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Sample records for preparing proactive visionary

  1. Preparing Students for Higher Education: The Role of Proactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geertshuis, Susan; Jung, Moon; Cooper-Thomas, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Proactivity is important to individual success, particularly where individuals face significant obstacles and where formal support may be lacking or difficult to access. The study tracks mature students over a one-semester university preparation course designed for returners to learning. Measures of proactivity included proactive personality,…

  2. Toward the 21st Century: Preparing Proactive Visionary Transformational Leaders for Building Learning Communities. Human Resource Development. South Florida Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Warren H.

    The first part of this document describes Nova University's doctoral program in Vocational, Technical, and Occupational (VTO) Education, developed in response to the need to create high performance learners and leaders for building learning communities. It discusses how a curriculum change in 1990 resulted in the following: conversion of the…

  3. Toward the 21st Century: Preparing Proactive Visionary Transformational Leaders for Building Learning Communities. Human Resource Development. Phoenix Cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Warren H.

    This document describes the human resources development (HRD) seminar that has been part of Nova University's nontraditional practitioner-oriented, problem-solving, field-based doctoral program in higher education since 1990. Discussed first are HRD in the agricultural and business industrial eras and changing HRD practices/needs in the context of…

  4. VISIONARY LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION

    OpenAIRE

    AKSU, Ali

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether the perceptions of primary school teachers about visionary leadership and differs significantly according to some variables or not with their perceptions about the visionary leadership. The study is a survey type and it was carried out in the academic year of 2007 – 2008.The population of the study consisted of 422 state primary schools in 19 metropolitan districts of İzmir and 13.644 teachers.61 primary schools and 665 teachers from 19 metrop...

  5. Attitude toward Visionary Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesourd, Sandra J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Formulates descriptive research findings into a utilitarian tool for principal leadership development programs. An instrument measuring attitude toward a (visionary) leadership ideal was developed, administered, and analyzed. Previous research findings were summarized. Results showed that the instrument would help assess individual acceptance of…

  6. Toward the 21st Century: Preparing Proactive Visionary Transformational Leaders for Building Learning Communities. Human Resource Development. Tampa Cluster. Winter 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Warren H.

    This document describes the Tampa Cluster human resources development (HRD) seminar that was conducted as part of Nova University's distance education program in higher education (PHE). Discussed first are HRD in the agricultural and business industrial eras and changing HRD practices/needs, Nova University's PHE and HRD program, the proceedings…

  7. Leader as visionary. Leadership education model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aroian, Jane

    2002-01-01

    Developing nurse leaders for today and tomorrow is a priority considering the powerful relationship between leadership strength and the influence of the nursing profession in the future of health care. This article addresses leadership theories and research as they relate to visionary leadership. Education for visionary leadership is also addressed including the competencies and skill sets for effective visionary leaders. Visioning is a powerful force for change in shaping organizations and building teams for the future.

  8. Proactive Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    . Valid feedback from various stakeholders improved the original design of After Action Reviews into Proactive Reviews, which is helpful for local as well as global companies to learn from experience. The educational design started with personal experience that was shared with colleagues who cooperated...... with solving a task. They found improved ways of doing the job and identified management challenges. They shared their experience with colleagues who did not attend the Proactive Review and addressed the management challenges to the senior management. Proactive Reviews were reported 50-100 times a year...

  9. Proactive Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    This study explores how a world leading IT-company developed and implemented an innovative and simple educational design for organizational learning called Proactive Review, which was inspired by the thoughts of Senge, Nonaka, & Takeuchi and Cole & Engeström and explored as Design Based Research....... Valid feedback from various stakeholders improved the original design of After Action Reviews into Proactive Reviews, which is helpful for local as well as global companies to learn from experience. The educational design started with personal experience that was shared with colleagues who cooperated...... with solving a task. They found improved ways of doing the job and identified management challenges. They shared their experience with colleagues who did not attend the Proactive Review and addressed the management challenges to the senior management. Proactive Reviews were reported 50-100 times a year...

  10. Proactive Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte

    2015-01-01

    This chapter will explore how to learn from working experience through the use of an educational approach called Proactive Review. From 2005 to 2012, Proactive Review was developed and implemented in a world-class IT company based in more than 40 countries across Europe, the Middle East, and Africa....... This chapter will include some of the theoretical considerations as well as the final educational design for a Proactive Review, as exemplified in a case study from the IT company. The aim of this chapter is to provide a theoretically based and proven educational design for Lessons Learned, including...... recommendations for successful Proactive Reviews. The theory section will explore theories regarding the following two topics: first, how an organization may understand the term “learning”; and second, the starting point of learning and how an organization may maintain a learning environment. The research...

  11. Friedrich Froebel: Visionary, Prophet and Healer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspin, D.N.

    1983-01-01

    Critiques ontological, epistemological, psychological, and axiological elements of Froebel's educational thought. Identifies valuable and important aspects of his work and characterizes Froebel as a prophet, healer, and visionary. (RH)

  12. The value of emotion in visionary leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Venus, Merlijn; Stam, Daan; Van Knippenberg, Daan

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ New research shows that emotional displays from leaders can have a profound and influencing effect on the way that employees think, feel and behave relative to an organisation’s visionary goals.

  13. Never Let the Opportunity to Prepare for a Crisis Go to Waste: The Need for Proactive Measures in the Asia-Pacific Region to Mitigate the Impacts of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-21

    Never Let the Opportunity to Prepare for a Crisis Go to Waste: The Need for Proactive Measures in the Asia- Pacific Region to Mitigate the...DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2014 – MAY 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Never Let the Opportunity to Prepare for a Crisis Go to Waste: The Need for...to Prepare for a Crisis go to Waste: The Need for Proactive Measures in the Asia-Pacific Region to Mitigate the Impacts of Climate Change

  14. The Danish School of Interior Architecture: A Visionary Functionalist, a Visionary Aesthete, and their Women Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lytken, Malene

    2013-01-01

    furniture design. However, an important aspect of his work has received virtually no attention: his seminal work as a visionary teacher and leader at the school for professional interior design in Copenhagen in the 1940s and 1950s. Harald Willerup, architect as well, and Juhl's equally visionary predecessor...

  15. The Development of Visionary Leadership Administrators in Thai Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yordsala, Suwit; Tesaputa, Kowat; Sri-Ampai, Anan

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed: 1) to investigate the current situations and needs in developing visionary leadership of Thai primary school administrators; 2) to develop visionary leadership development program of Thai primary school administrators, and; 3) to evaluate the implementation of the developed program of administrators visionary leadership…

  16. Liderazgo visionario (Visionary Leadership). ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    "Vision" is one of the most frequently used buzzwords in the education literature of the 1990s. This digest in Spanish presents an overview of visionary leadership, which many education experts consider to be a make-or-break task for the school leader. It discusses various definitions of vision, the significance of vision for…

  17. Visionary leadership and the future of VA health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezold, C; Mayer, E; Dighe, A

    1997-01-01

    As the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) makes the change over to Veterans Integrated Service Network (VISNs) the need for new and better leadership is warranted if VA wants to not only survive, but thrive in the emerging twenty-first century healthcare system. VA can prepare for the future and meet the challenges facing them by adopting a system of visionary leadership. The use of scenarios and vision techniques are explained as they relate to VA's efforts to move toward their new system of VISNs. The four scenarios provide snapshots of possible futures for the U.S. healthcare system as well as the possible future role and mission of VA--from VA disappearing to its becoming a premier virtual organization.

  18. Dream on: Visionary Educators and Their Big Ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, John K.

    2010-01-01

    It takes more than a vision to be called a visionary. One also needs the organization, determination, and spirit to see it through. Four educators are being chosen to be spotlighted as visionaries conceived, developed, and guided technology-driven initiatives perhaps initially thought to be impractical. But their unusual foresight allowed each of…

  19. Validation of a Visionary Leadership Attitude Instrument Using Factor Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeSourd, Sandra J.; And Others

    Findings from a study to develop and validate an instrument for the measurement of principals' attitudes toward visionary leadership are presented in this paper. Two leadership styles--visionary and managerial--were measured by a 35-item five-point Likert attitude scale. Questionnaires mailed to a random sample of 250 K-12 Nebraska and 250…

  20. Public Managers Should Be Proactive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Thomas S.

    1976-01-01

    Future public managers should be proactive by creating management processes before problems arise. Planning prevents reactive or crisis managing. Future managers should also be prepared to meet dilemmas and paradoxes such as centralization versus decentralization of decision-making and work processes, politics versus administration dichotomy, and…

  1. The Danish School of Interior Architecture: A Visionary Functionalist, a Visionary Aesthete, and their Women Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lytken, Malene

    2013-01-01

    Recently there has been a growing international interest in the history of interior design. Danish design owes much of its international renown to a few prominent architects and their iconic products. One of them was Finn Juhl, who earned an international reputation mainly through his elegant...... furniture design. However, an important aspect of his work has received virtually no attention: his seminal work as a visionary teacher and leader at the school for professional interior design in Copenhagen in the 1940s and 1950s. Harald Willerup, architect as well, and Juhl's equally visionary predecessor......, had initiated this work in 1934, but has remained largely unknown. This article offers a historiographical mapping of the professional education of Danish interior designers in the period from 1934 to 1955—a subject, which has so far remained unexposed. Despite the fact that the leading figures...

  2. The Mechanisms of Psychedelic Visionary Experiences: Hypotheses from Evolutionary Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Winkelman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuropharmacological effects of psychedelics have profound cognitive, emotional, and social effects that inspired the development of cultures and religions worldwide. Findings that psychedelics objectively and reliably produce mystical experiences press the question of the neuropharmacological mechanisms by which these highly significant experiences are produced by exogenous neurotransmitter analogs. Humans have a long evolutionary relationship with psychedelics, a consequence of psychedelics' selective effects for human cognitive abilities, exemplified in the information rich visionary experiences. Objective evidence that psychedelics produce classic mystical experiences, coupled with the finding that hallucinatory experiences can be induced by many non-drug mechanisms, illustrates the need for a common model of visionary effects. Several models implicate disturbances of normal regulatory processes in the brain as the underlying mechanisms responsible for the similarities of visionary experiences produced by psychedelic and other methods for altering consciousness. Similarities in psychedelic-induced visionary experiences and those produced by practices such as meditation and hypnosis and pathological conditions such as epilepsy indicate the need for a general model explaining visionary experiences. Common mechanisms underlying diverse alterations of consciousness involve the disruption of normal functions of the prefrontal cortex and default mode network (DMN. This interruption of ordinary control mechanisms allows for the release of thalamic and other lower brain discharges that stimulate a visual information representation system and release the effects of innate cognitive functions and operators. Converging forms of evidence support the hypothesis that the source of psychedelic experiences involves the emergence of these innate cognitive processes of lower brain systems, with visionary experiences resulting from the activation of innate

  3. Profile of a leader: Caroline Wellwood: pragmatic visionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaton, J; McKay, M

    1999-01-01

    Caroline Wellwood is representative of a group of early Canadian nurses whose missionary ideals led them to innovative careers in other countries. Wellwood's visionary leadership laid the groundwork for the development of a modern system of nursing and nursing education in southwestern China.

  4. PROACTIVE STRATEGY MAINTENANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław RADKOWSKI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Given challenging competition of today service providers are required to be more proactive in satisfying the environmental conditions and customer needs. Proactive maintenance should start at the design stage with establishing the functions, functional failures and failure modes. The understanding the failure behavior, especially the relationship between potential failures, functional failures and diagnostic parameters is the most important task. In the next step the designer have to explore the maintenance activities as they have to apply to the design criteria. The models and frameworks have been presented in the paper also a comprehensive review of literature and some results of laboratory investigations.

  5. Online Proactive Reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte

    The aim of this study is to explore online, collaborative learning when it takes place in the context of work. The study is based on an educational design of collaborative learning called Proactive Reviews (PR). A PR is the point of departure for an organisational learning process involving...

  6. Proactivity and Reactivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    While the word proactivity is now fairly common in management literature, it is a word you won t find in most dictionaries. It means more than merely taking initiative. It means that as human beings, we are responsible for our own lives. Our behavior is a function of our decisions, not our conditions. We can subordinate feelings to our values.

  7. Gaining Perspective for the Vision: The First Step in Becoming a Visionary Principal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irby, Beverly; Lunenburg, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Gaining a perspective in the development of a vision is the first step principals must take in becoming visionary leaders for their campuses. What, then, does it mean for principals to gain a perspective for the development of their visions? The purpose of this paper is to consider one aspect of becoming a visionary principal and that aspect is…

  8. Paving the Way for Change: Visionary Leadership in Action at the Middle Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kathleen M.; Anfara, Vincent A., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    Case study explores visionary leadership in action by focusing on the strategies that some middle-school principals use before implementing schoolwide reforms. Finds that visionary leadership in action involves an initial exploration of possible change areas; discussions and education regarding the issues involved; and support, commitment, and…

  9. Visionary medicine: speculative fiction, racial justice and Octavia Butler's 'Bloodchild'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco, John Carlo; Anderson, Camille; DasGupta, Sayantani

    2016-12-01

    Medical students across the USA have increasingly made the medical institution a place for speculating racially just futures. From die-ins in Fall 2014 to silent protests in response to racially motivated police brutality, medical schools have responded to the public health crisis that is racial injustice in the USA. Reading science fiction may benefit healthcare practitioners who are already invested in imagining a more just, healthier futurity. Fiction that rewrites the future in ways that undermine contemporary power regimes has been termed 'visionary fiction'. In this paper, the authors introduce 'visionary medicine' as a tool for teaching medical students to imagine and produce futures that preserve health and racial justice for all. This essay establishes the connections between racial justice, medicine and speculative fiction by examining medicine's racially unjust past practices, and the intersections of racial justice and traditional science and speculative fiction. It then examines speculative fiction author Octavia Butler's short story 'Bloodchild' as a text that can introduce students of the medical humanities to a liberatory imagining of health and embodiment, one that does not reify and reinscribe boundaries of difference, but reimagines the nature of Self and Other, power and collaboration, agency and justice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Proactive health computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpka, T

    2001-08-01

    In an analysis departing from the global health situation, the foundation for a change of paradigm in health informatics based on socially embedded information infrastructures and technologies is identified and discussed. It is shown how an increasing computing and data transmitting capacity can be employed for proactive health computing. As a foundation for ubiquitous health promotion and prevention of disease and injury, proactive health systems use data from multiple sources to supply individuals and communities evidence-based information on means to improve their state of health and avoid health risks. The systems are characterised by: (1) being profusely connected to the world around them, using perceptual interfaces, sensors and actuators; (2) responding to external stimuli at faster than human speeds; (3) networked feedback loops; and (4) humans remaining in control, while being left outside the primary computing loop. The extended scientific mission of this new partnership between computer science, electrical engineering and social medicine is suggested to be the investigation of how the dissemination of information and communication technology on democratic grounds can be made even more important for global health than sanitation and urban planning became a century ago.

  11. Proactive Public Disclosure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boll, Karen; Tell, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses proactive public disclosure of taxpayer information and how this may form a new strategy for securing tax compliance by tax administrators. It reports a case study from the Danish Customs and Tax Administration in which consumers of services–over a short period of time...... Governance. The article is innovative in that it combines a legal and organizational approach to analyse a new regulatory strategy within tax administration.......–were informed about businesses’ lack of value-added tax (VAT) registration. Our approach to the case is twofold: First, the article lays out a legal analysis of the disclosure practice, and second, the article presents an organizational analysis of why the practice was initiated. The analyses show that using...

  12. Proactive malware detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloster, Jonathan; Diep, Michael; Dredden, David; Mix, Matthew; Olsen, Mark; Price, Brian; Steil, Betty

    2014-06-01

    Small-to-medium sized businesses lack resources to deploy and manage high-end advanced solutions to deter sophisticated threats from well-funded adversaries, but evidence shows that these types of businesses are becoming key targets. As malicious code and network attacks become more sophisticated, classic signature-based virus and malware detection methods are less effective. To augment the current malware methods of detection, we developed a proactive approach to detect emerging malware threats using open source tools and intelligence to discover patterns and behaviors of malicious attacks and adversaries. Technical and analytical skills are combined to track adversarial behavior, methods and techniques. We established a controlled (separated domain) network to identify, monitor, and track malware behavior to increase understanding of the methods and techniques used by cyber adversaries. We created a suite of tools that observe the network and system performance looking for anomalies that may be caused by malware. The toolset collects information from open-source tools and provides meaningful indicators that the system was under or has been attacked. When malware is discovered, we analyzed and reverse engineered it to determine how it could be detected and prevented. Results have shown that with minimum resources, cost effective capabilities can be developed to detect abnormal behavior that may indicate malicious software.

  13. Proactive environmental strategies pay off

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Ateş (Melek); J.M. Bloemhof-Ruwaard (Jacqueline); E.M. van Raaij (Erik); J.Y.F. Wynstra (Finn)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAlthough there is contradicting evidence on the impact of a company’s proactive environmental strategy on its environmental performance, recent research shows such an approach can indeed make a difference.

  14. Proactive driver training program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vossler, W. [Kinetic Safety Consulting Inc., Grande Prairie, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Skid avoidance training is a recent approach to driver training and has been employed in various countries with a high degree of success. Among top ranked countries, motor vehicle incidents trends indicate higher incident rates among drivers are often due to lack of knowledge, experience and risk awareness. If lowered age limit experience is attained under direct supervision and in safe training conditions, it was suggested, incident frequency is reduced. A Norway study confirmed an increase in vehicle incident rates after drivers had received skid control training. The drivers were unable to maintain skill levels needed to react to critical driving tasks and had unrealistic expectations of skill after training. However, a skid avoidance training program launched in Sweden in 1999 has resulted in a 50 per cent reduction of vehicle incidents in the last 2 years. Details of the Skidcar System were presented, including details of the driving simulator, where simulation of actual driving situations is achieved by simply adjusting the amount of grip the vehicle has with the driving surface. Instructors modify driving behaviors based upon the driver's ability to maintain grip. There are over 200 units in North America. In addition, a Proactive Light Vehicle Driver Training/ Heavy Vehicle Assessment Program was initiated in 2003, with a motor vehicle incident rate reduction of 50 per cent at the end of 2004. Various examples of situations in which drivers have used their skid avoidance skills to avoid incidents were included. It was noted that the trend among driver training professionals has been towards decision-based rather than skills-based training, as skills-based training will diminish over time, and requires frequent re-training periods. Cognitive and perceptual skills were examined, as well as cognitive, associative and autonomous learning phases. It was concluded that skid avoidance is largely a decision-based skill. tabs, figs.

  15. Drug-resistant tuberculosis: time for visionary political leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Ibrahim; Zignol, Matteo; Falzon, Dennis; Raviglione, Mario; Ditiu, Lucica; Masham, Susan; Adetifa, Ifedayo; Ford, Nathan; Cox, Helen; Lawn, Stephen D; Marais, Ben J; McHugh, Timothy D; Mwaba, Peter; Bates, Matthew; Lipman, Marc; Zijenah, Lynn; Logan, Simon; McNerney, Ruth; Zumla, Adam; Sarda, Krishna; Nahid, Payam; Hoelscher, Michael; Pletschette, Michel; Memish, Ziad A; Kim, Peter; Hafner, Richard; Cole, Stewart; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Maeurer, Markus; Schito, Marco; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2013-06-01

    Two decades ago, WHO declared tuberculosis a global emergency, and invested in the highly cost-effective directly observed treatment short-course programme to control the epidemic. At that time, most strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were susceptible to first-line tuberculosis drugs, and drug resistance was not a major issue. However, in 2013, tuberculosis remains a major public health concern worldwide, with prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis rising. WHO estimates roughly 630 000 cases of MDR tuberculosis worldwide, with great variation in the frequency of MDR tuberculosis between countries. In the past 8 years, extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis has emerged, and has been reported in 84 countries, heralding the possibility of virtually untreatable tuberculosis. Increased population movement, the continuing HIV pandemic, and the rise in MDR tuberculosis pose formidable challenges to the global control of tuberculosis. We provide an overview of the global burden of drug-resistant disease; discuss the social, health service, management, and control issues that fuel and sustain the epidemic; and suggest specific recommendations for important next steps. Visionary political leadership is needed to curb the rise of MDR and XDR tuberculosis worldwide, through sustained funding and the implementation of global and regional action plans.

  16. The role of pre-treatment proactive coping skills in successful weight management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vinkers, Charlotte D. W.; Adriaanse, Marieke A.; Kroese, Floor M.; de Ridder, Denise T. D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Proactive coping encompasses future-oriented self-regulatory skills that help people prepare for future difficulties before they occur, such as planning and monitoring. The aim of the present study was to examine the interplay between pre-treatment proactive coping skills and expected

  17. Does Verbal Labeling Influence Age Differences in Proactive and Reactive Cognitive Control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kray, Jutta; Schmitt, Hannah; Heintz, Sonja; Blaye, Agnès

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to examine whether different types of verbal labeling can influence age-related changes in the dynamic control of behavior by inducing either a proactive or reactive mode of control. Proactive control is characterized by a strong engagement in maintaining task-relevant information to be optimally prepared while…

  18. Employability Transcripts: Proactive Career Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Elaine

    2010-01-01

    With high school dropout rates at about 30 percent nationwide and an anticipated severe workforce shortage as baby boomers retire, now is the time to engage future workers. Educators must encourage high school students to be proactive career planners. Today's high school students will fuel the workforce pipeline with educated, skilled workers who…

  19. Sleep can reduce proactive interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Magdalena; Bäuml, Karl-Heinz T

    2014-01-01

    Sleep has repeatedly been connected to processes of memory consolidation. While extensive research indeed documents beneficial effects of sleep on memory, little is yet known about the role of sleep for interference effects in episodic memory. Although two prior studies reported sleep to reduce retroactive interference, no sleep effect has previously been found for proactive interference. Here we applied a study format differing from that employed by the prior studies to induce a high degree of proactive interference, and asked participants to encode a single list or two interfering lists of paired associates via pure study cycles. Testing occurred after 12 hours of diurnal wakefulness or nocturnal sleep. Consistent with the prior work, we found sleep in comparison to wake did not affect memory for the single list, but reduced retroactive interference. In addition we found sleep reduced proactive interference, and reduced retroactive and proactive interference to the same extent. The finding is consistent with the view that arising benefits of sleep are caused by the reactivation of memory contents during sleep, which has been suggested to strengthen and stabilise memories. Such stabilisation may make memories less susceptible to competition from interfering memories at test and thus reduce interference effects.

  20. High Performance Proactive Digital Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Soltan; Moa, Belaid; Weber-Jahnke, Jens; Traore, Issa

    2012-10-01

    With the increase in the number of digital crimes and in their sophistication, High Performance Computing (HPC) is becoming a must in Digital Forensics (DF). According to the FBI annual report, the size of data processed during the 2010 fiscal year reached 3,086 TB (compared to 2,334 TB in 2009) and the number of agencies that requested Regional Computer Forensics Laboratory assistance increasing from 689 in 2009 to 722 in 2010. Since most investigation tools are both I/O and CPU bound, the next-generation DF tools are required to be distributed and offer HPC capabilities. The need for HPC is even more evident in investigating crimes on clouds or when proactive DF analysis and on-site investigation, requiring semi-real time processing, are performed. Although overcoming the performance challenge is a major goal in DF, as far as we know, there is almost no research on HPC-DF except for few papers. As such, in this work, we extend our work on the need of a proactive system and present a high performance automated proactive digital forensic system. The most expensive phase of the system, namely proactive analysis and detection, uses a parallel extension of the iterative z algorithm. It also implements new parallel information-based outlier detection algorithms to proactively and forensically handle suspicious activities. To analyse a large number of targets and events and continuously do so (to capture the dynamics of the system), we rely on a multi-resolution approach to explore the digital forensic space. Data set from the Honeynet Forensic Challenge in 2001 is used to evaluate the system from DF and HPC perspectives.

  1. Proactive Policing by Post and Community Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famega, Christine N.

    2009-01-01

    Using data collected through social observations of 188 police officer shifts, the current research examines the time allocated to proactive and reactive activities by traditional and community police officers to assess (a) the extent to which post officers engage in proactive activities, (b) whether these activities differ from the (proactive)…

  2. Sensitive but Sane: Male Visionaries and their Emotional Display in Interwar Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine Van Osselaer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available When a wave of Marian apparitions swept over Belgium in 1932-1935 many ‘visionaries’ (c. 200, among them a remarkably high number of men, claimed to encounter the divine. Focusing on these male visionaries and their emotional expressivity, this article aims not only at contributing to a better understanding of Catholic constructions of masculinity, it also accords with the increased attention for the historicity of emotions and, more specifically, for men’s emotional comportment. The male visionaries present a particularly interesting case since they had to live up to multiple expectations about their emotions. Whereas their visibility and trustworthiness as visionaries were founded on their capacity to display their emotions (in accordance with a tradition of emotional mysticism, these men also had to show ‘masculine’ rationality and coolness in order to provethat their experiences were not triggered by exaggerated piety or neurosis.

  3. CHARAKA-THE GREAT LEGENDARY AND VISIONARY OF AYURVEDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paliwal Murlidhar

    2011-04-01

    -Hridaya. Charaka has not introduced himself anywhere, so different views are available in the history regarding his personality yet his great work is his shining identity. This article deals with the personality and special contribution of Charaka as a great legendary and visionary.

  4. Theta frontoparietal connectivity associated with proactive and reactive cognitive control processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Patrick S; Wong, Aaron S W; Fulham, W Ross; Thienel, Renate; Mansfield, Elise; Michie, Patricia T; Karayanidis, Frini

    2015-03-01

    Cognitive control involves both proactive and reactive processes. Paradigms that rely on reactive control have shown that frontoparietal oscillatory synchronization in the theta frequency band is associated with interference control. This study examines whether proactive control is also associated with connectivity in the same frontoparietal theta network or involves a distinct neural signature. A task-switching paradigm was used to differentiate between proactive and reactive control processes, involved in preparing to switch or repeat a task and resolving post-target interference, respectively. We confirm that reactive control is associated with frontoparietal theta connectivity. Importantly, we show that proactive control is also associated with theta band oscillatory synchronization but in a different frontoparietal network. These findings support the existence of distinct proactive and reactive cognitive control processes that activate different theta frontoparietal oscillatory networks.

  5. Proactive Assessment for Collaboration Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa L. Ju

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a government–academia–industry joint training project that produces Vietnamese midlevel technical managers. To ensure collaboration success, a proactive assessment methodology was developed as a supplement to the conventional project management practices. In the postproject feedback, the funding agencies acknowledged that the project fulfilled its contractual obligations and achieved its objectives. The implementing university was pleased as it broke ground in this type of collaboration in Taiwan. The industrial partners, however, were not so sure about the effectiveness of this collaborative training endeavor because there were many skirmishes between company supervisors and Vietnamese interns caused by the interns’ self-interested perception and expectation. Consequently, a theoretical framework for predicting internship acceptance and preventing unfavorable perceptions was proposed to strengthen the proactive assessment methodology. Collaboration research, funding agencies, academia, and industry could all benefit from this study.

  6. Proactive ecology for the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Stuart Chapin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The rapid, directional global changes that characterize the Anthropocene provide unprecedented opportunities for ecologists and other scientists to discover new paradigms that shape our understanding of the ways that the world is changing. These paradigms will likely focus more strongly on interactions, feedbacks, thresholds, and model uncertainty than on steady-state dynamics and statistical uncertainty. We advocate a shift in ecology and other disciplines to a more proactive leadership role in defining problems and possibilities in a rapidly changing world rather than being relegated to a reactive role of trying to fix the problems after the horse has left the barn. This requires not only renewed commitment by ecologists (and other citizens to a more proactive ethic of environmental citizenship but also institutional changes in education, the scientific review and funding processes, and promotion and tenure processes to encourage and celebrate those who seek to shape trajectories toward greater ecosystem and social resilience and well-being.

  7. Toxicology in the 21st century - Working our way towards a visionary reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, N.; Wever, B.de; Fuchs, H.W.; Gaca, M.; Krul, C.A.M.; Roggen, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    In November 2009 the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) organized a meeting entitled '. Toxicology in the 21st century - working our way towards a visionary reality'. Participating delegates included scientists, key opinion leaders, developers and users of 3Rs-related tests and testing str

  8. Toxicology in the 21st century - Working our way towards a visionary reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, N.; Wever, B.de; Fuchs, H.W.; Gaca, M.; Krul, C.A.M.; Roggen, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    In November 2009 the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) organized a meeting entitled '. Toxicology in the 21st century - working our way towards a visionary reality'. Participating delegates included scientists, key opinion leaders, developers and users of 3Rs-related tests and testing str

  9. Toxicology in the 21st century - Working our way towards a visionary reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, N.; Wever, B.de; Fuchs, H.W.; Gaca, M.; Krul, C.A.M.; Roggen, E.L.

    2011-01-01

    In November 2009 the In Vitro Testing Industrial Platform (IVTIP) organized a meeting entitled '. Toxicology in the 21st century - working our way towards a visionary reality'. Participating delegates included scientists, key opinion leaders, developers and users of 3Rs-related tests and testing

  10. Becoming Life-Long Learners--"A Pedagogy for Learning about Visionary Leadership"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Mary, Ed.; Nevin, Ann, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    In this volume we apply a personal narrative methodology to understanding what we have learned about visionary leadership. Authors in this volume developed their reflections of life-long learning as they investigated existing leadership theories and theories about future leadership. Graduate program faculty and authors read and critically reviewed…

  11. From Personal Ethos to Organizational Vision: Narratives of Visionary Educational Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoeli, Raya; Berkovich, Izhak

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Successful visionary educational leaders promote a shared vision with great commitment and manage to connect other organizational members to it. In spite of this, the source of their personal commitment to the organizational vision has not yet been the subject of extended study. The purpose of this paper is to correct this by…

  12. Proactive selective response suppression is implemented via the basal ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, D S Adnan; Cai, Weidong; Corey-Bloom, Jody; Aron, Adam R

    2013-08-14

    In the welter of everyday life, people can stop particular response tendencies without affecting others. A key requirement for such selective suppression is that subjects know in advance which responses need stopping. We hypothesized that proactively setting up and implementing selective suppression relies on the basal ganglia and, specifically, regions consistent with the inhibitory indirect pathway for which there is scant functional evidence in humans. Consistent with this hypothesis, we show, first, that the degree of proactive motor suppression when preparing to stop selectively (indexed by transcranial magnetic stimulation) corresponds to striatal, pallidal, and frontal activation (indexed by functional MRI). Second, we demonstrate that greater striatal activation at the time of selective stopping correlates with greater behavioral selectivity. Third, we show that people with striatal and pallidal volume reductions (those with premanifest Huntington's disease) have both absent proactive motor suppression and impaired behavioral selectivity when stopping. Thus, stopping goals are used to proactively set up specific basal ganglia channels that may then be triggered to implement selective suppression. By linking this suppression to the striatum and pallidum, these results provide compelling functional evidence in humans of the basal ganglia's inhibitory indirect pathway.

  13. Proactive and Adaptive Decision Support Study (PDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-09

    will enable proactive analysis within the decision support layer to anticipate, request, compute , and pre-position information supporting the decision... Proactive and Adaptive Decision Support Study (PDS) Final Report CDRL: C001 CLIN: 0006 Contract Number: N00014-14-P-1187 Submitted...PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code) 12/09/2014 Final Report 28 Jul 2014 - 31 Dec 2014 Proactive and

  14. Proactive Approach to Manufacturing Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bubeník

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Proposed concept of proactive manufacturing planning uses sets of knowledge to create plan. These sets of knowledge are gained from transformation of historical data of selected indicators. This concept uses the analysis of occurred events, which is done by applying data mining methods to known historical data. Results of analysis are then recorded into knowledge-based system for further use. Application of data mining techniques helps to find hidden relationships with high influence on final decision of planner. This concept aims to navigate planner during creation of real plans resulting from real situations. Unknown situations are modelled using simulation module. 

  15. Nursing Management Visionary Leader 2006: North Carolina chief nurse officer earns journal's annual leadership award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessman, Joan

    2007-01-01

    The following manuscript is the winning Visionary Leader 2006 entry submitted to Nursing Management by the staff of Moses Cone Health System, Greensboro, N.C., in recognition of Joan Wessman, chief nurse officer at the organization. Joan was formally recognized for her achievements during the opening ceremony of Congress 2006, October 15, in Philadelphia, Pa., during which she received the award, sponsored this year by B.E. Smith.

  16. A Provably Secure Asynchronous Proactive RSA Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Rui-shan; LI Qiang; CHEN Ke-fei

    2005-01-01

    The drawback of the first asynchronous proactive RSA scheme presented by Zhou in 2001, is that the se curity definition and security proof do not follow the approach of provable security. This paper presented a provably secure asynchronous proactive RSA scheme, which includes three protocols: initial key distribution protocol,signature generation protocol and share refreshing protocol. Taken these protocols together, a complete provably secure proactive RSA scheme was obtained. And the efficiency of the scheme is approximate to that of the scheme of Zhou.

  17. ENTERPRISE PROACTIVITY AS ELEMENT OF COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra López Salazar

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The businessman rol must be based on stimulate a change and the development of organizations counting on abilities and features needed to achieve this. Analyze the vision and business proactivity as corporate culture variables, has a great importance for survival and competitiveness of micro, small and medium-sized enterprises. This study aims to analyze the level of proactivity and vision that have 418 businessmen in the region of Celaya, and determine the relationship of these variables. Results show that there is a great aspiration of businessmen to achieve growth; however, their vision is not aligned with the level of proactivity that they use to manage their organizations.

  18. Proactive data mining with decision trees

    CERN Document Server

    Dahan, Haim; Rokach, Lior; Maimon, Oded

    2014-01-01

    This book explores a proactive and domain-driven method to classification tasks. This novel proactive approach to data mining not only induces a model for predicting or explaining a phenomenon, but also utilizes specific problem/domain knowledge to suggest specific actions to achieve optimal changes in the value of the target attribute. In particular, the authors suggest a specific implementation of the domain-driven proactive approach for classification trees. The book centers on the core idea of moving observations from one branch of the tree to another. It introduces a novel splitting crite

  19. Principles and design of global proactive scenarios over a network of proactive engines

    OpenAIRE

    Neyens, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    This thesis examines Global Proactive Scenarios (GPaSs) in the context of proactive computing. GPaSs are Proactive Scenarios (PaSs) that dynamically collect information, provide strategies for cooperative reasoning and support collective decision making [1]. More precisely we will extract properties from GPaSs and define them. Based on these properties we will then create templates for GPaSs, which will help to facilitate and standardize the creation of future GPaSs. The applicability of thes...

  20. Content Analysis for Proactive Protective Intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.

    2010-12-15

    The aim of this paper is to outline a plan for developing and validating a Proactive Protective Intelligence approach that prevents targeted violence through the analysis and assessment of threats overtly or covertly expressed in abnormal communications to USSS protectees.

  1. Modelling Reactive and Proactive Behaviour in Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Majid, Mazlina Abdul; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the simulation model behaviour of a traditional and combined discrete event as well as agent based simulation models when modelling human reactive and proactive behaviour in human centric complex systems. A departmental store was chosen as human centric complex case study where the operation system of a fitting room in WomensWear department was investigated. We have looked at ways to determine the efficiency of new management policies for the fitting room operation through simulating the reactive and proactive behaviour of staff towards customers. Once development of the simulation models and their verification had been done, we carried out a validation experiment in the form of a sensitivity analysis. Subsequently, we executed a statistical analysis where the mixed reactive and proactive behaviour experimental results were compared with some reactive experimental results from previously published works. Generally, this case study discovered that simple proactive individual behaviou...

  2. Identity Building in Organisations: Proactive Capability Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2002-01-01

    Identity building in organisations is often viewed as legitimacy of value systems of the organisation. Based on empirical studies the task of this article is to argue that such a legitimacy approach risks failing in the longer perspective, if the proactive capability development is neglected....... The participatory scenario method presented in this article is one of the possible methods to enhance identity building based on proactive capability development....

  3. Visual Working Memory Capacity and Proactive Interference

    OpenAIRE

    Hartshorne, Joshua K.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Visual working memory capacity is extremely limited and appears to be relatively immune to practice effects or the use of explicit strategies. The recent discovery that visual working memory tasks, like verbal working memory tasks, are subject to proactive interference, coupled with the fact that typical visual working memory tasks are particularly conducive to proactive interference, suggests that visual working memory capacity may be systematically under-estimated. METHODOLOGY/P...

  4. Proactive inhibitory control: A general biasing account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elchlepp, Heike; Lavric, Aureliu; Chambers, Christopher D; Verbruggen, Frederick

    2016-05-01

    Flexible behavior requires a control system that can inhibit actions in response to changes in the environment. Recent studies suggest that people proactively adjust response parameters in anticipation of a stop signal. In three experiments, we tested the hypothesis that proactive inhibitory control involves adjusting both attentional and response settings, and we explored the relationship with other forms of proactive and anticipatory control. Subjects responded to the color of a stimulus. On some trials, an extra signal occurred. The response to this signal depended on the task context subjects were in: in the 'ignore' context, they ignored it; in the 'stop' context, they had to withhold their response; and in the 'double-response' context, they had to execute a secondary response. An analysis of event-related brain potentials for no-signal trials in the stop context revealed that proactive inhibitory control works by biasing the settings of lower-level systems that are involved in stimulus detection, action selection, and action execution. Furthermore, subjects made similar adjustments in the double-response and stop-signal contexts, indicating an overlap between various forms of proactive action control. The results of Experiment 1 also suggest an overlap between proactive inhibitory control and preparatory control in task-switching studies: both require reconfiguration of task-set parameters to bias or alter subordinate processes. We conclude that much of the top-down control in response inhibition tasks takes place before the inhibition signal is presented.

  5. THE APIPHYTOTHERAPY WITH PROACTIVATOR IN THE VETERINARY DERMATOLOGY AND SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SICEANU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this clinical study consisted in evaluation of the therapeutic effects of the propolis extract used in different disorders at company animals, thus being improved the palette of the apitherapeutical products used in veterinary purposes. The experiments were carried out on company animals (two experimental groups during the 2007-2008 period, in the frame of the Veterinary Medicine Faculty – Bucharest and the University - Spiru Haret, at the veterinary departments: Parasitology, Dermatology and Surgery. The raw propolis was collected from the bee colonies belonging to the Institute of the Beekeeping Research & Development– Bucharest and the apiphytotherapeutical product based on propolis was obtained in the Apitherapy sector of the same Institute. In a first stage were obtained the antiparasite, dermatological and surgical veterinary product PROACTIVATOR based on propolis alcoholic extract and Aloe vera gel. The experiments consisted in administration of the obtained preparation in different disorders on the experimental groups as: dermatological (plagues, chemical and physical burns, parasitological (extern parasites: scabies supra infected or not and in veterinary surgery (as a protective layer applied on the sutured plague. In dermatologic disorders the effects of the PROACTIVATOR product were established by way of clinical periodical examinations until the total recover were done. In external parasites and connected disorders it was established the repellent or killing effect of the preparation on the infestation with parasites and the degree of control in the correlated infections. In skin tissue surgery it was established the cicatrising effect in sutured plagues and the anaesthesic local effect. The established of the studied preparation efficiency was similar as those used in classical treatments with synthesis products. The advantage of the utilization of PROACTIVATOR eliminates the toxic and cumulative effects

  6. C. F. v. Weizsaecker. Physicist, philosopher, visionary; C. F. v. Weizsaecker. Physiker, Philosoph, Visionaer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goernitz, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    The 20th century with its political, social, and scientific aspects bundles itself in the life of Carl Friedrich v. Weizsaecker. As comprehensive thinker of the presence he led natural science, philosophy, and spirituality to a unity. In the public the grandson of last in Germany enobled minster and brother of the senior federal president achieved by his engagement for peace and disarmament a global effect. Competently and understandably his visionary and prospective physical ideas and his philosophical considerations are explained by his long standing coworker and close confident.

  7. Proactive approach to Corporate Security

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The best Information Security infrastructure cannot guarantee that intrusions or other malicious acts will not happen. It is necessary to know the facts and prepare beforehand knowing cyber threats and trends; knowing the broadband impact...

  8. Visionary Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-04

    was not one to seek inspiration in a wide array of sources; he read newspapers, the Bible , and the Bard (especially "Macbeth," "Hamlet" and "Richard...DC: Government Printing Office 1989. Wall, James M. "Wanted: Leaders With Vision." Christian Century, 23 September 1987, 779. Waller, Calvin General

  9. Modeling the antecedents of proactive behavior at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sharon K; Williams, Helen M; Turner, Nick

    2006-05-01

    Using a sample of U.K. wire makers (N = 282), the authors tested a model in which personality and work environment antecedents affect proactive work behavior via cognitive-motivational mechanisms. Self-reported proactive work behaviors (proactive idea implementation and proactive problem solving) were validated against rater assessments for a subsample (n = 60) of wire makers. With the exception of supportive supervision, each antecedent was important, albeit through different processes. Proactive personality was significantly associated with proactive work behavior via role breadth self-efficacy and flexible role orientation, job autonomy was also linked to proactive behavior via these processes, as well as directly; and coworker trust was associated with proactive behavior via flexible role orientation. In further support of the model, the cognitive-motivational processes for proactive work behavior differed from those for the more passive outcome of generalized compliance.

  10. The Power of Instructions: Proactive Configuration of Stimulus-Response Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiran, Nachshon; Pereg, Maayan; Kessler, Yoav; Cole, Michael W.; Braver, Todd S.

    2015-01-01

    Humans are characterized by an especially highly developed ability to use instructions to prepare toward upcoming events; yet, it is unclear just how powerful instructions can be. Although prior work provides evidence that instructions can be sufficiently powerful to proactively program working memory to execute stimulus-response (S-R)…

  11. Proactive interference effects on sentence production

    Science.gov (United States)

    FERREIRA, VICTOR S.; FIRATO, CARLA E.

    2007-01-01

    Proactive interference refers to recall difficulties caused by prior similar memory-related processing. Information-processing approaches to sentence production predict that retrievability affects sentence form: Speakers may word sentences so that material that is difficult to retrieve is spoken later. In this experiment, speakers produced sentence structures that could include an optional that, thereby delaying the mention of a subsequent noun phrase. This subsequent noun phrase was either (1) conceptually similar to three previous noun phrases in the same sentence, leading to greater proactive interference, or (2) conceptually dissimilar, leading to less proactive interference. Speakers produced more thats (and were more disfluencies) before conceptually similar noun phrases, suggesting that retrieval difficulties during sentence production affect the syntactic structures of sentences that speakers produce. PMID:12613685

  12. The Moderating Effect of Psychological Characteristics upon the Visionary Leadership Behavior of Principals from Varying Levels of School Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenworthy, Sue

    1994-01-01

    Results from a study with 41 Hawaiian elementary school principals indicate that, although there is no significant difference in visionary leadership scores of principals from varying levels of school climate when covaried with psychological characteristics, there is a significant main effect for "capacity of status" on visionary…

  13. PROACTIVITY AS PRACTICE IN THE VIEW OF COMMERCIAL EXECUTIVES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    AMILTON BENTO; ARTURO MUTTONI DEAMBROSIS; FLAVIA DE MARTINS FARIA VIEIRA DOMINGUES; LEANDRO MEDEIROS ELIAS; VILMAR ANTONIO GONÇALVES TONDOLO

    2013-01-01

    .... This paper aims at understanding how the proactive behavior has been perceived and applied internally and externally in organizations in order to generate competitive advantage from the viewpoint of proactivity...

  14. Evaluating Mobile Proactive Context-Aware Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menegon, Davide; Mizzaro, Stefano; Nazzi, Elena

    We present the evaluation of a novel application for Web content perusal by means of context-aware mobile devices that proactively query an external search engine. To this aim, we develop a TREC-like benchmark and we use it to evaluate different strategies for automatic query construction...

  15. Preserved Proactive Interference in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Joana C.; Duarte, Elsa; Pinho, Sandra; Filipe, Carlos N.; Marques, J. Frederico

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate further the functioning and structuring of the semantic system in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We analyzed the performance of 19 high-functioning young adults with ASD and a group of 20 age-, verbal IQ- and education-matched individuals with the Proactive Interference (PI) Paradigm to evaluate semantic…

  16. Plagiarism: Moving from Punitive to Proactive Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sarah Elaine; Guglielmin, Melanie; Otoo, Benedict Kojo

    2017-01-01

    Plagiarism continues to be an issue in postsecondary contexts. This paper discusses how educators can take a proactive stance to prevent plagiarism and cultivate students' sense of honour and academic integrity, rather than focusing on punitive consequences after plagiarism has already occurred. Strategies include assessment design, formative…

  17. Does Proactive Personality Matter in Mobile Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Rui-Ting; Tang, Tzy-Wen; Lee, Yi Ping; Yang, Fang-Ying

    2017-01-01

    Increasing attention has been paid to mobile learning studies. However, there is still a dearth of studies investigating the moderating effect of proactive personality on mobile learning achievements. Accordingly, the primary purpose of this study is not only to investigate the key elements that could improve the effectiveness and efficiency of…

  18. Perceived Similarity, Proactive Adjustment, and Organizational Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammeyer-Mueller, John D.; Livingston, Beth A.; Liao, Hui

    2011-01-01

    The present study explores how perceived demographic and attitudinal similarity can influence proactive behavior among organizational newcomers. We propose that newcomers who perceive themselves as similar to their co-workers will be more willing to seek new information or build relationships, which in turn will lead to better long-term…

  19. Using Proactive Law for Competitive Advantage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Haapio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the role of law as a positive force within companies through parallel developments in Europe and the United States and a Colombian case study that illustrates how contract simplification and visualization can help bring user-friendly contracts and Proactive Law to practice.

