enzymatic and chemical hydrolysis.

  6. Preparation of Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 Thin Films by Plasma-Assisted Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hioki, Tsuyoshi; Akiyama, Masahiko; Ueda, Tomomasa; Onozuka, Yutaka; Suzuki, Kouji

    1999-09-01

    A novel plasma-assisted RF magnetron sputtering system with an immersed coil antenna between a target and a substrate was applied for preparing Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) thin films. The antenna enabled the generation of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) independently of the target RF source. The plasma assisted by the antenna resulted in the changes of ion fluxes and these energy distributions irradiating to the substrate. The crystalline phase of the deposited PZT thin films was occupied by the perovskite phase depending on the antenna power. In addition, a high deposition rate, modified uniformity of film thickness, and a dense film structure with large columnar grains were obtained as a result of effects of the assisted plasma. The application of the plasma-assisted sputtering method may enable the preparation of PZT thin films that haveexcellent properties.

  7. The Preparation and Property of Graphene /Tin Oxide Transparent Conductive Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Tao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Graphene doped tin oxide composites were prepared with SnCIZ·2HZ 0 and graphene oxide as raw materials with sol-gel method and then spincoated on the quartz glass to manufacture a new transparent conductive film. The composite film was characterized with X-ray diffraction(XRDand scanning electron microscopy(SEM analysis. XRD results show that the graphene oxide was successfully prepared with Hummers method. The graphene layers and particulate SnOZ can be clearly observed in SEM photos. The transmittance and conductivity of the thin films were tested with ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer and Hall effect measurement. The results show that the transmittivity of composite film in visible region is more than 90% and surface square resistance is 41 S2/口.The graphene/ SnOZ film exhibits a higher performance in transparence and conductivity than commercial FTO glass.

  8. Influence of the Preparation Method, DC and RF Sputtering, on theProperties of Thin Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tri-Mardji-Atmono; Widdi-Usada; Agus-Purwadi; Yunanto; Edi-Suharyadi

    2000-01-01

    The research on the influence of preparation method DC- and RF Sputteringon the properties of Fe-thin films has been done. The measurement with EDAXshows. that the Fe-content of RF-sputtered film increased with the increasingof self-bias voltage in the range of 850 - 1000 V. The observation ofmicrostructure using SEM shows a more homogeneity of thin film and smallergrain size with the increasing of the self-bias voltage. On the other hand,thin films with inhomogeneity of the structure were produced by DC-Sputteringprocess, indicated by the non continuity and the spread of theglow-discharge. Based on the investigation with X-ray diffraction, thin filmprepared by RF-Sputtering was amorphous, while the film produced by theDC-Sputtering is known as crystal structure. Preparation using DC-voltageshows continual sputtering-process at the voltage of 3000 V betweenelectrode. (author)

  9. Grain size increase in pentacene thin films prepared in low-pressure gas ambient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Takamichi; Park, Chang Bum; Nagashio, Kosuke; Kita, Koji; Toriumi, Akira

    2009-01-01

    We studied a mechanism of grain size increase (that is, island density decrease) in pentacene film prepared in hydrogen (H 2 ) ambient. The island densities of pentacene films prepared in helium and deuterium were lower than those of vacuum-deposited films. This indicates that the decrease in the island density was not due to the chemical interaction between H 2 and pentacene or the substrate surface. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of the island density indicates that there is no difference in the surface diffusion energy in a vacuum and in H 2 . We also improved mobility significantly in the pentacene thin film transistor fabricated on film grown in H 2 ambient on a chemically treated substrate.

  10. The preparation of Nb3Ge thin film superconductors in a UHV evaporation and sputter device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krevet, B.; Schauer, W.; Wuechner, F.

    1978-10-01

    Thin film techniques like evaporation or sputtering are remarkbly suitable to vary the metallurgical and physical properties of superconductors in a wide range. In the case of the A15-compound Nb 3 Ge only these preparation techniques allow us to produce a metastable pure phase in stoichiometric composition and to study its superconducting properties. The presen report describes two UHV-plants to produce superconducting films by multisource coevaporation and cosputtering. Of special importance are the constancy, monitoring and control of the evaporation rate, and the thermalization of the sputter components on the other hand. The experimental methods used are explained in detail and discussed together with the results of Nb 3 Ge films. With the preparation parameters suitably chosen both techniques allow to prepare reproducibly Nb 3 Ge films with 21 K transition temperature (onset); under optimized conditions Tc values up to 22.3 K have been reached. (orig.) [de

  11. Preparation, Characterization, and Electrochromic Properties of Nanocellulose-Based Polyaniline Nanocomposite Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sihang; Sun, Gang; He, Yongfeng; Fu, Runfang; Gu, Yingchun; Chen, Sheng

    2017-05-17

    On the basis of nanocellulose obtained by acidic swelling and ultrasonication, rodlike nanocellulose/polyaniline nanocomposites with a core-shell structure have been prepared via in situ polymerization. Compared to pure polyaniline, the nanocomposites show superior film-forming properties, and the prepared nanocomposite films demonstrate excellent electrochemical and electrochromic properties in electrolyte solution. Nanocomposite films, especially the one prepared with 40% polyaniline coated nanocomposite, exhibited faster response time (1.5 s for bleaching and 1.0 s for coloring), higher optical contrast (62.9%), higher coloration efficiency (206.2 cm 2 /C), and more remarkable switching stability (over 500 cycles). These novel nanocellulose-based nanorod network films are promising novel electrochromic materials with excellent properties.

  12. Preparation and water absorption of cross-linked chitosan/silk fibroin blend films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suesat, Jantip; Rujiravanit, Ratana; Jamieson, Alexander M.; Tokura, Seiichi

    2001-01-01

    Natural polymer blend films composed of chitosan and silk fibroin were prepared by varying the ratio of chitosan to silk fibroin, with and without glutaraldehyde as a crosslinking agent. The effects of the ratio of chitosan to silk fibroin and crosslinking agent on swelling behavior of the blend films were studied. For the swelling behavior, the blend films exhibited a dramatic change in the degree of swelling when immersed in acidic solutions. The degree of swelling of the films increased as the chitosan content increased; the blend film with 80% chitosan content had the maximum degree of swelling. It appeared that crosslinking had occurred in the blend films which helped the films to retain their three dimensional structure. In addition, FTIR spectra of the films showed evidence of hydrogen bonding interaction between chitosan and silk fibroin. For the effect of salt type, the films were immersed in various types of aqueous salt solutions, viz NaCl, LiCl, CaCl 2 , AlCl 3 , and FeCl 3 . The films immersed in AlCl 3 and FeCl 3 aqueous solutions gave the maximum degree of swelling. The effects of AlCl 3 and FeCl 3 concentrations on swelling behavior were also investigated. It was found that the maximum degree of swelling of the films occurred at 1.0 x 10 -2 M of AlCl 3 and FeCl 3 aqueous solutions. (author)

  13. Dietary selenium in the Glasgow area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, J.D.; Raie, R.M.; Smith, H.

    1978-01-01

    A typical diet for people in the Glasgow area is analysed and an estimate is made of the daily intake of selenium for the average person (234 μg). Meat, poultry and bread products contribute 65% of the total selenium consumed. There is a significant loss of selenium on cooking but the concentration in the diet is high compared with the estimated requirement. Selenium levels in prepared infant foods, artificial milk and natural milk are reported. Those infants on artificial milk feeds have a selenium intake equivalent to that of adults (3 μg/kg) while those on natural milk or prepared infant foods have an intake of 6 μg/kg. Adult and infant tissue selenium levels are established and are shown to be in equilibrium with the diet. There is no concentration in man as a result of his position at the top of the food chain. Sudden infant death cannot be related to selenium levels in human tissue or diet. (author)

  14. Preparation and analysis of superconducting Nb-Ge films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testardi, L.R.; Meek, R.L.; Poate, J.M.; Royer, W.A.; Storm, A.R.; Wernick, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    The dependences of T/subc/, resistivity, resistance ratio, and structure on chemical composition and sputtering conditions for Nb-Ge films have been studied. The chemical composition, impurity content, and x-ray structure were obtained using Rutherford backscattering, nuclear techniques, and x-ray diffraction. Although T/subc/ varies with composition, it is not found to be critically dependent upon exact stoichiometry; the Nb/Ge ratios vary by approx. 13% (2.6 to 3) for films with approx. 23-K onsets and by approx. 40% (2.2 to 3.3) for films with approx. 20-K onsets. For compositions similar to the bulk, the films have comparitively much higher T/subc/'s and smaller lattice parameters. X-ray results show the films to contain predominately A-15 phase (except for Nb/Ge less-than or equal to 2.5) with lattice parameters varying from 5.15 A for Nb-rich low-T/subc/ films to 5.12 A for Ge-rich films. Several percent of oxygen and carbon occur in low-T/subc/ amorphous films deposited at 650 degreeC but this is considerably reduced in high-T/subc/ films made simultaneously at approx. 750 degreeC. No argon was found and the nitrogen content was generally less than 1%. No correlation of high T/subc/'s and impurities was found. The optimum deposition temperature and resistivity are lowest, and the resistance ratio highest for Nb/Ge ratios somewhat below 3/1. A simple correlation of T/subc/ and resistance ratio is reported which is largely independent of all sputtering conditions and composition and which suggests that slightly higher T/subc/'s may be possible. Negative bias was found to be detrimental to T/subc/ while positive bias had relatively little effect. Magnetic-field-assisted sputtering led to significant increases in the sputtering rate and the optimum deposition temperature

  15. Electrochromic Properties of Tungsten Oxide Films Prepared by Reactive Sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Hong; Kang, Tai Young; Jung, Yu Sup; Kim, Kyung Hwan

    2013-05-01

    WO3-x thin films were deposited on induim tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates with various oxygen flow ratios from 0.55 to 0.7 by the reactive facing-target sputtering method, at a power density of 4 W/cm2 and room temperature. The structural properties of the WO3-x thin films were measured by X-ray diffractometry and Raman spectral analysis. As-deposited WO3-x thin films had an amorphous structure. In the Raman spectra, WO3-x thin films exhibited two strong peaks at 770 and 950 cm-1 attributed to the vibrations of W6+-O and W6+=O bonds, respectively. The electrochemical and optical properties of WO3-x thin films were measured by cyclic voltammetry and UV/vis spectrometry. The results showed the highest charge density at an oxygen flow ratio of 0.7 and the highest transmittance in the visible range. The maximum coloration efficiency was 30.82 cm2/C at an oxygen flow ratio of 0.7.

  16. Strong composite films with layered structures prepared by casting silk fibroin-graphene oxide hydrogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang; Li, Chun; Yuan, Wenjing; Shi, Gaoquan

    2013-04-01

    Composite films of graphene oxide (GO) sheets and silk fibroin (SF) with layered structures have been prepared by facile solution casting of SF-GO hydrogels. The as-prepared composite film containing 15% (by weight, wt%) of SF shows a high tensile strength of 221 +/- 16 MPa and a failure strain of 1.8 +/- 0.4%, which partially surpass those of natural nacre. Particularly, this composite film also has a high modulus of 17.2 +/- 1.9 GPa. The high mechanical properties of this composite film can be attributed to its high content of GO (85 wt%), compact layered structure and the strong hydrogen bonding interaction between SF chains and GO sheets.Composite films of graphene oxide (GO) sheets and silk fibroin (SF) with layered structures have been prepared by facile solution casting of SF-GO hydrogels. The as-prepared composite film containing 15% (by weight, wt%) of SF shows a high tensile strength of 221 +/- 16 MPa and a failure strain of 1.8 +/- 0.4%, which partially surpass those of natural nacre. Particularly, this composite film also has a high modulus of 17.2 +/- 1.9 GPa. The high mechanical properties of this composite film can be attributed to its high content of GO (85 wt%), compact layered structure and the strong hydrogen bonding interaction between SF chains and GO sheets. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XPS spectrum of the SF-GO hybrid film, SEM images of lyophilized GO dispersion and the failure surface of GO film. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00196b

  17. Morphology of CdSe films prepared by chemical bath deposition: The role of substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simurda, M.; Nemec, P.; Formanek, P.; Nemec, I.; Nemcova, Y.; Maly, P.

    2006-01-01

    We combine optical spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy to study the growth and the structural morphology of CdSe films prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD) on two considerably different substrates. The films grown on glass are compact and strongly adherent to the substrate. On the contrary, the films deposited on carbon-coated glass (with approx. 20 nm thick amorphous carbon layer) are only loosely adherent to the substrate. Using transmission electron microscopy we revealed that even though the films grown on both substrates are assembled from closely spaced nanocrystals with diameter of about 5 nm, the films morphology on the sub-micrometer scale is considerably different in the two cases. While the films deposited on glass are rather compact, the films prepared on carbon layer have high porosity and are formed by interconnected spheres which size is dependent on the duration of deposition (e.g. 155 nm for 6 h and 350 nm for 24 h). This shows that the choice of the substrate for CBD has a stronger influence on the sub-micrometer film morphology than on the properties of individual nanocrystals forming the film

  18. Preparation and characterization of micro-grid modified In_2O_3:W films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Dongmei; Wang, Wenwen; Zhang, Fan; Fu, Qiang; Pan, Jiaojiao

    2016-01-01

    Tungsten doped indium oxide (In_2O_3:W, IWO) thin films with IWO micro-grid covered surface were prepared at room temperature using techniques of radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and polystyrene (PS) microsphere template. The composition, crystallization structures, surface morphologies, and optical and electrical properties of the films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, spectrophotometer from visible to near infrared (NIR) range and Hall effect measurement, respectively. Periodic micro-grid modified surface was obtained to improve light trapping properties. The effects of the PS micro-spheres diameters and the sputtering time on the surface morphology, transmittance in NIR range, diffuse reflection and conductive properties of the IWO films are investigated. Experiments show that surface modification of the IWO film with micro-grid under the optimized condition can improve the conductivity of the films by 15%, and the diffuse reflectance by 150%, with less than 8% decrease of the transmittance in the visible region. The study would be beneficial to the light trapping effect of solar cells using IWO films as transparent electrodes. - Highlights: • In_2O_3:W (IWO) films were obtained by reactive frequency magnetron sputtering. • IWO micro-grids were prepared on the surface of IWO films. • Influences of micro-grid size and sputtering time on IWO films were analyzed. • Both high conductivity and transparency are acquired in near-infrared region.

  19. CdS thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, L.V.; Mendivil, M.I.; Garcia Guillen, G.; Aguilar Martinez, J.A.; Krishnan, B.; Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G.A.; Das Roy, T.K.; Shaji, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CdS thin films by conventional CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • Improved dark conductivity and good photocurrent response for the LACBD CdS. - Abstract: In this work, we report the preparation and characterization of CdS thin films by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD). CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing cadmium chloride, triethanolamine, ammonium hydroxide and thiourea under various deposition conditions. The thin films were deposited by in situ irradiation of the bath using a continuous laser of wavelength 532 nm, varying the power density. The thin films obtained during deposition of 10, 20 and 30 min were analyzed. The changes in morphology, structure, composition, optical and electrical properties of the CdS thin films due to in situ irradiation of the bath were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–vis spectroscopy. The thin films obtained by LACBD were nanocrystalline, photoconductive and presented interesting morphologies. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain nanocrystalline CdS thin films having good optoelectronic properties

  20. Fluorocarbon thin film with superhydrophobic property prepared by pyrolysis of hexafluoropropylene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jun; Song Xue; Li Rui; Shen Jinpeng; Yang Guangcheng; Huang Hui

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We successfully prepared nanostructured fluorocarbon thin films using CVD method without any catalysts at low pyrolysis temperature (200–300 °C) of HFPO. ► The films show disparate morphology, high content of CF 2 (>90%), which are also characteristic of bulk PTFE. ► The film deposited at 300 °C shows superhydrophobic property (water contact angle of 172.7°). - Abstract: A fluorocarbon thin film with superhydrophobic property was prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method at low temperature (200–300 °C) via pyrolysis hexafluoropropylene oxide (HFPO). The experiment results indicated the morphology and structure of fluorocarbon films were strongly dependent on the pyrolysis temperature. As shown through atomic force microscope (AFM), the surface morphology of the films ranged from rodlike grains to sheets. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy revealed that all the films contained the vibrational frequencies of linear CF 2 chains, which were also characteristic of bulk poly tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed that CF 2 structures were predominant in the films with high order. The film deposited at 300 °C exhibited a superhydrophobic surface with contact angle up to 172.7°.

  1. CdS thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, L.V.; Mendivil, M.I.; Garcia Guillen, G.; Aguilar Martinez, J.A. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT – Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G.A.; Das Roy, T.K. [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon 66450 (Mexico); CIIDIT – Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • CdS thin films by conventional CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • Improved dark conductivity and good photocurrent response for the LACBD CdS. - Abstract: In this work, we report the preparation and characterization of CdS thin films by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD). CdS thin films were prepared from a chemical bath containing cadmium chloride, triethanolamine, ammonium hydroxide and thiourea under various deposition conditions. The thin films were deposited by in situ irradiation of the bath using a continuous laser of wavelength 532 nm, varying the power density. The thin films obtained during deposition of 10, 20 and 30 min were analyzed. The changes in morphology, structure, composition, optical and electrical properties of the CdS thin films due to in situ irradiation of the bath were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV–vis spectroscopy. The thin films obtained by LACBD were nanocrystalline, photoconductive and presented interesting morphologies. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain nanocrystalline CdS thin films having good optoelectronic properties.

  2. Preparation of gelatin films incorporated with tea polyphenol nanoparticles for enhancing controlled-release antioxidant properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Antoniou, John; Li, Yue; Yi, Jiang; Yokoyama, Wallace; Ma, Jianguo; Zhong, Fang

    2015-04-22

    Gelatin films incorporated with chitosan nanoparticles in various free/encapsulated tea polyphenol (TP) ratios were prepared in order to investigate the influence of different ratios on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of films. The TP-containing nanoparticles were prepared by cross-linking chitosan hydrochloride (CSH) with sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin sodium (SBE-β-CD) at three different encapsulation efficiencies (EE; ∼50%, ∼80%, and ∼100%) of TP. The stability of TP-loaded nanoparticles was maintained during the film drying process from the analysis of free TP content in the redissolved film solutions. Composite films showed no significant difference in visual aspects, while the light transmittance (250-550 nm) was decreased with incorporation of TP. Nanoparticles appeared to be homogeneously dispersed within the film matrix by microstructure analysis (SEM and AFM). TP-loaded films had ferric reducing and DPPH radical scavenging power that corresponded to the EEs. Sunflower oil packaged in bags made of gelatin films embedded with nanoparticles of 80% EE showed the best oxidation inhibitory effect, followed by 100% EE, 50% EE, and free TP, over 6 weeks of storage. However, when the gelatin film was placed over the headspace and was not in contact with the oil, the free TP showed the best effect. The results indicate that sustained release of TP in the contacting surface can ensure the protective effects, which vary with free/encapsulated mass ratios, thus improving antioxidant activities instead of increasing the dosage.

  3. Preparation and characterization of osmium hexacyanoferrate films and their electrocatalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, S.-M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Section 3, Chung-Hsiao East Road, Taipei, Taiwan 106 (China)]. E-mail: smchen78@ms15.hinet.net; Liao, C.-J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, No. 1, Section 3, Chung-Hsiao East Road, Taipei, Taiwan 106 (China)

    2004-11-15

    Osmium hexacyanoferrate films have been prepared using repeated cyclic voltammetry, and the deposition process and the films' electrocatalytic properties in electrolytes containing various cations have been investigated. The cyclic voltammograms recorded the deposition of osmium hexacyanoferrate films directly from the mixing of Os{sup 3+} and Fe(CN){sub 6}{sup 3-} ions from solutions containing various cations. An electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance, cyclic voltammetry, and UV-visible spectroscopy were used to study the growth mechanism of the osmium hexacyanoferrate films. The osmium hexacyanoferrate films showed a single redox couple, and the redox reactions included 'electron transfer' and 'proton transfer' with a formal potential that demonstrates a proton effect in acidic solutions up to a 12 M aqueous HCl solution. The electrochemical and electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance results indicate that the redox process was confined to the immobilized osmium hexacyanoferrate film. The electrocatalytic reduction of dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, S{sub 2}O{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and SO{sub 5}{sup 2-} by the osmium hexacyanoferrate films was performed. The preparation and electrochemical properties of co-deposited osmium(III) hexacyanoferrate and copper(II) hexacyanoferrate films were determined, and their two redox couples showed formal potentials that demonstrated a proton effect and an alkaline cation effect, respectively. Electrocatalytic reactions on the hybrid films were also investigated.

  4. Studies of thin films of Ti- Zr -V as non-evaporable getter films prepared by RF sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Nidhi; Jagannath,; Sharma, R. K.; Gadkari, S. C.; Muthe, K. P.; Mukundhan, R.; Gupta, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    Non-Evaporable Getter (NEG) films of the Ti-Zr-V prepared on stainless steel substrates by Radio Frequency sputtering. To observe its getter behavior at the lowest activation temperature, the sample is heated continuously at different temperatures (100°C, 150°C, 200°C and 250°C) for 2 hours. The changes of the surface chemical composition at different temperaturesare analyzed by using XPS and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) techniques. The volume elemental composition of the film has been measured by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The in-situ XPS measurements of the activated getter films show the disappearance of the superficial oxide layer through the variation in the oxygen stoichiometry during thermal activation. Results of these studies show that the deposited films of Ti-Zr-V could be used as NEG to produce extreme high vacuum.

  5. Digital chest radiography system with amorphous selenium flat-panel detectors: qualitative and dosimetric comparison with a dedicated film-screen system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prato, Antonio; Fava Cesare; Ropolo, Roberto

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the quality and radiation dose of a conventional film-screen system and a digital system with amorphous selenium detectors in the study of the chest, by verifying overall performance and exposure levels for the main chest structures in patients of different sizes. Materials and methods. An analogic system (Chest Changer, Dupont, Day-light model 1000) and a digital system (Directray Rad 1000C, Hologic) were tested on a total of 1000 patients randomly assigned to one of two groups of 500 subjects.The patients were further subdivided according to BMI (Body Mass Index). Image quality was determined by two chest radiologists who evaluated eight anatomical structures. The entrance surface dose (skin-dose), calculated based on the exposure parameters, was taken as the patient dose. Results. Mean dose delivered was very similar for both techniques in the PA view (0.28 mGy), but it was greater in the LL projections obtained with the digital system (1.20 rnGy versus 0.83 mGy). The highest overall scores were assigned to 43% and 23.2% analogic radiograms and 64% and 70.2% digital radiograms, for the PA and LL projections respectively. The scores assigned to the various anatomical structures confirmed the better performance of the digital system in almost all of the regions considered. Conclusions. The mean quality of radiograms is definitely higher with the digital system, in particular in the LL projections, where the higher patient doses are counterbalanced by fewer repeated scans. The greater level of exposure in the digital system appears nonetheless tolerable on account of the greater informativeness and therefore diagnostic gain and also considering the possibilities for improving the system [it

  6. Nanoporous zinc oxide films prepared by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghimpu, L.; Lupan, O.; Popescu, L.; Tiginyanu, I.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate an inexpensive approach for the fabrication of nanoporous zinc oxide films by using magnetron sputtering. Study of the structural properties proves the crystallographic perfection of porous nanostructures and the possibility of its controlling by adjusting the technological parameters in the growth process. The XRD pattern of nanoporous ZnO films exhibits high intensity of the peaks relative to the background signal which is indicative of the ZnO hexagonal phase and a good crystallinity of the samples grown by magnetron sputtering.

  7. Effect of preparation conditions on the diffusion parameters of Cu/Ni thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rammo, N.N.; Makadsi, M.N. [College of Science, Baghdad University, Baghdad (Iraq); Abdul-Lettif, A.M. [College of Science, Babylon University, Hilla (Iraq)

    2004-11-01

    Diffusion coefficients of vacuum-deposited Cu/Ni bilayer thin films were determined in the temperature range 200-500 C using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, sheet resistance measurements, and X-ray diffraction analysis. The difference between the results of the present work and those of previous relevant investigations may be attributed to the difference in the film microstructure, which is controlled by the preparation conditions. Therefore, the effects of deposition rate, substrate temperature, film thickness, and substrate structure on the diffusion parameters were separately investigated. It is shown that the diffusion activation energy (Q) decreases as deposition rate increases, whereas Q increases as substrate temperature and film thickness increase. The value of Q for films deposited on amorphous substrates is less than that for films deposited on single-crystal substrates. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  8. Preparation and characterization of ZnO films by modified SILAR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ling; Liu Jie; Hou Mingdong; Sun Youmei; Duan Jinlai; Yao Huijun; Mo Dan; Chen Yanfeng

    2009-01-01

    A modified solution method, successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction(SILAR), was applied to prepare transparent zinc oxide(ZnO) film on glass substrate at (125±5) degree C in mixed ion precursor solution. The surface morphology and crystallization of films were analyzed by field emission scanning microscopy (FESEM) and X-ray diffraction(XRD), respectively. The optical properties of the films were studied by ultraviolet visible(UV-Vis)spectroscopy. The results show that the obtained samples are polycrystalline films of hexagonal wurtzite structure, with the preference of [002] orientation. The as-deposited films exhibit uniform and compact surface morphology, with the film thickness of 550 nm, and have high transmittance in the visible band(>80%). (authors)

  9. Tribological performance of ultrathin diamond-like carbon films prepared by plasma-based ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, J X; Li, E Q; Tian, Z; Pan, X F; Xu, J; Jin, L; Yang, H G

    2008-01-01

    Ultrathin diamond-like carbon (DLC) films with thicknesses of 5-60 nm have been prepared on Si by plasma-based ion implantation. Raman spectrum and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) show that these DLC films present high sp 3 /sp 2 ratios. XPS also displays that each DLC film firmly adheres to the Si substrate owing to a C-Si transition layer. Atomic force microscopy shows that the DLC films are smooth and compact with average roughness (R a ) of about 0.25 nm. Sliding friction experiments reveal that these DLC films show significantly improved tribological performance. With increase of DLC film thickness, the sp 3 /sp 2 ratio increases, the roughness decreases, the hardness increases, the adhesive wear lightens and thereby the tribological performance becomes enhanced. Also, the effects of the applied load and the reciprocating frequency on the tribological performance are discussed

  10. A crude protective film on historic stones and its artificial preparation through biomimetic synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang; Zhang, Bingjian; Shen, Zhongyue; Lu, Huanming

    2006-12-01

    A biomimetic film has been found on the surface of the historic stone buildings and monuments. The stone inscriptions under the film are preserved so well that has not been damaged for more than 1000 years. Samples of the crude film have been analyzed by XRD, FTIR, PLM, EDA, SEM and TEM. The results show that it consists mainly of calcium oxalate monohydrate. On the basis of the existence of the organism debris, it is concluded that the film should be a product of biomineralization. According to this hypothesis, a similar film has been prepared on the stone surface through biomimetic synthesis in our laboratory. The preliminary analysis shows that the artificial protective film functions well.

  11. Characteristics of W Doped Nanocrystalline Carbon Films Prepared by Unbalanced Magnetron Sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong Seob; Park, Chul Min; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Kim, Jae-Moon

    2016-05-01

    Nanocrystalline tungsten doped carbon (WC) films were prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering. Tungsten was used as the doping material in carbon thin films with the aim of application as a contact strip in an electric railway. The structural, physical, and electrical properties of the fabricated WC films with various DC bias voltages were investigated. The films had a uniform and smooth surface. Hardness and frication characteristics of the films were improved, and the resistivity and sheet resistance decreased with increasing negative DC bias voltage. These results are associated with the nanocrystalline WC phase and sp(2) clusters in carbon networks increased by ion bombardment enhanced with increasing DC bias voltage. Consequently, the increase of sp(2) clusters containing WC nanocrystalline in the carbon films is attributed to the improvement in the physical and electrical properties.

  12. RBS and NRA of cobalt oxide thin films prepared by the sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, E.; Huerta, L.; Pineda, J.C.; Zavala, E.P.; Barrera, E.; Rocha, M. F.; Vargas, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    This work presents a study of cobalt oxide thin films produced by the sol-gel process on aluminum and glass substrates. These films have been analyzed using two ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques: a) a standard RBS 4 He 2 MeV and b) nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) using a 1 MeV deuterium beam. The 12 C(d,p 0 ) 13 C nuclear reaction provides information that carbon is incorporated into the film structure, which could be associated to the sinterization film process. Other film measurements such as optical properties, XRD, and SEM were performed in order to complement the IBA analysis. The results show that cobalt oxide film coatings prepared by this technique have good optical properties as solar absorbers and potential uses in solar energy applications

  13. Optical characterisation of thin film cadmium oxide prepared by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The optical transmission spectra of transparent conducting cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films deposited by a modified reactive evaporation process onto glass substrates have been measured. The interference fringes were used to calculate the refractive index, thickness variation, average thickness and absorption coefficient ...

  14. Preparation of A-150 tissue-equivalent plastic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saion, E.B.; Shaari, A.H.; Watt, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    A-150 tissue-equivalent (TE) plastic is widely used as a wall material for tissue-equivalent proportional counters (TEPCS) used in experimental microdosimetry. The objective of this note is to give a technical account of how A-150 TE plastic film can be fabricated in the laboratory from commercially available A-150 TE plastic. (author)

  15. Transparent nanocrystalline ZnO films prepared by spin coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berber, M. [SusTech GmbH and Co. KG, Petersenstr. 20, 64287 Darmstadt, Hessen (Germany)]. E-mail: mete.berber@sustech.de; Bulto, V. [SusTech GmbH and Co. KG, Petersenstr. 20, 64287 Darmstadt, Hessen (Germany); Kliss, R. [SusTech GmbH and Co. KG, Petersenstr. 20, 64287 Darmstadt, Hessen (Germany); Hahn, H. [SusTech GmbH and Co. KG, Petersenstr. 20, 64287 Darmstadt, Hessen (Germany); Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute for Nanotechnology, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Joint Research Laboratory Nanomaterials, TU Darmstadt, Institute of Materials Science, Petersenstr. 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2005-09-15

    Dispersions of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by the electrochemical deposition under oxidizing conditions process with organic surfactants, were spin coated on glass substrates. After sintering, the microstructure, surface morphology, and electro-optical properties of the transparent nanocrystalline zinc oxide films have been investigated for different coating thicknesses and organic solvents.

  16. Transparent nanocrystalline ZnO films prepared by spin coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berber, M.; Bulto, V.; Kliss, R.; Hahn, H.

    2005-01-01

    Dispersions of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by the electrochemical deposition under oxidizing conditions process with organic surfactants, were spin coated on glass substrates. After sintering, the microstructure, surface morphology, and electro-optical properties of the transparent nanocrystalline zinc oxide films have been investigated for different coating thicknesses and organic solvents

  17. 1D - photonic crystals prepared from the amorphous chalcogenide films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohoutek, T.; Orava, J.; Wágner, T.; Hrdlička, M.; Vlček, Milan; Frumar, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 20, - (2009), S346-S350 ISSN 0957-4522. [International Conference of Optical and Optoelectronic Materials and Applications. London, 29.07.2007-03.08.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : chalcogenide thin films Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.020, year: 2009

  18. High index of refraction films for dielectric mirrors prepared by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusasco, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    A wide variety of metal oxides with high index of refraction can be prepared by Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition. We present some recent optical and laser damage results on oxide films prepared by MOCVD which could be used in a multilayer structure for highly reflecting (HR) dielectric mirror applications. The method of preparation affects both optical properties and laser damage threshold. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Preparation of pectin/silver nanoparticles composite films with UV-light barrier and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Shiv; Tanomrod, Nattareya; Rawdkuen, Saroat; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2016-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was synthesized by a green method using an aqueous extract of Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk (CMLE) as reducing and stabilizing agents, and they were used for the preparation of pectin-based antimicrobial composite films. The AgNPs were spherical in shape with the size in the range of 20-80nm and showed the absorption peak around 500nm. The pectin/AgNPs composite film exhibited characteristic absorption peak of AgNPs at 480nm. The surface color and light transmittance of the pectin films were greatly influenced by the addition of AgNPs. The lightness of the films decreased, however, redness and yellowness of the films increased after incorporation of AgNPs. UV-light barrier property of the pectin film increased significantly with a little decrease in the transparency. Though there were no structural changes in the pectin film by the incorporation of CMLE and AgNPs as indicated by the FTIR results, the film properties such as thermal stability, mechanical strength, and water vapor barrier properties of the pectin films increased. The pectin/AgNPs nanocomposite films exhibited strong antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Preparation and characterization of collagen/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) blend film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Cuicui; Zhang, Min; Li, Guoying

    2015-03-30

    This study aimed to prepare and characterize the collagen/HPMC blend film (1/1). Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were used to investigate the thermal properties of the film. Both thermal decomposition temperature and denaturation temperature of the blend film were higher than those of the collagen film due to the intermolecular hydrogen bonding interaction between collagen and HPMC, which was demonstrated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Additionally, the morphologies, mechanical properties and hydrophilicity of films were examined. The blend film exhibited a more homogeneous and compact structure compared with that of the collagen film, as observed from scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The tensile strength, ultimate elongation and hydrophilicity of the blend film were superior to those of the pure collagen film. Furthermore, the introduction of polyethylene glycol 1500 had almost no influence on the thermal properties of the blend film but obviously improved its stretch-ability and smoothness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Study on the Preparation and Properties of Colored Iron Oxide Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xianhui; Li Changhong; Liu Qiuping; He Junjing; Wang Hai; Liang Song; Duan Yandong; Liu Su

    2013-01-01

    Colored iron oxide thin films were prepared using Sol-gel technique. The raw materials were tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), etoh ehanol (EtOH), iron nitrate, and de-ionized water. Various properties were measured and analysed, including the colour of thin films, surface topography, UV-Visible spectra, corrosion resistance and hydrophobicity. To understand how these properties influenced the structural and optical properties of Fe 2 O 3 thin films, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), UV Spectrophotometer and other facilities were employed. Many parameters influence the performance of thin films, such as film layers, added H 2 O content, and the amount of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). When the volume ratio of TEOS, EtOH and H 2 O was 15: 13: 1, the quality of Fe(NO 3 ) 3 ·9H 2 O was 6g, and pH value was 3, reddish and uniform Fe 2 O 3 thin films with excellent properties were produced. Obtained thin films possessed corrosion resistance in hydrochloric acid with pH=l and the absorption edge wavelength was ∼350.2nm. Different H 2 O contents could result in different morphologies of Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles. When 1.5 ml PDMS was added into the Sol, thin films possessed hydrophobiliry without dropping. Coating with different layers, thin films appeared different morphologies. Meanwhile, with the increment of film layers, the absorbance increased gradually.

  2. Preparation and Characterization of an Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) Skin Gelatin and Polylactic Acid Bilayer Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ka-Yeon; Song, Kyung Bin

    2017-03-01

    Olive flounder skin gelatin (OSG) was used as a film base material. A bilayer film of OSG and polylactic acid (PLA) was prepared using solvent casting method to enhance the film properties. Physical properties of the OSG-PLA film were increased compared with the nonaugmented OSG film. In particular, the PLA lamination decreased water vapor permeability from 2.17 to 0.92 × 10 -9 g·m/m 2 ·s·Pa, as well as of the water solubility from 16.62% to 9.27%, in the bilayer film relative to the OSG film. The oxygen permeability of the OSG-PLA bilayer film was held low by the OSG film, compensating for the high oxygen permeability of the PLA layer. Therefore, the OSG-PLA bilayer film with its enhanced physical properties and high water and oxygen barrier properties can be applied as a food packaging material. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. Preparation and electrochemical properties of gold nanoparticles containing carbon nanotubes-polyelectrolyte multilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Aimin; Zhang Xing; Zhang Haili; Han, Deyan; Knight, Allan R.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Gold nanoparticles containing carbon nanotubes-polyelectrolyte multilayer thin films were prepared via layer-by-layer self-assembly technique. → The electron transfer behaviour of the hybrid thin films were investigated using an electrochemical probe. → The resulting thin films exhibited an electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of nitric oxide. - Abstract: Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)/polyelectrolyte (PE) hybrid thin films were fabricated by alternatively depositing negatively charged MWCNT and positively charged (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) via layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly technique. The stepwise growth of the multilayer films of MWCNT and PDDA was characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicated that the MWCNT were uniformly embedded in the film to form a network and the coverage density of MWCNT increased with layer number. Au nanoparticles (NPs) could be further adsorbed onto the film to form PE/MWCNT/Au NPs composite films. The electron transfer behaviour of multilayer films with different compositions were studied by cyclic voltammetry using [Fe(CN) 6 ] 3-/4- as an electrochemical probe. The results indicated that the incorporation of MWCNT and Au NPs not only greatly improved the electronic conductivity of pure polyelectrolyte films, but also provided excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of nitric oxide (NO).

  4. Preparation and characterization of nanocrystalline porous TiO2/WO3 composite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.-S.; Lin, C.-K.; Chan, C.-C.; Chang, C.-C.; Tsay, C.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    TiO 2 materials possessing not only photocatalytic but also electrochromic properties have attracted many research and development interests. Though WO 3 exhibits excellent electrochromic properties, the much higher cost and water-sensitivity of WO 3 as compared with the TiO 2 may restrict the practical application of WO 3 materials. In the present study, the feasibility of preparing nanocrystalline porous TiO 2 /WO 3 composite thin films was investigated. Precursors of sols TiO 2 and/or WO 3 and polystyrene microspheres were used to prepare nanocrystalline pure TiO 2 , WO 3 , and composite TiO 2 /WO 3 thin films by spin coating. The spin-coated thin films were amorphous and, after heat treating at a temperature of 500 o C, nanocrystalline TiO 2 , TiO 2 /WO 3 , and WO 3 thin films with or without pores were prepared successfully. The heat-treated thin films were colorless and coloration-bleaching phenomena can be observed during cyclic voltammetry tests. The heat-treated thin films exhibited good reversible electrochromic behavior while the porous TiO 2 /WO 3 composite film exhibited improved electrochromic properties

  5. Surface resistances of 5-cm-diameter YBCO films prepared by MOD for microwave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manabe, T.; Sohma, M.; Yamaguchi, I.; Tsukada, K.; Kondo, W.; Kamiya, K.; Tsuchiya, T.; Mizuta, S.; Kumagai, T.

    2006-01-01

    Large-area high-T c superconducting films with low surface resistances R s are required for use in microwave applications such as band pass filters. In this paper, preparation of 5-cm-diameter YBCO films on LaAlO 3 (LAO) and CeO 2 -buffered sapphire (CbS) substrates by metalorganic deposition (MOD) using a fluorine-free coating solution and their superconducting properties are described. The optimum firing conditions for YBCO films greatly depend on the substrate materials; a heating rate at ramp as high as 200 deg. C /min is necessary for films on LAO whereas a lower heating rate, e.g., 20 deg. C /min, is required for films on CbS. Accordingly, the suitable furnace systems for these substrates have been varied. As a result, a YBCO film with high J c (77 K) of 2.7 MA/cm 2 and a low R s (12 GHz, 77 K) of 0.54 mΩ was prepared on LAO by using an infrared image furnace. On the other hand, a YBCO film with a higher J c (77 K) of 4.0 MA/cm 2 and the same R s (12 GHz, 77 K) of 0.54 mΩ was prepared on CbS by using a tube furnace

  6. Excimer laser processing of ZnO thin films prepared by the sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, R.J.; Koh, L.H.K.; O'Brien, Shane; Crean, Gabriel M.

    2007-01-01

    ZnO thin films were prepared on soda-lime glass from a single spin-coating deposition of a sol-gel prepared with anhydrous zinc acetate [Zn(C 2 H 3 O 2 ) 2 ], monoethanolamine [H 2 NC 2 H 4 OH] and isopropanol. The deposited films were dried at 50 and 300 deg. C. X-ray analysis showed that the films were amorphous. Laser annealing was performed using an excimer laser. The laser pulse repetition rate was 25 Hz with a pulse energy of 5.9 mJ, giving a fluence of 225 mJ cm -2 on the ZnO film. Typically, five laser pulses per unit area of the film were used. After laser processing, the hexagonal wurtzite phase of zinc oxide was observed from X-ray diffraction pattern analysis. The thin films had a transparency of greater than 70% in the visible region. The optical band-gap energy was 3.454 eV. Scanning electron microscopy and profilometry analysis highlighted the change in morphology that occurred as a result of laser processing. This comparative study shows that our sol-gel processing route differs significantly from ZnO sol-gel films prepared by conventional furnace annealing which requires temperatures above 450 deg. C for the formation of crystalline ZnO

  7. Polarized Raman study on the lattice structure of BiFeO3 films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yang; Yao, Yingbang; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, Xixiang

    2014-01-01

    Polarized Raman spectroscopy was used to study the lattice structure of BiFeO3 films on different substrates prepared by pulsed laser deposition. Interestingly, the Raman spectra of BiFeO3 films exhibit distinct polarization dependences

  8. Thickness dependent electrical properties of CdO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, L.C.S.; Rao, K.S.R.K.

    1999-01-01

    A large number of thin films of cadmium oxide have been prepared on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis method. The prepared films have uniform thickness varying from 200-600 nm and good adherence to the glass substrate. A systematic study has been made on the influence of thickness on resistivity, sheet resistance, carrier concentration and mobility of the films. The resistivity, sheet resistance, carrier concentration and mobility values varied from 1.56-5.72x10 -3 Ω-cm, 128-189 Ω/□, 1.6-3.9x10 21 cm -3 and 0.3-3 cm 2 /Vs, respectively for varying film thickness. A systematic increase in mobility with grain size clearly indicates the reduction of overall scattering of charge carriers at the grain boundaries. The large concentration of charge carriers and low mobility values have been attributed to the presence of Cd as an impurity in CdO microcrystallites. Using the optical transmission data, the band gap was estimated and found to vary from 2.20-2.42 eV. These films have transmittance around 77% and average reflectance is below 2.6% in the spectral range 350-850 nm. The films are n-type and polycrystalline in nature. SEM micrographs of the CdO films were taken and the films exhibit clear grains and grain boundary formation at a substrate temperature as low as 523 K. (author)

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Silver Liquid Thin Films for Magnetic Fluid Deformable Mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianchao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Silver liquid thin film, formed by silver nanoparticles stacking and spreading on the surface of the liquid, is one of the important parts of magnetic fluid deformable mirror. First, silver nanoparticles were prepared by liquid phase chemical reduction method using sodium citrate as reducing agent and stabilizer and silver nitrate as precursor. Characterization of silver nanoparticles was studied using X-ray diffractometer, UV-vis spectrophotometer, and transmission electron microscope (TEM. The results showed that silver nanoparticles are spherical and have a good monodispersity. Additionally, the effect of the reaction conditions on the particle size of silver is obvious. And then silver liquid thin films were prepared by oil-water two-phase interface technology using as-synthesized silver nanoparticles. Properties of the film were investigated using different technology. The results showed that the film has good reflectivity and the particle size has a great influence on the reflectivity of the films. SEM photos showed that the liquid film is composed of multilayer silver nanoparticles. In addition, stability of the film was studied. The results showed that after being stored for 8 days under natural conditions, the gloss and reflectivity of the film start to decrease.

