WorldWideScience

Sample records for preparing pre-school children

  1. Social games with pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Tomažin, Maja

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the thesis Social games with pre-school children is to present social games as one of the work methods for relational learning. The theoretical part defines the social development of pre-school children and focuses on social skills that begin to emerge in the preschool period and of course social games. The purpose of social games is active learning, meaning they provide concrete situations, through which children actively learn as well as use social skills and express their views ...

  2. Behavioral Adjustment of Pre-primary School Children in Tanzania : The Role of the Teacher-Child Relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shavega, T.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-primary education in Tanzania prepares young children from 5 to 6 years of age for formal schooling (primary education). Children at this stage are in transition from home to school contexts. For many children the transition stage may cause challenges to them because school context is new to

  3. Pre-school education and school maturity of children from socially disadvantaged backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panajotis Cakirpaloglu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The adaptability of children to the school environment and their potential to succeed there is closely linked to the development of their cognitive and social skills. These are primarily linked to personal factors -physical maturity as well as mental or emotional maturity and the environment in which those children grow up. This fact is evident in children growing up in disadvantageous socio-economic conditions. In general the school readiness of children from socially-disadvantaged backgrounds is affected by the specific environment, the primary family and a number of other factors. A significant support of psychosocial development and successful adaptability at the start of the compulsory education is the preschool education, especially for children growing up in disadvantageous socio-economic conditions. The presented study focused on the effect of pre-school education on school readiness in first grade children. 24 children from socially disadvantaged environment were tested twice - for first time shortly after the beginning of their first grade and for the second time before the end of the first grade. The children were then divided into two groups - those who attended pre-school education and those who started school without any pre-school education programme. The attendance thus made the independent variable in the research design. There were three research questions - what is the impact of pre-school education on: Q1: general cognitive functioning (tested using the Intelligence Image Scale, Q2: on the ability to acquire the reading skills (tested using the Reversal test by Edfeldt and Q3 on the social maturity of the children (tested using the Vineland scale of adaptive behaviour The results of the study suggest that pre-school education has significant effect on social skills and this effect increases during the first year. The reading skills were better in children who attended the pre-school education however this impact decreases

  4. FLAT FEET OF DHE CHILDREN IN PRE-SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Admira Koničanin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Subjekt : Of this research are flat feet of the children of both sexes in pre-school age children Aim : Of the research is confirm wheter is exists or flat feel of the children of both sexes in pre-school age.

  5. Improper nutrition and diseases in pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Panova, Gordana; Taseva, Lence; Sumanov, Gorgi; Dzidrova, Violeta

    2017-01-01

    For healthy generation it is healthy and orderly development from early childhood. It needs proper nutrition, proper care and personal hygiene. Early childhood is the most vulnerable period in the development stage of man. Improper diet and disease in children from pre-school age are a problem for both children and parents. It is therefore important to undertake measures for proper nutrition and prevention of diseases. Described as improper diet affects children from pre-school...

  6. Construction environment education development activity for children pre-school

    OpenAIRE

    MA. TRAN THI THUY NGA; MA. PHAM THI YEN

    2015-01-01

    Education motor development contribute to the comprehensive development of pre-school children. Building educational environment for young athletes develop in pre-school is one of many issues of concern in the current stage of pre-school education in Vietnam.

  7. Dietary patterns and nutritional status of pre-school children in Nairobi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the dietary patterns and nutritional status of pre-school children in Nairobi, Kenya. Design: A cross-sectional study. Setting: Pre-schools in Nairobi, Kenya. Subjects: Three hundred and four pre-school children (149 males and 155 females) aged three to five years were assessed. Results: About 96% ...

  8. Rationale and Guidelines for a Pre-Crisis Curriculum to Prepare Healthy Preschool Children for Hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poster, Elizabeth C.

    Questions associated with an alternative approach to preparing nursery and elementary school children for hospitalization are addressed, and the basic components of a pre-crisis curriculum are outlined in this paper. Questions broached focus on (1) the effectiveness of a general curriculum approach as opposed to a crisis approach to preparing…

  9. Children's Behavioral Adjustment in Pre-Primary Schools in Tanzania : A Multilevel Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shavega, Theresia J.; Brugman, Daniel; van Tuijl, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study concerns children's behavioral adjustment in the context of pre-primary schools in Tanzania. Twenty teachers and 320 children from 20 pre-primary schools participated in the study. Teacher-child relationships, children's behavioral adjustment, and teachers'

  10. Prevalence of Acute Malnutrition in Pre-School Children in a Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of acute malnutrition in pre-school children in Karma Albald village, Northern Sudan. Design: Prospective observational study. Setting: Four kindergartens in Karma Albald village, Northern Sudan. Subjects: Pre-school children attending kindergartens in Karma Albald village (n ...

  11. PREVALENCE OF ANAEMIA AMONG RURAL PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN OF MAHARASHTRA, INDIA

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    N Arlappa

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anaemia continues to be a severe public health nutritional problem in India affecting all physiological groups, even after the National Nutritional Anaemia Prophylaxis Programme has been in operation for more than three decades. Objective: To assess the prevalence of anaemia among rural pre-school (1-5-years children of Maharashtra. Methods: A community based cross-sectional study was carried by National Nutrition Monitoring Bureau (NNMB covering a total of 404 (Boys-243; Girls-161 pre-school children. Information of socio-demographic particulars was obtained and the finger prick blood samples were collected for the estimation of haemoglobin levels by cyanmethmoglobin method. Results: The result shows that 59.2 % (CI: 54.4-64.0 of the rural pre-school children of Maharashtra were anaemic, and the prevalence was significantly (p40% among rural pre-school children of Maharashtra. Therefore, appropriate intervention measures such as supplementary iron & folic acid, periodic deworming and health & nutrition education should be strengthened. The community needs to be encouraged to diversify their diets by consuming iron rich foods.

  12. Montessori Public School Pre-K Programs and the School Readiness of Low-Income Black and Latino Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Arya; Winsler, Adam

    2014-11-01

    Within the United States, there are a variety of early education models and curricula aimed at promoting young children's pre-academic, social, and behavioral skills. This study, using data from the Miami School Readiness Project (MSRP; Winsler et al., 2008, 2012), examined the school readiness gains of low-income Latino ( n = 7,045) and Black children ( n = 6,700) enrolled in two different types of Title-1 public school pre-K programs: those in programs using the Montessori curricula and those in more conventional programs using the High/Scope curricula with a literacy supplement. Parents and teachers reported on children's socio-emotional and behavioral skills with the Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA), while children's pre-academic skills (cognitive, motor, and language) were assessed directly with the Learning Accomplishment Profile Diagnostic (LAP-D) at the beginning and end of their four-year-old pre-K year. All children, regardless of curricula, demonstrated gains across pre-academic, socio-emotional, and behavioral skills throughout the pre-K year; however, all children did not benefit equally from Montessori programs. Latino children in Montessori programs began the year at most risk in pre-academic and behavioral skills, yet exhibited the greatest gains across these domains and ended the year scoring above national averages. Conversely, Black children exhibited healthy gains in Montessori, but demonstrated slightly greater gains when attending more conventional pre-K programs. Findings have implications for tailoring early childhood education programs for Latino and Black children from low-income communities.

  13. The value of (pre)school playgrounds for children's physical activity level: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, K.; Scholten, A.M.; Vries, S.I. de

    2014-01-01

    The (pre)school environment is an important setting to improve children's health. Especially, the (pre)school playground provides a major opportunity to intervene. This review presents an overview of the existing evidence on the value of both school and preschool playgrounds on children's health in

  14. Developmental Profiles of Mucosal Immunity in Pre-school Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ewing

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of attending pre-school on mucosal immunity. Children 3.5 to 5 years of age who attended pre-school were observed for a 10 month period. Demographic information was collected on previous childcare experiences, the home environment and clinical information relating to the child and the family. A daily illness log was kept for each child. A multivariate longitudinal analysis of the relation between immunoglobulins in saliva and age, gender, childcare experience, pre-school exposure, number of siblings, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS, atopy and hospitalisation was conducted. There was a positive association of higher IgA levels with the winter season and with children being older than 4 years (<.001, having attended childcare prior to commencing pre-school (<.05, and having been exposed to ETS at home (<.05. Lower IgA levels were associated with being atopic (<.05. Higher IgG levels were associated with exposure to ETS (<.001, while lower levels were associated to having atopy. Higher IgM levels were associated with previous childcare experience (<.01 whilst having been hospitalised was associated with having low salivary IgM levels (<.01. Lagged analyses demonstrated that immunological parameters were affected by the number of respiratory infections in the preceding 2 months.

  15. Analysis of cause-effect relationship of hip dysplasia in pre-school children

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    Anna Rudenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze and scientifically substantiate peculiarities of cause-effect relationship of hip dysplasia in pre-school children. Material and Methods: analysis and systematization of scientific and methodological literature, medical histories, anamneses, interviews and questionings. Results: it is specified that failure to timely identify and eliminate the symptoms of hip dysplasia in pre-school children leads to negative consequences, namely limited amplitude of hip joint movements; lower limp muscle weakness; valgus and varus deformations of lower limp; increasing of L-lordosis; skewness of hip bones; scoliosis; claudication. Conclusions: the modern state of the problem of hip dysplasia in pre-school children is analyzed. The cause-effect relationship is defined, their mutual transition is projected. All cause-effect relationships are in direct proportion and in constant interaction: the cause the forms effect and the effect influences the cause

  16. Pre-sliced fruit in school cafeterias: children's selection and intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wansink, Brian; Just, David R; Hanks, Andrew S; Smith, Laura E

    2013-05-01

    It is often assumed that children avoid fruit in school cafeterias because of higher relative prices and preferences for other foods. Interviews with children reveal that eating whole fresh fruit can be difficult for those with small mouths or braces. Older girls find whole fruits messy and unattractive to eat. To determine the effect of offering pre-sliced fruit in schools on selection and intake. Three of six schools were assigned randomly to serve apples in slices. Three control schools served apples whole. Selection, consumption, and waste of apples were measured prior to and during treatment. Cafeterias in six public middle schools in Wayne County NY in 2011. Participants included all students who purchased lunch on days when data were collected. Treatment schools were provided with a standard commercial fruit slicer, and cafeteria staff members were instructed to use it when students requested apples. Trained researchers recorded how much of each apple was consumed and how much was wasted in both control and treatment schools. Daily apple sales, percentage of an apple serving consumed per student, and percentage of an apple serving wasted per student. Data were analyzed in 2012. Schools that used fruit slicers to pre-slice fruit increased average daily apple sales by 71% compared to control schools (papples and ate more than half increased by 73% (p=0.02) at schools that served pre-sliced fruit, and the percentage that wasted half or more decreased by 48% (p=0.03). Sliced fruit is more appealing to children than whole fruit because it is easier and tidier to eat. This study applies the principle of convenience from behavioral economics and provides an example of a scalable, low-cost environmental change that promotes healthy eating and decreases waste. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  17. Perceptions of Prospective Pre-School Teachers Regarding Children's Right to Participate in Classroom Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koran, Nihan; Avci, Neslihan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the behaviours of pre-school teachers working with children aged between 4 and 6 years with regard to their right to participate in classroom activities. In this context, pre-school teacher's negative or positive applications regarding children's participation rights were revealed. Furthermore, preschool teachers'…

  18. GameBlocks: an entry point to ICT for pre-school children

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose a system designed for pre-school children that offers an alternative introduction to the world of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), specifically computer programming. Illiterate children can construct simple...