  20. The Reactive–Proactive Aggression Questionnaire: Differential Correlates of Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Adolescent Boys

    OpenAIRE

    Raine, Adrian; Dodge, Kenneth; Loeber, Rolf; GATZKE-KOPP, LISA; Lynam, Don; Reynolds, Chandra; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Liu, Jianghong

    2006-01-01

    This study reports the development of the Reactive–Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), and the differential correlates of these two forms of aggression. Antisocial, psychosocial and personality measures were obtained at ages 7 and 16 years in schoolboys, while the RPQ was administered to 334 of the boys at age 16 years. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a significant fit for a two-factor proactive–reactive model that replicated from one independent subsample to another. Proactive a...

  1. From reactive to proactive approach of interactive leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2010-01-01

    In the article various forms of reactive and proactive apporaches of interactive leadership is poutlined and discusssed. It is concluded that reactive and proactive Reactive and proactive approaches are to be considered as complementary rather than as a mutually exclusive dichotomy. In addition...

  2. Proactive Traffic Information Control in Emergency Evacuation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengfeng Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Traffic demand in emergency evacuation is usually too large to be effectively managed with reactive traffic information control methods. These methods adapt to the road traffic passively by publishing real-time information without consideration of the routing behavior feedback produced by evacuees. Other remedy measures have to be prepared in case of nonrecurring congestion under these methods. To use the network capacity fully to mitigate near-future evacuation traffic congestion, we propose proactive traffic information control (PTIC model. Based on the mechanism between information and routing behavior feedback, this model can change the route choice of evacuees in advance by dissipating strategic traffic information. Generally, the near-future traffic condition is difficult to accurately predict because it is uncertain in evacuation. Assume that the value of traffic information obeys certain distribution within a range, and then real-time traffic information may reflect the most-likely near-future traffic condition. Unlike the real-time information, the proactive traffic information is a selection within the range to achieve a desired level of the road network performance index (total system travel time. In the aspect of the solution algorithm, differential equilibrium decomposed optimization (D-EDO is proposed to compare with other heuristic methods. A field study on a road network around a large stadium is used to validate the PTIC.

  3. Universally Composable Proactive Threshold RSA Signature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Xuan; CHEN Ke-fei; LONG Yu

    2008-01-01

    Recently some efforts were made towards capturing the security requirements within the composable security framework.This modeling has some significant advantages in designing and analyzing complex systems.The threshold signature was discussed and a definition was given based on the universal composability framework,which is proved to be equivalent to the standard security definition.Furthermore,a simple,efficient and proactive threshold RSA signature protocol was presented.It is proved to be correct,consistent and unforgeable relative to the environment that at most t-1 parties are corrupted in each proactive stage.It is also secure under the universal composability framework.It is a UC based security and is proved to be equivalent to the standard security.

  4. Iterative Contracts as Proactive Law Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, René Franz

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyse the use of proactive law in contracts illustrated by the use of a particular type of contract within the IT industry, the so-called iterative contract. This type of contract has its root in a special software development process called iterative....... This software development process has driven the need for a new contract design that supports the product life cycle better than the traditional contracts. As will be shown in the analysis, the iterative contracts represent important legal innovation and can be categorized as a proactive law instrument that has...... the potential to create more business success. However, empirical research still needs to be done in order to confirm that these types of contracts are better at securing business success than traditional contract forms....

  5. Visual working memory capacity and proactive interference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua K Hartshorne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual working memory capacity is extremely limited and appears to be relatively immune to practice effects or the use of explicit strategies. The recent discovery that visual working memory tasks, like verbal working memory tasks, are subject to proactive interference, coupled with the fact that typical visual working memory tasks are particularly conducive to proactive interference, suggests that visual working memory capacity may be systematically under-estimated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Working memory capacity was probed behaviorally in adult humans both in laboratory settings and via the Internet. Several experiments show that although the effect of proactive interference on visual working memory is significant and can last over several trials, it only changes the capacity estimate by about 15%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study further confirms the sharp limitations on visual working memory capacity, both in absolute terms and relative to verbal working memory. It is suggested that future research take these limitations into account in understanding differences across a variety of tasks between human adults, prelinguistic infants and nonlinguistic animals.

  6. ERPs dissociate proactive and reactive control: evidence from a task-switching paradigm with informative and uninformative cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernochowski, Daniela

    2015-03-01

    According to the dual mechanism of control (DMC) framework, cognitive control can be recruited proactively to prevent response conflict when advance preparation is feasible or is up-regulated to overcome response conflict after it is detected. This study aimed at empirically dissociating proactive and reactive control processes proposed by the DMC and identifying corresponding event-related potential (ERP) correlates. Behavioral and electrophysiological indices of cognitive control were measured during a task-switch paradigm with or without informative advance cues, in which proactive control was feasible or not. Proactive control was associated with a (right-) frontal sustained ERP modulation during the cue-target interval. In line with the successful recruitment of proactive control, informative, as compared with uninformative, cue conditions were associated with reduced behavioral and ERP correlates of conflict. ERP correlates of conflict were evident both during conflict detection upon target presentation (N(inc)) and during conflict resolution-in particular, following uninformative cues. Reactive control assumed to support conflict resolution was associated with a (left-) frontal transient preresponse ERP modulation for uninformative, but not informative, cue conditions. Together, these data suggest that complementary proactive and reactive control processes operate in concert to flexibly support goal-directed behavior in response to variable task-demands, by either preventing or resolving response conflicts, as they are detected or anticipated.

  7. Charismatic, transformational and visionary dimensions in sport leadership : toward news paths for the study of coach-athletes relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes,António Rui; José Fernando A. Cruz; Sousa, Sara Almeida e

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we suggest possible applications of the charismatic, transformational and visionary leadership approaches to the sports field, to help understand the dynamics of the coach-athlete relationship. We present the results of our research using these concepts to analyze the work of sports managers. We note that few studies have focused on coaches as promoters of charismatic and transformational behaviors on athletes and teams.

  8. Centenary of the death of Elie Metchnikoff: a visionary and an outstanding team leader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaillon, Jean-Marc; Legout, Sandra

    2016-10-01

    Elie Metchnikoff passed away on July 15th, 1916. He is considered to be the father of phagocytes, cellular innate immunity, probiotics, and gerontology. In all of these fields, he was a visionary. To achieve such a notability and produce so many masterpieces, Metchnikoff used more than 30 animal species to support his findings, and his pasteurian laboratory published more than 200 papers in the Annales de l'Institut Pasteur. As a wonderful team leader and a great mentor, during his 28 years at Institut Pasteur, he welcomed and supervised more than 100 young trainees. Trained as an embryologist, he contributed to the birth of immunology and to the understanding of physiology and pathology. Indeed, Metchnikoff and his team investigated inflammation in guinea pigs, rats, frogs; studied infectious diseases in monkeys, caimans, geese; investigated aging in parrots, dogs, humans; proposed hypotheses to understand age-associated senility using rabbits and humans; developed germ free tadpoles, flies, chicks; studied the gut flora in bats, horses, birds, humans; and popularized the use of probiotics as a tool to delay the deleterious effects of toxic compounds derived from putrefactive gut bacteria. He was also a philosopher and penned essays on human disharmony and on pessimism and optimism.

  9. Business model generation a handbook for visionaries, game changers, and challengers

    CERN Document Server

    Osterwalder, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Business Model Generation is a handbook for visionaries, game changers, and challengers striving to defy outmoded business models and design tomorrow′s enterprises. If your organization needs to adapt to harsh new realities, but you don′t yet have a strategy that will get you out in front of your competitors, you need Business Model Generation. Co–created by 470 "Business Model Canvas" practitioners from 45 countries, the book features a beautiful, highly visual, 4–color design that takes powerful strategic ideas and tools, and makes them easy to implement in your organization. It explains the most common Business Model patterns, based on concepts from leading business thinkers, and helps you reinterpret them for your own context. You will learn how to systematically understand, design, and implement a game–changing business model––or analyze and renovate an old one. Along the way, you′ll understand at a much deeper level your customers, distribution channels, partners, revenue streams, costs...

  10. Abnormal proactive and reactive cognitive control during conflict processing in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; De Raedt, Rudi; De Paepe, Annick; Aarts, Kristien; Otte, Georges; Van Dorpe, Jan; Pourtois, Gilles

    2014-02-01

    According to the Dual Mechanisms of Control framework, cognitive control consists of two complementary components: proactive control refers to anticipatory maintenance of goal-relevant information, whereas reactive control acts as a correction mechanism that is activated when a conflict occurs. Possibly, the well-known diminished inhibitory control in response to negative stimuli in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) patients stems from a breakdown in proactive control, and/or anomalies in reactive cognitive control. In our study, MDD patients specifically showed increased response latencies when actively inhibiting a dominant response to a sad compared with a happy face. This condition was associated with a longer duration of a dominant ERP topography (800-900 ms poststimulus onset) and a stronger activity in the bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, reflecting abnormal reactive control when inhibiting attention to a negative stimulus. Moreover, MDD patients showed abnormalities in proactive cognitive control when preparing for the upcoming imperative stimulus (abnormal modulation of the contingent negative variation component), accompanied by more activity in brain regions belonging to the default mode network. All together, deficits to inhibit attention to negative information in MDD might originate from an abnormal use of both proactive resources and reactive control processes.

  11. Proactiveness in entrepreneurial software firms: the executives' voice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Boissin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches proactiveness in firms, considered to be one of the dimensions of the entrepreneurial orientation. Its goal is to introduce the results of an exploratory and qualitative study, which aimed to characterize the proactiveness in entrepreneurial software firms. The theory resumes the concepts of entrepreneurial firms, entrepreneurial orientation and proactiveness. The data gathering was accomplished through deeper interviews with executives from 13 software firms that stand out in terms of entrepreneurship in Rio Grande do Sul state. The results of the study demonstrate that firms are proactive and show a characterization regarding this behavior, starting from the conceptual base adopted in the present study. Among the proactiveness elements in the researched organizations, the onesrelated to environment monitoring and opportunities quest are highlighted. The study also consoliding a components’ set of proactiveness based on the theory and organizational practice reported by executives.

  12. Overview of a Proactive Software Product Line Acquisition Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    Overview of a Proactive Software Product Line Acquisition Approach 1 Proactive Software Product Line Acquisition Approach Version 2.0 jkb © 2009...Proactive Software Product Line Acquisition Approach 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Carnegie Mellon University, Software Engineering

  13. Resilient Intrusion Tolerance through Proactive and Reactive Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa, Paulo; Bessani, Alysson Neves; Correia, Miguel; Neves, Nuno Ferreira; Veríssimo, Paulo

    2007-01-01

    Previous works have studied how to use proactive recovery to build intrusion-tolerant replicated systems that are resilient to any number of faults, as long as recoveries are faster than an upper-bound on fault production assumed at system deployment time. In this work, we propose a complementary approach that combines proactive recovery with services that allow correct replicas to react and recover replicas that they detect or suspect to be compromised. One key feature of our proactive-react...

  14. Environmental audits: The perils of proactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, M.M. [Kleberg & Head, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    No current environmental seminar would be complete unless someone discussed the reasons to undertake an environmental audit and the benefits of being a proactive company. In fact, however, there are some distinct disadvantages of an environmental audit. This presentation will highlight the serious problems that can be created by an environmental audit unless it is conducted with a clear idea as to the purposes of the audit, and the methods the company will employ to protect confidential information. The presentation will conclude with a recipe of sorts for the proper method of conducting an environmental audit.

  15. Iterative Contracts as Proactive Law Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henschel, René Franz

    2012-01-01

    and incremental software development. In contrast to traditional IT project methodologies, where the product development takes place in a sequential design process, the iterative process is characterized by the so_ ware being developed through a series of repeated cycles in smaller portions at a time....... This software development process has driven the need for a new contract design that supports the product life cycle better than the traditional contracts. As will be shown in the analysis, the iterative contracts represent important legal innovation and can be categorized as a proactive law instrument that has...

  16. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  17. Outcomes and lessons from the PROactive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheen, André J

    2012-11-01

    Beyond improvement of glucose control, thiazolidinediones exert pleiotropic effects, which may contribute to some cardiovascular protection. PROactive ("PROspective pioglitAzone Clinical Trial In macroVascular Events") has provided valuable, although controversial, information on the impact of pioglitazone on cardiovascular outcomes in a high-risk population of patients with type 2 diabetes and established macrovascular disease. Since 2005, there has been much debate on the relative value of the statistically non-significant 10% reduction in the quite challenging primary composite endpoint (combining cardiovascular disease-driven and procedural events in all vascular beds) versus the statistically significant 16% decrease in the more robust and conventional main secondary endpoint (all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, and stroke) observed with pioglitazone. Revisiting PROactive deserves much interest following the report of inconclusive results on cardiovascular efficacy and safety of rosiglitazone in RECORD, the withdrawal (limitation) of rosiglitazone because of cardiovascular safety concern, the recent publication of a statement positioning pioglitazone in type 2 diabetes and the near availability of cheaper generics of pioglitazone. Although subanalyses may have more limited value from a statistical viewpoint, they nonetheless can provide valuable information on the drug efficacy/safety profile and clinical insights into which patients might benefit most (in terms of cardiovascular outcomes) from pioglitazone therapy.

  18. A beleaguered profession yearning for Lincolns: the need for visionary leadership in the health care profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachdeva, A K

    1996-01-01

    In the current milieu of monumental change in medicine and the health sciences, effective leadership is needed from within the health care profession to address various challenges. A leader needs to be visionary, and must possess the ability to share this vision with others through effective communication. The leader should be fair, trustworthy, sincere, truthful, honest, courageous, and compassionate. He or she should be strong and resolute and be able to lead through persuasion rather than coercion. The leader should possess the attributes and skills to mold organizational change in the desired direction and to deal with reactions of individuals going through the change process. The democratic style of leadership appears to be the most effective, although the autocratic style may be needed occasionally to accomplish a specific task. The noncentered, laissez-faire style of leadership is generally not effective and results in significant frustration among subordinates. The most desirable type of power a leader can exercise over subordinates results from deep trust and effective communication, which make people follow the leader willingly. The health care profession needs to solicit the help of experienced members who have shown leadership to help guide various activities and to serve as mentors for the less experienced individuals. Special courses should be designed and implemented to develop specific leadership skills, which are applicable to various health care disciplines. Practical teaching models, including individuals from various disciplines working together in teams, with opportunities for leadership, should be implemented. Also, an appropriate culture that recognizes and rewards effective leadership in academe needs to be established within academic institutions.

  19. Proactive Review – learn from experience to improve bottom line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This article aims to provide a theoretically based and proven educational design for lessons learned. Called a Proactive Review, this educational design is exemplified in a case study of a global information technology company classified as big business, where Proactive Reviews were deve...

  20. Proactive policing and equal treatment of ethnic-minority youths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, Jorgen S.; Saharso, Sawitri

    2015-01-01

    Proactive policing aims at suppressing delinquency at an early stage. In the Netherlands, it is applied, inter alia, to youths and youth groups to prevent them from slipping off into delinquent behaviour and crime. Proactive policing implies that police officers keep in touch with local youths and

  1. Associations among Empathy, Social Competence, & Reactive/Proactive Aggression Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Megan L.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2007-01-01

    Differences between proactive and reactive aggression subtypes on self-reported measures of empathy, social competence, and expectation for reward were examined among 433 middle school students (65.4% White, 33.9% Black). As hypothesized, males scored higher on proactive and reactive aggression scales and lower on empathy measures than females.…

  2. In the Nick of Time: Proactive Prevention of Obligation Violations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basin, David; Debois, Søren; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    We present a system model, an enforcement mechanism, and a policy language for the proactive enforcement of timed provisions and obligations. Our approach improves upon existing formalisms in two ways: (1) we exploit the target system's existing functionality to avert policy violations proactively...

  3. Proactive condition monitoring of low-speed machines

    CERN Document Server

    Stamboliska, Zhaklina; Moczko, Przemyslaw

    2015-01-01

    This book broadens readers’ understanding of proactive condition monitoring of low-speed machines in heavy industries. It focuses on why low-speed machines are different than others and how maintenance of these machines should be implemented with particular attention. The authors explain the best available monitoring techniques for various equipment and the principle of how to get proactive information from each technique. They further put forward possible strategies for application of FEM for detection of faults and technical assessment of machinery. Implementation phases are described and industrial case-studies of proactive condition monitoring are included. Proactive Condition Monitoring of Low-Speed Machines is an essential resource for engineers and technical managers across a range of industries as well as design engineers working in industrial product development. This book also: ·         Explains the practice of proactive condition monitoring and illustrates implementation phases ·   ...

  4. Reducing the Handover Delay in FMIPv6 Using Proactive Care-of Address Scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Jin, Depeng; Su, Li; Zeng, Lieguang

    To deal with the increasing number of mobile devices accessing the Internet and the increasing demands of mobility management, IETF has proposed Mobile IPv6 and its fast handover protocol FMIPv6. In FMIPv6, the possibility of Care-of Address (CoA) collision and the time for Return Routability (RR) procedure result in long handover delay, which makes it unsuitable for real-time applications. In this paper, we propose an improved handover scheme for FMIPv6, which reduces the handover delay by using proactive CoA acquisition, configuration and test method. In our proposal, collision-free CoA is proactively prepared, and the time for RR procedure does not contribute to the handover delay. Furthermore, we analyze our proposal's benefits and overhead tradeoff. The numerical results demonstrate that it outperforms the current schemes, such as FMIPv6 and enhanced FMIPv6, on the aspect of handover delay and packet transmission delay.

  5. The universe in a mirror the saga of the Hubble Space Telescope and the visionaries who built it

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmerman, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has produced the most stunning images of the cosmos humanity has ever seen. It has transformed our understanding of the universe around us, revealing new information about its age and evolution, the life cycle of stars, and the very existence of black holes, among other startling discoveries. But it took an amazing amount of work and perseverance to get the first space telescope up and running. The Universe in a Mirror tells the story of this telescope and the visionaries responsible for its extraordinary accomplishments. Robert Zimmerman takes readers beh

  6. PROACTIVE NETWORK SECURITYAPPROACH FOR MULTILAYERED ARCHITECURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha Kumari R

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to fulfill the organization goals and objectives, multilayered network architecture and various heterogeneous server environments are used. As the network architectures are complex, there is an increased demand in information security. So each organization needs to provide sufficient network security for the known and the unknown attacks according to its goals, requirements and objectives. Highly skilled hacker’s everyday discovers the new threats in order to break the security bridge in each organization. Hence the organizations are forced to revise their security policies in order to handle the network vulnerabilities that are increasing day by day. So to handle this issue a proactive network strategy is proposed against network vulnerabilities such as fraud, information leakage, denial of service attack and so on. By this approach the network is scanned periodically and the threats are prioritized andevaluated accordingly.

  7. Children's social cognition about proactive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Killen, Melanie; Duffy, Amanda

    2013-11-01

    In this study, 6- and 9-year-old children (N=258) observed two instances of proactive aggression (one relational and the other direct aggression) that were committed by members of a group toward out-group members. Participants were either members of the group or independent observers. Analyses of participants' social cognition about the aggressor and the aggression (cause of aggression, moral judgment of aggression, attitudes toward the aggressor, and exclusion of the aggressor) indicated that, overall, group members were more positive toward aggressors than were independent observers. Although intergroup competition was perceived to be the cause of the aggression, participants disapproved of both types of aggression (especially direct aggression), disapproval increased with age, and girls disapproved of relational aggression more than did boys. Group members' social cognition about the aggressor and the aggression comprised a coherent cognitive process for both types of aggression, but the observers' process was simpler and differed by aggression type.

  8. Measuring enterprise proactiveness in managing occupational safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderstrup-Andersen, Hans H. K.; Fløcke, Thomas; Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to communicate results, and lessons learned, from developing and applying a national questionnaire based survey for measuring the initiation of occupational safety activities in Danish enterprises and public institutions1. The survey is cross-sectional and it is part...... of the general working environment surveillance system in Denmark. The current survey has a response rate of app. 76% (N=6423) at enterprise level. An investigation of the validity of measurements obtained with three different indices has been carried out. The survey shows that through a 5 year period there has...... been a statistically significant improvement in the use of work place assessments (WPA) among private enterprises and public institutions. A further result is that the smallest companies obtained the lowest score on the knowledge and proactivity indices, while they obtained the highest score...

  9. Proactive Review – learn from experience to improve bottom line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to provide a theoretically based and proven educational design for lessons learned. Called a Proactive Review, this educational design is exemplified in a case study of a global information technology company classified as big business, where Proactive Reviews were developed...... points called PR Triggers, and the four roles involved—the participant, sponsor, top management, and facilitator. The tangible and intangible results of Proactive Reviews are presented, with their impacts on the participants; their teams; and the organization’s products, services, and/or work practices...

  10. Being Proactive Versus Reactive - The Sollution Of Self-Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costea Carmen

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Starting from selfknowing and the law of correspondence (the behaviour from the outside of one person is the reflection of its inside feelings the authors try to define the meaning of proactivity. It is underlined that as we have the quality to be human beings we are responsible for our lives. The proactive persons do not blame the environment or the circumstances to justify their behaviour. As it was implanted in the literature of management, the meaning of proactivity is based on initiative, on responsibilities and actions; this gives priority to values in front of any feelings.

  11. Ethics of Living Technology: Design Principles for Proactive Home Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Mäyrä

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The entry of proactive technology into highly sensitive environments, such as the home, produces specific design challenges that are inextricably linked to ethical issues. Two design goals are presented and analysed: proactive solutions have to be both personalized and consistent. These requirements are partially contradictory, and need to be understood in the context of the socio-cognitive setting of the home. The embedding of proactive technology into a home environment has to provide the user with an awareness of the possibilities of control and play. These design goals are further developed with regard to different user cultures: here we concentrate on early adopters and elderly people.

  12. Proactive Management of Materials Degradation - A Review of Principles and Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bond, Leonard J.; Doctor, Steven R.; Taylor, Theodore T.

    2008-08-28

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has undertaken a program to lay the technical foundation for defining proactive actions so that future degradation of materials in light water reactors (LWRs) is limited and, thereby, does not diminish either the integrity of important LWR components or the safety of operating plants. This technical letter report was prepared by staff at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in support of the NRC Proactive Management of Materials Degradation (PMMD) program and relies heavily on work that was completed by Dr. Joseph Muscara and documented in NUREG/CR-6923. This report concisely explains the basic principles of PMMD and its relationship to prognostics, provides a review of programs related to PMMD being conducted worldwide, and provides an assessment of the technical gaps in PMMD and prognostics that need to be addressed. This technical letter report is timely because the majority of the U.S. reactor fleet is applying for license renewal, and many plants are also applying for increases in power rating. Both of these changes could increase the likelihood of materials degradation and underline, therefore, the interest in proactive management in the future.

  13. Proactive Student Engagement with Fitness to Practise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Lo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fitness to practise (FTP is fundamental to health professional education and health service delivery, impacting on both practitioner and client wellbeing. Literature exploring FTP support policies primarily identifies retrospective student support and management. This study describes student perceptions of an innovative FTP policy which supports students and staff to proactively identify FTP management strategies prior to entering the clinical environment. Forty-nine final year physiotherapy students were surveyed regarding their perceptions of self-declaring FTP. Ordinal data from Likert scales were reported using descriptive statistics. Thematic analysis was undertaken for open text responses. The response rate was 88%. Forty-two percent of students stated that they had experienced FTP concerns during the course. Concerns included physical and mental impairment and clinical competence issues. The majority of students (80% indicated that they were “comfortable” or “very comfortable” in self-declaring FTP issues. Confidentiality, positive relationships with staff and a supportive environment enhanced likelihood of declaration. Eight students (19% met with university staff to develop management strategies and all rated these meetings as “helpful” or “very helpful.” Students had positive perceptions of self-declaring their FTP to enable early development of management strategies. This strategy successfully navigates sensitive ethicolegal issues, empowering students to take responsibility for their own FTP.

  14. Proactive learning for artificial cognitive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Young

    2010-04-01

    The Artificial Cognitive Systems (ACS) will be developed for human-like functions such as vision, auditory, inference, and behavior. Especially, computational models and artificial HW/SW systems will be devised for Proactive Learning (PL) and Self-Identity (SI). The PL model provides bilateral interactions between robot and unknown environment (people, other robots, cyberspace). For the situation awareness in unknown environment it is required to receive audiovisual signals and to accumulate knowledge. If the knowledge is not enough, the PL should improve by itself though internet and others. For human-oriented decision making it is also required for the robot to have self-identify and emotion. Finally, the developed models and system will be mounted on a robot for the human-robot co-existing society. The developed ACS will be tested against the new Turing Test for the situation awareness. The Test problems will consist of several video clips, and the performance of the ACSs will be compared against those of human with several levels of cognitive ability.

  15. Proactive strategies to avoid infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Richard J; Case, Trevor I; Oaten, Megan J

    2011-12-12

    Infectious disease exerts a large selective pressure on all organisms. One response to this has been for animals to evolve energetically costly immune systems to counter infection, while another--the focus of this theme issue--has been the evolution of proactive strategies primarily to avoid infection. These strategies can be grouped into three types, all of which demonstrate varying levels of interaction with the immune system. The first concerns maternal strategies that function to promote the immunocompetence of their offspring. The second type of strategy influences mate selection, guiding the selection of a healthy mate and one who differs maximally from the self in their complement of antigen-coding genes. The third strategy involves two classes of behaviour. One relates to the capacity of the organisms to learn associations between cues indicative of pathogen threat and immune responses. The other relates to prevention and even treatment of infection through behaviours such as avoidance, grooming, quarantine, medicine and care of the sick. In humans, disease avoidance is based upon cognition and especially the emotion of disgust. Human disease avoidance is not without its costs. There is a propensity to reject healthy individuals who just appear sick--stigmatization--and the system may malfunction, resulting in various forms of psychopathology. Pathogen threat also appears to have been a highly significant and unrecognized force in shaping human culture so as to minimize infection threats. This cultural shaping process--moralization--can be co-opted to promote human health.

  16. Green Modulation in Proactive Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Abouei, Jamshid; Pasupathy, Subbarayan

    2009-01-01

    Due to unique characteristics of sensor nodes, choosing energy-efficient modulation scheme with low-complexity implementation (refereed to as green modulation) is a critical factor in the physical layer of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). This paper presents (to the best of our knowledge) the first in-depth analysis of energy efficiency of various modulation schemes using realistic models in IEEE 802.15.4 standard and present state-of-the art technology, to find the best scheme in a proactive WSN over Rayleigh and Rician flat-fading channel models with path-loss. For this purpose, we describe the system model according to a pre-determined time-based process in practical sensor nodes. The present analysis also includes the effect of bandwidth and active mode duration on energy efficiency of popular modulation designs in the pass-band and Ultra-WideBand (UWB) categories. Experimental results show that among various pass-band and UWB modulation schemes, Non-Coherent M-ary Frequency Shift Keying (NC-MFSK) with sm...

  17. Proactive Management of the Equine Athlete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica K. Gee

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Across many equestrian disciplines the median competition career of a horse is relatively short. One of the major reasons for short career length is musculoskeletal injury and a consistent variable is the trainer effect. There are significant opportunities within equestrian sport for a holistic approach to horse health to attenuate musculoskeletal injury. Proactive integration of care by health professionals could provide a mechanism to attenuate injury risk and the trainer effect. However, the limited data available on current exercise regimens for sport horses restricts interpretation of how management and exercise volume could be modified to reduce injury risk. Early exercise in the juvenile horse (i.e., pre weaning has a positive effect on stimulating the musculoskeletal system and primes the horse for an athletic career. The early introduction to sport competition has also been identified to have a positive effect on career length. These data indicate that management systems reflecting the cursorial evolution of the horse may aid in attenuating loss from sport due to musculoskeletal injury.

  18. From reactive to proactive apporach of interactive leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2010-01-01

    In order to enhance a constructive approach to technological and organisational development it seems important to involve employees proactively. The chapter discribe and analyse different approaches to do that and analyse the impacts on organisational change...

  19. From reactive to proactive apporach of interactive leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2010-01-01

    In order to enhance a constructive approach to technological and organisational development it seems important to involve employees proactively. The chapter discribe and analyse different approaches to do that and analyse the impacts on organisational change...

  20. Correlates of Pure and Co-Occurring Proactive and Reactive Aggressors In Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jacob Yuichung; Fung, Annis L.; Gerstein, Lawrence H.

    2013-01-01

    Research on aggression in the West has focused mainly on the dichotomy between proactive and reactive aggression, but not the co-occurring proactive-reactive aggression subtype, despite its prevalence. The authors investigated the differences in psychological and behavioral correlates among proactive, reactive, and proactive-reactive student…

  1. Simplified Threshold RSA with Adaptive and Proactive Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almansa Guerra, Jesus Fernando; Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Nielsen, Jesper Buus

    2006-01-01

    We present the currently simplest, most efficient, optimally resilient, adaptively secure, and proactive threshold RSA scheme. A main technical contribution is a new rewinding strategy for analysing threshold signature schemes. This new rewinding strategy allows to prove adaptive security...... of a proactive threshold signature scheme which was previously assumed to be only statically secure. As a separate contribution we prove that our protocol is secure in the UC framework....

  2. An Efficient Proactive RSA Scheme for Ad Hoc Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Rui-shan; CHEN Ke-fei

    2007-01-01

    A proactive threshold signature scheme is very important to tolerate mobile attack in mobile ad hoc networks. In this paper, we propose an efficient proactive threshold RSA signature scheme for ad hoc networks. The scheme consists of three protocols: the initial secret share distribution protocol, the signature generation protocol and the secret share refreshing protocol. Our scheme has three advantages. First, the signature generation protocol is efficient. Second, the signature generation protocol is resilient. Third, the share refreshing protocol is efficient.

  3. Neural and behavioral mechanisms of proactive and reactive inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Heidi C; Bucci, David J

    2016-10-01

    Response inhibition is an important component of adaptive behavior. Substantial prior research has focused on reactive inhibition, which refers to the cessation of a motor response that is already in progress. More recently, a growing number of studies have begun to examine mechanisms underlying proactive inhibition, whereby preparatory processes result in a response being withheld before it is initiated. It has become apparent that proactive inhibition is an essential component of the overall ability to regulate behavior and has implications for the success of reactive inhibition. Moreover, successful inhibition relies on learning the meaning of specific environmental cues that signal when a behavioral response should be withheld. Proactive inhibitory control is mediated by stopping goals, which reflect the desired outcome of inhibition and include information about how and when inhibition should be implemented. However, little is known about the circuits and cellular processes that encode and represent features in the environment that indicate the necessity for proactive inhibition or how these representations are implemented in response inhibition. In this article, we will review the brain circuits and systems involved in implementing inhibitory control through both reactive and proactive mechanisms. We also comment on possible cellular mechanisms that may contribute to inhibitory control processes, noting that substantial further research is necessary in this regard. Furthermore, we will outline a number of ways in which the temporal dynamics underlying the generation of the proactive inhibitory signal may be particularly important for parsing out the neurobiological correlates that contribute to the learning processes underlying various aspects of inhibitory control.

  4. Genetic and environmental stability differs in reactive and proactive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvblad, Catherine; Raine, Adrian; Zheng, Mo; Baker, Laura A

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine stability and change in genetic and environmental influences on reactive (impulsive and affective) and proactive (planned and instrumental) aggression from childhood to early adolescence. The sample was drawn from an ongoing longitudinal twin study of risk factors for antisocial behavior at the University of Southern California (USC). The twins were measured on two occasions: ages 9-10 years (N=1,241) and 11-14 years (N=874). Reactive and proactive aggressive behaviors were rated by parents. The stability in reactive aggression was due to genetic and nonshared environmental influences, whereas the continuity in proactive aggression was primarily genetically mediated. Change in both reactive and proactive aggression between the two occasions was mainly explained by nonshared environmental influences, although some evidence for new genetic variance at the second occasion was found for both forms of aggression. These results suggest that proactive and reactive aggression differ in their genetic and environmental stability, and provide further evidence for some distinction between reactive and proactive forms of aggression.

  5. Identifying cognitive predictors of reactive and proactive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugman, Suzanne; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Cima, Maaike; Schuhmann, Teresa; Dambacher, Franziska; Sack, Alexander T

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify implicit cognitive predictors of aggressive behavior. Specifically, the predictive value of an attentional bias for aggressive stimuli and automatic association of the self and aggression was examined for reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in a non-clinical sample (N = 90). An Emotional Stroop Task was used to measure an attentional bias. With an idiographic Single-Target Implicit Association Test, automatic associations were assessed between words referring to the self (e.g., the participants' name) and words referring to aggression (e.g., fighting). The Taylor Aggression Paradigm (TAP) was used to measure reactive and proactive aggressive behavior. Furthermore, self-reported aggressiveness was assessed with the Reactive Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ). Results showed that heightened attentional interference for aggressive words significantly predicted more reactive aggression, while lower attentional bias towards aggressive words predicted higher levels of proactive aggression. A stronger self-aggression association resulted in more proactive aggression, but not reactive aggression. Self-reports on aggression did not additionally predict behavioral aggression. This implies that the cognitive tests employed in our study have the potential to discriminate between reactive and proactive aggression. Aggr. Behav. 41:51-64 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Proactive and reactive sibling aggression and adjustment in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Corinna Jenkins; Van Gundy, Karen T; Wiesen-Martin, Desireé; Hiley Sharp, Erin; Rebellon, Cesar J; Stracuzzi, Nena F

    2015-03-01

    Existing research on aggression tends to narrowly focus on peers; less is known about sibling aggression, most likely due to its historical acceptance. Aggression is characterized by its forms (i.e., physical vs. social or relational aggression) and its functions (i.e., the motivations behind the aggressive act and categorized as proactive vs. reactive aggression). We use data from a two-wave study of middle (n = 197; M age = 12.63 years at Wave 1) and older (n = 159; M age = 16.50 years at Wave 1) adolescents to assess the extent to which proactive and reactive functions of sibling aggression make unique or conditional contributions to adolescent adjustment (i.e., depression, delinquency, and substance use). We find that proactive sibling aggression increases risk for problem substance use and delinquent behavior, reactive sibling aggression increases risk for depressed mood and delinquent behavior, and such results are observed even with statistical adjustments for sociodemographic and family variables, stressful life events, and prior adjustment. Few conditional effects of proactive or reactive sibling aggression by sex or grade are observed; yet, for all three outcomes, the harmful effects of reactive sibling aggression are strongest among adolescents who report low levels of proactive sibling aggression. The results speak to the importance of understanding the proactive and reactive functions of sibling aggressive behaviors for adolescent adjustment.

  7. A Structural Equation Model (SEM) of the Impact of Transformational, Visionary, Charismatic and Ethical Leadership Styles on the Development of Wise Leadership among Filipino Private Secondary School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parco-Tropicales, Marishirl; de Guzman, Allan B.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, wisdom is seen as a key resource for school leaders in dealing with the dynamics of the changing school environments. This study purports to expand the growing interest on wisdom by testing a model that describes the impact of transformational, visionary, charismatic and ethical leadership styles on wise leadership development…

  8. An Improved Logic Diagram of RCM with the Proactive Maintenance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Wenyuan; KANG Jianshe; WEN Liang; HONG Qing

    2006-01-01

    For some repeatedly occurring failure with root cause, the reliability centered maintenance (RCM) can't deal with them effectively. So, the logic diagram of RCM was improved by combining it with proactive maintenance technology. First, root cause analysis is used to build a key result-cause chain of the repeatedly occur failure. Then, a reasonable link in the chain, which work station is suitable to be monitored and repaired, should be selected. Finally, the corresponding proactive maintenance measure should be adopted to prevent the matter occur on the chain and broken the key result-cause chain, and the repeatedly occur failure is to be prevent at a deeper level or from the root cause. By doing this, a system engineering method comes into being, not only it can determine the needs of preventive maintenance for equipment, but also determine the proactive maintenance needs for equipment. The analysis result of reliability centered maintenance and the analysis result considering proactive maintenance are combined to form a maintenance guideline containing proactive maintenance strategy.

  9. Popularity differentially predicts reactive and proactive aggression in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltz, Sabine; Cillessen, Antonius H N; van den Berg, Yvonne H M; Gommans, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that peer popularity is associated with aggressive behavior. However, it is not yet clear whether popularity is uniquely related to different functions of aggression. In this study, we examined associations between peer-perceived popularity, and reactive and proactive aggression using a cross-sectional and a longitudinal design. Yearly sociometric measures of popularity, and reactive and proactive aggression were gathered from 266 seventh and eight grade adolescents (Mage grade 7 = 12.80, SDage  = .40). Popularity was positively correlated with proactive aggression and negatively correlated with reactive aggression, both concurrently as over time. Curvilinear trends indicated that a significant minority of low versus high popular adolescents showed both functions of aggression. Somewhat stronger effects of popularity on proactive aggression were found for boys than girls. Stably popular adolescents showed the highest levels of proactive aggression, whereas stably unpopular youth showed the highest levels of reactive aggression. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  10. PROactive 07: pioglitazone in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: results of the PROactive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erl

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Erland Erdmann1, John Dormandy2, Robert Wilcox3, Massimo Massi-Benedetti4, Bernard Charbonnel51University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany; 2Department of Clinical Vascular Research, St Georges Hospital, London, UK; 3Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Queen’s Medical Centre, University Hospital, Nottingham, UK; 4University of Perugia, Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, Perugia, Italy; 5Clinique d’Endocrinologie, Hôtel Dieu, Nantes Cedex 1, FranceAbstract: Patients with type 2 diabetes face an increased risk of macrovascular disease compared to those without. Significant reductions in the risk of major cardiovascular events can be achieved with appropriate drug therapy, although patients with type 2 diabetes remain at increased risk compared with non-diabetics. The thiazolidinedione, pioglitazone, is known to offer multiple, potentially antiatherogenic, effects that may have a beneficial impact on macrovascular outcomes, including long-term improvements in insulin resistance (associated with an increased rate of atherosclerosis and improvement in the atherogenic lipid triad (low HDL-cholesterol, raised triglycerides, and a preponderance of small, dense LDL particles that is observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. The recent PROspective pioglitAzone Clinical Trial In macroVascular Events (PROactive study showed that pioglitazone can reduce the risk of secondary macrovascular events in a high-risk patient population with type 2 diabetes and established macrovascular disease. Here, we summarize the key results from the PROactive study and place them in context with other recent outcome trials in type 2 diabetes.Keywords: pioglitazone, macrovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, secondary prevention

  11. Strengthening Leadership Preparation to Meet the Challenge of Leading for Learning in the Digital Age: Recommendations from Alumni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Christine A.; Fisher-Adams, Grace

    2015-01-01

    This study surveys graduates of a west-coast university regarding their perception of how well their graduate degree programs prepared them to meet the challenge of leading for learning in the digital age, particularly in the areas of visionary leadership, student learning, organizational management, working with diverse families, ethics, and the…

  12. Predictors and outcomes of proactivity in the socialization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanberg, C R; Kammeyer-Mueller, J D

    2000-06-01

    This 3-wave longitudinal study aimed to extend current understanding of the predictors and outcomes of employee proactivity (involving information seeking, feedback seeking, relationship building, and positive framing) in the socialization process. Two personality variables, extraversion and openness to experience, were associated with higher levels of proactive socialization behavior. Of the proactive behaviors studied, feedback seeking and relationship building were highlighted in their importance because of their various relationships with the work-related outcomes assessed in this study (e.g., social integration, role clarity, job satisfaction, intention to turnover, and actual turnover). The results also highlighted the importance of 2 control variables (opportunity to interact with others on the job and skill level of the new job) in the experience of socialization into a new job.

  13. Inducing Proactive Control Shifts in the AX-CPT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonthier, Corentin; Macnamara, Brooke N; Chow, Michael; Conway, Andrew R A; Braver, Todd S

    2016-01-01

    The Dual Mechanisms of Control (DMC) account (Braver, 2012) proposes two distinct mechanisms of cognitive control, proactive and reactive. This account has been supported by a large number of studies using the AX-CPT paradigm that have demonstrated not only between-group differences, but also within-subjects variability in the use of the two control mechanisms. Yet there has been little investigation of task manipulations that can experimentally modulate the use of proactive control in healthy young adults; such manipulations could be useful to better understand the workings of cognitive control mechanisms. In the current study, a series of three experiments demonstrate how individuals can be systematically biased toward and away from the utilization of proactive control, via strategy training and no-go manipulations, respectively. These results provide increased support for the DMC framework, and provide a new basis from which to examine group-based differences and neural mechanisms underlying the two control modes.

  14. Intelligent Transportation Control based on Proactive Complex Event Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yongheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex Event Processing (CEP has become the key part of Internet of Things (IoT. Proactive CEP can predict future system states and execute some actions to avoid unwanted states which brings new hope to intelligent transportation control. In this paper, we propose a proactive CEP architecture and method for intelligent transportation control. Based on basic CEP technology and predictive analytic technology, a networked distributed Markov decision processes model with predicting states is proposed as sequential decision model. A Q-learning method is proposed for this model. The experimental evaluations show that this method works well when used to control congestion in in intelligent transportation systems.

  15. New Proactive Time Buffer Heuristics for Robust Project Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshaer, Raafat; Yamamoto, Hidehiko

    Robust scheduling is aiming at constructing proactive schedules capable of dealing with multiple disruptions during project execution. Insertion a time buffer, before an activity start time, is a method to improve the robustness (stability) of a baseline schedule. In this paper, we introduce new heuristics for inserting time buffers in a given baseline schedule while the project due date is predefined and stochastic activity duration is considered. Computational results obtained from a set of benchmark projects show that the proposed heuristics capable of generating proactive schedules with acceptable quality and solution robustness.

  16. Mature age job seekers : The role of proactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Bock, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - In the context of demographic and economic changes, helping mature age job seekers find employment is imperative. The purpose of this paper is to examine mature age job seekers' proactive personality as a moderator of the relationship between age and job search intensity; and to examine

  17. Proactivity, job characteristics, and engagement: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, J.S.E.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Lange, A.H. de; Vinkenburg, C.J.; Kooij, D.T.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - This paper sets out to examine proactive personality in relation to job demands, job resources and engagement. Design/methodology/approach - The current study employed a two-wave complete panel study among 794 Dutch government employees. Based upon the Job Demands-Resources (ID-R) model, p

  18. Proactivity, job characteristics, and engagement : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Josje S. E.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; de Lange, Annet H.; Vinkenburg, Claartje J.; Kooij, Dorien

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - This paper sets out to examine proactive personality in relation to job demands, job resources and engagement. Design/methodology/approach - The current study employed a two-wave complete panel study among 794 Dutch government employees. Based upon the Job Demands-Resources (ID-R) model, p

  19. Risk management plans as a tool for proactive pharmacovigilance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, N S; Duijnhoven, R G; Straus, S M J M

    2014-01-01

    Risk Management Plans (RMPs) have become a cornerstone in the pharmacovigilance of new drugs in Europe. The RMP was introduced in 2005 to support a proactive approach in gaining knowledge on safety concerns through early planning of pharmacovigilance activities. However, the rate at which...... of uncertainties, suggests that opportunities for optimization exist while ensuring feasible and risk-proportionate pharmacovigilance planning....