  10. PLD prepared nanostructured Pt-CeO{sub 2} thin films containing ionic platinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorokhta, M., E-mail: vorohtam@gmail.com [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Surface and Plasma Science, V Holešovičkách 2, 18000 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Khalakhan, I.; Matolínová, I.; Nováková, J.; Haviar, S. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Surface and Plasma Science, V Holešovičkách 2, 18000 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Lančok, J.; Novotný, M. [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague, Czhech Republic (Czech Republic); Yoshikawa, H. [National Institute for Materials Science, Sengen 1-2-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Matolín, V. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Department of Surface and Plasma Science, V Holešovičkách 2, 18000 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Nanostructured Pt-CeO{sub 2} thin catalyst films were grown on plasma etched and non-etched carbon substrates by pulsed laser deposition. • The surface composition of the nanostructured Pt-CeO{sub 2} films was investigated by surface analysis techniques. • The effect of film roughening was separated from the effect of platinum-ceria atomic interactions. - Abstract: The composition of nanostructured Pt-CeO{sub 2} films on graphite substrates prepared by pulsed laser deposition has been investigated by means of hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The influence of morphology of the graphite substrates was investigated with respect to the relative concentrations of ionic and metallic Pt species in the films. It was found that the degree of Pt{sup 2+} enrichment is directly related to the surface morphology of graphite substrates. In particular, the deposition of Pt-CeO{sub 2} films on rough graphite substrate etched in oxygen plasma yielded nanostructured Pt-CeO{sub 2} catalyst films with high surface area and high Pt{sup 2+}/Pt{sup 0} ratio. The presented results demonstrate that PLD is a suitable method for the preparation of thin Pt-CeO{sub 2} catalyst films for fuel cell applications.

  11. Oromucosal film preparations: points to consider for patient centricity and manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krampe, Raphael; Visser, J Carolina; Frijlink, Henderik W; Breitkreutz, Jörg; Woerdenbag, Herman J; Preis, Maren

    2016-01-01

    According to the European Pharmacopoeia, oromucosal films comprise mucoadhesive buccal films and orodispersible films. Both oral dosage forms receive considerable interest in the recent years as commercially available pharmaceutical products and as small scale personalized extemporaneous preparations. In this review, technological issues such as viscosity of the casting liquid, mechanical properties of the film, upscaling and the stability of the casting solution and produced films will be discussed. Furthermore, patient-related problems like appearance, mucosal irritation, taste, drug load, safety and biopharmaceutics are described. Current knowledge and directions for solutions are summarized. The viscosity of the casting solution is a key factor for producing suitable films. This parameter is amongst others dependent on the polymer and active pharmaceutical ingredient, and the further excipients that are used. For optimal patient compliance, an acceptable taste and palatability are desirable. Safe and inert excipients should be used and appropriate packaging should be provided to produced films. Absorption through the oral mucosa will vary for each active compound, formulation and patient, which gives rise to pharmacokinetic questions. Finally, the European Pharmacopoeia needs to specify methods, requirement and definitions for oromucosal film preparations based on bio-relevant data.

  12. Properties and characterization of bionanocomposite films prepared with various biopolymers and ZnO nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmani, Paulraj; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2014-06-15

    This study was aimed to develop biopolymer based antimicrobial films for active food packaging and to reduce environmental pollution caused by accumulation of synthetic packaging. The ZnO NPs were incorporated as antimicrobials into different biopolymers such as agar, carrageenan and CMC. Solvent casting method was performed to prepare active nanocomposite films. Methods such as FE-SEM, FT-IR and XRD were used to characterize resulting films. Physical, mechanical, thermal and antimicrobial properties were also examined. Remarkable surface morphological differences were observed between control and nanocomposite films. The crystallinity of ZnO was confirmed by XRD analysis. The addition of ZnO NPs increased color, UV barrier, moisture content, hydrophobicity, elongation and thermal stability of the films, while decreased WVP, tensile strength and elastic modulus. ZnO NPs impregnated films inhibited growth of L. monocytogenes and E. coli. So these newly prepared nanocomposite films can be used as active packaging film to extend shelf-life of food. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of hard ternary AlMgB composite films prepared by sputter deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Ce [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Zhou, Z.F. [Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Engineering Management and Advanced Coatings Applied Research Laboratory, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Chong, Y.M.; Liu, C.P.; Liu, Z.T. [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Li, K.Y., E-mail: mekyli@cityu.edu.h [Department of Manufacturing Engineering and Engineering Management and Advanced Coatings Applied Research Laboratory, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Bello, I., E-mail: apibello@cityu.edu.h [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Kutsay, O.; Zapien, J.A.; Zhang, W.J. [Department of Physics and Materials Science and Center of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2010-07-30

    Hard and superlight thin films laminated with boron carbide have been proposed as candidates for strategic use such as armor materials in military and space applications. Aluminum magnesium boride (AlMgB) films are excellent candidates for these purposes. We prepared AlMgB films by sputter deposition using multiple unbalanced planar magnetrons equipped with two boron and one AlMg targets. The film morphology changed and the film's root mean square (rms) roughness varied from 1.0 to 18 nm as the power density of the AlMg target increased from 0.2 to 1.0 W/cm{sup 2} while the power density of each boron target was maintained at 2 W/cm{sup 2}. Chemical analyses show dominating Al, Mg, B and trace elements of oxygen, carbon and argon. The film composition also varies with altering the power density supplied to the AlMg target. The film with an atomic ratio of Al:Mg:B = 1.38:0.64:1 exhibits the highest hardness ({approx} 30 GPa). This value surpasses the hardness of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films (24-28 GPa) prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of hard ternary AlMgB composite films prepared by sputter deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Ce; Zhou, Z.F.; Chong, Y.M.; Liu, C.P.; Liu, Z.T.; Li, K.Y.; Bello, I.; Kutsay, O.; Zapien, J.A.; Zhang, W.J.

    2010-01-01

    Hard and superlight thin films laminated with boron carbide have been proposed as candidates for strategic use such as armor materials in military and space applications. Aluminum magnesium boride (AlMgB) films are excellent candidates for these purposes. We prepared AlMgB films by sputter deposition using multiple unbalanced planar magnetrons equipped with two boron and one AlMg targets. The film morphology changed and the film's root mean square (rms) roughness varied from 1.0 to 18 nm as the power density of the AlMg target increased from 0.2 to 1.0 W/cm 2 while the power density of each boron target was maintained at 2 W/cm 2 . Chemical analyses show dominating Al, Mg, B and trace elements of oxygen, carbon and argon. The film composition also varies with altering the power density supplied to the AlMg target. The film with an atomic ratio of Al:Mg:B = 1.38:0.64:1 exhibits the highest hardness (∼ 30 GPa). This value surpasses the hardness of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon films (24-28 GPa) prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

  15. Preparing hydrophobic nanocellulose-silica film by a facile one-pot method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Duy; Kongparakul, Suwadee; Samart, Chanatip; Phanthong, Patchiya; Karnjanakom, Surachai; Abudula, Abuliti; Guan, Guoqing

    2016-11-20

    Hydrophobic nanocellulose-silica film was successfully prepared by a facile one-pot method using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and dodecyl triethoxylsilane (DTES). Morphological characterization of the hydrophobic nanocellulose-silica (NC-SiO2-DTES) film showed well self-assembled DTES modified silica spherical nanoparticles with the particle sizes in the range of 88-126nm over the nanocellulose film. The hydrophobicity of the NC-SiO2-DTES film was achieved owing to the improvement of roughness of the nanocellulose film by coating dodecyl- terminated silica nanoparticles. An increase in DTES loading amount and reaction time increased the hydrophobicity of the film, and the optimum condition for NC-SiO2-DTES film preparation was achieved at DTES/TEOS molar ratio of 2.0 for 8h reaction time. Besides, the NC-SiO2-DTES film performed superoleophilic property with octane and hexadecane contact angles of 0°. It also showed an excellent hydrophobic property over all pH values ranged from 1 to 14. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. How the Starting Precursor Influences the Properties of Polycrystalline CuInGaSe2 Thin Films Prepared by Sputtering and Selenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Rosa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Cu(In,GaSe2 (CIGS/CdS thin-film solar cells have reached, at laboratory scale, an efficiency higher than 22.3%, which is one of the highest efficiencies ever obtained for thin-film solar cells. The research focus has now shifted onto fabrication processes, which have to be easily scalable at an industrial level. For this reason, a process is highlighted here which uses only the sputtering technique for both the absorber preparation and the deposition of all the other materials that make up the cell. Particular emphasis is placed on the comparison between different precursors obtained with either In2Se3 and Ga2Se3 or InSe and GaSe as starting materials. In both cases, the precursor does not require any heat treatment, and it is immediately ready to be selenized. The selenization is performed in a pure-selenium atmosphere and only lasts a few minutes at a temperature of about 803 K. Energy conversion efficiencies in the range of 15%–16% are reproducibly obtained on soda-lime glass (SLG substrates. Similar results are achieved if commercial ceramic tiles are used as a substrate instead of glass. This result is especially useful for the so-called building integrated photovoltaic. Cu(In,GaSe2-based solar cells grown directly on ceramic tiles are ideal for the fabrication of ventilated façades in low impact buildings.

  17. Oriented Y-typehexagonal ferrite thin films prepared by chemical

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buršík, Josef; Kužel, R.; Knížek, Karel; Drbohlav, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 203, JULY (2013), s. 100-105 ISSN 0022-4596 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-03708S Institutional support: RVO:61388980 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : Y-type hexagonal ferrites * chemical solution deposition * thin films * epitaxial growth Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry; BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.200, year: 2013

  18. Aquatic Life Criterion - Selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents pertaining to the 2016 Acute and Chronic Ambient Aquatic Life Water Quality Criteria for Selenium (Freshwater). These documents include what the safe levels of Selenium are in water for the majority of species.

  19. Selenium content of mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stijve, T

    1977-07-29

    The selenium contents of 83 species of wild mushrooms were determined by oxygen combustion of the sample, followed by conversion of selenite to bromopiazselenol and final estimation by electron capture gas-liquid chromatography. Selenium concentration were found to range from 0.012-20.0 mg/kg dry weight. Selenium content was species-dependent. High concentrations were found in Agaricaceae and in certain Boletaceae of the genus Tubiporus, whereas in Russulaceae, Amanitaceae and Cantharellaceae selenium-rich species were absent or rare. Ascomycetes and all mushrooms growing on wood had a very low selenium content. The highest selenium concentrations (up to 20 ppm) were found in Boletus (Tubiporus) edulis, a most popular edible mushroom. Analyses of various parts of carpophores of B. edulis, Suillus luteus and Amanita muscaria indicate that in all three species the stalk contains less selenium than the fleshy part of the cap. In Boletus and Suillus the highest selenium content was found in the tubes.

  20. Photocatalysis of zinc oxide nanotip array/titanium oxide film heterojunction prepared by aqueous solution deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Kwei; Lee, Bo-Wei; Kao, Chen-Yu

    2017-05-01

    A TiO2 film was prepared on indium tin oxide (ITO)/glass by aqueous solution deposition (ASD) with precursors of ammonium hexafluoro-titanate and boric acid at 40 °C. The photocatalysis of annealed TiO2 film increases with increasing growth time and decreases with increasing growth times longer than 60 min. A ZnO nanotip array was prepared on ZnO seed layer/TiO2 film/glass by aqueous solution deposition with precursors of zinc nitrate and ammonium hydroxide at 70 °C. The photocatalysis of ASD-ZnO/ASD-TiO2 film/ITO glass can be better than that of P25.

  1. Characteristics of zinc oxide nanorod array/titanium oxide film heterojunction prepared by aqueous solution deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Kwei; Hong, Min-Hsuan; Li, Bo-Wei

    2016-07-01

    The characteristics of a ZnO nanorod array/TiO2 film heterojunction were investigated. A TiO2 film was prepared on glass by aqueous solution deposition with precursors of ammonium hexafluorotitanate and boric acid at 40 °C. Then, a ZnO seed layer was prepared on a TiO2 film/glass substrate by RF sputtering. A vertically oriented ZnO nanorod array was grown on a ZnO seed layer/TiO2 film/glass substrate by aqueous solution deposition with precursors of zinc nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine (HMT) at 70 °C. After thermal annealing in N2O ambient at 300 °C, this heterojunction used as an oxygen gas sensor shows much better rise time, decay time, and on/off current ratio than as-grown and annealed ZnO nanorods.

  2. Preparation of porous titanium oxide films onto indium tin oxide for application in organic photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, Andreia G. [Laboratorio de Dispositivos Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Mattos, Luana L.; Spada, Edna R.; Serpa, Rafael B.; Campos, Cristiani S. [Laboratorio de Sistemas Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Grova, Isabel R.; Ackcelrud, Leni [Laboratorio de Polimeros Paulo Scarpa, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Reis, Francoise T.; Sartorelli, Maria L. [Laboratorio de Sistemas Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Roman, Lucimara S., E-mail: lsroman@fisica.ufpr.br [Laboratorio de Dispositivos Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil)

    2012-05-01

    In this work, porous ordered TiO{sub 2} films were prepared through sol gel route by using a monolayer of polystyrene spheres as template on indium-tin oxide/glass substrate. These films were characterized by SEM, AFM, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis absorbance and XRD. The UV-vis absorbance spectrum show a pseudo band gap (PBG) with maxima at 460 nm arising from the light scattering and partial or total suppression of the photon density of states, this PBG can be controlled by the size of the pore. We also propose the use of this porous film as electron acceptor electrode in organic photovoltaic cells; we show that devices prepared with porous titania displayed higher efficiencies than devices using compact titania films as electrode. Such behaviour was observed in both bilayer and bulk heterojunction devices.

  3. Preparation of porous titanium oxide films onto indium tin oxide for application in organic photovoltaic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, Andreia G.; Mattos, Luana L.; Spada, Edna R.; Serpa, Rafael B.; Campos, Cristiani S.; Grova, Isabel R.; Ackcelrud, Leni; Reis, Françoise T.; Sartorelli, Maria L.; Roman, Lucimara S.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, porous ordered TiO 2 films were prepared through sol gel route by using a monolayer of polystyrene spheres as template on indium-tin oxide/glass substrate. These films were characterized by SEM, AFM, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis absorbance and XRD. The UV-vis absorbance spectrum show a pseudo band gap (PBG) with maxima at 460 nm arising from the light scattering and partial or total suppression of the photon density of states, this PBG can be controlled by the size of the pore. We also propose the use of this porous film as electron acceptor electrode in organic photovoltaic cells; we show that devices prepared with porous titania displayed higher efficiencies than devices using compact titania films as electrode. Such behaviour was observed in both bilayer and bulk heterojunction devices.

  4. Review of WO3 thin film preparation for photoelectrochemical water splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehsan Eftekhari; Mohammad Kassim

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Tungsten trioxide (WO 3 ), which is one of the most essential materials in our daily life has appeared as an excellent photo electrode material for environmental purification. The nano-size of WO 3 thin film water-splitting technology has great potential for environmentally friendly solar-hydrogen production for the future hydrogen economy. There are several methods for producing tungsten oxide film. In this review, we outlined several WO 3 thin film preparation methods such as doctor Bladding, sputtering, layer-by-layer brush painting, spray pyrolysis deposition, sol-gel and other methods. Here we compare the maximum photocurrent obtained, different condition for preparation of WO 3 thin film and characterization outcome. (author)

  5. Properties of Zn O/Cr thin films prepared by Sol-Gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirado G, S.; Olvera A, R.

    2014-08-01

    Zn O films and those superficially modified with chromium were deposited on substrates of soda-lime glass, using the Sol-Gel process and the repeated immersion method. Starting from dehydrated zinc acetate was prepared a solution to 0.6 M to ambient temperature in 2-methoxyethanol and monoethanolamine (Mea) stirring magnetically. The Sol was prepared with an aging to seven days and was used to grow a films group with thickness to eight immersions. These same films were superficially modified with several depositions of a chromium nitrate Sol dissolved in ethanol to low concentration. The Zn O films were structurally characterized by X-ray diffraction, its chemical composition by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and its morphology by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, as well as their optical properties by UV-vis. Of the obtained results are proposed possible applications. (author)

  6. Preparation of Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 Thin Films on Glass Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hioki, Tsuyoshi; Akiyama, Masahiko; Ueda, Tomomasa; Onozuka, Yutaka; Hara, Yujiro; Suzuki, Kouji

    2000-09-01

    Lead-zirconate-titanate (PZT) thin films were prepared on non-alkaline glass substrates widely used in liquid crystal display (LCD) devices, by plasma-assisted magnetron RF sputtering with an immersed coil. After preparation of the PZT thin film, the glass was available for use in LCD device processing. No mutual diffusion of the elements was recognized between the glass substrate and the bottom electrode. The PZT layer had a dense film structure with rectangular and columnar grains, and only its perovskite phase was crystalline. PZT thin films on a glass substrate had leakage current densities of about 10-8 A/cm2, acceptable hysteresis loop shapes with the remanent polarization (Pr) of 45 μC/cm2 and the coercive field (Ec) of 90 kV/cm. Ferroelectric properties on a glass substrate almost conform with those on a Si-based substrate.

  7. Preparation and Hydrogen Absorption/Desorption of Nanoporous Palladium Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chung Li

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous Pd (np-Pd was prepared by co-sputtering Pd-Ni alloy films onto Si substrates, followed by chemical dealloying with sulfuric acid. X-ray diffractometry and chemical analysis were used to track the extent of dealloying. The np-Pd structure was changed from particle-like to sponge-like by diluting the sulfuric acid etchant. Using suitable precursor alloy composition and dealloying conditions, np-Pd films were prepared with uniform and open sponge-like structures, with interconnected ligaments and no cracks, yielding a large amount of surface area for reactions with hydrogen. Np-Pd films exhibited shorter response time for hydrogen absorption/desorption than dense Pd films, showing promise for hydrogen sensing.

  8. Oxygen reduction activity of N-doped carbon-based films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakoda, Teruyuki; Yamamoto, Shunya; Kawaguchi, Kazuhiro; Yamaki, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Tomohiro; Yoshikawa, Masahito

    2010-12-01

    Carbon-based films with nitrogen species on their surface were prepared on a glassy carbon (GC) substrate for application as a non-platinum cathode catalyst for polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Cobalt and carbon were deposited in the presence of N 2 gas using a pulsed laser deposition method and then the metal Co was removed by HCl-washing treatment. Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity was electrochemically determined using a rotating disk electrode system in which the film samples on the GC substrate were replaceable. The ORR activity increased with the temperature of the GC substrate during deposition. A carbon-based film prepared at 600 °C in the presence of N 2 at 66.7 Pa showed the highest ORR activity among the tested samples (0.66 V vs. NHE). This film was composed of amorphous carbons doped with pyridine type nitrogen atoms on its surface.

  9. Preparation and Biodegradation of Nanocellulose Reinforced Polyvinyl Alcohol Blend Films in Bioenvironmental Media

    OpenAIRE

    Nusaiba Islam; Sharmin Jahan Proma; Ashiqur Rahman; Ashok Kumar Chakraborty

    2017-01-01

    Solution casting method was used to prepare nanocellulose reinforced polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) from Oil palm empty fruit bunches. Different environmental test were used to investigate the biodegradability of the composite in soil and compost as well as in water and acidic solution. The morphology of the composite was investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The composite film with nanocellulose and without nanocellulose were compared, nanocellulose modified PVOH film showed more highly de...

  10. Preparation and Characterization of HPMC/PVP Blend Films Plasticized with Sorbitol

    OpenAIRE

    Somashekarappa, H.; Prakash, Y.; Hemalatha, K.; Demappa, T.; Somashekar, R.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this present work is to investigate the effect of plasticizers like Sorbitol on microstructural and mechanical properties of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) blend films. The pure blend and plasticized blend films were prepared by solution casting method and investigated using wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) method. WAXS analysis confirms that the plasticizers can enter into macromolecular blend structure and destroy the crystallinity of the f...

  11. Damp heat stability and annealing behavior of aluminum doped zinc oxide films prepared by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohsophon, T.; Huepkes, J.; Calnan, S.; Reetz, W.; Rech, B.; Beyer, W.; Sirikulrat, N.

    2006-01-01

    The damp heat stability and subsequent vacuum annealing behavior of aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) films was investigated using Hall effect measurements, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical spectrometry techniques. The AZO films were deposited on glass or silicon wafers using reactive and non-reactive magnetron sputtering from metallic and ceramic targets, respectively. Additionally, we characterized surface textured AZO films, which are used as light scattering transparent conductive oxide (TCO) in silicon thin film solar cells. For all films a degradation of the electrical film properties was found after the damp heat treatment. For thick compact films, with large grain size, only a small increase in the electrical resistivity was observed, whereas less compact films prepared at high deposition pressures or very thin films (< 300 nm) showed an increase in resistivity by up to a factor of three already after 300 h. The conductivity degradation during damp heat treatment could be largely reversed by annealing in vacuum. However, annealing temperatures of at least 150 deg. C were required. Possible mechanisms explaining the experimental results are discussed

  12. Preparation of mesoporous carbon nitride structure by the dealloying of Ni/a-CN nanocomposite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Han; Shen, Yongqing; Huang, Jie; Liao, Bin; Wu, Xianying; Zhang, Xu

    2018-05-01

    The preparation of mesoporous carbon nitride (p-CN) structure by the selective dealloying process of Ni/a-CN nanocomposite films is investigated. The composition and structure of the Ni/a-CN nanocomposite films and porous carbon nitride (p-CN) films are determined by scan electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. Phase separated structure including nickel carbide phase and the surrounding amorphous carbon nitride (a-CN) matrix are detected for the as-deposited films. Though the bulk diffusion is introduced in the film during the annealing process, the grain sizes for the post-annealed films are around 10 nm and change little comparing with the ones of the as-deposited films, which is associated with the thermostability of the CN surrounding in the film. The p-CN skeleton with its pore size around 12.5 nm is formed by etching the post-annealed films, indicative of the stability of the phase separated structure during the annealing process.

  13. Phase Composition of Samarium Niobate and Tantalate Thin Films Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruncková, H.; Medvecký, Ľ.; Múdra, E.; Kovalčiková, A.; Ďurišin, J.; Šebek, M.; Girman, V.

    2017-12-01

    Samarium niobate SmNbO4 (SNO) and tantalate SmTaO4 (STO) thin films ( 100 nm) were prepared by sol-gel/spin-coating process on alumina substrates with PZT interlayer and annealing at 1000°C. The precursors of films were synthesized using Nb or Ta tartrate complexes. The improvement of the crystallinity of monoclinic M'-SmTaO4 phase via heating was observed through the coexistence of small amounts of tetragonal T-SmTa7O19 phase in STO precursor at 1000°C. The XRD results of SNO and STO films confirmed monoclinic M-SmNbO4 and M'-SmTaO4 phases, respectively, with traces of orthorhombic O-SmNbO4 (in SNO). In STO film, the single monoclinic M'-SmTaO4 phase was revealed. The surface morphology and topography of thin films were investigated by SEM and AFM analysis. STO film was smoother with roughness 3.2 nm in comparison with SNO (6.3 nm). In the microstructure of SNO film, small spherical ( 50 nm) and larger cuboidal particles ( 100 nm) of the SmNbO4 phase were observed. In STO, compact clusters composed of fine spherical SmTaO4 particles ( 20-50 nm) were found. Effect of samarium can contribute to the formation different polymorphs of these films for the application to environmental electrolytic thin film devices.

  14. Preparation of cellulose II and IIII films by allomorphic conversion of bacterial cellulose I pellicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria-Tischer, Paula C.S.; Tischer, Cesar A.; Heux, Laurent; Le Denmat, Simon; Picart, Catherine; Sierakowski, Maria-R.

    2015-01-01

    The structural changes resulting from the conversion of native cellulose I (Cel I) into allomorphs II (Cel II) and III I (Cel III I ) have usually been studied using powder samples from plant or algal cellulose. In this work, the conversion of Cel I into Cel II and Cel III I was performed on bacterial cellulose films without any mechanical disruption. The surface texture of the films was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the morphology of the constituting cellulose ribbons, by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The structural changes were characterized using solid-state NMR spectroscopy as well as X-ray and electron diffraction. The allomorphic change into Cel II and Cel III I resulted in films with different crystallinity, roughness and hydrophobic/hydrophilicity surface and the films remained intact during all process of allomorphic conversion. - Highlights: • Description of a method to modify the allomorphic structure of bacterial cellulose filmsPreparation of films with specific morphologies and hydrophobic/hydrophilic surface characters • First report on cellulose III films from bacterial cellulose under swelling conditions • Detailed characterization of cellulose II and III films with complementary techniques • Development of films with specific properties as potential support for cells, enzymes, and drugs

  15. Metal doped fluorocarbon polymer films prepared by plasma polymerization using an RF planar magnetron target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederman, H.; Holland, L.

    1983-01-01

    Fluorocarbon films have been prepared by plasma polymerization of CF 4 using an RF planar magnetron with an aluminium target. More than one order of magnitude higher deposition rate has been achieved in comparison with an r.f. diode system operated under similar conditions of monomer pressure and flow rate and power input. A glow discharge in a CF 4 [25%]-argon[75%] mixture was used to incorporate aluminium from a target electrode into the polymer films. The foregoing mixture and another based on CF 4 [87%]-argon[13%] were used in the RF discharge with a copper target. Some experiments with a gold target and pure CF 4 as the inlet gas were also made. The film structure was examined by SEM and TEM and characteristic micrographs are presented here. The composition of the films was estimated from an EAS study. The sheet resistivity of the metal/polymer film complexes was determined. (orig.)

  16. Microstructure of thin film platinum electrodes on yttrium stabilized zirconia prepared by sputter deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toghan, Arafat, E-mail: arafat.toghan@pci.uni-hannover.de [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Leibniz University of Hannover, Callinstrasse 3-3a, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Khodari, M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Qena, 83523 (Egypt); Steinbach, F.; Imbihl, R. [Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Leibniz University of Hannover, Callinstrasse 3-3a, D-30167 Hannover (Germany)

    2011-09-01

    (111) oriented thin film Pt electrodes were prepared on single crystals of yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) by sputter deposition of platinum. The electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and by profilometry. SEM images of the as-sputtered platinum film show a compact amorphous Pt film covering uniformly the substrate. Upon annealing at 1123 K, gaps and pores at the interface develop leading to a partial dewetting of the Pt film. Increasing the annealing temperature to 1373 K transforms the polycrystalline Pt film into single crystalline grains exhibiting a (111) orientation towards the substrate.

  17. The effect of Nb doping on ferroelectric properties of PZT thin films prepared from polymeric precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, E.C.F.; Simoes, A.Z.; Cilense, M.; Longo, E.; Varela, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    Pure and Nb doped PbZr 0.4 Ti 0.6 O 3 thin films was prepared by the polymeric precursor method and deposited by spin coating on Pt/Ti/SiO 2 /Si (100) substrates and annealed at 700 deg. C. The films are oriented in (1 1 0) and (1 0 0) direction. The electric properties of PZT thin films show strong dependence of the crystallographic orientation. The P-E hysteresis loops for the thin film with composition PbZr 0.39 Ti 0.6 Nb 0.1 O 3 showed good saturation, with values for coercive field (E c ) equal to 60 KV cm -1 and for remanent polarization (P r ) equal to 20 μC cm -2 . The measured dielectric constant (ε) is 1084 for this film. These results show good potential for application in FERAM

  18. Electro-physical properties of superconducting ceramic thick film prepared by partial melting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Heon

    2013-05-01

    BiSrCaCuO superconductor thick films were prepared at several curing temperatures, and their electro-physical properties were determined to find an optimum fabrication conditions. Critical temperatures of the superconductors were decreased with increasing melting temperature, which was related to the amount of equilibrium phases of the superconducting materials with temperature. The critical temperature of BiSrCaCuO bulk and thick film superconductors were 107 K and 96 K, respectively. The variation of susceptibility of the superconductor thick film formed at 950 degrees C had multi-step-type curve for 70 G externally applied field, whereas, a superconductor thick film formed at 885 degrees C had a single step-type curve like a bulk BiSrCaCuO ceramic superconductor in the temperature-susceptibility curves. A partial melting at 865 degrees C is one of optimum conditions for making a superconductor thick film with a relatively homogeneous phase.

  19. Preparation of flexible and heat-resisting conductive transparent film by the pyrosol process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usami, Hisanao; Nakasa, Akihiko; Adachi, Mami; Suzuki, Eiji; Fujimatsu, Hitoshi; Ohashi, Tatsuya; Yamada, Shigeo; Tsugita, Kouhei; Taniguchi, Yoshio

    2006-01-01

    A pyrosol process was successfully applied for the preparation of a flexible, conductive, and transparent inorganic film, a tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) film lined with a thin mica layer. This flexible heat-resistant ITO-mica film exhibited high conductivity and transparency, comparable to ITO deposited on glass substrate. The minimum radius of bending for the film, without any recognizable change in the conductivity and appearance, was 8 mm. The ITO deposited on mica showed a large (222) diffraction peak with a smaller (400) peak, in contrast to ITO deposited with (400) orientation on an ordinary glass substrate. Using the ITO-mica film, a prototype model of a flexible organic light emitting diode was fabricated

  20. Preparation and characterization of ultra-thin sol-gel films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, Leora; Marx, Sharon; Mandler, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The formation and characterization of nanometer thick sol-gel films are reported. The films were prepared by spin-coating of a diluted solution of a silane precursor on a number of different substrates. The effect of dilution, rotation speed and nature of substrate on the thickness and homogeneity of the films was examined. Characterization of the films was carried out by profilometry, reflectance spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, adhesion test and electrochemistry. We find that the dilution factor has a pronounced effect on the film thickness. Moreover, the time of dilution, namely, whether dilution was carried out before or after a period of hydrolysis, has a noticeable effect on the thickness as well as on the permeability of embedded species

  1. Electrocatalytic glucose oxidation at gold and gold-carbon nanoparticulate film prepared from oppositely charged nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karczmarczyk, Aleksandra; Celebanska, Anna; Nogala, Wojciech; Sashuk, Volodymyr; Chernyaeva, Olga; Opallo, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Gold nanoparticulate film electrodes were prepared by layer-by-layer method from oppositely charged nanoparticles. • Positively charged nanoparticles play dominant role in glucose oxidation in alkaline solution. • Gold and gold-carbon nanoparticulate film electrodes exhibit similar glucose oxidation current and onset potential. - Abstract: Electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose was studied at nanoparticulate gold and gold-carbon film electrodes. These electrodes were prepared by a layer-by-layer method without application of any linker molecules. Gold nanoparticles were stabilized by undecane thiols functionalized by trimethyl ammonium or carboxylate groups, whereas the carbon nanoparticles were covered by phenylsulfonate functionalities. The gold nanoparticulate electrodes were characterized by UV-vis and XPS spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and voltammetry, before and after heat-treatment. Heat-treatment facilitates the aggregation of the nanoparticles and affects the structure of the film. The comparison of the results obtained with film electrodes prepared from gold nanoparticles with the same charge and with gold-carbon nanoparticulate electrodes, proved that positively charged nanoparticles are responsible for the high electrocatalytic activity, whereas negatively charged ones act rather as a linker of the film

  2. ZnO THIN FILMS PREPARED BY SPRAY-PYROLYSIS TECHNIQUE FROM ORGANO-METALLIC PRECURSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Mikulics

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Presented experiments utilize methanolic solution of zinc acetyl-acetonate as a precursor and sapphire (001 as a substrate for deposition of thin films of ZnO. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed polycrystalline character of prepared films with preferential growth orientation along c-axis. The roughness of prepared films was assessed by AFM microscopy and represented by roughness root mean square (RMS value in range of 1.8 - 433 nm. The surface morphology was mapped by scanning electron microscopy showing periodical structure with several local defects. The optical transmittance spectrum of ZnO films was measured in wavelength range of 200-1000 nm. Prepared films are transparent in visible range with sharp ultra-violet cut-off at approximately 370 nm. Raman spectroscopy confirmed wurtzite structure and the presence of compressive stress within its structure as well as the occurrence of oxygen vacancies. The four-point Van der Pauw method was used to study the transport prosperities. The resistivity of presented ZnO films was found 8 × 10–2 Ω cm with carrier density of 1.3 × 1018 cm–3 and electron mobility of 40 cm2 V–1 s–1.

  3. Development of polymer film dosage forms of lidocaine for buccal administration: II. Comparison of preparation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Hirokazu; Nakamori, Takahiko; Arakawa, Yotaro; Iida, Kotaro; Danjo, Kazumi

    2002-11-01

    In previous studies, we prepared film dosage forms of lidocaine (LC) with hydroxypropylcellulose (HPC) as a film base using the solvent evaporation (SE) method. However, from the viewpoint of environmental issues, a reduction in organic solvent use in pharmaceutical and other industries is required. In this study, we prepared the LC films by direct compression of the physical mixture (DCPM method) and direct compression of the spray dried powder (DCSD method). Magnesium stearate, which was required as a lubricant for direct compression, showed no effect on the LC release rate. The LC release rate (%/h) was independent of the compression pressure, but a higher pressure was preferable to easily remove the film from the punches. An increase in the film weight decreased the LC release rate expressed in %/h, whereas no significant effect of film weight was observed on the LC release rate from unit surface area expressed in mg/h/cm(2). The LC release rate (%/h) was independent of the LC content, suggesting that the LC release rate (mg/h) can be quantitatively controlled by changing the LC content in the formulation. The LC release rate and penetration rate were affected by the preparation method; that is, DCPM method dosage form. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmaceutical Association J Pharm Sci 91:2424-2432, 2002

  4. Selenium and Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Abedi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Selenium is an essential element for human health and it is toxic at high concentrations. Selenium is a constituent component of selenoproteins that have enzymatic and structural roles in human biochemistry. Selenium is a best antioxidant and catalyst for production of thyroid hormone. This element has the key role in the immune function; prevention of AIDS progression and the deactivity of toxins. Furthermore, selenium is essential for sperm motility and can reduce abortions. Selenium deficiency was also associated with adverse mood states. The findings regarding cardiovascular disease risk related to selenium deficiency is unclear, though other conditions such as vascular inflammation, oxidative stress and selenium deficiency can cause this disease too. Moreover, consuming of 60 mg of selenium per day may be associated with reduction of cancer risk. In this study, a review of studies has been performed on the biochemical function of selenium toxicity, and its effects on human health. Furthermore, certain identified cancers associated with selenium have been discussed to absorb more attention to the status of this element and also as a guide for further studies. Selenium plays the dual character (useful and harmful in human health, and then it is necessary to determine the concentration of this element in body fluids and tissues. An appropriate method for routine measurement of selenium in clinical laboratories is electro thermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS with very low detection limit and good precision.

  5. Preparation of membranes by radiation grafting of acrylic acid onto Teflon-FEP film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, B.D.

    1991-01-01

    The grafting of acrylic acid on radiation-peroxidised Teflon-FEP film provides an effective technique to prepare ion-exchange membranes. It was found that the grafted membranes have very high degree of swelling in aqueous KOH. The electric resistance of the film decreases considerably by grafting. An electric resistance of 0.2Ω cm 2 was obtained for a graft level beyond 58%. The hydrophilicity of the film was evaluated in terms of contact angle which shows a decreasing trend with the increasing degree of grafting. (author). 8 refs

  6. Preparation by thermal evaporation under vacuum of thin nickel films without support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prugne, P.; Garin, P.; Lechauguette, G.

    1959-01-01

    This note deals with the preparation of nickel films without support by means of the technique described but using a new evaporation apparatus. In effect it was necessary, in order to obtain these nickel films, to modify the thermal evaporation conditions. An attempt to obtain a film without support after evaporation in a conventional apparatus led almost invariably to defeat. This appeared to be due to the high concentration of oxygen and of various vapors (diffusion pumps, degassing, etc.) present in the residual atmosphere of the conventional evaporation system. Reprint of a paper published in 'Le Vide, N. 74, March-April 1958, p. 82-83

  7. SERS spectra of pyridine adsorbed on nickel film prepared by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Daoyong; Ouyang, Yu; Chen, Li; Cao, Weiran; Shi, Shaohua

    2011-02-01

    As a repeating well and cheaper enhancement substrate, the nickel film was fabricated with magnetron sputtering coating instrument. Surface enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) of pyridine adsorbed on this nickel film are compared with the experimental values of gaseous pyridine, the theoretical value of pyridine solution listed in other literatures and our method is better than electro-chemical etching electrode method for large scale preparation. The enhancement factor of the nickel film is calculated and the result indicates that magnetron sputtering coating technology is feasible for obtaining good SERS active surface.

  8. Development of new releasing agents for preparation of thin self-supporting target films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugai, I; Takaku, S; Hasegawa, T [Tokyo Univ., Tanashi (Japan). Inst. for Nuclear Study

    1978-06-01

    Several kinds of materials were examined for the usefulness as releasing agents in the preparation of various thin self-supporting target films for use in nuclear reaction experiments. NaCl, BaCl/sub 2/, KCl, CsI, Teepol, glucose, KIO/sub 3/, mica, nitrocellulose of Formvar was deposited onto glass plates as the release agent by vacuum evaporation or dipping method. The obtained target film was tested on impurities from the release agent by using nuclear reactions. The relative effectiveness of each release agent was also considered from ease in the stripping of target films.

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Nicke-iron Alloy Film as Freestanding Electrode for Oxygen Evolution Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Mengqi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work reports the porous nicke-iron alloy film supported on stainless steel mesh as freestanding electrode for enhanced oxygen evolution reaction (OER catalyst prepared from an one step electrodeposition method. Results indicated that the porous nickle-iron alloy film exhibits a low overpotential of 270 mV at 10 mA cm-2 and excellent electroconductibility. The superior OER properties can be attributed to its novel synthetic process, conductive substrate and porous structure. This work will provide a new strategy to fabricate alloy film for OER electrocatalyst.

  10. Development of new releasing agents for preparation of thin self-supporting target films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugai, Isao; Takaku, Seisaku; Hasegawa, Takeo

    1978-01-01

    Several kinds of materials were examined for the usefulness as releasing agents in the preparation of various thin self-supporting target films for use in nuclear reaction experiments. NaCl, BaCl 2 , KCl, CsI, Teepol, glucose, KIO 3 , mica, nitrocellulose of Formvar was deposited onto glass plates as the release agent by vacuum evaporation or dipping method. The obtained target film was tested on impurities from the release agent by using nuclear reactions. The relative effectiveness of each release agent was also considered from ease in the stripping of target films. (auth.)

  11. Chalcopyrite CuInSe2 films prepared by reactive sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lommasson, T.C.; Burnett, A.F.; Chou, L.H.; Thornton, J.A.; Kim, M.

    1987-01-01

    Polycrystalline films of CuInSe 2 have been prepared on glass substrates by reactive cosputtering from Cu and In planar magnetron targets using Ar-H 2 Se as a working gas. The film compositions were close to the Cu 2 Se-In 2 Se 3 tie-line of the ternary phase diagram with Cu/In ratios ranging from 0.75 to about 2. This paper reports on measurements of the structural, electronic and optical properties of the films. The coatings on the Cu-rich side of the stoichiometric composition were characterized by a columnar structure with an uneven surface topography

  12. Preparation and application of agar/alginate/collagen ternary blend functional food packaging films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Long-Feng; Rhim, Jong-Whan

    2015-09-01

    Ternary blend agar/alginate/collagen (A/A/C) hydrogel films with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and grapefruit seed extract (GSE) were prepared. Their performance properties, transparency, tensile strength (TS), water vapor permeability (WVP), water contact angle (CA), water swelling ratio (SR), water solubility (WS), and antimicrobial activity were determined. The A/A/C film was highly transparent, and both AgNPs and GSE incorporated blend films (A/A/C(AgNPs) and A/A/C(GSE)) exhibited UV-screening effect, especially, the A/A/C(GSE) film had high UV-screening effect without sacrificing the transmittance. In addition, the A/A/C blend films formed efficient hydrogel film with the water holding capacity of 23.6 times of their weight. Both A/A/C(AgNPs) and A/A/C(GSE) composite films exhibited strong antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) food-borne pathogenic bacteria. The test results of fresh potatoes packaging revealed that all the A/A/C ternary blend films prevented forming of condensed water on the packaged film surface, both A/A/C(AgNPs) and A/A/C(GSE) composite films prevented greening of potatoes during storage. The results indicate that the ternary blend hydrogel films incorporated with AgNPs or GSE can be used not only as antifogging packaging films for highly respiring fresh agriculture produce, but also as an active food packaging system utilizing their strong antimicrobial activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Preparation of anatase TiO{sub 2} thin films by vacuum arc plasma evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyata, Toshihiro [Optoelectronic Device System R and D Center, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, 7-1 Ohgigaoka, Nonoichi, Ishikawa 921-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: tmiyata@neptune.kanazawa-it.ac.jp; Tsukada, Satoshi [Optoelectronic Device System R and D Center, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, 7-1 Ohgigaoka, Nonoichi, Ishikawa 921-8501 (Japan); Minami, Tadatsugu [Optoelectronic Device System R and D Center, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, 7-1 Ohgigaoka, Nonoichi, Ishikawa 921-8501 (Japan)

    2006-02-01

    Anatase titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) thin films with high photocatalytic activity have been prepared with deposition rates as high as 16 nm/min by a newly developed vacuum arc plasma evaporation (VAPE) method using sintered TiO{sub 2} pellets as the source material. Highly transparent TiO{sub 2} thin films prepared at substrate temperatures from room temperature to 400 deg. C exhibited photocatalytic activity, regardless whether oxygen (O{sub 2}) gas was introduced during the VAPE deposition. The highest photocatalytic activity and photo-induced hydrophilicity were obtained in anatase TiO{sub 2} thin films prepared at 300 deg. C, which correlated to the best crystallinity of the films, as evidenced from X-ray diffraction. In addition, a transparent and conductive anatase TiO{sub 2} thin film with a resistivity of 2.6 x 10{sup -1} {omega} cm was prepared at a substrate temperature of 400 deg. C without the introduction of O{sub 2} gas.