  19. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF PARENTS` ATTUTUTES FROM NEIGHBOUR COUNTRIES ON PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES OF THEIR PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Krivokapić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A research has been done in pre-school institutions of Montenegro and Serb Republic whose aim was to get directions for improvement of physical education in pre-school institutions as well as for taking measures in order to educate parents of the children attending those institutions in the sense of improving knowledge on importance of physical activity for growth and development of pre-school children through monitoring and insight into attitudes of parents on physical activity of their children. Problem of this research is consisted of an attempt to use the parents` attitudes to estimate how active their children are within the time period when there are not on the pre-school institutions. Methods: The research was done by the poll method of anonymous questionnaire, with was filled by parents of the children attending pre-school institutions in Montenegro and Serb Republic. Sample of the examinees from Montenegro was made of 1356 of parents of the pre-school children attending pre-school institutions from all three Montenegrin regions. Sample of the examinees from the Serb Republic was made of 386 parents of the pre-school children attending pre-school institutions. Aim of the research was consisted of estimation of the parents` attitudes on volume and features of the physical activity of their children and of attempt to use the given data to take certain measures on the base of which their physical activities would be optimized. For this poll, a specially structured questionnaire for this purpose was used, in which the questions were set into groups with the aim of estimating features of physical activity of the pre-school children. Results: For the statistics processing methods of descriptive statistics were used, which were used for numerical and percent presentation of frequency of some answers of the examinees, and the answers were presented comparatively in tables for both samples. Results of this research indicate to trend

  20. Parent-school relationships and children's academic and social outcomes in public school pre-kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Douglas R; Son, Seung-Hee; File, Nancy; San Juan, Robert R

    2010-08-01

    Two dimensions of parent-school relationships, parental school involvement and parents' perceptions of teacher responsiveness to child/parent, were examined in state-funded pre-kindergarten classrooms in a large urban school district. Children's social and academic outcomes were individually assessed in the fall and spring. Hierarchical Linear Modeling analyses revealed that parental school involvement positively predicted children's social skills (d=.55) and mathematics skills (d=.36), and negatively predicted problem behaviors (d=.47). Perceived teacher responsiveness to child/parent was positively related to children's early reading (d=.43), and social skills (d=.43), and negatively to problem behaviors (d=.61). All analyses controlled for quality of teacher interaction with children in the classroom, parental home involvement, parental education level, and child race/ethnicity. Copyright 2010 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effect of TMPT Program on Pre-School Children's Social Problem Solving Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur, Cagla; Kocak, Nurcan

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Starting Thinking Training at an early age is important. However, few studies were found regarding Thinking Training programs for pre-school children and the contributions of these programs to children's social problem-solving. In this context, the TMPT Program was developed for pre-school children and the effect of the program on 5-6…

  2. Social disparities in children's vocabulary in early childhood. Does pre-school education help to close the gap?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Birgit

    2011-03-01

    Children start school with differing levels of skills. Thus, children of different social origin have different probabilities of educational success right from the start of their school career. This paper analyses how the gap in language abilities of children with different social backgrounds develops from age three to five. A focus lies on the question whether pre-school education can help to close this gap. The data of the UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) show that children's score on a standardized vocabulary test strongly depends on their parents' education. These social differences remain stable or even increase slightly over the two-year period. Using fixed effect models, it is demonstrated that children of higher educated parents can improve their vocabulary more strongly than children whose parents have a lower educational level. Participation in an early education institution positively affects the vocabulary development of children with lower educated parents while there is no significant pre-school effect for children of higher educated parents. The results indicate that pre-school attendance does not lead to a catching-up process of children with lower educated parents. But without pre-school attendance, the gap between children of higher and lower educated parents widens even further. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2011.

  3. Prevalence of behavioural problems of Khorramabad pre-school children

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    faride Malekshahi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Malekshahi F1, Farhadi A2 1. Instructor, Department of Society Health, Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran 2. Instructor, Department of Psychology, Faculty of Medicine, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences, Khorramabad, Iran Abstract Background: Childhood period it one of the most important stages of life in which individuals personality is formed. The majority of behavioral problems are due to attention deficit to the sensitive periods of childhood. This attention deficit leads to lack of agreement with environment and causes behavioural problems in children. Behavioural problem is attributed to a persons behaviour that his IQ isn lowered, but his or her mental and behavioural equilibrium is deviated from social norm and has severity, repetition and continuance in numerous times and places, so that his educational performance and behaviour will be frustrated and his efficiency is reduced. Such children are always rejected by others and in school there are a lot of grievances against them. Therefore, to pay attention children common behavioural problems is one of the most important topics and it prompt detection makes its treatment possible. So this study designed to determine prevalence of behavioural problems of Khorramabad pre-school children. Materials and methods: This descriptive-cross sectional study was carried out on 600 rural and urban pre-school children selected using random one stage sampling method. Data gathering tool was a two-part questionnaire including demographic and behavioural disorders signs obtained from DSM IV. Reability and validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by the university teaching members and retest method with a correlation coefficient 98%. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (ver 11 and Ch-square test. Results: Results of the study showed that 79% of the rural, and 68% of the urban children were at least involved in one of the behavioural

  4. THE DIAGNOSIS OF PREPARATION FOR SCHOOLING TO CHILDREN WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY

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    Lismay Pérez-Rodríguez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of preparation for schooling to children with intellectual disability face challenges in the present educative practice. This article has two main airms: to identify the main problematic situations while diagnosing the preparation for schooling to the subjects of the research and to evaluate the impact of the didactic and methodological recommendations suggest du the educative process of the kindergarten in the Special Day Care Center “Alegre Despertar”. The methods used during the research were: document analyse, interview and observations. The methods administered revealed that the subjects of the research do not reach the required levels in the areas that evaluate their preparation for schooling and the methods and thechniques used to characterizateer used reflect more the needs than the potencial each kid has. Another important need lies on the fact that the direction of the educative process is not one hundred percent in correspondence with the subjects under research characteristics and it, consequently, doesn ́t contribute to the children ́ preparation for life. The methodological and didactic recommendations had positive impact since they contributed, in the educative process, to favor the children behavior in the areas that guarantee their preparation for schooling.

  5. Ocular wavefront aberration and refractive error in pre-school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Damber; Fleck, Andre; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan; Bobier, William R.

    2011-11-01

    Hartmann-Shack images taken from an archived collection of SureSight refractive measurements of pre-school children in Oxford County, Ontario, Canada were retrieved and re-analyzed. Higher-order aberrations were calculated over the age range of 3 to 6 years. These higher-order aberrations were compared with respect to magnitudes of ametropia. Subjects were classified as emmetropic (range -0.5 to + 0.5D), low hyperopic (+ 0.5 to +2D) and high hyperopic (+2D or more) based upon the resulting spherical equivalent. Higher-order aberrations were found to increase with higher levels of hyperopia (p < 0.01). The strongest effect was for children showing more than +2.00D of hyperopia. The correlation coefficients were small in all of the higher-order aberrations; however, they were significant (p < 0.01). These analyses indicate a weak association between refractive error and higher-order aberrations in pre-school children.

  6. Airway resistance measurements in pre-school children with asthmatic symptoms : The interrupter technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, EMW; Schokker, S; van der Molen, T; Duiverman, EJ

    Measuring airway resistance in pre-school children with the interrupter technique has proven to be feasible and reliable in daily clinical practice and research settings. Whether it contributes to diagnosing asthma in pre-schoot children still remains uncertain. From the results of previous studies

  7. PLAY AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE IN CORECTIVE GYMNASTICS FOR PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujo Bjeković

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In present life conditions, especially in urban environment, children have very poor conditions for physical activities, or for movement in general. According to the new researches, working conditions and quality of work in nurseries and schools, especially if they are related to physical exercises, have certain influences on overall development of pre-school and school children. Childhood is ideal time for correction of numerous postural disturbances and deformities, whether they are congenital or acquired by injury, wrong body posture, or by poor nutrition. Playing is a power fultool for directing correct development of children, so very of ten it has to be adapted to age, capabilities, interests and needs of children.

  8. Prevalence of strabismus among pre-school children community in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Though strabismus is a common presenting ocular problem at outpatient clinics of ophthalmology its magnitude in Ethiopia is not known. Objective: To determine the magnitude and type of manifest strabismus and strabismic amblyopia among pre-school children. Methods: A cros-sectional study was ...

  9. Dynamic assessment of word learning skills of pre-school children with primary language impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Bernard; Law, James

    2014-10-01

    Dynamic assessment has been shown to have considerable theoretical and clinical significance in the assessment of socially disadvantaged and culturally and linguistically diverse children. In this study it is used to enhance assessment of pre-school children with primary language impairment. The purpose of the study was to determine whether a dynamic assessment (DA) has the potential to enhance the predictive capacity of a static measure of receptive vocabulary in pre-school children. Forty pre-school children were assessed using the static British Picture Vocabulary Scale (BPVS), a DA of word learning potential and an assessment of non-verbal cognitive ability. Thirty-seven children were followed up 6 months later and re-assessed using the BPVS. Although the predictive capacity of the static measure was found to be substantial, the DA increased this significantly especially for children with static scores below the 25th centile. The DA of children's word learning has the potential to add value to the static assessment of the child with low language skills, to predict subsequent receptive vocabulary skills and to increase the chance of correctly identifying children in need of ongoing support.

  10. Worm Infestation And Anaemia Among Pre-school Children Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Worm infection and anaemia are common childhood conditions in Nigeria. We assessed the status of helminthiasis and associated anaemia among pre school children of peasant farmers aged 1-5 years living in a rubber plantation near Calabar, Nigeria. Design: Cross sectional. Method: Three hundred and ...

  11. Understanding the Learning Style of Pre-School Children Learning the Violin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calissendorff, Maria

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to acquire a deeper understanding of how small children learn an instrument in the presence of their parents. It is qualitative in nature and concerned six pre-school children (five years old) who were learning the violin together and where their parents were present at the lessons. All the children's homes were visited…

  12. Latina Mothers' School Preparation Activities and Their Relation to Children's Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Tina M.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined the link between children's early school achievement and parents' at-home practices exclusively among Latino groups. This study examined the relation between Latina mothers' reported at-home practices regarding school preparation and their children's literacy skills. Participants included 56 kindergarten children and…

  13. Child’s creativity in transition from pre-school to school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopas-Vukašinović Emina

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This longitudinal research started from the conclusion reached by different authors. According to them the time when a child leaves a pre-school institution to start primary school is marked by stagnation of and decrease in child’s creativity, seen as a personality potential. The aim of the research was to establish creativity levels shown by children in both pre-school institution and primary school, and then to conclude if difference between pre-school and school teachers` attitudes influence the development of a child’s creativity. Data was collected from a judgment scale given to pre-school and school teachers and arts creativity task given to children. It was concluded that the level of children’s creativity started to drop after they started primary school. Different understanding of the idea of creativity between pre-school and primary school teachers could be a possible reason leading to the phenomenon of decreasing creative expression in children starting primary school. On the basis of previous theoretical assumptions and the research results it is possible to define measures to be taken in view of teacher training, both at pre-school and primary school level. It is also important to check the validity of suggested measures in future research.

  14. Effectiveness of Sand-Therapy on the Attenuation of Separation anxiety Signs in Pre-School Children

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    Arghavan Shariat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The present research was conducted with the aim of determining effect of Sand-therapy on the attenuation of separation anxiety signs among pre-school children in Isfahan, Iran. Methods: The statistical society consists of all pre-school children who had separation anxiety disorder and Among100 children, 30 persons were selected using available sampling. The method of this research is quasi-experimental with one group and pre-test and post-test plan. After performing pre-test of separation anxiety disorder scale, the experimental group were trained under sand-therapy training in 10 sessions of 60 minutes for a period of two months and after that, post-test of separation anxiety disorder scale was performed. The research tool consists of the questionnaire CSI-4 of child’s morbid signs. Wilcoxon method was used to analysis the results. Results: The research findings showed that there was a meaningful different (P=0.008 between pre- test & post-test scores of anxiety signs for study group.Conclusion: As a practical message, we can mention that sand therapy is as an interesting and practical playing for the children and it is a meaningful therapy related to attenuation of separation anxious signs. Keywords: Sand therapy, separation anxiety, pre-school-children

  15. Day care for pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoritch, B; Roberts, I; Oakley, A

    2000-01-01

    The debate about how, where and by whom young children should be looked after is one which has occupied much social policy and media attention in recent years. Mothers undertake most of the care of young children. Internationally, out-of-home day-care provision ranges widely. These different levels of provision are not simply a response to different levels of demand for day-care, but reflect cultural and economic interests concerning the welfare of children, the need to promote mothers' participation in paid work, and the importance of socialising children into society's values. At a time when a decline in family values is held responsible for a range of social problems, the day-care debate has a special prominence. To quantify the effects of out-of-home day-care for preschool children on educational, health and welfare outcomes for children and their families. Randomised controlled trials of day-care for pre-school children were identified using electronic databases, hand searches of relevant literature, and contact with authors. Studies were included in the review if the intervention involved the provision of non-parental day care for children under 5 years of age, and the evaluation design was that of a randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trial. A total of eight trials were identified after examining 920 abstracts and 19 books. The trials were assessed for methodological quality. Day-care increases children's IQ, and has beneficial effects on behavioural development and school achievement. Long-term follow up demonstrates increased employment, lower teenage pregnancy rates, higher socio-economic status and decreased criminal behaviour. There are positive effects on mothers' education, employment and interaction with children. Effects on fathers have not been examined. Few studies look at a range of outcomes spanning the health, education and welfare domains. Most of the trials combined non-parental day-care with some element of parent training or education

  16. Mentally-Retarded Children of a Pre-School Age and the Development of Movement Skills

    OpenAIRE

    Morávková, Šárka

    2006-01-01

    The diploma work covers the issues of children with mental retardation in pre-school age aimed to the development of the movement abilities. It focuses on the relationships between the pre-school child with mental retardation and possibilities of developing its motor skills in context of an organized pre-school education. Theoretical part of the Diploma work indicates the development specifics of the indi- vidual due to mental retardation, describes mainly the movement development of the chil...

  17. The effect of group play therapy on social-emotional skills in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinekesh, Ahdieh; Kamalian, Mehrnoush; Eltemasi, Masoumeh; Chinekesh, Shirin; Alavi, Manijeh

    2013-12-24

    Childhood is important and critical period in human life. The foundation of ego is shaped in childhood. Play therapy is one of the successful strategies to help children with inner conflicts problems. This method of psychotherapy is base on the normal learning processes of children, provides solutions to relieve feelings of stress, and expands self-expression. Group play therapy can enhance the self-awareness, self- regulation, social communication, empathy and adoptability in children. Present study investigated the effects of play therapy on relational and emotional skills of pre-school children. For this purpose, the total numbers of 372 pre-school children were randomly selected, and divided into two equal groups (case and control). In next step, the BUSSE-SR methodology was used for evaluation and comparison of self-awareness, self-regulation, social interaction, empathy, adoptability, and control groups. Pre-test were performed for both groups and case group was involved in-group play therapy. According to the results of post-test, correlation of variables between case-control groups was examined by multivariate analysis of covariance. Frequency of boys and girls in our sample were 51.3 and 48.7 percent, respectively. The mean age of children was 5.1±0.6 year. According to the results of present study, play therapy significantly enhanced the social-emotional skills (Pplay therapy can be used in pre-school centers to help children learn problem-solving skills and communicate with others.