  20. Pro-active Management of Traffic Incidents Using Novel Technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nitsche, P.; Olstam, J.; Taylor, N.; Reinthaler, M.; Ponweiser, W.; Bernhardsson, V.; Mocanu, I.; Uittenbogaard, J.; Dam, E. van

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the assessment phase of the project PRIMA (Pro-Active Incident Management), where the benefits, costs and risks of novel traffic incident management techniques are investigated. The project targets the enhancement of current state-of-the-art measures for handling

  1. Influence of Perceived Neighborhood Safety on Proactive and Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Paula J.; Vitulano, Michael; Wynn, Porche'; Wimsatt, Amber; Gaertner, Alden; Rathert, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined associations between perceived neighborhood safety and proactive and reactive subtypes of aggression while also considering peer delinquency and poor parental monitoring in a community recruited sample of 89 children (56% male) ranging from 9 to 12 years of age (M=10.44, SD=1.14). In addition, neighborhood safety was…

  2. Proactivity, job characteristics, and engagement: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, J.S.E.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Lange, A.H. de; Vinkenburg, C.J.; Kooij, D.T.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - This paper sets out to examine proactive personality in relation to job demands, job resources and engagement. Design/methodology/approach - The current study employed a two-wave complete panel study among 794 Dutch government employees. Based upon the Job Demands-Resources (ID-R) model,

  3. Inhibitory Control of Proactive Interference in Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Holly A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with poor inhibition of prepotent responses and deficits in distractor inhibition, but relatively few studies have addressed inhibitory control of proactive interference (PI) in individuals with ADHD. Thus, the goal of the present study was to evaluate resistance to spatial…

  4. Proactivity, job characteristics, and engagement: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, J.S.E.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Lange, A.H. de; Vinkenburg, C.J.; Kooij, D.T.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - This paper sets out to examine proactive personality in relation to job demands, job resources and engagement. Design/methodology/approach - The current study employed a two-wave complete panel study among 794 Dutch government employees. Based upon the Job Demands-Resources (ID-R) model, p

  5. Popularity differentially predicts reactive and proactive aggression in early adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltz, S.E.M.J.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Berg, Y.H.M. van den; Gommans, R.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that peer popularity is associated with aggressive behavior. However, it is not yet clear whether popularity is uniquely related to different functions of aggression. In this study, we examined associations between peer-perceived popularity, and reactive and proactive

  6. Popularity Differentially Predicts Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Early Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltz, Sabine E.M.J.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; van den Berg, Yvonne; Gommans, R.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that peer popularity is associated with aggressive behavior. However, it is not yet clear whether popularity is uniquely related to different functions of aggression. In this study, we examined associations between peer-perceived popularity, and reactive and proactive

  7. Proactivity, job characteristics, and engagement : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Josje S. E.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; de Lange, Annet H.; Vinkenburg, Claartje J.; Kooij, Dorien

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - This paper sets out to examine proactive personality in relation to job demands, job resources and engagement. Design/methodology/approach - The current study employed a two-wave complete panel study among 794 Dutch government employees. Based upon the Job Demands-Resources (ID-R) model, p

  8. Identifying cognitive predictors of reactive and proactive aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brugman, S.; Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.; Cima, M.; Schuhmann, T.; Dambacher, F.; Sack, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify implicit cognitive predictors of aggressive behavior. Specifically, the predictive value of an attentional bias for aggressive stimuli and automatic association of the self and aggression was examined for reactive and proactive aggressive behavior in a non-clini

  9. Organizational Socialization Tactics and Newcomer Proactive Behaviors: An Integrative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruman, Jamie A.; Saks, Alan M.; Zweig, David I.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between organizational socialization tactics, newcomers' self-efficacy, proactive behaviors, and socialization outcomes. Based on a sample of 140 co-op university students who completed surveys at the end of their work term, the results indicated that newcomers' self-efficacy and…

  10. Proactive and Reactive Control by the Medial Frontal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veit eStuphorn

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptive behavior requires the ability to flexibly control actions. This can occur either proactively to anticipate task requirements, or reactively in response to sudden changes. In this article, we describe the behavioral and physiological evidence for dual mechanisms of control in response inhibition in the medial frontal cortex in the context of the stop signal or countermanding task.

  11. Proactive and Reactive Aggression in a Child Psychiatric Inpatient Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Paula J.; Stoppelbein, Laura; Greening, Leilani

    2009-01-01

    This study examined relations between proactive and reactive aggression and indicators of antisocial behavior (callous/unemotional traits and behavioral consequences) and negative affect (depression and suicidal behavior) in a sample of 105 children admitted to an acute child psychiatric inpatient unit. The majority of the children were male (69%)…

  12. Socialization Tactics, Proactive Behavior, and Newcomer Learning: Integrating Socialization Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashforth, Blake E.; Sluss, David M.; Saks, Alan M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine how socialization processes (socialization tactics and proactive behavior) jointly affect socialization content (i.e., what newcomers learn) and adjustment. Longitudinal survey data from 150 business and engineering graduates during their first 7 months of work indicate that: (1) institutionalized…

  13. Proactivity, job characteristics, and engagement : a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikkers, Josje S. E.; Jansen, Paul G. W.; de Lange, Annet H.; Vinkenburg, Claartje J.; Kooij, Dorien

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - This paper sets out to examine proactive personality in relation to job demands, job resources and engagement. Design/methodology/approach - The current study employed a two-wave complete panel study among 794 Dutch government employees. Based upon the Job Demands-Resources (ID-R) model,

  14. Mature age job seekers : The role of proactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Bock, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - In the context of demographic and economic changes, helping mature age job seekers find employment is imperative. The purpose of this paper is to examine mature age job seekers' proactive personality as a moderator of the relationship between age and job search intensity; and to examine jo

  15. Mature age job seekers : The role of proactivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Bock, Angelika

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - In the context of demographic and economic changes, helping mature age job seekers find employment is imperative. The purpose of this paper is to examine mature age job seekers' proactive personality as a moderator of the relationship between age and job search intensity; and to examine jo

  16. Schoolyard Corner Society: Relating Membership to Reactive and Proactive Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storksen, Svein; Idsoe, Thormod; Roland, Erling

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether secondary schools in Norway had deviant subcultures, which could be labelled "schoolyard corner society", and how gender and age were related to membership. We also studied levels of reactive and proactive aggressiveness in students, and the relationship between these types of aggressiveness and participation in…

  17. Proactive Customer Service Performance : Relationships With Individual, Task, and Leadership Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Rank, Johannes; Carsten, Jeanne M.; Unger, Jens M.; Paul E Spector

    2007-01-01

    Despite the increasing interest in specific forms of proactive employee behavior in domains such as career development and organizational change, little research has investigated proactive behavior in the realm of customer service. Based on a review of the literatures on proactive behavior, customer service, and job performance, this study investigated relationships between a relevant set of individual and situational predictor variables and proactive customer service performance (i.e., indiv...

  18. Analysis and Development of Autonomous Systems with the Help of Proactive Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Marlene Carina

    2015-01-01

    The work in this Master Thesis contributes to the field of autonomous systems and is looking to explore the possibility of using proactive engines for building autonomous sys- tems. Many approaches to the topic of autonomous systems exist, the contribution to the existing research is the usage of a proactive engine center piece. The proactive engine developed in Prof. Zampunieris’ research team at the University of Luxembourg is used to monitor and support systems. The proactive behaviour ...

  19. Refining the Conceptualization of an Important Future-Oriented Self-Regulatory Behavior: Proactive Coping

    OpenAIRE

    Sohl, Stephanie Jean; Moyer, Anne

    2009-01-01

    Proactive coping, directed at an upcoming as opposed to an ongoing stressor, is a new focus in positive psychology research. However, two differing conceptualizations of this construct create confusion. This study compared how each operationalization of proactive coping relates to well-being. Participants (N = 281) facing an upcoming college examination completed the Proactive Coping Inventory (PCI; consisting of two subscales that each assess one of the conceptualizations), the Proactive Com...

  20. Proactive Customer Service Performance : Relationships With Individual, Task, and Leadership Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Rank, Johannes; Carsten, Jeanne M.; Unger, Jens M.; Spector, Paul E.

    2007-01-01

    Despite the increasing interest in specific forms of proactive employee behavior in domains such as career development and organizational change, little research has investigated proactive behavior in the realm of customer service. Based on a review of the literatures on proactive behavior, customer service, and job performance, this study investigated relationships between a relevant set of individual and situational predictor variables and proactive customer service performance (i.e., indiv...

  1. The relationship between epilepsy and religiosity illustrated by the story of the visionary mystic Wise-Knut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodtkorb, Eylert; Nakken, Karl Otto

    2015-05-01

    The story of Wise-Knut is remarkable. He was born in a poor mountain district in Norway in 1792 and lived for 84years. He had severe and untreated epilepsy with apparent ictal, postictal, and interictal religious symptoms. He heard voices and had religious delusions; a spiritual awakening after a seizure cluster was a turning point in his life. Contemporary biographers have narrated his major life events in detail, but without a precise separation between ictal and postictal spiritual symptoms. Religious and supernatural significance was attributed to his experiences; he himself believed that his extraordinary abilities were a gift from God: "The prophets have had it like myself." His story corroborates the impression that epilepsy may have had a considerable role in the history of religions. However, apart from anecdotes on visionary and healing abilities, his biographies contain nothing that is miraculous or incredible. He falls into the line of various mystics and religious figures of the past that are currently thought to have had epilepsy. Apparently, the advancing understanding of epilepsy and its complications have influenced the dynamic balance between faith, superstition, and rationalism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Personalized, Adaptive and Intelligent Support for Online Assignments Based on Proactive Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Marques Dias, Sergio; Reis, Sandro; Zampunieris, Denis

    2012-01-01

    We designed and implemented a prototype software system based on proactive computing, as an add-on to existing technology enhanced learning platforms. In this paper, we show how our proactive engine augmented with the adequate proactive scenarios enhances the assignments sub-system of the Moodle™ learning management system by providing personalized, adaptive and intelligent support to both online learners and teachers.

  3. The Role of Long-Term Memory in a Test of Visual Working Memory: Proactive Facilitation but No Proactive Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klaus; Awh, Edward; Sutterer, David W.

    2017-01-01

    We report 4 experiments examining whether associations in visual working memory are subject to proactive interference from long-term memory (LTM). Following a long-term learning phase in which participants learned the colors of 120 unique objects, a working memory (WM) test was administered in which participants recalled the precise colors of 3…

  4. The Role of Long-Term Memory in a Test of Visual Working Memory: Proactive Facilitation but No Proactive Interference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klaus; Awh, Edward; Sutterer, David W.

    2017-01-01

    We report 4 experiments examining whether associations in visual working memory are subject to proactive interference from long-term memory (LTM). Following a long-term learning phase in which participants learned the colors of 120 unique objects, a working memory (WM) test was administered in which participants recalled the precise colors of 3…

  5. Validation of the Dutch Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ): Differential Correlates of Reactive and Proactive Aggression From Childhood to Adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cima, M.; Raine, A.; Meesters, C.; Popma, A.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports reliability and validity of the Dutch Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ). In total, 845 participants completed the RPQ along with other measures of aggression. Groups consisted of non-offender participants, criminal offenders, youngsters (age 618), and adults (age a

  6. From reactive to proactive and selective control: developing a richer model for stopping inappropriate responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, Adam R

    2011-06-15

    A better understanding of the neural systems underlying impulse control is important for psychiatry. Although most impulses are motivational or emotional rather than motoric per se, it is research into the neural architecture of motor response control that has made the greatest strides. This article reviews recent developments in the cognitive neuroscience of stopping responses. Most research of this kind has focused on reactive control-that is, how subjects stop a response outright when instructed by a signal. It is argued that reactive paradigms are limited as models of control relevant to psychiatry. Instead, a set of paradigms is advocated that begins to model proactive inhibitory control-that is, how a subject prepares to stop an upcoming response tendency. Proactive inhibitory control is generated according to the goals of the subject rather than by an external signal, and it can be selectively targeted at a particular response tendency. This may have wider validity than reactive control as an experimental model for stopping inappropriate responses.

  7. A proactive method for safety management in nuclear facilities; Um metodo proativo para gerenciamento da seguranca em instalacoes nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grecco, Claudio Henrique dos Santos; Carvalho, Paulo Victor Rodrigues de; Santos, Isaac Antonio Luquetti dos, E-mail: grecco@ien.gov.br, E-mail: paulov@ien.gov.br, E-mail: luquetti@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN/RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Div. de Instrumentacao e Confiabilidade Humana

    2014-07-01

    Due to the modern approach to address the safety of nuclear facilities which highlights that these organizations must be able to assess and proactively manage their activities becomes increasingly important the need for instruments to evaluate working conditions. In this context, this work presents a proactive method of managing organizational safety, which has three innovative features: 1) the use of predictive indicators that provide current information on the performance of activities, allowing preventive actions and not just reactive in safety management, different from safety indicators traditionally used (reactive indicators) that are obtained after the occurrence of undesired events; 2) the adoption of resilience engineering approach in the development of indicators - indicators are based on six principles of resilience engineering: top management commitment, learning, flexibility, awareness, culture of justice and preparation for the problems; 3) the adoption of the concepts and properties of fuzzy set theory to deal with subjectivity and consistency of human trials in the evaluation of the indicators. The fuzzy theory is used primarily to map qualitative models of decision-making, and inaccurate representation methods. The results of this study aim an improvement in performance and safety in organizations. The method was applied in a radiopharmaceutical shipping sector of a nuclear facility. The results showed that the method is a good monitoring tool objectively and proactively of the working conditions of an organizational domain.

  8. A Proactive Tree Recovery Mechanism for Resilient Overlay Multicast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poorna Satyanarayana B.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Overlay multicast constructs a multicast delivery tree among end hosts. An important problem for making overlay multicast more dependable is how to recover from node departures in order to minimize the disruption of service to those affected nodes. In this paper, we propose a proactive tree recovery mechanism to make the overlay multicast resilient to these failures and unexpected events. The salient feature of the approach is that rescue plans for multiple non-leaf nodes can work together for their respective children when they fail or leave at the same time. Extensive simulations demonstrate that our proactive approach can recover from node departures much faster than reactive methods, while the quality of trees restored and the cost of recovery are reasonable

  9. Proactive Resource Allocation: Turning Predictable Behavior into Spectral Gain

    CERN Document Server

    El-Gamal, Hesham; Eryilmaz, Atilla

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces the novel concept of proactive resource allocation in which the predictability of user behavior is exploited to balance the wireless traffic over time, and hence, significantly reduce the bandwidth required to achieve a given blocking/outage probability. We start with a simple model in which the smart wireless devices are assumed to predict the arrival of new requests and submit them to the network T time slots in advance. Using tools from large deviation theory, we quantify the resulting prediction diversity gain to establish that the decay rate of the outage event probabilities increases linearly with the prediction duration T. This model is then generalized to incorporate the effect of prediction errors and the randomness in the prediction lookahead time T. Remarkably, we also show that, in the cognitive networking scenario, the appropriate use of proactive resource allocation by the primary users results in more spectral opportunities for the secondary users at a marginal, or no, cos...

  10. Proactive Review som læringsrum for online ledere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte

    2017-01-01

    . Kapitlet undersøger, hvordan online lederen kan lære af erfaringer skabt i hans/hendes online team. Kapitlet tager udgangspunkt i Engeströms virksomhedsteori og Proactive Review som praksisser for, hvordan ledere konkret kan lære sammen med deres team (Kolbæk 2011). Kapitlet udvikler en model for lederens...... læring på basis af ovenstående teorier. Da læring og kommunikation i teamet foregår online, er det nærliggende at benytte netnografi som metodisk tilgang. Kapitlet undersøger online lederens læringsrum i en global IT virksomhed, hvor Proactive Reviews er implementeret i flere end 40 lande...

  11. Proactive human-computer collaboration for information discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBona, Phil; Shilliday, Andrew; Barry, Kevin

    2016-05-01

    Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Laboratories (LM ATL) is researching methods, representations, and processes for human/autonomy collaboration to scale analysis and hypotheses substantiation for intelligence analysts. This research establishes a machinereadable hypothesis representation that is commonsensical to the human analyst. The representation unifies context between the human and computer, enabling autonomy in the form of analytic software, to support the analyst through proactively acquiring, assessing, and organizing high-value information that is needed to inform and substantiate hypotheses.

  12. Basic Proactive DMSMS Management with Anti-Counterfeiting Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Guidebook (DAG) • DOD 4140.1-R, “DOD Supply Chain Management Regulation”, 2003. • Total Life Cycle System Management (TLCSM), “ Plan of Action and... action Quantifies economic value in terms of Return on Investment (ROI) and Break Even Point ( BEP ) Generates two alternatives: reactive approach and...system’s … support capability.” • The DoD Requirement: “DoD Components shall proactively take … actions to identify and minimize the DMSMS impact

  13. Optimism and proactive coping in relation to burnout among nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yuhsuan; Chan, Hsin-Ju

    2015-04-01

    The study investigated the three symptoms of burnout among hospital nurses and examined the buffering effects of optimism and proactive coping in relation to burnout. Nursing is a profession that can easily lead to burnout. Burnout has been one of the most investigated work outcomes in current research. Previous research has largely ignored the positive influence of individuals on job outcomes and has not tested a constructive framework that might facilitate interventions to prevent burnout. A cross-sectional survey of 314 staff nurses in general hospitals in Taiwan. Participants completed a set of questionnaires with demographic information. The findings suggested that higher levels of proactive coping behaviours and optimism were associated with lower levels of burnout. Optimism was found to have the strongest relationship with the decreased personal accomplishment of burnout. The findings of this study confirmed the importance of optimism and proactive coping in prevention of symptoms of burnout. The results of this study provided important recommendations regarding stress management interventions for health-care managers, nurses, psychologists and human resource staff in the reduction of burnout to promote mental health in an organisation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Variability in proactive and reactive cognitive control processes across the adult lifespan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frini eKarayanidis

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Task-switching paradigms produce a highly consistent age-related increase in mixing cost (longer RT on repeat trials in mixed-task than single task blocks but a less consistent age effect on switch cost (longer RT on switch than repeat trials in mixed-task blocks. We use two approaches to examine the adult lifespan trajectory of control processes contributing to mixing cost and switch cost: latent variables derived from an evidence accumulation model of choice, and event-related potentials (ERP that temporally differentiate proactive (cue-driven and reactive (target-driven control processes. Under highly practiced and prepared task conditions, ageing was associated with increasing RT mixing cost but reducing RT switch cost. Both effects were largely due to the same cause: an age effect for mixed-repeat trials. In terms of latent variables, increasing age was associated with slower non-decision processes, slower rate of evidence accumulation about the target, and higher response criterion. Age effects on mixing costs were evident only on response criterion, the amount of evidence required to trigger a decision, whereas age effects on switch cost were present for all three latent variables. ERPs showed age-related increases in preparation for mixed-repeat trials, anticipatory attention, and post-target interference. Cue-locked ERPs that are linked to proactive control were associated with early emergence of age differences in response criterion. These results are consistent with age effects on strategic processes controlling decision caution. Consistent with an age-related decline in cognitive flexibility, younger adults flexibly adjusted response criterion from trial-to-trial on mixed-task blocks, whereas older adults maintained a high criterion for all trials.

  15. Factor Structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire in Turkish Children and Gender, Grade-Level, and Socioeconomic Status Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uz Bas, Asli; Yurdabakan, Irfan

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the factor structure of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) with Turkish children, and to investigate gender, grade-level, and socioeconomic status (SES) differences in reactive and proactive aggression. Participants consisted of 1,081 Turkish children (544 boys and 537 girls) aged 9 to 14…

  16. Electrophysiological evidence for the involvement of proactive and reactive control in a rewarded stop-signal task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schevernels, Hanne; Bombeke, Klaas; Van der Borght, Liesbet; Hopf, Jens-Max; Krebs, Ruth M; Boehler, C Nicolas

    2015-11-01

    Reward availability is known to facilitate various cognitive operations, which is usually studied in cue-based paradigms that allow for enhanced preparation in reward-related trials. However, recent research using tasks that signal reward availability via task-relevant stimuli suggests that reward can also rapidly promote performance independent of global strategic preparation. Notably, this effect was also observed in a reward-related stop-signal task, in which behavioral measures of inhibition speed were found to be shorter in trials signaling reward. Corresponding fMRI results implied that this effect relies on boosted reactive control as indicated by increased activity in the 'inhibition-related network' in the reward-related condition. Here, we used EEG to better characterize transient modulations of attentional processes likely preceding this ultimate implementation of response inhibition. Importantly, such modulations would probably reflect enhanced proactive control in the form of more top-down attention to reward-related features. Counter to the notion that behavioral benefits would rely purely on reactive control, we found increased stop-evoked attentional processing (larger N1 component) on reward-related trials. This effect was accompanied by enhanced frontal P3 amplitudes reflecting successful stopping, and earlier and larger ERP differences between successful and failed stop trials in the reward-related condition. Finally, more global proactive control processes in the form of a reward context modulation of reward-unrelated trials did not have an effect on stopping performance but did influence attentional processing of go stimuli. Together, these results suggest that proactive and reactive processes can interact to bring about stimulus-specific reward benefits when the task precludes differential global preparation.

  17. Refining the Conceptualization of an Important Future-Oriented Self-Regulatory Behavior: Proactive Coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, Stephanie Jean; Moyer, Anne

    2009-07-01

    Proactive coping, directed at an upcoming as opposed to an ongoing stressor, is a new focus in positive psychology research. However, two differing conceptualizations of this construct create confusion. This study compared how each operationalization of proactive coping relates to well-being. Participants (N = 281) facing an upcoming college examination completed the Proactive Coping Inventory (PCI; consisting of two subscales that each assess one of the conceptualizations), the Proactive Competence Scale (PCS; that assesses the proactive coping process), and measures of well-being. The results demonstrated that conceptualizing proactive coping as a positively-focused striving for goals was predictive of well-being (the shared variance from affect, subjective well-being and physical symptoms), whereas conceptualizing proactive coping as focused on preventing a negative future was not. The first conceptualization of proactive coping's unique association with well-being was explained by two of the proactive competencies, use of resources and realistic goal setting, and the remaining variance in well-being was explained by the first factor of optimism. These results demonstrated that aspiring for a positive future is distinctly predictive of well-being and that research should focus on accumulating resources and goal setting in designing interventions to promote proactive coping.

  18. From proactive personality to organizational citizenship behavior: mediating role of harmony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Yiqun; Cheung, Fanny M

    2010-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the moderating role of interpersonal harmony in the relation of proactive personality with organizational citizenship behavior. 158 employees in Chinese state-owned companies completed the Proactive Personality Scale (Bateman & Crant, 1993), Harmony scale, and Organizational Citizenship Behavior Questionnaire. Proactive personality had insignificant correlation with job dedication. The correlation between interpersonal facilitation and proactive personality was significant but quite low. Results of the hierarchical regression analyses indicated that when demographic variables were controlled, Harmony had significant moderating effects on the relations of proactive behavior and job dedication/interpersonal facilitation. In the high Harmony group, the correlation between proactive personality and organizational citizenship behavior was significant; whereas in the low Harmony group, this correlation was not significant.

  19. Safety performance evaluation using proactive indicators in a selected industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Barkhordari

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Quality and effectiveness of safety systems are critical factors in achieving their goals. This study was aimed to represent a method for performance evaluation of safety systems by proactive indicators using different updated models in the field of safety which will be tested in a selected industry. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study. Proactive indicators used in this study were: Unsafe acts rate, Safety Climate, Accident Proneness, and Near-miss incident rate. The number of in 1473 safety climate questionnaires and 543 Accident Proneness questionnaires was completed. Results: The minimum and maximum safety climate score were 56.88 and 58.2, respectively, and the minimum and maximum scores of Accident Proneness were 98.2 and 140.7, respectively. The maximum number of Near-miss incident rate were 408 and the minimum of that was 196. The maximum number of unsafe acts rate was 43.8 percent and the minimum of that was 27.2 percent. In nine dimensions of Safety climate the eighth dimension (personal perception of risk with the score of 4.07 has the lowest score and the fourth (laws and safety regulations dimension with 8.05 has the highest score. According to expert opinions, the most important indicator in the assessment of safety performance was unsafe acts rate, while near-miss incident rate was the least important one. Conclusion: The results of this survey reveal that using proactive (Prospective indicators could be an appropriate method in organizations safety performance evaluation.

  20. Proactive Decision Support Via Narrative-Integrated Multi-Level Support System (NIMSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-30

    30/2014 Final Report 07/11/2014 - 11/30/2014 Final Report - Proactive Decision Support Via Narrative -Integrated Multi-Level Support System (NIMSS...think, demonstrated via a realistic Naval/Marine Corps warfighting domain. Context-driven decision making; proactive decision support; narrative ...0005, CDRL B001 Proactive Decision Support via Narrative -Integrated Multi-level Support System (NIMSS) CHI Project # 14002 Purchase Order: N00014

  1. Formalising the twofold structure of a proactive system: Proof of concept on deterministic and probabilistic levels

    OpenAIRE

    Shirnin, Denis

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, we investigate the domain of Proactive computing, which may be characterised as a comparatively new computer science research paradigm. In our study, we understand and use the notion of Proactive Computing as it was defined by Dr. David L. Tennenhouse. Conceptually, the architecture and main framework of our software system is entirely based on underlying concept characteristics of the given approach. Being a new research paradigm, proactive computing doesn’t possess y...

  2. Proactive restoration of slow-failures in optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siracusa, Domenico; Pederzolli, Federico; Salvadori, Elio;

    2014-01-01

    , which leads to traffic losses while such operation completes. In this paper we propose a technique, applicable to optical networks with centralized control, to better handle failures with slow transients. The idea is to proactively perform the backup lightpath's setup, triggered by either a fixed......Current optical networks, while offering outstanding reliability, still suffer from occasional failures. A resource-efficient procedure to handle these failures in un-protected scenarios is to perform restoration, i.e., to dynamically setup a backup lightpath after the primary one stops working...

  3. Marketing-mix and technology: evolution and proactive development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberemok Svetlana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to survive the marketing subjects have to be able to adapt their business-processes to the changing environmental conditions. Those who will correctly predict the direction of the economic vector and will apply adequate and proactive tools and marketing technologies will achieve the greatest success. The article presents the results of the analysis of the leading specialists in the field of marketing and management ideas concerning the transformation of the existing tools and marketing technologies and appearing of the new ones.

  4. Novel anomaly detection approach for telecommunication network proactive performance monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanhua YU; Jun WANG; Xiaosu ZHAN; Junde SONG

    2009-01-01

    The mode of telecommunication network management is changing from "network oriented" to "subscriber oriented". Aimed at enhancing subscribers'feeling, proactive performance monitoring (PPM) can enable a fast fault correction by detecting anomalies designating performance degradation. In this paper, a novel anomaly detection approach is the proposed taking advantage of time series prediction and the associated confidence interval based on multiplicative autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA). Furthermore, under the assumption that the training residual is a white noise process following a normal distribution, the associated confidence interval of prediction can be figured out under any given confidence degree 1-α by constructing random variables satisfying t distribution. Experimental results verify the method's effectiveness.

  5. Proactive intervention dentistry: a model for oral care through life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstep, Fay

    2012-06-01

    Tools and techniques are available to oral care providers that have been found to be effective in reversing and controlling the caries process. In addition to fluoride, these tools include new remineralization therapies that can be incorporated into solutions, creams, and dentifrices, and bioactive restorative materials that work effectively with dental hard tissues. By incorporating such "proactive interventions" into their practice and educating patients on maintaining a daily oral hygiene regimen, clinicians can inhibit the multifactorial disease process of demineralization and caries before more extensive treatment becomes necessary.

  6. A Visionary Show

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Seduction. Distinction. Relax. Pulsation. These are the "style universes" on display at Première Vision, heralded as "The World’s Premiere Fabric Show." Started more than 35 years ago by 15 French weavers, Première Vision has expanded beyond its

  7. Reciprocal relationship between proactive personality and work characteristics: a latent change score approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Dong; Fay, Doris; Frese, Michael; Harms, Peter D; Gao, Xiang Yu

    2014-09-01

    Previous proactivity research has predominantly assumed that proactive personality generates positive environmental changes in the workplace. Grounded in recent research on personality development from a broad interactionist theoretical approach, the present article investigates whether work characteristics, including job demands, job control, social support from supervisors and coworkers, and organizational constraints, change proactive personality over time and, more important, reciprocal relationships between proactive personality and work characteristics. Latent change score analyses based on longitudinal data collected in 3 waves across 3 years show that job demands and job control have positive lagged effects on increases in proactive personality. In addition, proactive personality exerts beneficial lagged effects on increases in job demands, job control, and supervisory support, and on decreases in organizational constraints. Dynamic reciprocal relationships are observed between proactive personality with job demands and job control. The revealed corresponsive change relationships between proactive personality and work characteristics contribute to the proactive personality literature by illuminating more nuanced interplays between the agentic person and work characteristics, and also have important practical implications for organizations and employees. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. Reducing proactive aggression through non-invasive brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dambacher, Franziska; Schuhmann, Teresa; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Brugman, Suzanne; Sack, Alexander T

    2015-10-01

    Aggressive behavior poses a threat to human collaboration and social safety. It is of utmost importance to identify the functional mechanisms underlying aggression and to develop potential interventions capable of reducing dysfunctional aggressive behavior already at a brain level. We here experimentally shifted fronto-cortical asymmetry to manipulate the underlying motivational emotional states in both male and female participants while assessing the behavioral effects on proactive and reactive aggression. Thirty-two healthy volunteers received either anodal transcranial direct current stimulation to increase neural activity within right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, or sham stimulation. Aggressive behavior was measured with the Taylor Aggression Paradigm. We revealed a general gender effect, showing that men displayed more behavioral aggression than women. After the induction of right fronto-hemispheric dominance, proactive aggression was reduced in men. This study demonstrates that non-invasive brain stimulation can reduce aggression in men. This is a relevant and promising step to better understand how cortical brain states connect to impulsive actions and to examine the causal role of the prefrontal cortex in aggression. Ultimately, such findings could help to examine whether the brain can be a direct target for potential supportive interventions in clinical settings dealing with overly aggressive patients and/or violent offenders.

  9. A Proactive Recommendation System for Writing in the Internet Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Muñoz

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available With the use of the computers, the task of writing is intertwined with the task of searching for information that can be relevant for the document that is being written, however very little research has been done to understand how the two tasks intertwine. In this paper we present an initial attempt to develop a model of writing and information seeking with computers and to develop helpful software that can improve the quality of the information searched and the written paper. Proactive Recommendation System (PRS can relieve authors from explicit searching by means of automatically searching, retrieving and recommending information relevant to the text currently being written, and therefore PRS can be helpful to writers. However it is also possible that there are some moments during writing in which presenting proactive information can be an interruption rather than a help. In our research, we have used the PRS IntelliGent™ to investigate its impact in the different stages of writing. We found that when IntelliGent™ offers relevant information the time to task completion is shorter and the quality of the written product increases compared with the control situations in which writers have to look actively for information. We discuss these findings in the context of developing models and tools that integrate searching and writing processes when using computers as the writing environment.

  10. Proactive Resource Allocation: Harnessing the Diversity and Multicast Gains

    CERN Document Server

    Tadrous, John; Gamal, Hesham El

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the novel concept of proactive resource allocation through which the predictability of user behavior is exploited to balance the wireless traffic over time, and hence, significantly reduce the bandwidth required to achieve a given blocking/outage probability. We start with a simple model in which the smart wireless devices are assumed to predict the arrival of new requests and submit them to the network T time slots in advance. Using tools from large deviation theory, we quantify the resulting prediction diversity gain} to establish that the decay rate of the outage event probabilities increases with the prediction duration T. This model is then generalized to incorporate the effect of the randomness in the prediction look-ahead time T. Remarkably, we also show that, in the cognitive networking scenario, the appropriate use of proactive resource allocation by the primary users improves the diversity gain of the secondary network at no cost in the primary network diversity. We also shed l...

  11. Proactive coping and gambling disorder among young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleczka, Pawel; Braun, Barbara; Grüne, Bettina; Bühringer, Gerhard; Kraus, Ludwig

    2016-12-01

    Objectives Male sex, young age, and frequent gambling are considered as risk factors for gambling disorder (GD) and stress might be one of the triggers of gambling behavior among problem gamblers. Conversely, well-developed coping with stress might counteract gambling problems. The Proactive Coping Theory provides a promising approach for the further development of preventive and treatment measures. The objective of the study was to investigate different facets of proactive coping (PC) in young male gamblers. Methods Young men from Bavaria were recruited via the Munich citizens' registry (n = 2,588) and Facebook invitations (n = 105). In total, 173 out of 398 individuals were positively screened for frequent gambling and/or signs of related problems and completed the baseline questionnaire of the Munich Leisure-time Study. Factors investigated include gambling problems, PC, impulsiveness, social support, and psychological distress. Results Gambling problems were associated with lower levels of preventive coping as well as of adaptive reaction delay. The associations were also significant when controlled for impulsiveness and general psychological distress. Preventive coping moderated the association between social support and gambling problems. Discussion and conclusions Young men with gambling problems less frequently prevent the occurrence of stressors and more often react hasty when these occur. While the investigated group reported good social support, this factor was negatively associated with GD only among individuals with good preventive coping. Preventive coping poses a useful construct for selective prevention and treatment as it can be modified in professional interventions.

  12. Supporting Proactive Application Event Notification to Improve Sensor Network Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Christophe J.; Heinzelman, Wendi B.

    As wireless sensor networks gain in popularity, many deployments are posing new challenges due to their diverse topologies and resource constraints. Previous work has shown the advantage of adapting protocols based on current network conditions (e.g., link status, neighbor status), in order to provide the best service in data transport. Protocols can similarly benefit from adaptation based on current application conditions. In particular, if proactively informed of the status of active queries in the network, protocols can adjust their behavior accordingly. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to provide such proactive application event notification to all interested protocols in the stack. Specifically, we use the existing interfaces and event signaling structure provided by the X-Lisa (Cross-layer Information Sharing Architecture) protocol architecture, augmenting this architecture with a Middleware Interpreter for managing application queries and performing event notification. Using this approach, we observe gains in Quality of Service of up to 40% in packet delivery ratios and a 75% decrease in packet delivery delay for the tested scenario.

  13. Language Proficiency and Executive Control in Proactive Interference: Evidence from Monolingual and Bilingual Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Feng, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer…

  14. Proactive Personality and the Successful Job Search : A Field Investigation with College Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Douglas J.; Cober, Richard T.; Kane, Kevin; Levy, Paul E.; Shalhoop, Jarrett

    2006-01-01

    The current article tests a model of proactive personality and job search success with a sample of 180 graduating college students. Using structural equation modeling, the authors tested a theoretical model that specified the relations among proactive personality, job search self-efficacy, job search behaviors, job search effort, and job search…

  15. Proactive Personality and Training Motivation among Older Workers: A Mediational Model of Goal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setti, Ilaria; Dordoni, Paola; Piccoli, Beatrice; Bellotto, Massimo; Argentero, Piergiorgio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims at examining the relationship between proactive personality and training motivation among older workers (aged over 55 years) in a context characterized by the growing ageing of the global population. First, the authors hypothesized that proactive personality predicts the motivation to learn among older workers and that…

  16. Cognitive and Affective Empathy as Predictors of Proactive and Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined cognitive and affective empathy as predictors of proactive and reactive aggression. This study also explored whether levels of cognitive and affective empathy differed among children who use proactive and reactive aggression. Cognitive and affective empathy were measured by the Basic Empathy Scale (Jolliffe & Farrington,…

  17. Cognitive and Affective Empathy as Predictors of Proactive and Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Gina M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined cognitive and affective empathy as predictors of proactive and reactive aggression. This study also explored whether levels of cognitive and affective empathy differed among children who use proactive and reactive aggression. Cognitive and affective empathy were measured by the Basic Empathy Scale (Jolliffe & Farrington,…

  18. Improved academic performance and enhanced employability? The potential double benefit of proactivity for business graduates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tymon, Alex; Batistic, Sasa

    2016-01-01

    This study contributes to proactivity theory and debate on how universities meet competing stakeholder demands in an increasingly marketized higher education environment. We explore how the interplay between the stable facet of proactive personality and the situated behaviour of personal initiative

  19. Linking Extroversion and Proactive Personality to Career Success: The Role of Mentoring Received and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turban, Daniel B.; Moake, Timothy R.; Wu, Sharon Yu-Hsien; Cheung, Yu Ha

    2017-01-01

    Although extroversion and proactive personality are related to career success, the mechanisms through which the relationships occur are unclear. Based on the contest- and sponsored-mobility processes, we examine a model linking extroversion and proactive personality to career success through the mediating effects of mentoring received and…

  20. Real-time Trading Strategies for Proactive Distribution Company with Distributed Generation and Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qi

    and DR resources, and upwardly trading in the TL real-time market, resulting in a proactive manner. The DL aggregator (DA) is dened to manage these small-scale and dispersed DGs and DRs. A methodology is proposed in this thesis for a proactive DISCO (PDISCO) to strategically trade with DAs...

  1. Smartphone Application Enabling Global Graph Exploitation and Proactive Dissemination Service (DSPro) Integration (Revised Fiscal Year 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    ARL-TN-0696 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Smartphone Application Enabling Global Graph Exploitation and Proactive ...US Army Research Laboratory Smartphone Application Enabling Global Graph Exploitation and Proactive Dissemination Service (DSPro) Integration...Revised Fiscal Year 2015) by Mark R Mittrick Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL Approved for public

  2. On Methodological and Technological Challenges for Proactive Health Management in Smart Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Dehling, Tobias; Haux, Reinhold; Sick, Bernhard; Sunyaev, Ali; Tomforde, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Health management in smart homes has advanced during the last years. With proactive health management in such environments further progress for health prevention and care is to be expected. Challenges for proactive health management in three areas are summarized and briefly discussed: pattern recognition and machine learning, information privacy and user-oriented design, and sensor-enhanced health information systems architectures.

  3. Improved Academic Performance and Enhanced Employability? The Potential Double Benefit of Proactivity for Business Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymon, Alex; Batistic, Sasa

    2016-01-01

    This study contributes to proactivity theory and debate on how universities meet competing stakeholder demands in an increasingly marketized higher education environment. We explore how the interplay between the stable facet of proactive personality and the situated behaviour of personal initiative influence academic performance. We hypothesized…

  4. Effects of an intervention promoting proactive coping competencies in middle and late adulthood.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bode, C.; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Kuijer, R.G.; Bensing, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: We tested the effectiveness of a brief educational program that is based on proactive coping theory. The program entails a four-session group intervention for people aged between 50 and 75 years and was intended to improve proactive coping competencies. Furthermore, we investigated the posi

  5. The Neglected Role of Proactive Behavior and Outcomes in Newcomer Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saks, Alan M.; Gruman, Jamie A.; Cooper-Thomas, Helena

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the direct, mediating, and moderating effects of proactive outcomes in the relationship between newcomer proactive behaviors and socialization outcomes. Based on a sample of 204 co-op university students who completed surveys at the end of their work term, the results indicated that newcomers who more frequently engaged in a…

  6. Effects of an intervention promoting proactive coping competencies in middle and late adulthood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bode, C.; Ridder, D.T.D. de; Kuijer, R.G.; Bensing, J.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We tested the effectiveness of a brief educational program that is based on proactive coping theory. The program entails a four-session group intervention for people aged between 50 and 75 years and was intended to improve proactive coping competencies. Furthermore, we investigated the posi

  7. Improved academic performance and enhanced employability? The potential double benefit of proactivity for business graduates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tymon, Alex; Batistic, Sasa

    2016-01-01

    This study contributes to proactivity theory and debate on how universities meet competing stakeholder demands in an increasingly marketized higher education environment. We explore how the interplay between the stable facet of proactive personality and the situated behaviour of personal initiative

  8. 76 FR 59144 - National Practitioner Data Bank; Name Change of Proactive Disclosure Service (PDS) to Continuous...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... of Proactive Disclosure Service (PDS) to Continuous Query AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... known as Proactive Disclosure Service (PDS). This notice announces that the prototype status is removed and that PDS is now known as Continuous Query. DATES: The effective date of this status upgrade and...

  9. Linking Extroversion and Proactive Personality to Career Success: The Role of Mentoring Received and Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turban, Daniel B.; Moake, Timothy R.; Wu, Sharon Yu-Hsien; Cheung, Yu Ha

    2017-01-01

    Although extroversion and proactive personality are related to career success, the mechanisms through which the relationships occur are unclear. Based on the contest- and sponsored-mobility processes, we examine a model linking extroversion and proactive personality to career success through the mediating effects of mentoring received and…

  10. Proactive Personality and Training Motivation among Older Workers: A Mediational Model of Goal Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setti, Ilaria; Dordoni, Paola; Piccoli, Beatrice; Bellotto, Massimo; Argentero, Piergiorgio

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims at examining the relationship between proactive personality and training motivation among older workers (aged over 55 years) in a context characterized by the growing ageing of the global population. First, the authors hypothesized that proactive personality predicts the motivation to learn among older workers and that…

  11. New Directions in Measuring Reactive and Proactive Aggression: Validation of a Teacher Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polman, Hanneke; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Thomaes, Sander; van Aken, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    The well-known distinction between reactive and proactive aggression is theoretically important but empirically controversial. Recently, aggression researchers have argued that we should separate the form and function of aggression to make a clearer distinction between reactive and proactive aggression. This article describes the validation of a…

  12. Proactive environmental strategy in a supply chain context: the mediating role of investments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akin, M.; Bloemhof, J.M.; Raaij, van E.M.; Wynstra, F.

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing body of knowledge on the link between environmental management and supply chain management, but there is contradicting evidence on the impact of a proactive environmental strategy on environmental performance. Therefore, this paper investigates the impact of proactive environmenta

  13. Employee Participation in Non-Mandatory Professional Development--The Role of Core Proactive Motivation Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Kim S.; Machin, M. Anthony

    2014-01-01

    With a focus on the self-initiated efforts of employees, this study examined a model of core proactive motivation processes for participation in non-mandatory professional development (PD) within a proactive motivation framework using the Self-Determination Theory perspective. A multi-group SEM analysis conducted across 439 academic and general…

  14. The Influence of Proactive Socialization Behaviors and Team Socialization on Individual Performance in the Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennaforte, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of the role and the social exchange theories, this research investigated the direct and indirect antecedents of three dimensions of team performance (proficiency, adaptivity, proactivity) developed through cooperative education. The theoretical model examined how proactive socialization behaviors led to team socialization and team…

  15. New Directions in Measuring Reactive and Proactive Aggression: Validation of a Teacher Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polman, Hanneke; de Castro, Bram Orobio; Thomaes, Sander; van Aken, Marcel

    2009-01-01

    The well-known distinction between reactive and proactive aggression is theoretically important but empirically controversial. Recently, aggression researchers have argued that we should separate the form and function of aggression to make a clearer distinction between reactive and proactive aggression. This article describes the validation of a…

  16. Does maladaptive coping mediate the relationship between borderline personality traits and reactive and proactive aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Kathryn Jane; Archer, John; Jackson, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify associations between borderline personality (BP) traits and reactive and proactive aggression, and to compare the meditational effects of maladaptive coping in samples of older adolescents (n = 133) and young adults (n = 93), which has not hitherto been explored. This was a cross-sectional study that used self-report measures to assess BP traits on a continuum, trait-based reactive and proactive aggression, and coping strategies. In adults, maladaptive emotional coping significantly mediated the relationship between BP and reactive aggression, and maladaptive avoidant coping mediated the relationship between BP and proactive aggression; no significant mediational effects were found for adolescents. These findings highlight potential explanations for associations between BP traits and reactive and proactive aggression in young adults, and indicate that reactive aggression in adult BPs could be decreased by reducing emotional coping, and proactive aggression by reducing avoidant coping. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Modeling Routing Overhead Generated by Wireless Proactive Routing Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Javaid, Nadeem; Javaid, Akmal; Malik, Shahzad A

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present a detailed framework consisting of modeling of routing overhead generated by three widely used proactive routing protocols; Destination-Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Fish-eye State Routing (FSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR). The questions like, how these protocols differ from each other on the basis of implementing different routing strategies, how neighbor estimation errors affect broadcast of route requests, how reduction of broadcast overhead achieves bandwidth, how to cope with the problem of mobility and density, etc, are attempted to respond. In all of the above mentioned situations, routing overhead and delay generated by the chosen protocols can exactly be calculated from our modeled equations. Finally, we analyze the performance of selected routing protocols using our proposed framework in NS-2 by considering different performance parameters; Route REQuest (RREQ) packet generation, End-to-End Delay (E2ED) and Normalized Routing Load (NRL) with respect to varyi...

  18. PROSE: Proactive, Selective CDN Participation for P2P Streaming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Hui Lv; Li-Jiang Chen; Jie Wu; Da Deng; Si-Jia Huang; Yi Huang

    2013-01-01

    Many production peer-to-peer (P2P) streaming systems use content delivery networks (CDN) to protect the user's quality of experiences.Thus,how to efficiently utilize the capacity of CDN (e.g.,which peers receive services from the CDN nodes) is a problem of practical significance.Existing solutions adopt a passive,on-demand approach,which is inefficient iu utilizing CDN resources.In this paper,we propose PROSE,a simple,novel scheme to achieve proactive,selective CDN participation for P2P streaming.PROSE introduces novel concepts such as choke point expansion nodes/super nodes and leads to efficient,light-weighted,and distributed algorithms to identify and serve these nodes using CDN.Our experimental results show that PROSE achieves at least 10%~25% performance improvement and 2~4 times overhead reduction compared with existing general CDN-P2P-hybrid schemes.

  19. Increased susceptibility to proactive interference in adults with dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, Louisa; Szmalec, Arnaud; Hachmann, Wibke M; Page, Mike P A; Woumans, Evy; Duyck, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings show that people with dyslexia have an impairment in serial-order memory. Based on these findings, the present study aimed to test the hypothesis that people with dyslexia have difficulties dealing with proactive interference (PI) in recognition memory. A group of 25 adults with dyslexia and a group of matched controls were subjected to a 2-back recognition task, which required participants to indicate whether an item (mis)matched the item that had been presented 2 trials before. PI was elicited using lure trials in which the item matched the item in the 3-back position instead of the targeted 2-back position. Our results demonstrate that the introduction of lure trials affected 2-back recognition performance more severely in the dyslexic group than in the control group, suggesting greater difficulty in resisting PI in dyslexia.

  20. Flexible and Scalable Data Fusion using Proactive, Schemaless Information Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widener, Patrick M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Scalable System Software Dept.