  14. Antimicrobial Activity of Thin Solid Films of Silver Doped Hydroxyapatite Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Chapon, Patrick; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Predoi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were reported and their antimicrobial activity was characterized. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag:HAp) thin films coatings substrate was prepared on commercially pure Si disks by sol-gel method. The silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were characterized by various techniques such as Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy Dispersive X-ray attachment (X-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). These techniques have permitted the structural and chemical characterisation of the silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films. The antimicrobial effect of the Ag:HAp thin films on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was then investigated. This is the first study on the antimicrobial effect of Ag:HAp thin films obtained by sol-gel method. The results of this study have shown that the Ag:HAp thin films with x Ag = 0.5 are effective against E. coli and S. aureus after 24 h. PMID:24523630

  15. Regenerated cellulose/halloysite nanotube nanocomposite films prepared with an ionic liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soheilmoghaddam, Mohammad [Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor (Malaysia); Wahit, Mat Uzir, E-mail: mat.uzir@cheme.utm.my [Center for Composites, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), 81310 Skudai, Johor (Malaysia); Mahmoudian, Shaya [Department of Textile Engineering, Kashan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hanid, Nurbaiti Abdul [Department of Polymer Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM), Johor (Malaysia)

    2013-09-16

    Regenerated cellulose/halloysite nanotube (RC/HNT) nanocomposite films were successfully prepared in ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) using solution casting method. The structural, morphological, thermal and mechanical properties of RC/HNT nanocomposites were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a cellulose II crystalline structure and well dispersed HNT in RC/HNT nanocomposite films. At 6 wt.% HNT film, tensile strength and Young's modulus of RC films improved by 55.3% and 100%, respectively. Moisture absorption by the nanocomposites in an environment with 75% constant relative humidity was reduced by the addition of HNT to the RC. The presence of HNT enhanced the thermal stability and char yield of RC. The significant reinforcing effects of HNTs demonstrated that there is a possible interface interaction between cellulose and HNT which yielded better thermal and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite films as compared to pure RC. - Highlights: • The RC/HNT nanocomposite films were prepared via ionic liquid, BMIMCl. • XRD diffraction patterns and FESEM revealed well dispersed HNT in cellulose matrix. • The nanocomposite films exhibited excellent mechanical properties. • Moisture absorption and diffusion coefficient of RC reduced by HNT incorporation. • Addition of HNT enhanced thermal stability and activation energy of the RC.

  16. Regenerated cellulose/halloysite nanotube nanocomposite films prepared with an ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soheilmoghaddam, Mohammad; Wahit, Mat Uzir; Mahmoudian, Shaya; Hanid, Nurbaiti Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Regenerated cellulose/halloysite nanotube (RC/HNT) nanocomposite films were successfully prepared in ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) using solution casting method. The structural, morphological, thermal and mechanical properties of RC/HNT nanocomposites were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a cellulose II crystalline structure and well dispersed HNT in RC/HNT nanocomposite films. At 6 wt.% HNT film, tensile strength and Young's modulus of RC films improved by 55.3% and 100%, respectively. Moisture absorption by the nanocomposites in an environment with 75% constant relative humidity was reduced by the addition of HNT to the RC. The presence of HNT enhanced the thermal stability and char yield of RC. The significant reinforcing effects of HNTs demonstrated that there is a possible interface interaction between cellulose and HNT which yielded better thermal and mechanical properties of the nanocomposite films as compared to pure RC. - Highlights: • The RC/HNT nanocomposite films were prepared via ionic liquid, BMIMCl. • XRD diffraction patterns and FESEM revealed well dispersed HNT in cellulose matrix. • The nanocomposite films exhibited excellent mechanical properties. • Moisture absorption and diffusion coefficient of RC reduced by HNT incorporation. • Addition of HNT enhanced thermal stability and activation energy of the RC

  17. Antimony sulfide thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaji, S.; Garcia, L.V.; Loredo, S.L.; Krishnan, B.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Antimony sulfide thin films were prepared by normal CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • These films were photoconductive. - Abstract: Antimony sulfide (Sb_2S_3) thin films were prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD) technique. These thin films were deposited on glass substrates from a chemical bath containing antimony chloride, acetone and sodium thiosulfate under various conditions of normal chemical bath deposition (CBD) as well as in-situ irradiation of the chemical bath using a continuous laser of 532 nm wavelength. Structure, composition, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the Sb_2S_3 thin films produced by normal CBD and LACBD were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectroscopy and Photoconductivity. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain Sb_2S_3 thin films for optoelectronic applications.

  18. Antimicrobial activity of thin solid films of silver doped hydroxyapatite prepared by sol-gel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iconaru, Simona Liliana; Chapon, Patrick; Le Coustumer, Philippe; Predoi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were reported and their antimicrobial activity was characterized. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag:HAp) thin films coatings substrate was prepared on commercially pure Si disks by sol-gel method. The silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were characterized by various techniques such as Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy Dispersive X-ray attachment (X-EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). These techniques have permitted the structural and chemical characterisation of the silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films. The antimicrobial effect of the Ag:HAp thin films on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was then investigated. This is the first study on the antimicrobial effect of Ag:HAp thin films obtained by sol-gel method. The results of this study have shown that the Ag:HAp thin films with x(Ag) = 0.5 are effective against E. coli and S. aureus after 24 h.

  19. Antimicrobial Activity of Thin Solid Films of Silver Doped Hydroxyapatite Prepared by Sol-Gel Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Liliana Iconaru

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the preparation and characterization of silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were reported and their antimicrobial activity was characterized. Silver doped hydroxyapatite (Ag:HAp thin films coatings substrate was prepared on commercially pure Si disks by sol-gel method. The silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films were characterized by various techniques such as Scanning electron microscopy (SEM with energy Dispersive X-ray attachment (X-EDS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES. These techniques have permitted the structural and chemical characterisation of the silver doped hydroxyapatite thin films. The antimicrobial effect of the Ag:HAp thin films on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was then investigated. This is the first study on the antimicrobial effect of Ag:HAp thin films obtained by sol-gel method. The results of this study have shown that the Ag:HAp thin films with xAg=0.5 are effective against E. coli and S. aureus after 24 h.

  20. Antimony sulfide thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); CIIDIT—Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); Garcia, L.V. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); Loredo, S.L. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Unidad Monterrey, PIIT, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); CIIDIT—Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); and others

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Antimony sulfide thin films were prepared by normal CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • These films were photoconductive. - Abstract: Antimony sulfide (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films were prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD) technique. These thin films were deposited on glass substrates from a chemical bath containing antimony chloride, acetone and sodium thiosulfate under various conditions of normal chemical bath deposition (CBD) as well as in-situ irradiation of the chemical bath using a continuous laser of 532 nm wavelength. Structure, composition, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films produced by normal CBD and LACBD were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectroscopy and Photoconductivity. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films for optoelectronic applications.

  1. High quality antireflective ZnS thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tec-Yam, S.; Rojas, J.; Rejón, V.; Oliva, A.I.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films for antireflective applications were deposited on glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD). Chemical analysis of the soluble species permits to predict the optimal pH conditions to obtain high quality ZnS films. For the CBD, the ZnCl 2 , NH 4 NO 3 , and CS(NH 2 ) 2 were fixed components, whereas the KOH concentration was varied from 0.8 to 1.4 M. Groups of samples with deposition times from 60 to 120 min were prepared in a bath with magnetic agitation and heated at 90 °C. ZnS films obtained from optimal KOH concentrations of 0.9 M and 1.0 M exhibited high transparency, homogeneity, adherence, and crystalline. The ZnS films presented a band gap energy of 3.84 eV, an atomic Zn:S stoichiometry ratio of 49:51, a transmittance above 85% in the 300–800 nm wavelength range, and a reflectance below 25% in the UV–Vis range. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed a cubic structure in the (111) orientation for the films. The thickness of the films was tuned between 60 nm and 135 nm by controlling the deposition time and KOH concentration. The incorporation of the CBD-ZnS films into ITO/ZnS/CdS/CdTe and glass/Mo/ZnS heterostructures as antireflective layer confirms their high optical quality. -- Highlights: ► High quality ZnS thin films were prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD). ► Better CBD-ZnS films were achieved by using 0.9 M-KOH concentration. ► Reduction in the reflectance was obtained for ZnS films used as buffer layers.

  2. Preparation and characterization of nanodiamond cores coated with a thin Ni-Zn-P alloy film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Rui; Ye Weichun; Ma Chuanli; Wang Chunming

    2008-01-01

    Nanodiamond cores coated with a thin Ni-Zn-P alloy film were prepared by an electroless deposition method under the conditions of tin chloride sensitization and palladium chloride activation. The prepared materials were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The nanostructure of the materials was then characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The alloy film composition was characterized by Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The results indicated the approximate composition 49.84%Ni-37.29%Zn-12.88%P was obtained

  3. Preparation and tribological tests of thin fluoroorganic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichomski, M.; Grobelny, J.; Celichowski, G.

    2008-01-01

    Adhesion, friction and consequent wear of sliding surfaces are the basic problems that limit the performance and reliability of microelectromechanical devices. Lubrication of these nano- and microscale contacts is different from traditional lubricants. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) chemically bonded to the substrate are considered to be the best solution of lubrication. The majority of these monolayers are hydrophobic providing low friction, adhesion and wear. Chemical vapor deposition was used to grow a fluorosilane film on silicon Si(1 0 0) and a condensed monolayer of 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) on Au(1 1 1). The films were characterized by means of a contact angle analyzer for hydrophobicity, and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) for identification of thin fluoroorganic monolayers deposited on silica surfaces and condensed monolayer MPTMS. Adhesion and friction measurements were performed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and compared with measurements performed using a microtribometer operating in millinewton (mN) normal load range. Nanotribological measurements indicated that silica and MPTMS modified by fluorosilanes have the lowest friction coefficient and indicated a decrease friction coefficient with increasing fluoric alkyl chain length

  4. Cathodic electrodeposition of CuInSe sub 2 thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen, C; Galiano, E; Herrero, J [Inst. de Energias Renovables (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain)

    1991-01-01

    In order to study the preparation process of CuInSe{sub 2} thin films by a one-step electrodeposition method, thin films of the compound were prepared from aqueous citric acid (C{sub 6}H{sub 8}O{sub 7} . H{sub 2}O) plating baths onto titanium substrates. During electrodeposition, the bath composition and deposition potential were changed to obtain stoichiometric thin films. In general, close to stoichiometry, layers rich in selenium were observed, and this excess of selenium was removed after heat treatment. Best quality films were obtained after annealing at 400deg C during 15 min. X-ray diffraction showed the formation of CuInSe{sub 2} films, the chalcopyrite structure, at heating treatment temperatures higher than 350deg C. Optical measurements showed that the band gap of the deposited material was 0.99 eV. (orig.).

  5. Preparation of PZT thin films on YBCO electrodes by KrF excimer laser ablation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurogi, H.; Yamagata, Y.; Ebihara, K.

    1998-01-01

    Pb(Zr X Ti 1-X )O 3 (PZT) films have excellent ferroelectric, optical, piezoelectric, and pyroelectric properties. We prepared PZT thin films by the excimer laser ablation technique. A pulsed KrF excimer laser (Lambda Physik LPX305icc, pulse duration of 25 ns, λ=248 nm, 850 mJ Max.) was used to ablate the bulk targets. We investigated the influence of bottom electrode materials on the characteristics of the PZT thin films prepared on Pt and YBCO underlayers. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the PZT films prepared with a laser fluence of 2 Jcm -2 on YBCO/MgO(100) substrate at a wide temperature range of 550-680 C have a perovskite (001) structure. At the same laser fluence, the PZT films prepared on Pt/MgO(100) substrate have a perovskite (001) structure only at 650 C. The polarization-electric field (P-E) characteristics and fatigue properties of PZT thin films were measured by the Sawyer-Tower circuit. The remnant polarization and coercive field have been found to be P r =15 μC cm -2 , 30 μC cm -2 and E c =200 kV cm -1 , 100 kV cm -1 for Au/PZT/Pt/MgO and Au/PZT/YBCO/MgO correspondingly. The remnant polarization of Au/PZT/YBCO/MgO thin film was reduced to one-half after about 10 8 cycles of switching. (orig.)

  6. Preparation of PZT thin films on YBCO electrodes by KrF excimer laser ablation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurogi, H; Yamagata, Y; Ebihara, K [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Electr. Eng. and Comput. Sci.; Inoue, N [Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc., Suizenji, 1-6-36, Kumamoto 862 (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Pb(Zr{sub X}Ti{sub 1-X})O{sub 3} (PZT) films have excellent ferroelectric, optical, piezoelectric, and pyroelectric properties. We prepared PZT thin films by the excimer laser ablation technique. A pulsed KrF excimer laser (Lambda Physik LPX305icc, pulse duration of 25 ns, {lambda}=248 nm, 850 mJ Max.) was used to ablate the bulk targets. We investigated the influence of bottom electrode materials on the characteristics of the PZT thin films prepared on Pt and YBCO underlayers. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the PZT films prepared with a laser fluence of 2 Jcm{sup -2} on YBCO/MgO(100) substrate at a wide temperature range of 550-680 C have a perovskite (001) structure. At the same laser fluence, the PZT films prepared on Pt/MgO(100) substrate have a perovskite (001) structure only at 650 C. The polarization-electric field (P-E) characteristics and fatigue properties of PZT thin films were measured by the Sawyer-Tower circuit. The remnant polarization and coercive field have been found to be P{sub r}=15 {mu}C cm{sup -2}, 30 {mu}C cm{sup -2} and E{sub c}=200 kV cm{sup -1}, 100 kV cm{sup -1} for Au/PZT/Pt/MgO and Au/PZT/YBCO/MgO correspondingly. The remnant polarization of Au/PZT/YBCO/MgO thin film was reduced to one-half after about 10{sup 8} cycles of switching. (orig.) 7 refs.

  7. Preparation, characterization and evaluation of drug-delivery systems: Pectin and mefenamic acid films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, R.B. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Rodovia MT-100, Km 3,5, Barra do Garças, MT CEP 78600-000 (Brazil); Teixeira, J.A. [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, MT CEP 78060-900 (Brazil); Furuyama-Lima, A.M. [Universidade Estadual Paulista, IBILCE, São José do Rio Preto, SP CEP 15054-000 (Brazil); Souza, N.C. de [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Rodovia MT-100, Km 3,5, Barra do Garças, MT CEP 78600-000 (Brazil); Siqueira, A.B., E-mail: buzutti@cpd.ufmt.br [Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso, Rodovia MT-100, Km 3,5, Barra do Garças, MT CEP 78600-000 (Brazil)

    2014-08-20

    Highlights: • The films were prepared and characterized by FTIR, TG–DSC/FTIR and AFM microscopy. • The results provided information on the composition, dehydration, thermal stability, thermal decomposition. • DSC results of CaHCl shows two overlapping endothermic peaks. • The AFM image shows great similarity for A5 and A6 films. • A5 and A6 films functioned well as a topical delivery system. - Abstract: Mefenamic acid (H-Mef) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Various adhesive dosage forms of NSAIDs have been developed, which include adhesive tablets, gels, ointments, patches and more recently, polymeric films. The objective of this study was the development of H-Mef adhesive films to be used as a drug-delivery system with different ratios of pectin and calcium chloride dihydrate by the casting technique. The materials were characterized by TG–DSC coupled FTIR, AFM (atomic force microscopy) and spectroscopic techniques. The results provided information about the dehydration, film roughness, surface morphology, thermal decomposition, as well as identification of gaseous products evolved during thermal decomposition. The characterizations indicated the A5 and A6 films functioned well, with 99% H-Mef released within 15 min at pH 5, suggesting these degradable films could be used as a topical delivery system.

  8. Universal biomimetic preparation and immobilization of layered double hydroxide films and adsorption behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Wenpeng; Chen, Zilin

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • An in situ method is developed for immobilization of nanoscale LDHs. • The universal method can be applied on multiple substrates. • The homogeneous LDHs film can be synthesis and immobilized in one step. • The LDHs film showed good adsorption performance towards anionic compounds. - Abstract: Preparation and immobilization of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) film onto multiple substrates is important and challenging in functional materials fields by date. In this work, a simple and universal polydopamine (PD)-based layer-by-layer assembly strategy was developed for the immobilization of LDHs film onto surfaces such as polypropylene chip, glass slides and metal coins. The surface of substrates was firstly modified by polydopamine functionalization, and then LDHs film was synthesized via urea method and directly immobilized on the PD layer by in situ growing strategy in one step. The PD layer as well as the final LDHs film was characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction pattern and X-ray photoelectron spectra. It has been demonstrated the formation of the dense and homogeneous nanoscaled LDHs film with 400 nm thickness. Adsorption behavior of the fabricated NiAl-LDHs film toward anionic dyes and pharmaceuticals was further assessed. To demonstrate their extensive application, fast and high efficient adsorption of anionic dyes and pharmaceuticals was achieved by NiAl-LDHs-modified polypropylene centrifugal tube.

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Blended Films from Quaternized Hemicelluloses and Carboxymethyl Cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xian-Ming; Liu, Shi-Yun; Chu, Fang-Bing; Pang, Shuai; Liang, Yan-Ru; Guan, Ying; Peng, Feng; Sun, Run-Cang

    2015-01-01

    Utilization of hemicelluloses from biomass energy is an important approach to explore renewable resources. A convenient, quick, and inexpensive method for the preparation of blended films from quaternized hemicelluloses (QH) and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) was introduced into this study. QH and CMC solution were first mixed to form homogeneous suspension, and then were dried under vacuum to fabricate the blended films. The FT-IR and XRD results indicated that the linkage between QH and CMC was due to the hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interaction. From the results of mechanical properties and water vapor permeability (WVP), the tensile strength of the blended films increased with the QH/CMC content ratio increasing in appropriate range, and the WVP of the blended films decreased. The maximum value of tensile strength of blend film achieved was 27.4 MPa. In addition, the transmittances of the blended films increased with the decreasing of QH/CMC content ratio. When the weight ratio (QH: CMC) was 1:1.5, the blend film showed the best light transmittance (45%). All the results suggested that the blended films could be used in areas of application in the coating and packaging fields from the good tensile strength, transmittance, and low WVP. PMID:28787804

  10. Preparation and Characterization of Blended Films from Quaternized Hemicelluloses and Carboxymethyl Cellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Ming Qi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of hemicelluloses from biomass energy is an important approach to explore renewable resources. A convenient, quick, and inexpensive method for the preparation of blended films from quaternized hemicelluloses (QH and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC was introduced into this study. QH and CMC solution were first mixed to form homogeneous suspension, and then were dried under vacuum to fabricate the blended films. The FT-IR and XRD results indicated that the linkage between QH and CMC was due to the hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interaction. From the results of mechanical properties and water vapor permeability (WVP, the tensile strength of the blended films increased with the QH/CMC content ratio increasing in appropriate range, and the WVP of the blended films decreased. The maximum value of tensile strength of blend film achieved was 27.4 MPa. In addition, the transmittances of the blended films increased with the decreasing of QH/CMC content ratio. When the weight ratio (QH: CMC was 1:1.5, the blend film showed the best light transmittance (45%. All the results suggested that the blended films could be used in areas of application in the coating and packaging fields from the good tensile strength, transmittance, and low WVP.

  11. Preparation and characterization of sol-gel derived TiO2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Y.J.; Brungs, M.P.; Chaplin, R.P.; Sizgek, E.

    2001-01-01

    Crack-free transparent titania films have been prepared through a new sol-gel process combined with hydrogen peroxide treatment. Hydrogen peroxide and HCl were used to dissolve amorphous titania powder which is obtained by drying common sol-gel titania sol. The peroxo-titania sol produced a thicker film than the common sol-gel titania sol due to a higher degree of condensation. Film thickness could be further increased by controlled drying conditions of the amorphous titania powder or 'aging' the sol. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and chemical additives were effective in controlling condensation rate by preventing rapid condensation during curing of the film. When these two components were incorporated, it was possible to create a 0.5μm transparent film and PEG could also control the porosity of the film. The cured film was analysed by XRD and Raman spectroscopy. In order to measure the reflective index and thickness of the titania film, an ellipsometer was used. Copyright (2001) The Australian Ceramic Society

  12. Preparation and spectroscopic analysis of zinc oxide nanorod thin films of different thicknesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Nasrul Haque

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide thin films with different thicknesses were prepared on microscopic glass slides by sol-gel spin coating method, then hydrothermal process was applied to produce zinc oxide nanorod arrays. The nanorod thin films were characterized by various spectroscopic methods of analysis. From the images of field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, it was observed that for the film thickness up to 200 nm the formed nanorods with wurtzite hexagonal structure were uniformly distributed over the entire surface substrate. From X-ray diffraction analysis it was revealed that the thin films had good polycrystalline nature with highly preferred c-axis orientation along (0 0 2 plane. The optical characterization done by UV-Vis spectrometer showed that all the films had high transparency of 83 % to 96 % in the visible region and sharp cut off at ultraviolet region of electromagnetic spectrum. The band gap of the films decreased as their thickness increased. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS showed the presence of zinc and oxygen elements in the films and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR revealed the chemical composition of ZnO in the film.

  13. Preparation and water absorption of cross-linked chitosan/silk fibroin blend films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suesat, Jantip; Rujiravanit, Ratana [Chulalongkorn University, The Petroleum and Petrochemical College, Bangkok (Thailand); Jamieson, Alexander M. [Case Western Reserve Univ., Department of Macromolecular Science, Cleveland (United States); Tokura, Seiichi [Kansai Univ., Faculty of Engineering, Osaka (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    Natural polymer blend films composed of chitosan and silk fibroin were prepared by varying the ratio of chitosan to silk fibroin, with and without glutaraldehyde as a crosslinking agent. The effects of the ratio of chitosan to silk fibroin and crosslinking agent on swelling behavior of the blend films were studied. For the swelling behavior, the blend films exhibited a dramatic change in the degree of swelling when immersed in acidic solutions. The degree of swelling of the films increased as the chitosan content increased; the blend film with 80% chitosan content had the maximum degree of swelling. It appeared that crosslinking had occurred in the blend films which helped the films to retain their three dimensional structure. In addition, FTIR spectra of the films showed evidence of hydrogen bonding interaction between chitosan and silk fibroin. For the effect of salt type, the films were immersed in various types of aqueous salt solutions, viz NaCl, LiCl, CaCl{sub 2}, AlCl{sub 3}, and FeCl{sub 3}. The films immersed in AlCl{sub 3} and FeCl{sub 3} aqueous solutions gave the maximum degree of swelling. The effects of AlCl{sub 3} and FeCl{sub 3} concentrations on swelling behavior were also investigated. It was found that the maximum degree of swelling of the films occurred at 1.0 x 10{sup -2} M of AlCl{sub 3} and FeCl{sub 3} aqueous solutions. (author)

  14. Reaction kinetics for preparation of silica film with Stoeber method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Mengying; Jiang Xiaodong; Liu Miao; Luo Xuan; Tang Yongjian; Cao Linhong

    2013-01-01

    A new formula was proposed to investigate the relationship between reaction time and tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) conversion rate for preparation of silica sol with Stöber method, by studying the reaction kinetics of TEOS hydrolytic process. An appropriate conversion rate was then determined and used to calculate the theoretical optimal reaction time. Meanwhile, silica sols were prepared by sol-gel process using TEOS as precursor and ammonia as catalyst. It was found that the reaction time decreases with an increasing amount of ammonia and water. The values of experimental optimal reaction time were obtained, and agree with the theoretical results (the errors are within 5%), which shows good applicability of our formula. (authors)

  15. Composition and microstructure of beryllium carbide films prepared by thermal MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yu-dan; Luo, Jiang-shan; Li, Jia; Meng, Ling-biao; Luo, Bing-chi; Zhang, Ji-qiang; Zeng, Yong; Wu, Wei-dong, E-mail: wuweidongding@163.com

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Non-columnar-crystal Be{sub 2}C films were firstly prepared by thermal MOCVD. • Beryllium carbide was always the dominant phase in the films. • α-Be and carbon existed in films deposited below and beyond 400 °C, respectively. • Morphology evolved with temperatures and no columnar grains were characterized. • The preferred substrate temperature for depositing high quality Be{sub 2}C films was 400 °C. - Abstract: Beryllium carbide films without columnar-crystal microstructures were prepared on the Si (1 0 0) substrate by thermal metal organic chemical vapor deposition using diethylberyllium as precursor. The influence of the substrate temperature on composition and microstructure of beryllium carbide films was systematically studied. Crystalline beryllium carbide is always the dominant phase according to XRD analysis. Meanwhile, a small amount of α-Be phase exists in films when the substrate temperature is below 400 °C, and hydrocarbon or amorphous carbon exists when the temperature is beyond 400 °C. Surfaces morphology shows transition from domes to cylinders, to humps, and to tetraquetrous crystalline needles with the increase of substrate temperature. No columnar grains are characterized throughout the thickness as revealed from the cross-section views. The average densities of these films are determined to be 2.04–2.17 g/cm{sup 3}. The findings indicate the substrate temperature has great influences on the composition and microstructure of the Be{sub 2}C films grown by thermal MOCVD.

  16. Characterization of cobalt oxide thin films prepared by a facile spray pyrolysis technique using perfume atomizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louardi, A.; Rmili, A.; Ouachtari, F.; Bouaoud, A. [Laboratoire des Hautes Energies, Sciences de l' Ingenierie et Reacteurs (LHESIR), Equipe Ingenierie et Materiaux (INMA), Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco); Elidrissi, B., E-mail: e.bachir@mailcity.com [Laboratoire des Hautes Energies, Sciences de l' Ingenierie et Reacteurs (LHESIR), Equipe Ingenierie et Materiaux (INMA), Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco); Erguig, H. [Laboratoire des Hautes Energies, Sciences de l' Ingenierie et Reacteurs (LHESIR), Equipe Ingenierie et Materiaux (INMA), Departement de Physique, Faculte des Sciences, Kenitra (Morocco)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films show a micro porous structure. > Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} thin films are formed with spherical grains less than 50 nm in diameter. > The porous structure of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} films is expected to have promising application in electrochromism. - Abstract: Cobalt oxide (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}) thin films were prepared by a facile spray pyrolysis technique using perfume atomizer from aqueous solution of hydrated cobalt chloride salt (CoCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O) as source of cobalt. The films were deposited onto the amorphous glass substrates kept at different temperatures (300-500 deg. C). The influences of molar concentration of the starting solution and substrate temperature on the structural, morphological and optical properties of (Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}) thin films were studied. It was found from X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis that the films prepared with molar concentration greater than 0.025 M/L were polycrystalline spinel type cubic structure. The preferred orientation of the crystallites of these films changes gradually from (6 2 2) to (1 1 1) when the substrate temperature increases. By Raman spectroscopy, five Raman active modes characteristic of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} spinel type cubic structure were found and identified at 194, 484, 522, 620 and 691 cm{sup -1}. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed micro porous structure with very fine grains less than 50 nm in diameter. These films exhibited also a transmittance value of about 70% in the visible and infra red range.

  17. Preparation and characterization of porous carbon–titania nanocomposite films as solar selective absorbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, B.; Wang, K.K.; Wang, K.P.; Li, M.; Jiang, W.; Cong, B.J.; Song, C.L.; Jia, S.H.; Han, G.R.; Liu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The nanocomposites porous C/TiO 2 film were fabricated via PIPS method. • The HRTEM reveals the size of carbon nanoparticles is about 1.1 nm. • The PVP advantages residual carbon content but suppresses its crystallization. • The film exhibits high α (0.928–0.959) with low ε (0.074–0.105) for single layer. - Abstract: Newly proposed selective solar absorbers of porous carbon–titania nanocomposite films with a well-defined interconnected macropores structure were prepared via a polymer-assisted photopolymerization-induced phase-separation method. The microstructure and optical properties of as-deposited nanocomposite films were characterized and discussed in detail. The results show that non-ionic water-soluble polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone works as a sol modifier advantaging the mean size of the interconnected macropores, residual carbon content, and films thickness, but suppresses the order degree of the carbon remained in the films. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that a small amount of graphite particles with size of around 1.1 nm embedded in the cavity of the porous while the wall of the porous consists of amorphous carbon and titania composites. The single layer of as-prepared porous C/TiO 2 nanocomposite films exhibits high solar absorptance (α = 0.928–0.959) with low thermal emittance (ε = 0.074–0.105), yielding an optimized photothermal conversion efficiency η = α − ε of 0.864 corresponding to a film thickness of around 338 nm, indication of such film is fair enough to serve as an excellent solar absorber

  18. Textured surface structures formed using new techniques on transparent conducting Al-doped zinc oxide films prepared by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Tadatsugu; Miyata, Toshihiro; Uozaki, Ryousuke; Sai, Hitoshi; Koida, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Surface-textured Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films formed using two new techniques based on magnetron sputtering deposition were developed by optimizing the light scattering properties to be suitable for transparent electrode applications in thin-film silicon solar cells. Scrambled egg-like surface-textured AZO films were prepared using a new texture formation technique that post-etched pyramidal surface-textured AZO films prepared under deposition conditions suppressing c-axis orientation. In addition, double surface-textured AZO films were prepared using another new texture formation technique that completely removed, by post-etching, the pyramidal surface-textured AZO films previously prepared onto the initially deposited low resistivity AZO films; simultaneously, the surface of the low resistivity films was slightly etched. However, the obtained very high haze value in the range from the near ultraviolet to visible light in the scrambled egg-like surface-textured AZO films did not contribute significantly to the obtainable photovoltaic properties in the solar cells fabricated using the films. Significant light scattering properties as well as a low sheet resistance could be achieved in the double surface-textured AZO films. In addition, a significant improvement of external quantum efficiency in the range from the near ultraviolet to visible light was achieved in superstrate-type n-i-p μc-Si:H solar cells fabricated using a double surface-textured AZO film prepared under optimized conditions as the transparent electrode. - Highlights: • Double surface-textured AZO films prepared using a new texture formation technique • Extensive light scattering properties with low sheet resistance achieved in the double surface-textured AZO films • Improved external quantum efficiency of μc-Si:H solar cells using a double surface-textured AZO film

  19. Textured surface structures formed using new techniques on transparent conducting Al-doped zinc oxide films prepared by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minami, Tadatsugu [Optoelectronic Device System R& D Center, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Nonoichi, Ishikawa 921-8501 (Japan); Miyata, Toshihiro, E-mail: tmiyata@neptune.kanazawa-it.ac.jp [Optoelectronic Device System R& D Center, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Nonoichi, Ishikawa 921-8501 (Japan); Uozaki, Ryousuke [Optoelectronic Device System R& D Center, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Nonoichi, Ishikawa 921-8501 (Japan); Sai, Hitoshi; Koida, Takashi [Research Center for Photovoltaics, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan)

    2016-09-01

    Surface-textured Al-doped ZnO (AZO) films formed using two new techniques based on magnetron sputtering deposition were developed by optimizing the light scattering properties to be suitable for transparent electrode applications in thin-film silicon solar cells. Scrambled egg-like surface-textured AZO films were prepared using a new texture formation technique that post-etched pyramidal surface-textured AZO films prepared under deposition conditions suppressing c-axis orientation. In addition, double surface-textured AZO films were prepared using another new texture formation technique that completely removed, by post-etching, the pyramidal surface-textured AZO films previously prepared onto the initially deposited low resistivity AZO films; simultaneously, the surface of the low resistivity films was slightly etched. However, the obtained very high haze value in the range from the near ultraviolet to visible light in the scrambled egg-like surface-textured AZO films did not contribute significantly to the obtainable photovoltaic properties in the solar cells fabricated using the films. Significant light scattering properties as well as a low sheet resistance could be achieved in the double surface-textured AZO films. In addition, a significant improvement of external quantum efficiency in the range from the near ultraviolet to visible light was achieved in superstrate-type n-i-p μc-Si:H solar cells fabricated using a double surface-textured AZO film prepared under optimized conditions as the transparent electrode. - Highlights: • Double surface-textured AZO films prepared using a new texture formation technique • Extensive light scattering properties with low sheet resistance achieved in the double surface-textured AZO films • Improved external quantum efficiency of μc-Si:H solar cells using a double surface-textured AZO film.

  20. Preparation and properties of a drug sustained-release hydrogel film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Ling; Yang Zhanshan; Yang Shuqin; Li Qinghua

    2009-01-01

    A hydrogel film of drug sustained-release was prepared to accelerate wound healing. The hydrogel films containing drug or not were prepared by the freezing and thawing process. Their properties such as the physicochemical property and the drug release behavior in vitro were studied. Effect of the freezing and thawing process on antimicrobial efficacy of the gentamicin was evaluated by diffusion method. The results indicate that swelling ratio of the hydrogel films freezed for 4h is 841.21% and their gel fraction, tensile strength and elongation at break is 96.10%, 0.222 MPa and 673.50% respectively. The antimicrobial efficacy of the gentamicin has no change. The hydrogel film contained gentamicin releases the antibiotic to peak during 6 h with the cumulative drug release rate of 59.57%. The drug releases continually up to the 5th day. The drug delivery conforms to Higuchi kinetic equation, and mechanism of the drug release is matrix diffusion. The results show that the hydrogel film prepared by the freezing and thawing process display satisfactory physicochemical properties and can be used as a drug delivery system. (authors)

  1. New challenge in the speciation of selenium. Measurement and production on nano selenium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokisch, J; Sztrik, A; Babka, B; Zommara, M; Daroczi, L [Debrecen University, Centre for Agricultural Sciences and Engineering, Debrecen (Hungary). Institute of Bio- and Environmental Energetics

    2009-07-01

    Complete text of publication follows. We have found that several species of probiotic bacteria also used in food industry for making yogurts is capable of producing spherical elemental selenium nanospheres having an average diameter in the range of 50-500 nm when 1-1000 mg/L selenium was added to the medium in the form of selenite ions. Elemental selenium produced thereby has a high degree of purity, is spherical, and its size and crystalline form depends on the bacterium species applied. We have found that some species of the probiotic yogurt bacteria (e.g. Bifidobacterium bifidum or Bifidobacterium longum) are capable of producing the grey crystalline form of elemental selenium which is so far unprecedented in the art for any bacteria capable of producing elemental selenium nanoparticles. Our finding, therefore, enables the first time the development of economical industrial bacterial fermentation based processes for the production of a high quality elemental selenium material comprising uniformly sized grey or red nanospheres having an average diameter in the range of 50-500 nm. The size and the crystalline form of the produced nanosized (50-500 nm) spherical particles is defined by the selected microorganism. This genetic pre-determination result in reproducible production of a material having individual characteristics which can be used in numerous fields of industry and research. The produced nano selenium could be a good raw material for a production of certified reference materials. The measurement of the produced elemental nanoselenium is a new challenge for the speciation analysis. A sample preparation and measurement method was developed and investigated for the analysis of different selenium forms by HPLC-AFS system. The atomic fluorescence (AFS) was a reliable and simple detection method for the elemental nano selenium. The elemental selenium can produce hydride in the system or can be converted to selenite with HCl/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} digestion.

  2. Freestanding films of crosslinked gold nanoparticles prepared via layer-by-layer spin-coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlicke, Hendrik; Schröder, Jan H.; Trebbin, Martin; Petrov, Alexey; Ijeh, Michael; Weller, Horst; Vossmeyer, Tobias

    2011-07-01

    A new, extremely efficient method for the fabrication of films comprised of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) crosslinked by organic dithiols is presented in this paper. The method is based on layer-by-layer spin-coating of both components, GNPs and crosslinker, and enables the deposition of films several tens of nanometers in thickness within a few minutes. X-ray diffraction and conductance measurements reveal the proper adjustment concentration of the crosslinker solution of the critical is in order to prevent the destabilization and coalescence of particles. UV/vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and conductivity measurements indicate that films prepared via layer-by-layer spin-coating are of comparable quality to coatings prepared via laborious layer-by-layer self-assembly using immersion baths. Because spin-coated films are not bound chemically to the substrate, they can be lifted-off by alkaline underetching and transferred onto 3d-electrodes to produce electrically addressable, freely suspended films. Comparative measurements of the sheet resistances indicate that the transfer process does not compromise the film quality.

  3. Freestanding films of crosslinked gold nanoparticles prepared via layer-by-layer spin-coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlicke, Hendrik; Schroeder, Jan H; Trebbin, Martin; Petrov, Alexey; Ijeh, Michael; Weller, Horst; Vossmeyer, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    A new, extremely efficient method for the fabrication of films comprised of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) crosslinked by organic dithiols is presented in this paper. The method is based on layer-by-layer spin-coating of both components, GNPs and crosslinker, and enables the deposition of films several tens of nanometers in thickness within a few minutes. X-ray diffraction and conductance measurements reveal the proper adjustment concentration of the crosslinker solution of the critical is in order to prevent the destabilization and coalescence of particles. UV/vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and conductivity measurements indicate that films prepared via layer-by-layer spin-coating are of comparable quality to coatings prepared via laborious layer-by-layer self-assembly using immersion baths. Because spin-coated films are not bound chemically to the substrate, they can be lifted-off by alkaline underetching and transferred onto 3d-electrodes to produce electrically addressable, freely suspended films. Comparative measurements of the sheet resistances indicate that the transfer process does not compromise the film quality.

  4. Multi-Directional Growth of Aligned Carbon Nanotubes Over Catalyst Film Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Kai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The structure of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs severely depends on the properties of pre-prepared catalyst films. Aiming for the preparation of precisely controlled catalyst film, atomic layer deposition (ALD was employed to deposit uniform Fe2O3 film for the growth of CNT arrays on planar substrate surfaces as well as the curved ones. Iron acetylacetonate and ozone were introduced into the reactor alternately as precursors to realize the formation of catalyst films. By varying the deposition cycles, uniform and smooth Fe2O3 catalyst films with different thicknesses were obtained on Si/SiO2 substrate, which supported the growth of highly oriented few-walled CNT arrays. Utilizing the advantage of ALD process in coating non-planar surfaces, uniform catalyst films can also be successfully deposited onto quartz fibers. Aligned few-walled CNTs can be grafted on the quartz fibers, and they self-organized into a leaf-shaped structure due to the curved surface morphology. The growth of aligned CNTs on non-planar surfaces holds promise in constructing hierarchical CNT architectures in future.

  5. Preparation and optical properties of gold-dispersed BaTiO3 thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kineri, T; Mori, M [TDK Corp., Tokyo (Japan). R and D Center; Kadono, K; Sakaguchi, T; Miya, M; Wakabayashi, H [Osaka National Research Inst., Osaka (Japan); Tsuchiya, T [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Industrial Science and Technology

    1993-12-01

    Recently, metal or semiconductor-doped glasses were widely studied because of their large resonant third-order nonlinearity. These glasses are utilized in an optical information field as all optical logic devices in the future. The gold-doped glass films or thin layers have a large third-order nonlinear susceptibility [chi] and are prepared by r.f. sputtering method, etc. The optical properties, particularly the refractive index or dielectric constant of the matrix, are very important for the optical nonlinearity of these materials. In this study, gold-dispersed BaTiO3 thin films and gold-dispersed SiO2 thin films are prepared using r.f. magnetron sputtering method, and the optical properties of the films are compared. The [chi] of the films are measured and the effect of the matrix of the films on [chi] is investigated. The headings in the paper are: Introduction, Experimental procedure, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion. 13 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Preparation of Nanocellulose Reinforced Chitosan Films, Cross-Linked by Adipic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouria Falamarzpour

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Adipic acid, an abundant and nontoxic compound, was used to dissolve and cross-link chitosan. After the preparation of chitosan films through casting technique, the in situ amidation reaction was performed at 80–100 °C as verified by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR. The reaction was accompanied by the release of water which was employed to investigate the reaction kinetics. Accordingly, the reaction rate followed the first-order model and Arrhenius equation, and the activation energy was calculated to be 18 kJ/mol. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the chitosan films were comprehensively studied. First, optimal curing conditions (84 °C, 93 min were introduced through a central composite design. In order to evaluate the effects of adipic acid, the mechanical properties of physically cross-linked (uncured, chemically cross-linked (cured, and uncross-linked (prepared by acetic acid films were compared. The use of adipic acid improved the tensile strength of uncured and chemically cross-linked films more than 60% and 113%, respectively. Finally, the effect of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs on the mechanical performance of cured films, in the presence of glycerol as a plasticizer, was investigated. The plasticized chitosan films reinforced by 5 wt % CNFs showed superior properties as a promising material for the development of chitosan-based biomaterials.

  7. Properties of pentacene-based films prepared using a heated tungsten mesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heya, Akira, E-mail: heya@eng.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Matsuo, Naoto

    2014-11-03

    A heated tungsten (W) mesh, set between a pentacene source and a substrate in a vacuum chamber, was used to prepare a bulk-phase pentacene film and a pentacene-based organic semiconductor film. Since the pentacene molecules come into contact with the heated W mesh before reaching the substrate, their thermal energy is increased prior to deposition. As the mesh temperature was increased from 23 to 1200 °C, the intensity ratio of bulk to thin-film phases increased from 0 to 9.7. Above 1300 °C there is a notable decomposition reaction, the products of which were identified as dihydropentacene, p-distrylbenzene, and 2,2′-dimethyl-1,1′-binaphthalene. These decomposed precursors are expected to provide a potential source of large graphene sheets and graphene nanoribbons. - Highlights: • Organic semiconductor films were prepared using pentacene, H{sub 2} gas, and heated W mesh. • The effect of mesh temperature on film deposition was observed. • Pentacene decomposition above 1300 °C provides graphene precursors. • A method is proposed for controlling the sheet resistance of organic films.