  18. Level of movement skills and dexterity in relation to movement activities of pre-school children in their ordinary lives

    OpenAIRE

    Kubátová, Šárka

    2014-01-01

    and keywords The level of movement skills and dexterity in relation to movement activities of pre- school children in their ordinary lives. The diploma thesis deals with the issue of movement activity of pre-school children. Movement activities are vital part of healthy life, especially for children. It should be an essential part of every activity, no matter if it is sport, game, relaxation or just a walk to school. It should be a common part of every pre-school child daily programme. The ac...

  19. The popularity of toys and play of pre-school children

    OpenAIRE

    Kump, Janja

    2016-01-01

    This thesis presents popularity of play and toys in pre-school period, influence of important factors on a play and selection of toys and differences in duration of the play, depending on children's age and gender. In the theoretical part we defined children's play and its importance, also we detaily described development of children's play and presented the meaning of toys. We classified toys according to the basic function and according to adequacy of toys for certain age group. We focu...

  20. Effects of Language Learning Interventions in Pre-School Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiger-Klicpera, B.; Knapp, W.; Kucharz, D.; Schabmann, A.; Schmidt, B.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present contribution is to evaluate and discuss the impacts of language learning interventions in pre-school children with German as a first or a second language. The sample consisted of 864 children in intervention groups and 294 children as a comparison group within two successive cohorts. The instruments used were the SSV (Grimm…

  1. Pre-School Children Creating and Communicating with Digital Technologies in the Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPake, Joanna; Plowman, Lydia; Stephen, Christine

    2013-01-01

    There is a limited literature on pre-school children's experiences with "digital technologies" at home and little discussion of the ways in which children harness these technologies for their own purposes. This paper discusses findings drawn from three studies that investigated the role of "domestic technologies" and…

  2. An Insight into the Challenges Faced by Academic Women with Pre-School Age Children in Academic Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günçavdi, Gizem; Göktürk, Söheyda; Bozoglu, Oguzhan

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the challenges academic women, especially those who were mothers of pre-school age children, went through. The main guiding question of this study was "How do academic mothers with pre-school age children survive in the academia from pregnancy through all the various stages of parenting and motherhood?". This…

  3. Organization of Physical Activities as a Precondition of Quality Development of Motor Abilities of Pre-School and School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovic, Živorad; Kopas-Vukašinovic, Emina

    2015-01-01

    In their work authors consider the significance of the organization of physical activities for the development of abilities of pre-school and school children. Led by theoretical basis that physical development of children represents the basis of their whole development, and that "fine motor skills" are determined by the development of…

  4. Maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and neuropsychological development in pre-school children: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Maribel; Forns, Joan; Martínez, David; Guxens, Mònica; Fernandez-Somoano, Ana; Ibarluzea, Jesus; Lertxundi, Nerea; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; Tardon, Adonina; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2017-10-01

    BackgroundMaternal pre-pregnancy obesity may impair infant neuropsychological development, but it is unclear whether intrauterine or confounding factors drive this association.MethodsWe assessed whether maternal pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with neuropsychological development in 1,827 Spanish children. At 5 years, cognitive and psychomotor development was assessed using McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms using the Criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, and autism spectrum disorder symptoms using the Childhood Asperger Syndrome Test. Models were adjusted for sociodemographic factors and maternal intelligence quotient. We used paternal obesity as negative control exposure as it involves the same source of confounding than maternal obesity.ResultsThe percentage of obese mothers and fathers was 8% and 12%, respectively. In unadjusted models, children of obese mothers had lower scores than children of normal weight mothers in all McCarthy subscales. After adjustment, only the verbal subscale remained statistically significantly reduced (β: -2.8; 95% confidence interval: -5.3, -0.2). No associations were observed among obese fathers. Maternal and paternal obesity were associated with an increase in ADHD-related symptoms. Parental obesity was not associated with autism symptoms.ConclusionMaternal pre-pregnancy obesity was associated with a reduction in offspring verbal scores at pre-school age.

  5. WITHDRAWN: Day care for pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoritch, Bozhena; Roberts, Ian; Oakley, Ann

    2016-10-11

    The debate about how, where and by whom young children should be looked after is one which has occupied much social policy and media attention in recent years. Mothers undertake most of the care of young children. Internationally, out-of-home day-care provision ranges widely. These different levels of provision are not simply a response to different levels of demand for day-care, but reflect cultural and economic interests concerning the welfare of children, the need to promote mothers' participation in paid work, and the importance of socialising children into society's values. At a time when a decline in family values is held responsible for a range of social problems, the day-care debate has a special prominence. To quantify the effects of out-of-home day-care for preschool children on educational, health and welfare outcomes for children and their families. Randomised controlled trials of day-care for pre-school children were identified using electronic databases, hand searches of relevant literature, and contact with authors. Studies were included in the review if the intervention involved the provision of non-parental day care for children under 5 years of age, and the evaluation design was that of a randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trial. A total of eight trials were identified after examining 920 abstracts and 19 books. The trials were assessed for methodological quality. Day-care increases children's IQ, and has beneficial effects on behavioural development and school achievement. Long-term follow up demonstrates increased employment, lower teenage pregnancy rates, higher socio-economic status and decreased criminal behaviour. There are positive effects on mothers' education, employment and interaction with children. Effects on fathers have not been examined. Few studies look at a range of outcomes spanning the health, education and welfare domains. Most of the trials combined non-parental day-care with some element of parent training or education

  6. [Psychophysiological studies in the pre-school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullner, R; von Braun, G S; Ziegelmayer, G

    1976-10-14

    The behavior of 24 children, aged 3-6 years, was recorded on video-tape. Simultaneously the ECG was recorded telemetrically. These observations were made during two pre-school educational programs lasting 90 minutes each: "Didactic games" and "Elementary music and movement program". For each child a scale was developed to show the correlation of mean heart-rate and well defined motor-activity. It was evident that the mean heart-rate was higher during the music program than during the didactic program, corresponding to the higher motor-activity. But it was found that in the didactic program the variation of the heart-rate within short intervals was higher due to the more frequent occurrence of respiratory arrhythmias. It was also seen that during the music program the children showed no signs of exertion as they did towards the end of the didactic program. Respiratory arrhythmias were not seen in children who according to the Schellong-test were classified as stable in their cardiovascular system. The arrhythmias occurred mainly when the children showed signs of fatigue.

  7. Hearing assessment in pre-school children with speech delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psillas, George; Psifidis, Anestis; Antoniadou-Hitoglou, Magda; Kouloulas, Athanasios

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect any underlying hearing loss among the healthy pre-school children with speech delay. 76 children, aged from 1 to 5 years, underwent a thorough audiological examination consisting of tympanometry, free field testing, otoacoustic emission recordings and auditory brainstem responses (ABRs). If hearing was normal, then they were evaluated by a child neurologist-psychiatrist. According to our findings, the children were classified into 3 groups; those with normal hearing levels (group I, 52 children, 68.4%), sensorineural hearing loss (group II, 22 children, 28.9%) and conductive hearing loss (group III, 2 children, 2.6%). In group I, speech delay was attributed to pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), which represents high-functioning autistic children (37 cases). Other causes were specific language impairment (SLI)-expressive (3 cases), bilingualism (2 cases), and unknown etiology (10 cases). More than half (59%) of the children diagnosed with PDD evidenced significant language impairment limited to more than two words. Children with SLI-expressive and bilingualism used a maximum of two words. In group II, 13 children suffered from profound hearing loss in both ears, 3 from severe, 3 had profound hearing loss in one ear and severe in the other, 2 from moderate, and 1 had moderate in one ear and severe in the other. No child had mild sensorineural hearing loss. The children with profound hearing loss in at least one ear had total language impairment using no word at all (10 cases), or a maximum of two words (6 cases). When hearing loss was moderate to severe, then the speech vocabulary was confined to several words (more than two words-6 cases). Only two children suffering from conductive hearing loss both presented with complete lack of speech. A great number of healthy pre-school children with speech delay were found to have normal hearing. In this case, the otolaryngologist should be aware of the possible underlying clinical

  8. Stimulation of development of notion about syntax in pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Mirjana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a part of the research the goal of which was to study the notion about syntax as one of the meta-linguistic abilities that contributes to adoption of reading. Research comprised two hundred children of pre-school age, divided into two groups, balanced according to gender, intelligence and socioeconomic status. The research was conducted by an experimental method test-retest. In the initial measuring, experimental and control group were given the list comprising three kinds of experimental tasks for determining the level of development of notion about syntax, constructed by the author of the research. Experimental program consisted of tasks for stimulation of development of notion about syntax, which children practiced in the course of ten days (up to 30 minutes a day, with the help of previously trained pre-school teachers. After the ten-day training, final measuring in both groups was performed in both groups of respondents, by parallel form of tasks. The goal of the research was to determine whether it is possible to encourage the development of notion about syntax in children of pre-school age by systematic practice. The results of final measuring indicate that both in experimental and control group there have been significant improvements with respect to development of notion about syntax, and that the number of answers in which judgement was based on the semantic criterion (experience and meaning was significantly reduced. In making judgements based on consequences (content of the sentence points to something which is a good or not a good thing to do, moral or immoral there were no significant differences in the final compared to the initial measuring in both groups. Significant differences in retest were found in making judgements based on meaning. The mere experience with test material at pre-school age brings about the improvement of the notion about language, and practice contributes considerably to shifting the

  9. Does pre-school improve cognitive abilities among children with early-life stunting? A longitudinal study for Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, Santiago; León, Juan; Miranda, Alejandra; Dearden, Kirk; Crookston, Benjamin T; Behrman, Jere R

    2016-01-01

    Several studies in developing countries have found that children who experience growth faltering in the first years of life show lower cognitive abilities than their peers. In this study, we use the Young Lives longitudinal dataset in Peru to analyze if attending pre-school affects cognitive abilities at age five years, and if there is an interaction with HAZ at age one year. Using instrumental variables we found, for receptive vocabulary, a positive effect of attending Jardines (formal) pre-schools; the effect of attending PRONOEI (community-based) pre-schools was not significant. More years attending Jardines was more beneficial for children who were better nourished. We suggest working to improve the quality of PRONOEI s, and with teachers on targeting children of lower nutritional status.

  10. Social behaviour in pre-school children: a child-centred follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maša Vidmar

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The contribution presents a study with 3-year-olds and examines relative contribution of children's age of entry to pre-school (1 and 3 years, their personality type (resilient, average, willful and maternal parenting style (optimal, less-than-optimal to the development of individual differences in social behavior. Employing The Family Environment Questionnaire (Zupančič, Podlesek, & Kavčič, 2004, 2 internally replicable parenting styles were identified with maternal and paternal self-report data sets. The styles differed mainly by authoritative parenting and stimulation, and appeared structurally similar between the spouses. Parental agreement on individual style membership significantly exceeded chance levels, but was relatively low. Therefore further analyses considered maternal parenting style only. The mothers also filled in The Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003 and the teachers (concurrently and one year later filled in The Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation scales (LaFreniere et al., 2001. Child personality type membership was based on classifications derived in a previous study. Relatively, the personality type exerted the strongest and the most consistent effects on child social behavior in pre-school. Social functioning of the resilient and the willful children was somewhat more efficient in comparison to their counterparts with the average profile, even though the latter showed the most improvement in these domains between ages 3 and 4. With the willful children only, less-than-optimal parenting had an adverse effect on the development of externalizing behavior, while the development of social adjustment was negatively affected by the children's late entry to pre-school.

  11. Effect of play therapy on behavioral problems of mal-adjusted pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Khanbani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present research was conducted to study the effect of play therapy on reducing behavioral problems of mal-adjusted children (children with oppositional defiant disorder. Method: By using multistage cluster sampling, regions 6, 7, and 8 in Tehran were selected, and among kindergartens of these areas, 3 kindergartens under the support of welfare organization were randomly selected. From pre-school children of these 3 kindergartens, 40 children that could have behavioral disorder according to their teachers and parents complaints, were carefully tested, and among them, by the results obtained from child symptom inventory questionnaire (CSI-4, teacher's form, and a researcher-made self-control checklist, 16 children who showed severe symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder were selected, and they were randomly divided into control and experimental group. This research is quasi-experimental, and is done by the use of pre-test, post-test, and control group. Results: values of calculated F for oppositional defiant disorder in control and experimental group is meaningful after fixing the effect of pre-test (F(1,12=74/94, P<0/001 so there is a meaningful difference between means of disobedience disorder post-test scores in experimental and control group by having the fixed effect of pre-test effect. Comparison of adjusted means of 2 groups shows that the mean of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in experimental group (M=14/09 is lower than control group (M=36/66. Therefore, applying play therapy in experimental group in comparison with control group, who did not receive these instructions, caused reduction in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in pre-school children. Conclusion: Results of this research show that the children's disobedience is reduced by benefiting from play therapy.