    2014-05-01

    Exascale data environments are fast approaching, driven by diverse structured and unstructured data such as system and application telemetry streams, open-source information capture, and on-demand simulation output. Storage costs having plummeted, the question is now one of converting vast stores of data to actionable information. Complicating this problem are the low degrees of awareness across domain boundaries about what potentially useful data may exist, and write-once-read- never issues (data generation/collection rates outpacing data analysis and integration rates). Increasingly, technologists and researchers need to correlate previously unrelated data sources and artifacts to produce fused data views for domain-specific purposes. New tools and approaches for creating such views from vast amounts of data are vitally important to maintaining research and operational momentum. We propose to research and develop tools and services to assist in the creation, refinement, discovery and reuse of fused data views over large, diverse collections of heterogeneously structured data. We innovate in the following ways. First, we enable and encourage end-users to introduce customized index methods selected for local benefit rather than for global interaction (flexible multi-indexing). We envision rich combinations of such views on application data: views that span backing stores with different semantics, that introduce analytic methods of indexing, and that define multiple views on individual data items. We specifically decline to build a big fused database of everything providing a centralized index over all data, or to export a rigid schema to all comers as in federated query approaches. Second, we proactively advertise these application-specific views so that they may be programmatically reused and extended (data proactivity). Through this mechanism, both changes in state (new data in existing view collected) and changes in structure (new or derived view exists) are

  1. Flexible and Scalable Data Fusion using Proactive Schemaless Information Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widener, Patrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Exascale data environments are fast approaching, driven by diverse structured and unstructured data such as system and application telemetry streams, open-source information capture, and on-demand simulation output. Storage costs having plummeted, the question is now one of converting vast stores of data to actionable information. Complicating this problem are the low degrees of awareness across domain boundaries about what potentially useful data may exist, and write-once- read-never issues (data generation/collection rates outpacing data analysis and integration rates). Increasingly, technologists and researchers need to correlate previously unrelated data sources and artifacts to produce fused data views for domain-specific purposes. New tools and approaches for creating such views from vast amounts of data are vitally important to maintaining research and operational momentum. We propose to research and develop tools and services to assist in the creation, refinement, discovery and reuse of fused data views over large, diverse collections of heterogeneously structured data. We innovate in the following ways. First, we enable and encourage end-users to introduce customized index methods selected for local benefit rather than for global interaction (flexible multi-indexing). We envision rich combinations of such views on application data: views that span backing stores with different semantics, that introduce analytic methods of indexing, and that define multiple views on individual data items. We specifically decline to build a big fused database of everything providing a centralized index over all data, or to export a rigid schema to all comers as in federated query approaches. Second, we proactively advertise these application-specific views so that they may be programmatically reused and extended (data proactivity). Through this mechanism, both changes in state (new data in existing view collected) and changes in structure (new or derived view exists) are

  2. 主动安全技术发展综述%A Survey of Proactive Security

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕猛; 邹鹏; 王怀民

    2003-01-01

    Proactive security provides a method for maintaining the overall security of a system,even when individual components are repeatedly broken into and controlled by an attacker. Proactive security is a non-trivial extension of (t+1,n)-threshold cryptosystems,where shares are periodically renewed (without changing the secret) in such a way that information gained by the adversary in one time period is useless for attacking the secret after the shares are renewed. In this paper,we describe the proactive approach and review some basic technologies. We also report the problems need to be study.

  3. Relationship between parenting and proactive versus reactive aggression among Chinese preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Shoumei; Wang, Ling; Shi, Yingjuan

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the relationship between parenting and proactive versus reactive aggression among preschool children in China. Children (1164) from 10 kindergartens in Shanghai were rated by their parents and teachers using the Parent Behavior Inventory (PBI) and the Aggressive Behavior-Teacher's Checklist. Children had higher levels of reactive than proactive aggression, and older children and boys had higher levels of both proactive and reactive aggression. Hostile/coercive parenting style and low father education were significantly linked to aggression in children. These findings suggest that parenting style and type of aggression should be addressed when considering prevention and intervention. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haibin; Yatawara, Mahendra; Huang, Shao-Chi; Dudley, Kevin; Szekely, Christine; Holden, Stuart; Piantadosi, Steven

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we present the design and implementation of the integrated proactive surveillance system for prostate cancer (PASS-PC). The integrated PASS-PC is a multi-institutional web-based system aimed at collecting a variety of data on prostate cancer patients in a standardized and efficient way. The integrated PASS-PC was commissioned by the Prostate Cancer Foundation (PCF) and built through the joint of efforts by a group of experts in medical oncology, genetics, pathology, nutrition, and cancer research informatics. Their main goal is facilitating the efficient and uniform collection of critical demographic, lifestyle, nutritional, dietary and clinical information to be used in developing new strategies in diagnosing, preventing and treating prostate cancer.The integrated PASS-PC is designed based on common industry standards - a three tiered architecture and a Service- Oriented Architecture (SOA). It utilizes open source software and programming languages such as HTML, PHP, CSS, JQuery, Drupal and MySQL. We also use a commercial database management system - Oracle 11g. The integrated PASS-PC project uses a "confederation model" that encourages participation of any interested center, irrespective of its size or location. The integrated PASS-PC utilizes a standardized approach to data collection and reporting, and uses extensive validation procedures to prevent entering erroneous data. The integrated PASS-PC controlled vocabulary is harmonized with the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Thesaurus. Currently, two cancer centers in the USA are participating in the integrated PASS-PC project.THE FINAL SYSTEM HAS THREE MAIN COMPONENTS: 1. National Prostate Surveillance Network (NPSN) website; 2. NPSN myConnect portal; 3. Proactive Surveillance System for Prostate Cancer (PASS-PC). PASS-PC is a cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG) compatible product. The integrated PASS-PC provides a foundation for collaborative prostate cancer research. It has been built to

  5. Optimal network solution for proactive risk assessment and emergency response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Tianxing

    Coupled with the continuous development in the field industrial operation management, the requirement for operation optimization in large scale manufacturing network has provoked more interest in the research field of engineering. Compared with the traditional way to take the remedial measure after the occurrence of the emergency event or abnormal situation, the current operation control calls for more proactive risk assessment to set up early warning system and comprehensive emergency response planning. Among all the industries, chemical industry and energy industry have higher opportunity to face with the abnormal and emergency situations due to their own industry characterization. Therefore the purpose of the study is to develop methodologies to give aid in emergency response planning and proactive risk assessment in the above two industries. The efficacy of the developed methodologies is demonstrated via two industrial real problems. The first case is to handle energy network dispatch optimization under emergency of local energy shortage under extreme conditions such as earthquake, tsunami, and hurricane, which may cause local areas to suffer from delayed rescues, widespread power outages, tremendous economic losses, and even public safety threats. In such urgent events of local energy shortage, agile energy dispatching through an effective energy transportation network, targeting the minimum energy recovery time, should be a top priority. The second case is a scheduling methodology to coordinate multiple chemical plants' start-ups in order to minimize regional air quality impacts under extreme meteorological conditions. The objective is to reschedule multi-plant start-up sequence to achieve the minimum sum of delay time compared to the expected start-up time of each plant. All these approaches can provide quantitative decision support for multiple stake holders, including government and environment agencies, chemical industry, energy industry and local

  6. A proactive approach to sustainable management of mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edraki, Mansour; Baumgartl, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The reactive strategies to manage mine tailings i.e. containment of slurries of tailings in tailings storage facilities (TSF's) and remediation of tailings solids or tailings seepage water after the decommissioning of those facilities, can be technically inefficient to eliminate environmental risks (e.g. prevent dispersion of contaminants and catastrophic dam wall failures), pose a long term economic burden for companies, governments and society after mine closure, and often fail to meet community expectations. Most preventive environmental management practices promote proactive integrated approaches to waste management whereby the source of environmental issues are identified to help make a more informed decisions. They often use life cycle assessment to find the "hot spots" of environmental burdens. This kind of approach is often based on generic data and has rarely been used for tailings. Besides, life cycle assessments are less useful for designing operations or simulating changes in the process and consequent environmental outcomes. It is evident that an integrated approach for tailings research linked to better processing options is needed. A literature review revealed that there are only few examples of integrated approaches. The aim of this project is to develop new tailings management models by streamlining orebody characterization, process optimization and rehabilitation. The approach is based on continuous fingerprinting of geochemical processes from orebody to tailings storage facility, and benchmark the success of such proactive initiatives by evidence of no impacts and no future projected impacts on receiving environments. We present an approach for developing such a framework and preliminary results from a case study where combined grinding and flotation models developed using geometallurgical data from the orebody were constructed to predict the properties of tailings produced under various processing scenarios. The modelling scenarios based on the

  7. Effective Nation Characters Leaders in Connection with Inclusive Design for Preparing The Visionary and Effective of Youth Leaders for Urban Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuah Perdamenta Tarigan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available While we are looking for a leadership in Jakarta Municipal City from time to time, it is already worsening and not look good for many people, the author is very keen to conduct a research, starting from 2012 up to 2013. There are many degradation already appear in Jakarta in these years, especially for the disappearance of humility, urban genuine life vanish and social alienation, more specific for Jakarta Youth People who will be receiving the next turn of leadership position for Indonesia development and city of Jakarta and its surrounding areas. Before this is too late, the author make a small steps for the development and to transform this situation with the approach of Emphatic Leadership and Management related to CRPD (Convention on The Rights for People with Disability to enrich and develop the existence of the Youth and the future generation of Indonesia. The approach of this research based on various literatures and journals which are relevant to Community Development, Leadership, Social Entrepreneurship and Management with the depth approach with. 

  8. Proactive and defensive self-regulation in learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Lončarić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Although self-regulation research is fragmented over several interdisciplinary areas and theories, the concept of self-regulation could represent a cohesive force for integrating different areas of psychology, such as clinical, educational, or organisational psychology. This paper focuses on self-regulation within the educational framework and elaborates the concept of self-regulated learning. Current advances in self-regulated learning research indicated that concepts, such as cognition and motivation, need to be integrated into a coherent self-regulation model. Two models that integrate cognitive and motivational constructs are described in this paper, namely the motivational and cognitive self-regulation components described by Pintrich and colleagues (e.g., Garcia & Pintrich 1994, and a six component model of self-regulated learning provided by Boekaerts (1997. These models were used to formulate new and parsimonious organisational constructs that classify self-regulation components into proactive and defensive self-regulation patterns. At the end, the applicative value of the models and the need for further research, regarding the question of specific self-regulation failures (the depressive self-regulation pattern, are being discussed.

  9. Sustainability of a proactive geriatric trauma consultation service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Camilla L; Al Atia, Raghda; McFarlan, Amanda; Lee, Holly Y; Valiaveettil, Christina; Haas, Barbara

    2017-02-01

    Proactive geriatric trauma consultation service (GTCS) models have been associated with better delivery of geriatric care and functional outcomes. Whether such collaborative models can be improved and sustained remains uncertain. We describe the sustainability and process improvements of an inpatient GTCS. We assessed workflow using interviews and surveys to identify opportunities to optimize the referral process for the GTCS. Sustainability of the service was assessed via a prospective case series (July 2012-December 2013). Study data were derived from a review of the medical record and trauma registry database. Metrics to determine sustainability included volume of cases, staffing levels, rate of adherence to recommendations, geriatric-specific clinical outcomes, trauma quality indicators, consultation requests and discharge destination. Through process changes, we were able to ensure every eligible patient was referred for a comprehensive geriatric assessment. Compared with the implementation phase, volume of assessments increased and recommendation adherence rates were maintained. Delirium and/or dementia were the most common geriatric issue addressed. The rate of adherence to recommendations made by the GTCS team was 88.2%. Only 1.4% of patients were discharged to a nursing home. Workflow assessment is a useful means to optimize the referral process for comprehensive geriatric assessment. Sustainability of a GTCS was shown by volume, staffing and recommendation adherence.

  10. Evaluating Wireless Proactive Routing Protocols under Scalability and Traffic Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Javaid, N; Khan, Z A; Khan, U; Djouani, K

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate and analyze the impact of different network loads and varying no. of nodes on distance vector and link state routing algorithms. We select three well known proactive protocols; Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV) operates on distance vector routing, while Fisheye State Routing (FSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) protocols are based on link state routing. Further, we evaluate and compare the effects on the performance of protocols by changing the routing strategies of routing algorithms. We also enhance selected protocols to achieve high performance. We take throughput, End-to-End Delay (E2ED) and Normalized Routing Load (NRL) as performance metrics for evaluation and comparison of chosen protocols both with default and enhanced versions. Based upon extensive simulations in NS-2, we compare and discuss performance trade-offs of the protocols, i.e., how a protocol achieves high packet delivery by paying some cost in the form of increased E2ED and/or routing overhead...

  11. Proactive aquatic ecotoxicological assessment of room-temperature ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulacki, K.J.; Chaloner, D.T.; Larson, J.H.; Costello, D.M.; Evans-White, M. A.; Docherty, K.M.; Bernot, R.J.; Brueseke, M.A.; Kulpa, C.F.; Lamberti, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Aquatic environments are being contaminated with a myriad of anthropogenic chemicals, a problem likely to continue due to both unintentional and intentional releases. To protect valuable natural resources, novel chemicals should be shown to be environmentally safe prior to use and potential release into the environment. Such proactive assessment is currently being applied to room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs). Because most ILs are water-soluble, their effects are likely to manifest in aquatic ecosystems. Information on the impacts of ILs on numerous aquatic organisms, focused primarily on acute LC50 and EC50 endpoints, is now available, and trends in toxicity are emerging. Cation structure tends to influence IL toxicity more so than anion structure, and within a cation class, the length of alkyl chain substituents is positively correlated with toxicity. While the effects of ILs on several aquatic organisms have been studied, the challenge for aquatic toxicology is now to predict the effects of ILs in complex natural environments that often include diverse mixtures of organisms, abiotic conditions, and additional stressors. To make robust predictions about ILs will require coupling of ecologically realistic laboratory and field experiments with standard toxicity bioassays and models. Such assessments would likely discourage the development of especially toxic ILs while shifting focus to those that are more environmentally benign. Understanding the broader ecological effects of emerging chemicals, incorporating that information into predictive models, and conveying the conclusions to those who develop, regulate, and use those chemicals, should help avoid future environmental degradation. ?? 2011 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

  12. Proactive Supply Chain Performance Management with Predictive Analytics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Stefanovic

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today’s business climate requires supply chains to be proactive rather than reactive, which demands a new approach that incorporates data mining predictive analytics. This paper introduces a predictive supply chain performance management model which combines process modelling, performance measurement, data mining models, and web portal technologies into a unique model. It presents the supply chain modelling approach based on the specialized metamodel which allows modelling of any supply chain configuration and at different level of details. The paper also presents the supply chain semantic business intelligence (BI model which encapsulates data sources and business rules and includes the data warehouse model with specific supply chain dimensions, measures, and KPIs (key performance indicators. Next, the paper describes two generic approaches for designing the KPI predictive data mining models based on the BI semantic model. KPI predictive models were trained and tested with a real-world data set. Finally, a specialized analytical web portal which offers collaborative performance monitoring and decision making is presented. The results show that these models give very accurate KPI projections and provide valuable insights into newly emerging trends, opportunities, and problems. This should lead to more intelligent, predictive, and responsive supply chains capable of adapting to future business environment.

  13. Proactive supply chain performance management with predictive analytics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovic, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Today's business climate requires supply chains to be proactive rather than reactive, which demands a new approach that incorporates data mining predictive analytics. This paper introduces a predictive supply chain performance management model which combines process modelling, performance measurement, data mining models, and web portal technologies into a unique model. It presents the supply chain modelling approach based on the specialized metamodel which allows modelling of any supply chain configuration and at different level of details. The paper also presents the supply chain semantic business intelligence (BI) model which encapsulates data sources and business rules and includes the data warehouse model with specific supply chain dimensions, measures, and KPIs (key performance indicators). Next, the paper describes two generic approaches for designing the KPI predictive data mining models based on the BI semantic model. KPI predictive models were trained and tested with a real-world data set. Finally, a specialized analytical web portal which offers collaborative performance monitoring and decision making is presented. The results show that these models give very accurate KPI projections and provide valuable insights into newly emerging trends, opportunities, and problems. This should lead to more intelligent, predictive, and responsive supply chains capable of adapting to future business environment.

  14. Prediction based proactive thermal virtual machine scheduling in green clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinger, Supriya; Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Anju

    2014-01-01

    Cloud computing has rapidly emerged as a widely accepted computing paradigm, but the research on Cloud computing is still at an early stage. Cloud computing provides many advanced features but it still has some shortcomings such as relatively high operating cost and environmental hazards like increasing carbon footprints. These hazards can be reduced up to some extent by efficient scheduling of Cloud resources. Working temperature on which a machine is currently running can be taken as a criterion for Virtual Machine (VM) scheduling. This paper proposes a new proactive technique that considers current and maximum threshold temperature of Server Machines (SMs) before making scheduling decisions with the help of a temperature predictor, so that maximum temperature is never reached. Different workload scenarios have been taken into consideration. The results obtained show that the proposed system is better than existing systems of VM scheduling, which does not consider current temperature of nodes before making scheduling decisions. Thus, a reduction in need of cooling systems for a Cloud environment has been obtained and validated.

  15. A Service-Oriented Architecture for Proactive Geospatial Information Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Li

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The advances in sensor network, linked data, and service-oriented computing has indicated a trend of information technology, i.e., toward an open, flexible, and distributed architecture. However, the existing information technologies show a lack of effective sharing, aggregation, and cooperation services to handle the sensors, data, and processing resources to fulfill user’s complicated tasks in near real-time. This paper presents a service-orientated architecture for proactive geospatial information services (PGIS, which integrates the sensors, data, processing, and human services. PGIS is designed to organize, aggregate, and co-operate services by composing small scale services into service chains to meet the complicated user requirements. It is a platform to provide real-time or near real-time data collection, storage, and processing capabilities. It is a flexible, reusable, and scalable system to share and interoperate geospatial data, information, and services. The developed PGIS framework has been implemented and preliminary experiments have been performed to verify its performance. The results show that the basic functions such as task analysis, managing sensors for data acquisition, service composition, service chain construction and execution are validated, and the important properties of PGIS, including interoperability, flexibility, and reusability, are achieved.

  16. Prediction Based Proactive Thermal Virtual Machine Scheduling in Green Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriya Kinger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud computing has rapidly emerged as a widely accepted computing paradigm, but the research on Cloud computing is still at an early stage. Cloud computing provides many advanced features but it still has some shortcomings such as relatively high operating cost and environmental hazards like increasing carbon footprints. These hazards can be reduced up to some extent by efficient scheduling of Cloud resources. Working temperature on which a machine is currently running can be taken as a criterion for Virtual Machine (VM scheduling. This paper proposes a new proactive technique that considers current and maximum threshold temperature of Server Machines (SMs before making scheduling decisions with the help of a temperature predictor, so that maximum temperature is never reached. Different workload scenarios have been taken into consideration. The results obtained show that the proposed system is better than existing systems of VM scheduling, which does not consider current temperature of nodes before making scheduling decisions. Thus, a reduction in need of cooling systems for a Cloud environment has been obtained and validated.

  17. Proactive Supply Chain Performance Management with Predictive Analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanovic, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Today's business climate requires supply chains to be proactive rather than reactive, which demands a new approach that incorporates data mining predictive analytics. This paper introduces a predictive supply chain performance management model which combines process modelling, performance measurement, data mining models, and web portal technologies into a unique model. It presents the supply chain modelling approach based on the specialized metamodel which allows modelling of any supply chain configuration and at different level of details. The paper also presents the supply chain semantic business intelligence (BI) model which encapsulates data sources and business rules and includes the data warehouse model with specific supply chain dimensions, measures, and KPIs (key performance indicators). Next, the paper describes two generic approaches for designing the KPI predictive data mining models based on the BI semantic model. KPI predictive models were trained and tested with a real-world data set. Finally, a specialized analytical web portal which offers collaborative performance monitoring and decision making is presented. The results show that these models give very accurate KPI projections and provide valuable insights into newly emerging trends, opportunities, and problems. This should lead to more intelligent, predictive, and responsive supply chains capable of adapting to future business environment. PMID:25386605

  18. Why Leading Consumer Product Companies Develop Proactive Chemical Management Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, Caroline E; Van Buren, Harry J

    2016-05-01

    Scholars have studied the various pressures that companies face related to socially responsible behavior when stakeholders know the particular social issues under consideration. Many have examined social responsibility in the context of environmental responsibility and the general approaches companies take regarding environmental management. The issue of currently unregulated, but potentially hazardous, chemicals in consumer products is not well understood by the general public, but a number of proactive consumer product companies have voluntarily adopted strategies to minimize use of such chemicals. These companies are exceeding regulatory requirements by restricting from their products chemicals that could harm human or environmental health, despite the fact that these actions are costly. They do not usually advertise the details of their strategies to end consumers. This article uses interviews with senior environmental directors of 20 multinational consumer product companies to investigate why these companies engage in voluntary chemicals management. The authors conclude that the most significant reasons are to achieve a competitive advantage and stay ahead of regulations, manage relationships and maintain legitimacy with stakeholders, and put managerial values into practice. Many of the characteristics related to the case of chemicals management are extendable to other areas of stakeholder management in which risks to stakeholders are either unknown or poorly understood.

  19. The role of organizational insiders' developmental feedback and proactive personality on newcomers' performance: an interactionist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Harris, T Brad; Boswell, Wendy R; Xie, Zhitao

    2011-11-01

    Drawing from an interactionist approach and feedback research, we examine the role of developmental feedback and proactive personality on newcomer task performance and helping behavior. Data were collected from 2 high-tech joint-ventures within the information technology and manufacturing industries located in Shanghai, China. Results based on 151 newcomer-manager dyads showed that supervisor developmental feedback (SDF) positively related to newcomer helping behavior and that SDF and coworker developmental feedback interactively predicted newcomer task performance. We also found differential moderating effects of proactive personality: SDF more strongly related to helping behavior when proactive personality was lower; conversely, coworker developmental feedback more strongly related to helping behavior when proactive personality was higher.

  20. Connecting HRM and Change Management: The Importance of Proactivity and Vitality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); P.M. Kruyen; D. Vijverberg (Dominique); T. Voesenek (Tessa)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ __Purpose__: Organizations are continuously under pressure to adapt to changing circumstances. Job proactivity and vitality are important in changing environments. For instance, vital employees can better deal with change because they possess more energy. However, it is

  1. Post engineered nanomaterials lifespan: nanowastes classification, legislative development/implementation challenges, and proactive approaches

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Musee, N

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available -1 NANOLCA Symposium, "Safety issues and regulatory challenges of nanomaterials", San Sebastian, Spain, 3-4 May 2012 Post engineered nanomaterials lifespan: nanowastes classification, legislative development/implementation challenges, and proactive...

  2. Relations of proactive and reactive dimensions of aggression to overt and covert narcissism in nonclinical adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea; Borroni, Serena; Eisenberg, Nancy; Maffei, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing acknowledgment of the multidimensionality of narcissism and that different types of narcissism may relate differently to other domains of functioning. Similarly, aggression-a frequently discussed correlate of narcissism-is a heterogeneous construct. In this study, the relations of proactive and reactive aggression with overt and covert manifestations of narcissism were examined in a sample of 674 Italian high school students (mean age=15.5 years, SD=2.1 years). Overt narcissism was positively related to both proactive and reactive subtypes of aggression, whereas covert narcissism related only to reactive aggression. Vanity, Authority, Exhibitionism, and Exploitativeness were the components of overt narcissism related to Proactive Aggression (all remained unique correlates when controlling for Reactive Aggression), whereas Reactive Aggression was associated with the Exhibitionism, Superiority, and Entitlement subscales (only the latter was uniquely related when controlling for Proactive Aggression).

  3. Interactive effects of social adversity and respiratory sinus arrhythmia activity on reactive and proactive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Gao, Yu

    2015-10-01

    Abnormal parasympathetic nervous system (PNS)-related cardiac activity has been linked to aggression. However, little is known about how it interacts with psychosocial adversity in predisposing to reactive-proactive aggression. In the current study, 84 male and female college students self-reported reactive and proactive aggression, and were assessed for respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), a measure of PNS-related cardiac activity, during rest and when they contemplated an emotion-evoking decision-making task. Regression analyses showed that (a) resting RSA was positively linked to reactive aggression in conditions of high social adversity, and (b) RSA reactivity was positively associated with reactive but negatively associated with proactive aggression, in conditions of low social adversity. Main effects were not found for psychophysiological functioning or psychosocial adversity, suggesting the importance of their interaction. Findings support a biosocial basis for aggression and add additional support for the distinctions between reactive and proactive aggression.

  4. The Role of Affect Spin in the Relationships between Proactive Personality, Career Indecision, and Career Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Jo

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to investigate the influence of proactive personality on career indecision and career maturity, and to examine the moderating effects of affect spin. The author administered proactive personality, career indecision, and career maturity scales to 70 college students. Affect spin was calculated using the day reconstruction method, wherein participants evaluated their affective experiences by using 20 affective terms at the same time each day for 21 consecutive days. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that proactive personality significantly predicted career indecision and career maturity, even after controlling for valence and activation variability, neuroticism, age, and gender. Furthermore, affect spin moderated the associations of proactive personality with career indecision and maturity. The theoretical and practical implications of the moderating effects of affect spin are discussed. PMID:26635665

  5. Future work selves: how salient hoped-for identities motivate proactive career behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Karoline; Griffin, Mark A; Parker, Sharon K

    2012-05-01

    The term future work self refers to an individual's representation of himself or herself in the future that reflects his or her hopes and aspirations in relation to work. The clearer and more accessible this representation, the more salient the future work self. An initial study with 2 samples (N = 397; N = 103) showed that future work self salience was distinct from established career concepts and positively related to individuals' proactive career behavior. A follow-up longitudinal analysis, Study 2 (N = 53), demonstrated that future work self salience had a lagged effect on proactive career behavior. In Study 3 (N = 233), we considered the role of elaboration, a further attribute of a future work self, and showed that elaboration motivated proactive career behavior only when future work self salience was also high. Together the studies suggest the power of future work selves as a motivational resource for proactive career behavior.

  6. Associations of Proactive Coping and Self-Efficacy with Psychosocial Outcomes in Individuals after Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, Nienke S.; Schepers, Vera P.; Visser-Meily, Anne; Post, Marcel W.; Van Heugten, Caroline M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations of proactive coping and self-efficacy with psychosocial outcomes in individuals after stroke. Design Cross-sectional study. Regression analyses were performed. Setting Outpatient settings of hospitals and rehabilitation centers. Participants Individuals after

  7. Probing a Proactive Home: Challenges in Researching and Designing Everyday Smart Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Mäyrä

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the results of a 3-year interdisciplinary study, this article presents an approach in which proactive information technology was introduced into homes, and discusses the derived design principles from a human-centered perspective. The application of proactive computing in homes will face particularly sensitive conditions, as familiar and reliable household elements remain strongly preferred. Since there is considerable resistance towards the increase of information technology in homes, both the calm system behaviors and the degree of variety in aesthetic designs will play major roles in the acceptance of proactive technology. If proactive technology will be an embedded part of a home’s structures and furniture, it needs to blend with the normal, cozy standards of a real living environment and aim to enhance the homeyness or the key social and aesthetic qualities of homes.

  8. Associations of Proactive Coping and Self-Efficacy with Psychosocial Outcomes in Individuals after Stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, Nienke S.; Schepers, Vera P.; Visser-Meily, Anne; Post, Marcel W.; Van Heugten, Caroline M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations of proactive coping and self-efficacy with psychosocial outcomes in individuals after stroke. Design Cross-sectional study. Regression analyses were performed. Setting Outpatient settings of hospitals and rehabilitation centers. Participants Individuals after st

  9. Proactive Interference and Its Release in Short-Term Memory of Mildly Retarded Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cody, William J.; Borkowski, John G.

    1977-01-01

    Release from proactive interference in mildly retarded adolescents due to taxonomic shifts and rest periods prior to the final, critical-word triad was investigated with 40 educable mentally handicapped persons 18 years old. (Author/MH)

  10. Proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance: The mediating effect of sustainability control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijethilake, Chaminda

    2017-07-01

    This study examines to what extent corporations use sustainability control systems (SCS) to translate proactive sustainability strategy into corporate sustainability performance. The study investigates the mediating effect of SCS on the relationship between proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance. Survey data were collected from top managers in 175 multinational and local corporations operating in Sri Lanka and analyzed using Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). SCS were observed to only partially mediate the relationship between proactive sustainability strategy and corporate sustainability performance. The mediating effect of SCS is further examined under three sustainability strategies; environmental and social strategies reveal a partial mediation, while the economic strategy exhibits no mediation. The study also finds that (i) a proactive sustainability strategy is positively associated with SCS and corporate sustainability performance and (ii) SCS are positively associated with corporate sustainability performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Environmental Proactivity and Environmental and Economic Performance: Evidence from the Winery Sector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barba-Sánchez, Virginia; Atienza-Sahuquillo, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    ... is to explore the relationship between the degree of proactivity of a rms environmental strategies and its business performance. The novelty of this research work lies in its denition of busine...

  12. Connecting HRM and Change Management: The Importance of Proactivity and Vitality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); P.M. Kruyen; D. Vijverberg (Dominique); T. Voesenek (Tessa)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ __Purpose__: Organizations are continuously under pressure to adapt to changing circumstances. Job proactivity and vitality are important in changing environments. For instance, vital employees can better deal with change because they possess more energy. However, it

  13. General Conformity Training Module 2.5: Proactive Role for Federal Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Module 2.5 explains how taking a proactive role will allow a federal agency to more effectively participate in newly promulgated programs under the General Conformity Regulations, such as the emission reduction credits and the emission budgets programs.

  14. The role of affect spin in the relationships of proactive personality, career indecision, and career maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Jo ePark

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to investigate the influence of proactive personality on career indecision and career maturity, and to examine the moderating effects of affect spin. We administered proactive personality, career indecision, and career maturity scales to 70 college students. Affect spin was calculated using the day reconstruction method, wherein participants evaluated their affective experiences by using 20 affective terms at the same time each day for 21 consecutive days. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that proactive personality significantly predicted career indecision and career maturity, even after controlling for valence and activation variability, neuroticism, age, and gender. Furthermore, affect spin moderated the associations of proactive personality with career indecision and maturity. The theoretical and practical implications of the moderating effects of affect spin are discussed.

  15. The Role of Affect Spin in the Relationships between Proactive Personality, Career Indecision, and Career Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Jo

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to investigate the influence of proactive personality on career indecision and career maturity, and to examine the moderating effects of affect spin. The author administered proactive personality, career indecision, and career maturity scales to 70 college students. Affect spin was calculated using the day reconstruction method, wherein participants evaluated their affective experiences by using 20 affective terms at the same time each day for 21 consecutive days. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that proactive personality significantly predicted career indecision and career maturity, even after controlling for valence and activation variability, neuroticism, age, and gender. Furthermore, affect spin moderated the associations of proactive personality with career indecision and maturity. The theoretical and practical implications of the moderating effects of affect spin are discussed.

  16. Probing a Proactive Home : Challenges in Researching and Designing Everyday Smart Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Frans Mäyrä; Anne Soronen; Ilpo Koskinen; Kristo Kuusela; Jussi Mikkonen; Jukka Vanhala; Mari Zakrzewski

    2006-01-01

    Based on the results of a 3-year interdisciplinary study, this article presents an approach in which proactive information technology was introduced into homes, and discusses the derived design principles from a human-centered perspective. The application of proactive computing in homes will face particularly sensitive conditions, as familiar and reliable household elements remain strongly preferred. Since there is considerable resistance towards the increase of information technology in ...

  17. Go Ahead of Malware’s Infections and Controls: Towards New Techniques for Proactive Cyber Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-08

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0364 Go ahead of malwares infections and controls: Towards new techniques for proactive cyber defense Guofei Gu TEXAS...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Go Ahead of Malware’s Infections and Controls : Towards New Techniques for Proactive Cyber Defense 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT...Rev. 8/98) DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. Go Ahead of Malware’s Infections and Controls: Towards New Techniques for

  18. The role of affect spin in the relationships of proactive personality, career indecision, and career maturity

    OpenAIRE

    In-Jo ePark

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to investigate the influence of proactive personality on career indecision and career maturity, and to examine the moderating effects of affect spin. The author administered proactive personality, career indecision, and career maturity scales to 70 college students. Affect spin was calculated using the day reconstruction method, wherein participants evaluated their affective experiences by using 20 affective terms at the same time each day for 21 consecutive days. Hierarc...

  19. Getting ready to use control: Advances in the measurement of young children's use of proactive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebel, Sabine; Barker, Jane E; Chevalier, Nicolas; Michaelson, Laura E; Fisher, Anna V; Munakata, Yuko

    2017-01-01

    A key developmental transition in executive function is in the temporal dynamics of its engagement: children shift from reactively calling to mind task-relevant information as needed, to being able to proactively maintain information across time in anticipation of upcoming demands. This transition is important for understanding individual differences and developmental changes in executive function; however, methods targeting its assessment are limited. We tested the possibility that Track-It, a paradigm developed to measure selective sustained attention, also indexes proactive control. In this task children must track a target shape as it moves unpredictably among moving distractors, and identify where it disappears, which may require proactively maintaining information about the target or goal. In two experiments (5-6 year-olds, Ns = 33, 64), children's performance on Track-It predicted proactive control across two established paradigms. These findings suggest Track-It measures proactive control in children. Theoretical possibilities regarding how proactive control and selective sustained attention may be related are also discussed.

  20. Association of ADHD with reactive and proactive violent behavior in a forensic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retz, Wolfgang; Rösler, Michael

    2010-12-01

    ADHD is associated with social problems and aggressive behavior. As hyperactive-impulsive traits are core symptoms of ADHD, it has been hypothesized that reactive-impulsive violence is more likely related to ADHD psychopathology than proactive-instrumental violence. One hundred and twenty-seven adult violent offenders participated in the study. Diagnosis of ADHD and ratings of reactive and proactive features of the committed crimes were performed using standardized instruments. According to DSM-IV, 16.5% subjects fulfilled diagnostic criteria for ADHD, 23.6% were diagnosed as ADHD in partial remission, and 59.8% had no ADHD. Univariate analyses revealed higher reactive violence ratings in both ADHD groups when compared to subjects without ADHD, whereas the opposite was found regarding proactive violence ratings. Using multivariate analyses of variance controlled for age, gender and comorbid substance use disorders, childhood ADHD psychopathology and current ADHD significantly increased the risk of reactive violence and decreased the risk of proactive violence. Significant impact of male gender on proactive violence was found. The findings suggest that ADHD is associated with reactive but not proactive violence in aggressive offenders.

  1. Aggression can be contagious: Longitudinal associations between proactive aggression and reactive aggression among young twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Daniel J; Richmond, Ashley D; Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Laursen, Brett; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin's reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin's reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin's proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin's proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child's level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child's proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay.

  2. The relationship between personality disorder traits and reactive versus proactive motivation for aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbestael, Jill; Cima, Maaike; Lemmens, Anke

    2015-09-30

    There is a strong link between personality disorders (PDs) and aggression. This is reflected in high prevalence rates of PD diagnoses in forensic samples, and in several diagnostic criteria of PDs directly referring to elevated levels of aggression. Aggression can stem from two distinct types of motivation; reactive or impulsive aggression that serves as a defensive reaction to provocation, and proactive or premeditated aggression used to gain extrinsic benefits. Although some clinical conditions like antisocial, borderline, and narcissistic PDs or PD traits, have been empirically linked to reactive and/or proactive aggression, the current study pioneers assessing the relationship between reactive and proactive aggression and traits of all 10 PDs. A mixed sample of patient and non-patient (N=238) participants were administered with the SCID II to assess the level of PD traits; they also completed the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire to determine levels of reactive and proactive aggression. Results showed that paranoid PD traits were positively related to reactive aggression, whereas proactive aggression was uniquely related to antisocial PD traits. This highlights the importance of differentiating between distinct motivations for aggression in PD samples.

  3. Pro-active Behaviour in Context of Team Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Pilař

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Employees are considered to be the main source of creativity, innovation, change and development of the enterprise, which can be considered as key success factors. However, if the company climate does not encourage employee activity, development may slow or stagnate. This article focuses on the possibility of prediction of personal initiative and employee silence based on quantification of the team climate. Relationships between constructs (1 “Team climate” and (2 “Pro-active Behaviour” are evaluated on the basis of Exploratory and Confirmatory factor analysis. All factors of the construct “Team climate”: (T1 Future olrientation, (T2 Peer support of change, (T3 Team Vision and (T4 Regular Contact, have a significant impact on the factors of the construct “Pro-active Behaviour”: (P1 Initiative and a negative impact on (P2 Defence silence. No statistically significant effect in relation to the factors (P3 Loyalty and (P4 Stagnation was identified. The effects, in relation to the initiative of the employees were identified in the interval r = |0.305| − |0.488|. The factor of Defence silence of employees effects “Team climate” factors in the interval r = |0.329| − |0.550|. In both cases this concerns medium dependence. The research results can be used to quantify the quality of team climate in order to enhance the individuals’ long-term initiative and organisational effectiveness. This knowledge serves managers as the basis for leadership and development of pro-active behaviour of team members.

  4. Relevant dimensions for proactive environmental assessment of urban mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alberto Soria Lara

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A reduction of negative environmental impacts in urban transportation (air pollution, energy consumption, etc. is thought to be crucial in promoting sustainable development outcomes in cities, however evidence shows that this objective is hardly achieved in practice. In the case of urban transport planning, the transition to sustainability requests that its performance must be assessed. This has originated important challenges for the academia in providing efficient assessment tools. As a response to these challenges, sustainability assessment has become a rapidly developing area associated with the family of impact assessment tools ((e.g. Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment. In recent years, many countries have conferred to sustainability assessment, and specifically to Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA, an important and decisive role into their planning systems. The effectiveness of the traditional methods for evaluating urban transport plans/interventions (e.g. EIA, EAE, Cost-Benefit Analysis is contested as strongly argued by several academics. A key problem is that these methods currently focus too much on identifying environmental impacts that might happen rather than on finding ways of preventing them from happening. They are used reactively rather than proactively. Underlying this is the belief that traditional evaluation methods have difficulty guiding improvements in urban transport plans and projects in decision-making and their capacity to support technical decisions becomes limited. First, this is a consequence of the fact that the environmental assessment (EA process mainly includes EA-makers and they are not integrated enough in the transport planning process. Second, the used methods not always are the most suitable to identify ways of preventing potential impacts with respect to the particular nature of urban transportation. In seeking to answer these problems, the paper presents a strategy

  5. The Megasecond Chandra X-Ray Visionary Project Observation of NGC 3115 (III): luminosity functions of LMXBs and dependence on stellar environments

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Dacheng; Wong, Ka-wah; Jennings, Zachary G; Homan, Jeroen; Romanowsky, Aaron J; Strader, Jay; Brodie, Jean P; Sivakoff, Gregory R; Remillard, Ronald A

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) in the nearby lenticular galaxy NGC 3115, using the Megasecond Chandra X-Ray Visionary Project Observation. With a total exposure time of ~1.1 Ms, we constructed the XLF down to a limiting luminosity of ~10^36 erg/s, much deeper than typically reached for other early-type galaxies. We found significant flattening of the overall LMXB XLF from dN/dL \\propto L^{-2.2\\pm0.4} above 5.5x10^37 erg/s to dN/dL \\propto L^{-1.0\\pm0.1} below it, though we could not rule out a fit with a higher break at ~1.6x10^38 erg/s. We also found evidence that the XLF of LMXBs in globular clusters (GCs) is overall flatter than that of field LMXBs. Thus our results for this galaxy do not support the idea that all LMXBs are formed in GCs. The XLF of field LMXBs seems to show spatial variation, with the XLF in the inner region of the galaxy being flatter than that in the outer region, probably due to contamination of LMXBs from undetected and/or disrup...

  6. [Juvenile criminality: general strain theory and the reactive-proactive aggression trait].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Romy; Curci, Antonietta; Grattagliano, Ignazio

    2009-01-01

    The aims of the present study are to test General Strain Theory's (GST) assumptions, and to integrate the model including the proactive-reactive aggression trait. GST hypothesizes crime to be enacted in response to extra-personal stimuli (strain) and their subsequent negative emotions, especially anger. However, there exist also internally-driven manifestations of crime (instrumental or proactive), motivated by stimuli that are of an intrapersonal origin. Further, individuals differ to each other in the tendency to commit reactive or proactive or both manifestations of crime. With the goal to gain a more comprehensive model, GST variables and the reactive-proactive aggression trait are together tested as to their ability to predict criminal behaviour. Participants in the present research are 68 adolescent males with age ranging from 14 to 19 (M = 16.94, SD = 0.95). Half of the participants were jailed adolescents at the Fornelli Juvenile Detention Centre in Bari, while the remaining were adolescents with no criminal record, matched for age and level of education with the former group. An interview was administered to assess the experienced strain events, anger, and crime committed by the participants in the three months preceding the interview and also before. The reactive-proactive aggression trait was additionally measured. Results of the present study supported GST's assumptions, and confirmed the utility of integrating the model to include the proactive-reactive aggression trait. Strain events experienced in three-month time were found to influence property and violent offences committed by participants in the same time-interval as well as over this time. Furthermore,jailed participants were more likely to react with anger, and violence to strain events than non-jailed individuals, although the number of events experienced by both groups in the preceding months is similar. Finally, the results of the present study showed that proactive aggression is a strong

  7. Resting heart rate, vagal tone, and reactive and proactive aggression in Chinese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiyuan; Raine, Adrian; Yu, Lidong; Krieg, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Abundant research conducted in Western contexts has shown that biological risk factors such as low resting heart rate (HR) might be related to childhood aggression. However, it was unclear (1) how resting HR, as well as other markers of cardiac functions such as resting vagal tone, may be related to subtypes of aggression such as reactive and proactive aggression, and (2) whether the HR-aggression relation can be replicated in non-Western contexts. Therefore, this study examined the concurrent and prospective relations between resting HR, vagal tone, and Chinese children's reactive and proactive aggression. Participants were 183 children (M age=7.64 years, 91 girls) recruited from an elementary school in Zhenjiang, PRC. Children's resting HR and vagal tone were assessed in the second grade (T1). Teachers rated children's reactive and proactive aggression in the second (T1) and fourth grade (T2). Results showed that lower resting HR at T1 was associated with higher reactive and proactive aggression at T1 and T2, and higher vagal tone was associated with lower HR, which in turn was related to higher reactive and proactive aggression at T1 and T2. Lower vagal tone was directly related to higher reactive but not proactive aggression at T1 and T2, whereas lower HR was related to higher reactive aggression at T2 for children with low or moderate vagal tone but was not for children with high vagal tone. These psychophysiological findings from a non-Western context add additional support for both similarities and differences between reactive and proactive aggression in childhood.

  8. When does transformational leadership enhance employee proactive behavior? The role of autonomy and role breadth self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hartog, Deanne N; Belschak, Frank D

    2012-01-01

    Two multisource studies address the interactive effects of personal and contextual variables on employees' proactive behavior. In line with previous work, we find positive main effects of transformational leadership, role breadth self-efficacy, and job autonomy on employee proactive behavior (personal initiative in Study 1 and prosocial proactive behavior in Study 2). As expected, a 3-way interaction qualifies these main effects: In situations of high autonomy, transformational leadership relates positively to proactive behavior for individuals high (but not low) on self-efficacy. Vice versa, in situations low on job autonomy, transformational leadership relates positively to proactive behavior for individuals low (but not high) on self-efficacy. This pattern is found both for self-ratings and peer-ratings of employees' proactive behavior in Study 1 and for supervisor ratings of such behavior in Study 2.

  9. Antecedents of Day-Level Proactive Behavior : a Look at Job Stressors and Positive Affect During the Workday

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, Charlotte; Sonnentag, Sabine

    2009-01-01

    This study extends research on proactive behavior at work by examining the extent to which job stressors (time pressure and situational constraints) and affective experiences during the workday are associated with proactive behaviors on the same and the following workday. Results from civil service employees who filled in surveys over 4 consecutive workdays indicated that situational constraints were positively associated with proactive behavior on the same workday. In addition, positive mood...

  10. The Critical Roles of Task Conflict and Job Autonomy in the Relationship Between Proactive Personalities and Innovative Employee Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Giebels, Ellen; de Reuver, R. S.M.; Rispens, Sonja; Elze G Ufkes

    2016-01-01

    We examine why and when proactive personality is beneficial for innovative behavior at work. Based on a survey among 166 employees working in 35 departments of a large municipality in the Netherlands we show that an increase in task conflicts explains the positive relation between a proactive personality and innovative employee behavior. This process is moderated by job autonomy in such a way that the relationship between proactive personality and task conflict is particularly strong under lo...