  8. Preparation of Nanocellulose Reinforced Chitosan Films, Cross-Linked by Adipic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falamarzpour, Pouria; Behzad, Tayebeh; Zamani, Akram

    2017-02-13

    Adipic acid, an abundant and nontoxic compound, was used to dissolve and cross-link chitosan. After the preparation of chitosan films through casting technique, the in situ amidation reaction was performed at 80-100 °C as verified by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR). The reaction was accompanied by the release of water which was employed to investigate the reaction kinetics. Accordingly, the reaction rate followed the first-order model and Arrhenius equation, and the activation energy was calculated to be 18 kJ/mol. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of the chitosan films were comprehensively studied. First, optimal curing conditions (84 °C, 93 min) were introduced through a central composite design. In order to evaluate the effects of adipic acid, the mechanical properties of physically cross-linked (uncured), chemically cross-linked (cured), and uncross-linked (prepared by acetic acid) films were compared. The use of adipic acid improved the tensile strength of uncured and chemically cross-linked films more than 60% and 113%, respectively. Finally, the effect of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) on the mechanical performance of cured films, in the presence of glycerol as a plasticizer, was investigated. The plasticized chitosan films reinforced by 5 wt % CNFs showed superior properties as a promising material for the development of chitosan-based biomaterials.

  9. Preparation of Ga-doped ZnO films by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering with cylindrical rotating target for thin film solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Beom-Ki; Lee, Tae-Il; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Park, Kang-Il; Ahn, Kyung-Jun; Park, Sung-Kee; Lee, Woong; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2011-01-01

    Applicability of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films for thin film solar cells (TFSCs) was investigated by preparing GZO films via pulsed dc magnetron sputtering (PDMS) with rotating target. The GZO films showed improved crystallinity and increasing degree of Ga doping with increasing thickness to a limit of 1000 nm. The films also fulfilled requirements for the transparent electrodes of TFSCs in terms of electrical and optical properties. Moreover, the films exhibited good texturing potential based on etching studies with diluted HCl, which yielded an improved light trapping capability without significant degradation in electrical propreties. It is therefore suggested that the surface-textured GZO films prepared via PDMS and etching are promising candidates for indium-free transparent electrodes for TFSCs.

  10. Preparation of Ga-doped ZnO films by pulsed dc magnetron sputtering with cylindrical rotating target for thin film solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Beom-Ki; Lee, Tae-Il; Park, Ji-Hyeon; Park, Kang-Il; Ahn, Kyung-Jun; Park, Sung-Kee; Lee, Woong; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2011-11-01

    Applicability of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films for thin film solar cells (TFSCs) was investigated by preparing GZO films via pulsed dc magnetron sputtering (PDMS) with rotating target. The GZO films showed improved crystallinity and increasing degree of Ga doping with increasing thickness to a limit of 1000 nm. The films also fulfilled requirements for the transparent electrodes of TFSCs in terms of electrical and optical properties. Moreover, the films exhibited good texturing potential based on etching studies with diluted HCl, which yielded an improved light trapping capability without significant degradation in electrical propreties. It is therefore suggested that the surface-textured GZO films prepared via PDMS and etching are promising candidates for indium-free transparent electrodes for TFSCs.

  11. Preparation of SiC thin films by ion beam technology and PECVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Changqing; Ren Congxin; Yang Lixin; Yan Jinlong; Zheng Zhihong; Zhou Zuyao; Chen Ping; Liu Xianghuai; Chen Xueliang

    1998-01-01

    The formation of β-SiC buried layers in p-type Si by ion beam methods is reported and a comparison of the results obtained under different experimental conditions is made. The preparation of amorphous SiC thin films by IBED is presented and the enhanced deposition of Xe + is found superior to that of Ar + . The work of synthesizing hydrogenated amorphous SiC films by RIBS and RIBAD is described with a discussion on the dependence of some physical parameters on the partial pressure ratio pCH 4 /pAr. Finally given is a brief introduction to a high quality α-SiC:H film which is prepared by PECVD and can exhibit green luminescence at room temperature

  12. Highly conducting p-type nanocrystalline silicon thin films preparation without additional hydrogen dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Chandralina; Das, Debajyoti

    2018-04-01

    Boron doped nanocrystalline silicon thin film has been successfully prepared at a low substrate temperature (250 °C) in planar inductively coupled RF (13.56 MHz) plasma CVD, without any additional hydrogen dilution. The effect of B2H6 flow rate on structural and electrical properties of the films has been studied. The p-type nc-Si:H films prepared at 5 ≤ B2H6 (sccm) ≤ 20 retains considerable amount of nanocrystallites (˜80 %) with high conductivity ˜101 S cm-1 and dominant crystallographic orientation which has been correlated with the associated increased ultra- nanocrystalline component in the network. Such properties together make the material significantly effective for utilization as p-type emitter layer in heterojunction nc-Si solar cells.

  13. Langmuir-Blodgett films prepared from pre-formed cholestanic liquid-crystalline polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tundo, P.; Hodge, P.; Valli, L.; Davis, F. (Venice Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Scienze Ambientali Lecce Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Scienza dei Materiali Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dep. of Chemistry)

    1992-01-01

    A series of alternating copolymers of maleic anhydride and a-olefins functionalized through different alkyl chains with cholestanic groups were synthetised and derivatives prepared by reactions of the anhydride residues with methanol, water, dimethylamine and morpholine, respectively. The same starting functionalized a-olefins were used to prepare other suitable compounds in order to correlate the features of the liquid-crystalline behaviour of the mesogenic cholestanic group with the stability of the forthcoming polymeric or not polymeric Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films. For some copolymers surface pressure against area per molecule isotherms are reported. In some multilayer (LB) films, the spacings between the layers were determined by the detection of BRAGG peaks by X-ray diffraction. The (LB) films of these polymers are closed packed, owing to either the polymeric skeleton or liquid-crystalline interaction.

  14. Orodispersible films in individualized pharmacotherapy : The development of a formulation for pharmacy preparations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Caroline; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Crediet, Stefan; Gerrits, Edwin; Lesschen, Marjan A.; Hinrichs, Wouter L.J.; Breitkreutz, Jörg; Frijlink, Henderik W.

    2015-01-01

    Orodispersible films (ODFs) are promising drug delivery systems for customized small scale pharmacy preparations. The aim of the present study was to develop a versatile casting solution suitable for the extemporaneous production of ODFs to which active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) can be

  15. Energy barriers in nanometer sized magnetic islands prepared from alloyed and multilayered Co/Pt films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abelmann, Leon; de Vries, Jeroen; Bolhuis, Thijs; Kikuchi, Nobuaki

    2014-01-01

    By means of Anomalous Hall Effect measurements, we investigated the thermal switching field distribution of individual magnetic thin film circular elements with out-of-plane easy axis in a temperature range from 10K to 300K. We compared this behavior for elements prepared from either Co80Pt20

  16. Facile preparation of optically transparent and hydrophobic cellulose nanofibril composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan Qing; Zhiyong Cai; Yiqiang Wu; Chunhua Yao; Qinglin Wu; Xianjun Li

    2015-01-01

    Cellulose nanofibril (CNF) and epoxy nanocomposites with high visible light transmittance and low watersensitivity were manufactured by laminating thin layers of epoxy resin onto CNF films prepared through,pressurized filtration in combination with oven drying. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studiessuggest that the resin component bonded to the CNF substrate well....

  17. Controlling morphology, mesoporosity, crystallinity, and photocatalytic activity of ordered mesoporous TiO{sub 2} films prepared at low temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elgh, Björn; Yuan, Ning; Palmqvist, Anders E. C. [Applied Surface Chemistry, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, SE 412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Cho, Hae Sung; Terasaki, Osamu [Graduate School of EEWS (WCU), KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Magerl, David; Philipp, Martine; Müller-Buschbaum, Peter [Lehrstuhl für Funktionelle Materialien, Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, 85748 Garching (Germany); Roth, Stephan V. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Yoon, Kyung Byung [Department of Chemistry, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    Partly ordered mesoporous titania films with anatase crystallites incorporated into the pore walls were prepared at low temperature by spin-coating a microemulsion-based reaction solution. The effect of relative humidity employed during aging of the prepared films was studied using SEM, TEM, and grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering to evaluate the mesoscopic order, porosity, and crystallinity of the films. The study shows unambiguously that crystal growth occurs mainly during storage of the films and proceeds at room temperature largely depending on relative humidity. Porosity, pore size, mesoscopic order, crystallinity, and photocatalytic activity of the films increased with relative humidity up to an optimum around 75%.

  18. Preparation and characterization of gellan gum/glucosamine/clioquinol film as oral cancer treatment patch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wanchi; Tsai, Huifang; Wong, Yinuan; Hong, Juiyen; Chang, Shwujen; Lee, Mingwei

    2018-01-01

    To administer cancer drugs with improved convenience to patients and to enhance the bioavailability of cancer drugs for oral cancer therapy, this study prepared gellan gum/glucosamine/clioquinol (GG/GS/CQ) film as the oral cancer treatment patch. GG/GS/CQ film fabricated through the EDC-mediated coupling reactions (GG/GS/CQ/EDC film). The film of the physicochemical properties and drug release kinetics were studied. The effectiveness of GG/GS/CQ/EDC film as oral cancer treatment patch were evaluated with the animal model. The results confirmed that CQ can be incorporated via EDC-mediated covalent conjugation to gellan gum/glucosamine. Mechanical testing revealed that the maximum tensile strength and elongation percentage at break were 1.91kgf/mm 2 and 5.01% for GG/GS/CQ/EDC film. After a drug release experiment lasting 45days, 86.8% of CQ was released from GG/GS/CQ/EDC film. The Huguchi model fit the GG/GS/CQ/EDC drug release data with high correlation coefficients (R 2 =0.9994, respectively). The effect of the CQ dose on oral cancer cells (OC-2) was tested, and the IC 50 of CQ alone and CQ with 10μM CuCl 2 were 9.59 and 2.22μM, respectively. The animal testing indicated that GG/GS/CQ/EDC film was decreased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression and suppress tumor progression. These findings provide insights into a possible use for GG/GS/CQ/EDC film for oral ca in clinical practice. The GG/GS/CQ/EDC film is suitable as the dressing for use in the treatment of early-stage cancer or as wound care after surgery in late-stage of oral cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pathways to prepare perfect Co_4N thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Rachana; Pandey, Nidhi; Gupta, Mukul

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic nitrides of 3d transition metals (M = Fe,Co,Ni) are interesting materials for applications in magnetic devices. Controlled nitridation of magnetic metals for small N content (∼ 10-20 at.%) is sufficient to provide them high mechanical strength and superior chemical stability as compared to pure metals. At the same time tetra metal nitrides (M_4N) are known to posses a saturation magnetization (Ms) which is even higher than the pure metal. In M_4N enhanced magnetic moment is caused by a volume expansion (compared to a hypothetical fcc metal). All M_4N share a common fcc structure, in which metal atoms are arranged in the fcc positions and N atoms occupy the body centered positions. Such incorporation of N atoms results in an expansion of the fcc lattice. Theoretical studies suggest that such volume expansion enhances the itinerary of conduction band electrons and results in spreading of bandwidth of 3d electrons thereby suppression of exchange splitting leading to a larger (than pure metal) Ms. We did polarized neutron reflectivity (PNR) to measure Ms of Co_4N thin films. We found that as LP increases, Ms also increases. Our results clearly show that the Co_4N phase is formed at much lower Ts and when deposited at high Ts, N atoms diffuse out leaving behind pure fcc Co phase which seems to have been mistaken for Co_4N phase in earlier works

  20. Water-based preparation of spider silk films as drug delivery matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, Elisa; Winter, Gerhard; Engert, Julia

    2015-09-10

    The main focus of this work was to obtain a drug delivery matrix characterized by biocompatibility, water insolubility and good mechanical properties. Moreover the preparation process has to be compatible with protein encapsulation and the obtained matrix should be able to sustain release a model protein. Spider silk proteins represent exceptional natural polymers due to their mechanical properties in combination with biocompatibility. As both hydrophobic and slowly biodegrading biopolymers, recombinant spider silk proteins fulfill the required properties for a drug delivery system. In this work, we present the preparation of eADF4(C16) films as drug delivery matrices without the use of any organic solvent. Water-based spider silk films were characterized in terms of protein secondary structure, thermal stability, zeta-potential, solubility, mechanical properties, and water absorption and desorption. Additionally, this study includes an evaluation of their application as a drug delivery system for both small molecular weight drugs and high molecular weight molecules such as proteins. Our investigation focused on possible improvements in the film's mechanical properties including plasticizers in the film matrix. Furthermore, different film designs were prepared, such as: monolayer, coated monolayer, multilayer (sandwich), and coated multilayer. The release of the model protein BSA from these new systems was studied. Results indicated that spider silk films are a promising protein drug delivery matrix, capable of releasing the model protein over 90 days with a release profile close to zero order kinetic. Such films could be used for several pharmaceutical and medical purposes, especially when mechanical strength of a drug eluting matrix is of high importance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation and pharmaceutical evaluation of glibenclamide slow release mucoadhesive buccal film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri-Najafi, R.; Tavakoli, N.; Senemar, M.; Peikanpour, M.

    2014-01-01

    Buccal mucoadhesive systems among novel drug delivery systems have attracted great attention in recent years due to their ability to adhere and remain on the oral mucosa and to release their drug content gradually. Buccal mucoadhesive films can improve the drug therapeutic effect by enhancement of drug absorption through oral mucosa increasing the drug bioavailability via reducing the hepatic first pass effect. The aim of the current study was to formulate the drug as buccal bioadhesive film, which releases the drug at sufficient concentration with a sustain manner reducing the frequency of the dosage form administration. One of the advantagees of this formulation is better patient compliances due to the ease of administration with no water to swallow the product. The mucoadhesive films of glibenclamide were prepared using hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) K4M, K15M and Eudragit RL100 polymers and propylene glycol as plasticizer and co-solvent. Films were prepared using solvent casting method, and were evaluated with regard to drug content, thickness, weight variations, swelling index, tensile strength, ex vivo adhesion force and percentage of in vitro drug release. Films with high concentrations of HPMC K4M and K15M did not have favorable appearance and uniformity. The formulations prepared from Eudragit were transparent, uniform, flexible, and without bubble. The highest and the lowest percentages of swelling were observed for the films containing HPMC K15M and Eudragit RL100, respectively. Films made of HPMC K15M had adhesion force higher than those containing Eudragit RL100. Formulations with Eudragit RL100 showed the highest mean dissolution time (MDT). Drug release kinetics of all formulations followed Higuchi's model and the mechanism of diffusion was considered non-Fickian type. It was concluded that formulations containing Eudragit RL100 were more favorable than others with regard to uniformity, flexibility, rate and percentage of drug release. PMID

  2. Preparation of S-sulfo albumin film and its cell adhesive property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazoe, Hironori; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi; Tanabe, Toshizumi

    2009-01-01

    Recently, large-scale production of the pharmaceutical grade recombinant human serum albumin was achieved, and several clinical trials have proved its safety and efficacy. Albumin is thought to be a candidate for a safe biopolymer sources for application to biomaterials. In this study, we treated albumin with sodium sulfite and sodium tetrathionate to give S-sulfo albumin, which was found to loose native albumin structure by CD spectra analysis and dye-binding assay. A water-insoluble S-sulfo albumin films were prepared by drying S-sulfo albumin solution and subsequent reformation of disulfide bonds by the oxidation with iodine. Ultimate strength, ultimate elongation and Young's modulus of S-sulfo albumin film prepared at room temperature were 3.3 ± 0.4 MPa, 30.8 ± 3.2% and 40.8 ± 3.3 MPa before oxidative treatment and changed to 13.8 ± 4.2 MPa, 5.6 ± 2.8% and 401.7 ± 15.3 MPa after oxidative treatment. When the film was prepared at 60 deg. C, similar tendency was observed. Thus, the disulfide bonds formation between albumin molecules by oxidative treatment converted the film stronger and stiffer. Cell adhesion and proliferation on the films were evaluated using mouse L929 fibroblast cells. Cell adhesion largely depended on the albumin structure; that is, cells did not attach to native albumin coated surfaces, while cell adhesion and proliferation occurred on the S-sulfo albumin films which lost their native albumin structure. Eighty percent of seeded cells were adhered on S-sulfo albumin films and proliferated well in a similar manner to those on the conventional culture dish. Our results indicate that S-sulfo albumin is a favorable cell culture substrate.

  3. Preparation and characterization of thin organosilicon films deposited on SPR chip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szunerits, Sabine [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces (LEPMI), CNRS-INPG-UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP 75, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)], E-mail: sabine.szunerits@lepmi.inpg.fr; Rich, Sami Abou [Laboratoire de Genie des Procedes d' Interaction de Fluides Reactifs-Materiaux U.S.T.L., Cite Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Coffinier, Yannick [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI), FRE CNRS 2963, Institut d' lectronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS-8520, Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Languille, Marie-Angelique [Unite de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS-8181, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, Bat. C3, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Supiot, Philippe [Laboratoire de Genie des Procedes d' Interaction de Fluides Reactifs-Materiaux U.S.T.L., Cite Scientifique, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Boukherroub, Rabah [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI), FRE CNRS 2963, Institut d' lectronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN), UMR CNRS-8520, Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France)], E-mail: rabah.boukherroub@iemn.univ-lille1.fr

    2008-04-20

    The paper reports on the preparation and characterization of organosilicon thin polymer films deposited on glass slides coated with 5 nm adhesion layer of titanium and 50 nm of gold. The polymer was obtained by the decomposition of 1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane precursor (TMDSO) premixed with oxygen induced in a N{sub 2} plasma afterglow using remote plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique. The film thickness was controlled by laser interferometry and was 9 nm. The chemical stability of the gold substrate coated with the organosilicon polymer film (p-TMDSO) was studied in different acidic and basic solutions (pH 1-14). While the gold/polymer interface showed a high stability in acidic media, the film was almost completely removed in basic solutions. The resulting surfaces were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), water contact angle measurements, cyclic voltammetry, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR)

  4. Preparation and characterization of high-Tc superconducting thin films with high critical current densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vase, P.

    1991-08-01

    The project was carried out in relation to possible cable and electronics applications of high-T c materials. Laser ablation was used as the deposition technique because of its stoichiometry conservation. Films were made in the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 compound due to its relatively simple stoichiometry compared to other High-T c compounds. Much attention was paid to the critical current density. A very high critical current density was reached. By using texture analysis by X-ray diffraction, it was found that films with high critical current densities were epitaxial, while films with low critical current densities contained several crystalline orientations. Four techniques for patterning the films were used - photo lithography and wet etch, laser ablation lithography, laser writing and electron beam lithography and ion milling. Sub-micron patterning has been demonstrated without degradation of the superconducting properties. The achieved patterning resolution is sufficient for preparation of many superconducting components. (AB)

  5. Preparation of polyvinyl alcohol graphene oxide phosphonate film and research of thermal stability and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jihui; Song, Yunna; Ma, Zheng; Li, Ning; Niu, Shuai; Li, Yongshen

    2018-05-01

    In this article, flake graphite, nitric acid, peroxyacetic acid and phosphoric acid are used to prepare graphene oxide phosphonic and phosphinic acids (GOPAs), and GOPAs and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) are used to synthesize polyvinyl alcohol graphene oxide phosphonate and phosphinate (PVAGOPs) in the case of faint acidity and ultrasound irradiation, and PVAGOPs are used to fabricate PVAGOPs film, and the structure and morphology of GOPAs, PVAGOPs and PVAGOPs film are characterized, and the thermal stability and mechanical properties of PVAGOPs film are investigated. Based on these, it has been proved that GOPAs consist of graphene oxide phosphonic acid and graphene oxide phosphinic acid, and there are CP covalent bonds between them, and PVAGOPs are composed of GOPAs and PVA, and there are six-member lactone rings between GOPAs and PVA, and the thermal stability and mechanical properties of PVAGOPs film are improved effectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Super-hydrophobic nickel films with micro-nano hierarchical structure prepared by electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hang Tao; Hu Anmin; Ling Huiqin; Li Ming; Mao Dali

    2010-01-01

    Super-hydrophobic nickel films were prepared by a simple and low cost electrodepositing method. The surface morphologies of the films characterized by scanning electronic microscope exhibit hierarchical structure with micro-nanocones array, which can be responsible for their super-hydrophobic characteristic (water contact angle over 150 o ) without chemical modification. The wettability of the film can be varied from super-hydrophobic (water contact angle 154 o ) to relatively hydrophilic (water contact angle 87 o ) by controlling the size of the micro-nanocones. The mechanism of the hydrophobic characteristic of nickel films with this unique structure was illustrated by several models. Such micro-nanostructure and its special wettability are expected to be applied in the practical industry.

  7. Structural and optical characteristics of SnS thin film prepared by SILAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SnS thin films were grown on glass substrates by a simple route named successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR method. The films were prepared using tin chloride as tin (Sn source and ammonium sulfide as sulphur (S source. The structural, optical and morphological study was done using XRD, FESEM, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. XRD measurement confirmed the presence of orthorhombic phase. Particle size estimated from XRD was about 45 nm which fitted well with the FESEM measurement. The value of band gap was about 1.63 eV indicating that SnS can be used as an important material for thin film solar cells. The surface morphology showed a smooth, homogenous film over the substrate. Characteristic stretching vibration mode of SnS was observed in the absorption band of FT-IR spectrum. The electrical activation energy was about 0.306 eV.

  8. Preparation and characterization of thin organosilicon films deposited on SPR chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szunerits, Sabine; Rich, Sami Abou; Coffinier, Yannick; Languille, Marie-Angelique; Supiot, Philippe; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports on the preparation and characterization of organosilicon thin polymer films deposited on glass slides coated with 5 nm adhesion layer of titanium and 50 nm of gold. The polymer was obtained by the decomposition of 1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane precursor (TMDSO) premixed with oxygen induced in a N 2 plasma afterglow using remote plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique. The film thickness was controlled by laser interferometry and was 9 nm. The chemical stability of the gold substrate coated with the organosilicon polymer film (p-TMDSO) was studied in different acidic and basic solutions (pH 1-14). While the gold/polymer interface showed a high stability in acidic media, the film was almost completely removed in basic solutions. The resulting surfaces were characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), water contact angle measurements, cyclic voltammetry, and surface plasmon resonance (SPR)

  9. Preparation of tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum thin films by sputtering deposition using powder and pressed powder targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Hiroharu; Ohshima, Tamiko; Yagyu, Yoshihito; Ihara, Takeshi; Tanaka, Rei; Suda, Yoshiaki

    2017-06-01

    Tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminum (Alq3) thin films, for use in organic electroluminescence displays, were prepared by a sputtering deposition method using powder and pressed powder targets. Experimental results suggest that Alq3 thin films can be prepared using powder and pressed powder targets, although the films were amorphous. The surface color of the target after deposition became dark brown, and the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy spectrum changed when using a pressed powder target. The deposition rate of the film using a powder target was higher than that using a pressed powder target. That may be because the electron and ion densities of the plasma generated using the powder target are higher than those when using pressed powder targets under the same deposition conditions. The properties of a thin film prepared using a powder target were almost the same as those of a film prepared using a pressed powder target.

  10. Preparation and characterization of thin-film Pd–Ag supported membranes for high-temperature applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Gesalaga, Ekain; Coenen, Kai; Helmi Siasi Farimani, Arash; Melendez, J.; Zuniga, Jon; Pacheco Tanaka, David Alfredo; van Sint Annaland, Martin; Gallucci, Fausto

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the preparation, characterization and stability tests of thin-film Pd–Ag supported membranes for high-temperature fluidized bed membrane reactor applications. Various thin-film supported membranes have been prepared by simultaneous Pd–Ag electroless plating and have been initially

  11. Poly(vinyl alcohol) composite films with high percent elongation prepared from amylose-fatty ammonium salt inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amylose inclusion complexes prepared from cationic fatty ammonium salts and jet-cooked high amylose starch were combined with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) to form glycerol-plasticized films. Their tensile properties were compared with similar films prepared previously with analogous anionic fatty acid...

  12. Electroplated Fe-Co-Ni films prepared from deep-eutectic-solvent-based plating baths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Yanai

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We fabricated soft magnetic films from DES-based plating baths, and investigated magnetic properties of the plated films. The plating baths were obtained by stirring the mixture of choline chloride, ethylene glycol, FeCl2 ⋅ 4H2O, NiCl2 ⋅ 6H2O and CoCl2 ⋅ 6H2O. The composition of the electroplated film depended on the amount of the reagent in the plating bath, and we consequently obtained the films with various composition. The current efficiency of the plating process shows high values (> 88 % in the wide composition range. The soft magnetic films with low coercivity were obtained at the Fe compositions of ≈ 30 at.% and > 80 at.%, and we found that low coercivity could be realized by the control of the film composition. We also found that the Fe-rich films prepared from DES-based plating bath have some advantages as a soft magnetic phase for a nanocomposite magnet due to their high saturation magnetization and very fine crystal structure.

  13. Preparation of n-type semiconductor SnO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahal, Achour; Benramache, Said; Benhaoua, Boubaker

    2013-01-01

    We studied fluorine-doped tin oxide on a glass substrate at 350°C using an ultrasonic spray technique. Tin (II) chloride dehydrate, ammonium fluoride dehydrate, ethanol and NaOH were used as the starting material, dopant source, solvent and stabilizer, respectively. The SnO 2 : F thin films were deposited at 350°C and a pending time of 60 and 90 s. The as-grown films exhibit a hexagonal wurtzite structure and have (101) orientation. The G = 31.82 nm value of the grain size is attained from SnO 2 : F film grown at 90 s, and the transmittance is greater than 80% in the visible region. The optical gap energy is found to measure 4.05 eV for the film prepared at 90 s, and the increase in the electrical conductivity of the film with the temperature of the sample is up to a maximum value of 265.58 (Ω·cm) −1 , with the maximum activation energy value of the films being found to measure 22.85 meV, indicating that the films exhibit an n-type semiconducting nature. (semiconductor materials)

  14. Niobium Pentoxide thin films employ simple colloidal suspension at low preparation temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abood M. K.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work a nano-colloidal suspension is used to prepare Nb2O5 thin films. The effect of different substrates on structural properties of niobium pentoxide thin film deposited by spin coating technique on silicon and quartz substrates are presented. We observed that the obtained structure is monocline in both substrates. The diffraction peaks in both substrates ensured the successful formation of Nb2O5 thin films with a clear polymorphous structure. However, the structure became more crystalline with additional distinguished peaks on silicon substrate comparing to quartz substrate. The extracted structural parameters from X-Ray diffraction show that the grain size of the thin films on quartz is smaller than silicon with the values of 16.47 nm and 20.98 nm respectively. The stress measurement records the values of 0.19 and 0.00719 for the thin films deposited on silicon and quartz substrates respectively. Effects of film thickness depicted increment in the absorbance and reduction in the band gap. Energy gaps of 2.7, 2.58 and, 2.5 eV are measured as a result of increasing the film thicknesses of 325, 420 and 450 nm respectively.

  15. Zinc oxide films impurified with Ti and prepared by the Sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tirado G, S.; Cazares R, J.M.; Maldonado, A.

    2006-01-01

    Titanium-doped zinc oxide thin films have been prepared on silicon substrate using the Sol-Gel technique. The structural, morphology, electrical and optical properties of such thin films were studied as a function of titanium concentration (0.5, 1 and 1.5 %) and the thin films thickness. Zinc acetate dihydrate and titanium (VI)-oxy acetylacetonate were used as precursor materials, using 2-methoxyethanol and monoethanolamine as via. The X-ray diffraction spectra show polycrystalline films in all the cases. It can see for all the thin films a preferential growth along the (002) planes where the titanium concentration and also the thin films thickness play an important rule. No structural changes are observed at all. The surface morphology studied shows as the grain size decreases when thin thickness is increases. For titanium concentration of 0.5, 1 and 1.5 % values the grains size increase also. The thin films thickness for titanium concentration of 1.5 % was 500 nm (4v), 400 nm (3v), 180 nm (2v) and 130 nm (1v), values obtained from cross-section micrographs. Highly resistive samples are obtained for substrate soda-lime even showing high transmittance. Better physical properties are required for gas sensors or semitransparent electrodes and other possible applications. (Author)

  16. Preparation and evaluation of periodontal films based on polyelectrolyte complex formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Abeer Ahmed; Ismail, Fatma Ahmed; Naggar, Viviane Fahim; Aboulmagd, Elsayed

    2015-05-01

    Local intra-pocket drug delivery devices can provide an effective concentration of the antimicrobial agent at the site of action with avoidance of undesirable side effects. This study explored the application of chitosan-alginate and chitosan-pectin polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) films as drug release regulators for tetracycline HCl (Tc) to treat periodontal pockets. Periodontal films with 1:1 Tc:PEC ratio were prepared using 1:1 chitosan (Ch) to sodium alginate (A) or 1:3 Ch to pectin (P). The scanning electron microscope showed acceptable film appearance and differential scanning calorimetry analysis confirmed complex formation. The in vitro release studies for both films showed a burst drug release, followed by prolonged release for 70 h. A prolonged antibacterial activity of both films against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 was observed over a period of 21 days. Aging studies indicated that the five months storage period in freezer did not significantly influence the drug release profile or the antibacterial activity of both films. Clinical evaluation showed a significant reduction in pocket depth (p < 0.0001) to their normal values (≤3 mm). PEC films could be exploited as a prolonged drug release devices for treatment of periodontal pockets.

  17. Preparation and Analysis of Platinum Thin Films for High Temperature Sensor Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbanek, John D.; Laster, Kimala L. H.

    2005-01-01

    A study has been made of platinum thin films for application as high temperature resistive sensors. To support NASA Glenn Research Center s high temperature thin film sensor effort, a magnetron sputtering system was installed recently in the GRC Microsystems Fabrication Clean Room Facility. Several samples of platinum films were prepared using various system parameters to establish run conditions. These films were characterized with the intended application of being used as resistive sensing elements, either for temperature or strain measurement. The resistances of several patterned sensors were monitored to document the effect of changes in parameters of deposition and annealing. The parameters were optimized for uniformity and intrinsic strain. The evaporation of platinum via oxidation during annealing over 900 C was documented, and a model for the process developed. The film adhesion was explored on films annealed to 1000 C with various bondcoats on fused quartz and alumina. From this compiled data, a list of optimal parameters and characteristics determined for patterned platinum thin films is given.

  18. Preparation and properties of Starch-g-PLA/poly(vinyl alcohol) composite film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yingmo; Wang, Qingling; Tang, Mingru

    2013-07-25

    Starch/lactic acid graft copolymer (Starch-g-PLA) was prepared by the in situ copolymerization of starch grafted with lactic acid catalyzed with sodium hydroxide, and then mixed with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to get composite films. The structures of the graft copolymer and composite films were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties, water resistance, and thermal stability were also investigated. It was found that the compatibility of Starch-g-PLA and PVA was better than that of starch and PVA in the composite films. The tensile strength and elongation at break of the Starch-g-PLA/PVA composite film increased by 69.15% and 84.22%, respectively, while the water absorption decreased by 50.39%, which overcame the shortcomings of hydrophilicity and poor mechanical properties of Starch/PVA film. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) also showed that the thermal stability of Starch-g-PLA/PVA film was improved compared with Starch/PVA film. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Preparation and antifouling property of polyurethane film modified by chondroitin sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huihui; Xue, Jing; Qian, Bin; Chen, Huaying; Zhu, Yonggang; Lan, Minbo

    2017-02-01

    An antifouling polyurethane film modified by chondroitin sulfate (PU-CS) was prepared by chemical grafting with N-Boc-1,3-propanediamine as a spacer. The different mass fraction of N-Boc-1,3-propanediamine was investigated to obtain PU-CS films with different CS grafting density. The surface properties of PU-CS films were comprehensively characterized. Proteins adsorption and glycosaminoglycans adhesion on films were evaluated. Moreover, inorganic salt deposition on film with highest CS grafting density (3.70 μg/cm2) was briefly investigated. The results showed that the increase of CS grafting density improved not only the hydrophilicity but the antifouling performance of films. The best antifouling film reduced the adsorption of fibrinogen (BFG), human serum albumin (HSA) and lysozyme (LYS) by 81.4%, 95.0% and 76.5%, respectively, and the adhesion of chondroitin (CS), heparin (HP) and hyaluronic acid (HA) by 70.6%, 87.4% and 81.3%, respectively. In addition, the co-adsorption of proteins and glycosaminoglycans reduced up to 86.9% and 75.5%, respectively. Changes in inorganic salt deposition after co-adsorption of proteins and glycosaminoglycans on PU-CS(3) suggested that the proteins promoted the inorganic salt deposition, while glycosaminoglycans inhibited the crystal growth. The negatively charged polysaccharides might promote the generation of smaller crystals which could be conducive to provide theoretical and practical guide to develop novel urinary stents with significant anti-encrustation properties.

  20. Preparation and property of UV-curable polyurethane acrylate film filled with cationic surfactant treated graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jinghong; Cai, Xia; Shen, Fenglei, E-mail: shenfenglei@suda.edu.cn

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • The non-covalent modification of graphene maintains the intrinsic structure of graphene compared with the covalent functionalization of graphene. • The initial degradation temperature of nanocomposite film increases by 57 °C which is much higher than that of PUA nanocomposite previously reported. • The nanocomposite film exhibits improved dielectric property and electrical conductivity. • The outstanding performance of CTAB-G/PUA films will open up enormous opportunities for applications in various regions such as high temperature or electrical field. - Abstract: The preparation of nanocomposite films composed of UV-curable polyurethane acrylate (PUA) and modified graphene were demonstrated in this paper. Cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide modified graphene (CTAB-G) was prepared via intercalation of cationic surfactant and subsequently incorporated into PUA by UV curing technology. Fourier transform infrared spectra, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to characterize the structure and morphology of CTAB-G, as well as CTAB-G/PUA nanocomposite films. The results revealed that the CTAB-G sheets were layer-by-layer structure and dispersed uniformly in PUA matrix. Thermal gravimetric analysis showed that the thermal stabilities of UV-curable PUA nanocomposite films in this work were much higher than that of PUA nanocomposites previously reported. Dynamic mechanical analysis indicated that the dynamic mechanical properties of nanocomposite films were greatly enhanced in the presence of modified graphene sheets. In addition, the CTAB-G/PUA nanocomposite films exhibited improved dielectric properties and electrical conductivities compared with the pure PUA.

  1. Tuneable light-emitting carbon-dot/polymer flexible films prepared through one-pot synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Susanta Kumar; Nandi, Sukhendu; Shikler, Rafi; Jelinek, Raz

    2016-02-01

    Development of efficient, inexpensive, and environmentally-friendly light emitters, particularly devices that produce white light, have drawn intense interest due to diverse applications in the lighting industry, photonics, solar energy, and others. We present a simple strategy for the fabrication of flexible transparent films exhibiting tuneable light emission through one-pot synthesis of polymer matrixes with embedded carbon dots assembled in situ. Importantly, different luminescence colours were produced simply by preparing C-dot/polymer films using carbon precursors that yielded C-dots exhibiting distinct fluorescence emission profiles. Furthermore, mixtures of C-dot precursors could be also employed for fabricating films exhibiting different colours. In particular, we successfully produced films emitting white light with attractive properties (i.e. ``warm'' white light with a high colour rendering index) - a highly sought after goal in optical technologies.Development of efficient, inexpensive, and environmentally-friendly light emitters, particularly devices that produce white light, have drawn intense interest due to diverse applications in the lighting industry, photonics, solar energy, and others. We present a simple strategy for the fabrication of flexible transparent films exhibiting tuneable light emission through one-pot synthesis of polymer matrixes with embedded carbon dots assembled in situ. Importantly, different luminescence colours were produced simply by preparing C-dot/polymer films using carbon precursors that yielded C-dots exhibiting distinct fluorescence emission profiles. Furthermore, mixtures of C-dot precursors could be also employed for fabricating films exhibiting different colours. In particular, we successfully produced films emitting white light with attractive properties (i.e. ``warm'' white light with a high colour rendering index) - a highly sought after goal in optical technologies. Electronic supplementary information (ESI

  2. Nanostructured ZnO thin films prepared by sol–gel spin-coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heredia, E., E-mail: heredia.edu@gmail.com [UNIDEF (CONICET-MINDEF), J.B. de La Salle 4397, 1603 Villa Martelli, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bojorge, C.; Casanova, J.; Cánepa, H. [UNIDEF (CONICET-MINDEF), J.B. de La Salle 4397, 1603 Villa Martelli, Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Craievich, A. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, Cidade Universitária, 66318 São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Kellermann, G. [Universidade Federal do Paraná, 19044 Paraná (Brazil)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • ZnO films synthesized by sol–gel were deposited by spin-coating on flat substrates. • Structural features of ZnO films with several thicknesses were characterized by means of different techniques. • The thicknesses of different ZnO thin films were determined by means of FESEM and AFM. • The nanoporous structures of ZnO thin films were characterized by GISAXS using IsGISAXS software. • The average densities of ZnO thin films were derived from (i) the critical angle in 1D XR patterns, (ii) the angle of Yoneda peak in 2D GISAXS images, (iii) minimization of chi2 using IsGISAXS best fitting procedure. - Abstract: ZnO thin films deposited on silica flat plates were prepared by spin-coating and studied by applying several techniques for structural characterization. The films were prepared by depositing different numbers of layers, each deposition being followed by a thermal treatment at 200 °C to dry and consolidate the successive layers. After depositing all layers, a final thermal treatment at 450 °C during 3 h was also applied in order to eliminate organic components and to promote the crystallization of the thin films. The total thickness of the multilayered films – ranging from 40 nm up to 150 nm – was determined by AFM and FESEM. The analysis by GIXD showed that the thin films are composed of ZnO crystallites with an average diameter of 25 nm circa. XR results demonstrated that the thin films also exhibit a large volume fraction of nanoporosity, typically 30–40 vol.% in thin films having thicknesses larger than ∼70 nm. GISAXS measurements showed that the experimental scattering intensity is well described by a structural model composed of nanopores with shape of oblate spheroids, height/diameter aspect ratio within the 0.8–0.9 range and average diameter along the sample surface plane in the 5–7 nm range.

  3. Challenges in TEM sample preparation of solvothermally grown CuInS2 films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Anna; Changizi, Rasa; Scheu, Christina

    2018-06-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a widely used tool to characterize materials. The required samples need to be electron transparent which should be achieved without changing the microstructure. This work describes different TEM sample preparation techniques of nanostructured CuInS 2 thin films on fluorine-doped tin oxide substrates, synthesized solvothermally using l-cysteine as sulfur source. Focused ion beam lamellae, conventional cross section samples and scratch samples have been prepared and investigated. It was possible to prepare appropriate samples with each technique, however, each technique brings with it certain advantages and disadvantages. FIB preparation of solvothermally synthesized CuInS 2 suffers from two main drawbacks. First, the whole CuInS 2 layer displays a strongly increased Cu content caused by Cu migration and preferential removal of In. Further, electron diffraction shows the formation of an additional CuS phase after Ga + bombardment. Second, diffraction analysis is complicated by a strong contribution of crystalline Pt introduced during the FIB preparation and penetrating into the porous film surface. The conventional cross sectional CuInS 2 sample also shows a Cu signal enhancement which is caused by contribution of the brass tube material used for embedding. Additionally, Cu particles have been observed inside the CuInS 2 which have been sputtered on the film during preparation. Only the scratch samples allow an almost artefact-free and reliable elemental quantification using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. However, scratch samples suffer from the drawback that it is not possible to determine the layer thickness, which is possible for both cross sectional preparation techniques. Consequently, it is concluded that the type of sample preparation should be chosen dependent on the required information. A full characterization can only be achieved when the different techniques are combined. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All

  4. Experimental studies on the electronic structure of pyrite FeS2 films prepared by thermally sulfurizing iron films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui; Wang Baoyi; Zhang Rengang; Zhang Zhe; Wei Long; Qian Haijie; Su Run; Kui Rexi

    2006-01-01

    Pyrite FeS 2 films have been prepared by thermally sulfurizing iron films deposited by magnetron sputtering. The electronic structures were studies by X-ray absorption near edge structure and X-ray photoemission spectrum. The results show that an S 3p valence band with relatively higher intensity compared to the calculation exists in 2-10 eV range and a high density below the Fermi level of Fe 3d states were detected. A second gap of 2.8 eV in the unoccupied density of states was found above the conduction band which was 2.4 eV by experimentally calculation. The difference between t 2g and e g which were formed in an octahedral crystal field was computed to be 2.1 eV. (authors)

  5. Humidity sensing properties of WO3 thick film resistor prepared by screen printing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garde, Arun S

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Polycrystalline WO 3 Thick films are fabricated by screen printing technique. • Monoclinic phases were the majority in formation of films. • The peak at 1643 cm −1 shows stretching vibrations attributed to W-OH of adsorbed H 2 O. • Absorption peaks in the range 879–650 cm −1 are attributed to the stretching W-O-W bonds. • Increase in resistance with decrease in RH when exposed to 20–100% RH. - Abstract: Thick films of tungsten oxide based were prepared using standard screen printing technique. To study the effect of temperature on the thick films were fired at different temperature for 30 min in air atmosphere. The WO 3 thick films were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and EDAX for elemental analysis. The formation of mixed phases of the film together with majority of monoclinic phase was observed. IR spectra confirm the peak at 1643 cm −1 clearly shows stretching vibrations attributed to the W-OH bending vibration mode of the adsorbed water molecules. The absorption peaks in the range 879–650 cm −1 are attributed to the stretching W-O-W bonds (i.e. ν [W-O inter -W]). The peak located at 983 cm −1 belong to W=O terminal of cluster boundaries. A change in the resistance was observed with respect to the relative humidity when the WO 3 thick films were exposed to a wide humidity range of 20–100%. An increasing firing temperature of WO 3 film increases with the sensitivity. The parameters such as sensitivity and hysteresis of the WO 3 film sensors have been evaluated

  6. TiO2 and Cu/TiO2 Thin Films Prepared by SPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Roy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Titanium oxide (TiO2 and copper (Cu doped titanium oxide (Cu/TiO2 thin films have been prepared by spray pyrolysis technique. Titanium chloride (TiCl4 and copper acetate (Cu(CH3COO2.H2O were used as source of Ti and Cu. The doping concentration of Cu was varied from 1-10 wt. %. The X-ray diffraction studies show that TiO2 thin films are tetragonal structure and Cu/TiO2 thin films implies CuO has present with monoclinic structure. The optical properties of the TiO2 thin films have been investigated as a function of Cu-doping level. The optical transmission of the thin films was found to increase from 88 % to 94 % with the addition of Cu up to 8 % and then decreases for higher percentage of Cu doping. The optical band gap (Eg for pure TiO2 thin film is found to be 3.40 eV. Due to Cu doping, the band gap is shifted to lower energies and then increases further with increasing the concentration of Cu. The refractive index of the TiO2 thin films is found to be 2.58 and the variation of refractive index is observed due to Cu doped. The room temperature resistivity of the films decreases with increasing Cu doping and is found to be 27.50 - 23.76 W·cm. It is evident from the present study that the Cu doping promoted the thin film morphology and thereby it is aspect for various applications.