  12. Intestinal helminths and protozoa in children in pre-schools in Kafue district, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I. G. K.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2010-01-01

    Intestinal parasitic infections are among the most widespread of human infections in developing countries, and children are the most vulnerable. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the protozoa Cryptosporidium and Giardia, as well as prevalence and intensity of intestinal...... helminths in children attending pre-school or day-care centres in Kafue District, Zambia. Single stool samples were collected from 403 children from 10 pre-schools and Were subjected to duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears to identify and quantify helminths. A commercial immunofluorescence kit was used...... to identify Cryptosporidium- and Giardia-positive samples. The overall prevalence of helminth infection was 17.9%. Ascaris lumbricoides was found in 12.0%, hookworm in 8.3%, Taenia spp. in 0.9%, Hymenolepis nano in 0.6% and Schistosoma mansoni in 0.3%. The overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia...

  13. High-Quality School-Based Pre-K Can Boost Early Learning for Children with Special Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Deborah A.; Meloy, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    This article assesses the effects of Tulsa, Oklahoma's school-based prekindergarten program on the school readiness of children with special needs using a regression discontinuity design. Participation in the pre-K program was associated with significant gains for children with special needs in early literacy scores, but not in math scores. These…

  14. Cognitive Abilities of Pre- and Primary School Children with Spina Bifida in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannink, Femke; Fontaine, Johnny R. J.; Idro, Richard; van Hove, Geert

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates cognitive abilities of pre/primary school children without and with spina bifida in Uganda. Qualitative semi structured interviews and quantitative functioning scales measurements were combined and conducted with 133 parents, 133 children with spina bifida, and 35 siblings. ANCOVA was used to test for differences in…

  15. EXAMINATION OF SOCIAL SKILLS OF PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşe Dilek Öğretir Özçelik

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate whether there is a relationship between the 5-6 years old children’s social skills and their age, gender as well as their parent’s age and educational background and similar variables. The sampling of the study consists of the 5-6 years old children who continue kindergarten, nursery and pre-school in the city of Ankara. The sampling was composed of 300 children and their parents (143 girls and 157 boys). The data was collected with questionnaire and scales. The...

  16. Lexical Categorization Modalities in Pre-School Children: Influence of Perceptual and Verbal Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallandini, Maria Anna; Roia, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates how categorical organization functions in pre-school children, focusing on the dichotomy between living and nonliving things. The variables of familiarity, frequency of word use and perceptual complexity were controlled. Sixty children aged between 4 years and 5 years 10 months were investigated. Three tasks were used: a…

  17. Use of children's artwork to evaluate the effectiveness of a hospital preparation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C J

    1991-01-01

    Approximately 1.5 million children are hospitalized on an emergency basis per year and are not able to be fully prepared for the event due to the emergency (Azarnoff & Woody, 1981). For this reason many pre-crisis hospital preparation programs are being instituted by hospitals and pediatric nurses. This pilot study investigated the use of children's artwork to evaluate the effectiveness of a hospital preparation program. The 6 to 10 year old children attending summer school at a day care center participated in a hospital preparation program. The purpose of the program was to decrease children's anxieties and fears in the event of an emergency hospitalization.

  18. The Effects of Coordination and Movement Education on Pre School Children's Basic Motor Skills Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altinkök, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted for the purpose of analyzing the effect of the movement education program through a 12-week-coordination on the development of basic motor movements of pre-school children. A total of 78 students of pre-school period, 38 of whom were in the experimental group and 40 of whom were in the control group, were incorporated…

  19. Gross Motor Development of Malaysian Hearing Impaired Male Pre- and Early School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawi, Khairi; Lian, Denise Koh Choon; Abdullah, Rozlina Tan

    2014-01-01

    Acquisition of gross motor skill is a natural developmental process for children. This aspect of human development increases with one's chronological age, irrespective of any developmental conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of gross motor skill development among pre- and early school-aged children with motor disability.…

  20. Mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills among 6-Year-Old Flemish Pre-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandaele, Bart; Cools, Wouter; de Decker, Steve; de Martelaer, Kristine

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess mastery of Fundamental Movement Skills (FMS) in 6- to 6.5-year-old Flemish pre-school children. The subjects were 236 6-year-old children (138 boys, 98 girls; mean age 6 years 2.4 months, SD 2.4). Children were individually assessed with the Motoriktest fur Vier- bis Sechsjahrige Kinder (MOT 4-6) in four…

  1. The value of (pre)school playgrounds for children's physical activity level: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekhuizen, Karen; Scholten, Anne-Marie; de Vries, Sanne I

    2014-05-03

    The (pre)school environment is an important setting to improve children's health. Especially, the (pre)school playground provides a major opportunity to intervene. This review presents an overview of the existing evidence on the value of both school and preschool playgrounds on children's health in terms of physical activity, cognitive and social outcomes. In addition, we aimed to identify which playground characteristics are the strongest correlates of beneficial effects and for which subgroups of children effects are most distinct. In total, 13 experimental and 17 observational studies have been summarized of which 10 (77%) and 16 (94%) demonstrated moderate to high methodological quality, respectively. Nearly all experimental studies (n = 11) evaluated intervention effects on time spent in different levels of physical activity during recess. Research on the effects of (pre)school playgrounds on cognitive and social outcomes is scarce (n = 2). The experimental studies generated moderate evidence for an effect of the provision of play equipment, inconclusive evidence for an effect of the use of playground markings, allocating play space and for multi-component interventions, and no evidence for an effect of decreasing playground density, the promotion of physical activity by staff and increasing recess duration on children's health. In line with this, observational studies showed positive associations between play equipment and children's physical activity level. In contrast to experimental studies, significant associations were also found between children's physical activity and a decreased playground density and increased recess duration. To confirm the findings of this review, researchers are advised to conduct more experimental studies with a randomized controlled design and to incorporate the assessment of implementation strategies and process evaluations to reveal which intervention strategies and playground characteristics are most effective.

  2. Complementary or alternative? The use of homeopathic products and antibiotics amongst pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishop Jackie

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Any intervention to reduce the inappropriate use of antibiotics for infections in children has the potential to reduce the selective pressure on antimicrobial resistance and minimise the medicalisation of self-limiting illness. Little is known about whether homeopathic products might be used by some families as an alternative to antibiotics or the characteristics of such families. We used the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC observational dataset to explore the hypothesis that the use of homeopathic products is associated with reduced antibiotic use in pre-school children and to identify characteristics of the families of pre-school children given homeopathic products. Methods Questionnaires data were completed by the parents of 9723 children while aged between 3–4.5 years in Bristol UK. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to explore the relationships between antibiotic and homeopathic product use. Results Six percent of children had received one or more homeopathic products and 62% one or more antibiotics between the ages of 3 and 4.5 years. After adjustment for factors associated with antibiotic use, there was no association between homeopathic product and antibiotic use (adjusted OR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.84, 1.24. Factors independently associated with child homeopathic product use were: higher maternal education, maternal use of homeopathic products, maternal lack of confidence in doctors, mothers reporting that they were less likely to see doctor when the child was ill, children being given vitamins, watching less television and suffering from wheeze and food allergies. Conclusion In this observational study, the use of homeopathic products was not associated with decreased antibiotic consumption, suggesting the use of homeopathic product complements rather than competes with the use of antibiotics in pre-school children. The characteristics of mothers giving homeopathic products to their

  3. THE EFFECT OF STORYTELLING IN A PLAY THERAPY ON ANXIETY LEVEL IN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN DURING HOSPITALIZATION IN THE GENERAL HOSPITAL OF BUTON

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    Mimi Yati

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anxiety is one of the psychical stresses experienced by children during hospitalization. A storytelling in a play therapy is considered effective in reducing anxiety. Objective: This study aims to determine the effect of storytelling in a play therapy on anxiety level in pre-school children during hospitalization in the general hospital of Buton. Methods: This was a quasy-experimental study with pretest-posttest control group design. There were 30 pre-school children selected in this study using accidental sampling, with 15 assigned in each group. The Pre School - Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale (SCAS was used to measure anxiety in pre-school children. Wilcoxon matched paired test was used to analyze the data. Results: Findings showed that the mean of anxiety level in the intervention group in pretest was 42 and in posttest was 31.53. Wilcoxon matched paired test showed p-value 0.003 (<0.05, which indicated that there was a statistically significant effect of storytelling on the level of anxiety in pre-school children. Conclusions: There is a significant influence of storytelling in a play therapy on anxiety levels in pre school children during hospitalization. It is suggested that this intervention could be applied as a nursing intervention to reduce anxiety in children.

  4. The Methods Applied by Pre-School Teachers to Raise the Curiosity of Children and Their Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyuktaskapu Soydan, Sema; Erbay, Filiz

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the strategies used by pre-school teachers in order to raise curiosity in children. Based on this aim, sample is composed of 52 pre-school teachers working in kindergartens affiliated to Ministry of National Education. Study data were collected via qualitative research methods. Research data were gathered…

  5. Kindergarten attendance may reduce developmental impairments in children: results from the Bavarian Pre-School Morbidity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caniato, Riccardo N; Alvarenga, Marlies E; Stich, Heribert L; Jansen, Holger; Baune, Berhard T

    2010-08-01

    The relative risks and benefits of children attending kindergarten or pre-school remain uncertain and controversial. We used data from the Bavarian Pre-School Morbidity Survey (BPMS) to look at the prevalence of developmental impairments in pre-school children entering primary school and to assess if these were correlated with the duration of kindergarten attendance. We collected data from all school beginners in the district of Dingolfing, Bavaria from 2004 to 2007 (n = 4,005) and utilised a retrospective cross-sectional study design to review the information. The children were assessed for motor, cognitive, language and psychosocial impairments using a standardized medical assessment. Point prevalence of impairments of speech, cognition, motor functioning and psychosocial functioning were compared by chi(2)-test for the variable of time spent in kindergarten. We detected a high incidence of impairments, with boys showing higher rates than girls in all the areas assessed. Longer length of time spent in kindergarten was associated with reduced rates of motor, cognitive and psychosocial impairments. There was no clear correlation between length of kindergarten attendance and speech disorders. Kindergarten attendance may have a positive effect on a number of domains of development including motor, cognitive and psychosocial development, but no significant effect on speech impairments. Implications for public health policies are discussed.

  6. Biblio-Therapeutic Book Creations by Pre-Service Student Teachers: Helping Elementary School Children Cope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeseler, Lisa Ann

    2009-01-01

    Many elementary school children may cope with difficult life struggles such as disabilities, abuse, loss, and identity issues. This article details original, student generated, biblio-therapeutic book creations and how this genre teaches positive ways for children at-risk to cope with tough life circumstances. Pre-service, elementary college…

  7. Psychiatric disorders and symptoms severity in pre-school children with cow's milk allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topal, E; Catal, F; Soylu, N; Ozcan, O O; Celiksoy, M H; Babayiğit, A; Erge, D; Karakoç, H T E; Sancak, R

    2016-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders are seen frequently in atopic diseases. The present study aims to evaluate the frequency of psychiatric disorders and the severity of psychiatric symptoms in pre-school children with cow's milk allergy. The parents of the pre-school children with cow's milk allergy were interviewed in person and asked to fill out the Early Childhood Inventory-4 form. The cow's milk allergy group included 40 children (27 male, 13 female) with mean age, 44.5±14.7 months, and the control group included 41 children (25 male, 16 female) with mean age, 47.6±15.2 months. It was established that 65% of the group with cow's milk allergy received at least one psychiatric diagnosis, while 36.6% of the control group received at least one psychiatric diagnosis, with a statistically significant difference (p=0.02). Within the psychiatric disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (odds ratio: 4.9, 95% CI: 1.472-16.856, p=0.006), oppositional defiant disorder (odds ratio: 5.6, 95% CI: 1.139-28.128, p=0.026), and attachment disorder (odds ratio: 4.8, 95% CI: 1.747-13.506, p=0.004) were found significantly higher compared with the healthy control group. When the groups were compared in terms of psychiatric symptom severity scores, calculated by using the Early Childhood Inventory-4 form, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders severity (p=0.006) and oppositional defiant disorder severity (p=0.037) were found to be higher in the cow's milk allergy group. Psychiatric disorders are frequent and severe in pre-school children with cow's milk allergy. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Cognitive functioning of educationaly deprived pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biro Mikloš

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The research has included 96 Roma elementary-school pupils from the first grade, 7 years and 6 months old on average, and 78 pre-school children, (6 years and 1 month old on average, out of which number there were 37 Roma pupils and 41 non-Roma pupils. The cognitive functioning has been tested with a battery consisted of 5 tests, which was based on the (adapted Wechsler’s scales and the linguistic competence test. The results have shown a significant lagging of Roma children behind the control group and test norms. The Analyses of Covariance have pointed to a significant influence of the father’s educational background on the test score, but the difference between groups remained notable even when that variable was kept under control. However, the Item Analyses revealed a number of items that turned out to be evidently "unfair" toward Roma children, and their elimination contributed to the annulling of differences among groups in the Analyses of Covariance for a particular number of tests. The data has been interpreted by the authors as a proof of necessity and possibility to adapt tests for the needs of testing the educationally neglected children. The fact that the greatest differences have been noticed in the tests saturated with the factors of visual-motor coordination and memory has been justified by the authors with the Roma children’s lack of experience of manipulation with toys and possible attention deficit as a consequence of absence of stimulative environment.