  11. Reactive and proactive aggression: Differential links with emotion regulation difficulties, maternal criticism in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skripkauskaite, Simona; Hawk, Skyler T; Branje, Susan J T; Koot, Hans M; van Lier, Pol A C; Meeus, Wim

    2015-05-01

    Proactive and reactive functions of aggression are thought to manifest through different familial and emotional processes, even though they often co-occur. We investigated direct and indirect pathways through which maternal criticism and emotion regulation (ER) difficulties relate to reactive and proactive aggression in adolescence. Further, we examined how maternal criticism and emotion dysregulation interrelate, both concurrently and over time. Participants were 482 Dutch adolescents (M = 15.03, SD = 0.45, 57% boys) who self-reported on their ER difficulties, perceived maternal criticism, and reactive/proactive aggression. Cross-lagged panel modeling across four annual measurements revealed direct bidirectional links over time between maternal criticism and emotion dysregulation. Positive links over time from maternal criticism to proactive (but not reactive) aggression were also present. Emotion dysregulation and proactive aggression were linked only indirectly via maternal criticism. Gender did not significantly moderate these links. By revealing differential developmental pathways involving adolescents' ER and maternal criticism, the present study offers support for the dual function model of aggression. Aggr. Behav. 41:214-226, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The importance of narcissism in predicting proactive and reactive aggression in moderately to highly aggressive children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Tammy D; Thompson, Alice; Barry, Christopher T; Lochman, John E; Adler, Kristy; Hill, Kwoneathia

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the importance of psychopathy-linked narcissism in predicting proactive and reactive aggression and conduct problems in a group of 160 moderately to highly aggressive children (mean age of 10 years, 9 months). Children's self-report of self-esteem and parent and teacher report of dimensions of psychopathy [narcissism, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and impulsivity], proactive and reactive aggression, and conduct problems were collected. Composites of parent and teacher ratings of children's behavior were used. Consistent with the study's hypotheses, narcissism predicted unique variance in both proactive and reactive aggression, even when controlling for other dimensions of psychopathy, demographic variables associated with narcissism, and the alternative subtype of aggression. As hypothesized, impulsivity was significantly associated with only reactive aggression. CU traits were not related to proactive or reactive aggression once the control variables were entered. All dimensions of psychopathy predicted unique variance in conduct problems. Consistent with prediction, narcissism was not significantly related to general self-esteem, providing support that narcissism and self-esteem are different constructs. Furthermore, narcissism and self-esteem related differentially to proactive aggression, reactive aggression, and conduct problems. Furthermore, narcissism but not self-esteem accounted for unique variance in aggression and conduct problems. The importance of narcissism in the prediction of aggressive behaviors and clinical implications are discussed.

  13. Mechanisms and neuronal networks involved in reactive and proactive cognitive control of interference in working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irlbacher, Kerstin; Kraft, Antje; Kehrer, Stefanie; Brandt, Stephan A

    2014-10-01

    Cognitive control can be reactive or proactive in nature. Reactive control mechanisms, which support the resolution of interference, start after its onset. Conversely, proactive control involves the anticipation and prevention of interference prior to its occurrence. The interrelation of both types of cognitive control is currently under debate: Are they mediated by different neuronal networks? Or are there neuronal structures that have the potential to act in a proactive as well as in a reactive manner? This review illustrates the way in which integrating knowledge gathered from behavioral studies, functional imaging, and human electroencephalography proves useful in answering these questions. We focus on studies that investigate interference resolution at the level of working memory representations. In summary, different mechanisms are instrumental in supporting reactive and proactive control. Distinct neuronal networks are involved, though some brain regions, especially pre-SMA, possess functions that are relevant to both control modes. Therefore, activation of these brain areas could be observed in reactive, as well as proactive control, but at different times during information processing.

  14. Individual Differences in Prototypical Moral and Conventional Judgments and Children's Proactive and Reactive Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jambon, Marc; Smetana, Judith G

    2017-02-13

    This article examined links between 4- and 6-year-olds' (n = 101; Mage  = 5.12 years, SD = 0.67; 53% male) ability to distinguish moral and conventional transgressions along different criteria and teacher ratings of proactive and reactive aggression. Latent difference score modeling revealed that moral transgressions were judged more unacceptable and wrong independent of rules and authority than conventional violations, but significant variability in moral-conventional distinctions was also observed. Proactive aggression was associated with less-and reactive aggression was associated with greater-differentiation in moral and conventional concepts. Proactive aggression was not associated with deficits in moral knowledge when other common assessments of early moral understanding were employed, highlighting the importance of using theoretically informed measures of moral judgments and aggression. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  15. Using decision analysis to support proactive management of emerging infectious wildlife diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Muths, Erin L.; Katz, Rachel A.; Canessa, Stefano; Adams, Michael J.; Ballard, Jennifer R.; Berger, Lee; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Coleman, Jeremy; Gray, Matthew J.; Harris, M. Camille; Harris, Reid N.; Hossack, Blake R.; Huyvaert, Kathryn P.; Kolby, Jonathan E.; Lips, Karen R.; Lovich, Robert E.; McCallum, Hamish I.; Mendelson, Joseph R.; Nanjappa, Priya; Olson, Deanna H.; Powers, Jenny G.; Richgels, Katherine L.D.; Russell, Robin E.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Watry, Mary Kay; Woodhams, Douglas C.; White, C. LeAnn

    2017-01-01

    Despite calls for improved responses to emerging infectious diseases in wildlife, management is seldom considered until a disease has been detected in affected populations. Reactive approaches may limit the potential for control and increase total response costs. An alternative, proactive management framework can identify immediate actions that reduce future impacts even before a disease is detected, and plan subsequent actions that are conditional on disease emergence. We identify four main obstacles to developing proactive management strategies for the newly discovered salamander pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal). Given that uncertainty is a hallmark of wildlife disease management and that associated decisions are often complicated by multiple competing objectives, we advocate using decision analysis to create and evaluate trade-offs between proactive (pre-emergence) and reactive (post-emergence) management options. Policy makers and natural resource agency personnel can apply principles from decision analysis to improve strategies for countering emerging infectious diseases.

  16. PROACTIVE APPROACH TO THE INCIDENT AND PROBLEM MANAGEMENT IN COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vjeran Strahonja

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Proactive approach to communication network maintenance has the capability of enhancing the integrity and reliability of communication networks, as well as of reducing maintenance costs and overall number of incidents. This paper presents approaches to problem and incident prevention with the help of root-cause analysis, aligning that with the goal to foresee software performance. Implementation of proactive approach requires recognition of enterprise's current level of maintenance better insights into available approaches and tools, as well as their comparison, interoperability, integration and further development. The approach we are proposing and elaborating in this paper lies on the construction of a metamodel of the problem management of information technology, particularly the proactive problem management. The metamodel is derived from the original ITIL specification and presented in an object-oriented fashion by using structure (class diagrams conform to UML notation. Based on current research, appropriate metrics based on the concept of Key Performance Indicators is suggested.

  17. The influence of interpersonal relationships on nurse managers' work engagement and proactive work behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshawsky, Nora E; Havens, Donna S; Knafl, George

    2012-09-01

    This study tested the effects of interpersonal relationships on nurse managers' work engagement and proactive work behavior. An engaged workforce may help healthcare organizations improve performance. In healthcare, nurse managers are responsible for creating motivating work environments. They also need to be engaged, yet little is known about what influences nurse managers' performance. A self-administered electronic survey was used to collect data from 323 nurse managers working in acute care hospitals. Instruments included the Relational Coordination Scale, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and Proactive Work Behavior Scale. Interpersonal relationships with nurse administrators were most predictive of nurse managers' work engagement. Interpersonal relationships with physicians were most predictive of nurse managers' proactive work behavior. Organizational cultures that foster quality interpersonal relationships will support the job performance of nurse managers.

  18. A Comprehensive Performance Analysis of Proactive, Reactive and Hybrid MANETs Routing Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Pandey, Kavita

    2011-01-01

    A mobile Ad-hoc network (MANET) is a dynamic multi hop wireless network established by a group of nodes in which there is no central administration. Due to mobility of nodes and dynamic network topology, the routing is one of the most important challenges in ad-hoc networks. Several routing algorithms for MANETs have been proposed by the researchers which have been classified into various categories, however, the most prominent categories are proactive, reactive and hybrid. The performance comparison of routing protocols for MANETs has been presented by other researcher also, however, none of these works considers proactive, reactive and hybrid protocols together. In this paper, the performance of proactive (DSDV), reactive (DSR and AODV) and hybrid (ZRP) routing protocols has been compared. The performance differentials are analyzed on the basis of throughput, average delay, routing overhead and number of packets dropped with a variation of number of nodes, pause time and mobility.

  19. The role of proactive personality in job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior: a relational perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Liang, Jian; Crant, J Michael

    2010-03-01

    Drawing from a relational approach, the authors conceptualize the quality of leader-member exchange as a mediator and procedural justice climate as a contextual moderator for understanding the role of proactive personality in job satisfaction and organizational citizenship behavior. Data from a sample of 200 Chinese employees within 54 work groups were used to examine the hypothesized models. Results show that having a proactive personality was associated with employees establishing a high-quality exchange relationship with their supervisors; in turn, the quality of leader-member exchange was associated with greater job satisfaction and more organizational citizenship behaviors. Additionally, the relationship between proactive personality and organizational citizenship behavior was positively moderated by procedural justice climate within the group. Implications for management theory and practice are discussed.

  20. Analysis Influence of Proactivity Power Business, Market Orientation, and Competitive Advantage toward Marketing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Karmela Fitriani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is an empirical study on Batik SMEs (Small Medium Enterprises in Cirebon District, West Java. This study analyzes the effect of proactivity power business, market orientation, and competitive advantage towards marketing performance. The subjects of this research were 215 Batik SMEs in Cirebon District West Java. The analysis was done using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM, AMOS ver. 18. The result shows that proactivity power business, market orientation, and competitive advantage give positive influence on marketing performance of  Batik SMEs. The research implication is when SME businesses focus on the effort in improving their proactivity power business and competitive advantage, it will give positive impact on marketing performance. Other research finding reveals that  the orientation of customer and orientation of competitor have some effects on marketing performance. In addition, SME businesses should know what customers want and they should be able to identify their competitors in order to improve their marketing performance.

  1. A Review of Environmental Factors Determining to Proactivity: The Case of the Footwear Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Lazaro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews literature in order to identify the determinant factors of companies’ environmental proactivity. According to Gonzalez-Benito and Gonzalez-Benito (2006, environmental proactivity demands three practices: planning and organization, operation, and communication. Environmental strategies go on to comment upon several variables that depict internal company features, external factors, and stakeholders pressures. This work discusses these issues using data collected in 2007 from shoe companies selected for in-depth personal interviews and site visits in two different Brazilian states. The empirical results demonstrate that proactive approaches seem clear in companies influenced by stakeholders’ pressure. This is the central determinant factor and it is argued that all the other variables affect either the intensity of this pressure or the company’s capacity to perceive it. All the factors identified herein should be taken into account, at least as control variables, in those studies aiming at explaining and contextualizing environmental strategies.

  2. Environmental Proactivity and Environmental and Economic Performance: Evidence from the Winery Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Barba-Sánchez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental sustainability in the winery sector is receiving increased attention from governments, environmental groups, and consumers. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between the degree of proactivity of a firm’s environmental strategies and its business performance. The novelty of this research work lies in its definition of business performance, which includes business environmental performance in terms of reducing the firm’s environmental impacts and eco-efficiency in the use of resources such as water, energy, and raw materials, in addition to its economic performance. A model is proposed and tested using a sample of 312 Spanish wineries. Data were analysed using partial least squares path modelling (PLS-PM. The fitness and robustness of the structural model proved adequate. The results indicate positive correlation of environmental proactivity with economic and environmental performance. Although environmental proactivity improves business performance, it has a greater impact on reducing environmental impacts and improving eco-efficiency.

  3. PERAN MEDIA RELATIONS TERHADAP KEBERHASILAN PROGRAM PROVOCATIVE PROACTIVE DI PT MEDIA TELEVISI INDONESIA (METRO TV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Sanjaya

    2013-09-01

    information from the data collected through the company's internal analysis of the results of in-depth interviews and field observations regarding activities in the company. The results showed that duties and functions of public relations are as a motor for better co-operation with external and internal parties relating to Provocative Proactive program. The PR and Promotion Departments were turned out to help the success of the PP program, in addition to various roles and hardworks of the Producer and the creative team. Based on the observations, the role of Metro TVs PR and Promotion Departments in conducting media relations through cooperation with the media both print and electronic media in an effort to have Provocative Proactive widely known by the public is through cooperation with various mass media, implementation of mass media selection strategies, and introducing Provocative Proactive Program broadly.

  4. The Influence of Interpersonal Relationships on Nurse Managers' Work Engagement and Proactive Work Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshawsky, Nora E.; Havens, Donna S.; Knafl, George

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study tested the effects of interpersonal relationships on nurse managers' work engagement and proactive work behavior. Background An engaged workforce may help health care organizations improve performance. In health care, nurse managers are responsible for creating motivating work environments. They also need to be engaged, yet little is known about what influences nurse managers' performance. Methods A self-administered electronic survey was used to collect data from 323 nurse managers working in acute care hospitals. Instruments included the Relational Coordination Scale, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, and Proactive Work Behavior Scale. Results Interpersonal relationships with nurse administrators were most predictive of nurse managers' work engagement. Interpersonal relationships with physicians were most predictive of nurse managers' proactive work behavior. Conclusions Organizational cultures that foster quality interpersonal relationships will support the job performance of nurse managers. PMID:22922751

  5. Enhanced conditioned eyeblink response acquisition and proactive interference in anxiety vulnerable individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline L Holloway

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In classical conditioning, proactive interference may arise from experience with the conditioned stimulus (CS, the unconditional stimulus (US, or both, prior to their paired presentations. Interest in the application of proactive interference has extended to clinical populations as either a risk factor for disorders or as a secondary sign. Although the current literature is dense with comparisons of stimulus pre-exposure effects in animals, such comparisons are lacking in human subjects. As such, interpretation of proactive interference over studies as well as its generalization and utility in clinical research is limited. The present study was designed to assess eyeblink response acquisition after equal numbers of CS, US, and explicitly unpaired CS and US pre-exposures, as well as to evaluate how anxiety vulnerability might modulate proactive interference. In the current study, anxiety vulnerability was assessed using the State/Trait Anxiety Inventories as well as the adult and retrospective measures of behavioural inhibition (AMBI and RMBI, respectively. Participants were exposed to 1 of 4 possible pre-exposure contingencies: 30 CS, 30 US, 30 CS and 30 US explicitly unpaired pre-exposures, or context pre-exposure, immediately prior to standard delay training. Robust proactive interference was evident in all pre-exposure groups relative to context pre-exposure, independent of anxiety classification, with CR acquisition attenuated at similar rates. In addition, trait anxious individuals were found to have enhanced overall acquisition as well as greater proactive interference relative to non-vulnerable individuals. The findings suggest that anxiety vulnerable individuals learn implicit associations faster, an effect which persists after the introduction of new stimulus contingencies. This effect is not due to enhanced sensitivity to the US. Such differences would have implications for the development of anxiety psychopathology within a learning

  6. Strategic down-regulation of attentional resources as a mechanism of proactive response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Zachary D; Krebs, Ruth M; Talsma, Durk; Woldorff, Marty G; Boehler, C N

    2016-08-01

    Efficiently avoiding inappropriate actions in a changing environment is central to cognitive control. One mechanism contributing to this ability is the deliberate slowing down of responses in contexts where full response cancellation might occasionally be required, referred to as proactive response inhibition. The present electroencephalographic (EEG) study investigated the role of attentional processes in proactive response inhibition in humans. To this end, we compared data from a standard stop-signal task, in which stop signals required response cancellation ('stop-relevant'), to data where possible stop signals were task-irrelevant ('stop-irrelevant'). Behavioral data clearly indicated the presence of proactive slowing in the standard stop-signal task. A novel single-trial analysis was used to directly model the relationship between response time and the EEG data of the go-trials in both contexts within a multilevel linear models framework. We found a relationship between response time and amplitude of the attention-related N1 component in stop-relevant blocks, a characteristic that was fully absent in stop-irrelevant blocks. Specifically, N1 amplitudes were lower the slower the response time, suggesting that attentional resources were being strategically down-regulated to control response speed. Drift diffusion modeling of the behavioral data indicated that multiple parameters differed across the two contexts, likely suggesting the contribution from independent brain mechanisms to proactive slowing. Hence, the attentional mechanism of proactive response control we report here might coexist with known mechanisms that are more directly tied to motoric response inhibition. As such, our study opens up new research avenues also concerning clinical conditions that feature deficits in proactive response inhibition.

  7. Smart Proactive Caching Scheme for Fast Authenticated Handoff in Wireless LAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sin-Kyu Kim; Jae-Woo Choi; Dae-Hun Nyang; Gene-Beck Hahn; Joo-Seok Song

    2007-01-01

    Handoff in IEEE 802.11 requires the repeated authentication and key exchange procedures, which will make the provision of seamless services in wireless LAN more difficult. To reduce the overhead, the proactive caching schemes have been proposed. However, they require too many control packets delivering the security context information to neighbor access points. Our contribution is made in two-fold: one is a significant decrease in the number of control packets for proactive caching and the other is a superior cache replacement algorithm.

  8. The Critical Roles of Task Conflict and Job Autonomy in the Relationship Between Proactive Personalities and Innovative Employee Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebels, Ellen; Reuver, de Renee S.M.; Rispens, Sonja; Ufkes, Elze G.

    2016-01-01

    We examine why and when proactive personality is beneficial for innovative behavior at work. Based on a survey among 166 employees working in 35 departments of a large municipality in the Netherlands we show that an increase in task conflicts explains the positive relation between a proactive person

  9. Understanding the relationship between proactive and reactive aggression, and cyberbullying across United States and Singapore adolescent samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Florell, Dan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined cyberbullying among adolescents across United States and Singapore samples. Specifically, the purpose of the investigation was to study the differential associations between proactive and reactive aggression, and cyberbullying across two cultures. A total of 425 adolescents from the United States (M age = 13 years) and a total of 332 adolescents from Singapore (M age = 14.2 years) participated in the study. Results of the moderator analyses suggested that nationality was not a moderator of the relationship between proactive aggression and cyberbullying, and between reactive aggression and cyberbullying. As expected, findings showed proactive aggression to be positively associated with cyberbullying, after controlling for reactive aggression, across both samples. Likewise, as hypothesized, reactive aggression and cyberbullying was not found to be significant after controlling for proactive aggression across both samples. Implications of these findings were discussed: (a) Proactive aggression is a possible risk factor for both bullying and cyberbullying; (b) proactive and reactive aggression could be argued to be distinct as they have different correlates-only proactive aggression contributed to cyberbullying after controlling for reactive aggression; (c) this research extends previous work and contributes toward cross-cultural work using similar and comparable measures across different samples; and (d) prevention and intervention programs targeted at proactive aggressive adolescents could adopt a two-pronged approach by changing mind sets, and by understanding and adopting a set of rules for Internet etiquette.

  10. When does transformational leadership enhance employee proactive behavior? The role of autonomy and role breadth self-efficacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hartog, D.N.; Belschak, F.D.

    2012-01-01

    Two multisource studies address the interactive effects of personal and contextual variables on employees' proactive behavior. In line with previous work, we find positive main effects of transformational leadership, role breadth self-efficacy, and job autonomy on employee proactive behavior (person

  11. Proactive Goal Generation and Innovative Work Behavior: The Moderating Role of Affective Commitment, Production Ownership and Leader Support for Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montani, Francesco; Battistelli, Adalgisa; Odoardi, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Building on goal-regulation theory, we develop and test the hypothesis that proactive goal generation fosters individual innovative work behavior. Consistent with a resource-based perspective, we further examine two-three-way interactions to assess whether the link between proactive goal generation and innovative behavior is jointly moderated by…

  12. Proactive Modeling of Market, Product and Production Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Hansen, Christian Lindschou; Hvam, Lars;

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an operational model that allows description of market, products and production architectures. The main feature of this model is the ability to describe both structural and functional aspect of architectures. The structural aspect is an answer to the question: What constitutes...... the architecture, e.g. standard designs, design units and interfaces? The functional aspect is an answer to the question: What is the behaviour or the architecture, what is it able to do, i.e. which products at which performance levels can be derived from the architecture? Among the most important benefits...... of this model is the explicit ability to describe what the architecture is prepared for, and what it is not prepared for - concerning development of future derivative products. The model has been applied in a large scale global product development project. Among the most important benefits is contribution to...

  13. Requirement Pattern Based on Dependencies of Plan in i* for Detecting Proactivity in Information-Technology Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Pérez Acosta

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to present a requirement pattern based on i*’s models that allows detecting proactivityin information-technology systems from the Requirements’ phase. The pattern obtained as a result ofthis paper allows detecting proactivity when there is a plan’s dependence established between the actorsinvolved and in addition one of the actors has intentions that denote a future proactive behavior inthe software. In order to validate the pattern a case study was performed taking as logic of analysis thedevelopment of a proactive dashboard to support the decision making in a college faculty. Based on theresults of the case study, it can be concluded that the proposed pattern allowed modeling the intentionaldependencies between the actors, detecting a proactive behavior and delegating the proactivity in thesystem of software to be developed.

  14. Role Breadth Self-Efficacy and Foci of Proactive Behavior: Moderating Role of Collective, Relational, and Individual Self-Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Pin-Chyuan; Han, Ming-Chuan; Chiu, Su-Fen

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify the interactive effect of role breadth self-efficacy (RBSE) and the three levels of self-concept (collective, relational, and individual) in predicting of different foci of proactive behaviors. Results from 259 matched responses from an airline company in Taiwan showed that RBSE had a positive effect on (1) pro-organizational proactive behavior among those with higher collective self-concept, (2) pro-supervisor proactive behavior among those with higher relational self-concept, and (3) pro-self proactive behavior among those with higher individual self-concept. Our findings provide insights into the moderating role of different levels of self-concept on RBSE-proactive behavior process in terms of specific targets or beneficiaries. Further implications for organizational research and practice are discussed.

  15. Transformational Leadership and Proactive Work Behavior: A Moderated Mediation Model Including Work Engagement and Job Strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, A.; den Hartog, D.N.; Belschak, F.D.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the role of work engagement as an affective–motivational mechanism through which transformational leadership may relate to proactive behaviour. In line with a resource-based approach (Hobfoll, 1989), we hypothesize that employees only invest resources provided through work engage

  16. Tailoring professional development for teachers in primary education: the role of age and proactive personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinka van Vuuren; Dorien Kooij; Annet de Lange; Beatrice van der Heijden

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this survey study among N=180 Dutch teachers was to examine the moderating role of calendar age and proactive personality in the relationships between developmental opportunities, on the one hand, and work engagement and self-perceived employability, on the other. The paper aims

  17. Tailoring professional development for teachers in primary education: The role of age and proactive personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tinka van Vuuren; Beatrice van der Heijden; Annet de Lange; Dorien Kooij

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this survey study among N=180 Dutch teachers was to examine the moderating role of calendar age and proactive personality in the relationships between developmental opportunities, on the one hand, and work engagement and self-perceived employability, on the other. The paper

  18. Proactive and politically skilled professionals: What is the relationship with affective occupational commitment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yousaf, A.; Sanders, K.; Shipton, H.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to extend research on employee affective commitment in three ways: (1) instead of organizational commitment the focus is on occupational commitment; (2) the role of proactive personality on affective occupational commitment is examined; and (3) occupational satisfaction is e

  19. [Documentation of Antibiotic Stewardship (ABS)-interventions during proactive audit of antibiotic use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Katja; de With, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Proactive audit of antibiotic use ensures quality of prescribing and can improve outcome in patients with infections. A rational, individualized therapy is being defined in interdisciplinary cooperation on the basis of clinical, laboratory, radiological and microbiological examination findings. By fostering targeted antibiotic therapy proactive audit reduces adverse effects and contributes to drug therapy safety and subsequently to patient safety. A proactive audit of antibiotic use is performed weekly on four intensive care units at the University Hospital Dresden by a infectious disease specialist a pharmacist and the attending physicians. Patient-related therapy adjustments were systematically documented over a 4-month period; antibiotic use before and after audit as well as ABS strategies (de-escalation, oral switch, duration of treatment, dose and administration optimization) were analyzed. Both targeted therapy and interventions regarding the duration of treatment led to a reduction in the prescribing of broad spectrum antibiotics by 20%. Routine interdisciplinary proactive audit of antibiotic use with intervention and feedback increases guideline-adherent therapy and process quality.

  20. Reactive/Proactive Aggression and Affective/Cognitive Empathy in Children with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouw, Lucinda B. C.; Rieffe, Carolien; Oosterveld, Paul; Huskens, Bibi; Stockmann, Lex

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to examine the extent to which affective and cognitive empathy were associated with reactive and proactive aggression, and whether these associations differed between children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and typically developing (TD) children. The study included 133 children (67 ASD, 66 TD, M age = 139…

  1. Using Proactivity, Time Discounting, and the Theory of Planned Behavior to Identify Predictors of Retirement Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Barbara; Loe, David; Hesketh, Beryl

    2012-01-01

    This study developed and tested a model to identify the predictors of retirement planning based on an extension of the theory of planned behavior ([TPB], Ajzen, 1991) that included individual differences in proactivity and time discounting. The results showed that personal attitudes, sense of control, social influence, and stable traits have a…

  2. Connecting HRM and change management: the importance of proactivity and vitality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, L.; Kruyen, P.M.; Vijverberg, D.M.; Voesenek, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    - Purpose – Organizations are continuously under pressure to adapt to changing circumstances. Job proactivity and vitality are important in changing environments. For instance, vital employees can better deal with change because they possess more energy. However, it is still unclear how organizatio

  3. Connecting HRM and Change Management: The Importance of Proactivity and Vitality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); P.M. Kruyen; D. Vijverberg (Dominique); T. Voesenek (Tessa)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPurpose. Organizations are continuously under pressure to adapt to changing circumstances. Job proactivity and vitality are important in changing environments. For instance, vital employees can better deal with change because they possess more energy. However, it is still unclear how org

  4. Connecting HRM and Change Management: The Importance of Proactivity and Vitality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, L.G.; Kruyen, P.M.; Vijverberg, D.; Voesenek, T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Organizations are continuously under pressure to adapt to changing circumstances. Job proactivity and vitality are important in changing environments. For instance, vital employees can better deal with change because they possess more energy. However, it is still unclear how organizations c

  5. Temperament, Harsh and Indulgent Parenting, and Chinese Children's Proactive and Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Zhang, Zengxiu

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the additive and interactive effects of temperament and harsh and indulgent parenting on Chinese children's proactive and reactive aggression. Participants were 401 children (M [subscript age] = 9.29 years, 203 girls) and their parents who were recruited from 2 elementary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. The…

  6. Tailoring professional development for teachers in primary education: The role of age and proactive personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Beatrice; van Vuuren, Tinka C.V.; Kooij, Dorien T.A.M.; de Lange, Annet H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The aim of this survey study among N=180 Dutch teachers was to examine the moderating role of calendar age and proactive personality in the relationships between developmental opportunities, on the one hand, and work engagement and self-perceived employability, on the other. The paper aims

  7. Tailoring professional development for teachers in primary education : The role of age and proactive personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, B.I.J.M.; van Vuuren, T.; Kooij, T.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this survey study among N=180 Dutch teachers was to examine the moderating role of calendar age and proactive personality in the relationships between developmental opportunities, on the one hand, and work engagement and self-perceived employability, on the other. The paper aims

  8. Tailoring professional development for teachers in primary education: The role of age and proactive personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Vuuren, T. van; Kooij, D.; Lange, A.H. de

    2015-01-01

    - Purpose – The aim of this survey study among N=180 Dutch teachers was to examine the moderating role of calendar age and proactive personality in the relationships between developmental opportunities, on the one hand, and work engagement and self-perceived employability, on the other. The paper

  9. Online Learning for Master Students and Their Organisation of Employment in Proactive Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte; Lundh Snis, Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses an online community of master’s students taking a course in ICT and organisational learning. One assignment for the students was to initiate and facilitate an educational design for organisational learning called Proactive Review in the organisations where they were employed. ...

  10. The Price of Fame: The Impact of Stimulus Familiarity on Proactive Interference Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhakaran, Ranjani; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    Interference from previously learned information, known as proactive interference (PI), limits our memory retrieval abilities. Previous studies of PI resolution have focused on the role of short-term familiarity, or recency, in causing PI. In the present study, we investigated the impact of long-term stimulus familiarity on PI resolution…

  11. Social support and functional outcome in severe mental illness: the mediating role of proactive coping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Lisa; Brekke, John

    2014-01-30

    Individuals with Severe Mental Illness (SMI) are faced with wide-spread social and occupational impairment, yet some are able to achieve a meaningful degree of functional improvement. A structural model based on Proactive Coping Theory was developed and tested in a longitudinal context to better understand: (1) the impact of proactive processes on functioning for people with SMI, and (2) the stability of the theoretical framework over time for this population. A latent path analysis examining social support, positive reappraisal, intrinsic motivation, and role functioning was tested with 148 severely mentally ill individuals receiving psychosocial rehabilitation treatment at baseline. An observed path analysis of the model was examined at six months post-baseline with 102 people. The baseline model displayed an excellent fit to the data and accounted for 54% of the variance in role functioning. Results at time 2 also suggest the empirical promise and potential longitudinal viability of the model. In line with Proactive Coping Theory and a social resources model of coping, social support may facilitate proactive coping processes to enhance role functioning, and these processes may be stable over time for people with SMI.

  12. Frail older adults' experiences with a proactive, nurse-led primary care program: a qualitative study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenberg, N.; Boeije, H.R.; Onderwater, A.T.; Schuurmans, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to explore frail older adults' perceptions and experiences with a proactive, integrated nurse-led primary care program. A qualitative study nested within a randomized trial in primary care was conducted. In total, 11 semistructured interviews were conducted in a subs

  13. The associations between parenting styles and proactive and reactive aggression in Hong Kong children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Fung, Annis Lai Chu

    2015-12-01

    Previous research suggests that reactive and proactive aggression may be differentially related to family contextual (e.g. parenting practices) factors. However, the existing research has focused largely on children and adolescents from Western countries, and no study has examined the parenting-aggression association using a parenting style measure sensitive to Asian culture. In this study parenting styles (i.e. warmth, control and guan/training) and proactive and reactive aggression were assessed in a large sample of school children in Hong Kong, China (N = 4,175, mean age = 11.75). We found that: (a) both low warmth (in boys only) and guan (i.e. high expectation and close supervision, in both boys and girls) were associated with elevated parent-reported proactive aggression, (b) high restrictive control (i.e. dominating and rejecting) was associated with high reactive aggression (in both boys and girls) based on parent- or child-report data, and with high proactive aggression (in boys only) based on parent-report data, and (c) guan was also positively associated with parent-reported reactive aggression. Findings provide more information about the Parenting Inventory using a large Asian sample, and extend existing research on familial correlates of different types of aggression.

  14. Do Early Difficult Temperament and Harsh Parenting Differentially Predict Reactive and Proactive Aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward Dylan; Boivin, Michel; Brendgen, Mara; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the links between difficult temperament (i.e., negative emotionality) and harsh parental discipline during toddlerhood, and reactive and proactive aggression in kindergarten. These links were assessed on a longitudinal population-based study of 1516 boys and girls followed longitudinally from the age of 17…

  15. Temperament, Harsh and Indulgent Parenting, and Chinese Children's Proactive and Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yiyuan; Farver, Jo Ann M.; Zhang, Zengxiu

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the additive and interactive effects of temperament and harsh and indulgent parenting on Chinese children's proactive and reactive aggression. Participants were 401 children (M [subscript age] = 9.29 years, 203 girls) and their parents who were recruited from 2 elementary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. The…

  16. "The Regular Routine": Proactive Policing and Adolescent Development among Young, Poor Black Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nikki

    2014-01-01

    Over the last several decades, proactive policing, in which departments use data on reported crimes to determine where local police officers will target their surveillance, has increased police contact with residents in certain neighborhoods. Drawing on field research conducted over a three-year period (2007-2010) among adult and adolescent…

  17. The effect of aging on the dynamics of reactive and proactive cognitive control of response interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Xiang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A prime-target interference task was used to investigate the effects of cognitive aging on reactive and proactive control in which frequency confounds and feature repetitions were eliminated from the cognitive control measures. We used distributional analyses to explore the dynamics of the two control functions by distinguishing the strength of incorrect response capture and the efficiency of suppression control. For reactive control, within-trial conflict control and between-trial conflict adaption were analyzed. The statistical analysis showed that there were no reliable between-trial conflict adaption effects for both young and older adults. For within-trial conflict control, the results revealed that older adults showed larger interference effects on mean RT and mean accuracy. Distributional analyses showed that the decline mainly stemmed from inefficient suppression rather than from stronger incorrect responses. For proactive control, older adults showed comparable proactive conflict resolution than young adults on mean RT and mean accuracy. Distributional analyses showed older adults were as effective as younger adults in adjusting their responses to minimize automatic response capture and actively suppress the direct response activation based on congruency proportion information. The results suggest that older adults were less proficient at suppressing interference after conflict was detected but can anticipate and prevent inference in response to congruency proportion manipulation. The results challenge earlier views that older adults have selective deficits in proactive control but are spared in reactive control.

  18. Interactive Links between Theory of Mind, Peer Victimization, and Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, Annie; Brendgen, Mara; Seguin, Jean R.; Vitaro, Frank; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between theory of mind and reactive and proactive aggression, respectively, as well as the moderating role of peer victimization in this context. The 574 participants were drawn from a longitudinal study of twins. Theory of mind was assessed before school entry, when participants were 5 years old. Reactive and…

  19. The Relationship between Unstable Self-Esteem and Aggression: Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunju J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether the instability of self-esteem (i.e., a high intraindividual variability in self-esteem) is differentially associated with different types of aggressive behavior by using a sample of 235 preadolescent children. Self-esteem was measured four times for four consecutive days, and proactive and reactive aggressive behaviors…

  20. "Testing during Study Insulates against the Buildup of Proactive Interference": Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpunar, Karl K.; McDermott, Kathleen B.; Roedigger, Henry L., III

    2009-01-01

    Reports an error in "Testing during study insulates against the buildup of proactive interference" by Karl K. Szpunar, Kathleen B. McDermott and Henry L. Roediger III ("Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition," 2008[Nov], Vol 34[6], 1392-1399). Incorrect figures were printed due to an error in the…

  1. Proactive Strategies for Managing the Behavior of Children with Neurodegenerative Diseases and Visual Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, M. M.; Koehler, W. S.

    1998-01-01

    Presents proactive strategies to help educators deal with challenging behaviors of children with visual impairments and neurodegenerative diseases. Strategies are provided for general noncompliance, difficulty with changed or novel routines, difficulty maintaining physical movement, significant variations in affect, and intense tantrums and other…

  2. Market Design and Strategy Making for Proactive Distribution Grid with DERs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu

    -level DERs. In this situation, the market framework becomes more complex. To handle these small-size and dispersed DERs, this thesis proposes a methodology to optimize the procurements of the proactive distribution company (PDI-SCO) trading in the presented distribution-level market. Particularly, takingthe...

  3. Interactive Links between Theory of Mind, Peer Victimization, and Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, Annie; Brendgen, Mara; Seguin, Jean R.; Vitaro, Frank; Boivin, Michel; Dionne, Ginette; Tremblay, Richard E.; Perusse, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relation between theory of mind and reactive and proactive aggression, respectively, as well as the moderating role of peer victimization in this context. The 574 participants were drawn from a longitudinal study of twins. Theory of mind was assessed before school entry, when participants were 5 years old. Reactive and…

  4. Using Proactivity, Time Discounting, and the Theory of Planned Behavior to Identify Predictors of Retirement Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Barbara; Loe, David; Hesketh, Beryl

    2012-01-01

    This study developed and tested a model to identify the predictors of retirement planning based on an extension of the theory of planned behavior ([TPB], Ajzen, 1991) that included individual differences in proactivity and time discounting. The results showed that personal attitudes, sense of control, social influence, and stable traits have a…

  5. Burnout, Depression and Proactive Coping in Underground Coal Miners in Serbia - Pilot Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manić Saška

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Mining is unsurprisingly considered a high-risk occupation because it involves continuous hard labour under highly demanding and stressful conditions. Many of these work stressors can impair individuals’ well-being in both a physiological and psychological sense. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of burnout and depressive symptoms and to evaluate aspects of proactive coping among underground coal miners in Serbia. The study involved 46 male underground coal miners. Burnout was measured with the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory, depression was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and level of proactive coping was measured with the Proactive Coping Inventory. The results showed a low level of burnout syndrome among the underground coal miners (12.46±4.879. Depression was slightly above the minimum (1.2±2.094, and the majority of the participants had no symptoms of depression (93.5%. Overall, the underground coal miners’ ability to proactively cope with work stress was very good (42.17±6.567. This is in contrast to the findings of the few previous international studies and is a good basis for further research using a larger sample in Serbia.

  6. Real-Time Procurement Strategies of a Proactive Distribution Company with Aggregator-Based Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Qi; Wang, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    and inelastic demand components. A one-leader multi-follower bilevel model is proposed to derive the procurement strategies, i.e., the upper-level problem intends to maximize the profit of the proactive distribution company, while the lower-level expresses the profit maximization per rational aggregator...

  7. Proactive behaviour may lead to failure in virtual project-based collaborative learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Hertzum, Morten

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that proactive behaviour, caused by high engagement and motivation of the learners, may lead to failure of collaborative learning. By examining empirical data from real-world text-only virtual negotiations between dispersed participants engaged in project-based collaborative...

  8. Proactive Motivation and Engagement in Career Behaviors: Investigating Direct, Mediated, and Moderated Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschi, Andreas; Lee, Bora; Porfeli, Erik J.; Vondracek, Fred W.

    2013-01-01

    Proactive career behaviors become increasingly important in today's career environment, but little is known about how and when motivational patterns affect individual differences. In a six-month longitudinal study among German university students (Study 1; N = 289) it was demonstrated that motivation in terms of "can do" (self-efficacy…

  9. Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal Axis Functioning in Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Duran, Nestor L.; Olson, Sheryl L.; Hajal, Nastassia J.; Felt, Barbara T.; Vazquez, Delia M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) reactivity and proactive and reactive aggression in pre-pubertal children. After a 30-min controlled base line period, 73 7-year-old children (40 males and 33 females) were randomly assigned to one of two experimental tasks designed to…

  10. Examining the Mediating Effect of Self-Efficacy on Approval of Aggression and Proactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Jade; Mowbray, Tony; Jacobs, Nicky

    2017-01-01

    Proactive aggression (PA) is goal-directed, hostile social behavior that has been linked to detrimental outcomes. It has been theorized that adolescents who believe aggression is a normal and acceptable social response (approval of aggression) are more likely to show PA. Confidence in one's ability to behave aggressively (self-efficacy about…

  11. Walking the Walk: The Moderating Role of Proactive Parenting on Adolescents' Value-Congruent Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Fraser, Ashley M.; Harper, James M.

    2012-01-01

    The current study longitudinally examined adolescents' internalization of values in four domains (drug use, prosocial, school, friends), and how these values were differentially related to behaviors (delinquency, prosocial behavior, school engagement, and deviant peer association) as a function of proactive parenting. Participants included 335…

  12. Attachment-related mentalization moderates the relationship between psychopathic traits and proactive aggression in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubner, Svenja; White, Lars O; Zimmermann, Johannes; Fonagy, Peter; Nolte, Tobias

    2013-08-01

    The lack of affective responsiveness to others' mental states - one of the hallmarks of psychopathy - is thought to give rise to increased interpersonal aggression. Recent models of psychopathy highlight deficits in attachment security that may, in turn, impede the development of relating to others in terms of mental states (mentalization). Here, we aimed to assess whether mentalization linked to attachment relationships may serve as a moderator for the relationship between interpersonal aggression and psychopathic traits in an adolescent community sample. Data from 104 males and females with a mean age of 16.4 years were collected on mentalization capacities using the Reflective Functioning Scale on the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Psychopathic traits and aggressive behavior were measured via self-report. Deficits in mentalization were significantly associated with both psychopathic traits and proactive aggression. As predicted, mentalization played a moderating role, such that individuals with increased psychopathic tendencies did not display increased proactive aggression when they had higher mentalizing capacities. Effects of mentalization on reactive aggression were fully accounted for by its shared variance with proactive aggression. Psychopathic traits alone only partially explain aggression in adolescence. Mentalization may serve as a protective factor to prevent the emergence of proactive aggression in spite of psychopathic traits and may provide a crucial target for intervention.

  13. The Genetic and Environmental Covariation among Psychopathic Personality Traits, and Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdjian, Serena; Tuvblad, Catherine; Raine, Adrian; Baker, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the genetic and environmental covariance between psychopathic personality traits with reactive and proactive aggression in 9- to 10-year-old twins (N = 1,219). Psychopathic personality traits were assessed with the Child Psychopathy Scale (D. R. Lynam, 1997), while aggressive behaviors were assessed using the…

  14. Reactive vs. Proactive Antisocial Behavior: Differential Correlates of Child ADHD Symptoms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, David S.; Pitale, Maria; Vora, Vaishali; Rheingold, Alyssa A.

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the relation between proactive and reactive antisocial behavior with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Caregivers of children aged 8 to 15 (n = 84) being evaluated at a child psychiatry outpatient clinic served as participants. Given the conceptual similarity between reactive antisocial behavior (ASB)…

  15. The Role of Organizational Insiders' Developmental Feedback and Proactive Personality on Newcomers' Performance: An Interactionist Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Harris, T. Brad; Boswell, Wendy R.; Xie, Zhitao

    2011-01-01

    Drawing from an interactionist approach and feedback research, we examine the role of developmental feedback and proactive personality on newcomer task performance and helping behavior. Data were collected from 2 high-tech joint-ventures within the information technology and manufacturing industries located in Shanghai, China. Results based on 151…

  16. Constructivist Pedagogy in Asynchronous Online Education: Examining Proactive Behavior and the Impact on Student Engagement Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Linda; Shmerling, Shirley; Karren, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    Asynchronous learning environments have gained popularity over the past decade and have rapidly gained acceptance in both the academic and business worlds. This study investigates the impact that student characteristics of proactive behavior and learning style preference have on student engagement levels when a collaborative learning process such…

  17. Newcomer Adjustment: Examining the Role of Managers' Perception of Newcomer Proactive Behavior During Organizational Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Allison M; Nifadkar, Sushil S; Bauer, Talya N; Erdogan, Berrin

    2017-03-09

    Separate streams of organizational socialization research have recognized the importance of (a) newcomer proactivity and (b) manager support in facilitating newcomer adjustment. However, extant research has largely focused on the newcomers' experience, leaving the perspectives of managers during socialization relatively unexplored-a theoretical gap that has implications both for newcomer adjustment and manager-newcomer interactions that may serve as a basis for future relationship development. Drawing from the "interlocked" employee behavior argument of Weick (1979), we propose that managers' perception of newcomers' proactive behaviors are associated with concordant manager behaviors, which, in turn, support newcomer adjustment. Further, we investigate a cognitive mechanism-managers' evaluation of newcomers' commitment to adjust-which we expect underlies the proposed relationship between newcomers' proactive behaviors and managers' supportive behaviors. Using a time-lagged, 4-phase data collection of a sample of new software engineers in India and their managers, we were able to test our hypothesized model as well as rule out alternative explanations via multilevel structural equation modeling. Results broadly supported our model even after controlling for manager-newcomer social exchange relationship, proactive personalities of both newcomers and managers, and potential effects of coworker information providing. The implications of our findings for theory and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Personality, Freshmen Proactive Social Behavior, and College Transition: Predictors beyond Academic Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Cullen, Kristin L.; Yao, Xiang; Li, Yixuan

    2013-01-01

    When transitioning to college freshmen must behave proactively in order to strive for success in their collegiate careers and their future life. Past research has mainly focused on the academic strategies of freshmen when investigating the predictors of successful college transition and has paid little attention to students' social strategies. The…

  19. Individual and Class Norms Differentially Predict Proactive and Reactive Aggression: A Functional Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Karin S.; Higheagle Strong, Zoe; Onyewuenyi, Adaurennaya C.

    2017-01-01

    Theory and research using a social-information processing framework indicate that reward-focused (proactive) aggression has different social consequences than defense-focused (reactive) aggression. Students use norms that identify expected and socially approved behaviors as guides to their own actions. Differences in social-cognitive processing…

  20. The research of Proactive Coping Behavior of Patients with Chronic Non-Specific Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija A. Yaroslavskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to study the patterns of using proactive coping and adherences to it's different types in patients with chronic non-specifi c lung diseases. Participants of the study (N=180 were 30 to 60 years old. The Proactive Coping Inventory was used to assess the patients' psychological status. According to the results of the study patients with chronic non-specifi c lung diseases use dif-ferent types of proactive coping behavior while solving problematic and stressful situations. The research revealed that patients with bronchial asthma don't have the skills of independent decision making, definition of objectives, considering of options in solving conflicts or other inconvenient situations sufficiently developed. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are less satisfied with the emotional support that they receive from their relatives and closest people, it's harder for them to reveal their feelings and emotions than for those who suffer from bronchial asthma and healthy ones. The results of the study may be useful in developing educational systems of proactive coping behavior skills for patients with chronic non-specific lung diseases for their health and well-being support.