  7. Preparation of the Crosslinked Polyethersulfone Films by High Temperature Electron-Beam Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.

    2006-01-01

    The aromatic polymers, mainly so called engineering plastics, were famed for the good stability under irradiation. However, high temperature irradiation of the aromatic polymers can result the crosslinked structure, due to the improved molecular mobility. Polyethersulfone (PES) is a wide used engineering plastic because of the high performance and high thermal stability. PES films were irradiated by electron-beam under nitrogen atmosphere above the glass transition temperature and then the covalently crosslinked PES (RX-PES) films were obtained. The irradiations were also performed at ambient temperature for comparison. The network structure formation of the RX-PES films was confirmed by the appearance of the gel, which were measured by soaking the irradiated PES films in the N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) at room temperature. When the PES films were irradiated to 300 kGy, there was gel appeared. The gel percent increased with the increasing in the absorbed dose, and saturated when the absorbed dose exceeded 1200 kGy. However, there was no gel formed for the PES films irradiated at ambient temperature even to 2250 kGy. The G(S) and G(X) were calculated according to the Y-crosslinking mechanism. The results values are consistent in error range. G(S) of 0.10 and G(X) of 0.23 were obtained. As calculated, almost all the macromolecular radicals produced by chain scission were used for crosslinking. Also, the glass transition temperature of the RX-PES films increased with the increasing in the absorbed doses, while the glass transition temperature of the PES films irradiated at ambient temperature decreased with the increasing in the absorbed doses. The blending films of the PES with FEP or ETFE were prepared and the high temperature irradiation effects were also studies

  8. Preparation and characterization of biocomposite film based on chitosan and kombucha tea as active food packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafi, Azam; Jokar, Maryam; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza

    2018-03-01

    An active film composed of chitosan and kombucha tea (KT) was successfully prepared using the solvent casting technique. The effect of incorporation of KT at the levels 1%-3% w/w on the physical and functional properties of chitosan film was investigated. The antimicrobial activity of chitosan/KT film against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated using agar diffusion test, and its antioxidant activity was determined using DPpH assay. The results revealed that incorporation of KT into chitosan films improved the water vapor permeability (from 256.7 to 132.1gcm -2 h -1 KPa -1 mm) and enhanced the antioxidant activity of the latter up to 59% DPpH scavenging activity. Moreover, the incorporation of KT into the chitosan film increased the protective effect of the film against ultra violet (UV). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis revealed the chemical interactions between chitosan and the polyphenol groups of KT. In a minced beef model, chitosan/KT film effectively served as an active packaging and extended the shelf life of the minced beef as manifested in the retardation of lipid oxidation and microbial growth from 5.36 to 2.11logcfugr -1 in 4days storage. The present work demonstrates that the chitosan/KT film not only maintains the quality of the minced beef but also, retards microbial growth significantly, extending the shelf life of the minced beef meat up to 3days; thus, chitosan/KT film is a potential material for active food packaging. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Preparation and characterization of co-evaporated Cu{sub 2}ZnGeSe{sub 4} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uday Bhaskar, P.; Suresh Babu, G.; Kishore Kumar, Y.B.; Sundara Raja, V., E-mail: sundararajav@rediffmail.com

    2013-05-01

    Cu{sub 2}ZnGeSe{sub 4} (CZGSe), a member of Cu{sub 2}–II–IV–VI{sub 4} family, is a promising material for solar cell absorber layer in thin film heterojunction solar cells like Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} and Cu{sub 2}ZnSnSe{sub 4} which have been explored in recent years as alternate to CuInGaSe{sub 2} solar cells. The effect of substrate temperature (523 K–723 K) on the growth of CZGSe films is investigated by studying their structural, morphological and optical properties. Raman spectroscopy studies have been done to identify the phases in addition to X-ray diffraction studies. CZGSe films deposited at different substrate temperatures and annealed at 723 K in selenium atmosphere are Cu-rich and Ge-poor and contained secondary phases Cu{sub (2−x)}Se and ZnSe. CZGSe films obtained by reducing the starting Cu mass by 10% were found to be single phase with stannite structure, the lattice parameters being a = 0.563 nm, c = 1.101 nm. The direct optical band gap of CZGSe films is found to be 1.63 eV which is close to ideal band gap of 1.50 eV for the highest photovoltaic conversion efficiency. The films are found to be p-type. - Highlights: • Synthesis of Cu{sub 2}ZnGeSe{sub 4} films for solar cell absorber layer • Effect of substrate temperature on the growth of co-evaporated Cu{sub 2}ZnGeSe{sub 4} films • X-ray diffraction, Raman and morphological studies of Cu{sub 2}ZnGeSe{sub 4} thin films.

  10. Preparation, optimisation and characterisation of novel wound healing film dressings loaded with streptomycin and diclofenac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawar, H V; Tetteh, J; Boateng, J S

    2013-02-01

    Streptomycin (STP) and diclofenac (DLF) loaded film dressings were prepared by blending Polyox(®) (POL) with four hydrophilic polymers [hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC), carrageenan (CAR), sodium alginate (SA) or chitosan (CS)] using glycerol (GLY) as plasticiser. The films were characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, texture analysis (tensile and swelling characteristics) and in vitro dissolution profiles using Franz diffusion cell. SEM showed homogeneous morphology for both blank (BLK) and drug loaded (DL) films. Films prepared by blending of POL with the other polymers showed a reduction in the crystallisation of POL in descending order of SA>CS>HPMC>CAR respectively. DSC and XRD showed no crystalline peaks of STP and DLF suggesting molecular dispersion of both drugs as well as possible drug interaction with negatively charged sulphate ions present in CAR. The DL films did not show any IR bands of both drugs, confirming the DSC and XRD results. POL-CAR-BLK films showed higher tensile strength (12.32±1.40 MPa) than the POL-CAR-DL films (9.52±1.12 MPa). DL films plasticised with 25%w/w GLY revealed soft and tough (tensile strength 1.02±0.28 MPa, % elongation 1031.33±16.23) formulations. The swelling capacities of POL-CAR-BLK and POL-CAR-DL films were (733.17±25.78%) and (646.39±40.39%), increasing to (1072.71±80.30%) and (1051±86.68%) for POL-CAR-BLK-25% GLY and POL-CAR-DL-25% GLY respectively. POL-CAR-DL films showed significantly (n=3, p<0.0318) lower cumulative release of STP and DLF (52.11±1.34, 55.26±2.25) compared to POL-CAR-DL-25% GLY films (60.07±1.56, 63.39±1.92) respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Preparation And Properties Of Bionanocomposite Films Reinforced With Nanocellulose Isolated From Moroccan Alfa Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Benyoussif

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nanocellulose (NC were extracted from the Moroccan Alfa plant (Stipa tenacissima L. and characterised. These Alfa cellulosic nanoparticles were used as reinforcing phase to prepare bionanocomposite films using carboxymethyl cellulose as matrix. These films were obtained by the casting/evaporation method. The crystallinity of NC was analysed by X-ray diffraction, the dimension of NC by atomic force microscopy, molecular interactions due to incorporation of NC in carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC matrix were supported by Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR spectroscopy. The properties of the ensuing bionanocomposite films were investigated using tensile tests, water vapour permeability (WVP study and thermogravimetric analysis. With the progress of purification treatment of cellulose, the crystallinity is improved compared to the untreated fibres; this can be explained by the disappearance of the amorphous areas in cellulose chain of the plant. Consequently, the tensile modulus and tensile strength of CMC film increased by 60 and 47%, respectively, in the bionanocomposite films with 10 wt% of NC, and decrease by 8.6% for WVP with the same content of NC. The NC obtained from the Moroccan Alfa fibres can be used as a reinforcing agent for the preparation of bionanocomposites, and they have a high potential for the development of completely biodegradable food packaging materials.

  12. Electrical and optical properties of CZTS thin films prepared by SILAR method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Henry

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS thin film was deposited onto the glass substrate by simple and economic SILAR method and its structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties were analyzed. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis confirms the formation of CZTS with kesterite structure and the average crystallite size is found to be 142 nm. Scanning electron microscope (SEM image shows that the film has homogeneous, agglomerated surface without any cracks. The prepared CZTS film shows good optical absorption (104 cm−1 in the visible region and the optical band gap energy is found to be quite close to the optimum value of about 1.54 eV for solar cell application. The refractive index of the prepared film is found to be 2.85. The electrical resistivity of the film is found to be ∼10−2 Ω cm at room temperature.

  13. Preparation of Ta(C)N films by pulsed high energy density plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Wenran [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100080 Beijing (China); Chen Guangliang [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100080 Beijing (China); Zhang Yan [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100080 Beijing (China); Gu Weichao [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100080 Beijing (China); Zhang Guling [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100080 Beijing (China); Niu Erwu [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100080 Beijing (China); Liu Chizi [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100080 Beijing (China); Yang Size [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100080 Beijing (China)

    2007-04-07

    The pulsed high energy density plasma (PHEDP) is generated in the working gas due to a high-voltage high-current discharge, within a coaxial gun. In PHEDP surface modification, discharge is applied for preparing the amorphous and nanostructured high-melting materials as thin films deposited on various substrates. In this investigation, Ta(C)N films were deposited using PHEDP on stainless steel. Pure tantalum and graphite were used as the inner and outer electrodes of the PHEDP coaxial gun, respectively. Nitrogen was used as the working gas and also one of the reactants. Preliminary study on the films prepared under different conditions shows that the formation of Ta(C)N is drastically voltage dependent. At lower gun voltage, no Ta(C)N was detected in the films; when the gun voltage reaches or exceeds 3.0 kV, Ta(C)N occurred. The films are composed of densely stacked nanocrystallines with diameter less than 30 nm, and some grains are within 10 nm in diameter.

  14. Preparation and physical properties of tara gum film reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qianyun; Hu, Dongying; Wang, Lijuan

    2016-05-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) prepared from microcrystalline cellulose were blended in tara gum solution to prepare nanocomposite films. The morphology, crystallinity, and thermal properties of the CNC and films were evaluated by using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. The resultant CNC was rod-shaped with diameters of around 8.6 nm. The effect of CNC content on physical and thermal properties of films was studied. The composite film tensile strength increased from 27.86 to 65.73 MPa, elastic modulus increased from 160.98 MPa to 882.49 MPa and the contact angle increased from 55.8° to 98.7° with increasing CNC content from 0 to 6 wt%. However, CNC addition increased the thermal stability slightly and CNC content above 6 wt% decreased the tensile strength by CNC aggregation in the matrix. The nanocomposite film containing 6 wt% CNC possessed the highest light transmittance, mechanical properties, and lowest oxygen permeability. CNC addition is a suitable method to modify tara gum matrix polymer properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Carbon nanotubes length optimization for preparation of improved transparent and conducting thin film substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Farbod

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Transparent and conductive thin films of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs with different lengths were prepared on glass substrates by the spin coating method. In order to reduce the MWCNTs length, they were functionalized. The initial length of MWCNTs (10–15 μm was reduced to 1200, 205 and 168 nm after 30, 60 and 120 min refluxing time, respectively. After post annealing at 285 °C for 24 h, the electrical and optical properties were greatly improved for functionalized MWCNT thin films. They strongly depend on the length of CNTs. The optical transmittance of the film prepared using 30 min reflux CNTs was 2.6% and 6.6% higher than that of the 60 min and 120 min refluxed samples respectively. The sheet resistance of this film showed reductions of 45% and 80% as well. The film also exhibited the least roughness. The percolative figure of merit, which is proportional to the transparency and disproportional to the sheet resistance, was found to be higher for the sample with 30 min refluxed MWCNTs.

  16. In situ preparation, electrical and surface analytical characterization of pentacene thin film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassnig, R.; Striedinger, B.; Hollerer, M.; Fian, A.; Stadlober, B.; Winkler, A.

    2015-01-01

    The fabrication of organic thin film transistors with highly reproducible characteristics presents a very challenging task. We have prepared and analyzed model pentacene thin film transistors under ultra-high vacuum conditions, employing surface analytical tools and methods. Intentionally contaminating the gold contacts and SiO2 channel area with carbon through repeated adsorption, dissociation, and desorption of pentacene proved to be very advantageous in the creation of devices with stable and reproducible parameters. We mainly focused on the device properties, such as mobility and threshold voltage, as a function of film morphology and preparation temperature. At 300 K, pentacene displays Stranski-Krastanov growth, whereas at 200 K fine-grained, layer-like film growth takes place, which predominantly influences the threshold voltage. Temperature dependent mobility measurements demonstrate good agreement with the established multiple trapping and release model, which in turn indicates a predominant concentration of shallow traps in the crystal grains and at the oxide-semiconductor interface. Mobility and threshold voltage measurements as a function of coverage reveal that up to four full monolayers contribute to the overall charge transport. A significant influence on the effective mobility also stems from the access resistance at the gold contact-semiconductor interface, which is again strongly influenced by the temperature dependent, characteristic film growth mode. PMID:25814770

  17. Construction of sputtering system and preparation of high temperature superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaynak, E.

    2000-01-01

    The preparation of high T c superconducting thin film is important both for the understanding of fundamental behaviours of these materials and for the investigations on the usefulness of technological applications. High quality thin films can be prepared by various kinds of techniques being used today. Among these, sputtering is the most preferred one. The primary aim of this work is the construction of a r. f. and c. magnetron sputtering system. For this goal, a magnetron sputtering system was designed and constructed having powers up to 500W (r.f.) and 1KW (d.c.) that enables to deposit thin films of various kinds of materials: metals, ceramics and magnetic materials. The temperature dependence of the electrical resistance of the films was investigated by using four-point probe method. The zero resistance and the transition with of the films were measured as 80-85 K, and 2-9 K, respectively. The A.C. susceptibility experiments were done by utilising the system that was designed and constructed. The applied field dependence of the real and imaginary components of the susceptibility that were measured between the 77-120 K temperature interval and at a fixed frequency was investigated

  18. Study on boron-film thermal neutron converter prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Zifeng; Ye Shuzhen; Chen Ziyu; Song Liao; Shen Ji

    2011-01-01

    The boron film converter used in the position-sensitive thermal neutron detector is discussed and the method of preparing this converter layer via Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) is introduced. The morphology and the composition were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Both boron and boride existed on the layer surface. It was shown that the energy intensity of laser beam and the substrate temperature both had an important influence on the surface morphology of the film.

  19. Study on boron-film thermal neutron converter prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Zifeng; Ye Shuzhen; Chen Ziyu; Song Liao [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China); Shen Ji, E-mail: shenji@ustc.edu.c [Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui Hefei 230026 (China)

    2011-02-15

    The boron film converter used in the position-sensitive thermal neutron detector is discussed and the method of preparing this converter layer via Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) is introduced. The morphology and the composition were studied by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Both boron and boride existed on the layer surface. It was shown that the energy intensity of laser beam and the substrate temperature both had an important influence on the surface morphology of the film.

  20. The properties of B-Sb thin films prepared by molecular flow region PVD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumashiro, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Sato, K.; Ohtsuka, M.; Ohishi, Y.; Nakano, M.; Doi, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The present paper is the first description on the electrical and thermoelectric properties of amorphous PVD B 12 Sb 2 films prepared using the reaction of decaborane gas with evaporated antimony gas on Si (1900 A) / SiO x (3700 A) / Si (100) (625 μm) substrate at the temperature 350 deg. C. Ohmic metals contacts of the film were examined by making evaporated Al, followed by annealing at 200 deg. C. The comparatively high mobility of ∼100 cm 2 /V s and high thermoelectric figures-of-merit of ∼10 -4 /K were confirmed

  1. Preparation of Aluminum Nanomesh Thin Films from an Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template as Transparent Conductive Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiwen; Chen, Yulong; Qiu, Mingxia; Yu, Hongyu; Zhang, Xinhai; Sun, Xiao Wei; Chen, Rui

    2016-02-01

    We have employed anodic aluminum oxide as a template to prepare ultrathin, transparent, and conducting Al films with a unique nanomesh structure for transparent conductive electrodes. The anodic aluminum oxide template is obtained through direct anodization of a sputtered Al layer on a glass substrate, and subsequent wet etching creates the nanomesh metallic film. The optical and conductive properties are greatly influenced by experimental conditions. By tuning the anodizing time, transparent electrodes with appropriate optical transmittance and sheet resistance have been obtained. The results demonstrate that our proposed strategy can serve as a potential method to fabricate low-cost TCEs to replace conventional indium tin oxide materials.

  2. Biodegradable Starch/Copolyesters Film Reinforced with Silica Nanoparticles: Preparation and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Roberta A.; Oliveira, Rene R.; Wataya, Célio H.; Moura, Esperidiana A. B.

    Biodegradable starch/copolyesters/silica nanocomposite films were prepared by melt extrusion, using a twin screw extruder machine and blown extrusion process. The influence of the silica nanoparticle addition on mechanical and thermal properties of nanocomposite films was investigated by tensile tests; X-rays diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis and the correlation between properties was discussed. The results showed that incorporation of 2 % (wt %) of SiO2 nanoparticle in the blend matrix of PBAT/Starch, resulted in a gain of mechanical properties of blend.

  3. Microstructure characterization of the soda-lime-glass/copper-indium-gallium-selenium interface in Cu-poor Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jian, E-mail: wangjustb@gmail.com; Qiao, Yi; Zhu, Jie, E-mail: jiezhu@ustb.edu.cn

    2015-05-29

    The microstructure characteristics of the soda-lime-glass/Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (SLG/CIGS) interface in Cu-poor CIGS films are investigated by transmission electron microscopy and selected area electronic diffraction (SAED). The SAED patterns show very sharp and strong spots, indicating the main structure of CIGS chalcopyrite. Small dispersed crystals with size distribution from 2 to 5 nm seem to be embedded in amorphous matrix, and additional spots indicate the presence of an ordered vacancy compound (OVC). This observation is consistent with the Raman results, and the OVC phase with the nanoclusters exists in the CIGS matrix, instead of layer structure. Lattice distortion results in local changes in contrast. Some pseudo-disordered structure is observed, however, the structure is actually the chalcopyrite CIGS structure. 180° rotation twins are also observed at the SLG/CIGS interface. Lattice distortion is widely observed at the interface of the Cu-poor CIGS films, and the extra spots could be caused by different lattice orientations. - Highlights: • Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) were prepared on bare soda-lime-glass (SLG) substrates. • Microstructure of the SLG/CIGS interface was investigated. • An ordered vacancy compound (OVC) phase was observed. • The OVC phase with nanoclusters exists in the CIGS matrix, instead of layer structure. • 180° rotation twins were observed at the SLG/CIGS interface.

  4. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Zr-Si-N films prepared by rf-reactive sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Nose, M; Zhou, M; Mae, T; Meshii, M

    2002-01-01

    ZrN and ZrSiN films were prepared in an rf sputtering apparatus that has a pair of targets facing each other (referred to as the facing target--type rf sputtering). Films were deposited on silicon wafers without bias application or substrate heating in order to examine only the effect of silicon addition to the transition metal nitride films. The contents of zirconium, nitrogen, and silicon of the films were determined with an electron probe microanalyzer. The transmission electron microscopy studies were carried out in addition to x-ray diffraction. For the high resolution transmission electron microscopy observation, the field emission type transmission electron microscope was used, which provides a point-to-point resolution of 0.1 nm. The samples were observed both parallel and perpendicular to the film surface, which were plane and cross sectional views, respectively. In order to investigate the relationship between the mechanical properties and microstructure of films, the hardness was measured by a nano...

  5. Characterizations of maghemite thin films prepared by a sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, L. N., E-mail: lau7798@gmail.com; Ibrahim, N. B., E-mail: baayah@ukm.edu.my [School of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor. Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2015-09-25

    Iron is one of the abundant elements of Mother Nature and its compound, iron oxide is an interesting material to study since its discovery in the form of magnetite. It can exist in many phases such as hematite and maghemite, this unique nature has put it as a potential candidate in various applications. The aim of this work is to study the influence of different precursor concentrations on the microstructural and magnetic properties of iron oxide thin film. All samples were prepared via the sol-gel method followed by a spin coating technique on quartz substrates. Iron oxide films were confirmed as maghemite phase from X-ray diffraction patterns. The film morphology was examined by a field emission scanning electron microscope and it showed non-systematic value of average grain size and film thickness throughout the study. Hysteresis loop further confirmed that maghemite is a magnetic material when it was characterized by a vibrating sample magnetometer. The coercivity did not show any correlation with molarity. Nevertheless, it increased as the precursor concentration of the film increased due to the domain behaviour. In conclusion, maghemite thin films were successfully synthesized by the sol-gel method with different precursor concentrations in this work.

  6. Preparation of superhydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate)-silicon dioxide nanocomposite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Jinyan [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Jinming Road, Kaifeng, Henan Province 475004 (China); Chen Xinhua [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Jinming Road, Kaifeng, Henan Province 475004 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xuchang University, Xuchang 461000 (China); Kang Yingke; Yang Guangbin; Yu Laigui [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Jinming Road, Kaifeng, Henan Province 475004 (China); Zhang Pingyu, E-mail: pingyu@henu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Special Functional Materials, Henan University, Jinming Road, Kaifeng, Henan Province 475004 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Superhydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate)-SiO{sub 2} (coded as PMMA-SiO{sub 2}) nanocomposite films with micro-nanohierarchical structure were prepared via a simple approach in the absence of low surface-energy compounds. By spin-coating the suspension of hydrophobic silica (SiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles dispersed in PMMA solution, target nanocomposite films were obtained on glass slides. The wetting behavior of PMMA-SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films was investigated in relation to the dosage of SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles dispersed in PMMA solution. It was found that hydrophilic PMMA film was transferred to superhydrophobic PMMA-SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films when hydrophobic SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles were introduced into the PMMA solution at a high enough dosage (0.2 g and above). Resultant PMMA-SiO{sub 2} nanocomposite films had a static water contact angle of above 162{sup o}, showing promising applications in selfcleaning and waterproof for outer wall of building, outer covering for automobile, sanitary wares, and so forth.

  7. Preparation of superhydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate)-silicon dioxide nanocomposite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinyan; Chen Xinhua; Kang Yingke; Yang Guangbin; Yu Laigui; Zhang Pingyu

    2010-01-01

    Superhydrophobic poly(methyl methacrylate)-SiO 2 (coded as PMMA-SiO 2 ) nanocomposite films with micro-nanohierarchical structure were prepared via a simple approach in the absence of low surface-energy compounds. By spin-coating the suspension of hydrophobic silica (SiO 2 ) nanoparticles dispersed in PMMA solution, target nanocomposite films were obtained on glass slides. The wetting behavior of PMMA-SiO 2 nanocomposite films was investigated in relation to the dosage of SiO 2 nanoparticles dispersed in PMMA solution. It was found that hydrophilic PMMA film was transferred to superhydrophobic PMMA-SiO 2 nanocomposite films when hydrophobic SiO 2 nanoparticles were introduced into the PMMA solution at a high enough dosage (0.2 g and above). Resultant PMMA-SiO 2 nanocomposite films had a static water contact angle of above 162 o , showing promising applications in selfcleaning and waterproof for outer wall of building, outer covering for automobile, sanitary wares, and so forth.

  8. Synthesis and characterization of polyaniline/activated carbon composites and preparation of conductive films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zengin, Huseyin; Kalayci, Guellue

    2010-01-01

    Polyaniline was synthesized via polyaniline/activated carbon (PANI/AC) composites by in situ polymerization and ex situ solution mixing. PANI and PANI/AC composite films were prepared by drop-by-drop and spin coating methods. The electrical conductivities of HCl doped PANI film and PANI/AC composite films were measured according to the standard four-point-probe technique. The composite films exhibited an increase in electrical conductivity over neat PANI. PANI and PANI/AC composites were investigated by spectroscopic methods including UV-vis, FTIR and photoluminescence. UV-vis and FTIR studies showed that AC particles affect the quinoid units along the polymer backbone and indicate strong interactions between AC particles and quinoidal sites of PANI. The photoluminescence properties of PANI and PANI/AC composites were studied and the photoluminescence intensity of PANI/AC composites was higher than that of neat PANI. The increase of conductivity of PANI/AC composites may be partially due to the doping or impurity effect of AC, where the AC competes with chloride ions. The amount of weight loss and the thermostability of PANI and PANI/AC composites were determined from thermogravimetric analysis. The morphology of particles and films were examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). SEM measurements indicated that the AC particles were well dispersed and isolated in composite films.

  9. Visible light active TiO2 films prepared by electron beam deposition of noble metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Xinggang; Ma Jun; Liu Andong; Li Dejun; Huang Meidong; Deng Xiangyun

    2010-01-01

    TiO 2 films prepared by sol-gel method were modified by electron beam deposition of noble metals (Pt, Pd, and Ag). Effects of noble metals on the chemical and surface characteristics of the films were studied using XPS, TEM and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques. Photocatalytic activity of modified TiO 2 films was evaluated by studying the degradation of methyl orange dye solution under visible light UV irradiation. The result of TEM reveals that most of the surface area of TiO 2 is covered by tiny particles of noble metals with diameter less than 1 nm. Broad red shift of UV-Visible absorption band of modified photocatalysts was observed. The catalytic degradation of methyl orange in aqueous solutions under visible light illumination demonstrates a significant enhancement of photocatalytic activity of these films compared with the un-loaded films. The photocatalytic efficiency of modified TiO 2 films by this method is affected by the concentration of impregnating solution.

  10. Preparation and antibacterial properties of hybrid-zirconia films with silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azócar, Ignacio; Vargas, Esteban; Duran, Nicole; Arrieta, Abel; González, Evelyn

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobial effect of incorporating silver nanoparticles (AgNps) into zirconia matrix–polyether glycol was studied. AgNps of 4–6 nm in size were synthesized using the inverse micelles method, and different doses of metallic nanoparticles were incorporated into zirconia–polyether glycol mixtures during the ageing procedure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) of the modified hybrid film showed a homogenous distribution of 20–80 nm diameter AgNps, indicating agglomeration of these structures during film modification; such agglomerations were greater when increasing the dosage of the colloidal system. The AgNps-hybrid films showed higher antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria than for Gram-negative bacteria. Hybrid films prepared with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) stabilized AgNps presented enhanced antibacterial activity compared to that obtained through the addition of a high AgNO 3 concentration (0.3 wt%). -- Graphical abstract: Atomic Force Micrographs, top and cross section view, showing silver nanoparticles embedded in a zirconia–polyether glycol hybrid film. Highlights: ► Antibacterial activity of films (zirconia–polyether glycol) modified with silver nanoparticles. ► Biofilm formation is prevented. ► High sensibility against gram positive bacteria.

  11. Control of lipid oxidation by nonmigratory active packaging films prepared by photoinitiated graft polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fang; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2012-08-08

    Transition metal-promoted oxidation impacts the quality, shelf life, and nutrition of many packaged foods. Metal-chelating active packaging therefore offers a means to protect foods against oxidation. Herein, we report the development and characterization of nonmigratory metal-chelating active packaging. To prepare the films, carboxylic acids were grafted onto the surfaces of polypropylene films by photoinitiated graft polymerization of acrylic acid. Attenuated total reflectance/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle, scanning electron microscopy, and iron-chelating assay were used to characterize film properties. Graft polymerization yielded a carboxylic acid density of 68.67 ± 9.99 nmol per cm(2) film, with ferrous iron-chelating activity of 71.07 ± 12.95 nmol per cm(2). The functionalized films extended the lag phase of lipid oxidation in a soybean oil-in-water emulsion system from 2 to 9 days. The application of such nonmigratory active packaging films represents a promising approach to reduce additive use while maintaining food quality.

  12. Electrical transport properties of MoO3 thin films prepared by laser assisted evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Carreno, L.D.; Pardo, A.; Zuluaga, M.; Torres, J.; Alfonso, J.E.; Cortes-Bracho, O.L.

    2007-01-01

    In the present paper the growth of MoO 3 thin films on common glass substrates are described. The films were prepared by evaporation of a MoO 3 target with a CO 2 laser (10.6 μm), operating in the continuous wave mode. The effect of substrate temperature on the crystallographic structure and electrical properties of MoO 3 thin films was studied. The chemical composition of the different species formed on the films surface was obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the crystalline structure was studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrical conductivity of the films was determined using the standard four-points method. Conductivity of the films varied from de 10 -9 to 10 -5 (Ωcm) -1 in the 300-600 K temperature range. Arrhenius-type plots for the electrical conductivity indicate the presence of at least two different conduction mechanisms. The I-V characteristic curve shows an ohmic behavior only in the 4.5-60 V range. Outside this interval the I-V curve has a behavior described by a power law. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Electrical transport properties of MoO{sub 3} thin films prepared by laser assisted evaporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Carreno, L.D.; Pardo, A.; Zuluaga, M.; Torres, J.; Alfonso, J.E. [Group of Materials with Technological Applications, GMAT, Physics Department, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Cortes-Bracho, O.L. [Group of Materials with Technological Applications, GMAT, Physics Department, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia); Electronic Engineering Department, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia)

    2007-07-01

    In the present paper the growth of MoO{sub 3} thin films on common glass substrates are described. The films were prepared by evaporation of a MoO{sub 3} target with a CO{sub 2} laser (10.6 {mu}m), operating in the continuous wave mode. The effect of substrate temperature on the crystallographic structure and electrical properties of MoO{sub 3} thin films was studied. The chemical composition of the different species formed on the films surface was obtained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the crystalline structure was studied with X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrical conductivity of the films was determined using the standard four-points method. Conductivity of the films varied from de 10{sup -9} to 10{sup -5} ({omega}cm){sup -1} in the 300-600 K temperature range. Arrhenius-type plots for the electrical conductivity indicate the presence of at least two different conduction mechanisms. The I-V characteristic curve shows an ohmic behavior only in the 4.5-60 V range. Outside this interval the I-V curve has a behavior described by a power law. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Preparation, Structural and Dielectric Properties of Solution Grown Polyvinyl Alcohol(PVA) Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia, Rakhi; Shukla, Neeraj K.; Sharma, Ambika

    2017-08-01

    Flexible dielectrics with high permittivity have been investigated extensively due to their applications in electronic industry. In this work, structural and electrical characteristics of polymer based film have been analysed. Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) film was prepared by solution casting method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization technique is used to investigate the structural properties. The semi-crystalline nature has been determined by the analysis of the obtained XRD pattern. Electrical properties of the synthesized film have been analysed from the C-V and I-V curves obtained at various frequencies and temperatures. Low conductivity values confirm the insulating behaviour of the film. However, it is found that conductivity increases with temperature. Also, the dielectric permittivity is found to be higher at lower frequencies and higher temperatures, that proves PVA to be an excellent dielectric material which can be used in interface electronics. Dielectric behaviour of the film has been explained based on dipole orientations to slow and fast varying electric field. However further engineering can be done to modulate the structural, electrical properties of the film.

  15. Preparation of Nd-doped BiFeO{sub 3} films and their electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Meng [Key Laboratory of Auxiliary Chemistry and Technology for Chemical Industry, Ministry of Education of China, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Weiyang District, Xi' an 710021 (China); Tan Guoqiang, E-mail: tan3114@163.com [Key Laboratory of Auxiliary Chemistry and Technology for Chemical Industry, Ministry of Education of China, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Weiyang District, Xi' an 710021 (China); Xue Xu; Xia Ao; Ren Huijun [Key Laboratory of Auxiliary Chemistry and Technology for Chemical Industry, Ministry of Education of China, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology, Weiyang District, Xi' an 710021 (China)

    2012-09-01

    The Nd-doped BiFeO{sub 3} thin films were prepared on SnO{sub 2}(FTO) substrates spin-coated by the sol-gel method using Nd(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O, Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{center_dot}9H{sub 2}O and Bi(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{center_dot}5H{sub 2}O as raw materials. The microstructure and electric properties of the BiFeO{sub 3} thin films were characterized and tested. The results indicate that the diffraction peak of the Nd-doped BiFeO{sub 3} films is shifted towards right as the doping amounts are increased. The structure is transformed from the rhombohedral to pseudotetragonal phase. The crystal grain is changed from an elliptical to irregular polyhedron. Structure transition occurring in the Bi{sub 0.85}Nd{sub 0.15}FeO{sub 3} films gives rise to the largest Pr of 64 {mu}C/cm{sup 2}. The leakage conductance of the Nd doped thin films is reduced. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss of Bi{sub 0.85}Nd{sub 0.15}FeO{sub 3} thin film at 10 kHz are 190 and 0.017 respectively.

  16. Preparation and antibacterial properties of hybrid-zirconia films with silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azocar, Ignacio, E-mail: manuel.azocar@usach.cl [Departamento de Quimica de los Materiales, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Avenida Bernardo O' Higgins 3363, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile); Vargas, Esteban [Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Metalurgia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH (Chile); Duran, Nicole [Departamento de Quimica de los Materiales, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Avenida Bernardo O' Higgins 3363, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile); Arrieta, Abel [Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH (Chile); Gonzalez, Evelyn [Departamento de Quimica de los Materiales, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH, Avenida Bernardo O' Higgins 3363, Casilla 40, Correo 33, Santiago (Chile); Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Metalurgia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH (Chile); Departamento de Biologia, Facultad de Quimica y Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Chile, USACH (Chile); Departamento de Quimica Farmacologica y Toxicologica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad de Chile, Sergio Livingstone Polhammer 1007, Santiago (Chile); and others

    2012-11-15

    The antimicrobial effect of incorporating silver nanoparticles (AgNps) into zirconia matrix-polyether glycol was studied. AgNps of 4-6 nm in size were synthesized using the inverse micelles method, and different doses of metallic nanoparticles were incorporated into zirconia-polyether glycol mixtures during the ageing procedure. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) of the modified hybrid film showed a homogenous distribution of 20-80 nm diameter AgNps, indicating agglomeration of these structures during film modification; such agglomerations were greater when increasing the dosage of the colloidal system. The AgNps-hybrid films showed higher antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive bacteria than for Gram-negative bacteria. Hybrid films prepared with dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) stabilized AgNps presented enhanced antibacterial activity compared to that obtained through the addition of a high AgNO{sub 3} concentration (0.3 wt%). -- Graphical abstract: Atomic Force Micrographs, top and cross section view, showing silver nanoparticles embedded in a zirconia-polyether glycol hybrid film. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Antibacterial activity of films (zirconia-polyether glycol) modified with silver nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biofilm formation is prevented. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High sensibility against gram positive bacteria.

  17. Strain dependent magnetic properties of LSMO films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prajapat, C.L.; Gupta, N.; Singh, M.R.; Mishra, P.K.; Gupta, S.K.; Ravikumar, G.; Bhattacharya, D.; Singh, Surendra; Basu, S.; Roul, B.K.

    2014-01-01

    Perovskite manganites exhibiting colossal magnetoresistance (CMR) are ideal candidates for growth of epitaxial multilayers with oxide high temperature superconductors owing to their structural similarity and comparable growth conditions. They are widely employed in studies on superconductor/ferromagnet-superlattices. Among the manganites, La 2/3 Sr 1/3 MnO 3 (LSMO) has one of the highest FM transition temperatures (above 300K). Magnetic properties of films that are dependent on strain (such as coercivity) can be tuned by varying deposition conditions, by using different substrates and varying thickness of films in nano range. Lattice mismatch between LSMO with STO and MgO substrates are 0.6% and 8% respectively. This mismatch produces tensile strain in LSMO films and changes its magnetic properties. We study the change in magnetic properties of epitaxial LSMO thin films on MgO (100) and STO (100) substrates with varying thickness to change the strain in the film. LSMO films are prepared by pulsed laser deposition

  18. The preparation of ZnO based gas-sensing thin films by ink-jet printing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Wenfeng; Zhao Yan; Zhang Caibei

    2005-01-01

    An ink-jet printing technique was applied to prepare ZnO based gas-sensing thin films. ZnO inks with appropriate viscosity and surface tension were prepared by sol-gel techniques, and printed onto substrates using a commercial printer. After the drying and heating treatment processes, continuous ZnO films were formed and studied by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and by a home-made gas sensitivity measuring system. It was found that the morphology and electrical properties of the films changed significantly with the thickness of the films, which can be adjusted simply by printing on the film with increasing frequency. Highest resistance and sensitivity to acetone vapor were obtained when the film was prepared by printing only once on it. Different dopants with certain concentrations could be added into the films by printing with different dopant inks and printing frequency. All Pd, Ag, and ZrO 2 dopants increased both the resistivity and the sensitivity of the films (180 ppm acetone). This work showed that the ink-jet printing technique was a convenient and low cost method to prepare films with controlled film thickness and dopant concentration

  19. Selenium in edible mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    Selenium is vital to human health. This article is a compendium of virtually all the published data on total selenium concentrations, its distribution in fruitbody, bioconcentration factors, and chemical forms in wild-grown, cultivated, and selenium-enriched mushrooms worldwide. Of the 190 species reviewed (belonging to 21 families and 56 genera), most are considered edible, and a few selected data relate to inedible mushrooms. Most of edible mushroom species examined until now are selenium-poor (cesarea, A. campestris, A. edulis, A. macrosporus, and A. silvaticus. A particularly rich source of selenium could be obtained from selenium-enriched mushrooms that are cultivated on a substrate fortified with selenium (as inorganic salt or selenized-yeast). The Se-enriched Champignon Mushroom could contain up to 30 or 110 microg Se/g dw, while the Varnished Polypore (Ganoderma lucidum) could contain up to 72 microg Se/g dw. An increasingly growing database on chemical forms of selenium of mushrooms indicates that the seleno-compounds identified in carpophore include selenocysteine, selenomethionine, Se-methylselenocysteine, selenite, and several unidentified seleno-compounds; their proportions vary widely. Some aspects of environmental selenium occurrence and human body pharmacokinetics and nutritional needs will also be briefly discussed in this review.

  20. Preparation and performance of Ecobras/bentonite biodegrading films; Preparacao e desempenho de filmes polimericos biodegradaveis a base de Ecobras e bentonita

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Ana Nery M.; Melo, Nadja M.C.; Canedo, Eduardo L.; Carvalho, Laura H., E-mail: laura@dema.ufcg.edu.br [Unidade Academica de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEMa/UFCG) Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Araujo, Arthur R.A. [Felinto Industria e Comercio Ltda., Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Compounds based on the biodegradable polymer Ecobras and bentonite clay in its pristine, sonicated, and organically modified with a quaternary ammonium salt forms were prepared as flat films. Clays and compounds were characterized by x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Mechanical properties of the films were determined according to pertinent ASTM standards. Reasonable properties, higher than those of the matrix, were obtained with compounds prepared with purified clays and organoclays, particularly for low clay loading. (author)

  1. Evaluating the residual stress in PbTiO3 thin films prepared by a polymeric chemical method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valim, D; Filho, A G Souza; Freire, P T C; Filho, J Mendes; Guarany, C A; Reis, R N; Araujo, E B

    2004-01-01

    We report a study of residual stress in PbTiO 3 (PT) thin films prepared on Si substrates by a polymeric chemical method. The E(1TO) frequency was used to evaluate the residual stress through an empirical equation available for bulk PT. We find that the residual stress in PT films increases as the film thickness decreases and conclude that it originates essentially from the contributions of extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Polarized Raman experiments showed that the PT films prepared by a polymeric chemical method are somewhat a-domain (polar axis c parallel to the substrate) oriented

  2. Selenium- or tellurium- containing bile acids and derivatives thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monks, R.; Riley, A.L.M.

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to the preparation of selenium and tellurium derivatives, particularly γ-emitting radioactive derivatives of bile acids and bile salts. Such compounds are valuable in the examination of body function, especially small bowel function. (author)

  3. Self-assembled metal nano-multilayered film prepared by co-sputtering method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tianle; Fu, Licai; Qin, Wen; Zhu, Jiajun; Yang, Wulin; Li, Deyi; Zhou, Lingping

    2018-03-01

    Nano-multilayered film is usually prepared by the arrangement deposition of different materials. In this paper, a self-assembled nano-multilayered film was deposited by simultaneous sputtering of Cu and W. The Cu/W nano-multilayered film was accumulated by W-rich layer and Cu-rich layer. Smooth interfaces with consecutive composition variation and semi-coherent even coherent relationship were identified, indicating that a spinodal-like structure with a modulation wavelength of about 20 nm formed during co-deposition process. The participation of diffusion barrier element, such as W, is believed the essential to obtain the nano-multilayered structure besides the technological parameters.

  4. The preparation and characterization of CNx film with high nitrogen content by cathode electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.-T.; Cao, C.-B.; Lv Qiang; Li Chao; Zhu Hesun

    2003-01-01

    CN x thin film with high nitrogen content was prepared on ITO conductive glass substrates by cathode electrodeposition, using dicyandiamide (C 2 H 4 N 4 ) in acetone as precursors. The surface morphologies, atomic bonding state, and chemical composition were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The CN x particles got nanometer level with the average size of 80 nm. The maximum value of the N/C atomic ratio was more than 1. Carbon and nitrogen existed mainly in the form of tetrahedral C-N bonds, with a few C-N bonds. From UV-Vis absorption spectrum, we found that during near-ultraviolet area the deposited CN x films appeared nonlinear optical absorption phenomena, and the ultraviolet light (200-280 nm) could be transmitted. The electrical resistivities of the films were in the range of 10 12 -10 16 Ω cm

  5. Study of the structural evolutions of crystalline tungsten oxide films prepared using hot-filament CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, P X; Wang, X P; Zhang, H X; Yang, B Q; Wang, Z B; Gonzalez-BerrIos, A; Morell, G; Weiner, B

    2007-01-01

    Structural evolutions of tungsten oxide(WO 3 ) samples on different substrates are studied using Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The WO 3 samples are prepared using hot-filament CVD techniques. The focus of the study is on the evolutions of nano structures at different stages following deposition time. The experimental measurements reveal evolutions of the surface structures from uniform film to fractal-like structures, and eventually to nano particles, and crystalline structures from mono (0 1 0) crystalline thin film to polycrystalline thick film developments. The effect of high temperature on the nanostructured WO 3 is also investigated. Well-aligned nanoscale WO 3 rod arrays are obtained at a substrate temperature of up to 1400 deg. C. Further increasing the substrate temperature yields microscale crystalline WO 3 particles

  6. Preparation and Properties of Nano Dy/TiO2 Films Supported on High Silica Fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HUANG Feng-ping

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the photocatalytic degradation performance and stability of nano TiO2, Dy doped TiO2 supported on high silica glass fiber was prepared by microwave-sol method combined with dip-coating method. The samples were analyzed by XRD,SEM,PL,EDS,XPS and other equipments for phase composition of films,surface topography, surface elements and the stability of films. And the effects of pretreatment solution and coating method on the high-silica fiber film were investigated.In addition, the photocatalytic performance of the sample has been investigated by degrading methylene blue. The results show that the catalytic stability of Dy doping TiO2 nanofilms supported on high silica glass fiber can be improved and the degradation of methyl orange can reach 94% in 30min after 5 times of coating treatment.