  9. A simple assessment of physical activity is associated with obesity and motor fitness in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Otmar; Bolte, Gabriele; Morlock, Gabriele; Rückinger, Simon; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2009-08-01

    Physical activity is an important determinant of energy balance. However, its impact on overweight/obesity has proved difficult to measure in pre-school children and few studies have found significant associations. A set of simple questions was used to distinguish pre-school children with high and low physical activity, and the association of this classification with childhood overweight/obesity and performance in an established motor test was investigated. Survey, cross-sectional. Weight and height were measured in 12,556 children taking part in the obligatory school entrance health examination 2004-5 and 2005-6 in three urban and three rural Bavarian regions. Their parents were asked to answer a questionnaire with a set of questions on physical activity. The mean age of the children evaluated was 5.78 (sd 0.43) years, 6535 (52.1 %) were boys. Physically active children were less likely to be overweight (OR = 0.786, 95 % CI 0.687, 0.898) or obese (OR = 0.655, 95 % CI 0.506, 0.849) and achieved 6.7 (95 % CI 5.8, 7.7) % more jumps per 30 s than less active children in a motor test, adjusted for a number of potentially confounding variables. Classification of pre-school children as physically active or not, based on a small set of questions, revealed significant associations with overweight/obesity and a motor test. Once further validated, this classification might provide a valuable tool to assess the impact of physical activity on the risk of childhood overweight and obesity.

  10. The Efficacy of Group Play Therapy on the Social Skills of Pre-School Hearing-Impaired Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Movallali

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate of the efficacy of group play therapy on the social skills of pre-school hearing-impaired children. Materials & Methods: The present research was a semi-experimental study with pre-test, post-test design and control group. The participants were 30 male hearing-impaired children from pre-schools centers in Varamin and Gharchak provinces using an available method. Subjects were randomly divided into experimental and control groups, each group consisting of 15 children. The experimental group received 12 sessions of group play therapy and the control group did not. The instruments were done using the Raven coloure progressive matrices test and social skills rating scale. The data were recorded and statistically analyzed using MANCOVA. Results: The results of MANCOVA showed that group play therapy had a significant effect on the social skills of hearing-impaired children (P<0.001. The results also revealed that group play therapy had a positive and significant effect on all subscales of social skills in these children: cooperation, self-assertiveness and self-control (P<0.001. Conclusion: Group play therapy can improve the social skills of hearing-impaired children. It is recommended that planning play therapy for hearing-impaired children receives serious attention .

  11. PEDAGOGICAL ASPECTS OF KINDERGARTEN TEACHERS IN PRE-SCHOOL INSTITUTIONS

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    Duško Bjelica

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A poll procedure has been done at sample of 102 kindergarten teachers with Bachelor degree attending Specialist studies at Department of Pre-School Education of the Faculty of Philosophy in Niksic, and the aim of the poll was to determine the examinees’ opinions on games organizations in pre-school institutions, from all towns of Montenegro. All of the questioned teachers were employed during the poll or they had already had working experience. The poll was based on the 14 questions ques¬tionnaire, especially made for this purpose in which the questions were classified in groups in order to determine 4 aspects that are important for successful organization of games. The first group of the questions regards choice of the games to be played; the second group relates to space choice for the game, as the third group of the questions refers to the way of making groups of children during preparation. The fourth group of the questions regards making cooperation and tolerance among the children during the games’ realization. This poll is a part of the research done at the Faculty of Sports and Physical Education in Niksic with the aim to get directions for improving teaching and expert work in pre-school institutions through monitoring and insight into opinions of Specialist studies’ students.

  12. Prevalence of malnutrition among pre-school children in South-east Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyike, Pius C; Chinawa, Josephat M; Ubesie, Agozie; Obu, Herbert A; Odetunde, Odutola I; Chinawa, Awoere T

    2014-09-11

    Malnutrition can be defined as a state of nutrition where the weight for age, height for age and weight for height indices are below -2 Z-score of the NCHS reference. It has posed a great economic burden to the developing world. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of malnutrition among pre-school children in Abakiliki in Ebonyi state of Nigeria. This is a cross-sectional studies that assess the prevalence of malnutrition and associated factors among children aged 1-5 years attending nursery and primary schools. Nutritional assessment was done using anthropometry and clinical examination. A total of 616 children aged one to 5 years were enrolled into this study. Three hundred and sixty-seven (59.6%) were males while 249 (40.4%) were females. Sixty of the 616 children (9.7%) had acute malnutrition based on WHZ-score. Moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) was present in 33 children (5.3%) while 27 (4.4%) had severe acute malnutrition. The prevalence of global and severe acute malnutrition using z-score is 9.7% and 4.4% respectively while that of stunting is 9.9% with a male preponderance.

  13. LITERATURE FOR CHILDREN IN PRE-SCHOOL, SCHOOL AND HOME EDUCATION

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    Izabela Kiełtyk-Zaborowska

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The issue, disclosed in the article, is still relevant, because it supports a child’s creative activity through his/her contact with the literature. Moreover, a book genres influence the linguistic awareness, aesthetic sensitivity, develops the imagination and the ability to speak properly. Developing reading habits and close contact with art positively affects the child. So the aim of the article is to show the importance of supporting the child in creative tasks using the fiction texts. Much attention is given to the fact that literature for children in pre-school, school and home education influences the expansion of a child’s vocabulary and imagination. Constant complementation of teachers’ and parents’ activities in shaping reading interests of children influences their versatile development. Books evoke emotions, they teach how to behave in a proper way and they enrich the awareness of the surrounding world. Both teachers and parents should choose the right texts for a young reader taking into consideration his/her perceptive skills. Ever present humour in belles-lettres for children (vocabulary, situational humour or the protagonists in the books definitely provides children with joy and positive emotions. The contact with belles-lettres texts allows to develop interests of children connected with stage, theatre or music which is frequently a meaningful element of plays based on books for young children. It is also reported that both poetry and prose texts should be included into young readers’ collection. But the text should be adapted to the child’s perceptual abilities, in terms of form, content, and language. Family reading is important for developing the child’s reading interests, becoming one of the participants influencing the cultural environment of the family. The author concludes that supporting children in creative tasks using fiction texts and their forms such as theater, press, radio, television develops

  14. Functional abdominal complaints in pre-school children: Parental reports of health-related quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Oostenbrink (Rianne); H.P. Jongman (Henri); J.M. Landgraf (Jeanne); H. Raat (Hein); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractPurpose The aim of this study is to assess the influence of functional abdominal complaints (FAC) on health-related quality of life in a group of Dutch pre-school children. Methods Parents of children aged up to 6.0 visiting the outpatient pediatric department, Erasmus MC-Sophia,

  15. Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency among pre-school and school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate vitamin A status of pre-school and school aged children in the study area. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Arssi, Ethiopia Subjects: Four hundred and two children. Results: Night blindness, Bitots spot, corneal xerosis, corneal ulceration and corneal scar were observed in 7.2%, 2.2 %, 0.2%, 0.5%, ...

  16. Why good placements matter: Pre-placement and placement risk factors associated with mental health disorders in pre-school children in foster care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, Thomas; Gafson, Leonie

    2015-07-01

    Pre-school children placed in local authority care show elevated rates of mental health disorders when compared to the general population. This study investigated risk factors for mental health disorders relating to the period prior to entering care and while in care. A representative sample of 43 children in care aged 0-72 months in an inner London borough underwent comprehensive multidimensional assessments. Presence of emotional, behavioural, attachment and adaptive disorders was ascertained. Exposure to two pre-placement risk factors and six placement risk factors was compared between children with and without a disorder. A total of 26 children (60.5%) had at least one mental health disorder. The two pre-placement risk factors, multiple types of maltreatment and entry into care after the age of 6 months, were both significantly associated with mental health disorders. The three placement risk factors of sudden placement moves, multiple placement moves and child-carer alienation showed a significant association with mental health disorders. There was a strong correlation between the number of risk factors and the number of co-morbid mental health disorders per child (r = .67, p school mental health. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Behavioral determinants of mothers' safety measures to prevent injuries of pre-school children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortel, E.; Geus, G.H. de; Kok, G.

    1995-01-01

    Home-related injuries are a major threat to pre-school children in the western world. In this study the behavioral determinants of 18 parental safety measures were assessed. To select behavioral determinants, the Attitude-Social influence-Self-efficacy/barriers model was used with the inclusion of

  18. Human parvovirus B19-induced anaemia in pre-school children in Ilorin, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbede, Olajide O.; Omoare, Adesuyi A.; Ernest, Samuel K.

    2018-01-01

    Sera collected from 57 anaemic and 115 non-anaemic age-matched pre-school children in Ilorin, Nigeria, between November 2014 and December 2015 were assayed for human parvovirus B19-specific IgM antibodies by using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay technique. A total of 17 (29.8%) anaemic children and 18 (15.7%) non-anaemic children were positive for parvovirus B19 infection. Infection with parvovirus B19 is common in this population, and screening for the virus during differential diagnosis is recommended. PMID:29850435

  19. The role of play in pre-school and younger school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kopas-Vukašinović Emina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the importance of play for children’s development and learning in institutionalized preschool education, as well as the opportunities it provides concerning the organization of teaching activities with younger school age children. The paper is based on the theoretical framework emphasizing educational character of children’s play, as a specific form of learning. Notwithstanding occasional attempts within pedagogic theory to deny educational values of children’s play and to emphasize instruction as the only form of systematic learning, contemporary pedagogic views consider play an important part of school education. Learning through play at younger school age helps overcome the discontinuity between preschool and school education. Curriculum subject matter can be covered through carefully selected and prepared play activities within the existing system, providing the support, encouragement and guidance by the adults involved, including their proper knowledge of children’ age-related and psycho-physical characteristics. Play facilitates gradual change over from preschool to school developmental stage, free, spontaneous and creative expression and the development of children’s potential.

  20. Identifying play characteristics of pre-school children with developmental coordination disorder via parental questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Sara; Waissman, Pola; Diamond, Gary W

    2017-06-01

    Motor coordination deficits that characterize children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) affect their quality of participation. The aim of the current study was to identify play characteristics of young children with DCD, compared to those of children with typical development in three dimensions: activity and participation, environmental factors and children's impairments. Sixty-four children, aged four to six years, participated. Thirty were diagnosed as having DCD; the remaining 34 children were age, gender and socioeconomic level matched controls with typical development. The children were evaluated by the M-ABC. In addition, their parents completed a demographic questionnaire, the Children's Activity Scale for Parents (CHAS-P), the Children's Leisure Assessment Scale for preschoolers (CLASS-Pre), and My Child's Play Questionnaire (MCP). Children with DCD performed significantly poorer in each of the four play activity and participation domains: variety, frequency, sociability, and preference (CLASS-Pre). Furthermore, their environmental characteristics were significantly different (MCP). They displayed significantly inferior performance (impairments) in interpersonal interaction and executive functioning during play, in comparison to controls (MCP). Moreover, the children's motor and executive control as reflected in their daily function as well as their activities of daily living (ADL) performance level, contributed to the prediction of their global play participation. The results indicate that the use of both the CLASS-Pre and the MCP questionnaires enables the identification of unique play characteristics of pre-school children with DCD via parents' reports. A better insight into these characteristics may contribute to theoretical knowledge and clinical practice to improve the children's daily participation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Homework particularities for small school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiusanu, Corina; Vlaicu, Brigitha

    2013-01-01

    The present study was centered on the particularities of the duration of preparing homework, taking breaks during homework preparation, and the way the breaks should take place for small school children. The study has been done on a sample of 235 small school children from Oradea, 114 boys and 121 girls, between the ages 7 and 10 years old, using an anonymous questioner, with 41 items, which investigates the lifestyle of the small school children. The duration of homework preparation it is significantly more reduced for the school children in 1st grade in comparison with the ones in 3 grade (p lunch. Half of the children from grades I-IV prepare their homework with no break. A very small number of children spend their homework break time in a healthy manner, while the rest prefer to play computer games (46.95%) or to watch television (46.08%). More than half of the schoolchildren need 1-2 hours at home to prepare their homework. Most of the school children prepare their homework after lunch, in an optimal interval of time. Half of the questioned children prepare their homework with no break. Those who are taking breaks prefer activities which get the children even more tired, therefore being non-hygienic methods of spending homework breaks.

  2. Clinical Presentation and Treatment Outcome of Sleeping Sickness in Sudanese Pre-School Children.

    OpenAIRE

    Eperon, G; Schmid, C; Loutan, L; Chappuis, F

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Existing data on human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense among children are limited. Here, we described the demographic, clinical, diagnostic, treatment and outcome characteristics of HAT in pre-school children from Kajo-Keji County, South Sudan in comparison with older patients. METHODS: We did a retrospective analysis of HAT patients treated at the Kiri Sleeping Sickness Treatment Centre (SSTC), Kajo-Keji County, from June 2000 to December 2002. R...