  1. Connecting HRM and Change Management: The Importance of Proactivity and Vitality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars); P.M. Kruyen; D. Vijverberg (Dominique); T. Voesenek (Tessa)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPurpose. Organizations are continuously under pressure to adapt to changing circumstances. Job proactivity and vitality are important in changing environments. For instance, vital employees can better deal with change because they possess more energy. However, it is still unclear how

  2. Connecting HRM and Change Management: The Importance of Proactivity and Vitality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, L.G.; Kruyen, P.M.; Vijverberg, D.; Voesenek, T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Organizations are continuously under pressure to adapt to changing circumstances. Job proactivity and vitality are important in changing environments. For instance, vital employees can better deal with change because they possess more energy. However, it is still unclear how organizations

  3. Connecting HRM and change management: the importance of proactivity and vitality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, L.; Kruyen, P.M.; Vijverberg, D.M.; Voesenek, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    - Purpose – Organizations are continuously under pressure to adapt to changing circumstances. Job proactivity and vitality are important in changing environments. For instance, vital employees can better deal with change because they possess more energy. However, it is still unclear how

  4. Transformational Leadership and Proactive Work Behavior: A Moderated Mediation Model Including Work Engagement and Job Strain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, A.; den Hartog, D.N.; Belschak, F.D.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the role of work engagement as an affective–motivational mechanism through which transformational leadership may relate to proactive behaviour. In line with a resource-based approach (Hobfoll, 1989), we hypothesize that employees only invest resources provided through work

  5. FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF SKILLS FOR PROACTIVE DRIVING LICENCE (ACCORDING TO INSTRUCTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatoeli Ducheva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the system "man - environment - motor vehicle", the driver and his training are the main factors to overcome the negative trends of increasing the number of victims and injured in traffic accidents. The proactivity of the driver is associated with high levels of global purpose of drivers' training - with the strategic level, which includes personal characteristics, ambitions, values and choices of behaviour models. In the presented report we analyze the results of a survey conducted during the courses of periodic training of instructors from around the country in which were switched on the question for ranking the elements of the proactive driving according to the experience and perception of the trainers. Were analyzed the results obtained from 403 respondents from different size and geography settlements. We assume that all eleven components that we included and their arrangement in order of importance reflect the mind-set and attitudes of learners to proactive driving and correct actions which ensure personal and safety of other participants are manifestations of tolerance. We can conclude that at the forefront of arranging of the components of proactive driving, the respondents emphasize on those, that increase the traffic safety (manoeuvre planning, forecasting, but underestimate the knowledge of prior knowledge of the risk factors that increases the probability of road accidents.

  6. What Is Engagement? Proactivity as the Missing Link in the HEXACO Model of Personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Reinout Everhard; Wawoe, Kilian W.; Holtrop, Djurre

    2016-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that proactivity represents the engagement vector in the HEXACO model of personality. Questionnaire data were obtained in five studies, three of which consisted (mostly) of students: Study 1 (N = 188, Mage = 20.0, 89.4% women), Study 3 (N = 315, Mage = 20.4, 80.6% women),

  7. Some effects of cognitive similarity on proactive and retriactive interference in short-term memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunt, A.A.; Sanders, A.F.

    1972-01-01

    An experiment is reported on the effects of cognitive similarity on proactive and retroactive interference (PI, RI) in short term memory. To avoid confounding between cognitive and acoustic similarity, the materials - i.e. words and digits - were matched with respect to vowel pattern. Effects of

  8. Neural mechanisms of proactive and reactive inhibitory control : Studies in healthy volunteers and schizophrenia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandbelt, B.B.

    2011-01-01

    The neural underpinnings of our ability to restrain actions in advance (i.e. proactive inhibition) and stop actions in reaction to some event (i.e. reactive inhibition) remain largely unknown. In this thesis we used neuroimaging (functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI) and brain stimulation (tr

  9. Pro-active data breach detection: examining accuracy and applicability on personal information detected

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, J

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available breaches but does not provide a clear indication of the level of personal information available on the internet since only reported incidents are taken into account. The possibility of pro-active automated breach detection has previously been discussed as a...

  10. A proactive approach to migraine in primary care: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smelt, A.F.; Blom, J.W.; Dekker, F.; Akker, M.E. van den; Knuistingh Neven, A.; Zitman, F.G.; Ferrari, M.D.; Assendelft, P.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Migraine is a common, disabling headache disorder that leads to lost quality of life and productivity. We investigated whether a proactive approach to patients with migraine, including an educational intervention for general practitioners, led to a decrease in headache and associated cos

  11. The Role of Organizational Insiders' Developmental Feedback and Proactive Personality on Newcomers' Performance: An Interactionist Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Harris, T. Brad; Boswell, Wendy R.; Xie, Zhitao

    2011-01-01

    Drawing from an interactionist approach and feedback research, we examine the role of developmental feedback and proactive personality on newcomer task performance and helping behavior. Data were collected from 2 high-tech joint-ventures within the information technology and manufacturing industries located in Shanghai, China. Results based on 151…

  12. Can Firefighters' Mental Health Be Predicted by Emotional Intelligence and Proactive Coping?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Shannon L.; Martin, Crystal A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study explores emotional intelligence and proactive coping as possible protective factors for both a group of paid-professional firefighters (n = 94) and a group of similar comparison participants (n = 91). Each respondent completed the Impact of Events Scale-Revised, Symptom Checklist 90-Revised, Emotional Intelligence Scale, and…

  13. Criteria to assess the quality of the Dutch Informal Pro-active Approach Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marseille, A.T.; de Graaf, K.J.; Dragos, D.C.; Lafarge, F.

    2012-01-01

    If citizens in the Netherlands do not agree with a decision of a public authority, they can submit a written objection. The Informal Pro-active Approach Model (or “informal approach”) provides an alternative for the traditional conflict resolution procedures. This informal approach has led to a redu

  14. Project ADAPT: A Program to Assess Depression and Provide Proactive Treatment in Rural Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luptak, Marilyn; Kaas, Merrie J.; Artz, Margaret; McCarthy, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We describe and evaluate a project designed to pilot test an evidence-based clinical intervention for assessing and treating depression in older adults in rural primary care clinics. Project ADAPT--Assuring Depression Assessment and Proactive Treatment--utilized existing primary care resources to overcome barriers to sustainability…

  15. The Influence of Proactive Personality and Coping on Commitment to STEM Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Debra A.; Holland, Jonathan M.; Oborn, Kurt L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasing demand for workers in fields that are grounded in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), retention rates are low among relevant college majors. Using Web-based survey data from 290 STEM majors, the authors investigated links among personality, coping strategies, and STEM major commitment. Proactive personality was…

  16. Approach and avoidance towards aggressive stimuli and its relation to reactive and proactive aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbestael, J.; Cousijn, J.; Brugman, S.; Wiers, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the association between indirectly measured behavioural approach- and avoidance-related tendencies on the one hand, and reactive versus proactive aggression on the other hand. Reactive aggression (i.e. the impulsive, anger-driven aggression expressed in response to threatening

  17. Information Processing and Proactive Interference in Children with and without Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marton, Klara; Campanelli, Luca; Eichorn, Naomi; Scheuer, Jessica; Yoon, Jungmee

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Increasing evidence suggests that children with specific language impairment (SLI) have a deficit in inhibition control, but research isolating specific abilities is scarce. The goal of this study was to examine whether children with SLI differ from their peers in resistance to proactive interference under different conditions. Method: An…

  18. Moving from Introverted to Extraverted Embedded Librarian Services: An Example of a Proactive Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Valerie R.; Loftis, Charissa

    2012-01-01

    Librarians at Wayne State College have developed an extraverted online embedded librarian model whereby librarians proactively push out content to students at time-appropriate moments. This article outlines why extraverted approaches are more effective than introverted approaches. It also details how to develop an extraverted program. First,…

  19. The Relationship between Unstable Self-Esteem and Aggression: Differences in Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunju J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines whether the instability of self-esteem (i.e., a high intraindividual variability in self-esteem) is differentially associated with different types of aggressive behavior by using a sample of 235 preadolescent children. Self-esteem was measured four times for four consecutive days, and proactive and reactive aggressive behaviors…

  20. Are Proactive and Reactive Aggression Meaningful Distinctions in Adolescents? A Variable- and Person-Based Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, K C; Oostermeijer, S; Lappenschaar, M; Cohn, M; van der Meer, J M J; Popma, A; Jansen, L M C; Rommelse, N N J; Scheepers, F E; Buitelaar, J K

    2017-01-01

    This study was designed to examine whether proactive and reactive aggression are meaningful distinctions at the variable- and person-based level, and to determine their associated behavioral profiles. Data from 587 adolescents (mean age 15.6; 71.6 % male) from clinical samples of four different sites with differing levels of aggression problems were analyzed. A multi-level Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was conducted to identify classes of individuals (person-based) with similar aggression profiles based on factor scores (variable-based) of the Reactive Proactive Questionnaire (RPQ) scored by self-report. Associations were examined between aggression factors and classes, and externalizing and internalizing problem behavior scales by parent report (CBCL) and self-report (YSR). Factor-analyses yielded a three factor solution: 1) proactive aggression, 2) reactive aggression due to internal frustration, and 3) reactive aggression due to external provocation. All three factors showed moderate to high correlations. Four classes were detected that mainly differed quantitatively (no 'proactive-only' class present), yet also qualitatively when age was taken into account, with reactive aggression becoming more severe with age in the highest affected class yet diminishing with age in the other classes. Findings were robust across the four samples. Multiple regression analyses showed that 'reactive aggression due to internal frustration' was the strongest predictor of YSR and CBCL internalizing problems. However, results showed moderate to high overlap between all three factors. Aggressive behavior can be distinguished psychometrically into three factors in a clinical sample, with some differential associations. However, the clinical relevance of these findings is challenged by the person-based analysis showing proactive and reactive aggression are mainly driven by aggression severity.

  1. Can enriching emotional intelligence improve medical students' proactivity and adaptability during OB/GYN clerkships?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guseh, Stephanie H; Chen, Xiaodong P; Johnson, Natasha R

    2015-12-26

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine our hypothesis that enriching workplace emotional intelligence through resident coaches could improve third-year medical students' adaptability and proactivity on the Obstetrics and Gynecology clerkship. An observational pilot study was conducted in a teaching hospital. Fourteen 3rd year medical students from two cohorts of clerkships were randomly divided into two groups, and equally assigned to trained resident coaches and untrained resident coaches. Data was collected through onsite naturalistic observation of students' adaptability and proactivity in clinical settings using a checklist with a 4-point Likert scale (1=poor to 4=excellent). Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare the differences between these two groups. A total of 280 data points were collected through onsite observations conducted by investigators. All (n=14) students' adaptability and proactivity performance significantly improved from an average of 3.04 to 3.45 (p=0.014) over 6-week clerkship. Overall, students with trained resident coaches adapted significantly faster and were more proactive in the obstetrics and gynecology clinical setting than the students with untrained coaches (3.31 vs. 3.24, p=0.019). Findings from our pilot study supported our hypothesis that enriching workplace emotional intelligence knowledge through resident coaches was able to help medical students adapt into obstetrics and gynecology clinical settings faster and become more proactive in learning. Clerkship programs can incorporate the concept of a resident coach in their curriculum to help bridge medical students into clinical settings and to help them engage in self-directed learning throughout the rotation.

  2. Visionary Fuels Private Space Race

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏蓝天

    2004-01-01

    2004年10月4日,由微软共同创始人之一、亿万富翁保罗·艾伦(PaulAllen)以及航空专家Burt Rutan共同资助开发的私营飞机太空一号(SpaccshipOne)呼啸着直冲云霄,飞上100公里高度的太空并成功返回位于美国加利福尼亚州的莫哈韦沙漠,创造了民间飞行器冲出地球大气层的历史,赢得了1000万美元的"阿莎利X大奖"(Ansari X-Prize)。此时此刻,全世界的人们都把关注的目光投向太空一号的宇航员,但谁又知道"X大奖"的发起人彼得·代曼底斯(Peter Diamandis)这位宇航企业家(astropreneur)的艰难历程呢?

  3. Visionary Fuels Private Space Race

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CNN international; 魏蓝天

    2004-01-01

    @@ It was only the following day, after the thousands of cheering spectators had disappeared, after the jubilant speeches had dried up along with the champagne,as Diamandis was driving his father back to Los Angeles, that euphoria ②--and relief--swept over him.

  4. Visionary marketing : Building sustainable business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moenaert, R.K.; Robben, H.S.J.; Gouw, de M.

    2008-01-01

    Realizing excellence in the market place requires systematized common sense. However, as Voltaire already observed, common sense is not so common. The horizon of many marketers and management executives is so focused towards the next quarterly report, that unexpected moves by the competition leave t

  5. Exploring Relationships among Proactiveness, Risk-Taking and Innovation Output in Family and Non-Family Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craig, Justin B.; Pohjola, Mikko; Kraus, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    In an empirical investigation of 532 Finnish firms, and using the entrepreneurial orientation (EO) literature to frame our arguments, we demonstrate that relationships among proactivity, risk-taking and innovation output differ in family and non-family firms. Specifically, we find evidence...... that risk-taking does not affect innovation output in family firms, whereas in non-family firms, innovation output is increased through risk-taking. Also, proactive family firms influence their innovation output more positively than proactive non-family firms do. This study adds important new insights...

  6. Exploration of Barriers in Achieving Proactive Environmental Strategies in a Natural Rubber Industry : A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarifa Arum Kusumastuti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available As the evolving of environmental issues over time, the development of environmental management approaches in industries began to shift to the prevention of pollution to reduce environmental impact. However, in practice, many obstacles encountered during the environmental management change to be more proactive. This study aims to explore the barriers of achieving the proactive environmental strategy in a rubber processing industry. Used a case study approach in a natural rubber processing factory, the data was collected through interviews with experts and sources as well as observation in the field. This study shows main barriers that faced by the company consist of financial issue, human resources, communities’ pressure, technological change and communication with environmental experts. The results of this study suggest conducting cooperation with research institutions or environmental experts especially for skills that cannot be controlled by the manager or employees in the company. 

  7. Real-time Trading Strategies for Proactive Distribution Company with Distributed Generation and Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Qi

    and DR resources, and upwardly trading in the TL real-time market, resulting in a proactive manner. The DL aggregator (DA) is dened to manage these small-scale and dispersed DGs and DRs. A methodology is proposed in this thesis for a proactive DISCO (PDISCO) to strategically trade with DAs......-level model is proposed to elaborate the interactions between the PDISCO's bids/offers and the TL market's outcomes. The PDISCO's trading performance features in a bidirectional transaction. In this thesis, replacing the lower-level problems with the primal-dual approach, each proposed bi-level model......Distributed energy resources (DERs), such as distributed generation (DG) and demand response (DR), have been recognized worldwide as valuable resources. High integration of DG and DR in the distribution network inspires a potential deregulated environment for the distribution company (DISCO...

  8. How do new ventures in MNC ecosystems proactively overcome interfirm asymmetries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shameen Prashantham

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Several contemporary large multinational corporations (MNCs have developed interfirm ecosystems that are likely to attract a heterogeneous set of actors, including new ventures. New ventures are asymmetric vis-à-vis the focal MNC in terms of organisational size, structure and power which could be an impediment to the development of social capital between these sets of firms. And yet MNCs are potentially a source of novel information, opportunities and ideas. An interesting question to consider therefore is how new ventures overcome interfirm asymmetries to develop and leverage social capital with large MNCs. Our synthesis of the academic literature suggests that some new ventures are more adept than others at partnering with MNCs because they are more proactive in forming and leveraging interfirm ties with large MNCs. Insightful observations of four panellists shed light on how startups’ proactive behaviours can be vitally important in forming, consolidating and extending relationships with large MNCs.

  9. Social identity, peer group rejection, and young children's reactive, displaced, and proactive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesdale, Drew; Duffy, Amanda

    2011-11-01

    The effects of peer group rejection on 7- and 9-year-old children's (N= 192) reactive, displaced, and proactive aggression were examined in a group simulation study. Children were assigned membership in a pretend social group for a drawing competition and were then rejected or accepted by their group. Their direct and indirect aggressive intentions towards either the ingroup or outgroup were assessed. Analysis of their aggressive intentions revealed enhanced indirect aggression but less direct aggression. Peer group rejection, in comparison with acceptance, instigated reactive aggression towards the ingroup, and displaced reactive aggression towards the outgroup. Accepted children displayed proactive aggression towards the outgroup but not the ingroup. The implications of the findings for peer group rejection and aggression research are discussed.

  10. Relations of children's proactive and reactive assertiveness to peer acceptance: moderating effects of social interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Han-Jong

    2014-06-01

    Previous studies on the social outcome of assertiveness reported mixed findings, failing to support the assumption that assertiveness promotes peer acceptance. In an attempt to provide explanations for the inconsistencies in prior findings, this study proposed making a distinction between proactive and reactive assertiveness and examined the moderating effects of social interest. A total of 441 fifth and sixth graders (232 boys, 209 girls; M age = 10.6 yr., SD = 0.6) participated in the study. Results indicated that proactive assertiveness was positively related to peer acceptance regardless of social interest. By contrast, reactive assertiveness was positively related to peer acceptance but only when social interest is high. When social interest is low, it was negatively associated with peer acceptance.

  11. Spreading the Eco-Message: Using Proactive Coping to Aid Eco-Rep Behavior Change Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Zawadzki

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Making pro-environmental behavior changes can be difficult, particularly when these changes challenge daily routines and comfortable lifestyles. We designed and implemented an eco-representative intervention program to help students reduce their energy use by proactively coping with barriers to pro-environmental behavior change, and then communicate effective behavior change strategies to student peers. Twenty-nine first-year college students participated in a four-week proactive coping training to change five environmentally impactful behaviors and then spread behavior change messages to fellow residents during a two-week energy challenge. Eco-reps successfully changed their own behaviors in a pro-environmental direction by generating important barriers and successful facilitators for behavior change, and eco-rep residence halls were more likely to reduce energy and maintain reductions compared to non-eco-rep halls. Implications for future environmental behavior change interventions are discussed.

  12. Proactive Coping Behavior in Sample of University Students in Helping Professions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Vaculíková

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study is twofold. First is to carry out item and scale analysis of the Czech version of the Proactive Coping Inventory (PCI on a selected sample of university students in helping professions (n = 176. Second is to identify the use of proactive coping strategies by gender, age, specialization and year of study. The PCI scales reached satisfactory item-total correlations, besides the items presented (8, 39 and 48. Internal consistency of the PCI scales ranged from .71 to .8, except low α for Strategic Planning. Students reached the highest use of emotional and instrumental support seeking with no overall socio-demographic differences. Further, interrelationships among the PCI scales and correlations within a subjective well-being, depression and social support are presented.

  13. The role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Rebecca P; Huan, Vivien S; Chan, Wei Teng; Cheong, Siew Ann; Leaw, Jia Ning

    2015-06-01

    Given the robust positive association between gangs and crime, a better understanding of factors related to reported youth gang membership is critical and especially since youth in gangs are a universal concern. The present study investigated the role of delinquency, proactive aggression, psychopathy and behavioral school engagement in reported youth gang membership using a large sample of 1027 Singapore adolescents. Results from logistic regression showed that delinquency, proactive aggression, and behavioral school engagement were statistically significant risk factors for reported youth gang membership, and that psychopathy was not related to reported gang membership. Implications for prevention and intervention work with respect to youth gang membership were discussed. In particular, strengthening students' engagement with school and meaningful school-related activities and developing supportive teacher-student relationships are particularly important in working with young people with respect to prevention work. Additionally, the present study's theoretical and empirical contributions were also discussed.

  14. Language proficiency and executive control in proactive interference: evidence from monolingual and bilingual children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialystok, Ellen; Feng, Xiaojia

    2009-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children (Study 1) and adults (Study 2) completed a memory task involving proactive interference. In both cases, the bilinguals attained lower scores on a vocabulary test than monolinguals but performed the same on the proactive interference task. For the children, bilinguals made fewer intrusions from previous lists even though they recalled the same number of words. For the adults, bilinguals recalled more words than monolinguals when the scores were corrected for differences in vocabulary. In addition, there was a strong effect of vocabulary in which higher vocabulary participants recalled more words irrespective of language group. These results point to the important role of vocabulary in verbal performance and memory. They also suggest that bilinguals may compensate for weaker language proficiency with their greater executive control to achieve the same or better levels of performance as monolinguals.

  15. Agile and Pro-Active Public Administration as a Collaborative Networked Organization

    CERN Document Server

    Cellary, Wojciech

    2011-01-01

    In highly competitive, globalized economies and societies of always-on-line people intensively using the Internet and mobile phones, public administrations have to adapt to new challenges. Enterprises and citizens expect public administrations to be agile and pro-active to foster development. A way to achieve agility and pro-activity is application of a model of Collaborative Network Organizations in its two forms: Virtual Organizations (VO) and Virtual Organization Breeding Environments (VOBE). In the paper, advantages are shown of public administration playing a role of a Virtual Organization customer on the one hand, and a Virtual Organization member on the other hand. It is also shown how public administration playing a role of a Virtual Organization Breeding Environment may improve its agility and promote advanced technologies and management methods among local organizations. It is argued in the paper that public administration should provide a Virtual Organization Breeding Environment as a part of publi...

  16. An intrusion prevention system as a proactive security mechanism in network infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulanović Nenad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A properly configured firewall is a good starting point in securing a computer network. However, complex network environments that involve higher number of participants and endpoints require better security infrastructure. Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS, proposed as a solution to perimeter defense, have many open problems and it is clear that better solutions must be found. Due to many unsolved problems associated with IDS, Intrusion Prevention Systems (IPS are introduced. The main idea in IPS is to be proactive. This paper gives an insight of Cobrador Bouncer IPS implementation. System architecture is given and three different Bouncer IPS deployment modes are presented. The Bouncer IPS as a proactive honeypot is also discussed.

  17. Recovery, work engagement, and proactive behavior : a new look at the interface between nonwork and work

    OpenAIRE

    Sonnentag, Sabine

    2003-01-01

    This study examined work-related outcomes of recovery during leisure time. A total of 147 employees completed a questionnaire and a daily survey over a period of 5 consecutive work days. Multilevel analyses showed that day-level recovery was positively related to day-level work engagement and day-level proactive behavior (personal initiative, pursuit of learning) during the subsequent work day. The data suggest considerable daily fluctuations in behavior and attitudes at work, with evidence t...

  18. Investigating the relationship between wine tourism and proactive environmental management at wineries

    OpenAIRE

    Leddy, Maureen Ann

    2013-01-01

    The importance of environmental attractiveness to wine tourism coupled with evidence of consumer demand for sustainably produced wines suggest that tourism may be influencing proactive environmental management practices at wineries. This exploratory study investigated the relationship between environmental sustainability and wine tourism using semi-structured in-depth interviews with decision makers at wineries in the State of California. This study discovered that while tourism was not a sta...

  19. The role of stop-signal probability and expectation in proactive inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, Matthijs; Kaldewaij, Reinoud; Zandbelt, Bram B; Pas, Pascal; du Plessis, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    The subjective belief of what will happen plays an important role across many cognitive domains, including response inhibition. However, tasks that study inhibition do not distinguish between the processing of objective contextual cues indicating stop-signal probability and the subjective expectation that a stop-signal will or will not occur. Here we investigated the effects of stop-signal probability and the expectation of a stop-signal on proactive inhibition. Twenty participants performed a modified stop-signal anticipation task while being scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging. At the beginning of each trial, the stop-signal probability was indicated by a cue (0% or > 0%), and participants had to indicate whether they expected a stop-signal to occur (yes/no/don't know). Participants slowed down responding on trials with a > 0% stop-signal probability, but this proactive response slowing was even greater when they expected a stop-signal to occur. Analyses were performed in brain regions previously associated with proactive inhibition. Activation in the striatum, supplementary motor area and left dorsal premotor cortex during the cue period was increased when participants expected a stop-signal to occur. In contrast, activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus and right inferior parietal cortex activity during the stimulus-response period was related to the processing of contextual cues signalling objective stop-signal probability, regardless of expectation. These data show that proactive inhibition depends on both the processing of objective contextual task information and the subjective expectation of stop-signals.

  20. Differential Genetic and Environmental Influences on Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Children

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    While significant heritability for childhood aggression has been claimed, it is not known whether there are differential genetic and environmental contributions to proactive and reactive forms of aggression in children. This study quantifies genetic and environmental contributions to these two forms of aggression in an ethnically diverse urban sample of 9–10 year old twins (N=1219), and compares results across different informants (child self-report, mother, and teacher ratings) using the Rea...

  1. A Proactive Means for Incorporating a Software Architecture Evaluation in a DoD System Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    A Proactive Means for Incorporating a Software Architecture Evaluation in a DoD System Acquisition John K. Bergey July 2009 TECHNICAL...www.sei.cmu.edu/publications/documents/06.reports/06tr012.html. [ Bergey 2001] Bergey , J. & Fisher, M. Use of the ATAM in the Acquisition of Software...publications/documents/01.reports/01tn009.html. [ Bergey 2005] Bergey , John K. & Clements, Paul C. Software Architecture in DoD Acquisition: An Approach and

  2. Proactive and retroactive transfer of middle age adults in a sequential motor learning task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verneau, Marion; van der Kamp, John; Savelsbergh, Geert J P; de Looze, Michiel P

    2015-03-01

    We assessed the effects of aging in the transfer of motor learning in a sequential manual assembly task that is representative for real working conditions. On two different days, young (18-30 years) and middle-aged adults (50-65 years) practiced to build two products that consisted of the same six components but which had to be assembled in a partly different order. Assembly accuracy and movement time during tests, which were performed before and after the practice sessions, were compared to determine proactive and retroactive transfer. The results showed proactive facilitation (i.e., benefits from having learned the first product on learning the second one) in terms of an overall shortening of movement time in both age-groups. In addition, only the middle-aged adults were found to show sequence-specific proactive facilitation, in which the shortening of movement time was limited to components that had the same the order in the two products. Most likely, however, the sequence-specific transfer was an epiphenomenon of the comparatively low rate of learning among the middle-aged adults. The results, however, did reveal genuine differences between the groups for retroactive transfer (i.e., effects from learning the second product on performance of the first). Middle-aged adults tended to show more pronounced retroactive interference in terms of a general decrease in accuracy, while younger adults showed sequence-specific retroactive facilitation (i.e., shortening of movement times for components that had the same order in the two products), but only when they were fully accurate. Together this suggests that in the learning of sequential motor tasks the effects of age are more marked for retroactive transfer than for proactive transfer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The fierce urgency of now: a proactive, pervasive content awareness tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, James E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Collins, Linn M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Mark L B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Information awareness is distinct from explicit infonnation seeking, such as searching. We describe an information awareness tool that supports text composition by providing awareness of relevant content and references proactively and non-intrusively. As a user composes text, the tool automatically searches mUltiple sources, retrieves results, and displays links to the results. The tool has been implemented using Web 2.0 and Digital Library 2.0 technologies, and is flexible and highly configurable.

  4. Heart Rate as a Moderator between Child Abuse Potential and Reactive and Proactive Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Akiho

    2006-01-01

    Previous research regarding the biosocial approach to aggression suggests that the interaction between biological and environmental variables contribute to aggression. However, this particular relationship has not yet been fully explored in children. Therefore, this study examined the moderating influence of psychophysiological activity, particularly resting heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV), on the relationship between child abuse potential (CAP) and child reactive and proactive aggre...

  5. COLLABORATIVE RULE-BASED PROACTIVE SYSTEMS: MODEL, INFORMATION SHARING STRATEGY AND CASE STUDIES

    OpenAIRE

    Dobrican, Remus-Alexandru

    2016-01-01

    The Proactive Computing paradigm provides us with a new way to make the multitude of computing systems, devices and sensors spread through our modern environment, work for/pro the human beings and be active on our behalf. In this paradigm, users are put on top of the interactive loop and the underlying IT systems are automated for performing even the most complex tasks in a more autonomous way. This dissertation focuses on providing further means, at both theoretical and applied levels, to...

  6. When the Ice Melts: Developing Proactive American Strategy for the Eurasian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    953-2269 E-mail: acsc.der.researchorgmailbox@us.af.mil AIR UNIVERSITY AIR COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE When the Ice Melts Developing Proactive American...increase as the Arctic ice cap continues to melt . Accessibility hinges on many factors. Foremost among them may be the occurrence of an ice -free...record saying the Arctic’s summer sea ice will fully melt around 2030,” the Arctic Institute report stated.12 However, multiple models show the

  7. Development and implementation of a proactive geriatrics consultation model in collaboration with hospitalists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sennour, Youcef; Counsell, Steven R; Jones, Jerrlyn; Weiner, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Acutely ill hospitalized older adults often experience a decline in function that may be preventable using a proactive, interdisciplinary, patient-centered approach. Hospitalists are treating an increasing number of these patients. A collaborative geriatrics consultation model to prevent functional decline and improve care for older patients with geriatrics syndromes was developed and implemented in partnership with a large hospitalist group in a community teaching hospital. A team of a geriatrician and a geriatrics nurse practitioner led the new consultation service. The team assisted with identifying cases, provided consultation early in the hospital stay, focused its evaluation on functional and psychosocial issues, and assisted in clinical management to optimize implementation of recommendations. In the first 4 years, the consultation service conducted 1,538 consultations in patients with a mean age of 81 (range 56-103). The most frequent geriatrics diagnoses were gait instability, delirium, and depression; recommendations usually included consulting physical therapy, increasing activity, and changing medications. The number of referrals and referring physicians grew steadily each year. Twenty-eight of 34 (82%) of the referring hospitalists completed a Web-based satisfaction questionnaire. All responding hospitalists agreed that proactive geriatrics consultation helped them provide better care; 96% rated the service as excellent. Analysis of hospital administrative data revealed a lower length of stay index and lower hospital costs in patients receiving a geriatrics consultation. The Proactive Geriatrics Consultation Service represents a promising model of collaboration between hospitalists and geriatricians for improving care of hospitalized older adults.

  8. Proactive Public Disclosure: A new regulatory strategy for creating tax compliance?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boll Karen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses proactive public disclosure of taxpayer information and how this may form a new strategy for securing tax compliance by tax administrators. It reports a case study from the Danish Customs and Tax Administration in which consumers of services-over a short period of time-were informed about businesses’ lack of value-added tax (VAT registration. Our approach to the case is twofold: First, the article lays out a legal analysis of the disclosure practice, and second, the article presents an organizational analysis of why the practice was initiated. The analyses show that using proactive public disclosure is compatible with the Duty of Confidentiality, but incompatible with Good Public Governance. Furthermore, the analyses show that there are a number of strong organizational rationales for using proactive public disclosure, despite its apparent incompatibility with Good Public Governance. The article is innovative in that it combines a legal and organizational approach to analyse a new regulatory strategy within tax administration.

  9. Being hot-tempered: autonomic, emotional, and behavioral distinctions between childhood reactive and proactive aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, Angela; Haden, Sara Chiara; Tanaka, Akiho

    2010-07-01

    Reactive aggression (RA) is an angry response to perceived provocation. Proactive aggression (PA) is a pre-meditated act used to achieve some goal. This study test hypotheses that (1) individuals high in RA and PA will differ in resting levels of autonomic arousal and (2) RA will be related to emotional and behavioral problems, while PA only to behavioral problems. Parents of 68 children (age 6-13) reported on child symptoms, reactive/proactive aggression, and behavior problems. Resting heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SC), and HR variability (HRV) were measured in 42 of the children. RA was significantly related to decreased HRV and a trend for decreased SC, while PA was significantly related to increased SC and HRV. RA was significantly related to increased internalizing behaviors and attention deficits, while PA was significantly related to increased hyperactivity/impulsivity and delinquent behavior problems. Findings support a distinction between child reactive (hot-tempered) and proactive (cold-tempered) aggression in autonomic, emotional (i.e., internalizing problems), and behavioral (i.e., attention deficits, hyperactivity/impulsivity, and delinquent behavior) functioning, and are discussed in relation to theories of antisocial behavior.

  10. Effective Proactive and Reactive Defense Strategies against Malicious Attacks in a Virtualized Honeynet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Yeong-Sung Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtualization plays an important role in the recent trend of cloud computing. It allows the administrator to manage and allocate hardware resources flexibly. However, it also causes some security issues. This is a critical problem for service providers, who simultaneously strive to defend against malicious attackers while providing legitimate users with high quality service. In this paper, the attack-defense scenario is formulated as a mathematical model where the defender applies both proactive and reactive defense mechanisms against attackers with different attack strategies. In order to simulate real-world conditions, the attackers are assumed to have incomplete information and imperfect knowledge of the target network. This raises the difficulty of solving the model greatly, by turning the problem nondeterministic. After examining the experiment results, effective proactive and reactive defense strategies are proposed. This paper finds that a proactive defense strategy is suitable for dealing with aggressive attackers under “winner takes all” circumstances, while a reactive defense strategy works better in defending against less aggressive attackers under “fight to win or die” circumstances.

  11. The Association of Childhood Fitness to Proactive and Reactive Action Monitoring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Kamijo

    Full Text Available Several studies have claimed that the positive association between childhood fitness and cognitive control is attributable to differences in the child's cognitive control strategy, which can involve either proactive or reactive control. The present study tested this hypothesis by manipulating the probability of trial types during a modified flanker task. Preadolescent children performed mostly congruent and mostly incongruent conditions of the flanker task, with post-error task performance and error negativity/error-related negativity (Ne/ERN being assessed. Results indicated that greater aerobic fitness was related to greater post-error accuracy and larger Ne/ERN amplitudes in the mostly congruent condition. These findings suggest that higher-fit children might be able to transiently upregulate cognitive control by recruiting reactive control in the mostly congruent condition. Further, greater fitness was related to greater modulation of Ne/ERN amplitude between conditions, suggesting that higher-fit children engaged in more proactive control in the mostly incongruent condition. This study supports the hypothesis that greater childhood fitness is associated with a more flexible shift between reactive and proactive modes of cognitive control to adapt to varying task demands.

  12. Integrating Statistical Machine Learning in a Semantic Sensor Web for Proactive Monitoring and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Jude Adekunle; Moodley, Deshendran; Rens, Gavin; Adewumi, Aderemi Oluyinka

    2017-04-09

    Proactive monitoring and control of our natural and built environments is important in various application scenarios. Semantic Sensor Web technologies have been well researched and used for environmental monitoring applications to expose sensor data for analysis in order to provide responsive actions in situations of interest. While these applications provide quick response to situations, to minimize their unwanted effects, research efforts are still necessary to provide techniques that can anticipate the future to support proactive control, such that unwanted situations can be averted altogether. This study integrates a statistical machine learning based predictive model in a Semantic Sensor Web using stream reasoning. The approach is evaluated in an indoor air quality monitoring case study. A sliding window approach that employs the Multilayer Perceptron model to predict short term PM 2 . 5 pollution situations is integrated into the proactive monitoring and control framework. Results show that the proposed approach can effectively predict short term PM 2 . 5 pollution situations: precision of up to 0.86 and sensitivity of up to 0.85 is achieved over half hour prediction horizons, making it possible for the system to warn occupants or even to autonomously avert the predicted pollution situations within the context of Semantic Sensor Web.

  13. Communal proactive coping strategies among Tamil refugees in Norway: A case study in a naturalistic setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guribye Eugene

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An exclusive focus on individual or family coping strategies may be inadequate for people whose major point of concern may be collective healing on a more communal level. Methods To our knowledge, the current study is the first to make use of ethnographic fieldwork methods to investigate this type of coping as a process in a natural setting over time. Participant observation was employed within a Tamil NGO in Norway between August 2006 and December 2008. Results Tamil refugees in Norway co-operated to appraise their shared life situation and accumulate resources communally to improve it in culturally meaningful ways. Long term aspirations were related to both the situation in the homeland and in exile. However, unforeseen social events created considerable challenges and forced them to modify and adapt their coping strategies. Conclusions We describe a form of coping previously not described in the scientific literature: Communal proactive coping strategies, defined as the process by which group members feel collectively responsible for their future well-being and co-operate to promote desired outcomes and prevent undesired changes. The study shows that proactive coping efforts occur in a dynamic social setting which may force people to use their accumulated proactive coping resources in reactive coping efforts. Theoretical and clinical implications are explored.

  14. Integrating Statistical Machine Learning in a Semantic Sensor Web for Proactive Monitoring and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Adekunle Adeleke

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Proactive monitoring and control of our natural and built environments is important in various application scenarios. Semantic Sensor Web technologies have been well researched and used for environmental monitoring applications to expose sensor data for analysis in order to provide responsive actions in situations of interest. While these applications provide quick response to situations, to minimize their unwanted effects, research efforts are still necessary to provide techniques that can anticipate the future to support proactive control, such that unwanted situations can be averted altogether. This study integrates a statistical machine learning based predictive model in a Semantic Sensor Web using stream reasoning. The approach is evaluated in an indoor air quality monitoring case study. A sliding window approach that employs the Multilayer Perceptron model to predict short term PM 2 . 5 pollution situations is integrated into the proactive monitoring and control framework. Results show that the proposed approach can effectively predict short term PM 2 . 5 pollution situations: precision of up to 0.86 and sensitivity of up to 0.85 is achieved over half hour prediction horizons, making it possible for the system to warn occupants or even to autonomously avert the predicted pollution situations within the context of Semantic Sensor Web.

  15. [Neurobiological aspects of reactive and proactive violence in antisocial personality disorder and "psychopathy"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Gerhard; Strüber, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Impulsive-reactive violent offenders show increased autonomic activity in response to negative emotional and threatening stimuli. A volume reduction and/or activity decrease of frontal brain structures associated with impulse control and the regulation of fear and anger are likewise found in combination with a fear-related hyperactivity of the amygdala. In addition, impulsive aggression is facilitated by variants of gene polymorphisms influencing the serotonergic system. Conversely, proactive-instrumental violent offender with psychopathy, who are characterized by a lack of empathy and remorse, demonstrate an autonomic hypo-responsivity as well as dysfunctions of the amygdala and of cortical regions related to empathic and social behavior. Developmentally, aggressive children exhibit temperamental differences from early childhood on that are characteristic of a developmental pathway towards either reactive or proactive violence later in life. Exposure to negative environmental factors like ineffective parenting or childhood maltreatment has been related to a heightened risk for developing reactive violence. A developmental trajectory of proactive violence, however, has been related to a mostly genetically determined callous unemotional temperament of the child that disrupts the parental socialization efforts during childhood.

  16. Proactive Transparency Policy in the Mercosur Local Governments: Regulation vs. Self-Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoli GARCÍA-TABUYO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to develop the fi ndings of a previous research on policies regarding proactive information disclosure, both voluntary and mandatory. We present and analyze new evidence on the factors that infl uence decisions taken in this respect. This study is focused on Mercosur area, a region that has received little previous research attention on these issues. To achieve the study goals, we analyze the proactive information disclosure made by local authorities, regarding both the degree of compliance with legal requirements and whether these local authorities are voluntarily and homogeneously implementing the proactive information disclosure policies recommended by the Organization of American States (OAS. Finally, with respect to the voluntary information provision, we determine the infl uence of environmental factors on information disclosure. The results obtained show that transparency is more an issue of attitude than of laws, and highlight the existence of a large gap between legal requirements, the OAS requirements and actual performance. Finally, it can be seen that fi ve factors are statistically signifi cant for the voluntary disclosure of the OAS recommended items: corruption, technology, size, mandatory disclosure policy and socio-economic development.

  17. A cross-national study of work engagement as a mediator between job resources and proactive behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Salanova Soria, Marisa; WILMAR B. SCHAUFELI

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the mediating role of work engagement (i.e, vigor and dedication) among job resources (i.e., job control, feedback and variety) and proactive behavior at work. This mediating role was investigated, using Structural Equation Modeling in two independent samples from Spain (n= 386 technology employees) and The Netherlands (n= 338 telecom managers). Results in both samples confirmed that work engagement fully mediates the impact of job resources on proactive behavior. Subs...

  18. Proactive Ergonomics Based on Digitalization Using 3D Scanning and Workplace Modeling in Texnomatix Jack with Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Hovanec, Micha; Pačaiová, Hana; Hrozek, František; Varga, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This paper suggests a vision of present possibilities of modern ergonomics, and an application model of the proposed system in the digital environment of digital plant. Future trends and visions use a proactive approach of modern ergonomics integrated with sustainable success management. The implementation of new approaches digital plant of ergonomics and occupational safety and health management assumes synergic effect brought by the harmony between proactive ergonomics and risk management i...

  19. 愿景型领导对员工创造力的影响机制研究%A Study on the Influencing Mechanism of Visionary Leadership on Employee Creativity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆证; 周路路

    2015-01-01

    在创造力研究中,以往的研究更多关注如何激发员工产生“新奇”想法,而忽视了想法对组织的“有用”性。而愿景型领导能够促使员工为组织创造价值,提升员工“新奇”想法的有用性。文章通过对江苏省两家大型民营企业集团中的532名员工及其89名主管的配对数据,探讨了愿景型领导对员工创造力的中介影响机制和价值观一致性的调节作用。研究结果表明:学习导向在愿景型领导和员工创造力之间起部分中介作用;价值观一致性增进了愿景型领导对学习导向的正向作用,进而对员工的创造力有积极影响。通过构建中介调节模型,揭示了愿景型领导对创造力影响的中介机制及其重要的情境因素,对提升员工创造力有重要的理论价值和现实意义。%The previous studies of creativity has paid more attention to how to inspire employees to generate“novel”ideas, however,they ignored whether the ideas were useful for organizations. Visionary leadership can promote employees to create value for organizations and enhance the“usefulness”of employees’“novel”ideas. Based on the matching data of 532 employ⁃ees and 89 supervisors from two large private enterprises in Jiangsu province,the paper explores the moderating effect of vi⁃sionary leadership on the mediating influence mechanism of employee creativity and value congruence. The results show that learning orientation plays a partial mediating role in the relationship between visionary leadership and employee creativity. Value congruence improves the positive effect of visionary leadership on learning orientation,and then has a positive effect on employee creativity. The paper,by constructing a mediated moderation model,reveals the mediating mechanism and im⁃portant contextual factors of visionary leadership on employee creativity. The study has important theoretical value and practi

  20. Proactive Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte; Lundh Snis, Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    Many organizations today require continuous development and effective learning processes to meet the challenges of globalization and digitalization. In this seven-year study, we investigate a learning practice as an integrated part of work in a global IT company on their way to act more knowledge......Many organizations today require continuous development and effective learning processes to meet the challenges of globalization and digitalization. In this seven-year study, we investigate a learning practice as an integrated part of work in a global IT company on their way to act more...

  1. Proactive Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte; Lundh Snis, Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    Many organizations today require continuous development and effective learning processes to meet the challenges of globalization and digitalization. In this seven-year study, we investigate a learning practice as an integrated part of work in a global IT company on their way to act more knowledge...

  2. Improving Hypertension Control in Diabetes Mellitus The Effects of Collaborative and Proactive Health Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Aanand D.; Kallen, Michael A.; Walder, Annette; Street, Richard L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Communication between patients and clinicians using collaborative goals and treatment plans may overcome barriers to achieving hypertension control in routine diabetes mellitus care. We assessed the interrelation of patient–clinician communication factors to determine their independent associations with hypertension control in diabetes care. Methods and Results We identified 566 older adults with diabetes mellitus and hypertension at the DeBakey VA Medical Center in Houston, Tex. Clinical and pharmacy data were collected, and a patient questionnaire was sent to all participants. A total of 212 individuals returned surveys. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the effect of patient characteristics, self-management behaviors, and communication factors on hypertension control. Three communication factors had significant associations with hypertension control. Two factors, patients' endorsement of a shared decision-making style (odds ratio 1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.01 to 2.57) and proactive communication with one's clinician about abnormal results of blood pressure self-monitoring (odds ratio 1.89, 95% confidence interval 1.10 to 3.26), had direct, independent associations in multivariate regression. Path analysis was used to investigate the direct and indirect effects of communication factors and hypertension control. Decision-making style (β=0.20, P<0.01) and proactive communication (β=0.50, P<0.0001) again demonstrated direct effects on hypertension control. A third factor, clinicians' use of collaborative communication when setting treatment goals, had a total effect on hypertension control of 0.16 (P<0.05) through its direct effects on decision-making style (β=0.28, P<0.001) and proactive communication (β=0.22, P<0.01). Conclusions Three communication factors were found to have significant associations with hypertension control. Patient–clinician communication that facilitates collaborative blood pressure goals and

  3. Multiple synergistic effects of emotion and memory on proactive processes leading to scene recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schettino, Antonio; Loeys, Tom; Pourtois, Gilles

    2013-11-01

    Visual scene recognition is a proactive process through which contextual cues and top-down expectations facilitate the extraction of invariant features. Whether the emotional content of the scenes exerts a reliable influence on these processes or not, however, remains an open question. Here, topographic ERP mapping analysis and a distributed source localization method were used to characterize the electrophysiological correlates of proactive processes leading to scene recognition, as well as the potential modulation of these processes by memory and emotion. On each trial, the content of a complex neutral or emotional scene was progressively revealed, and participants were asked to decide whether this scene had previously been encountered or not (delayed match-to-sample task). Behavioral results showed earlier recognition for old compared to new scenes, as well as delayed recognition for emotional vs. neutral scenes. Electrophysiological results revealed that, ~400 ms following stimulus onset, activity in ventral object-selective regions increased linearly as a function of accumulation of perceptual evidence prior to recognition of old scenes. The emotional content of the scenes had an early influence in these areas. By comparison, at the same latency, the processing of new scenes was mostly achieved by dorsal and medial frontal brain areas, including the anterior cingulate cortex and the insula. In the latter region, emotion biased recognition at later stages, likely corresponding to decision making processes. These findings suggest that emotion can operate at distinct and multiple levels during proactive processes leading to scene recognition, depending on the extent of prior encounter with these scenes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Recovery, work engagement, and proactive behavior: a new look at the interface between nonwork and work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, Sabine

    2003-06-01

    This study examined work-related outcomes of recovery during leisure time. A total of 147 employees completed a questionnaire and a daily survey over a period of 5 consecutive work days. Multilevel analyses showed that day-level recovery was positively related to day-level work engagement and day-level proactive behavior (personal initiative, pursuit of learning) during the subsequent work day. The data suggest considerable daily fluctuations in behavior and attitudes at work, with evidence that these are related to prior experience and opportunity for recovery in the nonwork domain.