  7. Gas Sensing of Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. YADAV

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluorine doped tin oxide (F: SnO2 films have been prepared onto the amorphous glass substrates by a spray pyrolysis. XRD studies reveal that the material deposited is polycrystalline SnO2 and have tetragonal structure. It is observed that films are highly orientated along (200 direction. The direct optical band gap energy for the F: SnO2 films are found to be 4.15 eV. Gas sensing properties of the sensor were checked against combustible gases like H2, CO2 CO, C3H8, CH4.The H2 sensitivity of the F-doped SnO2 sensor was found to be increased. The increase in the sensitivity is discussed in terms of increased resistivity and reduced permeation of gaseous oxygen into the underlying sensing layer due to the surface modification of the sensor.

  8. Role of Annealing Temperature on Morphology of Alumina Thin Film Prepared by Wet-Chemical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Pandey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we reported the compositional, morphological and structural properties of the alumina(Al2O3 thin films prepared by sol-gel technique and annealed between 800 0C to 1200 0C for 1-hour in an air atmosphere. The deposited films were polycrystalline in nature. Thin films were found uniform and adherent to the alumina substrate. Effect of annealing temperature on structural parameters such as pore size and surface area were calculated. The result indicates that pore size and surface area was decreased by increasing annealing temperature. The material characterization was done by field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM and Brunaur, Emmet and Teller (BET.

  9. Preparation and properties of [(NdFeB)x/(Nb)z]n multi-layer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, J.-L.; Chin, T.-S.; Yao, Y.-D.; Melsheimer, A.; Fisher, S.; Drogen, T.; Kelsch, M.; Kronmueller, H.

    2003-01-01

    Multi-layer [(NdFeB) x /(Nb) z ] n films with 200 nm≥x≥10 nm, 10 nm≥z≥0, 40≥n≥2, prepared by ion beam sputtering and subsequent annealing, show significantly enhanced coercivity due to the reduced grain size that enhances the anisotropy of individual grains. After annealing at 630 deg. C, some Nd 2 Fe 14 B grains were enriched with Nb and isolated as the thickness of the Nb spacer layer increases. For multi-layer (NdFeB x /Nb z ) n films with 100 nm ≥x≥25 nm, 5 nm≥z≥2 nm, their coercivity and remanence ratio are better than that of a single NdFeB film. Up to 17.8 kOe room temperature coercivity has been obtained for a sample with x=25 nm, z=5 nm and n=16

  10. Iron Oxide Films Prepared by Rapid Thermal Processing for Solar Energy Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickman, B; Bastos Fanta, A; Burrows, A; Hellman, A; Wagner, J B; Iandolo, B

    2017-01-16

    Hematite is a promising and extensively investigated material for various photoelectrochemical (PEC) processes for energy conversion and storage, in particular for oxidation reactions. Thermal treatments during synthesis of hematite are found to affect the performance of hematite electrodes considerably. Herein, we present hematite thin films fabricated via one-step oxidation of Fe by rapid thermal processing (RTP). In particular, we investigate the effect of oxidation temperature on the PEC properties of hematite. Films prepared at 750 °C show the highest activity towards water oxidation. These films show the largest average grain size and the highest charge carrier density, as determined from electron microscopy and impedance spectroscopy analysis. We believe that the fast processing enabled by RTP makes this technique a preferred method for investigation of novel materials and architectures, potentially also on nanostructured electrodes, where retaining high surface area is crucial to maximize performance.

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Silica/Polyamide-imide Nanocomposite Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Jong-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The functional silica/polyamide-imide composite films were prepared via simple ultrasonic blending, after the silica nanoparticles were modified by cationic surfactant—cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB. The composite films were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM, thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA and thermomechanical analysis (TMA. CTAB-modified silica nanoparticles were well dispersed in the polyamide-imide matrix, and the amount of silica nanoparticles to PAI was investigated to be from 2 to 10 wt%. Especially, the coefficients of thermal expansion (CET continuously decreased with the amount of silica particles increasing. The high thermal stability and low coefficient of thermal expansion showed that the nanocomposite films can be widely used in the enamel wire industry.

  12. Nanostructured Cu2O thin film electrodes prepared by electrodeposition for rechargeable lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijani, S.; Gabas, M.; Martinez, L.; Ramos-Barrado, J.R.; Morales, J.; Sanchez, L.

    2007-01-01

    Uniform films of Cu 2 O with thickness below 1 μm were prepared from a Cu(II) lactate solution. The deposits were compact and of high purity with the particle size varying from 60 to 400 nm. They were tested as electrodes in lithium batteries and their electrochemical response was consistent with the Cu 2 O + 2e - + 2Li + ↔ 2Cu + Li 2 O reaction. Nevertheless, the reversibility of this reaction was dependent on thickness. Kinetic factors associated with the poor electronic conductivity of Cu 2 O could account for the relevance of the influence of film thickness. The thinnest film, about 300 nm thick, exhibited the best electrochemical performance by sustaining a specific capacity as high as 350 Ah kg -1

  13. Thin polymer films prepared by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel, Elidiane C.; Silva, Paulo A.F.; Mota, Rogerio P.; Schreiner, Wido H.; Cruz, Nilson C.

    2005-01-01

    This work describes an investigation of the properties of polymer films prepared by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition. Films were synthesized from low pressure benzene glow discharges, biasing the samples with 25 kV negative pulses. The total energy deposited in the growing layer was varied tailoring simultaneously pulse frequency and duty cycle. The effect of the pulse characteristics on the chemical composition and mechanical properties of the films was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nanoindentation, respectively. Analysis of the deconvoluted C 1s XPS peaks demonstrated that oxygen was incorporated in all the samples. The chemical modifications induced structural reorganization, characterized by chain cross-linking and unsaturation, affecting material properties. Hardness and plastic resistance parameter increased under certain bombardment conditions. An interpretation is proposed in terms of the total energy delivered to the growing layer

  14. (0 0 2-oriented growth and morphologies of ZnO thin films prepared by sol-gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Dongyun

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Zinc acetate was used as a starting material to prepare Zn-solutions from solvents and ligands with different boiling temperature. The ZnO thin films were prepared on Si(1 0 0 substrates by spin-coating method. The effect of baking temperature and boiling temperature of the solvents and ligands on their morphologies and orientation was investigated. The solvents and ligands with high boiling temperature were favorable for relaxation of mechanical stress to form the smooth ZnO thin films. As the solvents and ligands with low boiling temperature were used to prepare Zn-solutions, the prepared ZnO thin films showed (0 0 2 preferred orientation. As n-propanol, 2-methoxyethanol, 2-(methylaminoethanol and monoethanolamine were used to prepare Zn-solutions, highly (0 0 2-oriented ZnO thin films were formed by adjusting the baking temperature.

  15. Novel silk fibroin films prepared by formic acid/hydroxyapatite dissolution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming, Jinfa; Liu, Zhi; Bie, Shiyu; Zhang, Feng; Zuo, Baoqi

    2014-01-01

    Bombyx mori silk fibroin from the silkworm was firstly found to be soluble in formic acid/hydroxyapatite system. The rheological behavior of silk fibroin solution was significantly influenced by HAp contents in dissolved solution. At the same time, silk fibroin nanofibers were observed in dissolved solution with 103.6 ± 20.4 nm in diameter. Moreover, the structure behavior of SF films prepared by formic acid/hydroxyapatite dissolution method was examined. The secondary structure of silk fibroin films was attributed to silk II structure (β-sheet), indicating that the hydroxyapatite contents in dissolved solution were not significantly affected by the structure of silk fibroin. The X-ray diffraction results exhibited obviously hydroxyapatite crystalline nature existing in silk fibroin films; however, when the hydroxyapatite content was 5.0 wt.% in dissolved solution, some hydroxyapatite crystals were converted to calcium hydrogen phosphate dehydrate in silk fibroin dissolution process. This result was also confirmed by Fourier transform infrared analysis and DSC measurement. In addition, silk fibroin films prepared by this dissolution method had higher breaking strength and extension at break. Based on these analyses, an understanding of novel SF dissolution method may provide an additional tool for designing and synthesizing advanced materials with more complex structures, which should be helpful in different fields, including biomaterial applications. - Highlights: • SF fibers were firstly successfully dissolved in FA/HAp solution. • The rheological behavior of SF solution was significantly influenced by HAp contents. • SF nanofibrils were observed in FA/HAp solution with 103.6 ± 20.4 nm in diameter. • SF films prepared by FA/HAp dissolution method had higher mechanical properties

  16. Novel silk fibroin films prepared by formic acid/hydroxyapatite dissolution method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Jinfa, E-mail: jinfa.ming@gmail.com [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215021 (China); Liu, Zhi; Bie, Shiyu [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215021 (China); Zhang, Feng [Jiangsu Province Key Laboratory of Stem Cell Research, Medical College, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Zuo, Baoqi, E-mail: bqzuo@suda.edu.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); College of Textile and Clothing Engineering, Soochow University, Suzhou 215021 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Bombyx mori silk fibroin from the silkworm was firstly found to be soluble in formic acid/hydroxyapatite system. The rheological behavior of silk fibroin solution was significantly influenced by HAp contents in dissolved solution. At the same time, silk fibroin nanofibers were observed in dissolved solution with 103.6 ± 20.4 nm in diameter. Moreover, the structure behavior of SF films prepared by formic acid/hydroxyapatite dissolution method was examined. The secondary structure of silk fibroin films was attributed to silk II structure (β-sheet), indicating that the hydroxyapatite contents in dissolved solution were not significantly affected by the structure of silk fibroin. The X-ray diffraction results exhibited obviously hydroxyapatite crystalline nature existing in silk fibroin films; however, when the hydroxyapatite content was 5.0 wt.% in dissolved solution, some hydroxyapatite crystals were converted to calcium hydrogen phosphate dehydrate in silk fibroin dissolution process. This result was also confirmed by Fourier transform infrared analysis and DSC measurement. In addition, silk fibroin films prepared by this dissolution method had higher breaking strength and extension at break. Based on these analyses, an understanding of novel SF dissolution method may provide an additional tool for designing and synthesizing advanced materials with more complex structures, which should be helpful in different fields, including biomaterial applications. - Highlights: • SF fibers were firstly successfully dissolved in FA/HAp solution. • The rheological behavior of SF solution was significantly influenced by HAp contents. • SF nanofibrils were observed in FA/HAp solution with 103.6 ± 20.4 nm in diameter. • SF films prepared by FA/HAp dissolution method had higher mechanical properties.

  17. Preparation of titanium dioxide films on etched aluminum foil by vacuum infiltration and anodizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiang, Lian, E-mail: xianglian93@163.com; Park, Sang-Shik, E-mail: parkss@knu.ac.kr

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} composite films were prepared onto high voltage Al etching foil. • The coated and anodized samples showed multi-layer structures. • The capacitances of TiO{sub 2} coated samples showed an increase of 42%. • The increase in capacitance was mainly due to the Al–Ti composite layer. - Abstract: Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–TiO{sub 2} (Al–Ti) composite oxide films are a promising dielectric material for future use in capacitors. In this study, TiO{sub 2} films were prepared on etched Al foils by vacuum infiltration. TiO{sub 2} films prepared using a sol–gel process were annealed at various temperatures (450, 500, and 550 °C) for different time durations (10, 30, and 60 min) for 4 cycles, and then anodized at 100 V. The specimens were characterized using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and field emission transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the tunnels of the specimens feature a multi-layer structure consisting of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} outer layer, an Al–Ti composite oxide middle layer, and an aluminum hydrate inner layer. The electrical properties of the specimens, such as the withstanding voltage and specific capacitance, were also measured. Compared to specimens without TiO{sub 2} coating, the specific capacitances of the TiO{sub 2}-coated specimens are increased. The specific capacitance of the anode Al foil with TiO{sub 2} coating increased by 42% compared to that of a specimen without TiO{sub 2} coating when annealed at 550 °C for 10 min. These composite oxide films could enhance the specific capacitance of anode Al foils used in dielectric materials.

  18. Preparation of Lead Magnesium Niobate-Lead Zirconate Titanate Films and Their Crystallization Behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tursiloadi, Silvester

    2002-01-01

    The thin films with composition near morpotropic phase boundary (MPB) of the system xPb(Mg 1 /3, Nb 2 /3) O 3 -yPbTiO 3 -zPbZrO 3 (x = 0-0.35, y = 0.47 and z = 0.53), were prepared by sol-gel method. The starting materials were consisted of Pb(iso-OC 3 H 7 ) 2 , Zr(n-OC 4 H 9 ) 4 , Ti(iso-OC 3 H 7 ) 4 , Mg(CH 3 COO) 2 4H 2 O and Nb(OC 2 H 5 ) 5 . The l-propanol was used as solvent. The concentration of PMN-PT-PZ in coating solution was 0.7 M, and the pH of the solution was 4.5. The thin films were prepared by dip coating and spin coating. The crystallization behaviors of the PMN-PT-PZ thin films showed that the formation of perovskite phase at low temperature becomes difficult with increasing the content of PMN. The amounts of pyrochlore and perovskite phase in PMN-PT-PZ films depended on the heating temperatures, and PMN contents. Single-phase perovskite was found for the coated films containing 0 and 12.5 mol% after calculating at 600 o C, 21 mol% after calculating at 700 o C, and 30 mol% after calculating at 750 o C. Single-phase perovskite of coated films will never be found when the content of PMN was 35 mol%

  19. Topotactic preparation of textured alumina ceramics from dehydroxylation of gibbsite films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louaer, Seif-Eddine; Wang, Yao, E-mail: yao@buaa.edu.cn; Guo, Lin, E-mail: guolin@buaa.edu.cn

    2014-11-14

    In this paper, textured alumina ceramics were prepared from dehydroxylation of gibbsite films and the pseudomorphic and topotactic nature of the dehydroxylation of textured gibbsite films has been investigated. First, the precursor film with a (001)-textured structure was obtained via vacuum filtration deposition of diluted aqueous suspensions of gibbsite nanoplatelets. Subsequently, (001)-textured α-alumina ceramics were successfully achieved by sintering of the deposited gibbsite films without addition of α-alumina seeds. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) results show that, during the phase transition from gibbsite to α-alumina, both layered morphology and crystal's axis orientation have been retained to a considerable extent. For the first time, a direct XRD evidence of gibbsite topotactic dehydroxylation to the α-alumina phase is presented. It is believed that the method described here exploits gibbsite's pseudomorphic and topotactic dehydroxylation, not on individual particles scale but on a bulk form. The resulting structure can be considered as inorganic scaffolds which can have applications for fabrication of dense, textured alumina-based ceramics and other layered/textured nanocomposites. - Highlights: • Gibbsite nanoplatelets were assembled on their basal plane to form (001)-textured films. • Textured alumina ceramics were prepared by sintering textured gibbsite films without addition of α-alumina seeds. • Both pseudomorphic and topotactic aspects were exploited in bulk form instead of individual nanoparticulate size. • Direct XRD evidence of the topotactic dehydroxylation from gibbsite to α-alumina is presented in this work.

  20. Topotactic preparation of textured alumina ceramics from dehydroxylation of gibbsite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louaer, Seif-Eddine; Wang, Yao; Guo, Lin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, textured alumina ceramics were prepared from dehydroxylation of gibbsite films and the pseudomorphic and topotactic nature of the dehydroxylation of textured gibbsite films has been investigated. First, the precursor film with a (001)-textured structure was obtained via vacuum filtration deposition of diluted aqueous suspensions of gibbsite nanoplatelets. Subsequently, (001)-textured α-alumina ceramics were successfully achieved by sintering of the deposited gibbsite films without addition of α-alumina seeds. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) results show that, during the phase transition from gibbsite to α-alumina, both layered morphology and crystal's axis orientation have been retained to a considerable extent. For the first time, a direct XRD evidence of gibbsite topotactic dehydroxylation to the α-alumina phase is presented. It is believed that the method described here exploits gibbsite's pseudomorphic and topotactic dehydroxylation, not on individual particles scale but on a bulk form. The resulting structure can be considered as inorganic scaffolds which can have applications for fabrication of dense, textured alumina-based ceramics and other layered/textured nanocomposites. - Highlights: • Gibbsite nanoplatelets were assembled on their basal plane to form (001)-textured films. • Textured alumina ceramics were prepared by sintering textured gibbsite films without addition of α-alumina seeds. • Both pseudomorphic and topotactic aspects were exploited in bulk form instead of individual nanoparticulate size. • Direct XRD evidence of the topotactic dehydroxylation from gibbsite to α-alumina is presented in this work

  1. Comparative study of ZnO thin films prepared by different sol-gel route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Esmaieli Ghodsi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available   Retraction Notice    The paper "Comparative study of ZnO thin films prepared by different sol-gel route" by H. Absalan and F. E. Ghodsi, which appeared in Iranian Journal of Physics Research, Vol. 11, No. 4, 423-428 (in Farsi is translation of the paper "Comparative Study of ZnO Thin Films Prepared by Different Sol-Gel Route" by F. E. Ghodsi and H. Absalan, which appeared in ACTA PHYSICA POLONICA A, Vol 118 (2010 (in English and for this reason is retracted from this journal.The corresponding author  (and also the first author is the only responsible person for this action.   

  2. Preparation of titanium dioxide films on etched aluminum foil by vacuum infiltration and anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Lian; Park, Sang-Shik

    2016-12-01

    Al2O3-TiO2 (Al-Ti) composite oxide films are a promising dielectric material for future use in capacitors. In this study, TiO2 films were prepared on etched Al foils by vacuum infiltration. TiO2 films prepared using a sol-gel process were annealed at various temperatures (450, 500, and 550 °C) for different time durations (10, 30, and 60 min) for 4 cycles, and then anodized at 100 V. The specimens were characterized using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and field emission transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the tunnels of the specimens feature a multi-layer structure consisting of an Al2O3 outer layer, an Al-Ti composite oxide middle layer, and an aluminum hydrate inner layer. The electrical properties of the specimens, such as the withstanding voltage and specific capacitance, were also measured. Compared to specimens without TiO2 coating, the specific capacitances of the TiO2-coated specimens are increased. The specific capacitance of the anode Al foil with TiO2 coating increased by 42% compared to that of a specimen without TiO2 coating when annealed at 550 °C for 10 min. These composite oxide films could enhance the specific capacitance of anode Al foils used in dielectric materials.

  3. Cell-compatible conducting polyaniline films prepared in colloidal dispersion mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kašpárková, Věra; Humpolíček, Petr; Capáková, Zdenka; Bober, Patrycja; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Rejmontová, Petra; Junkar, Ita; Lehocký, Marián; Mozetič, Miran

    2017-09-01

    Conducting polyaniline can be prepared and modified using several procedures, all of which can significantly influence its applicability in different fields of biomedicine or biotechnology. The modifications of surface properties are crucial with respect to the possible applications of this polymer in tissue engineering or as biosensors. Innovative technique for preparing polyaniline films via in-situ polymerization in colloidal dispersion mode using four stabilizers (poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone; sodium dodecylsulfate; Tween 20 and Pluronic F108) was developed. The surface energy, conductivity, spectroscopic features, and cell compatibility of thin polyaniline films were determined using contact-angle measurement, the van der Pauw method, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and assay conducted on mouse fibroblasts, respectively. The stabilizers significantly influenced not only the surface and electrical properties of the films but also their cell compatibility. Sodium dodecylsulfate seems preferentially to combine both the high conductivity and good cell compatibility. Moreover, the films with sodium dodecylsulfate were non-irritant for skin, which was confirmed by their in-vitro exposure to the 3D-reconstructed human tissue model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Preparation of CulnSe2 thin films by paste coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Precursor pastes were obtained by milling Cu-In alloys and Se powders.CuInSe2 thin films were successfully prepared by precursor layers,which were coated using these pastes,and were annealed in a H2 atmosphere.The pastes were tested by laser particle diameter analyzer,simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis instruments (TG-DTA),and X-ray diffractometry (XRD).Selenized films were characterized by XRD,scanning electron microscopy (SEM),and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS).The results indicate that chalcopyrite CuInSe2 is formed at 180℃ and the crystallinity of this phase is improved as the temperature rises.All the CuInSe2 thin films,which were annealed at various temperatures,exhibit the preferred orientation along the (112) plane.The compression of precursor layers before selenization step is one oftbe most essential factors for the preparation of perfect CulnSe2 thin films.

  5. Structural properties of pure and Fe-doped Yb films prepared by vapor condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas-Ayala, C., E-mail: chachi@cbpf.br [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro 22290-180, RJ (Brazil); Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, P.O.B. 14-149, Lima 14 (Peru); Passamani, E.C. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Vitória 29075-910, ES (Brazil); Suguihiro, N.M. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro 22290-180, RJ (Brazil); Litterst, F.J. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro 22290-180, RJ (Brazil); Institut für Physik der Kondensierten Materie, Technische Universität Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Baggio Saitovitch, E. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rio de Janeiro 22290-180, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    Ytterbium and iron-doped ytterbium films were prepared by vapor quenching on Kapton substrates at room temperature. Structural characterization was performed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The aim was to study the microstructure of pure and iron-doped films and thereby to understand the effects induced by iron incorporation. A coexistence of face centered cubic and hexagonal close packed-like structures was observed, the cubic-type structure being the dominant contribution. There is an apparent thickness dependence of the cubic/hexagonal relative ratios in the case of pure ytterbium. Iron-clusters induce a crystalline texture effect, but do not influence the cubic/hexagonal volume fraction. A schematic model is proposed for the microstructure of un-doped and iron-doped films including the cubic- and hexagonal-like structures, as well as the iron distribution in the ytterbium matrix. - Highlights: • Pure and Fe-doped Yb films have been prepared by vapor condensation. • Coexistence of fcc- and hcp-type structures was observed. • No oxide phases have been detected. • Fe-clustering does not affect the fcc/hcp ratio, but favors a crystalline texture. • A schematic model is proposed to describe microscopically the microstructure.

  6. Faraday effect of polycrystalline bismuth iron garnet thin film prepared by mist chemical vapor deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Situ; Kamakura, Ryosuke; Murai, Shunsuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa

    2017-01-01

    We have synthesized polycrystalline thin film composed of a single phase of metastable bismuth iron garnet, Bi_3Fe_5O_1_2, on a fused silica substrate, one of the most widely utilized substrates in the solid-state electronics, by using mist chemical vapor deposition (mist CVD) method. The phase purity and stoichiometry are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The resultant thin film shows a small surface roughness of 3.251 nm. The saturation magnetization at room temperature is 1200 G, and the Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm reaches −5.2 deg/μm. Both the magnetization and the Faraday rotation angles are somewhat higher than those of polycrystalline BIG thin films prepared by other methods. - Highlights: • Thin film of polycrystalline Bi_3Fe_5O_1_2 was prepared by the mist CVD method. • Optimized conditions were found for the synthesis of single phase of Bi_3Fe_5O_1_2. • The Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm is –5.2 deg/μm at room temperature. • The Faraday rotation is interpreted by the electronic transitions of Fe"3"+ ions.

  7. Faraday effect of polycrystalline bismuth iron garnet thin film prepared by mist chemical vapor deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Situ; Kamakura, Ryosuke; Murai, Shunsuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa, E-mail: tanaka@dipole7.kuic.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2017-01-15

    We have synthesized polycrystalline thin film composed of a single phase of metastable bismuth iron garnet, Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}, on a fused silica substrate, one of the most widely utilized substrates in the solid-state electronics, by using mist chemical vapor deposition (mist CVD) method. The phase purity and stoichiometry are confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The resultant thin film shows a small surface roughness of 3.251 nm. The saturation magnetization at room temperature is 1200 G, and the Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm reaches −5.2 deg/μm. Both the magnetization and the Faraday rotation angles are somewhat higher than those of polycrystalline BIG thin films prepared by other methods. - Highlights: • Thin film of polycrystalline Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12} was prepared by the mist CVD method. • Optimized conditions were found for the synthesis of single phase of Bi{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}. • The Faraday rotation angle at 633 nm is –5.2 deg/μm at room temperature. • The Faraday rotation is interpreted by the electronic transitions of Fe{sup 3+} ions.

  8. Preparation and electrochemical behaviour of Sb sub 2 O sub 5 films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badawy, W.A. (Chemistry Dept., Faculty of Science, Univ. of Cairo, Giza (Egypt))

    1990-04-01

    Sb{sub 2}O{sub 5} films of various thicknesses were prepared on glass or glassy carbon using a chemical vapour deposition-spraying technique. A 0.5 M SbCl{sub 5}-ethyl acetate solution was used as a spray. This evaporated in front of the heated substrate and the hydrolysis reaction 2SbCl{sub 5} + 5 H{sub 2}O{yields}Sb{sub 2}O{sub 5} + 10HCl took place, leaving a homogeneous antimony oxide film adherent to the substrate surface. The effect of the thickness of the prepared film on its physical properties was studied. The electrochemical behaviour of electrodes of the oxide film in three different redox couples was investigated. The results reveal that the charge transfer reaction occurring at the electrode-electrode interface takes place via tunnelling of the electrons through the barrier formed by the space charge layer into the Sb{sub 2}O{sub 5} conduction band. (orig.).

  9. Photodegradative properties of TiO{sub 2} films prepared by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justicia, I.; Ayllon, J.A.; Figueras, A. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Barcelona (Spain). Inst. de Ciencia de Materiales; Battiston, G.A.; Gerbasi, R. [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Barcelona (Spain). Inst. de Ciencia de Materiales; Ist. di Chimica e Tecnologie Inorganiche e dei Materiali Avanzati del CNR, Padova (Italy)

    2001-08-01

    TiO{sub 2} is a well-known photocatalyst for the air-oxydation of organic compounds. This paper deals with the preparation of TiO{sub 2} layers by MOCVD. The photodegradation rate has been studied in the presence of aqueous suspensions (methylene blue) as a function of the film thickness, roughness and crystallite preferred orientation. These results are compared with aqueous suspensions of Degussa P-25 powders. Deposits obtained on fused quartz showed a higher photodegradation rate than those prepared on glass, while Degussa powders exhibited an intermediate value. (orig.)

  10. Preparation and impedance characterization of all-solid-state thin film battery systems

    OpenAIRE

    Schichtel, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    In this thesis the behavior and properties of solid-state batteries based on multiple electrodes are analysed. For this purpose thin film systems of the relevant materials are prepared to achieve model system for more detailed analysis of the material specific properties. The characterisation of the systems is carried out with typical physical and electrochemical methods and especially using impedance spectroscopy. The first material analysed in this thesis is Li4Ti5O12 which was recognize...

  11. Influences of ambient gases on the structure and the composition of calcium phosphate films prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hye-Lee; Kim, Young-Sun; Kim, Dae-Joon; Lee, Won-Jun; Han, Jung-Suk

    2006-01-01

    Calcium phosphate films were prepared by using a pulsed KrF-laser deposition (PLD) method with a hydroxyapatite target in various ambient gases, such as Ar, O 2 and H 2 O. The influence of the ambient gas on the properties of the deposited films was investigated. The chamber pressure and the substrate temperature were fixed at 0.25 Torr and 600 .deg. C, respectively. Calcium-rich amorphous calcium phosphate films were deposited with a low density in Ar due to the preferential resputtering of phosphorus from the growing film. In an O 2 ambient, the density and the Ca/P ratio of the films were similar to those of the target. However, the deposited film was amorphous calcium phosphate and did not contain OH - groups. Polycrystalline hydroxyapatite films can be deposited in a H 2 O ambient because a sufficient supply of OH - groups from the ambient gas is essential for the growth of a hydroxyapatite film.

  12. Study on Gas Sensing Performance of In2O3 Thick Film Resistors Prepared by Screen Printing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. KULKARNI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Indium Oxide (In2O3 thick films were prepared on alumina substrate by using standard screen printing technique. These films were dried and fired at temperatures between 750 0C to 950 0C for two hours in air atmosphere. The compositional, morphological and structural properties of In2O3 films were performed by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX, XRD, and Scanning electron Microscopy respectively. We explore the various gases to study sensing performance of In2O3 thick films. The maximum response was reported to film fired at 750 0C for H2S gas at 150 0C operating temperature.

  13. Preparation of nickel oxide thin films at different annealing temperature by sol-gel spin coating method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, M. A. R., E-mail: ameerridhwan89@gmail.com; Mamat, M. H., E-mail: hafiz-030@yahoo.com; Ismail, A. S., E-mail: kyrin-samaxi@yahoo.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Malek, M. F., E-mail: firz-solarzelle@yahoo.com [NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Alrokayan, Salman A. H., E-mail: dr.salman@alrokayan.com; Khan, Haseeb A., E-mail: khan-haseeb@yahoo.com [Chair of Targeting and Treatment of Cancer Using Nanoparticles, Deanship of Scientific Research, King Saud University (KSU), Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Rusop, M., E-mail: rusop@salam.uitm.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    Preparation of NiO thin films at different annealing temperature by sol-gel method was conducted to synthesize the quality of the surface thin films. The effects of annealing temperature on the surface topology were systematically investigated. Our studies confirmed that the surface roughness of the thin films was increased whenever annealing temperature was increase. NiO thin films morphology structure analysis was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscope. Surface roughness of the thin films was investigated by atomic force microscopy.

  14. Preparation of nickel oxide thin films at different annealing temperature by sol-gel spin coating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, M. A. R.; Mamat, M. H.; Ismail, A. S.; Malek, M. F.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2016-01-01

    Preparation of NiO thin films at different annealing temperature by sol-gel method was conducted to synthesize the quality of the surface thin films. The effects of annealing temperature on the surface topology were systematically investigated. Our studies confirmed that the surface roughness of the thin films was increased whenever annealing temperature was increase. NiO thin films morphology structure analysis was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscope. Surface roughness of the thin films was investigated by atomic force microscopy.

  15. The Effect of Red Pepper Waste Added to Compost on Selenium Content of Pleurotus citrinopileatus Singer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Kalyoncu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, selenium levels of P.citrinopileatus added different rates of red pepper waste to compost as a source of selenium were determined. For this purpose, six different compost groups were prepared and inoculated with P.citrinopileatus mycelia. Selenium levels of harvested mushrooms were analysed. In conclusion, 0.338 µg/g selenium were determined in one gram dry mushroom that red pepper waste added to compost at 5%. Mycelia growth and selenium accumulation were negatively affected by higher rates of red pepper waste.

  16. Preparation, Characterization and Thermal Degradation of Polyimide (4-APS/BTDA/SiO2 Composite Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Dehzangi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyimide/SiO2 composite films were prepared from tetraethoxysilane (TEOS and poly(amic acid (PAA based on aromatic diamine (4-aminophenyl sulfone (4-APS and aromatic dianhydride (3,3,4,4-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA via a sol-gel process in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP. The prepared polyimide/SiO2 composite films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, scanning electron microscope (SEM and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The FTIR results confirmed the synthesis of polyimide (4-APS/BTDA and the formation of SiO2 particles in the polyimide matrix. Meanwhile, the SEM images showed that the SiO2 particles were well dispersed in the polyimide matrix. Thermal stability and kinetic parameters of the degradation processes for the prepared polyimide/SiO2 composite films were investigated using TGA in N2 atmosphere. The activation energy of the solid-state process was calculated using Flynn–Wall–Ozawa’s method without the knowledge of the reaction mechanism. The results indicated that thermal stability and the values of the calculated activation energies increased with the increase of the TEOS loading and the activation energy also varied with the percentage of weight loss for all compositions.

  17. The Preparation of Graphene Reinforced Poly(vinyl alcohol Antibacterial Nanocomposite Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Cheng Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Methylated melamine grafted polyvinyl benzylchloride (mm-g-PvBCl was prepared which was used as additive in poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA and graphene nanosheets (GNs were used to reinforce the mechanical strength. Using casting method, antimicrobial nanocomposite films were prepared with the polymeric biocide loading lever of 1 wt%, 5 wt%, and 10 wt%. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA characterization revealed the 2.0 wt% of graphene content in resultant nanocomposites films. XRD showed that the resultant GNs 2 theta was changed from 16.6 degree to 23.3 degree. Using Japanese Industry Standard test methods, the antimicrobial efficiency for the loading lever of 1 wt%, 5 wt%, and 10 wt% was 92.0%, 95.8%, and 97.1%, respectively, against gram negative bacteria E. coli and 92.3%, 99.6%, and 99.7%, respectively, against the gram positive S. aureus. These results indicate the prepared nanocomposite films are the promising materials for the food and drink package applications.

  18. Initial Study on Thin Film Preparation of Carbon Nanodots Composites as Luminescence Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, F.; Aimon, A. H.; Akmaluddin, A. R.; Nuryadin, B. W.; Abdullah, M.

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, the developments of phosphors materials require elements without noble metals and simple production process. Carbon nanodots (C-dots) are one of phosphor materials with wide range of emission band, and high biocompatibility. In this research thin film carbon nanodots composite have been prepared by spin coating method. Prior deposition, powder carbon nanodots were synthesized from a mixture of commercial urea as the nitrogen sources and citric acid as a carbon source by using hydrothermal and microwave-assisted heating method. The prepared powder was dispersed in transparent epoxy resin and then coated on glass substrate. The photoluminescence result for sample with 0.035 g citric acid exhibited an intense, single, homogeneous and broad spectrum with yellowish emission upon excitation at 365 nm. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) result showed the existences of C=C, C-H, C=O, N-H and O-H functional groups which confirmed the quality of the sample. Further, based on UV-Vis measurement, the prepared thin film was highly transparent (transmittance 90%) with estimated film thickness around 764 nm. This result may open an opportunity for optoelectronic devices.

  19. Initial Study on Thin Film Preparation of Carbon Nanodots Composites as Luminescence Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskandar, F; Aimon, A H; Akmaluddin, A R; Abdullah, M; Nuryadin, B W

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the developments of phosphors materials require elements without noble metals and simple production process. Carbon nanodots (C-dots) are one of phosphor materials with wide range of emission band, and high biocompatibility. In this research thin film carbon nanodots composite have been prepared by spin coating method. Prior deposition, powder carbon nanodots were synthesized from a mixture of commercial urea as the nitrogen sources and citric acid as a carbon source by using hydrothermal and microwave-assisted heating method. The prepared powder was dispersed in transparent epoxy resin and then coated on glass substrate. The photoluminescence result for sample with 0.035 g citric acid exhibited an intense, single, homogeneous and broad spectrum with yellowish emission upon excitation at 365 nm. The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) result showed the existences of C=C, C-H, C=O, N-H and O-H functional groups which confirmed the quality of the sample. Further, based on UV-Vis measurement, the prepared thin film was highly transparent (transmittance 90%) with estimated film thickness around 764 nm. This result may open an opportunity for optoelectronic devices. (paper)

  20. Reversed preparation of low-density poly(divinylbenzene/styrene) foam columns coated with gold films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Yinhai; Wang, Ni; Li, Yaling; Yao, Mengqi; Gan, Haibo; Hu, Wencheng, E-mail: huwc@uestc.edu.cn

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • A reversed fabrication of low density foam columns coated with gold films was proposed. • The uniformity in thickness and purity of gold film are easy to be controlled. • A compact layer is prepared through an electrophoretic deposition method. • A low density (12 mg/cc) foam column coated with gold film is obtained. - Abstract: This work aims to fabricate low-density, porous, non-conductive, structural poly(divinylbenzene/styrene) foam columns by high-internal-phase emulsion templating. We prepare these non-conductive foam columns coated with a thin gold layer by electrochemical deposition and the reversed preparation technique. As expected, the density of the foam obtained through this novel method was about 12 mg cm{sup −3}, and the thickness of the gold coating was about 3 μm. We performed field emission scanning electron microscopy to morphologically and microstructurally characterize the products and X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy to determine the composition of the gold coating.

  1. Uniaxial orientation of P3HT film prepared by soft friction transfer method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanishi, Masayoshi; Kajiya, Daisuke; Koganezawa, Tomoyuki; Saitow, Ken-Ichi

    2017-07-11

    The realization of room-temperature processes is an important factor in the development of flexible electronic devices composed of organic materials. In addition, a simple and cost-effective process is essential to produce stable working devices and to enhance the performance of a smart material for flexible, wearable, or stretchable-skin devices. Here, we present a soft friction transfer method for producing aligned polymer films; a glass substrate was mechanically brushed with a velvet fabric and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) solution was then spin-coated on the substrate. A P3HT film with a uniaxial orientation was obtained in air at room temperature. The orientation factor was 17 times higher than that of a film prepared using a conventional friction transfer technique at a high temperature of 120 °C. In addition, an oriented film with a thickness of 40 nm was easily picked up and transferred to another substrate. The mechanism for orientation of the film was investigated using six experimental methods and theoretical calculation, and was thereby attributed to a chemical process, i.e., cellulose molecules attach to the substrate and act as a template for molecular alignment.

  2. Preparation and physicochemistry properties of smart edible films based on gelatin-starch nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Furong; Shi, Chengmei; Cui, Yuezhi

    2018-04-24

    Among the natural polymers able to form edible films, starch and gelatin (Gel) are potential sources. Corn starch is a polysaccharide widely produced around the world, and gelatin differs from other hydrocolloids as a fully digestible protein, containing nearly all the essential amino acids, except tryptophan. Based on this, with advantages such as abundance, relatively low cost, biodegradability, and edibility, studies considering alternative systems for food protection that utilize biopolymers have increased significantly in the recent years. A novel macromolecular crosslinker Starch-BTCAD-NHS (starch - butanetetracarboxylic acid dianhydride - N-hydroxysuccinimide, SBN) was successfully prepared to modify gelatin film. Compared with the blank gelatin films, the resulting SBN-Gel films exhibited the improved surface hydrophobicity, the higher tense strength and elongation-at-break, the lower Young's modulus values, the greater opacity, the poorer water vapor uptake properties and better anti-degradation capacity. The modified gelatin film material with advanced properties obtained in this work was safe, stable eco-friendly and biorefractory, and was an ideal choice to form a packaging in food industry. Also, the crosslinking SBN-gelatin coating was effective in reducing the corruption and extending the shelf life for the peeled apple substantially. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Space Durable Polymer Nanocomposite Films from Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delozier, D. M.; Connell, J. W.; Smith, J. G.; Watson, K. A.

    2003-01-01

    Low color, flexible, space durable polyimide films with inherent, robust electrical conductivity have been under investigation as part of a continuing materials development activity for future NASA space missions involving Gossamer structures. Electrical conductivity is needed in these films to dissipate electrostatic charge build-up that occurs due to the orbital environment. One method of imparting conductivity is through the use of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). However, the incompatibility and insolubility of the SWNTs severely hampers their dispersion in polymeric matrices. In an attempt to improve their dispersability, SWNTs were functionalized by the reaction with an alkyl hydrazone. After this functionalization, the SWNTs were soluble in select solvents and dispersed more readily in the polymer matrix. The functionalized SWNTs were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The functionalized nanotubes were dispersed in the bulk of the films using a solution technique. The functionalized nanotubes were also applied to the surface of polyimide films using a spray coating technique. The resultant polyimide nanocomposite films were evaluated for nanotube dispersion, electrical conductivity, mechanical, and optical properties and compared with previously prepared polyimide-SWNT samples to assess the effects of SWNT functionalization.

  4. Preparation and characterization of bionanocomposite films based on potato starch/halloysite nanoclay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadegh-Hassani, Fatemeh; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza

    2014-06-01

    In this research casting method was used to prepare potato starch based bio-nanocomposite films with halloysite nanoclay as the reinforcing materials. The composition included potato starch with 40% (w/w) of a mixture of sorbitol/glycerol (weight ratio of 3 to 1as plasticizer) with nanoclay (0-5% w/w). The films were dried under controlled conditions. Physicochemical properties such as solubility in water, water absorption capacity (WAC), water vapour permeability (WVP), oxygen permeability, and mechanical properties of the films were measured. Results showed that by increasing the concentration of nanoclay, mechanical properties of films were improved. Tensile strength was increased from 7.33 to 9.82MPa, and elongation at break decreased from 68.0 to 44.0%. Solubility in water decreased from 35 to 23%, and heat seal strength increased from 375 to 580N/m. Also incorporation of clay nanoparticles in the structure of biopolymer decreased permeability of the gaseous molecules. In summary, addition of halloysite nanoclay, improve the barrier and mechanical properties of potato starch films and this bionanocomposites have high potential to be used for food packaging purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Films Extruded of Polyethylene/Chitosan Modified with Poly(lactic acid)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz-Castillo, Jesús Manuel; Rodríguez-Félix, Dora Evelia; Grijalva-Monteverde, Heriberto; Lizárraga-Laborín, Lauren Lucero; Castillo-Ortega, María Mónica; del Castillo-Castro, Teresa; Rodríguez-Félix, Francisco; Herrera-Franco, Pedro Jesús

    2014-01-01

    The use of mixtures of synthetic and natural polymers is a potential option to reduce the pollution by plastic waste. In this work, the method for the chemical modification of chitosan with poly(lactic acid) was developed; then, the preparation of films of blends of polyethylene and chitosan-poly(lactic acid) produced by an extrusion method using polyethylene-graft maleic anhydride as a compatibilizer. It was possible to obtain films with a maximum content of 20 wt% and 30 wt%, chitosan, with and without compatibilizer, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis showed a homogeneous surface on all films. The addition of the compatibilizer had a significant effect on the mechanical properties of the films, such as an increase in Young’s modulus and a decrease in the elongation at break; additionally, the compatibilizer promotes thermal degradation in a single step and gives the film a slight increase in thermal resistance. These results are attributed to an improved interaction in the interface of polyethylene and chitosan-poly(lactic acid), promoted by the compatibilizer. PMID:28787928

  6. Metal doped fluorocarbon polymer films prepared by plasma polymerization using an RF planar magnetron target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biederman, H.; Holland, L. (Sussex Univ., Brighton (UK). Lab. for Plasma Materials Processing)

    1983-07-01

    Fluorocarbon films have been prepared by plasma polymerization of CF/sub 4/ using an RF planar magnetron with an aluminium target. More than one order of magnitude higher deposition rate has been achieved in comparison with an R.F. diode system operated under similar conditions of monomer pressure and flow rate and power input. A glow discharge in a CF/sub 4/(25%)-argon(75%) mixture was used to incorporate aluminium from a target electrode into the polymer films. The foregoing mixture and another based on CF/sub 4/(87%)-argon(13%) were used in the RF discharge with a copper target. Some experiments with a gold target and pure CF/sub 4/ as the inlet gas were also made. The film structure was examined by SEM and TEM and characteristic micrographs are presented here. The composition of the films was estimated from an EAS study. The sheet resistivity of the metal/polymer film complexes was determined.