  3. Second-hand smoke exposure and the factors associated with avoidance behavior among the mothers of pre-school children: a school-based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wei-Ting

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Second-hand Smoke (SHS exposure is a significant public health problem that may be responsible for serious health hazards for child. This study aimed to examine the exposure status of SHS and the factors associated with SHS avoidance behavior among the mothers of pre-school children. Methods A cross-sectional study was used to obtain a sample of the mothers of pre-school children (n = 1,020 in 30 registered kindergartens in eastern Taiwan. Overall, 919 (a response rate of 90% completed the questionnaires. Regression models were used to identify factors with respect to the avoidance behavior of SHS. Results The prevalence of exposure to SHS was 70% and 50% for the mothers and their children, respectively. After adjusting for other variables, mothers who were current smokers (β = -0.260, p Conclusions The high prevalence rate of exposure to SHS for mothers and their children suggests that a well-designed future intervention program should be implemented in regard to pre-school children's mothers in order to prevent these mothers and their children from SHS exposure hazards, more particularly, to strengthen the knowledge base, to enhance self-efficacy and to foster a more positive attitude toward the avoidance of SHS in the mothers.

  4. Assurance of opportunities for smooth start to school for pre-school education systems

    OpenAIRE

    Duobienė, Raimonda

    2016-01-01

    During a period of rapid globalisation, education has an obligation to adapt to the -needs of society. Current Lithuanian education policy for pre-school children provides that each child must be granted access to public services, working or needy families must be provided with greater support and a wider range of educational programmes that meet the needs of parents and children have to be developed. Currently in Lithuania, pre-school and pre-primary education is not mandatory, but it is...

  5. The production of direct object clitics in pre-school- and primary school-aged children with specific language impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasti, Maria Teresa; Palma, Silvia; Genovese, Elisabetta; Stagi, Paolo; Saladini, Gabriella; Arosio, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Third-person direct object (DO) clitic pronoun production is examined through an elicited production method in pre-school- and primary school-aged groups of Italian children with specific language impairment (SLI) to establish whether there is an improvement from age 5 years to age 7 years and whether there are qualitative differences in the two groups' responses. It was found that 5- and 7-year-old Italian children with SLI produce fewer third-person DO clitics than same-age peers. The kind of responses they provide changes: at 5 years, children with SLI tend to omit clitics, while at 7 years, they use a full noun. Production of third-person DO clitics is a persistent challenge for children with SLI and is confirmed to be a good clinical marker both at 5 and 7 years of age.

  6. Sociodemographic, behavioural and environmental correlates of sweetened beverage consumption among pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Spence, John C; Cutumisu, Nicoleta; Casey, Linda; Storey, Kate

    2012-08-01

    To identify sociodemographic and environmental correlates of sweetened beverages (regular soft drinks, fruit juice) among children of pre-school age. Children's dietary intake, food behaviours and screen time were measured by parental report. A Geographic Informational System was used to assess the number of grocery stores and fast-food restaurants available within 1 km of the children's residence. Multivariate log-binomial regression models were constructed to determine correlates of drinking soft drinks during the previous week. Edmonton region, Canada. Children aged 4 and 5 years (n 2114) attending a public health unit for immunization were recruited for a cohort study on determinants of childhood obesity, between 2005 and 2007. Children from neighbourhoods with low socio-economic status (relative risk (RR) = 1·17, 95 % CI 0·98, 1·40) or who participated in >2 h of screen time daily (RR = 1·28, 95 % CI 1·13, 1·45) were significantly more likely to have consumed regular soft drinks within the last week. Those who lived within 1 km of a grocery store were significantly less likely to consume regular soft drinks (RR = 0·84, 95 % CI 0·73, 0·96). Children who participated in >2 h of screen time daily (RR = 1·16, 95 % CI 1·06, 1·27) were more likely to exceed the recommended weekly number of servings of fruit juice. Socio-economic and built environment factors are associated with soft drink consumption in children of pre-school age. These findings may help health professionals to advocate for policies that reduce soft drink consumption among children.

  7. [Breastfeeding as a protective factor against overweight and obesity among pre-school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarpa, M Catalina; Cerda, L Jaime; Terrazas, M Claudia; Cano, C Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The rates of overweight and obesity among children have significantly increased in Chile. To assess the benefits of breastfeeding in preventing malnutrition by excessive intake of foods in Chilean pre-school children. A case-control study was conducted in 2011 on pediatric patients treated in a private Chilean healthcare center (San Joaquin Medical Center, Catholic University). Gender, age, weight, height, nutritional diagnosis, type of feeding during the first 6 months of life, socioeconomic status, parental education and obesity, television viewing, and kindergarten attendance were analyzed. A total of 209 patients were included in the study, 53.1% of whom were male, and 60.3% were predominantly breastfed for the first 6 months of life. More than half (51.7%) were eutrophic, 29.7% were overweight, and 18.6% obese. The patients were between the ages of 2 and 3 years 11 months. The crude Odds Ratio of breast-feeding versus formula during the first 6 months of life in patients with normal weight versus overweight children was 0.442 (95% CI 0.204-0.961). It was found that predominantly breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life acted as a protective factor against malnutrition by excessive intake of foods in Chilean pre-school children treated in this private medical center. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  8. Child-targeted fast-food television advertising exposure is linked with fast-food intake among pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Madeline A; Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Cleveland, Lauren P; Harris, Jennifer L; Hendricks, Kristy; Titus, Linda J

    2017-06-01

    To determine whether exposure to child-targeted fast-food (FF) television (TV) advertising is associated with children's FF intake in a non-experimental setting. Cross-sectional survey conducted April-December 2013. Parents reported their pre-school child's TV viewing time, channels watched and past-week FF consumption. Responses were combined with a list of FF commercials (ads) aired on children's TV channels during the same period to calculate children's exposure to child-targeted TV ads for the following chain FF restaurants: McDonald's, Subway and Wendy's (MSW). Paediatric and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in New Hampshire, USA. Parents (n 548) with a child of pre-school age. Children's mean age was 4·4 years; 43·2 % ate MSW in the past week. Among the 40·8 % exposed to MSW ads, 23·3 % had low, 34·2 % moderate and 42·5 % high exposure. McDonald's accounted for over 70 % of children's MSW ad exposure and consumption. Children's MSW consumption was significantly associated with their ad exposure, but not overall TV viewing time. After adjusting for demographics, socio-economic status and other screen time, moderate MSW ad exposure was associated with a 31 % (95 % CI 1·12, 1·53) increase and high MSW ad exposure with a 26 % (95 % CI 1·13, 1·41) increase in the likelihood of consuming MSW in the past week. Further adjustment for parent FF consumption did not change the findings substantially. Exposure to child-targeted FF TV advertising is positively associated with FF consumption among children of pre-school age, highlighting the vulnerability of young children to persuasive advertising and supporting recommendations to limit child-directed FF marketing.

  9. An Examination of the Relationship between Pre-School Children's and Their Teachers' Attitudes and Awareness towards the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buldur, Aycan; Ömeroglu, Esra

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the level of awareness and attitudes towards environment of pre-school children's and their teachers' and to examine the relationship between them. This study was based on correlational research model. The study group consisted of 26 pre-school teachers working in kindergartens and primary schools in a…

  10. Malnutrition and soil-transmitted helminthic infection among Orang Asli pre-school children in Gua Musang, Kelantan, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geik, Oui Pek; Sidek, Razalee

    2015-09-01

    Malnutrition and soil-transmitted helminthic (STH) infection is still a major concern among Orang Asli pre-school children in Malaysia. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and STH infection. Besides, this study was also to identify the association between malnutrition and STH. A total of 256 Orang Asli (131 males and 125 females) from Temiar sub-tribes pre-school children aged one to six years from 19 villages in three Orang Asli settlements of Pos Hendrop, Pos Balar and Pos Tohoi located in Gua Musang, Kelantan had participated in this cross-sectional study between September to December 2014. A face-to-face interview was carried out using pre-tested questionnaires on socio-demographic. Children were measured on their body weight and height. The collected stool samples were examined using direct wet smear method for the presence of STH parasite. The results showed the prevalence of underweight and stunting among the children were 45.3% and 76.2% respectively. A total of 161 (62.9%) subjects were positively infected by at least one species of STH. The overall parasite infections were Ascaris lumbricoides (41.0%), Trichuris trichiura (28.5%) and hookworm (2.0%). From the total infected children, 8.6% of them were infected by two species of STH. This research revealed that gender and age group showed statistically significance with stunted with (p=0.003, p=0.049) respectively. Gender and age groups also reported significant association to STH infection among the subjects with (p=0.013, p=0.001) respectively. However, our results indicated that there was no significant association between STH infection with underweight and stunted. Our study reported that the prevalence of malnutrition and STH are still a major concern for the public health and a threat among Orang Asli pre-school children in Kelantan. Immediate action and innovative intervention should be taken by the Government to overcome the problems as these children are the

  11. Childhood overweight and obesity among Kenyan pre-school children: association with maternal and early child nutritional factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gewa, Constance A

    2010-04-01

    To report on the prevalence of overweight and obesity among pre-school children in Kenya and examine the associations between childhood overweight and selected maternal and child-related factors. Demographic Health Survey data, multistage stratified cluster sampling methodology. Rural and urban areas of Kenya. A total of 1495 children between the ages of 3 and 5 years in Kenya. Over 30 % of the children were stunted, approximately 16 % were underweight, 4 % were wasted, approximately 18 % were overweight and 4 % were obese; 8 % were both overweight/obese and stunted. Maternal overweight and obesity, higher levels of maternal education, being a large or very large child at birth, and being stunted were each associated with higher odds of overweight and obesity among Kenyan children. Older children and large household size were each associated with lower odds of overweight and obesity among Kenyan children. The analysis demonstrates the presence of under- and overnutrition among Kenyan pre-school children and the importance of focusing on expanding efforts to prevent and treat malnutrition within this population. It also identifies some of the modifiable factors that can be targeted in these efforts.

  12. Pre-K as School Turnaround Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenafe, Anthony Q.

    2011-01-01

    Both state and local school systems, recognizing the strong and growing evidence of pre-kindergarten's effectiveness in closing achievement gaps, are implementing early learning programs as part of their education reform efforts. In low-performing districts, pre-k has emerged as a promising turnaround strategy, reaching children before they become…

  13. Foot shape and its relationship with somatic characteristics in pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Puszczałowska-Lizis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : The preschool period, characterised by high intensity of ontogenetic developmental changes, is considered to be the most important regarding formation of the foot. Getting to know the issue of the foot anatomy in children in this period is the main problem, which is the starting point towards proper prevention, examination, or correction of its deformities. Aim of the research: To analyse the shape of children’s feet and its relationship with chosen somatic characteristics in pre-school children. Material and methods : The study group comprised 80 five-year-old children recruited from randomly selected pre-schools in the Podkarpackie region. A CQ-ST podoscope was used as the research tool. In order to evaluate intersex differences at the average level of the tested variables, we used the Student’s t test or alternatively the Mann-Whitney U test. The relations between tested variables was assessed using Pearson’s linear correlation or Spearman’s rank correlation. Results : A low percentage of foot deformities in the children was found. In girls, statistically significant relationships were seen between Clarke’s angle in the right foot and body mass index as well as between Wejsflog index in the right foot and body weight and height. In the case of boys, Clarke’s angle and Wejsflog index in the left foot correlated with body mass index. Conclusions: We can therefore assume that most of the surveyed girls and boys had correctly longitudinally and transversely arched feet and toes positioned correctly. Excessive weight was a factor distorting the foot shape in children; it caused a deterioration of longitudinal and transverse arch of the right foot in girls, and left foot flattening occurred in boys.

  14. Organization of Physical Activities as a Precondition of Quality Development of Motor Abilities of Pre-School and School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Živorad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In their work authors consider the significance of the organization of physical activities for the development of abilities of pre-school and school children. Led by theoretical basis that physical development of children represents the basis of their whole development, and that “fine motor skills” are determined by the development of its large motorics, the authors point to the significance of the content and structure of physical education programme in preschool institutions and younger age school classes. It is evident that the effects of cultivating of children development during preschool period can be seen in younger primary school classes. The goal of this research was to determine if and how much the different organization of preparatory part of physical education lesson for younger school children, determines the differences in the development of their motor abilities. By the use of experimental method, the effects of prolonged preparatory part of a lesson in younger school classes. This part was realized through complex of exercises which were supposed to have influence on transformation of motor abilities in relation to the structure with standard duration of certain parts of a lesson. It is determined that certain increase in body movement of students during physical activity can significantly contribute to better development of motor abilities. These abilities determine correct physical development and strengthening of health, which determines general aim of physical education.

  15. Exploring personality traits and well-being among pre-school and primary school teachers in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Tatalović Vorkapić

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Pre-school and primary school teachers are directly involved in the education of children. In addition to teachers’ competences, the quality of their work is significantly influenced by their psychological well-being. It is therefore important to focus on their well-being as well as on personality traits they have. The main objective of this study was to examine the relationship between life satisfaction, happiness, optimism and personality traits of pre-school and primary school teachers in Croatia. Participants and procedure The study was conducted on a sample of 103 pre-school teachers and 117 primary school teachers who completed self-evaluated scales on personality traits, life satisfaction, happiness and optimism. Results The results demonstrated high levels of all personality traits in both samples. High levels of life satisfaction were positively associated with happiness and optimism. Personality traits were also positively associated with life satisfaction, happiness and optimism. There were no differences in life satisfaction, happiness, optimism or personality traits between pre-school and primary school teachers, except for openness to experience being higher in pre-school teachers. Emotional stability was a significant predictor of teachers’ well-being. Conclusions The results have significant implications for improvement of teaching practice at primary school and pre-school levels. The findings highlight the importance of teachers’ personality traits and their well-being for the quality of their work with children.