  5. Navigational Traffic Conflict Technique: A Proactive Approach to Quantitative Measurement of Collision Risks in Port Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Ashim Kumar; Chin, Hoong Chor

    Navigational safety analysis relying on collision statistics is often hampered because of the low number of observations. A promising alternative approach that overcomes this problem is proposed in this paper. By analyzing critical vessel interactions this approach proactively measures collision risk in port waters. The proposed method is illustrated for quantitative measurement of collision risks in Singapore port fairways, and validated by examining correlations between the measured risks with those perceived by pilots. This method is an ethically appealing alternative to the collision-based analysis for fast, reliable and effective safety assessment, thus possessing great potential for managing collision risks in port waters.

  6. Real-Time Trading Strategies of Proactive DISCO with Heterogeneous DG Owners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Qi; Wang, Jianhui;

    2016-01-01

    procurements from DGOs and the transactions within the real-time market. A one-leader multi-follower-type bilevel model is proposed to embody the PDISCO-DGO gaming structure. The upper-level (UL) problem is to maximize the PDISCO’s profit, while the lower-level (LL) problem indicates the profit maximization......This paper presents a methodology to obtain the optimal trading strategies between the proactive distribution company (PDISCO), heterogeneous distributed generation owners (DGOs) and wholesale market in a real-time trading framework. In this framework, the PDISCO’s decisions cover the power...

  7. Assessing benefits, costs, and disparate racial impacts of confrontational proactive policing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manski, Charles F; Nagin, Daniel S

    2017-08-29

    Effective policing in a democratic society must balance the sometime conflicting objectives of public safety and community trust. This paper uses a formal model of optimal policing to explore how society might reasonably resolve the tension between these two objectives as well as evaluate disparate racial impacts. We do so by considering the social benefits and costs of confrontational types of proactive policing, such as stop, question, and frisk. Three features of the optimum that are particularly relevant to policy choices are explored: (i) the cost of enforcement against the innocent, (ii) the baseline level of crime rate without confrontational enforcement, and (iii) differences across demographic groups in the optimal rate of enforcement.

  8. Real-Time Procurement Strategies of a Proactive Distribution Company with Aggregator-Based Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Qi; Wang, Jianhui;

    2016-01-01

    and inelastic demand components. A one-leader multi-follower bilevel model is proposed to derive the procurement strategies, i.e., the upper-level problem intends to maximize the profit of the proactive distribution company, while the lower-level expresses the profit maximization per rational aggregator......In this paper, we present a real-time trading framework for distribution networks where a rational aggregator is identified as a broker by contracting with individual demands and dealing with the distribution company. Demand response capability is characterized by the coexistence of elastic...

  9. [Complaints about bureaucracy in health care? Time for a proactive medical profession].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giard, Raimond W M

    2010-01-01

    Health care is in profound transition, its organization changing from being service-oriented to outcomes-oriented. Doctors are complaining of too much bureaucracy. However, the increasing complexity of healthcare demands rationalization, standardization and optimization of processes. At the same time, the practice of medicine is increasingly politicized. If doctors are the key to healthcare reform, how then are they to be motivated? It is imperative that they become more proactive and engage in leadership. They are the first to ensure that the main goals of medicine remain evidence-based prevention and cure of disease. Passivity will create opportunity for bureaucracy.

  10. Exploring moderating effects of proactivity on the relationship between market information and innovation performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branka Ahlin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite its importance, the relationship between market information and innovation performance has seldom been investigated in SMEs, much less in multiple-country settings. Given the limited body of knowledge on this important topic, the question of why some entrepreneurs use market information better than others for the purpose of innovation has yet to be addressed. In this study we propose that entrepreneur’s proactivity influences the effectiveness of market information in the innovation process. We propose a conceptual model and test it on SMEs from the United States and Slovenia. The paper concludes by discussing the implications of these results for entrepreneurship theory and practice.

  11. Proactive health consumerism: an important new tool for worksite health promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sara S; Cummins, Carol O; Evers, Kerry E; Prochaska, Janice M; Prochaska, James O

    2009-01-01

    Consumerism in health care has taken on the form of a major innovation among employers and health plans. Yet many of our efforts to enhance the skills and attitudes that enable consumerism have met with limited success. Proactive Health Consumerism is proposed as an approach that utilizes many of the hard-won lessons from health promotion research. Along with prerequisites that create the motivation and framework for increased health consumerism, this article provides a theory-driven example of a new tool for health promotion professionals to employ when enhancing the health consumer skills of working populations. Strategies for maximization of effectiveness and integration with supporting resources are also described.

  12. Pro-active environmental strategies – main source of competitive advantage within economic organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana-Catalina TÃPURICA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, contemporary organizations within Romanian economic environment are striving to reach the environmental and quality performance standards set up by the European Union, concerning the environmental protection and preservation. Under these circumstances, the organizations are highly recommended, especially those operating in high environmental impact economic sectors, to develop and implement proactive environmental strategies, as a main source to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage on the market. Developing such strategic instruments is more and more important as long as the reactive environmental strategies tend to become counter-performing within a challenging, dynamic and equilibrated competitive environment, which better describes the knowledge-based society.

  13. Network Structure, Diversity, and Proactive Resilience Building: a Response to Tompkins and Adger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Dale

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Although community social networks can build resilience, and thus, aid adaptation to unexpected environmental change (Tomkins and Adger 2004, not all social networks are created equal. Networks composed of a diversity of “bridging” links to a diverse web of resources and “bonding” links that build trust strengthen a community's ability to adapt to change, but networks composed only of “bonding” links can impose constraining social norms and foster group homophily, reducing resilience. Diversity fosters the resilience needed to adapt to unexpected change, and can also enlarge the ability to proactively make collective decisions that optimize future options.

  14. Proactive behaviour may lead to failure in virtual project-based collaborative learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Hertzum, Morten

    2005-01-01

    This paper argues that proactive behaviour, caused by high engagement and motivation of the learners, may lead to failure of collaborative learning. By examining empirical data from real-world text-only virtual negotiations between dispersed participants engaged in project-based collaborative...... learning, we discover that volunteering self-initiated activities promotes the participants’ individualistic behaviour. Also, the technology made it easy for participants to include their own statements in new contributions and deconstruct the statements of others, permitting few opportunities for others...

  15. Design Concept of Human Interface System for Risk Monitoring for Proactive Trouble Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hidekazu, Yoshikawa; Ming, Yang; Zhijian, Zhang

    2011-01-01

    as reactor coolant in Monju plant, the maintenance for Monju should utilize more automated equipments of remote control and robotics than that of light water reactor. It is necessary to design optimum task allocation between human and automated machine as the requisites for good communication design of human...... interface systems to support the collaboration work between workers at local workplace and the main control room. In this paper, the general issues are reviewed on how to configure the whole human interface system for helping proactive trouble prevention and risk evaluation on the basis of the presented...

  16. Enabling Proactivity in Context-aware Middleware Systems by means of a Planning Framework based on HTN Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Bhargava

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Today’s context-aware systems tend to be reactive or ‘pull’ based - the user requests or queries for some information and the system responds with the requested information. However, none of the systems anticipate the user’s intent and behavior, or take into account his current events and activities to pro-actively ‘push’ relevant information to the user. On the other hand, Proactive context-aware systems can predict and anticipate user intent and behavior, and act proactively on the users’ behalf without explicit requests from them. Two fundamental capabilities of such systems are: prediction and autonomy. In this paper, we address the second capability required by a context-aware system to act proactively i.e. acting autonomously without an explicit user request. To address it, we present a new paradigm for enabling proactivity in context-aware middleware systems by means of a Planning Framework based on HTN planning. We present the design of a Planning Framework within the infrastructure of our intelligent context-aware middleware called Rover II. We also implement this framework and evaluate its utility with several use cases. We also highlight the benefits of using such a framework in dynamic ubiquitous systems.

  17. Randomized prevention trial for early conduct problems: effects on proactive parenting and links to toddler disruptive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Frances; Shaw, Daniel S; Dishion, Thomas J; Burton, Jennifer; Supplee, Lauren

    2007-09-01

    Despite knowledge of early pathways to conduct problems, few preventive interventions are specifically designed to modify disruptive behavior in toddlerhood. One potential prevention target is proactive and positive parenting, which is associated with reduced risk of conduct problems in preschoolers. This randomized trial with 120 low-income 2-year-old boys examined whether a brief family-centered intervention that reduces disruptive behavior (D. Shaw, T. Dishion, L. Supplee, F. Gardner, & K. Arnds, 2006) also leads to increases in proactive and positive parenting. It also explored whether change in parenting predicts change in disruptive behavior. In the intervention group, proactive and positive parenting skills increased among parents of 3-year-olds. Change in proactive and positive parenting of 2- to 3-year-old toddlers correlated with change in child disruptive behavior, although the mediation effect of positive parenting was of only borderline significance. Findings suggest that even within a brief and multifaceted preventive intervention, change in proactive parenting skills contributes modestly but significantly to change in child problem behavior.

  18. A competitively designed version of the point subtraction aggression paradigm is related to proactive aggressive and psychopathic traits in males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlüter, Thorben; Schliwa, Evita S; May, Valerie D; Lammertz, Sarah E; Vernaleken, Ingo

    2017-06-20

    The Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP) is a well-validated and frequently applied behavioral paradigm for provocation and quantification of reactive aggressive behavior in laboratory settings. Here, we design and test a newly developed PSAP version in its ability to quantify proactive aggressive behavior. A group of 119 male volunteers was allocated to the conventional PSAP and two other variants of the PSAP. The first PSAP adaptation intended to abet proactive aggression by monetary reward for aggressive actions. In the second variant, a highly competitive situation was created. In addition, two sets of aggression questionnaires, related to proactive and reactive aggressive and psychopathic traits, were used (Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ), Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised (PPI-R)). Our results showed strong positive correlations among RPQ/PPI-R and aggressive behavior only for the new competitive version of the PSAP. In contrast, the scores of these scales showed weak and non-significant correlations with observed aggression in the two PSAP variants. The scores for reactive aggression were not significantly associated with any of the PSAP versions. These data indicate that aggression on the newly developed competitive PSAP design is mainly driven by proactive aggressive mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Proactive vs. reactive learning on buildings response and earthquake risks, in schools of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela DOBRE

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During the last 20 years, many specific activities of earthquake education and preparedness were initiated and supported in Romania by drafting materials for citizens, students, professors etc. (Georgescu et al., 2004, 2006. The education, training and information on earthquake disaster potential are important factors to mitigate the earthquake effects. Such activities, however, need time to be developed and may take different forms of presentation in order to capture the attention, to increase interest, to develop skills and attitudes in order to induce a proper behavior towards safety preparedness. It shall also be based on the accumulation of concerns and knowledge, which are, in principle, a consequence of the motivation, but which depend on the methods applied and actions taken for efficient earthquake preparedness, assessed and updated following actual earthquakes (Masuda, Midorikawa, Miki and Ohmachi, 1988. We are now at a crossroad and the proactive attitude and behavior (anticipative and participative needs to be extended in learning, within institutional framework, but correlated with the usual targets of schools and teenagers proactive issue (ROEDUSEIS-NET; Page and Page, 2003, by encouraging students in activities closer to earthquake engineering.

  20. Stroop proactive control and task conflict are modulated by concurrent working memory load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalanthroff, Eyal; Avnit, Amir; Henik, Avishai; Davelaar, Eddy J; Usher, Marius

    2015-06-01

    Performance on the Stroop task reflects two types of conflict-informational (between the incongruent word and font color) and task (between the contextually relevant color-naming task and the irrelevant, but automatic, word-reading task). According to the dual mechanisms of control theory (DMC; Braver, 2012), variability in Stroop performance can result from variability in the deployment of a proactive task-demand control mechanism. Previous research has shown that when proactive control (PC) is diminished, both increased Stroop interference and a reversed Stroop facilitation (RF) are observed. Although the current DMC model accounts for the former effect, it does not predict the observed RF, which is considered to be behavioral evidence for task conflict in the Stroop task. Here we expanded the DMC model to account for Stroop RF. Assuming that a concurrent working memory (WM) task reduces PC, we predicted both increased interference and an RF. Nineteen participants performed a standard Stroop task combined with a concurrent n-back task, which was aimed at reducing available WM resources, and thus overloading PC. Although the results indicated common Stroop interference and facilitation in the low-load condition (zero-back), in the high-load condition (two-back), both increased Stroop interference and RF were observed, consistent with the model's prediction. These findings indicate that PC is modulated by concurrent WM load and serves as a common control mechanism for both informational and task Stroop conflicts.

  1. Robust Proactive Project Scheduling Model for the Stochastic Discrete Time/Cost Trade-Off Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the project budget version of the stochastic discrete time/cost trade-off problem (SDTCTP-B from the viewpoint of the robustness in the scheduling. Given the project budget and a set of activity execution modes, each with uncertain activity time and cost, the objective of the SDTCTP-B is to minimize the expected project makespan by determining each activity’s mode and starting time. By modeling the activity time and cost using interval numbers, we propose a proactive project scheduling model for the SDTCTP-B based on robust optimization theory. Our model can generate robust baseline schedules that enable a freely adjustable level of robustness. We convert our model into its robust counterpart using a form of the mixed-integer programming model. Extensive experiments are performed on a large number of randomly generated networks to validate our model. Moreover, simulation is used to investigate the trade-off between the advantages and the disadvantages of our robust proactive project scheduling model.

  2. Proactive and reactive processes in the medial frontal cortex: an electrophysiological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio T P Oliveira

    Full Text Available The posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC is known to be involved in adaptive goal-directed behavior, but its specific function is not yet clear. Most theories have proposed that the pMFC monitors performance in a reactive manner only, but it is possible that the pMFC also contributes to performance monitoring in a proactive manner. To date, the evidence for proactive pMFC activity is equivocal. Here, we investigated pMFC activity before, during and after the performance of a challenging motor task. Participants navigated a cursor through narrow and wide mazes in randomly intermixed trials. On each trial, participants saw previews of the actual maze display prior to gaining control of the cursor. Event-related potentials (ERPs to the preview displays were compared to ERPs elicited by no-go signals and errors. Compared to the wider maze, the preview display for the more challenging narrow maze elicited a medial-frontal negativity (MFN similar to the ERP components elicited by no-go signals and errors. Like these known ERP components, the preview-elicited MFN appeared to be generated from a source in pMFC. This is consistent with the hypothesis that the pMFC participates in adaptive behavior whenever there is a need for increased effort to maintain successful task performance.

  3. Adaptive and Context-Aware Reconciliation of Reactive and Pro-active Behavior in Evolving Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajcevski, Goce; Scheuermann, Peter

    One distinct characteristics of the context-aware systems is their ability to react and adapt to the evolution of the environment, which is often a result of changes in the values of various (possibly correlated) attributes. Based on these changes, reactive systems typically take corrective actions, e.g., adjusting parameters in order to maintain the desired specifications of the system's state. Pro-active systems, on the other hand, may change the mode of interaction with the environment as well as the desired goals of the system. In this paper we describe our (ECA)2 paradigm for reactive behavior with proactive impact and we present our ongoing work and vision for a system that is capable of context-aware adaptation, while ensuring the maintenance of a set of desired behavioral policies. Our main focus is on developing a formalism that provides tools for expressing normal, as well as defeasible and/or exceptional specification. However, at the same time, we insist on a sound semantics and the capability of answering hypothetical "what-if" queries. Towards this end, we introduce the high-level language L_{ EAR} that can be used to describe the dynamics of the problem domain, specify triggers under the (ECA)2 paradigm, and reason about the consequences of the possible evolutions.

  4. On the Energy Efficiency of LT Codes in Proactive Wireless Sensor Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Abouei, Jamshid; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N; Pasupathy, Subbarayan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the first in-depth analysis on the energy efficiency of LT codes with Non Coherent M-ary Frequency Shift Keying (NC-MFSK), known as green modulation [1], in a proactive Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) over Rayleigh flat-fading channels with path-loss. We describe the proactive system model according to a pre-determined time-based process utilized in practical sensor nodes. The present analysis is based on realistic parameters including the effect of channel bandwidth used in the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, and the active mode duration. A comprehensive analysis, supported by some simulation studies on the probability mass function of the LT code rate and coding gain, shows that among uncoded NC-MFSK and various classical channel coding schemes, the optimized LT coded NC-MFSK is the most energy-efficient scheme for distance $d$ greater than the pre-determined threshold level $d_T$, where the optimization is performed over coding and modulation parameters. In addition, although uncoded NC-MFSK outp...

  5. Corporate governance and proactive environmental management in Novo Hamburgo and neighbouring cities, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naime, R; Spilki, F R; Nascimento, C A

    2015-05-01

    This study compiled data on environmental auditing and voluntary certification of environment-friendly businesses of the Commercial and Industrial Association of Novo Hamburgo, Campo Bom and Estância Velha and analysed them according to classical environmental management principles: sustainable development and corporate governance. It assessed the level of application of the concepts of corporate governance to everyday business in companies and organisations and estimated how the interconnection and vertical permeability of these concepts might help to make bureaucratic environmental management systemic, proactive and evaluative, changes that may add great value to the operations evaluated. Results showed that, when analysing only audited items not directly defined in legislation, no significant changes were identified. The inclusion of more advanced indices may promote the transition from bureaucratic management, which meets regulated environmental standards only satisfactorily, into proactive and systemic environmental management, which adds value to companies and helps to perpetuate them. Audited and analysed data did not reveal actions that depend on the internal redistribution of power and the interconnection or verticality of attitudes that may materialize concepts of corporate governance.

  6. Psychopathic traits and reactive-proactive aggression in a large community sample of Polish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perenc, Lidia; Radochonski, Mieczyslaw

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents results of the only large-scale study carried-out in Poland to date on the prevalence of psychopathic traits and their relationship with aggressive behaviour in mainstream adolescents. The sample consists of 9,415 students (4,808 boys, 4,607 girls) in the first to third grades at 142 public secondary schools. Psychopathic traits were measured by teacher-report ratings with the antisocial process screening device (APSD), while aggressive behaviours were assessed using the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire. Analysis of results revealed that boys scored much higher than girls in total APSD scale measuring psychopathic traits. Only 2.68% of assessed adolescents scored above the cut-off of 25 points. Results also showed significant correlations between psychopathic traits and both proactive and reactive aggression. The authors concluded that screening a large sample to identify children and youths with psychopathic traits has some important advantages but, on the other hand, it is a sensitive undertaking because of the label 'psychopath' can have negative consequences for the subjects.

  7. The Ability–Motivation–Opportunity Framework for Team Innovation: Efficacy Beliefs, Proactive Personalities, Supportive Supervision and Team Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Krapež Trošt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on ability–motivation–opportunity theoretical framework, the study explores the interplay among team members’ proactive personalities (abilities, collective efficacy (motivation, and supportive supervision (opportunity, and their interaction in predicting team innovation. Multi-level study of 249 employees nested within 64 teams from one German and three Slovenian hi-tech companies showed that collective efficacy was positively related to team innovation. However, the effect of collective efficacy on team innovation was weaker when high levels of supportive supervision and proactivity moderated this relationship. When teams perceived lower levels of collective efficacy, team proactivity, and supportive supervision were more important for achieving higher levels of team innovation as they were when teams perceived lower levels of motivation. We discuss theoretical and practical implications

  8. Drilling Deeper into tooth brushing skills: Is proactive interference an under-recognized factor in oral hygiene behavior change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavarajah, Rooban; Kumar, Madan; Mohandoss, Anusa Arunachalam; Vernon, Lance T

    2015-09-01

    Proper tooth brushing is a seemingly simple motor activity that can promote oral health. Applying health theories, such as the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model, Motivational Interviewing (MI) and Integrated Health Coaching (IHC), may help optimize tooth brushing technique in those with suboptimal skills. Some motor activities, including tooth brushing, may over time become rote and unconscious actions, such that an existing habit can inhibit new learning, i.e., exert proactive interference on learning the new skill. Proactive interference may impede the acquisition of new tooth brushing skills; thus, in this report, we: (1) Review how the habit of tooth brushing is formed; (2) Postulate how proactive interference could impede the establishment of proper tooth brushing retraining; (3) Discuss the merits of this hypothesis; and (4) Provide guidance for future work in this topic within the context of an approach to behavior change that integrates IMB, MI and IHC methodology.

  9. Evaluation of Proactive, Reactive and Hybrid Ad hoc Routing Protocol for various Battery models in VANET using Qualnet

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Manish

    2012-01-01

    In VANET high speed is the real characteristics which leads frequent breakdown, interference etc. In this paper we studied various Ad hoc routing protocols, Reactive, Proactive & Hybrid, taking into consideration various VANET parameters like speed, altitude etc in real traffic scenario and evaluated them for various battery models for energy conservation.. The AODV and DYMO (Reactive), OLSR (Proactive) and ZRP (hybrid) protocols are compared for battery models Duracell AA(MX- 1500),Duracell AAA(MN-2400),Duracell AAA(MX-2400), Duracell C-MN(MN-1400),Panasonic AA standard using Qualnet as a Simulation tool. Since Energy conservation is main focus area nowadays. Hence performance of the protocols with various battery models counts and helps to make a right selection. Varying parameters of VANET shows that in the real traffic scenarios proactive protocol performs more efficiently for energy conservation.

  10. The Critical Roles of Task Conflict and Job Autonomy in the Relationship Between Proactive Personalities and Innovative Employee Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebels, Ellen; de Reuver, Renee S M; Rispens, Sonja; Ufkes, Elze G

    2016-09-01

    We examine why and when proactive personality is beneficial for innovative behavior at work. Based on a survey among 166 employees working in 35 departments of a large municipality in the Netherlands we show that an increase in task conflicts explains the positive relation between a proactive personality and innovative employee behavior. This process is moderated by job autonomy in such a way that the relationship between proactive personality and task conflict is particularly strong under low compared with high autonomy. The present research contributes to the discussion on the potential benefits of task conflict for change processes and highlights the importance of examining the interplay between personality and work context for understanding innovation practices.

  11. Optical Performance Monitoring using Proactive Monitoring and the Time Caliper Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Hon Tung

    The widespread real time multimedia applications generate increasing demands of data transmission capacity nowadays. Fiber-optic communication is the core technology to meet the capacity requirements of the fast growing internet data and to support the long haul transmission with low cost. Reliability is a key issue for high data rate transmission systems because the interruption of connection may result in substantial amount of data lost. Performance monitoring is essential for maintaining reliability by keeping track of the network status rapidly. In this thesis, we will investigate two aspects of performance monitoring in optical communication systems: network-based monitoring and link-based physical layer monitoring. In the case of network-based monitoring, proactive monitoring is used to reduce the acquisition time to obtain the monitoring information. The monitoring process is modeled as a Markov Decision Process. We propose nine different monitoring schemes and show that the scheme with increasing probing number and probing unpopular edge first has the best overall performance, regarding to coverage of monitoring links and blocking probability. On the other hand, if we would like to reduce the cost for proactive monitoring, the shortest path probing scheme is the optimal monitoring schemes when the monitoring paths are probed independently. In addition, if we consider the cases of edge overlapping and node overlapping of the monitoring paths, the overlapping probing scheme may require less number of hops during the monitoring process. Formulas have been derived for checking the conditions when the overlapping probing scheme can be applied. Simulations are performed under different optical network topologies and conditions to evaluate the performance of the schemes. Measurement of relative delay facilitates various monitoring and compensation applications, such as synchronization of subchannels in multiplexing systems, dispersion measurement. In the case of

  12. Establishing Proactive Auditor Responsibilities in Relation to Fraud: The Role of the Courts and Professional Bodies in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Langsted, Lars Bo; Seehausen, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    Over the years, there has been considerable discussion about the extent and exact nature of the responsibilities of the auditor to detect fraud. The purpose of our study is to examine how the courts and professional bodies in a principle-based legal system respond to the change in the audit...... that the Danish audit profession has adopted the new proactive responsibilities identified by the standard setters, whilst the courts and the professional bodies seem to see ‘the changes’ as mere clarifications of existing responsibilities. The proactive responsibilities are not further accelerated...

  13. Barriers to Mathematics Achievement in Brunei Secondary School Students: Insights into the Roles of Mathematics Anxiety, Self-Esteem, Proactive Coping, and Test Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Malai Hayati Sheikh; Shahrill, Masitah; Matzin, Rohani; Mahalle, Salwa; Mundia, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    The cross-sectional field survey examined the roles of mathematics anxiety, self-esteem, proactive coping, and test stress in mathematics achievement among 204 (151 females) randomly selected Year 8-10 Brunei secondary school students. The negative dimensions of mathematics anxiety, self-esteem, and proactive coping correlated negatively with…

  14. PROACTIVE REGULATORY INTERVENTION IN EU COMMUNICATIONS SECTOR AND ITS FORESEEABLE FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Barčys

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – to review and provide insights on the issues concerning ex ante regulatory approach in EU telecommunications (hereinafter – electronic communications industry, identify and emphasise benefits, main challenges and further regulatory prospective. Design/methodology/approach – based on current regulatory framework and analysis of academic literature, author discusses problematic issues related to the needs and further perspectives of proactive regulatory regime in EU electronic communications sector. Findings – the author reviews special qualities for different regulatory regimes (ex ante, ex post and examines them in the context of sharp developments of the industry and EU regulatory policy. Research limitations/implications –the analysis aims to convey the main understanding on the regulatory specifics of the communications industry, the main features, distinguishing communications industry from the others and foreseeable regulatory perspectives Practical implications – the core aspect of the paper is to evaluate current regulatory approach of the EU electronic communications sector and assess potential regulatory approaches in the context of making self-sustaining pro-competitive market structure, technological development. Originality/Value – the paper highlights some significant changes between two regulatory approaches in the light of specific features in EU electronic communications. Author provides his insights on the status and perspectives on application for both regulatory methods. Apparently, these issues have so far been subjected too little academic analysis. As shown in this paper, regulatory policy can have the essential impact on the activities taken by other players. The decision to give an even bigger role to competition rules, do not mean to eliminate sector specifics itself. With this in mind, EU legislators are not able to eliminate proactive regulatory control, thus reducing ex ante rules progressively

  15. A Survey of Congestion Control in Proactive Source Routing Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagyashree S kayarkar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks (MANET congestion can take place between the two intermediate nodes, when the packet is transferred from the source to the destination. The congestion in MANET is mainly due to frequent change to topology and high mobility of nodes, which lead to high loss of packet. In ad hoc network the congestion control techniques with TCP becomes difficult to handle since in ad hoc network there is high density of nodes in the network and there is frequent change to topology in the network. In this paper to control the congestion in proactive source routing protocol an error message is generated by the receiver to reduce the packet sending rate. We are using a new control message i.e., Packet Error Announcing Message called (PEAM messages.

  16. Activism: A Strong Predictor of Proactive Environmentally Friendly Buying Behavior in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Ergen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The market for environmentally friendly products in Turkey is growing, and marketing experts are trying to understand the behavior of the consumers in this market with the help of variables such as demographic factors, information, attitudes, values and life styles. This study analyzes the effects of environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems on green buying behavior. The study involved 516 Turkish consumers, over eighteen years of age. The results show that environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems are all meaningful factors in environmentally friendly buying behavior. It was found that the most explanatory variables are environmental activism for proactive environmentally friendly buying behavior and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems for optional environmentally friendly buying behavior. The study is significant since it will offer insights for green marketing experts who especially target specific segments as activists, voluntary simplifiers or green consumers in Turkey.

  17. The proactive bilingual brain: Using interlocutor identity to generate predictions for language processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Clara D; Molnar, Monika; Carreiras, Manuel

    2016-05-13

    The present study investigated the proactive nature of the human brain in language perception. Specifically, we examined whether early proficient bilinguals can use interlocutor identity as a cue for language prediction, using an event-related potentials (ERP) paradigm. Participants were first familiarized, through video segments, with six novel interlocutors who were either monolingual or bilingual. Then, the participants completed an audio-visual lexical decision task in which all the interlocutors uttered words and pseudo-words. Critically, the speech onset started about 350 ms after the beginning of the video. ERP waves between the onset of the visual presentation of the interlocutors and the onset of their speech significantly differed for trials where the language was not predictable (bilingual interlocutors) and trials where the language was predictable (monolingual interlocutors), revealing that visual interlocutor identity can in fact function as a cue for language prediction, even before the onset of the auditory-linguistic signal.

  18. Online Learning for Master Students and Their Organisation of Employment in Proactive Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolbæk, Ditte; Lundh Snis, Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses an online community of master’s students taking a course in ICT and organisational learning. The students initiated and facilitated an educational design for organisational learning called Proactive Review in the organisations where they were employed. The study focuses...... netnography to select qualitative postings from the online community and expansive learning concepts for data analysis. We discuss the effects of the students’ written discussions and reflections on their endeavours to influence their organisations of employment. Our findings include consideration...... of the implications of changing communications from the spoken word to the written word, which lacks spontaneity but supports equality among students in regard to “being heard”. Our contribution to research shows how students changed practices of organisational learning in their organisations of employment and how...

  19. Sensation-seeking and impulsivity as predictors of reactive and proactive aggression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Del Carmen Pérez Fuentes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In adolescence, such matters as substance use and impulsiveness may give rise to problematic behavior repertoires. This study was therefore done to analyze the predictive value of sensation-seeking and impulsiveness dimensions related to the functions of aggression (reactive/proactive and types of expression (physical/relational. A total of 822 high school students in Almeria (Spain aged 13 to 18, were administered the Sensation-Seeking Scale, the State Impulsiveness Scale and Peer Conflict Scale. The results show the existence of a positive correlation of the majority of factors analyzed, both in impulsiveness and sensation-seeking, with respect to the different types of aggression. Furthermore, aggressive behavior is explained by the combination of a sensation-seeking factor (Disinhibition and two impulsiveness factors (Gratification and Automatism. This study shows the need to analyze aggression as a multidimensional construct.

  20. Sensation-Seeking and Impulsivity as Predictors of Reactive and Proactive Aggression in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Fuentes, María Del Carmen; Molero Jurado, Maria del Mar; Carrión Martínez, José J.; Mercader Rubio, Isabel; Gázquez, José J.

    2016-01-01

    In adolescence, such matters as substance use and impulsiveness may give rise to problematic behavior repertoires. This study was therefore done to analyze the predictive value of sensation-seeking and impulsiveness dimensions related to the functions of aggression (reactive/proactive) and types of expression (physical/relational). A total of 822 high school students in Almeria (Spain) aged 13–18, were administered the Sensation-Seeking Scale, the State Impulsiveness Scale and Peer Conflict Scale. The results show the existence of a positive correlation of the majority of factors analyzed, both in impulsiveness and sensation-seeking, with respect to the different types of aggression. Furthermore, aggressive behavior is explained by the combination of a sensation-seeking factor (Disinhibition) and two impulsiveness factors (Gratification and Automatism). This study shows the need to analyze aggression as a multidimensional construct. PMID:27729883

  1. Pro-active Selfhealing – An Extension concept in SmartGrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noman Nisar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of power system under fault susceptible environment has become major challenge for the power sector units. The injection of renewable power source has increased the complexity for distribution system and to deal with massive network, evolution of smart-grid has been enforced, which works in an automated fashion to improve overall reliability, efficiency and quality of the system. Proactive Self-healing is a critical feature of smart-grid. This paper tries to explain the concept sensing the occurrence of fault beforehand and providing possible solution for self-healing in smart grid. The fundamental base for incorporating afore discussed technology viz. understanding nature of fault, sources of fault and implementation of effective measuring techniques are enumerated in paper briefly. Support required in terms of technology is reviewed towards the end followed by a case study of practical implementation of self-healing control in a distribution system.

  2. Proactive patient rounding to increase customer service and satisfaction on an orthopaedic unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tea, Christine; Ellison, Michael; Feghali, Fadia

    2008-01-01

    Customer service and patient satisfaction have become increasingly important in the healthcare industry. Given limited resources and a myriad of choices, on which facets of patient satisfaction should healthcare providers focus? An analysis of 40,000 observations across 4 hospitals found 1 important intervention: timely staff responsiveness. Using the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) quality methodology, the goal was set to improve staff responsiveness to orthopaedic patient needs and requests, thus improving patient satisfaction. A model to improve staff responsiveness was systematically developed and implemented. The I Care Rounding model places the emphasis on proactively meeting patient needs through hourly rounding, rather than caregivers providing care in a reactionary mode. After full implementation, positive improvement was demonstrated.

  3. SecSLA: A Proactive and Secure Service Level Agreement Framework for Cloud Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahad F. Alruwaili

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Cloud customers migrate to cloud services to reduce the operational costs of information technology (IT and increase organization efficiency. However, ensuring cloud security is very challenging. As a consequence, cloud service providers find it difficult to persuade customers to acquire their services due to security concerns. In terms of outsourcing applications, software, and/or infrastructure services to the cloud, customers are concerned about the availability, integrity, privacy, and legality of the hosted service. In this paper, a secure service level agreement (SecSLA framework is proposed to alleviate these concerns and provide security control assurance to cloud customers. The framework is proactive in detecting violations of SecSLA parameters based on a cloud security operations center as a service (SOCaaS. In addition, a trusted third party can use this framework to audit and monitor SecSLA compliance.

  4. Traffic-Adaptive Proactive Sp ectrum Handoff Strategy for Graded Secondary Users in Cognitive Radio Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; SONG Tiecheng; WU Ming; BAO Xu; GUO Jie; HU Jing

    2015-01-01

    In order to meet diff erent delay require-ments of various communication services in Cognitive ra-dio (CR) networks, Secondary users (SUs) are divided into two classes according to the priority of accessing to spec-trum in this paper. Based on the proactive spectrum hand-off scheme, the Preemptive resume priority (PRP) M/G/1 queueing is used to characterize multiple spectrum hand-off s under two diff erent spectrum handoff strategies. The traffic-adaptive spectrum handoff strategy is proposed for graded SUs so as to minimize the average cumulative hand-off delay. Simulation results not only verify that our theo-retical analysis is valid, but also show that the strategy we proposed can reduce the average cumulative handoff delay evidently. The eff ect of service rate on the proposed spec-trum switching point and the admissible access region are provided.

  5. Market Design and Strategy Making for Proactive Distribution Grid with DERs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu

    fashion. In order to capture the PDISCO's trading strategies mentioned above, the PDISCO trading within markets can be formulated as one-leader multi-follower game models, realizing in diering bi-level structures. Pertaining to the solving algorithm, the primal-dual approach is applied to reformulate each...... Reforming Energy Vision (NY REV) has addressed the regulatory changes to liberate a distribution-level market for cost-eective use of DERs. To this end, the DISCO gets an opportunity to strategically engage in the transmission-level markets by rationally purchasing electricity from the distribution-level...... DERs. In this situation, the market framework becomes more complex. To handle these small-size and dispersed DERs, this thesis proposes a methodology to optimize the procurements of the proactive distribution company (PDI-SCO) trading in the presented distribution-level market. Particularly, takingthe...

  6. A SURVEY OF CONGESTION CONTROL IN PROACTIVE SOURCE ROUTING PROTOCOL IN MOBILE AD HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagyashree S kayarkar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In mobile ad hoc networks (MANET congestion can take place between the two intermediate nodes, when the packet is transferred from the source to the destination. The congestion in MANET is mainly due to frequent change to topology and high mobility of nodes, which lead to high loss of packet. In ad hoc network the congestion control techniques with TCP becomes difficult to handle since in ad hoc network there is high density of nodes in the network and there is frequent change to topology in the network. In this paper to control the congestion in proactive source routing protocol an error message is generated by the receiver to reduce the packet sending rate. We are using a new control message i.e., Packet Error Announcing Message called (PEAM messages.

  7. Activism: A Strong Predictor of Proactive Environmentally Friendly Buying Behavior in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahu Ergen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The market for environmentally friendly products in Turkey is growing, and marketing experts are trying to understand the behavior of the consumers in this market with the help of variables such as demographic factors, information, attitudes, values and life styles. This study analyzes the effects of environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems on green buying behavior. The study involved 516 Turkish consumers, over eighteen years of age. The results show that environmental activism, environmental knowledge and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems are all meaningful factors in environmentally friendly buying behavior. It was found that the most explanatory variables are environmental activism for proactive environmentally friendly buying behavior and the perceived seriousness of environmental problems for optional environmentally friendly buying behavior. The study is significant since it will offer insights for green marketing experts who especially target specific segments as activists, voluntary simplifiers or green consumers in Turkey.

  8. Asynchronous update based networked predictive control system using a novel proactive compensation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yingyao; Zuo, Xin; Liu, Jianwei

    2016-01-01

    Networked predictive control system (NPCS) has been proposed to address random delays and data dropouts in networked control systems (NCSs). A remaining challenge of this approach is that the controller has uncertain information about the actual control inputs, which leads to the predicted control input errors. The main contribution of this paper is to develop an explicit mechanism running in the distributed network nodes asynchronously, which enables the controller node to keep informed of the states of the actuator node without a priori knowledge about the network. Based on this mechanism, a novel proactive compensation strategy is proposed to develop asynchronous update based networked predictive control system (AUBNPCS). The stability criterion of AUBNPCS is derived analytically. A simulation experiment based on Truetime demonstrates the effectiveness of the scheme.

  9. On the Brink of Shifting Paradigms, Molecular Systems Engineering Ethics Needs to Take a Proactive Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Raheleh; Elger, Bernice S; Stutzki, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    Molecular Systems Engineering (MSE) is a paradigm shift in both engineering and life sciences. While the field is still in its infancy the perspectives of MSE in revolutionising technology is promising. MSE will offer a wide range of applications in clinical, biotechnological and engineering fields while simultaneously posing serious questions on the ethical and societal aspects of such technology. The moral and societal aspects of MSE need systematic investigation from scientific and social perspectives. In a democratic setting, the societal outcomes of MSE's cutting-edge technology need to be consulted and influenced by society itself. For this purpose MSE needs inclusive public engagement strategies that bring together the public, ethicists, scientists and policy makers for optimum flow of information that maximizes the impact of public engagement. In this report we present an MSE consortium and its ethics framework for establishing a proactive approach in the study of the ethics of MSE technology.

  10. A Proactive Strategy for Safe Human-Robot Collaboration based on a Simplified Risk Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audun Sanderud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In an increasing demand for human-robot collaboration systems, the need for safe robots is crucial. This paper presents a proactive strategy to enable an awareness of the current risk for the robot. The awareness is based upon a map of historically occupied space by the operator. The map is built based on a risk evaluation of each pose presented by the operator. The risk evaluation results in a risk field that can be used to evaluate the risk of a collaborative task. Based on this risk field, a control algorithm that constantly reduces the current risk within its task constraints was developed. Kinematic redundancy was exploited for simultaneous task performance within task constraints, and risk minimization. Sphere-based geometric models were used both for the human and robot. The strategy was tested in simulation, and implemented and experimentally tested on a NACHI MR20 7-axes industrial robot.

  11. Norway's 2011 Terror Attacks: Alleviating National Trauma With a Large-Scale Proactive Intervention Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärki, Freja Ulvestad

    2015-09-01

    After the terror attacks of July 22, 2011, Norwegian health authorities piloted a new model for municipality-based psychosocial follow-up with victims. This column describes the development of a comprehensive follow-up intervention by health authorities and others that has been implemented at the municipality level across Norway. The model's principles emphasize proactivity by service providers; individually tailored help, with each victim being assigned a contact person in the residential municipality; continuity and long-term focus; effective intersectorial collaboration; and standardized screening of symptoms during the first year. Weekend reunions were also organized for the bereaved, and one-day reunions were organized for the survivors and their families at intervals over the first 18 months. Preliminary findings indicate a high level of success in model implementation. However, the overall effect of the interventions will be a subject for future evaluations.

  12. A First Approach on Modelling Staff Proactiveness in Retail Simulation Models

    CERN Document Server

    Siebers, Peer-Olaf

    2011-01-01

    There has been a noticeable shift in the relative composition of the industry in the developed countries in recent years; manufacturing is decreasing while the service sector is becoming more important. However, currently most simulation models for investigating service systems are still built in the same way as manufacturing simulation models, using a process-oriented world view, i.e. they model the flow of passive entities through a system. These kinds of models allow studying aspects of operational management but are not well suited for studying the dynamics that appear in service systems due to human behaviour. For these kinds of studies we require tools that allow modelling the system and entities using an object-oriented world view, where intelligent objects serve as abstract "actors" that are goal directed and can behave proactively. In our work we combine process-oriented discrete event simulation modelling and object-oriented agent based simulation modelling to investigate the impact of people manage...

  13. Cooperation in Carrier Sense Based Wireless Ad Hoc Networks - Part II: Proactive Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Munari, Andrea; Zorzi, Michele

    2012-01-01

    This work is the second of a two-part series of papers on the effectiveness of cooperative techniques in non-centralized carrier sense-based ad hoc wireless networks. While Part I extensively discussed reactive cooperation, characterized by relayed transmissions triggered by failure events at the intended receiver, Part II investigates in depth proactive solutions, in which the source of a packet exploits channel state information to preemptively coordinate with relays in order to achieve the optimal overall rate to the destination. In particular, this work shows by means of both analysis and simulation that the performance of reactive cooperation is reduced by the intrinsic nature of the considered medium access policy, which biases the distribution of the available relays, locating them in unfavorable positions for rate optimization. Moreover, the highly dynamic nature of interference that characterizes non-infrastructured ad hoc networks is proved to hamper the efficacy and the reliability of preemptively ...

  14. The "proactive" model of learning: Integrative framework for model-free and model-based reinforcement learning utilizing the associative learning-based proactive brain concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsuga, Judit; Biro, Klara; Papp, Csaba; Tajti, Gabor; Gesztelyi, Rudolf

    2016-02-01

    Reinforcement learning (RL) is a powerful concept underlying forms of associative learning governed by the use of a scalar reward signal, with learning taking place if expectations are violated. RL may be assessed using model-based and model-free approaches. Model-based reinforcement learning involves the amygdala, the hippocampus, and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). The model-free system involves the pedunculopontine-tegmental nucleus (PPTgN), the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the ventral striatum (VS). Based on the functional connectivity of VS, model-free and model based RL systems center on the VS that by integrating model-free signals (received as reward prediction error) and model-based reward related input computes value. Using the concept of reinforcement learning agent we propose that the VS serves as the value function component of the RL agent. Regarding the model utilized for model-based computations we turned to the proactive brain concept, which offers an ubiquitous function for the default network based on its great functional overlap with contextual associative areas. Hence, by means of the default network the brain continuously organizes its environment into context frames enabling the formulation of analogy-based association that are turned into predictions of what to expect. The OFC integrates reward-related information into context frames upon computing reward expectation by compiling stimulus-reward and context-reward information offered by the amygdala and hippocampus, respectively. Furthermore we suggest that the integration of model-based expectations regarding reward into the value signal is further supported by the efferent of the OFC that reach structures canonical for model-free learning (e.g., the PPTgN, VTA, and VS).

  15. Initiatives on early detection and intervention to proactively identify health and social problems in older people : Experiences from the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lette, Manon; Baan, C.A.; van den Berg, Matthijs; de Bruin, Simone R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Over the last years, several initiatives on early detection and intervention have been put in place to proactively identify health and social problems in (frail) older people. An overview of the initiatives currently available in the Netherlands is lacking, and it is unknown whether they

  16. A Cross-Cultural Study of the Psychometric Properties of the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire among Italian Nonclinical Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossati, Andrea; Raine, Adrian; Borroni, Serena; Bizzozero, Alice; Volpi, Elisa; Santalucia, Iolanda; Maffei, Cesare

    2009-01-01

    Five independent studies were used to test the hypothesis that a reliable 2-factor structure underlies the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) items and that the 2 scales show distinct patterns of association with personality and bullying behavior measures. Study 1 (N = 1,447) gave evidence of a clear 2-factor structure of RPQ items…

  17. How do individuals cope with stress? Behavioural, physiological and neuronal differences between proactive and reactive coping styles in fish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindas, Marco A; Gorissen, Marnix; Höglund, Erik

    2017-01-01

    forebrain limbic control, we tested region-specific forebrain neural (i.e mRNA abundance and monoamine neurochemistry) and endocrine responses at basal and acute stress conditions for previously characterised proactive and reactive Atlantic salmon. Reactive fish show a higher degree of the neurogenesis...