  7. NiFe epitaxial films with hcp and fcc structures prepared on bcc-Cr underlayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Jumpei, E-mail: higuchi@futamoto.elect.chuo-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Ohtake, Mitsuru; Sato, Yoichi [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Kirino, Fumiyoshi [Graduate School of Fine Arts, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, 12-8 Ueno-koen, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110-8714 (Japan); Futamoto, Masaaki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan)

    2011-09-30

    NiFe epitaxial films are prepared on Cr(211){sub bcc} and Cr(100){sub bcc} underlayers grown hetero-epitaxially on MgO single-crystal substrates by ultra-high vacuum rf magnetron sputtering. The film growth behavior and the crystallographic properties are studied by reflection high energy electron diffraction and pole figure X-ray diffraction. Metastable hcp-NiFe(11-bar 00) and hcp-NiFe(112-bar 0) crystals respectively nucleate on Cr(211){sub bcc} and Cr(100){sub bcc} underlayers, where the hcp-NiFe crystals are stabilized through hetero-epitaxial growth. The hcp-NiFe(11-bar 00) crystal is a single-crystal with the c-axis parallel to the substrate surface, whereas the hcp-NiFe(112-bar 0) crystal is a bi-crystal with the respective c-axes lying in plane and perpendicular each other. With increasing the film thickness, the hcp structure in the NiFe films starts to transform into more stable fcc structure by atomic displacement parallel to the hcp(0001) close packed plane. The resulting films consist of hcp and fcc crystals.

  8. Amorphous carbon nitrogenated films prepared by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel, Elidiane C.; Durrant, Steven F.; Rangel, Rita C.C.; Kayama, Milton E.; Landers, Richard; Cruz, Nilson C. da

    2006-01-01

    In this work, an investigation was conducted on amorphous hydrogenated-nitrogenated carbon films prepared by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition. Glow discharge was excited by radiofrequency power (13.56 MHz, 40 W) whereas the substrate-holder was biased with 25 kV negative pulses. The films were deposited from benzene, nitrogen and argon mixtures. The proportion of nitrogen in the chamber feed (R N ) was varied against that of argon, while keeping the total pressure constant (1.3 Pa). From infrared reflectance-absorbance spectroscopy it was observed that the molecular structure of the benzene is not preserved in the film. Nitrogen was incorporated from the plasma while oxygen arose as a contaminant. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed that N/C and O/C atomic ratios change slightly with R N . Water wettability decreased as the proportion of N in the gas phase increased while surface roughness underwent just small changes. Nanoindentation measurements showed that film deposition by means of ion bombardment was beneficial to the mechanical properties of the film-substrate interface. The intensity of the modifications correlates well with the degree of ion bombardment

  9. Preparation and Characterization of Films Extruded of Polyethylene/Chitosan Modified with Poly(lactic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Manuel Quiroz-Castillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of mixtures of synthetic and natural polymers is a potential option to reduce the pollution by plastic waste. In this work, the method for the chemical modification of chitosan with poly(lactic acid was developed; then, the preparation of films of blends of polyethylene and chitosan-poly(lactic acid produced by an extrusion method using polyethylene-graft maleic anhydride as a compatibilizer. It was possible to obtain films with a maximum content of 20 wt% and 30 wt%, chitosan, with and without compatibilizer, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM analysis showed a homogeneous surface on all films. The addition of the compatibilizer had a significant effect on the mechanical properties of the films, such as an increase in Young’s modulus and a decrease in the elongation at break; additionally, the compatibilizer promotes thermal degradation in a single step and gives the film a slight increase in thermal resistance. These results are attributed to an improved interaction in the interface of polyethylene and chitosan-poly(lactic acid, promoted by the compatibilizer.

  10. Preparation of polystyrene brush film by radical chain-transfer polymerization and micromechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Jing [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Chen Miao [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)], E-mail: miaochen99@yahoo.com; An Yanqing [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Liu Jianxi [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yan Fengyuan [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)], E-mail: fyyan@lzb.ac.cn

    2008-12-30

    A radical chain-transfer polymerization technique has been applied to graft-polymerize brushes of polystyrene (PSt) on single-crystal silicon substrates. 3-Mercapto-propyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS), as a chain-transfer agent for grafting, was immobilized on the silicon surface by a self-assembling process. The structure and morphology of the graft-functionalized silicon surfaces were characterized by the means of contact-angle measurement, ellipsometric thickness measurement, Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The nanotribological and micromechanical properties of the as-prepared polymer brush films were investigated by frictional force microscopy (FFM), force-volume analysis and scratch test. The results indicate that the friction properties of the grafted polymer films can be improved significantly by the treatment of toluene, and the chemically bonded polystyrene film exhibits superior scratch resistance behavior compared with the spin-coated polystyrene film. The resultant polystyrene brush film is expected to develop as a potential lubrication coating for microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)

  11. Preparation and characterization of tin sulphide thin films by a spray pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Haj Salah, H.; Bouzouita, H.; Rezig, B.

    2005-01-01

    We have attempted the preparation and characterization of Sn 2 S 3 thin films by using the spray pyrolysis technique. We started with acidic aqueous solutions including tin (II) chloride and thiourea, which were atomized with compressed air as carrier gas. The Sn 2 S 3 thin films were obtained on glass substrates. Thin layers of Sn-S have been grown at various temperatures in the range of 275-325 deg. C and various [S/Sn] ratios. The structural properties have been determined by using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The changes observed in the structural phases during the film formation in dependence of growth temperatures are reported and discussed. The optical constants of the deposited films were obtained using the experimentally recorded transmission and reflectance spectral data as functions of the wavelength, in the range of 300-1800 nm. An analysis of the deduced spectral absorption of the deposited films revealed an optical indirect band gap energy of 1.9-2.2 eV for Sn 2 S 3 layers

  12. In Situ Preparation of Metal Halide Perovskite Nanocrystal Thin Films for Improved Light-Emitting Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lianfeng; Yeh, Yao-Wen; Tran, Nhu L; Wu, Fan; Xiao, Zhengguo; Kerner, Ross A; Lin, YunHui L; Scholes, Gregory D; Yao, Nan; Rand, Barry P

    2017-04-25

    Hybrid organic-inorganic halide perovskite semiconductors are attractive candidates for optoelectronic applications, such as photovoltaics, light-emitting diodes, and lasers. Perovskite nanocrystals are of particular interest, where electrons and holes can be confined spatially, promoting radiative recombination. However, nanocrystalline films based on traditional colloidal nanocrystal synthesis strategies suffer from the use of long insulating ligands, low colloidal nanocrystal concentration, and significant aggregation during film formation. Here, we demonstrate a facile method for preparing perovskite nanocrystal films in situ and that the electroluminescence of light-emitting devices can be enhanced up to 40-fold through this nanocrystal film formation strategy. Briefly, the method involves the use of bulky organoammonium halides as additives to confine crystal growth of perovskites during film formation, achieving CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 and CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 perovskite nanocrystals with an average crystal size of 5.4 ± 0.8 nm and 6.4 ± 1.3 nm, respectively, as confirmed through transmission electron microscopy measurements. Additive-confined perovskite nanocrystals show significantly improved photoluminescence quantum yield and decay lifetime. Finally, we demonstrate highly efficient CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 red/near-infrared LEDs and CH 3 NH 3 PbBr 3 green LEDs based on this strategy, achieving an external quantum efficiency of 7.9% and 7.0%, respectively, which represent a 40-fold and 23-fold improvement over control devices fabricated without the additives.

  13. A novel application of the CuI thin film for preparing thin copper nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Shuo; Sun Jialin; Zhang Jianhong; Cao Yang

    2005-01-01

    We present a novel application of the CuI thin film for preparing thin copper nanowires under a direct current electric field (DCEF). The CuI thin film was used as a medium for transmitting cuprous ions during the growing process of copper nanowires. As electrodes are the source of cuprous ions, high-purity copper films were deposited on both ends of the CuI thin film. At 353 K, under whole solid condition, without any templates, and having applied a DCEF of 1.5x10 4 V/m, cuprous ions were generated at the anode and migrated towards the cathode through the CuI film. At the edge of the cathode, cuprous ions obtained electrons and congregated to form a disordered thin copper nanowires bundle. The SEM images showed that these copper nanowires were from 10 to 20 nm in diameter and several hundred nanometers in length. The effect of the electric field intensity and the growth temperature on the diameter of the nanowires was also studied

  14. Preparation and characterization of bionanocomposite film based ontapioca starch/bovine gelatin/nanorod zinc oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehdi Marvizadeh, Mohammad; Oladzadabbasabadi, Nazila; Mohammadi Nafchi, Abdorreza

    2017-01-01

    , as well as the barrier properties of bionanocomposite films were investigated. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the bionanocomposite film incorporated with ZnOsingle bondN at a concentration of 3.5% w/w exhibited high intensity peaks compared with control samples. Results of UV–vis spectra analysis......To exploring a nano-packaging materials for using as coating or edible films, tapioca starch/gelatin/nanorod ZnO (ZnOsingle bondN) bionanocomposites were prepared via solution casting technique. The effects of nanofiller addition on the mechanical, physicochemical, and crystalline structures...... showed that incorporation of ZnOsingle bondN into the films can absorb the whole UV light. Tensile strength of the films was increased from 14 to 18 MPa whereas elongation at breaks decreased from 18 to 8 percent and oxygen permeability decreased from 151.03 to 91.52 cm3 μm/(m2–day) by incorporation of 3...

  15. NiFe epitaxial films with hcp and fcc structures prepared on bcc-Cr underlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuchi, Jumpei; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Sato, Yoichi; Kirino, Fumiyoshi; Futamoto, Masaaki

    2011-01-01

    NiFe epitaxial films are prepared on Cr(211) bcc and Cr(100) bcc underlayers grown hetero-epitaxially on MgO single-crystal substrates by ultra-high vacuum rf magnetron sputtering. The film growth behavior and the crystallographic properties are studied by reflection high energy electron diffraction and pole figure X-ray diffraction. Metastable hcp-NiFe(11-bar 00) and hcp-NiFe(112-bar 0) crystals respectively nucleate on Cr(211) bcc and Cr(100) bcc underlayers, where the hcp-NiFe crystals are stabilized through hetero-epitaxial growth. The hcp-NiFe(11-bar 00) crystal is a single-crystal with the c-axis parallel to the substrate surface, whereas the hcp-NiFe(112-bar 0) crystal is a bi-crystal with the respective c-axes lying in plane and perpendicular each other. With increasing the film thickness, the hcp structure in the NiFe films starts to transform into more stable fcc structure by atomic displacement parallel to the hcp(0001) close packed plane. The resulting films consist of hcp and fcc crystals.

  16. Preparation of large-area molecular junctions with metallic conducting Langmuir–Blodgett films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochizuki, Kengo [Division of Marine Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 2-1-6 Etchujima Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Ohnuki, Hitoshi, E-mail: ohnuki@kaiyodai.ac.jp [Division of Marine Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 2-1-6 Etchujima Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Shimizu, Daisuke [Division of Marine Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 2-1-6 Etchujima Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Imakubo, Tatsuro [Department of Materials and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Tsuya, Daiju [National Institute for Materials Science,1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Izumi, Mitsuru [Division of Marine Technology, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 2-1-6 Etchujima Koto-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan)

    2014-03-03

    Metallic conducting Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films were used as soft electrodes to fabricate molecular junctions with self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of alkanethiols (CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub n−1}SH) on an Au surface. Alkanethiols can form highly ordered, stable dielectric SAMs on metal surfaces over large areas. However, it is difficult to establish electrical contacts on such SAMs, which has limited their application. In this work, we used metallic conducting LB films composed of bis(ethylenedioxy)tetrathiafulvalene and stearic acid as a soft electrode onto alkanethiol SAMs (C{sub n}-SAM, n = 12, 14, 16, 18) to prepare Au/SAM/metal junctions of relatively large size (∼ 15.6 × 10{sup 3} μm{sup 2}). The current density–voltage (J–V) characteristics across the junctions exhibited rectifying behavior with a ratio R of ∼ 5 (R = |J(V)|/|J(− V)| at ± 1 V). The lower transfer rate corresponding to the electron transport from Au to the LB films exhibited nonlinear J–V characteristics, while the higher transfer rate of electrons from the LB film to Au showed linear J–V characteristics. Kelvin probe force microscopy revealed that the work function of the metallic LB films was smaller than that of Au. The observed rectification behavior is probably caused by different electron transport mechanisms between the two current directions. - Highlights: • Metallic Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) films were used as soft electrodes. • Molecular junctions of metal–alkanethiol–LB films were fabricated. • The current–voltage curve across the junctions exhibited rectifying behavior. • This is the first observation for alkanethiol monolayer junctions. • The work function difference between the electrodes induces the rectification.

  17. Preparation and characterization of chitosan/ZnAl2O4 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, P.M.A.G.; Santos, P.T.A.; Rodrigues, P.A.; Costa, A.C.F.M.; Araujo, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan films have been explored for biomedical application, as the chitosan to be, low toxicity, abundant in nature, show affinity for dispersion loads and high mechanical strength. On the other hand, ZnAl 2 O 4 has energy gap of approximately 3.8 eV, which makes it useful for use as photoelectric device ultraviolet. Thus, this work has as objective to prepare films of quitosana/ZnAl 2 O 4 in proportions of 5:1, 5:2, 5:3, 5:4 and evaluate the structural, morphological and thermals characteristics. To this end, ZnAl2O4 first nanoparticles (NPs) was deagglomerated and 325 mesh sieve and added to chitosan diluted in 1% acetic acid, and dried at 60°C. After drying, a solution of 1M sodium hydroxide was added to obtain a film with neutral pH. The films were characterized by XRD, SEM and TG. For all proportions evaluated it was verified the presence of ZnAl 2 O)4 and chitosan phases. By micrographs, it was observed that there was formation of agglomerates of ZnAl 2 O 4 NPs both on the surface of the films, the encapsulated in chitosan. In all samples the ratio 5:4 showed the greatest consistency both in relation to the film surface of the nanoparticles in the chitosan matrix. TG/DTA curves of quitosana/ZnAl 2 O 4 film for all the samples showed that for the concentration of 5:1 to 5:3 occurred three mass loss while for concentration of 5:2 to 5:4 were only two stages decomposition. (author)

  18. Photovoltaic properties of undoped ZnO thin films prepared by the spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikhmayies, S.J. [Applied Science Private Univ., Amman (Jordan). Dept. of Physics; Abu El-Haija, N.M.; Ahmad-Bitar, R.N. [Jordan Univ., Amman (Jordan). Dept. of Physics

    2009-07-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) can be used as a window material, transparent electrode and active layer in different types of solar cells, UV emitters, and UV sensors. In addition to being low cost, ZnO is more abundant than indium tin oxide. ZnO is non toxic and has a high chemical stability in reduction environments. When ZnO films are made without any intentional doping, they exhibit n-type conductivity. ZnO thin films can be prepared by reactive sputtering, laser ablation, chemical-vapour deposition, laser molecular-beam epitaxy, thermal evaporation, sol-gel, atomic layer deposition and spray pyrolysis, with the latter being simple, inexpensive and adaptable to large area depositions. In this work ZnCl{sub 2} was used as a source of Zn where it was dissolved in distilled water. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the films were investigated due to their important characteristic for solar cell applications. Polycrystalline ZnO thin films were deposited on glass substrate by spray pyrolysis using a home-made spraying system at substrate temperature of 450 degrees C. The films were characterized by recording and analyzing their I-V plots, their transmittance, X-ray diffraction and SEM micrographs. There resistivity was found to be about 200 ohms per cm and their bandgap energy about 3.27 eV. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that the films have a hexagonal wurtzite structure and are highly ordered with a preferential orientation (002). SEM images revealed that the substrates are continuously covered and the surface of the film is uniform. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Selenium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how much of the mineral was in the soil where the plants grew. Brazil nuts are a very good source of selenium. Fish, shellfish , red meat, grains, eggs, chicken, liver, and garlic ... soil have higher levels of selenium. Brewer's yeast, wheat ...

  20. Laser-Induced Gas-Phase Pyrolysis of Dimethyl Selenium: Chemical Deposition of Selenium and Poly(selenoformaldehyde)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorná, Dana; Urbanová, Markéta; Bastl, Zdeněk; Šubrt, Jan; Pola, Josef

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 2 (2004), s. 635-644 ISSN 0165-2370 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072107; GA MŠk OC 523.60 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4072921; CEZ:AV0Z4032918; CEZ:AV0Z4040901 Keywords : dimethyl selenium * laser pyrolysis * selenium films Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.352, year: 2004

  1. Instantaneous preparation of CuInSe2 films from elemental In, Cu, Se particles precursor films in a non-vacuum process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaigawa, R.; Uesugi, T.; Yoshida, T.; Merdes, S.; Klenk, R.

    2009-01-01

    CuInSe 2 (CIS) films are successfully prepared by means of non-vacuum, instantaneous, direct synthesis from elemental In, Cu, Se particles precursor films without prior synthesis of CIS nanoparticle precursors and without selenization with H 2 Se or Se vapor. Our precursor films were prepared on metal substrates by spraying the solvent with added elemental In, Cu, and Se particles. Precursor films were instantaneously sintered using a spot welding machine. When the electric power was fixed to 0.6 kVA, elemental In, Cu, or Se peaks were not observed and only peaks of CIS are observed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) on the film sintered for 7/8 s. We can observe XRD peaks indicative of the chalcopyrite-type structure, such as (101), (103) and (211) diffraction peaks. We conclude that the synthesized CIS crystals have chalcopyrite-type structure with high crystallinity

  2. Preparation of Cu2Sn3S7 Thin-Film Using a Three-Step Bake-Sulfurization-Sintering Process and Film Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Hsiang Lui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu2Sn3S7 (CTS can be used as the light absorbing layer for thin-film solar cells due to its good optical properties. In this research, the powder, baking, sulfur, and sintering (PBSS process was used instead of vacuum sputtering or electrochemical preparation to form CTS. During sintering, Cu and Sn powders mixed in stoichiometric ratio were coated to form the thin-film precursor. It was sulfurized in a sulfur atmosphere to form CTS. The CTS film metallurgy mechanism was investigated. After sintering at 500°C, the thin film formed the Cu2Sn3S7 phase and no impurity phase, improving its energy band gap. The interface of CTS film is continuous and the formation of intermetallic compound layer can increase the carrier concentration and mobility. Therefore, PBSS process prepared CTS can potentially be used as a solar cell absorption layer.

  3. Enhanced dielectric properties of ZrO2 thin films prepared in nitrogen ambient by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J; Li, T L; Pan, B; Zhou, L; Liu, Z G

    2003-01-01

    ZrO 2 thin films were fabricated in O 2 ambient and in N 2 ambient by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), respectively. X-ray diffraction revealed that films prepared at 400 deg. C remained amorphous. The dielectric properties of amorphous ZrO 2 films were investigated by measuring the capacitance-frequency characteristics of Pt/ZrO 2 /Pt capacitor structures. The dielectric constant of the films deposited in N 2 ambient was larger than that of the films deposited in O 2 ambient. The dielectric loss was lower for films prepared in N 2 ambient. Atom force microscopy investigation indicated that films deposited in N 2 ambient had smoother surface than films deposited in O 2 ambient. Capacitance-voltage and current-voltage characteristics were studied. The equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of films with 6.6 nm physical thickness deposited in N 2 ambient is lower than that of films deposited in O 2 ambient. An EOT of 1.38 nm for the film deposited in N 2 ambient was obtained, while the leakage current density was 94.6 mA cm -2 . Therefore, ZrO 2 thins deposited in N 2 ambient have enhanced dielectric properties due to the incorporation of nitrogen which leads to the formation of Zr-doped nitride interfacial layer, and is suggested to be a potential material for alternative high-k (high dielectric constant) gate dielectric applications

  4. INFLUENCE OF SUBSTRATE TEMPERATURE ON STRUCTURAL, ELECTRICAL AND OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF ITO THIN FILMS PREPARED BY RF MAGNETRON SPUTTERING

    OpenAIRE

    BO HE; LEI ZHAO; JING XU; HUAIZHONG XING; SHAOLIN XUE; MENG JIANG

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films on glass substrates deposited by RF magnetron sputtering using ceramic target to find the optimal condition for fabricating optoelectronic devices. The structural, electrical and optical properties of the ITO films prepared at various substrate temperatures were investigated. The results indicate the grain size increases with substrate temperature increases. As the substrate temperature grew up, the resistivity of ITO films grea...

  5. Preparation of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films by sulfurizing stacked precursor thin films via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su Zhenghua; Yan Chang; Sun Kaiwen; Han Zili [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu Fangyang, E-mail: liufangyang@csu.edu.cn [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu Jin [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Lai Yanqing, E-mail: laiyanqingcsu@163.com [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Li Jie; Liu Yexiang [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2012-07-15

    Earth-abundant Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} is a promising alternative photovoltaic material which has been examined as absorber layer of thin film solar cells. In this study, Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films have been successfully fabricated by sulfurizing stacked precursor thin films via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The prepared CZTS thin films have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectrometer, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, Hall effect measurements and photoelectrochemical tests. Results reveal that the thin films have kesterite structured Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} and the p-type conductivity with a carrier concentration in the order of 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} and an optical band gap of 1.5 eV, which are suitable for applications in thin film solar cells.

  6. Optical and electrical properties of transparent conducting B-doped ZnO thin films prepared by various deposition methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomoto, Jun-ichi; Miyata, Toshihiro; Minami, Tadatsugu [Optoelectronic Device System R and D Center, Kanazawa Institute of Technology, 7-1 Ohgigaoka, Nonoichi, Ishikawa 921-8501 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    B-doped ZnO (BZO) thin films were prepared with various thicknesses up to about 500 nm on glass substrates at 200 deg. C by dc or rf magnetron sputtering deposition, pulsed laser deposition (PLD), and vacuum arc plasma evaporation (VAPE) methods. Resistivities of 4-6 x 10{sup -4}{Omega} cm were obtained in BZO thin films prepared with a B content [B/(B + Zn) atomic ratio] around 1 at. % by PLD and VAPE methods: Hall mobilities above 40 cm{sup 2}/Vs and carrier concentrations on the order of 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}. All 500-nm-thick-BZO thin films prepared with a resistivity on the order of 10{sup -3}-10{sup -4}{Omega} cm exhibited an averaged transmittance above 80% in the wavelength range of 400-1100 nm. The resistivity in BZO thin films prepared with a thickness below about 500 nm was found to increase over time with exposure to various high humidity environments. In heat-resistance tests, the resistivity stability of BZO thin films was found to be nearly equal to that of Ga-doped ZnO thin films, so these films were judged suitable for use as a transparent electrode for thin-film solar cells.

  7. Optical and electrical properties of transparent conducting B-doped ZnO thin films prepared by various deposition methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomoto, Jun-ichi; Miyata, Toshihiro; Minami, Tadatsugu

    2011-01-01

    B-doped ZnO (BZO) thin films were prepared with various thicknesses up to about 500 nm on glass substrates at 200 deg. C by dc or rf magnetron sputtering deposition, pulsed laser deposition (PLD), and vacuum arc plasma evaporation (VAPE) methods. Resistivities of 4-6 x 10 -4 Ω cm were obtained in BZO thin films prepared with a B content [B/(B + Zn) atomic ratio] around 1 at. % by PLD and VAPE methods: Hall mobilities above 40 cm 2 /Vs and carrier concentrations on the order of 10 20 cm -3 . All 500-nm-thick-BZO thin films prepared with a resistivity on the order of 10 -3 -10 -4 Ω cm exhibited an averaged transmittance above 80% in the wavelength range of 400-1100 nm. The resistivity in BZO thin films prepared with a thickness below about 500 nm was found to increase over time with exposure to various high humidity environments. In heat-resistance tests, the resistivity stability of BZO thin films was found to be nearly equal to that of Ga-doped ZnO thin films, so these films were judged suitable for use as a transparent electrode for thin-film solar cells.

  8. Optical and structural properties of ZnO/ZnMgO composite thin films prepared by sol–gel technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Linhua; Su, Jing; Chen, Yulin; Zheng, Gaige; Pei, Shixin; Sun, Tingting; Wang, Junfeng; Lai, Min

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► ZnMgO thin film and ZnO/ZnMgO composite thin film have been prepared by sol–gel method. ► The intensity of ultraviolet emission of ZnMgO thin film is enhanced two times compared with that of pure ZnO thin film. ► Compared with ZnMgO thin film, ZnO/ZnMgO composite thin film shows better crystallization and optical properties. ► ZnO/ZnMgO composite thin films prepared by sol–gel method have potential applications in many optoelectronic devices. - Abstract: In this study, pure ZnO thin film, Mg-doped ZnO (ZnMgO) thin film, ZnO/ZnMgO and ZnMgO/ZnO composite thin films were prepared by sol–gel technique. The structural and optical properties of the samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, UV–visible spectrophotometer, ellipsometer and photoluminescence spectra, respectively. The results showed that the incorporation of Mg increased the strain, broadened the optical bandgap, and improved the intensity of ultraviolet emission of ZnO thin film. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the ultraviolet emission peak was also increased due to Mg-doping at the same time. Compared with pure ZnO and ZnMgO thin films, the ZnO/ZnMgO thin film showed better crystalline quality and ultraviolet emission performance, smaller strains and higher transmittance in the visible range.

  9. Selenium for preventing cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Dennert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace element essential to humans. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. OBJECTIVE: Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: 1. an aetiological relationship between selenium exposure and cancer risk in women and men?; 2. the efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in women and men? SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of reviews and included publications. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included prospective observational studies to answer research question (a and randomised controlled trials (RCTs to answer research question (b. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We conducted random effects meta-analyses of epidemiological data when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. We made a narrative summary of data from RCTs. MAIN RESULTS: We included 49 prospective observational studies and six RCTs. In epidemiologic data, we found a reduced cancer incidence (summary odds ratio, OR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, CI, 0.53 to 0.91 and mortality (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.36 to 0.83 with higher selenium exposure. Cancer risk was more pronouncedly reduced in men (incidence: OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.05 than in women (incidence: OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.77. These findings have potential limitations due to study design, quality and heterogeneity of the data, which complicated the interpretation of the summary statistics. The RCTs found no protective efficacy of selenium yeast supplementation against non-melanoma skin cancer or L-selenomethionine supplementation against prostate cancer. Study results for the prevention of liver cancer with selenium supplements were inconsistent and studies had an unclear risk of bias. The results of the Nutritional Prevention of Cancer Trial (NPCT and SELECT raised concerns about possible harmful effects of selenium supplements. AUTHORS

  10. Effect of thermal annealing on structural properties of SrGa2S4:Ce thin films prepared by flash evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambarov, E.F.; Bayramov, A.I.

    2009-01-01

    In the present report the preparation technology and structural characterization of Ce 3 +activated SrGa 2 S 4 thin films are given. SrGa 2 S 4 : e thin films are prepared by so called flash evaporation which is simple and inexpensive method for thin film deposition. X-ray diffraction shows that the as deposited films exhibit amorphous behavior, but after annealing in H S stream, the polycrystalline one. EPMA results indicate nearly stoichiometric composition of the thin films

  11. YBa2Cu3O7-x thin films prepared by chemical solution deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apetrii, Claudia

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials by Bednorz and Mueller in early 1987, immediately followed by Wu et al., who showed that YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) becomes superconducting (92 K) well above the boiling point of nitrogen (77 K) created a great excitement in superconductivity research. Potential applications of high T c -superconductors require large critical currents and high-applied magnetic fields. Effective ways to increase the critical current density at high magnetic fields in YBCO are the introduction of nanoparticles and chemical substitution of yttrium by other rare earth elements. Since low costs and environmental compatibility are essential conditions for the preparation of long length YBCO films, the cost effective chemical solution deposition (CSD) procedure was selected, given that no vacuum technology is required. To reveal the flexibility and the good optimization possibilities of the CSD approach two main processes were chosen for comparison: a fluorine-free method, namely the polymer-metal precursor technique, and a fluorine-based method, the metalorganic deposition (MOD) using the trifluoroacetates (TFA) technique. Sharp transition temperature widths ΔT c of 1.1 K for the polymer metal method, 0.8 K for TFA method and critical current densities J c of ∼3.5 MA/cm 2 shows that high quality YBCO thin films can be produced using both techniques. Especially interesting is the magnetic field dependence of the critical current density J c (B) of the Y(Dy)BCO (80 %) films showing that for the lower magnetic fields the critical current density J c (B) is higher for a standard YBCO film, but at fields higher than 4.5 T the critical current density J c (B) of Y(Dy)BCO is larger than that for the YBCO. Above 8 T, J c (B) of the Y(Dy)BCO film is more than one order of magnitude higher than in pure YBCO film. (orig.)

  12. Electrochemical preparation of photoelectrochemically active CuI thin films from room temperature ionic liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Hsin-Yi; Chien, Da-Jean; Huang, Genin-Gary; Chen, Po-Yu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► CuI film can be formed by anodization of Cu in ionic liquid containing iodide. ► Coordinating strength of anion in ionic liquid determine the formation of CuI. ► Photocurrent of the CuI film can be observed in aqueous solution and in ionic liquid. ► Cu layer coated on conductive substrates can be converted to CuI. - Abstract: Cuprous iodide (CuI) thin films with photoelectrochemical activity were prepared by anodizing copper wire or copper-electrodeposited tungsten wire in the room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMI-PF 6 RTIL) containing N-butyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium iodide (BMP-I). A copper coating was formed on the tungsten wire by potentiostatic electrodeposition in BMP-dicyanamide (BMP-DCA) RTIL containing copper chloride (CuCl). The CuI films formed using this method were compact, fine-grained and exhibited good adhesion. The characteristic diffraction signals of CuI were observed by powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) also confirmed the formation of a CuI compound semiconductor. The CuI films demonstrated an apparent and stable photocurrent under white light illumination in aqueous solutions and in a RTIL. This method has enabled the electrochemical formation of CuI from a RTIL for the first time, and the first observation of a photocurrent produced from CuI in a RTIL. The coordinating strength of the anions of the RTIL is the key to the successful formation of the CuI thin film. If the coordinating strength of the anions of the RTIL is too strong, no CuI formation is observed.

  13. Influence of different sulfur to selenium ratios on the structural and electronic properties of Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} thin films and solar cells formed by the stacked elemental layer process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, B. J., E-mail: bjm.mueller@web.de [Robert Bosch GmbH, Corporate Research and Advance Engineering, Advanced Functional Materials and Microsystems, D-70839 Gerlingen (Germany); Institute of Micro- and Nanomaterials, University of Ulm, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Zimmermann, C.; Haug, V., E-mail: veronika.haug@de.bosch.com; Koehler, T.; Zweigart, S. [Robert Bosch GmbH, Corporate Research and Advance Engineering, Advanced Functional Materials and Microsystems, D-70839 Gerlingen (Germany); Hergert, F. [Bosch Solar CISTech GmbH, D-14772 Brandenburg (Germany); Herr, U., E-mail: ulrich.herr@uni-ulm.de [Institute of Micro- and Nanomaterials, University of Ulm, D-89081 Ulm (Germany)

    2014-11-07

    In this study, we investigate the effect of different elemental selenium to elemental sulfur ratios on the chalcopyrite phase formation in Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se){sub 2} thin films. The films are formed by the stacked elemental layer process. The structural and electronic properties of the thin films and solar cells are analyzed by means of scanning electron microscopy, glow discharge optical emission spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, spectral photoluminescence as well as current-voltage, and quantum efficiency measurements. The influence of different S/(S+Se) ratios on the anion incorporation and on the Ga/In distribution is investigated. We find a homogenous sulfur concentration profile inside the film from the top surface to the bottom. External quantum efficiency measurements show that the band edge of the solar cell device is shifted to shorter wavelength, which enhances the open-circuit voltages. The relative increase of the open-circuit voltage with S/(S+Se) ratio is lower than expected from the band gap energy trend, which is attributed to the presence of S-induced defects. We also observe a linear decrease of the short-circuit current density with increasing S/(S+Se) ratio which can be explained by a reduced absorption. Above a critical S/(S+Se) ratio of around 0.61, the fill factor drops drastically, which is accompanied by a strong series resistance increase which may be attributed to changes in the back contact or p-n junction properties.

  14. Electrical conduction of polyimide films prepared from polyamic acid (PAA and pre-imidized polyimide (PI solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Electrical conduction characteristics in two different polyimide films prepared by the imidization of polyamic acid (PAA and pre-imidized polyimide (PI solution were investigated. It is found that the current density of the polyimide film from PAA was higher than that of the polyimide film from PI at the same electric field, even though the conduction mechanism in both polyimide films follows the ionic hopping model. The hopping distance was calculated to be 2.8 nm for PAA type and 3.2 nm for PI type polyimide film. It is also found that the decay rate of the residual electrostatic charges on the polyimide films becomes faster in the PAA type than in the PI type polyimide film.

  15. Effect of annealing on the electrical, optical and structural properties of cadmium stannate thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaravel, R.; Krishnakumar, V.; Gokulakrishnan, V.; Ramamurthi, K.; Jeganathan, K.

    2010-01-01

    Polycrystalline thin films of cadmium stannate (Cd 2 SnO 4 ) were deposited by spray pyrolysis method on the Corning substrates at substrate temperature of 525 o C. Further, the films were annealed at 600 o C in vacuum for 30 min. These films were characterized for their structural, electrical and optical properties. The experimental results showed that the post-deposition annealing in vacuum has a significant influence on the properties of the films. The average grain size of the film was increased from 27.3 to 35.0 nm on heat treatment. The average optical transmittance in the visible region (500-850 nm) is decreased from 81.4% to 73.4% after annealing in vacuum. The minimum resistivity achieved in the present study for the vacuum annealed films is the lowest among the reported values for the Cd 2 SnO 4 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method.

  16. Appropriate materials and preparation techniques for polycrystalline-thin-film thermophotovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    1997-03-01

    Polycrystalline-thin-film thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells have excellent potential for reducing the cost of TPV generators so as to address the hitherto inaccessible and highly competitive markets such as self-powered gas-fired residential warm air furnaces and energy-efficient electric cars, etc. Recent progress in polycrystalline-thin-film solar cells have made it possible to satisfy the diffusion length and intrinsic junction rectification criteria for TPV cells operating at high fluences. Continuous ranges of direct bandgaps of the ternary and pseudoternary compounds such as Hg1-xCdxTe, Pb1-xCdxTe, Hg1-xZnxTe, and Pb1-xZnxS cover the region of interest of 0.50-0.75 eV for efficient TPV conversion. Other ternary and pseudoternary compounds which show direct bandgaps in most of or all of the 0.50-0.75 eV range are Pb1-xZnxTe, Sn1-xCd2xTe2, Pb1-xCdxSe, Pb1-xZnxSe, and Pb1-xCdxS. Hg1-xCdxTe (with x~0.21) has been studied extensively for infrared detectors. PbTe and Pb1-xSnxTe have also been studied for infrared detectors. Not much work has been carried out on Hg1-xZnxTe thin films. Hg1-xCdxTe and Pb1-xCdxTe alloys cover a wide range of cut-off wavelengths from the far infrared to the near visible. Acceptors and donors are introduced in these materials by excess non-metal (Te) and excess metal (Hg and Pb) respectively. Extrinsic acceptor impurities are Cu, Au, and As while and In and Al are donor impurities. Hg1-xCdxTe thin films have been deposited by isothermal vapor-phase epitaxy (VPE), liquid phase epitaxy (LPE), hot-wall metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), electrodeposition, sputtering, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), laser-assisted evaporation, and vacuum evaporation with or without hot-wall enclosure. The challenge in the preparation of Hg1-xCdxTe is to provide excess mercury incidence rate, to optimize the deposition parameters for enhanced mercury incorporation, and to achieve the requisite stoichiometry, grain size, and doping. MBE and MOCVD

  17. Nanocomposite metal/plasma polymer films prepared by means of gas aggregation cluster source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polonskyi, O.; Solar, P.; Kylian, O.; Drabik, M.; Artemenko, A.; Kousal, J.; Hanus, J.; Pesicka, J.; Matolinova, I. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Kolibalova, E. [Tescan, Libusina trida 21, 632 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Slavinska, D. [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Biederman, H., E-mail: bieder@kmf.troja.mff.cuni.cz [Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague 8 (Czech Republic)

    2012-04-02

    Nanocomposite metal/plasma polymer films have been prepared by simultaneous plasma polymerization using a mixture of Ar/n-hexane and metal cluster beams. A simple compact cluster gas aggregation source is described and characterized with emphasis on the determination of the amount of charged clusters and their size distribution. It is shown that the fraction of neutral, positively and negatively charged nanoclusters leaving the gas aggregation source is largely influenced by used operational conditions. In addition, it is demonstrated that a large portion of Ag clusters is positively charged, especially when higher currents are used for their production. Deposition of nanocomposite Ag/C:H plasma polymer films is described in detail by means of cluster gas aggregation source. Basic characterization of the films is performed using transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopies. It is shown that the morphology, structure and optical properties of such prepared nanocomposites differ significantly from the ones fabricated by means of magnetron sputtering of Ag target in Ar/n-hexane mixture.

  18. Microstructure and optical properties of nanocrystalline Cu2O thin films prepared by electrodeposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xishun; Zhang, Miao; Shi, Shiwei; He, Gang; Song, Xueping; Sun, Zhaoqi

    2014-01-01

    Cuprous oxide (Cu2O) thin films were prepared by using electrodeposition technique at different applied potentials (-0.1, -0.3, -0.5, -0.7, and -0.9 V) and were annealed in vacuum at a temperature of 100°C for 1 h. Microstructure and optical properties of these films have been investigated by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-visible (vis) spectrophotometer, and fluorescence spectrophotometer. The morphology of these films varies obviously at different applied potentials. Analyses from these characterizations have confirmed that these films are composed of regular, well-faceted, polyhedral crystallites. UV-vis absorption spectra measurements have shown apparent shift in optical band gap from 1.69 to 2.03 eV as the applied potential becomes more cathodic. The emission of FL spectra at 603 nm may be assigned as the near band-edge emission.

  19. New routes of preparation of polyaniline films and dosimetric characterization for high-doses gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, Ana Paula Lima

    2003-08-01

    This work presents a new conducting polymeric material based on polyaniline thin films that will be used in the confection of dosimetric devices. On preparation of the films a homogeneous and viscous solution of poly (acrylic acid) and MnO 2 is deposited on PMMA surface, which after dried, is immersed in an acid aniline solution. The films formed present low resistivity (6.10 2 Ωm), good mechanical resistance and adherence on the electrodes. The films were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, conductivity measurements and manganese elemental analyses. The resistance variations show linear correlation (r 2 = 0,9928) with gamma irradiation dose in the range of 1000 to 6000 Gy, with medium error less than 5% and sensitivity response. The dosimetric devices present as advantage real time measurements, low cost, use in calibration of industrial radioactive sources. Moreover, this composite could in future replace Fricke dosimeter and its applications. A calibration curve is showed for PANI dosimeter, here proposed, to use at high gamma doses. (author)

  20. Preparation and Characterization of BPO Film as Electrode for Using of FeRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin-Yi, Wen; Jun, Yu; Yun-Bo, Wang; Wen-Li, Zhou; Jun-Xiong, Gao; Xiao-Hui, Chu

    2008-01-01

    Conductive perovskite BaPbO3 (BPO) films as a potential electrode material of PZT capacitors used in ferroelectric random access memory are prepared by rf magnetron sputtering. An x-ray diffractometer and standard four probe method are employed to investigate the dependence of growth conditions on crystal structure and conductivity of BPO films. It is found that BPO films with perovskite phase can be obtained at substrate temperatures above 425° C, and the sample with the lowest resistivity is obtained at 450° C under pure argon atmosphere. Using this BPO film as electrode, ferroelectric properties of BPO/PZT/BPO and Pt/PZT/BPO sandwiched structures are evaluated. Their remanent polarization and coercive field are 36.6μC/cm 2 (81.3kV/cm) and 36.9μC/cm 2 (89.1 kV/cm), respectively. The coercive field of the former structure is lower than that of the latter, but remanent polarizations are almost the same. In addition, the results imply that BPO electrode is helpful to improve the fatigue resistance of PZT. The reasons are discussed. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  1. Preparation of Superhydrophobic Film on Ti Substrate and Its Anticorrosion Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Zhu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Superhydrophobic films were fabricated on a titanium substrate with or without anodizing by using a self-assembling method. Firstly, the pretreatments of mechanical polishing/anodizing or mechanical polishing only were conducted, respectively. Subsequently, the preparation of polydopamine film layer, deposition of nano-silver particles, and post modification of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecanethiol were performed on the surface of the pretreated substrate. The surface morphologies, compositions, wettability, and corrosion resistance of the films were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS, water contact angle measurements, and electrochemical tests, respectively. Meanwhile, the effect of the deposition time in the silver nitrate solution on the hydrophobicity of the specimen surface was investigated. The result showed that with the increase of deposition time, the hydrophobic property enhanced gradually. The surface deposited for 7 h exhibited an optimum hydrophobic effect, which was characterized with a large water contact angle (WCA of 154°, and the surface was rather rough and covered by a relatively uniform layer of micro-nano silver particles. The excellent hydrophobicity was attributed to a rough stratified microstructure along with the low surface energy. The electrochemical measurements showed that the existence of the superhydrophobic film can effectively enhance the corrosion resistance of Ti samples.