  16. Giocampus school: a "learning through playing" approach to deliver nutritional education to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, Alice; Brighenti, Furio; Finistrella, Viviana; Ingrosso, Lisa; Monti, Giorgia; Vanelli, Maurizio; Vitale, Marco; Volta, Elio; Scazzina, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    To improve nutritional knowledge of children, single-group educational interventions with pre/post knowledge assessment were performed in primary schools in Parma, Italy, participating to the Giocampus Program. A total of 8165 children (8-11 years old) of 3rd, 4th and 5th grades of primary school were involved in 3 hours per class nutritional lessons, with specifically designed games and activities for each school grade. To evaluate children learning, a questionnaire was administered before and after three months of educational intervention. A total of 16330 questionnaires were analysed. Children nutritional knowledge significantly increased (peducational figures, tools and games, was successful in improving children's nutritional knowledge. A stable integration of this method in primary school settings could prepare a new generation of citizens, better educated on health-promotion lifestyles.

  17. Social behaviour in pre-school children: a child-centred follow-up study

    OpenAIRE

    Maša Vidmar; Maja Zupančič

    2006-01-01

    The contribution presents a study with 3-year-olds and examines relative contribution of children's age of entry to pre-school (1 and 3 years), their personality type (resilient, average, willful) and maternal parenting style (optimal, less-than-optimal) to the development of individual differences in social behavior. Employing The Family Environment Questionnaire (Zupančič, Podlesek, & Kavčič, 2004), 2 internally replicable parenting styles were identified with maternal and paternal self...

  18. Mastering of musical rhythm by pre-school age children with speech disorders with the help of dance-correction program trainings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.B. Petrenko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It is known that regular listening to specially selected music develops children’s cognitive abilities. Musical influence optimizes many important functions of brain: increases mental workability; accelerates processing of information; improves short term memory. Besides, sensitivity of visual and hearing analyzers strengthens, as well as regulation of arbitrary movements; indicators of verbal and non verbal intellect improve. Purpose: to determine peculiarities of musical rhythm’s mastering by pre-school age children with speech disorders with the help of dance-correction program trainings. Material: the categories of the tested children: children of age - 4-5 and 5-6 years with speech disorders and healthy pre-school age children. Children of 4-5 years’ age composed: main group (n=12, control group (n=16; group of healthy children (n=24. For assessment of verbal thinking and rhythm-motor (or dance abilities we used complex of tests of constantly increasing difficulty. Results: we found that under influence of dance-correcting exercises activation of rhythm-motor abilities and development of cognitive functions happened in children. We also found main functional peculiarities of musical rhythm’s mastering by pre-school age children. It was determined that by the end of pedagogic experiment, main groups of children approached to groups of healthy peers by all tested characteristics. Conclusions: it is recommended to include correcting components (fit ball - dance gymnastic, tales-therapy, logo-rhythm trainings, and game fitness in trainings by choreographic program.

  19. Brief Report: Application of the TEACCH Program on Chinese Pre-School Children with Autism--Does Culture Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Sandra K. M.; Shek, Daniel T. l.; Lam, Lorinda L.; Tang, Florence L. Y.; Cheung, Penita M. P.

    2007-01-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted on 34 children with autism to evaluate the usefulness of the Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication Handicapped Children (TEACCH) program for Chinese pre-school children in Hong Kong. Eighteen children received full-time center-based TEACCH program training. The control group included 16…

  20. DIET OF ST. PETERSBURG INFANTS AND PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN AS A FACTOR MAINTAINING NEGATIVE INFLUENCE OF THE REGION NATURE AND ECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Bulatova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study defects of infants and pre-school children diet, which negative consequences are aggravated by unfavorable nature and ecological conditions of St. Petersburg region. Patients and methods: diet of 119 children (53 — aged from 2 to 3 years old and 66 — from 4 to 6 years old visiting St. Petersburg pre-school institutions of 12-hours stay (including all additional food outside the institution was analyzed.  Analysis of diet was formed by assessment of actual nutrition and supply of nutrients. Results: actual diet of infants and pre-school children was found to deviate significantly from recommended standards which lead to long-standing imbalance of the main nutrients intake. Many defects of the diet are maintained by specific negative factors of the habitat. Combined influence of such influence causes disturbances in development and increase of ecology-dependent disorders in children. Conclusions: in organization of nutrition of children living in unfavorable nature and ecology conditions account must be taken not only of age standards of nutrients and calories intake, but weather, nature biological rhythms and specific geological characteristics.

  1. The Effect of Project Based Learning in Teaching EFL Vocabulary to Young Learners of English: The Case of Pre-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimsesiz, Fatma; Dolgunso¨z, Emrah; Konca, M. Yavuz

    2017-01-01

    English language teaching has newly been introduced to pre-school curriculum in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of teaching EFL vocabulary to pre-school children through Project Based Learning (PBL). For this purpose, an experimental design, consisted of observation checklists, exam scores and a short survey,…

  2. Why Rural Schools Are Important for Pre-Service Teacher Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanks, Brooke; Robbins, Holly; Rose, Dana; Beasley, Loren; Greene, Michelle; Kile, Melissa; Broadus, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Rural schools are often overlooked in educational research. At least one in five children in the United States attends a rural school and one-third of all public schools are located in rural areas. Research on the effects of teacher education in rural schools on teacher candidates and the rural schools themselves is almost nonexistent. This…

  3. Reflection of phases of interviews with preschool and younger school children, during the creative art activities with ceramic clay.

    OpenAIRE

    HOŘKÁ, Vlasta

    2014-01-01

    The author will first introduce the reason she had chosen her topic, which is focused on using clay as the mean of promoting creativity while interviewing children, this is to help personality growth and preparation to enter school in preschool children. In the theoretical part the author will touch on some developmental theories of preschool and younger school-age children, followed by pointing out the specifics of pre-school education and the importance of an educator's personality with reg...

  4. Effect of single-dose albendazole and vitamin A supplementation on the iron status of pre-school children in Sichuan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Xie, Hu Mina; Tian, Weizheng; Zheng, Xiaoling; Jiang, Alice C

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effect of single-dose albendazole and vitamin A intervention on the anaemic status and Fe metabolism of pre-school children. This study was a randomised, placebo-controlled and double-blinded intervention trial. All eligible anaemic pre-school children were randomly divided into three groups: group 1 received no intervention, which served as the control group, group 2 received 400 mg single-dose albendazole administration and group 3 received a 60000 μg vitamin A capsule combined with 400 mg single-dose albendazole at the beginning of the study. The follow-up period was for 6 months. Anthropometry and biochemical index about Fe metabolism were measured before and after intervention. A total of 209 pre-school anaemic children were randomly divided into three intervention groups (sixty-four, sixty-two and sixty for groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively). The mean age of the children in the study was 4·4 (sd 0·7) years and 50·5 % of the children were female (94/186). After a follow-up period of 6 months, the levels of serum retinol, ferritin, transferrin receptor-ferritin index and body total Fe content of children in group 3 were significantly higher compared with children in groups 1 and 2 (PAlbendazole plus vitamin A administration showed more efficacy on the improvement of serum retinol and Fe metabolic status.

  5. Pre-K Physical Education: Universal Initiatives and Teacher Preparation Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    The "National Physical Activity Plan", as well as professional and government agencies (NASPE, 2008a; US Department of Health and Human Services, 2000) acknowledge pre-kindergarten (pre-K) children should be part of comprehensive school physical activity initiatives anchored in quality physical education programming. These…

  6. Preparing Pre-Service Teachers for Multicultural Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premier, Jessica Aimee; Miller, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    Cultural diversity is evident throughout schools in Victoria, Australia. Many students are new arrivals from war-torn countries including Sudan, Afghanistan and Iraq. To what extent do teacher training courses in Victoria prepare pre-service teachers to cater for the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) students? This paper…

  7. Religious feelings in pre-school children in their own and their mothers’ perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatala Małgorzata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the expression of religious feelings in pre-school children and the perception of these feelings by the children’s’ mothers. Ninety Polish children from Catholic families aged 4, 5 and 6 participated in the study. A picture method along with interviews with children’s mothers were employed to gather the data. Data from the two sources was compared, taking into consideration the content and ways of expression of the described feelings. Relations between positive and negative feelings were investigated and further statistical analyses were focused mainly on negative feelings. It was found that structure of negative religious feelings obtained directly from the children bears significant similarity to the mothers’ perception.

  8. Moving House for Education in the Pre-School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kirstine

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses data from the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) to examine house moves that take place in the pre-school years, focusing on families who move for the education of their children. We present results showing that education- related house moves do indeed occur in the pre-school years with particular types of parents making these…

  9. Effects of Language of Instruction on Learning of Literacy Skills among Pre-Primary School Children from Low-Income Urban Communities in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hungi, Njora; Njagi, Joan; Wekulo, Patricia; Ngware, Moses

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between the language of instruction and learning of literacy skills among pre-primary school children in a multilingual environment. The sample consists of 1867 learners from low-income urban households, attending 147 low-cost private pre-primary schools located in low-income areas of Nairobi, Kenya. About…

  10. Burns and scalds in pre-school children attending accident and emergency: accident or abuse?

    OpenAIRE

    Benger, J; McCabe, S

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To assess how frequently and adequately information relating to the possibility of non-accidental injury (NAI) is documented and considered by doctors assessing pre-school children with burns and scalds in the accident and emergency (A&E) department, and to determine the effect of introducing a routine reminder mechanism into the A&E notes, coupled with an improved programme of NAI education and awareness.

  11. Preparing pre-service teachers as emancipatory and participatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preparing pre-service teachers as emancipatory and participatory action researchers in ... teachers to become more critically reflective and socially conscious. ... beliefs about teaching, and gain confidence in addressing social justice issues. ... focus on their work with learners and challenges in the real school environment.

  12. Children’s participation in Finnish pre-school education - Identifying, Describing and Documenting Children’s Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna Leinonen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article describes, analyzes, and evaluates children’s participatory in Finnish pre-school groups. Children’s participation is viewed in the context of the Core Curriculum for Pre-school Education in Finland (2010, in which children are considered active subjects, who interact with both other people and the environment. However, in practical data, collected via survey from pre-school educators, this ideology is restricted and the educators in pre-school groups focus on children’s participation from a narrow point of view that reflects a lack of connection between the Core Curriculum goals for pre-school education and the actual participatory practices children face.

  13. Validation of an Online Food Frequency Questionnaire against Doubly Labelled Water and 24 h Dietary Recalls in Pre-School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Henriksson, Hanna; Alexandrou, Christina; Bergström, Anna; Bonn, Stephanie; Bälter, Katarina; Löf, Marie

    2017-01-13

    The development of easy-to-use and accurate methods to assess the intake of energy, foods and nutrients in pre-school children is needed. KidMeal-Q is an online food frequency questionnaire developed for the LifeGene prospective cohort study in Sweden. The aims of this study were to compare: (i) energy intake (EI) obtained using KidMeal-Q to total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water and (ii) the intake of certain foods measured using KidMeal-Q to intakes acquired by means of 24 h dietary recalls in 38 children aged 5.5 years. The mean EI calculated using KidMeal-Q was statistically different ( p food frequency questionnaires. However, its accuracy needs to be improved before it can be used in studies in pre-school children.

  14. Family Support or School Readiness? Contrasting Models of Public Spending on Children's Early Care and Learning. Evidence Speaks Reports, Vol 1, #16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, Grover J.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, public policy and expenditure intended to improve the prospects of children from low-income families have focused on better preparing children for school through Head Start and universal pre-K. This school readiness approach differs from the dominant model of public support for early care and learning in Northern Europe,…

  15. The personality structure of toddlers and pre-school children as perceived by their kindergarten teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to analyse the personality structure of children aged one to seven, as perceived by their kindergarten teachers. In addition, gender differences were examined to determine whether kindergarten teachers perceived the personality characteristics of toddler and pre-school girls differently than those of boys. 508 randomly-selected Slovenian children were assessed by their kindergarten teachers using adapted Flemish Big-Five Bipolar Rating Scales. Four-factor structures that explained more than two-thirds of the variance emerged for teachers' personality ratings of children in each of the three age groups: toddlers, three- to five-year-olds and five- to seven-year-olds. However, five of the twenty-five scales, four of them referring to the Conscientiousness dimension, did not appear to be relevant when assessing individual differences in the toddlerhood. Intellect/Openness, as observed for the toddler sample, and the combined Conscientiousness-Intellect/Openness factor, extracted for each of the two older age groups, accounted for the greatest part of the variance. Extroversion was obtained as a second factor in each of the three age groups, while Emotional Stability showed relatively less stability across these groups. Agreeableness was clearly differentiated only in the oldest age group, emerging there for the first time as an independent factor. A few gender differences were found to be significant within the two groups of pre-school children, with girls consistently being rated higher in terms of Conscientiousness-Intellect/Openness.