  18. Pro-active approaches to the identification of emerging risks in the food chain: Retrospective case studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagenaars, T.H.J.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Kleter, G.A.; Kreft, F.; Leeuwen, van P.; Waalwijk, C.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Marvin, H.J.P.

    2006-01-01

    In this report six case studies are carried out on food-safety and animal-health crises that have occurred in the recent past. The aim is to learn from these cases if and how the identification of emerging food-safety (and animal-health) risks can be improved by adopting a (more) pro-active approach

  19. Reactive/proactive aggression and the development of internalizing problems in males: the moderating effect of parent and peer relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Paula J; Rubens, Sonia L; Preddy, Teresa M; Raine, Adrian; Pardini, Dustin A

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether reactive and/or proactive aggression in adolescent males prospectively predicted increased levels of internalizing symptoms (depression and anxiety) in late adolescence. It was postulated that reactive aggression would be robustly related to later internalizing problems, but only among adolescent males who had problematic family or peer social relationships. Participants were a racially diverse group of 289 adolescent males (Mean age = 16). Measures of reactive and proactive aggression, peer rejection, and poor parent-adolescent communication were examined as predictors of both depression and anxiety symptoms assessed approximately 3 years later. The interactive effects between the two facets of aggression and measures of peer rejection and poor parent-adolescent communication in predicting internalizing problems was also examined. Adolescents with high levels of reactive aggression were more likely to exhibit elevated internalizing problems during late adolescence, even when controlling for pre-existing levels of anxiety/depression. However, this association only emerged for adolescents who had high levels of peer rejection and/or poor communication with their parent. Consistent with expectations, proactive aggression was unrelated to internalizing symptoms regardless of social relationship quality. Adolescent reactive, but not proactive, aggression is a risk factor for the development of internalizing problems. However, the findings suggest that interventions designed to foster positive social relationships among reactively aggressive youth may help protect them from developing significant internalizing problems over time.

  20. A Factor Analytic Approach to Distinguish Pure and Co-Occurring Dimensions of Proactive and Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Paula J.; Colder, Craig R.; Pelham, William E., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    This study used a confirmatory factor model to distinguish pure and co-occurring dimensions of proactive and reactive aggression, and examined the relation between parenting variables and these dimensions of aggression in a sample of 100 children (9 to 12 years of age; 69 boys). Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported 3 dimensions of…

  1. Reaching Out: A Proactive Process to Include Young People with Learning Disabilities in Counselling in Secondary Schools in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Sue

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a proactive process to include young people with learning disabilities in mainstream counselling in secondary schools in the UK based on the findings of a consequential mixed methods research study. Data were collected from a quantitative and qualitative survey (n = 396) and qualitative semi-structured interviews (n = 15) with…

  2. International Students' Proactive Behaviors in the United States: Effects of Information-Seeking Behaviors on School Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaehee; Lee, Seungjo

    2016-01-01

    Considering the continuous increase of international students, the main goal of this study was to examine how international students' proactive behaviors, particularly information seeking behaviors, would impact key emotional outcomes including communication satisfaction with instructors and school-life satisfaction. For this investigation, we…

  3. From Self-Control Capabilities and the Need to Control Others to Proactive and Reactive Aggression among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstok, Zeev

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the associations between aspects of control (self-control capability and the need to control others) and forms of aggression (reactive and proactive). Data were derived from a structured questionnaire administered to 660 male and female adolescents with an average age of 14.99 years, from two urban schools…

  4. A Cross-Cultural Examination of Aboriginal and European Canadian Mothers' Beliefs regarding Proactive and Reactive Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Sheperd, Kelly A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the maternal beliefs and practices regarding preschool children's proactive and reactive aggression, within a cross-cultural framework. Participants included 30 Aboriginal and 45 European Canadian mothers of preschoolers who provided their emotional reactions, causal attributions, socialization…

  5. Effectiveness of Proactive Intensive FFI in Cultivating Grammatical Knowledge of Iranian EFL Learners at Different Proficiency Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooholamin, Amir; Biria, Reza; Haghverdi, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    The present study provides a report on an experiment seeking the effect of proactive intensive form-focused instruction on the grammatical development of intermediate and advanced Iranian EFL learners. More specifically the aim of the study was to discern (a) whether the grammatical knowledge of Iranian EFL learners at different proficiency levels…

  6. International Students' Proactive Behaviors in the United States: Effects of Information-Seeking Behaviors on School Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaehee; Lee, Seungjo

    2016-01-01

    Considering the continuous increase of international students, the main goal of this study was to examine how international students' proactive behaviors, particularly information seeking behaviors, would impact key emotional outcomes including communication satisfaction with instructors and school-life satisfaction. For this investigation, we…

  7. The role of organizational context in fostering employee proactive behavior: : Interplay between HR system configurations and relational climates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batistic, S.; Cerne, Matej; Kaše, R.; Zupic, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Emphasizing the role of the organizational context and adopting a multilevel approach, we propose that the interplay between HR system configurations and relational climates has a cross-level effect on employee proactive behavior. Using a sample of 211 employees in 25 companies, we show that the lai

  8. Hot-headed or cold-blooded? Towards a clear distinction between reactive and proactive aggression in youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polman, J.D.M.

    2008-01-01

    The current dissertation touches on the distinction between reactive and proactive aggression. Reactive aggression is a reaction to a presumed threat which is associated with anger. This type of aggression is driven by frustration and anger and is instigated by provocation. The function of this kind

  9. Creating a Safe Space: A Case Study of Complex Trauma and a Call for Proactive Comprehensive Psychoeducational Assessments and Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainwaring, Debra J.

    2015-01-01

    This article advocates for proactive, dynamic and comprehensive psycho-educational assessments for children and young people who have a history of complex trauma, because of its known effects on development and learning. A case study is shared of a young woman with a history of complex trauma because of exposure to parental neglect, multiple…

  10. Treatment Fidelity of an Evidence-Based Nurse-Led Intervention in a Proactive Primary Care Program for Older People

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bleijenberg, Nienke; ten Dam, Valerie H.; Drubbel, Irene; Numans, Mattijs E.; de Wit, Niek J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/100525393; Schuurmans, Marieke J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In a large randomized trial, Utrecht PROactive Frailty Intervention Trial (U-PROFIT), we evaluated the effectiveness of an integrated program on the preservation of daily functioning in older people in primary care that consisted of a frailty identification tool and a multicomponent nurs

  11. A simultaneous modulation of reactive and proactive inhibition processes by anodal tDCS on the right inferior frontal cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Cunillera

    Full Text Available Proactive and reactive inhibitory processes are a fundamental part of executive functions, allowing a person to stop inappropriate responses when necessary and to adjust performance in in a long term in accordance to the goals of a task. In the current study, we manipulate, in a single task, both reactive and proactive inhibition mechanisms, and we investigate the within-subjects effect of increasing, by means of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS, the involvement of the right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC. Our results show a simultaneous enhancement of these two cognitive mechanisms when modulating the neural activity of rIFC. Thus, the application of anodal tDCS increased reaction times on Go trials, indicating a possible increase in proactive inhibition. Concurrently, the stop-signal reaction time, as a covert index of the inhibitory process, was reduced, demonstrating an improvement in reactive inhibition. In summary, the current pattern of results validates the engagement of the rIFC in these two forms of inhibitory processes, proactive and reactive inhibition and it provides evidence that both processes can operate concurrently in the brain.

  12. Bullying and Victimization among Native and Immigrant Adolescents in Norway: The Role of Proactive and Reactive Aggressiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fandrem, Hildegunn; Strohmeier, Dagmar; Roland, Erling

    2009-01-01

    This study compares levels of bullying others, victimization, and aggressiveness in native Norwegian and immigrant adolescents living in Norway and shows how bullying is related to proactive and reactive aggressiveness. The sample consists of 2,938 native Norwegians (1,521 girls, 1,417 boys) and 189 immigrant adolescents (97 girls, 92 boys) in…

  13. Proactive strategies for regorafenib in metastatic colorectal cancer: implications for optimal patient management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan G

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Gazala Khan,1 Rebecca A Moss,2 Fadi Braiteh,3,4 Marc Saltzman5 1Department of Hematology and Oncology, Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit, MI, USA; 2Rutgers Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ, USA; 3US Oncology Research, Las Vegas, NV, USA; 4Comprehensive Cancer Centers of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USA; 5Innovative Medical Research of South Florida, Inc, Aventura, FL, USA Abstract: Regorafenib is a broad-spectrum oral multikinase inhibitor that targets several angiogenic, oncogenic, and stromal receptor tyrosine kinases that support the tumor microenvironment. Results from the pivotal Phase III Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Treated with Regorafenib or Placebo After Failure of Standard Therapy (CORRECT trial showed that the addition of regorafenib to best supportive care resulted in a significant improvement in median overall survival and progression-free survival compared with placebo plus best supportive care in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC following all available approved therapies. Thus, regorafenib is the first oral multikinase inhibitor indicated for mCRC; it currently has approval in the USA, EU, Japan, Canada, and Singapore for the treatment of mCRC patients who have been previously treated with fluoropyrimidine-, oxaliplatin-, and irinotecan-based chemotherapy, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy, and, if the tumor is KRAS wild-type, an anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy. In this review, we highlight regorafenib's mechanism of action, present key efficacy data from the CORRECT trial, and discuss how to proactively manage common adverse events (eg, hand-foot skin reaction, hypertension, oral mucositis, diarrhea, and fatigue experienced by patients receiving regorafenib. Increased awareness of potential adverse events associated with regorafenib and the implementation of proactive strategies to prevent, monitor, and manage these

  14. Climate change damages to Alaska public infrastructure and the economics of proactive adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, April M; Larsen, Peter; Boehlert, Brent; Neumann, James E; Chinowsky, Paul; Espinet, Xavier; Martinich, Jeremy; Baumann, Matthew S; Rennels, Lisa; Bothner, Alexandra; Nicolsky, Dmitry J; Marchenko, Sergey S

    2017-01-10

    Climate change in the circumpolar region is causing dramatic environmental change that is increasing the vulnerability of infrastructure. We quantified the economic impacts of climate change on Alaska public infrastructure under relatively high and low climate forcing scenarios [representative concentration pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) and RCP4.5] using an infrastructure model modified to account for unique climate impacts at northern latitudes, including near-surface permafrost thaw. Additionally, we evaluated how proactive adaptation influenced economic impacts on select infrastructure types and developed first-order estimates of potential land losses associated with coastal erosion and lengthening of the coastal ice-free season for 12 communities. Cumulative estimated expenses from climate-related damage to infrastructure without adaptation measures (hereafter damages) from 2015 to 2099 totaled $5.5 billion (2015 dollars, 3% discount) for RCP8.5 and $4.2 billion for RCP4.5, suggesting that reducing greenhouse gas emissions could lessen damages by $1.3 billion this century. The distribution of damages varied across the state, with the largest damages projected for the interior and southcentral Alaska. The largest source of damages was road flooding caused by increased precipitation followed by damages to buildings associated with near-surface permafrost thaw. Smaller damages were observed for airports, railroads, and pipelines. Proactive adaptation reduced total projected cumulative expenditures to $2.9 billion for RCP8.5 and $2.3 billion for RCP4.5. For road flooding, adaptation provided an annual savings of 80-100% across four study eras. For nearly all infrastructure types and time periods evaluated, damages and adaptation costs were larger for RCP8.5 than RCP4.5. Estimated coastal erosion losses were also larger for RCP8.5.

  15. Design and implementation of an identification system in construction site safety for proactive accident prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huanjia; Chew, David A S; Wu, Weiwei; Zhou, Zhipeng; Li, Qiming

    2012-09-01

    Identifying accident precursors using real-time identity information has great potential to improve safety performance in construction industry, which is still suffering from day to day records of accident fatality and injury. Based on the requirements analysis for identifying precursor and the discussion of enabling technology solutions for acquiring and sharing real-time automatic identification information on construction site, this paper proposes an identification system design for proactive accident prevention to improve construction site safety. Firstly, a case study is conducted to analyze the automatic identification requirements for identifying accident precursors in construction site. Results show that it mainly consists of three aspects, namely access control, training and inspection information and operation authority. The system is then designed to fulfill these requirements based on ZigBee enabled wireless sensor network (WSN), radio frequency identification (RFID) technology and an integrated ZigBee RFID sensor network structure. At the same time, an information database is also designed and implemented, which includes 15 tables, 54 queries and several reports and forms. In the end, a demonstration system based on the proposed system design is developed as a proof of concept prototype. The contributions of this study include the requirement analysis and technical design of a real-time identity information tracking solution for proactive accident prevention on construction sites. The technical solution proposed in this paper has a significant importance in improving safety performance on construction sites. Moreover, this study can serve as a reference design for future system integrations where more functions, such as environment monitoring and location tracking, can be added.

  16. Performance evaluation of reactive and proactive routing protocol in IEEE 802.11 ad hoc network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamma, Salima; Cizeron, Eddy; Issaka, Hafiz; Guédon, Jean-Pierre

    2006-10-01

    Wireless technology based on the IEEE 802.11 standard is widely deployed. This technology is used to support multiple types of communication services (data, voice, image) with different QoS requirements. MANET (Mobile Adhoc NETwork) does not require a fixed infrastructure. Mobile nodes communicate through multihop paths. The wireless communication medium has variable and unpredictable characteristics. Furthermore, node mobility creates a continuously changing communication topology in which paths break and new one form dynamically. The routing table of each router in an adhoc network must be kept up-to-date. MANET uses Distance Vector or Link State algorithms which insure that the route to every host is always known. However, this approach must take into account the adhoc networks specific characteristics: dynamic topologies, limited bandwidth, energy constraints, limited physical security, ... Two main routing protocols categories are studied in this paper: proactive protocols (e.g. Optimised Link State Routing - OLSR) and reactive protocols (e.g. Ad hoc On Demand Distance Vector - AODV, Dynamic Source Routing - DSR). The proactive protocols are based on periodic exchanges that update the routing tables to all possible destinations, even if no traffic goes through. The reactive protocols are based on on-demand route discoveries that update routing tables only for the destination that has traffic going through. The present paper focuses on study and performance evaluation of these categories using NS2 simulations. We have considered qualitative and quantitative criteria. The first one concerns distributed operation, loop-freedom, security, sleep period operation. The second are used to assess performance of different routing protocols presented in this paper. We can list end-to-end data delay, jitter, packet delivery ratio, routing load, activity distribution. Comparative study will be presented with number of networking context consideration and the results show

  17. ProactiveVector control strategies and improved monitoring and evaluation practices for dengue prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Lars; Beaty, Barry J; Morrison, Amy C; Scott, Thomas W

    2009-11-01

    Despite tremendous efforts by public health organizations in dengue-endemic countries, it has proven difficult to achieve effective and sustainable control of the primary dengue virus vector Aedes aegypti (L.) and to effectively disrupt dengue outbreaks. This problem has multiple root causes, including uncontrolled urbanization, increased global spread of dengue viruses, and vector and dengue control programs not being provided adequate resources. In this forum article, we give an overview of the basic elements of a vector and dengue control program and describe a continuous improvement cyclical model to systematically and incrementally improve control program performance by regular efforts to identify ineffective methods and inferior technology, and then replacing them with better performing alternatives. The first step includes assessments of the overall resource allocation among vector/dengue control program activities, the efficacy of currently used vector control methods, and the appropriateness of technology used to support the program. We expect this will reveal that 1) some currently used vector control methods are not effective, 2) resource allocations often are skewed toward reactive vector control measures, and 3) proactive approaches commonly are underfunded and therefore poorly executed. Next steps are to conceptualize desired changes to vector control methods or technologies used and then to operationally determine in pilot studies whether these changes are likely to improve control program performance. This should be followed by a shift in resource allocation to replace ineffective methods and inferior technology with more effective and operationally tested alternatives. The cyclical and self-improving nature of the continuous improvement model will produce locally appropriate management strategies that continually are adapted to counter changes in vector population or dengue virus transmission dynamics. We discuss promising proactive vector control

  18. Climate change damages to Alaska public infrastructure and the economics of proactive adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, April M.; Larsen, Peter; Boehlert, Brent; Neumann, James E.; Chinowsky, Paul; Espinet, Xavier; Martinich, Jeremy; Baumann, Matthew S.; Rennels, Lisa; Bothner, Alexandra; Nicolsky, Dmitry J.; Marchenko, Sergey S.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change in the circumpolar region is causing dramatic environmental change that is increasing the vulnerability of infrastructure. We quantified the economic impacts of climate change on Alaska public infrastructure under relatively high and low climate forcing scenarios [representative concentration pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) and RCP4.5] using an infrastructure model modified to account for unique climate impacts at northern latitudes, including near-surface permafrost thaw. Additionally, we evaluated how proactive adaptation influenced economic impacts on select infrastructure types and developed first-order estimates of potential land losses associated with coastal erosion and lengthening of the coastal ice-free season for 12 communities. Cumulative estimated expenses from climate-related damage to infrastructure without adaptation measures (hereafter damages) from 2015 to 2099 totaled $5.5 billion (2015 dollars, 3% discount) for RCP8.5 and $4.2 billion for RCP4.5, suggesting that reducing greenhouse gas emissions could lessen damages by $1.3 billion this century. The distribution of damages varied across the state, with the largest damages projected for the interior and southcentral Alaska. The largest source of damages was road flooding caused by increased precipitation followed by damages to buildings associated with near-surface permafrost thaw. Smaller damages were observed for airports, railroads, and pipelines. Proactive adaptation reduced total projected cumulative expenditures to $2.9 billion for RCP8.5 and $2.3 billion for RCP4.5. For road flooding, adaptation provided an annual savings of 80–100% across four study eras. For nearly all infrastructure types and time periods evaluated, damages and adaptation costs were larger for RCP8.5 than RCP4.5. Estimated coastal erosion losses were also larger for RCP8.5. PMID:28028223

  19. Influence of healthcare institution managers' proactive approach to communication activities on patient satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Vinka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Over the recent years customer satisfaction program as a tool for patient satisfaction has been recognized as an important issue in healthcare services. The aim of this preliminary study was to explore an influence of healthcare institution managers' approach and attitudes to marketing and public relations activities (communication activities, in the context of implementation of customer satisfaction programs, on patient satisfaction. Methods. The study was conducted among managers from different state-owned healthcare institutions (healthcare centers, clinics, hospitals in Serbia. The structured questionnaire form, comprising both open and closed questions, was used as a main research tool. The total number of sent questionnaires was 120; 56 questionnaires were sent back, while 49 of them were valid. Results. It was shown that 42.9% of healthcare institutions apply proactive media approach, and that 35.7% of the organizations have a person who, besides his/her basic engagements, performs activities connected with marketing and public relations. Using Chi-square likelihood ratio test it is confirmed that these activities have a significant role in supporting customer satisfaction program implementation (p < 0.05. The results showed that in 69.4% cases, positive attitude of healthcare institutions managers toward marketing and public relations activities had positive influence on patient satisfaction (p < 0.05. Conclusion. Managers in healthcare sector in Serbia who used proactive approach toward media and who had already institutionalized communication activities with external stakeholders have a positive attitude to implementation of customer satisfaction program. Furthermore, managers' attitude toward communication activities has influence on patient satisfaction.

  20. Variation in female grey seal (Halichoerus grypus reproductive performance correlates to proactive-reactive behavioural types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean D Twiss

    Full Text Available Consistent individual differences (CIDs in behaviour, indicative of behavioural types or personalities, have been shown in taxa ranging from Cnidaria to Mammalia. However, despite numerous theoretical explanations there remains limited empirical evidence for selective mechanisms that maintain such variation within natural populations. We examined behavioural types and fitness proxies in wild female grey seals at the North Rona breeding colony. Experiments in 2009 and 2010 employed a remotely-controlled vehicle to deliver a novel auditory stimulus to females to elicit changes in pup-checking behaviour. Mothers tested twice during lactation exhibited highly repeatable individual pup-checking rates within and across breeding seasons. Observations of undisturbed mothers (i.e. experiencing no disturbance from conspecifics or experimental test also revealed CIDs in pup-checking behaviour. However, there was no correlation between an individuals' pup-checking rate during undisturbed observations with the rate in response to the auditory test, indicating plasticity across situations. The extent to which individuals changed rates of pup-checking from undisturbed to disturbed conditions revealed a continuum of behavioural types from proactive females, who maintained a similar rate throughout, to reactive females, who increased pup-checking markedly in response to the test. Variation in maternal expenditure (daily mass loss rate was greater among more reactive mothers than proactive mothers. Consequently pups of more reactive mothers had more varied growth rates centred around the long-term population mean. These patterns could not be accounted for by other measured covariates as behavioural type was unrelated to a mother's prior experience, degree of inter-annual site fidelity, physical characteristics of their pupping habitat, pup sex or pup activity. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that variation in behavioural types is maintained by

  1. A framework for the integration of environmental legitimacy, accountability and proactivity (ELAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alrazi, B.; Villiers, C de; Staden, C. van [Univ. of Auckland (New Zealand)

    2009-07-01

    There are various environmental problems facing the world today. These include global warming, ozone depletion, species extinction, overgrazing, soil erosion and contamination, dumping of radioactive waste, oil spills, exploitation of natural resources, landfill and open burning. Public concern over the quality of the environment has seen that this issue is increasingly being addressed by the mass media. Likewise, numerous environmental treaties at the international level have been signed over the past two decades, including the Kyoto Protocol (in 1997), the United Nation Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992, superseded by the Kyoto Protocol), the Montreal Protocol (1989), the Nitrogen Oxide Protocol (1988), the China Australia Migratory Bird Agreement (1986) and the Sulphur Emission Reduction Protocol (1985). Hence, this is a common perception that corporations' activities are to be blamed, albeit not entirely, for the existing and future environmental problems. In the pursuit of profit maximization, corporations sometimes take options that are detrimental to the natural environment. As stakeholders are becoming more aware of the various environmental problems, these have caused them to demand more corporate environmental responsibility. In a similar vein, various concepts have emerged in the extant literature to describe corporate environmental behaviors. The include inter alia environmental legitimacy, environmental accountability and environmental proactivity. Despite this proliferation, none of the previous studies made an attempt to discuss how these concepts are similar and/or dissimilar, let alone to integrate them in a single framework and put them in a unified, meaningful context. This study intends to fill in this gap. The objective of this paper is threefold. Firstly, to develop a framework which incorporates three conceptually distinct but interrelated dimensions namely, environmental legitimacy, environmental accountability and

  2. Towards a Proactive Risk Mitigation Strategy at La Fossa Volcano, Vulcano Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biass, S.; Gregg, C. E.; Frischknecht, C.; Falcone, J. L.; Lestuzzi, P.; di Traglia, F.; Rosi, M.; Bonadonna, C.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive risk assessment framework was built to develop proactive risk reduction measures for Vulcano Island, Italy. This framework includes identification of eruption scenarios; probabilistic hazard assessment, quantification of hazard impacts on the built environment, accessibility assessment on the island and risk perception study. Vulcano, a 21 km2 island with two primary communities host to 900 permanent residents and up to 10,000 visitors during summer, shows a strong dependency on the mainland for basic needs (water, energy) and relies on a ~2 month tourism season for its economy. The recent stratigraphy reveals a dominance of vulcanian and subplinian eruptions, producing a range of hazards acting at different time scales. We developed new methods to probabilistically quantify the hazard related to ballistics, lahars and tephra for all eruption styles. We also elaborated field- and GIS- based methods to assess the physical vulnerability of the built environment and created dynamic models of accessibility. Results outline the difference of hazard between short and long-lasting eruptions. A subplinian eruption has a 50% probability of impacting ~30% of the buildings within days after the eruption, but the year-long damage resulting from a long-lasting vulcanian eruption is similar if tephra is not removed from rooftops. Similarly, a subplinian eruption results in a volume of 7x105 m3 of material potentially remobilized into lahars soon after the eruption. Similar volumes are expected for a vulcanian activity over years, increasing the hazard of small lahars. Preferential lahar paths affect critical infrastructures lacking redundancy, such as the road network, communications systems, the island's only gas station, and access to the island's two evacuation ports. Such results from hazard, physical and systemic vulnerability help establish proactive volcanic risk mitigation strategies and may be applicable in other island settings.

  3. Cognitive Impairments in Occupational Burnout - Error Processing and Its Indices of Reactive and Proactive Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golonka, Krystyna; Mojsa-Kaja, Justyna; Gawlowska, Magda; Popiel, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    The presented study refers to cognitive aspects of burnout as the effects of long-term work-related stress. The purpose of the study was to investigate electrophysiological correlates of burnout to explain the mechanisms of the core burnout symptoms: exhaustion and depersonalization/cynicism. The analyzed error-related electrophysiological markers shed light on impaired cognitive mechanisms and the specific changes in information-processing in burnout. In the EEG study design (N = 80), two components of error-related potential (ERP), error-related negativity (ERN), and error positivity (Pe), were analyzed. In the non-clinical burnout group (N = 40), a significant increase in ERN amplitude and a decrease in Pe amplitude were observed compared to controls (N = 40). Enhanced error detection, indexed by increased ERN amplitude, and diminished response monitoring, indexed by decreased Pe amplitude, reveal emerging cognitive problems in the non-clinical burnout group. Cognitive impairments in burnout subjects relate to both reactive and unconscious (ERN) and proactive and conscious (Pe) aspects of error processing. The results indicate a stronger 'reactive control mode' that can deplete resources for proactive control and the ability to actively maintain goals. The analysis refers to error processing and specific task demands, thus should not be extended to cognitive processes in general. The characteristics of ERP patterns in burnout resemble psychophysiological indexes of anxiety (increased ERN) and depressive symptoms (decreased Pe), showing to some extent an overlapping effect of burnout and related symptoms and disorders. The results support the scarce existing data on the psychobiological nature of burnout, while extending and specifying its cognitive characteristics.

  4. Cognitive Impairments in Occupational Burnout – Error Processing and Its Indices of Reactive and Proactive Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golonka, Krystyna; Mojsa-Kaja, Justyna; Gawlowska, Magda; Popiel, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    The presented study refers to cognitive aspects of burnout as the effects of long-term work-related stress. The purpose of the study was to investigate electrophysiological correlates of burnout to explain the mechanisms of the core burnout symptoms: exhaustion and depersonalization/cynicism. The analyzed error-related electrophysiological markers shed light on impaired cognitive mechanisms and the specific changes in information-processing in burnout. In the EEG study design (N = 80), two components of error-related potential (ERP), error-related negativity (ERN), and error positivity (Pe), were analyzed. In the non-clinical burnout group (N = 40), a significant increase in ERN amplitude and a decrease in Pe amplitude were observed compared to controls (N = 40). Enhanced error detection, indexed by increased ERN amplitude, and diminished response monitoring, indexed by decreased Pe amplitude, reveal emerging cognitive problems in the non-clinical burnout group. Cognitive impairments in burnout subjects relate to both reactive and unconscious (ERN) and proactive and conscious (Pe) aspects of error processing. The results indicate a stronger ‘reactive control mode’ that can deplete resources for proactive control and the ability to actively maintain goals. The analysis refers to error processing and specific task demands, thus should not be extended to cognitive processes in general. The characteristics of ERP patterns in burnout resemble psychophysiological indexes of anxiety (increased ERN) and depressive symptoms (decreased Pe), showing to some extent an overlapping effect of burnout and related symptoms and disorders. The results support the scarce existing data on the psychobiological nature of burnout, while extending and specifying its cognitive characteristics. PMID:28507528

  5. Structured pro-active care for chronic depression by practice nurses in primary care: a qualitative evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Bennett

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This qualitative study explored the impact and appropriateness of structured pro-active care reviews by practice nurses for patients with chronic or recurrent depression and dysthymia within the ProCEED trial. ProCEED (Pro-active Care and its Evaluation for Enduring Depression was a United Kingdom wide randomised controlled trial, comparing usual general practitioner care with structured 'pro-active care' which involved 3 monthly review appointments with practice nurses over 2 years for patients with chronic or recurrent depression. METHOD: In-depth interviews were completed with 41 participants: 26 patients receiving pro-active care and 15 practice nurses providing this care. Interview transcripts were analysed thematically using a 'framework' approach. RESULTS: Patients perceived the practice nurses to be appropriate professionals to engage with regarding their depression and most nurses felt confident in a case management role. The development of a therapeutic alliance between the patient and nurse was central to this model and, where it appeared lacking, dissatisfaction was felt by both patients and nurses with a likely negative impact on outcomes. Patient and nurse factors impacting on the therapeutic alliance were identified and nurse typologies explored. DISCUSSION: Pro-active care reviews utilising practice nurses as case managers were found acceptable by the majority of patients and practice nurses and may be a suitable way to provide care for patients with long-term depression in primary care. Motivated and interested practice nurses could be an appropriate and valuable resource for this patient group. This has implications for resource decisions by clinicians and commissioners within primary care.

  6. Low heart rate as a risk factor for child and adolescent proactive aggressive and impulsive psychopathic behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Adrian; Fung, Annis Lai Chu; Portnoy, Jill; Choy, Olivia; Spring, Victoria L

    2014-01-01

    Although low resting heart rate has been viewed as a well-replicated biological correlate of child and adolescent antisocial behavior, little is known about how it interacts with psychosocial adversity in predisposing to both reactive-proactive aggression and psychopathy, and whether this relationship generalizes to an East Asian population. This study tests the hypothesis that low resting heart rate will be associated with aggression and psychopathic traits, and that heart rate will interact with adversity in predisposing to these antisocial traits. Resting heart rate was assessed in 334 Hong Kong male and female schoolchildren aged 11-17 years. A social adversity index was calculated from a psychosocial interview of the parent, while parents assessed their children on the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire and the Antisocial Personality Screening Device. Low resting heart rate was significantly associated with higher proactive aggression, impulsive features of psychopathy, and total child psychopathy. Low resting heart rate interacted with high psychosocial adversity in explaining higher reactive (but not proactive) aggression, as well as impulsive psychopathy. These findings provide support for a biosocial perspective of reactive aggression and impulsive psychopathy, and document low resting heart rate as a robust correlate of both childhood impulsive psychopathic behavior and proactive aggression. To our knowledge, this study is the first to document low resting heart rate as a correlate of child psychopathy and the second to establish low heart rate as a risk factor of antisocial behavior in an East Asian population. The findings provide further evidence for both low resting heart rate as a potential biomarker for childhood psychopathic and aggressive behavior, and also a biosocial perspective on childhood antisocial behavior.

  7. Evaluation of a system of structured, pro-active care for chronic depression in primary care: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beecham Jennifer

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with chronic depression are frequently lost from effective care, with resulting psychological, physical and social morbidity and considerable social and financial societal costs. This randomised controlled trial will evaluate whether regular structured practice nurse reviews lead to better mental health and social outcomes for these patients and will assess the cost-effectiveness of the structured reviews compared to usual care. The hypothesis is that structured, pro-active care of patients with chronic depression in primary care will lead to a cost-effective improvement in medical and social outcomes when compared with usual general practitioner (GP care. Methods/Design Participants were recruited from 42 general practices throughout the United Kingdom. Eligible participants had to have a history of chronic major depression, recurrent major depression or chronic dsythymia confirmed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI. They also needed to score 14 or above on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II at recruitment. Once consented, participants were randomised to treatment as usual from their general practice (controls or the practice nurse led intervention. The intervention includes a specially prepared education booklet and a comprehensive baseline assessment of participants' mood and any associated physical and psycho-social factors, followed by regular 3 monthly reviews by the nurse over the 2 year study period. At these appointments intervention participants' mood will be reviewed, together with their current pharmacological and psychological treatments and any relevant social factors, with the nurse suggesting possible amendments according to evidence based guidelines. This is a chronic disease management model, similar to that used for other long-term conditions in primary care. The primary outcome is the BDI-II, measured at baseline and 6 monthly by self-complete postal questionnaire

  8. The Survey of Proactive Marketing Strategies Impacts on Business Performance during Recession; Study of Active Iranian Companies in Abbasabad Industrial Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Kheiry

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of businesses and organizations and even their survival can be severely affected by recessions. However, all firms are not equally affected by a recession. In fact, some firms even experience better conditions in markets during recessions. Past studies and investigations about marketing in economic turbulent times and especially in proactive marketing suggest that some firms view a recession as an opportunity and develop an aggressive marketing reaction, while others cut back, waiting for the recession to pass. We use the term proactive marketing, to represent the strategic reaction of companies to a recession, or more generally, to a turbulent environment. We show that proactive marketing is an important factor for a company to view and react to recessions. Specifically, we develop and test a model of the antecedents and consequences of proactive marketing during a recession. The results of a survey of 45 senior marketing executives in Abbasabad Industrial Park in Iran reveal that some companies do accept and execute proactive marketing during recessions. Our results indicate that if companies have a strategic emphasis on marketing, embody an entrepreneurial culture, possess slack resources, they will more likely to have a proactive marketing reaction during turbulent times especially recessions. Also, results show that proactive marketing plays a significant role in improving both market and business performance during the recession. The implications of our results can be discussed for both marketing theory and managerial practice.

  9. Learning from the social construction of environmental indicators: From the retrospective to the pro-active use of SCOT in technology development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Darnmann, Sven; Lentsch, Justus;

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the challenges, advantages and limitations of the pro-active use of the social construction of technology (SCOT) to improve the methods applied in the development of technology for use by a broad range of actors. Our example is the development of environmental indicators...... for buildings (EIFOBs). We compare the pro-active use of SCOT with both the 'traditional' use of SCOT and with the 'traditional' way of developing EIFOBs. pro-actively applying SCOT in developing EIFOBs has the potential of bridging some of the communication gaps at the boundaries between the various...... designing and carrying out the research. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. Experiences of a proactive IR(ME)R inspection in radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, A; Cocker, M

    2004-04-01

    The Ionizing Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2000, IR(ME)R, apply to the safety of the patient referred for a medical exposure to ionizing radiation. In Scotland, the Scottish Executive (Department of Health) is responsible for carrying out inspections of compliance with these regulations. IR(ME)R specifically addresses issues concerned with Employer's duties, responsibilities of the Practitioner, Operator and Referrer, justification of individual medical exposures for diagnosis and treatment, optimization of all procedures, clinical audit and adequate training of all duty holders. A proactive IR(ME)R inspection of the Clinical Oncology Department, Raigmore Hospital, Inverness, was carried out in November 2001 by inspectors based at the Department of Health, London, and seconded by the Scottish Executive, Department of Health. The aim of the inspection was to assess the degree of compliance with the regulations. In this case study the experiences of a proactive inspection are described in detail and some of the important elements of implementing IR(ME)R in a department that operates an ISO 9000-2000 Quality Management System addressed. The identification of IR(ME)R Duty Holders' responsibilities is one important aspect which may be inadequately described by the existing Quality Management System documentation. Other key elements of the inspection include the methods of authorizing the justification, the importance of the treatment prescription sheets in the demonstration of compliance with IR(ME)R, patient identification and pregnancy questions and dose recording procedures. The integration of the standard operating procedures as described in Schedule 1 of the regulations is also important. Where the existing Quality Management System documentation is written to include the IR(ME)R requirements of duty holder's responsibilities and the allocation of all the important tasks, then there is no need to re-badge these documents for IR(ME)R purposes. IR

  11. inVestIgating the pSychologIcal and ecONomic impAct of cataRact surgerY in Vietnam: The VISIONARY observational study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc Huynh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual impairment caused by cataracts not only affects an individual's quality of life but can also have a profound impact on other important psychological factors and on the economic circumstances of individuals and their households. Cataract surgery is an effective intervention to restore vision and is also associated with other positive consequences including improvements in quality of life, economic and psychological outcomes. While there has been an increase in the number and quality of cataract surgeries performed in Vietnam, the programs currently in place are still unable to meet the existing demand and need for surgery. Data on both the cost-effectiveness of cataract surgery and the economic and psychological impact of untreated cataract in this setting is lacking. Methods/Design This study, investigating the psychological and economic impact of cataract surgery in Vietnam (VISIONARY, will recruit and interview a sample of adults (18 years or over who are referred for cataract surgery by one of the following sites and their outreach programs: Hue Eye Hospital; Thai Binh Eye Hospital; Binh Dinh Department of Health Eye Hospital and the Vinh Long Department of Health Social Disease Centre. All participants (those who have cataract surgery and those who do not have surgery will be followed up at six and 12 months. Discussion This study is designed to examine the impact of low vision on household economic circumstances and psychological outcomes as well as to investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cataract surgery in Vietnam. It will help to inform international and national non-government organisations working in the country and local policy-makers on priorities for further investment in eye-health services in this setting and their relevance to broader economic development goals.

  12. A proactive classroom management model to enhance self-efficacy levels in teachers of adolescents who display disruptive behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Rolanda T; Boykins, Anita D; Davis, Sheila P

    2014-02-01

    The aims of this project were to determine teachers' self-efficacy levels at baseline and after participating in a proactive classroom management model intervention. Teachers (N = 26) were recruited from a rural middle school in a south central state. Data required for analysis were drawn from the Teachers' Sense of Efficacy Scale (long form). A statistically significant difference (t[25] = 7.68, p < 0.001) was noted in teachers' self-efficacy levels from pre- to post-intervention. Findings support the need for proactive classroom management training for teachers as well as the need for psychiatric and mental health nurse consultants within the school system. Teacher classroom management strategies should also include appropriate response to individual student's needs, effective communication, and insight regarding the behaviors of students from diverse backgrounds. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Reactive or proactive approach towards sustainability? A conceptual framework based on sustainable business models to increase stakeholders' sustainable value capture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosati, Francesco; Morioka, Sandra; Monteiro de Carvalho, Marly;

    for the various actors in society. This is also valid for organizations, which are expected to assume a more proactive and entrepreneurial posture towards tackling sustainable development challenges. In this sense, sustainable business model approach can support organizations to be more sustainable, serving...... were not expecting or demanding, but that are positive in terms of sustainability. The proactive approach on managing stakeholders finds its justification on questioning companies about their institutional role in society, demanding sustainability innovation in companies' business models...... and challenging companies to seek for business opportunities with an entrepreneurial attitude to help solving sustainable development challenges. By combining both approaches, organizations have the opportunity to increase sustainable value capture by its stakeholders, acting on their institutional responsibility...

  14. Turnover intentions and voluntary turnover: the moderating roles of self-monitoring, locus of control, proactive personality, and risk aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, David G; Weeks, Kelly P; Moffitt, Karen R

    2005-09-01

    This article explores moderators of the relationship between turnover intentions and turnover behavior to better explain why some employees translate intentions into behavior and other employees do not. Individual differences in self-monitoring, locus of control, proactive personality, and risk aversion were examined. Results indicate that self-monitoring and risk aversion moderate the intentions-turnover link. Specifically, the relationship between turnover intentions and turnover is stronger for low self-monitors and those lower in risk aversion. Locus of control moderated the relationship in 1 of 2 samples such that the relationship was stronger for those with an internal locus of control. Proactive personality, however, did not directly moderate the relationship between intentions and turnover behaviors.

  15. Further Evaluation of Associations Between Reactive and Proactive Aggression and Suicidal Behavior in a Treatment Seeking Sample of Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fite, Paula J; Poquiz, Jonathan; Frazer, Andrew L; Reiter, Nicholas

    2017-02-10

    This study examined associations between reactive and proactive functions of aggression and suicidal behavior in a sample of outpatient treatment seeking youth (n = 111, 60.5% male) ranging from 6 to 17 years of age (Mean age = 10.57 years). Additionally, hope was evaluated as a moderator of these associations. Child reports of measures were used to evaluate associations. When also considering the variance associated with child depressive symptoms and hope, reactive, but not proactive, aggression was uniquely associated with suicidal behavior. Moreover, hope moderated this association, such that reactive aggression was only positively associated with suicidal behavior when levels of hope were low. Findings and their implications for targeting hope with aggressive youth for the prevention of suicidal behavior are discussed.

  16. Design Concept of Human Interface System for Risk Monitoring for Proactive Trouble Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Yang, Ming; Zhang, Zhijian; Hashim, Muhammad [Harbin Engineering University, Harbin (China); Lind, Morten [Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Djibouti); Tamayama, Kiyoshi; Okusa, Kyoichi [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tsuruga (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    A new concept is first proposed of distributed human interface system to integrate both operation and maintenance of nuclear power plant. Then, a method of constructing human interface system is introduced by integrating the plant knowledge database system based on Multilevel Flow Model (MFM) with the risk monitor to watch Defense-in Depth plant safety functions. The proposed concept is applied for a liquid metal fast reactor Monju and necessary R and D subjects are reviewed to realize human interface system for the maintenance work in Monju plant. Because of using high temperature liquid sodium as reactor coolant in Monju plant, the maintenance for Monju should utilize more automated equipment of remote control and robotics than that of light water reactor. It is necessary to design optimum task allocation between human and automated machine as the requisites for good communication design of human interface systems to support the collaboration work between workers at local workplace and the main control room. In this paper, the general issues are reviewed on how to configure the whole human interface system for helping proactive trouble prevention and risk evaluation on the basis of the presented target plant model before the concrete proposition of the hardware and software systems development to be used by both the staffs of operation and maintenance of NPP.

  17. Bulgarian Human Trafficking in Belgium and Proactive Learning Entrepreneurship: Developments 2002–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Leman

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the mechanisms of proactive learning in the Bulgaro-Belgian human trafficking business between 2002 and 2007 through three profiles, starting each time with a case study. The profiles and cases are the result of an in-depth study of 16 Belgian court files. The study reveals three profiles: post-violent entrepreneurship in prostitution (2002–2005, international and inter-ethnic entrepreneurship in prostitution (2004, and labour exploitation (2004–2005. Each time one can identify learning processes in the minds of the entrepreneurs when comparing their activities with those of their predecessors, as described in previous articles by the same researchers. The image that comes to the fore from our analysis is one of organisations that are successful in all sorts of ways at covering themselves against police and judicial investigations, and that at the same time in many places and many ways – both in the regions of origin and in the country in which the activities take place – manage to infiltrate the economy.

  18. A Matrix-Based Proactive Data Relay Algorithm for Large Distributed Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Hu, Xuemei; Hu, Haixiao; Liu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    In large-scale distributed sensor networks, sensed data is required to be relayed around the network so that one or few sensors can gather adequate relative data to produce high quality information for decision-making. In regards to very high energy-constraint sensor nodes, data transmission should be extremely economical. However, traditional data delivery protocols are potentially inefficient relaying unpredictable sensor readings for data fusion in large distributed networks for either overwhelming query transmissions or unnecessary data coverage. By building sensors’ local model from their previously transmitted data in three matrixes, we have developed a novel energy-saving data relay algorithm, which allows sensors to proactively make broadcast decisions by using a neat matrix computation to provide balance between transmission and energy-saving. In addition, we designed a heuristic maintenance algorithm to efficiently update these three matrices. This can easily be deployed to large-scale mobile networks in which decisions of sensors are based on their local matrix models no matter how large the network is, and the local models of these sensors are updated constantly. Compared with some traditional approaches based on our simulations, the efficiency of this approach is manifested in uncertain environment. The results show that our approach is scalable and can effectively balance aggregating data with minimizing energy consumption. PMID:27537891

  19. A Proactive Load-Aware Gateway Discovery in Ad Hoc Networks for Internet Connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available When a Mobile Ad Hoc network (MANET is connected to the Internet, it is important for mobile nodes todetect available Internet gateway (IGW providing access to the Internet. Gateway discovery time havestrong influence on packet delay and throughput. In most of the cases, a mobile node uses min- hops to thegateway to communicate a fixed host connected to an Internet. However, a minimum hop path may notalways be efficient if some nodes along the path have longer interface queue of waiting packets. Thus, thefocus of the paper is to first analyse existing load-aware routing protocols in MANET and then based onthis analysis, devise a proactive load-aware gateway discovery scheme that takes in to account size ofinterface queue in addition to the traditional min hop metric. This approach also allows an efficienthandoff from one Internet gateway to another Internet gateway and still maintains a seamless connectivityto a fixed host. We examine the impact of traffic load and node mobility in terms of two metrics:throughput and average end-to-end delay to assess the performance of the proposed protocol. Simulationresults indicate that our protocol outperforms existing solution.

  20. Proactive Spatiotemporal Resource Allocation and Predictive Visual Analytics for Community Policing and Law Enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Abish; Maciejewski, Ross; Towers, Sherry; McCullough, Sean; Ebert, David S

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we present a visual analytics approach that provides decision makers with a proactive and predictive environment in order to assist them in making effective resource allocation and deployment decisions. The challenges involved with such predictive analytics processes include end-users' understanding, and the application of the underlying statistical algorithms at the right spatiotemporal granularity levels so that good prediction estimates can be established. In our approach, we provide analysts with a suite of natural scale templates and methods that enable them to focus and drill down to appropriate geospatial and temporal resolution levels. Our forecasting technique is based on the Seasonal Trend decomposition based on Loess (STL) method, which we apply in a spatiotemporal visual analytics context to provide analysts with predicted levels of future activity. We also present a novel kernel density estimation technique we have developed, in which the prediction process is influenced by the spatial correlation of recent incidents at nearby locations. We demonstrate our techniques by applying our methodology to Criminal, Traffic and Civil (CTC) incident datasets.