  2. Electrochemical preparation and characterization of CuInSe2 thin films for photovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen Arqueros, C.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this work has been to investigate the electrodeposition as a low-cost, large-area fabrication process to obtain CuInSe 2 this films for efficient photovoltaic devices. this objective entails the elucidation of thin film deposition mechanism, the study of the fundamental properties of electrodeposited material, and also the modification of their physical and chemical parameters for photovoltaic applications. CuInSe 2 thin films have been successfully electrodeposited from a citric was characterized by compositional, structural, electrical, optical and electrochemical measurements, relating their properties with the preparation parameters and also studying the effect of various thermal and chemical treatments. The results showed post-deposition treatment are needed for optimizing these films for solar cells fabrication: first, an annealing in inert atmosphere at temperatures above 400 degrees celsius to obtain a high recrystallization in the chalcopyrite structure, and after a chemical etching in KCN solution to remove secondary phases of Cu x Se and Se which are frequently electrodeposited with the CuInSe 2 . The treated samples showed appropriate photovoltaic activity in a semiconductor-electrolite liquid junction. (author) 193 ref

  3. Preparation of Superhydrophobic Film on Ti Substrate and Its Anticorrosion Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Tang, Wenchuan; Huang, Luyao; Zhang, Dawei; Du, Cuiwei; Yu, Gaohong; Chen, Ming; Chowwanonthapunya, Thee

    2017-06-08

    Superhydrophobic films were fabricated on a titanium substrate with or without anodizing by using a self-assembling method. Firstly, the pretreatments of mechanical polishing/anodizing or mechanical polishing only were conducted, respectively. Subsequently, the preparation of polydopamine film layer, deposition of nano-silver particles, and post modification of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecanethiol were performed on the surface of the pretreated substrate. The surface morphologies, compositions, wettability, and corrosion resistance of the films were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), water contact angle measurements, and electrochemical tests, respectively. Meanwhile, the effect of the deposition time in the silver nitrate solution on the hydrophobicity of the specimen surface was investigated. The result showed that with the increase of deposition time, the hydrophobic property enhanced gradually. The surface deposited for 7 h exhibited an optimum hydrophobic effect, which was characterized with a large water contact angle (WCA) of 154°, and the surface was rather rough and covered by a relatively uniform layer of micro-nano silver particles. The excellent hydrophobicity was attributed to a rough stratified microstructure along with the low surface energy. The electrochemical measurements showed that the existence of the superhydrophobic film can effectively enhance the corrosion resistance of Ti samples.

  4. Preparation and characterizations of polyaniline (PANI)/ZnO nanocomposites film using solution casting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Faheem; Kumar, Shalendra; Arshi, Nishat; Anwar, M.S.; Su-Yeon, Lee; Kil, Gyung-Suk; Park, Dae-Won; Koo, Bon Heun; Lee, Chan Gyu

    2011-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI)-ZnO nanoparticles composites film has been successfully fabricated by solution casting technique on glass substrate in which ZnO nanopowder was prepared via auto combustion method and used as inorganic materials. The as-grown nanocomposites film has been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) for their structural and morphological characterizations. X-ray diffraction studies of as-grown film showed the reflection of ZnO nanoparticles along with a broad peak of PANI. The AFM study of the film shows the incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles into the polymer matrix which was further supported by roughness measurement. TEM images showed that the size of ZnO nanoparticles in the nanocomposites increase from ∼ 35 nm to ∼ 45 nm, indicating the interaction of nanoparticles with PANI molecular chains. FTIR spectra showed a band at 501 cm -1 due to ZnO nanoparticles while the hydrogen bonding between the amine group of PANI and ZnO nanoparticles had been confirmed from the presence of the absorption band at 1148 cm -1 .

  5. Preparation and characterization of sputtered Fe1-xN x films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Easton, E. Bradley; Buhrmester, Th.; Dahn, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Iron nitride films have been prepared by reactive DC magnetron sputtering. The composition of Fe 1-x N x was varied over a range of 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.5 by controlling the nitrogen flow rate during sputtering. These films were characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric and electron microprobe analysis. We found that the nitrogen content in the films increased with nitrogen gas partial pressure. XRD experiments revealed an evolution through the α-Fe, γ'-Fe 4 N, ε-Fe 2+z N, ζ-Fe 2 N, γ'''-FeN and γ'-FeN phases, when the nitrogen gas mole percentage was increased from 0% up to 70%. Above 70%, only the γ'-FeN phase was formed despite a measurable increase in the nitrogen content of the film with nitrogen gas partial pressure. Rietveld analysis of powder X-ray diffraction patterns revealed that this behavior is due to an increase in the nitrogen site occupation factor within the lattice

  6. Ultrathin nanofibrous films prepared from cadmium hydroxide nanostrands and anionic surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xinsheng; Karan, Santanu; Ichinose, Izumi

    2009-08-04

    We developed a simple fabrication method of ultrathin nanofibrous films from the dispersion of cadmium hydroxide nanostrands and anionic surfactants. The nanostrands were prepared in a dilute aqueous solution of cadmium chloride by using 2-aminoethanol. They were highly positively charged and gave bundlelike fibers upon mixing an aqueous solution of anionic surfactant. The nanostrand/surfactant composite fibers were filtered on an inorganic membrane filter. The resultant nanofibrous film was very uniform in the area of a few centimeters square when the thickness was not less than 60 nm. The films obtained with sodium tetradecyl sulfate (STS) had a composition close to the electroneutral complex, [Cd37(OH)68(H2O)n] x 6(STS), as confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray analysis. They were water-repellent with a contact angle of 117 degrees, and the value slightly decreased with the alkyl chain length of anionic surfactants. Ultrathin nanofibrous films were stable enough to be used for ultrafiltration at pressure difference of 90 kPa. We could effectively separate Au nanoparticles of 40 nm at an extremely high filtration rate of 14000 L/(h m2 bar).

  7. Electrical and Optical Properties of Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad Y. Banyamin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO coatings have been prepared using the mid-frequency pulsed DC closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering technique in an Ar/O2 atmosphere using blends of tin oxide and tin fluoride powder formed into targets. FTO coatings were deposited with a thickness of 400 nm on glass substrates. No post-deposition annealing treatments were carried out. The effects of the chemical composition on the structural (phase, grain size, optical (transmission, optical band-gap and electrical (resistivity, charge carrier, mobility properties of the thin films were investigated. Depositing FTO by magnetron sputtering is an environmentally friendly technique and the use of loosely packed blended powder targets gives an efficient means of screening candidate compositions, which also provides a low cost operation. The best film characteristics were achieved using a mass ratio of 12% SnF2 to 88% SnO2 in the target. The thin film produced was polycrystalline with a tetragonal crystal structure. The optimized conditions resulted in a thin film with average visible transmittance of 83% and optical band-gap of 3.80 eV, resistivity of 6.71 × 10−3 Ω·cm, a carrier concentration (Nd of 1.46 × 1020 cm−3 and a mobility of 15 cm2/Vs.

  8. Preparation of Superhydrophobic Film on Ti Substrate and Its Anticorrosion Property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Tang, Wenchuan; Huang, Luyao; Zhang, Dawei; Du, Cuiwei; Yu, Gaohong; Chen, Ming; Chowwanonthapunya, Thee

    2017-01-01

    Superhydrophobic films were fabricated on a titanium substrate with or without anodizing by using a self-assembling method. Firstly, the pretreatments of mechanical polishing/anodizing or mechanical polishing only were conducted, respectively. Subsequently, the preparation of polydopamine film layer, deposition of nano-silver particles, and post modification of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecanethiol were performed on the surface of the pretreated substrate. The surface morphologies, compositions, wettability, and corrosion resistance of the films were investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), water contact angle measurements, and electrochemical tests, respectively. Meanwhile, the effect of the deposition time in the silver nitrate solution on the hydrophobicity of the specimen surface was investigated. The result showed that with the increase of deposition time, the hydrophobic property enhanced gradually. The surface deposited for 7 h exhibited an optimum hydrophobic effect, which was characterized with a large water contact angle (WCA) of 154°, and the surface was rather rough and covered by a relatively uniform layer of micro-nano silver particles. The excellent hydrophobicity was attributed to a rough stratified microstructure along with the low surface energy. The electrochemical measurements showed that the existence of the superhydrophobic film can effectively enhance the corrosion resistance of Ti samples. PMID:28772987

  9. Hybrid manganese oxide films for supercapacitor application prepared by sol-gel technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chin-Yi; Wang, Sheng-Chang; Tien, Yue-Han; Tsai, Wen-Ta; Lin, Chung-Kwei

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid films were prepared by adding various concentrations of meso-carbon microbeads (MCMB) during sol-gel processing of manganese oxide films. The heat-treated films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, electrochemical performance of the MCMB-added Mn-oxide hybrid coatings was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and compared with its unadded counterpart. Experimental results showed that Mn-oxide films exhibited a mixture of Mn 2 O 3 and Mn 3 O 4 phases. The higher the heat-treatment temperature, the more Mn 2 O 3 can be observed. The specific capacitance of the unadded Mn-oxide electrodes is 209 F/g. Because the MCMB particles provide more interfacial surface area for electrochemical reactions, a significant improvement can be noticed by adding MCMB in Mn-oxide coatings. The 300 o C heat-treated hybrid Mn-oxide coating with a Mn/MCMB ratio of 10/1 exhibits the highest value of 350 F/g, showing a ∼ 170% increase in specific capacitance.

  10. Combined sonochemical/CVD method for preparation of nanostructured carbon-doped TiO{sub 2} thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasoulnezhad, Hossein [Semiconductor Department, Materials and Energy Research Center (MERC), Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kavei, Ghassem, E-mail: kaveighassem@gmail.com [Semiconductor Department, Materials and Energy Research Center (MERC), Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmadi, Kamran [Semiconductor Department, Materials and Energy Research Center (MERC), Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahimipour, Mohammad Reza [Ceramic Department, Materials and Energy Research Center (MERC), Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-06-30

    Highlights: • Combination of sonochemical and CVD methods for preparation of nanostructured carbon-doped TiO{sub 2} thin film on glass substrate, for the first time. • High transparency, monodispersity and homogeneity of the prepared thin films. • Preparation of the carbon-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films with nanorod and nanosphere morphologies. - Abstract: The present work reports the successful synthesis of the nanostructured carbon-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films on glass substrate by combination of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and ultrasonic methods, for the first time. In this method the ultrasound waves act as nebulizer for converting of sonochemically prepared TiO{sub 2} sol to the mist particles. These mist particles were thermally decomposed in subsequent CVD chamber at 320 °C to produce the carbon-doped TiO{sub 2} thin films. The obtained thin films were characterized by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The results show that the prepared thin films have anatase crystal structure and nanorod morphology, which calcination of them at 800 °C results in the conversion of nanorods to nanoparticles. In addition, the prepared samples have high transparency, monodispersity and homogeneity. The presence of the carbon element in the structure of the thin films causes the narrowing of the band-gap energy of TiO{sub 2} to about 2.8 eV, which results in the improvement of visible light absorption capabilities of the thin film.

  11. Preparation of LiMn2O4 cathode thin films for thin film lithium secondary batteries by a mist CVD process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadanaga, Kiyoharu; Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Sakuda, Atsushi; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro; Duran, Alicia; Aparacio, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • LiMn 2 O 4 thin films were prepared by using the mist CVD process. • An aqueous solution of lithium and manganese acetates is used for the precursor solution. • The cell with the LiMn 2 O 4 thin films exhibited a capacity of about 80 mAh/g. • The cell showed good cycling performance during 10 cycles. - Abstract: LiMn 2 O 4 cathode thin films for thin film lithium secondary batteries were prepared by using so-called the “mist CVD process”, employing an aqueous solution of lithium acetate and manganese acetate, as the source of Li and Mn, respectively. The aqueous solution of starting materials was ultrasonically atomized to form mist particles, and mists were transferred by nitrogen gas to silica glass substrate to form thin films. FE-SEM observation revealed that thin films obtained by this process were dense and smooth, and thin films with a thickness of about 750 nm were obtained. The electrochemical cell with the thin films obtained by sintering at 700 °C exhibited a capacity of about 80 mAh/g, and the cell showed good cycling performance during 10 cycles

  12. Preparation of LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode thin films for thin film lithium secondary batteries by a mist CVD process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadanaga, Kiyoharu, E-mail: tadanaga@chem.osakafu-u.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka, 599-8531 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Akihiro; Sakuda, Atsushi; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro [Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka, 599-8531 (Japan); Duran, Alicia; Aparacio, Mario [Instituto de Cerámica y Vidrio, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Kelsen 5 (Campus de Cantoblanco), Madrid, 28049 (Spain)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films were prepared by using the mist CVD process. • An aqueous solution of lithium and manganese acetates is used for the precursor solution. • The cell with the LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} thin films exhibited a capacity of about 80 mAh/g. • The cell showed good cycling performance during 10 cycles. - Abstract: LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} cathode thin films for thin film lithium secondary batteries were prepared by using so-called the “mist CVD process”, employing an aqueous solution of lithium acetate and manganese acetate, as the source of Li and Mn, respectively. The aqueous solution of starting materials was ultrasonically atomized to form mist particles, and mists were transferred by nitrogen gas to silica glass substrate to form thin films. FE-SEM observation revealed that thin films obtained by this process were dense and smooth, and thin films with a thickness of about 750 nm were obtained. The electrochemical cell with the thin films obtained by sintering at 700 °C exhibited a capacity of about 80 mAh/g, and the cell showed good cycling performance during 10 cycles.

  13. Why Nature Chose Selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Hans J; Hondal, Robert J

    2016-04-15

    The authors were asked by the Editors of ACS Chemical Biology to write an article titled "Why Nature Chose Selenium" for the occasion of the upcoming bicentennial of the discovery of selenium by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1817 and styled after the famous work of Frank Westheimer on the biological chemistry of phosphate [Westheimer, F. H. (1987) Why Nature Chose Phosphates, Science 235, 1173-1178]. This work gives a history of the important discoveries of the biological processes that selenium participates in, and a point-by-point comparison of the chemistry of selenium with the atom it replaces in biology, sulfur. This analysis shows that redox chemistry is the largest chemical difference between the two chalcogens. This difference is very large for both one-electron and two-electron redox reactions. Much of this difference is due to the inability of selenium to form π bonds of all types. The outer valence electrons of selenium are also more loosely held than those of sulfur. As a result, selenium is a better nucleophile and will react with reactive oxygen species faster than sulfur, but the resulting lack of π-bond character in the Se-O bond means that the Se-oxide can be much more readily reduced in comparison to S-oxides. The combination of these properties means that replacement of sulfur with selenium in nature results in a selenium-containing biomolecule that resists permanent oxidation. Multiple examples of this gain of function behavior from the literature are discussed.

  14. Thin copper oxide films prepared by ion beam sputtering with subsequent thermal oxidation: Application in chemiresistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, P., E-mail: phorak@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Bejsovec, V.; Vacik, J.; Lavrentiev, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Vrnata, M. [Department of Physics and Measurements, The University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Kormunda, M. [Department of Physics, Jan Evangelista Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem, České mládeže 8, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Danis, S. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A rapid oxidation process of thin copper films. • Sheet resistance up to 10{sup 9} Ω/◊. • Mixed oxide phase at 200 °C with significant hydroxide presence. • Gas sensing response to 1000 ppm of hydrogen and methanol vapours. • Increased sensitivity with Pd and Au catalyst to hydrogen and methanol, respectively. - Abstract: Copper oxide films were prepared by thermal oxidation of thin Cu films deposited on substrates by ion beam sputtering. The subsequent oxidation was achieved in the temperature range of 200 °C–600 °C with time of treatment from 1 to 7 h (with a 1-h step) in a furnace open to air. At temperatures 250 °C–600 °C, the dominant phase formed was CuO, while at 200 °C mainly the Cu{sub 2}O phase was identified. However, the oxidation at 200 °C led to a more complicated composition − in the depth Cu{sub 2}O phase was observed, though in the near-surface layer the CuO dominant phase was found with a significant presence of Cu(OH){sub 2}. A limited amount of Cu{sub 2}O was also found in samples annealed at 600 °C. The sheet resistance R{sub S} of the as-deposited Cu sample was 2.22 Ω/□, after gradual annealing R{sub S} was measured in the range 2.64 MΩ/□–2.45 GΩ/□. The highest R{sub S} values were obtained after annealing at 300 °C and 350 °C, respectively. Oxygen depth distribution was studied using the {sup 16}O(α,α) nuclear reaction with the resonance at energy 3032 keV. It was confirmed that the higher oxidation degree of copper is located in the near-surface region. Preliminary tests of the copper oxide films as an active layer of a chemiresistor were also performed. Hydrogen and methanol vapours, with a concentration of 1000 ppm, were detected by the sensor at an operating temperature of 300 °C and 350 °C, respectively. The response of the sensors, pointed at the p-type conductivity, was improved by the addition of thin Pd or Au catalytic films to the oxidic film surface. Pd-covered films showed

  15. Optical Characterization of SERS Substrates Based on Porous Au Films Prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Strelchuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The SERS (surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy substrates based on nanocomposite porous films with gold nanoparticles (Au NPs arrays were formed using the method of the pulsed laser deposition from the back low-energy flux of erosion torch particles on the glass substrate fixed at the target plain. The dependencies of porosity, and morphology of the surface of the film regions located near and far from the torch axis on the laser ablation regime, laser pulses energy density, their number, and argon pressure in the vacuum chamber, were ascertained. The Au NPs arrays with the controllable extinction spectra caused by the local surface plasmon resonance were prepared. The possibility of the formation of SERS substrates for the detection of the Rhodamine 6G molecules with the concentration 10−10 Mol/L with the enhancement factor 4·107 was shown.

  16. Preparation, electrical and optical properties of evaporated thin films of CuPbI3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuku, T.A.; Azi, S.O.

    1995-10-01

    Thin films of CuPbl 3 have been prepared by a vacuum evaporation process. X-ray analysis gives structural parameters in consonance with the bulk powder form of the material. The film however preferring a growth in the [002] direction. Electrical conductivity indicates an activated process with two activation energies being 0.45 eV for T ≤ 373 K, and 0.6 eV for T ≥ 373 K. Both are interpreted to be due to the transport of anionic carriers in the phases existing below and beyond 373 K respectively. Optical characterization reveals a material with high absorption coefficient, with α ≥ 10 4 cm -1 . The material is characterized by a direct absorption with the direct edge at 1.64 eV. (author). 13 refs, 5 figs

  17. The Influence of Preparation Conditions on the Electrical Conductivity of Poly N-Methyl-pyrrole Films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidanapathirana, K.; Careem, M.A.; Skaarup, Steen

    1999-01-01

    on the electrical conductivity has been investigated. The conductivity was measured by the in situ method using a specially prepared two-band microelectrode. The current density used during the polymerization has a considerable influence on the conductivity, as earlier observed for polypyrrole in non......Electro-active poly-N-methylpyrrole (PNMP) films have been galvanostatically polymerized under a range of conditions. The influence of the conditions used in electropolymerization, such as electrolyte concentration, current density, type of doping anion. and temperature during polymerization......-aqueous electrolytes. The conductivity changes with the size of the anion and the concentration of the electrolyte as well as on the temperature at which the polymerization was carried out. Polymer films formed at relatively higher temperatures had lower conductivities and were not able to insert as many counterions...

  18. Optical Properties of Nitrogen-Substituted Strontium Titanate Thin Films Prepared by Pulsed Laser Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Wokaun

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Perovskite-type N-substituted SrTiO3 thin films with a preferential (001 orientation were grown by pulsed laser deposition on (001-oriented MgO and LaAlO3 substrates. Application of N2 or ammonia using a synchronized reactive gas pulse produces SrTiO3-x:Nx films with a nitrogen content of up to 4.1 at.% if prepared with the NH3 gas pulse at a substrate temperature of 720 °C. Incorporating nitrogen in SrTiO3 results in an optical absorption at 370-460 nm associated with localized N(2p orbitals. The estimated energy of these levels is ≈2.7 eV below the conduction band. In addition, the optical absorption increases gradually with increasing nitrogen content.

  19. Tensile properties of carbon black-filled natural rubber latex films using two different approaches of film preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarkasi, Siti Aisyah; Samsuri, Azemi; Hashim, M. Y. Amir; Kamarun, Dzaraini

    2017-09-01

    A study was structured to investigate the effects of two different approaches of black-filled NRL films preparation on tensile strengths and tensile stress at 100% strain (M100). In the "First Approach", carbon black dispersion was added into the NRL and mixed using mechanical stirrer. Then the black-filled NRL was coagulated with acetic acid and dried to form NR black-filled masterbatch. This black-filled NR masterbatch was then masticated and mixed with other compounding ingredients on the 2-roll mill. In the "Second Approach", carbon black dispersion was mixed with NRL plus all other compounding ingredients using a mechanical stirrer at high mechanical stirring speed (200 rpm) for 3 hrs. Tensile test-pieces from these two rubber specimens were tested according to ISO37. It was observed that the tensile strengths are affected by both methods. In the case of masticated latex masterbatch, the black-filled NRL films gave higher tensile strength (25-27 MPa) as compared to un-masticated black-filled NRL films (11-17 MPa). The optimum amount of filler loading for highest tensile strength in both approaches was 20 phr of carbon black. However these different approaches did not give significant effect to the elongation at break, EB and M100. SEM images of samples prepared from both approaches suggested that the dispersion of filler in the rubber matrix was better in the masticated samples compared to the un-masticated samples. The reason for the difference in the tensile strength between the two black-filled rubbers might be associated with the degree of dispersions and the uniformity of the dispersions within the rubber matrix. The first mixing approach involved high mechanical shearing action during mastication and mixing process on the 2-roll mill. The high shearing actions were able to breakdown filler aggregates efficiently and distributed the dispersed filler uniformly within the rubber matrix. In the second approach, the breakdown of filler aggregates relied on

  20. Preparation and Characterization of Epitaxial VO2 Films on Sapphire Using Postepitaxial Topotaxy Route via Epitaxial V2O3 Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Iwao; Manabe, Takaaki; Tsuchiya, Tetsuo; Nakajima, Tomohiko; Sohma, Mitsugu; Kumagai, Toshiya

    2008-02-01

    Epitaxial VO2 films were prepared on the C-planes of α-Al2O3 substrates by a metal organic deposition (MOD) process. It was difficult to obtain the single phase of (010)M-oriented VO2 films, in which the subscript M refers to the monoclinic indices, by the heat treatment of amorphous precursor films in the VO2-stable region after the pyrolysis of the coating solution. The product films consisted of discontinuous circular grains of 1-2 µm size on the substrate surface. Therefore, we prepared the (010)M-oriented epitaxial VO2 films using postepitaxial topotaxy (PET), that is, topotactic oxidation of (0001)-oriented epitaxial V2O3 films. First, epitaxial V2O3(0001) films were obtained by MOD starting with a vanadium naphthenate solution. Second, the epitaxial V2O3(0001) films were topotactically oxidized at 500 °C in an Ar-O2 gas mixture with pO2 = 10-4 atm to obtain (010)M-oriented epitaxial VO2 films. The epitaxial relationships were VO2(010)M ∥ α-Al2O3(0001) and VO2[100]M ∥ α-Al2O3[0110], [1010], [1100]. The VO2(010)M films exhibited metal-semiconductor transitions with hysteresis loops at 60-80 °C. The resistivity change before and after the transition of the VO2(010)M film oxidized for 6 h was three orders of magnitude.

  1. Preparation and characterization of graphene/turbostratic carbon derived from chitosan film for supercapacitor electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanappi, M. F. Y. M.; Deraman, M.; Suleman, M.; Othman, M. A. R.; Basri, N. H.; Nor, N. S. M.; Hamdan, E.; Sazali, N. E. S.; Tajuddin, N. S. M.

    2018-04-01

    Electrochemical capacitors or supercapacitors are the potential energy storage devices which are known for having higher specific capacitance and specific energy than electrolytic capacitors. Electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) also referred as ultracapacitors is a class of supercapacitors that employ different forms of carbon like activated carbon, CNT, graphene etc., as electrodes. The performance of the supercapacitors is determined by its components namely electrolyte, electrode, etc. Carbon electrodes with high surface area and desired pore size distribution are always preferred and which can be tailored by varying the precursor and method of preparation. In recent years, owing to their low cost, ease of synthesis, high stability and conductivity, the activated carbons derived from biomass precursors have been investigated as potential electrode material for the EDLCs. In this report, we present the preparation and characterization of graphene/turbostratic carbon monolith (CM) electrodes from the carbon grains (CGs) obtained by carbonization (under the flow of nitrogen, N2 gas and over a temperature range from 600 °C to 1000 °C) of biomass precursor chitosan film. The procedure to prepare the chitosan film is described elsewhere. The carbon grains are characterized using Raman spectroscopy (RS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). We expect that the CGs would have the similar characteristics as graphene and would be a potential electrode material for EDLCs application.

  2. Preparation of YBa2Cu3O7-δ epitaxial thin films by pulsed ion-beam evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorasit, S.; Yoshida, G.; Suzuki, T.; Suematsu, H.; Jiang, W.; Yatsui, K.

    2001-01-01

    Thin films of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (Y-123) grown epitaxially have been successfully deposited by ion-beam evaporation (IBE). The c-axis oriented YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ thin films were successfully deposited on MgO and SrTiO 3 substrates. The Y-123 thin films which were prepared on the SrTiO 3 substrates were confirmed to be epitaxially grown, by X-ray diffraction analysis. The instantaneous deposition rate of the Y-123 thin films was estimated as high as 4 mm/s. (author)

  3. Physical properties and morphology of films prepared from microfibrillated cellulose and microfibrillated cellulose in combination with amylopectin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plackett, David; Anturi, Harvey; Hedenqvist, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    Two types of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) were prepared using either a sulfite pulp containing a high amount of hemicellulose (MFC 1) or a carboxymethylated dissolving pulp (MFC 2). MFC gels were then combined with amylopectin solutions to produce solvent-cast MFC-reinforced amylopectin films....... Tensile testing revealed that MFC 2-reinforced films exhibited a more ductile behavior and that MFC 1-reinforced films had higher modulus of elasticity (E-modulus) at MFC loadings of 50 wt % or higher. Pure MFC films had relatively low oxygen permeability values when data were compared with those...

  4. Photoresponsive layer-by-layer ultrathin films prepared from a hyperbranched azobenzene-containing polymeric diazonium salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinyang; Fan Pengwei; Tuo Xinlin; He Yaning; Wang Xiaogong

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a hyperbranched diazonium salt (HB-DAS), prepared through azo-coupling reaction of an AB 2 monomer (N, N-bis[2-(4-aminobenzoyloxy)ethyl]aniline), was used to prepare self-assembled multilayers and ultrathin films. Multilayer films were fabricated by dipping substrates in HB-DAS and other polyelectrolyte solutions alternately in a layer-by-layer (LBL) manner. It was somewhat surprising to observe that HB-DAS forms multilayer films with either a polyanion (poly(styrenesulfonate sodium salt), PSS) or a polycation (poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), PDAC) through alternate deposition in the solutions. Ultrathin films were formed in a sequential growth manner by dipping the substrates in the HB-DAS solution, washing with deionized water and drying repeatedly. In all the processes, the absorbance and thickness of the thin films linearly increase as the number of the dipping cycle increases. HB-DAS/PSS multilayer possesses an obviously larger bilayer thickness and lower density compared with the other two counterparts. The drying step after each deposition is necessary for the HB-DAS ultrathin film growth through the repeated dip-coating of HB-DAS. The multilayer and ultrathin films prepared by the above methods all show high resistance to erosion by organic solvents. The multilayers and ultrathin films exhibit photoinduced dichroism upon the irradiation of a polarized Ar + laser beam

  5. Photoresponsive layer-by-layer ultrathin films prepared from a hyperbranched azobenzene-containing polymeric diazonium salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xinyang; Fan Pengwei; Tuo Xinlin; He Yaning [Department of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Wang Xiaogong [Department of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)], E-mail: wxg-dce@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

    2009-01-30

    In this work, a hyperbranched diazonium salt (HB-DAS), prepared through azo-coupling reaction of an AB{sub 2} monomer (N, N-bis[2-(4-aminobenzoyloxy)ethyl]aniline), was used to prepare self-assembled multilayers and ultrathin films. Multilayer films were fabricated by dipping substrates in HB-DAS and other polyelectrolyte solutions alternately in a layer-by-layer (LBL) manner. It was somewhat surprising to observe that HB-DAS forms multilayer films with either a polyanion (poly(styrenesulfonate sodium salt), PSS) or a polycation (poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), PDAC) through alternate deposition in the solutions. Ultrathin films were formed in a sequential growth manner by dipping the substrates in the HB-DAS solution, washing with deionized water and drying repeatedly. In all the processes, the absorbance and thickness of the thin films linearly increase as the number of the dipping cycle increases. HB-DAS/PSS multilayer possesses an obviously larger bilayer thickness and lower density compared with the other two counterparts. The drying step after each deposition is necessary for the HB-DAS ultrathin film growth through the repeated dip-coating of HB-DAS. The multilayer and ultrathin films prepared by the above methods all show high resistance to erosion by organic solvents. The multilayers and ultrathin films exhibit photoinduced dichroism upon the irradiation of a polarized Ar{sup +} laser beam.

  6. Current-induced metal-insulator transition in VO x thin film prepared by rapid-thermal-annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Choong-Rae; Cho, SungIl; Vadim, Sidorkin; Jung, Ranju; Yoo, Inkyeong

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon of metal-insulator transition (MIT) in polycrystalline VO x thin films and their preparations have been studied. The films were prepared by sputtering of vanadium thin films succeeded by Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) in oxygen ambient at 500 deg. C. Crystalline, compositional, and morphological characterizations reveal a continuous change of phase from vanadium metal to the highest oxide phase, V 2 O 5 , with the time of annealing. Electrical MIT switching has been observed in these films. Sweeping mode, electrode area, and temperature dependent MIT has been studied in Pt/VO x /Pt vertical structure. The important parameters for MIT in VO x have been found to be the current density and the electric field, which depend on carrier density in the films

  7. Preparation and properties of in situ amino-functionalized graphene oxide/polyimide composite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yunhua; Hao, Jican; Xiao, Guoyong; Chen, Lin; Wang, Tonghua; Hu, Zhizhi

    2017-11-01

    The pure light-colored and transparent polyimide (PI) film was prepared from aromatic dianhydride 4,4‧-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic anhydride (6FDA) and diamine 1,4-bis(4-amino-2-trifluoromethylphenoxy)benzene (6FAPB) in the solvent of DMAc via two-step method. Graphene oxide (GO) was in situ grafted with 6FAPB and directly used as a functional inorganic nanofiller to further synthesize poly(amic acid) (PAA)/GO solution. Then, PI/GO composite films with different loadings of GO were prepared by the thermal imidization. The mechanical, thermal, optical, electrical, surface properties, and electrochemical behavior were characterized. The FTIR and XPS results indicate that amino groups can be successfully grafted on the surface of GO. The tensile strength and Young's modulus of the PI-1.0%GO composite film were increased to 118.4 MPa and 2.91 GPa, respectively, which was an approximate improvement of 30.8% and 39.9% compared with pure PI film. These PI/GO composites showed around 256 °C for the glass transition temperature, and around 535 °C for the 5% thermal decomposition temperature, respectively. However, the optical transmittance was significantly decreased from 81.5% (pure PI) to 0.8% (PI-1.0%GO). Besides, the electrical conductivity increased from 1.6 × 10-13 S/m (pure PI) to 2.5 × 10-9 S/m (PI-1.0%GO). Furthermore, when the incorporation of GO was 1.0 wt%, an obvious reduction from 1.08% (pure PI) to 0.65% in the water uptake was observed for the PI/GO composite films, and the water surface contact angle raised from 72.5° (pure PI) to 83.5°. The electrochemical behavior showed that the ability of oxygen atom on the imide ring to gain and loss electron was increased due to incorporation of GO. These results indicated that the strong interfacial interaction between GO and PAA as well as uniform dispersion of GO in PI matrix were benefit to improve the mechanical, thermal, electrical properties and so on. The in situ amino-functionalized approach

  8. Recycling of high purity selenium from CIGS solar cell waste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Anna M.K., E-mail: anna.gustafsson@chalmers.se; Foreman, Mark R.StJ.; Ekberg, Christian

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A new method for recycling of selenium from CIGS solar cell materials is presented. • Separation of selenium as selenium dioxide after heating in oxygen atmosphere. • Complete selenium separation after oxidation of <63 μm particles at 800 °C for 1 h. • After reduction of selenium dioxide the selenium purity was higher than 99.999 wt%. - Abstract: Copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) is a promising material in thin film solar cell production. To make CIGS solar cells more competitive, both economically and environmentally, in comparison to other energy sources, methods for recycling are needed. In addition to the generally high price of the material, significant amounts of the metals are lost in the manufacturing process. The feasibility of recycling selenium from CIGS through oxidation at elevated temperatures was therefore examined. During oxidation gaseous selenium dioxide was formed and could be separated from the other elements, which remained in solid state. Upon cooling, the selenium dioxide sublimes and can be collected as crystals. After oxidation for 1 h at 800 °C all of the selenium was separated from the CIGS material. Two different reduction methods for reduction of the selenium dioxide to selenium were tested. In the first reduction method an organic molecule was used as the reducing agent in a Riley reaction. In the second reduction method sulphur dioxide gas was used. Both methods resulted in high purity selenium. This proves that the studied selenium separation method could be the first step in a recycling process aimed at the complete separation and recovery of high purity elements from CIGS.

  9. Characterization of PE-g-HEMA films prepared by gamma irradiation through nuclear microprobe techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, L.M.; Rodrigues, P.A.; Falcao, A.N.; Leal, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The functional success of a copolymer as biomaterial depends fundamentally on their mechanical properties (stemming from the material matrix) and on the characteristics of its surface. For biomedical applications, among all the other important properties, the biocompatibility of the surface acquires extreme importance and can dictate its rejection. One of the issues regarding biocompatibility is cytotoxicity which strongly depends on the contamination level at surface. Ion beam analysis techniques associated to Nuclear Microprobe (PIXE, RBS and STIM) allows a rigorous and precise analysis of the concentration (ppm) and distribution of elements contamination, and may also provide information on its near-surface structure. In this work PE-g-HEMA films with different grafting yields were prepared by mutual gamma irradiation at a 60 Co source and were analyzed through nuclear microprobe. Data collected allowed the qualitative and quantitative evaluation of contaminants distribution observed in the different samples as well as the clarification of some processes occurred during the copolymerization reaction. Qualitative analysis showed a random and no homogeneous distribution of the contaminant elements, independent of the grafting degree, suggesting the existence of several sources of contamination at different stages of their preparation. Results also suggest that this 'phased' contamination occurs simultaneously with mechanisms of agglomeration/entrapment of impurities during the gamma induced copolymerization reaction. Moreover, quantitative data showed that all contaminants found in the copolymeric films are natural contaminants of their reagents of preparation, although at concentrations without toxicological hazard, which points to a low cytotoxic potential. The combined analysis of these data with data from SEM and AFM allowed a better understanding of the surface structure and other properties already observed in these

  10. Method for Aluminum Oxide Thin Films Prepared through Low Temperature Atomic Layer Deposition for Encapsulating Organic Electroluminescent Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ying Li

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of dense alumina (Al2O3 thin film through atomic layer deposition (ALD provides a pathway to achieve the encapsulation of organic light emitting devices (OLED. Unlike traditional ALD which is usually executed at higher reaction n temperatures that may affect the performance of OLED, this application discusses the development on preparation of ALD thin film at a low temperature. One concern of ALD is the suppressing effect of ambient temperature on uniformity of thin film. To mitigate this issue, the pumping time in each reaction cycle was increased during the preparation process, which removed reaction byproducts and inhibited the formation of vacancies. As a result, the obtained thin film had both high uniformity and density properties, which provided an excellent encapsulation performance. The results from microstructure morphology analysis, water vapor transmission rate, and lifetime test showed that the difference in uniformity between thin films prepared at low temperatures, with increased pumping time, and high temperatures was small and there was no obvious influence of increased pumping time on light emitting performance. Meanwhile, the permeability for water vapor of the thin film prepared at a low temperature was found to reach as low as 1.5 × 10−4 g/(m2·day under ambient conditions of 25 °C and 60% relative humidity, indicating a potential extension in the lifetime for the OLED.

  11. Thermal treatment influence on the preparation of BPSCCO superconductor thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torsoni, Guilherme Botega; Carvalho, Claudio Luiz

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Nowadays, with the evolution of technology, superconducting thin films application in microelectronics is essential for production of some equipment with reduced size and low energy consumption. There are different ways to prepare thin films, however deposition in liquid phase have received special attention, whose main features are: fast deposition, reduced cost and the possibility of covering large areas. Basically, the method consists to deposit a polymeric precursor solution, with synthesis based on the methodology developed by M. Pechini, on a crystalline substrate using a spin coating equipment also called spinner. In the deposition process by spinner, must be considered some physical parameters, such as, rotation speed, viscosity solution, substrate acceleration and rotating time, evaporation rate and temperature solution. Immediately after the deposition, the material is submitted to different thermal treatments, this consists of two stages, in other words, calcination and sintering stages. The objective of the first stage is to remove the organic compounds, which can be done at temperatures around 500 deg C - 600 deg C, and the other stage, it can be done around 750 deg C and 850 deg C, it means the same interval of phase formation. In this work, films were made with five layers of deposition on Si substrate in three different sintering temperatures, 750, 800 and 850 deg C and it was studied the evolution of the films due to thermal treatment applied. Characterizations were made by x-ray diffraction, microscopy by field emission gun and energy dispersive x-ray (EDS). X-ray diffractograms shown that 2212 phase was obtained in all samples submitted to different temperatures, for higher sintering temperature was not observed any kind of crystalline planes orientation and the electron microscopy and EDS showed that the films are also more homogeneous. (author)

  12. Direct solution-phase synthesis of Se submicrotubes using Se powder as selenium source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Shancheng; Wang Haitao; Zhang Yuping; Li Shuchun; Xiao Zhongdang

    2009-01-01

    The selenium submicrotubes were directly prepared using Se powder as selenium source by microwave-assisted method. Field-emission scan electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were adopted to characterize the as-prepared products. The results of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and XRD pattern proved that the selenium submicrotubes were single crystalline in nature and [0 0 1] oriented. A possible growth mechanism of the selenium submicrotubes was proposed. The effects of the experimental conditions, such as alkaline concentration and solvent properties, on the morphology and dimension of the products have also been discussed

  13. Solvent properties of hydrazine in the preparation of metal chalcogenide bulk materials and films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Min; Mitzi, David B

    2009-08-21

    A combination of unique solvent properties of hydrazine enables the direct dissolution of a range of metal chalcogenides at ambient temperature, rendering this an extraordinarily simple and soft synthetic approach to prepare new metal chalcogenide-based materials. The extended metal chalcogenide parent framework is broken up during this process, and the resulting metal chalcogenide building units are re-organized into network structures (from 0D to 3D) based upon their interactions with the hydrazine/hydrazinium moieties. This Perspective will review recent crystal and materials chemistry developments within this family of compounds and will briefly discuss the utility of this approach in metal chalcogenide thin-film deposition.

  14. The preparation and characterization of Bi-2212 film on Ag substrate by dip-coating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yang; Zhao Liang; Li Pei; Qu Timing; Huang Yong; Han Zhenghe

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we report on the processing parameters and resulting critical current densities of Bi 2 Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O x thick films on Ag substrate. Bi-2212 tapes and wires are prepared by dip-coating method. It is found that parameters during partial melting (maximum process temperature T max and solidification temperature T s ) have strong influences on the transition temperature T c . The 0.5 mm diameter dip-coated wire can carry 4000 A/cm 2 critical current in 77 K, self field. Post-annealing on different temperatures and atmospheres are studied as well to obtain varied T c samples

  15. Preparation of TiN films by arc ion plating using dc and pulsed biases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, M.D.; Lee, Y.P.; Dong, C.; Lin, G.Q.; Sun, C.; Wen, L.S.

    2004-01-01

    TiN hard coatings were prepared by arc ion plating with both direct current (dc) and pulsed biases. An extensive investigation was undertaken to determine the effects of the substrate temperature on the mechanical properties and the microstructures of films. The results show that the substrate temperature is decreased evidently when a pulsed bias instead of a dc one is employed. At the same time, the microstructures and the properties are also improved. A low-temperature arc ion plating can be realized by using pulsed biases

  16. Preparation and characterization of micro-grid modified In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:W films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Dongmei; Wang, Wenwen, E-mail: 08569@buaa.edu.cn; Zhang, Fan; Fu, Qiang; Pan, Jiaojiao

    2016-08-01

    Tungsten doped indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:W, IWO) thin films with IWO micro-grid covered surface were prepared at room temperature using techniques of radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering and polystyrene (PS) microsphere template. The composition, crystallization structures, surface morphologies, and optical and electrical properties of the films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, spectrophotometer from visible to near infrared (NIR) range and Hall effect measurement, respectively. Periodic micro-grid modified surface was obtained to improve light trapping properties. The effects of the PS micro-spheres diameters and the sputtering time on the surface morphology, transmittance in NIR range, diffuse reflection and conductive properties of the IWO films are investigated. Experiments show that surface modification of the IWO film with micro-grid under the optimized condition can improve the conductivity of the films by 15%, and the diffuse reflectance by 150%, with less than 8% decrease of the transmittance in the visible region. The study would be beneficial to the light trapping effect of solar cells using IWO films as transparent electrodes. - Highlights: • In{sub 2}O{sub 3}:W (IWO) films were obtained by reactive frequency magnetron sputtering. • IWO micro-grids were prepared on the surface of IWO films. • Influences of micro-grid size and sputtering time on IWO films were analyzed. • Both high conductivity and transparency are acquired in near-infrared region.

  17. Investigation of physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of prepared films containing nanoparticles of titanium oxide based on soy flour polysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Salarbashi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The natural derived biopolymers are highly interested in recent years. These polymers are considering as the alternative for un-biodegradable plastic films. This is due to the low cost and their availability from biodegradable and renewable sources. In this study, the effect of different concentrations of Tio2 nanoparticles on physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of prepared edible films based on soy flour soluble polysaccharide was investigated. MethodS: The nanocomposite films were prepared by adding the Tio2 nanoparticles (5, 10 and 15%/ db to the soy flour. In order to investigate the physicochemical and microbiological properties, the resulted nanocomposite films were synthetized based on the casting method. Results: When the content of nanoparticles increased, the moisture content and solubility of the film specimens were significantly decreased, whereas the mechanical resistance was significantly increased. Tio2 nanoparticle was highly effective against basillus cereus, staphylococus ureus and staphylococuss epidermidis. Meanwhile, MIC and MBC of