  16. Unhealthy and healthy food consumption inside and outside of the school by pre-school and elementary school Mexican children in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Lilian; Jiménez-Cruz, Arturo; Bacardí-Gascón, Montserrat

    2013-12-01

    Food from lunch packs (LP) or food available inside and outside of school can play an important role in the development of obesity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the LP of elementary school (ES) and preschool children (PS) in Tijuana, and the foods available to them inside and outside of school. Eight public schools participated in the study. A random sample of all the groups from a school district was conducted. A questionnaire was administered to children in first through sixth grade (ES) and to the parents of PS. LP and food available inside and outside of the school were classified as healthy, unhealthy, and adequate according to the guidelines set forth by the Secretariat of Health. A total of 2,716 questionnaires were administered and the content of 648 LP was assessed. It was observed that 99% of PS had LP prepared at home, a higher percentage than ES. None of the LP of the ES was classified as healthy, and 1% was classified as adequate. Among PS, 21% of the LP were classified as healthy and 6% as adequate. More than half of the children recognized the brand name of foods high in fat, salt, and added sugar available inside and outside of school grounds. Most of the LP of ES and PS and the foods available inside and outside of school were unhealthy and inadequate. A strategy to prevent the availability of unhealthy and inadequate food in LP and foods available inside and outside schools is recommended.

  17. [The Role of Internet Parenting for the Internet use of Children in Pre-, Primary and Secondary School].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festl, Ruth; Langmeyer, Alexandra N

    2018-02-01

    The Role of Internet Parenting for the Internet use of Children in Pre-, Primary and Secondary School The present study analyzes the relationship between mothers' and fathers' Internet parenting and children's Internet use across different age groups (1-15 years). Especially, we looked at the influencing factors of parental mediation strategies and the interplay of mothers' and fathers' Internet parenting. Based on data of the DJI-survey "Growing up in Germany" (Aufwachsen in Deutschland: Alltagswelten, AID:A II 2015, N = 1,196), dyadic structural equation models have shown that across all age groups shared parent-child online activities were important influencing factors of regulating the children's Internet use. Also, the self-perceived Internet education competence of mothers and fathers has been confirmed as a relevant factor influencing a more intense use of parental mediation strategies for school-aged children. While the amount of Internet use among young children (1-6 years) was exclusively influenced by features and strategies of mothers' Internet parenting, the transition to elementary school not only marked changes in the frequency of children's Internet use, but also in the ICT parenting of mothers and fathers. For school-aged children, we indeed found an influence of fathers as well as, in case of the oldest age group, a reduced use of parental mediation strategies. However, parents' attitudes, competences and strategies regarding Internet parenting still stayed important during adolescence.

  18. [Spirometry interpretation feasibility among pre-school children according to the European Respiratory Society and American Thoracic Society Guidelines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaire, Roberto M; González, Scarlett A; Moya, Ana I; Fierro, Laura T; Brockmann, Pablo V; Caussade, Solange L

    2015-01-01

    Spirometry is the most used test to evaluate pulmonary function. Guidelines that defined acceptability and repeatability criteria for its implementation and interpretation among preschoolers were published in 2007. Our objective was to quantify the actual compliance with these criteria among pre-school patients. A review was performed on the baseline spirometry measured in patients aged 2 to 5 years in the Pediatric Respiratory Laboratory of the Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, who were admitted due to recurrent or persistent coughing or wheezing. Only those results obtained in patients who took the test for the first time were considered. They were analyzed by international standards. A total of 93 spirometry results (mean age 57.4 ± 8.6 months, 48 males) were obtained, of which 44 (47%) met all acceptable criteria, 87 (93%) obtained expiratory time of ≥ 0.5seconds, and 67 (72%) of the patients had an end-expiratory flow of ≤10% from peak flow. The variation in the measurement of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was very low (intraclass correlation coefficient > 0.9). It was possible to meet the acceptability and repeatability criteria for spirometry among pre-school children in our Center, which was similar to previous reports. As in older children, this test is fully recommended for pre-school children who require lung function studies. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  19. Provision of Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) restorations to Chinese pre-school children--a 30-month evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, E C; Holmgren, C J

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were: to provide restorations using the ART approach to pre-school children in Southern China in a kindergarten environment, using a high-strength glass-ionomer restorative material; to assess the acceptability of this approach and to evaluate on a longitudinal basis the restorations placed. A total of 170 ART restorations were placed in 95 children, aged 5.1 +/- 0.7 years, by seven final-year dental students using standard ART procedures and hand instruments. The restorations were evaluated every six months thereafter by two calibrated independent examiners using explorers and mouth-mirrors. 93% of the children reported that they did not feel pain during treatment and 86% were willing to receive ART restorations again. The cumulative 12- and 30-month survival rates of Class I restorations were 91% and 79%, respectively. The corresponding figures for Class V restorations were 79% and 70%, while those for Class II restorations were 75% and 51%. The failure rates of Class III and IV restorations were high with more than half of them scored as missing within the first year. The ART approach was shown to be acceptable to Chinese pre-school children for providing restorative dental care outside the traditional clinical setting. The success rates were high for Class I and V restorations in primary teeth, modest for Class II, and low for Class III and IV restorations.

  20. Validation of a questionnaire for asthma case identification in pre-schools in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busi, Luciano E; Sly, Peter D; Llancaman, Lidia

    2015-08-01

    We recently developed and validated a screening questionnaire for determining which school-aged children may need further investigation to diagnose and manage asthma. In the present study we sought to extend this to pre-school aged children. Questions from the school-aged questionnaire and literature on pre-school asthma were used to inform a focus group of parents with pre-school-aged children with asthma to develop a screening questionnaire. Parents of children attending 6 randomly selected kindergartens in Trelew, Argentina (n = 639) were invited to respond to the questionnaire. A reliability test-retest was undertaken in 187 randomly selected parents who completed the same questionnaire twice within 2-5 weeks. Clinical assessment included a standardized history and physical examination, spirometry before and after a β-agonist inhaler, and chest X-ray. Asthma was diagnosed by the pulmonologist. Completed surveys were returned for 620 children, 607 of whom underwent clinical evaluation. The mean age was 4.21 years (range of 3.01-5.50) and included 82.5% white and 49.4% male children. Asthma was diagnosed in 103 (17.0%) children); 72 (69.9%) of these children did not have a previous diagnosis of asthma. The specificity, sensitivity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the questionnaire were 93.2%, 86.1%, 57.8% and 98.4%, respectively. We have demonstrated the utility of a screening questionnaire for identifying pre-school-aged children who may benefit from further assessment for asthma. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  1. CT identification of abdominal injuries in abused pre-school-age children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilmes, Melissa A.; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Kan, J.H.; Greeley, Christopher S.; Piercey, Lisa M.; Yu, Chang

    2011-01-01

    Although the abdominopelvic CT findings of abdominal trauma in children have been described, little has been written about the subset of children who are victims of abuse. Our purpose is to describe abdominopelvic injuries in abused pre-school-age children as identified on CT. An IRB-approved retrospective review of our institutional child abuse registry was performed. Searching a 14-year period, we identified 84 children ≤ 5 years of age with medically diagnosed abuse who underwent CT. We reviewed imaging studies, operative reports, autopsy findings and patient outcomes. Consensus review of the CT examinations was performed by CAQ-certified pediatric radiologists, and findings were categorized as normal or by injury types (solid organ versus bowel). The injuries were analyzed in light of existing literature on pediatric accidental and non-accidental injuries. Of the 84 children, 35 (41.7%) had abdominal injuries. Abdominal injuries included liver (15), bowel (13), mesentery (4), spleen (6), kidneys (7), pancreas (4) and adrenal glands (3). Of these children, 26% (9/35) required surgical intervention for bowel, mesenteric and pancreatic injuries. Another 9/35 children died, not as a result of abdominal injuries but as a direct result of inflicted intracranial injuries. Our data indicate that abdominal injuries in abused children present in a pattern similar to that of children with accidental abdominal trauma, underscoring the need for vigilance and correlative historical and clinical data to identify victims of abuse. Mortality in abused children with intra-abdominal injury was frequently related to concomitant head injury. (orig.)

  2. CT identification of abdominal injuries in abused pre-school-age children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmes, Melissa A.; Hernanz-Schulman, Marta; Kan, J.H. [Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Nashville, TN (United States); Greeley, Christopher S. [University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Department of Pediatrics, Houston, TX (United States); Piercey, Lisa M. [Vanderbilt Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Nashville, TN (United States); Yu, Chang [Vanderbilt University, Department of Biostatistics, Nashville, TN (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Although the abdominopelvic CT findings of abdominal trauma in children have been described, little has been written about the subset of children who are victims of abuse. Our purpose is to describe abdominopelvic injuries in abused pre-school-age children as identified on CT. An IRB-approved retrospective review of our institutional child abuse registry was performed. Searching a 14-year period, we identified 84 children {<=} 5 years of age with medically diagnosed abuse who underwent CT. We reviewed imaging studies, operative reports, autopsy findings and patient outcomes. Consensus review of the CT examinations was performed by CAQ-certified pediatric radiologists, and findings were categorized as normal or by injury types (solid organ versus bowel). The injuries were analyzed in light of existing literature on pediatric accidental and non-accidental injuries. Of the 84 children, 35 (41.7%) had abdominal injuries. Abdominal injuries included liver (15), bowel (13), mesentery (4), spleen (6), kidneys (7), pancreas (4) and adrenal glands (3). Of these children, 26% (9/35) required surgical intervention for bowel, mesenteric and pancreatic injuries. Another 9/35 children died, not as a result of abdominal injuries but as a direct result of inflicted intracranial injuries. Our data indicate that abdominal injuries in abused children present in a pattern similar to that of children with accidental abdominal trauma, underscoring the need for vigilance and correlative historical and clinical data to identify victims of abuse. Mortality in abused children with intra-abdominal injury was frequently related to concomitant head injury. (orig.)

  3. Hydroelectric reservoir inundation (Rio Madeira Basin, Amazon) and changes in traditional lifestyle: impact on growth and neurodevelopment of pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Rejane C; Dórea, José G; McManus, Concepta; Leão, Renata S; Brandão, Katiane G; Marques, Rayson C; Vieira, Igor H Ito; Guimarães, Jean-Remy D; Malm, Olaf

    2011-04-01

    To assess the dependence on fish consumption of families and its impact on nutritional status and neurodevelopment of pre-school children. Cross-sectional study that measured children's hair mercury (HHg) as an indicator of family fish consumption, growth (anthropometric Z-scores, WHO standards) and neurological (Gesell developmental scores (GDS)) development. Traditional living conditions among families residing in the area adjacent to the Samuel Dam (Western Amazon) hydroelectric reservoir. Two hundred and forty-nine pre-school children (1-59 months of age) from families transitioning from the traditional Amazonian lifestyle. Family fish consumption was significantly correlated with children's HHg concentration (Spearman's r=0.246, P85), multiple regression analysis showed that fish consumption (as HHg) had no impact on GDS, but that some variables did interact significantly with specific domains (motor and language development). The study showed that the families' shift in fish consumption had no negative impact on the growth of young children and that ensuing methylmercury exposure has not been a noticeable neurodevelopmental hindrance.

  4. Quality of pre-school children's pretend play and subsequent development of semantic organization and narrative re-telling skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagnitti, Karen; Lewis, Fiona M

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated if the quality of pre-school children's pretend play predicted their semantic organization and narrative re-telling ability when they were in early primary school. It was hypothesized that the elaborateness of a child's play and the child's use of symbols in play were predictors of their semantic organization and narrative re-tell scores of the School Age Oral Language Assessment. Forty-eight children were assessed using the Child-Initiated Pretend Play Assessment when they were aged 4-5 years. Three-to-five years after this assessment their semantic organization and narrative re-telling skills were assessed. Results indicate that the elaborateness of a child's play and their ability to use symbols was predictive of semantic organization skills. Use of symbols in play was the strongest play predictor of narrative re-telling skills. The quality of a pre-school child's ability to elaborate complex sequences in pretend play and use symbols predicted up to 20% of a child's semantic organization and narrative re-telling skills up to 5 years later. The study provides evidence that the quality of pretend play in 4-5 year olds is important for semantic organization and narrative re-telling abilities in the school-aged child.

  5. Setting up pre-admission visits for children undergoing day surgery: a practice development initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Maria; Cummins, Ann; Kelleher, Ann

    2010-06-01

    The hospital experience can bring about a range of negative emotions for children. The literature clearly states that children who are prepared for surgery recover faster and have fewer negative effects. Pre-admission programmes seek to prepare children (and their parents) for surgery. This paper describes in detail how a pre-admission programme was established for children and their families who were scheduled for day case surgery.

  6. COMPETENCIA MATEMÁTICA EN NIÑOS EN EDAD PREESCOLAR - MATH COMPETENCY IN PRE-SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MYRIAM ESTHER ORTIZ PADILLA

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies the characteristics of Mathematical competency in pre-school age children in the Magdalena region. The population was represented by 101 children, to whom the Basic Mathematics Competency Test, Item 3, in its Spanish version, was administered. Quantitative methodology was used, from an empirical and analytical approach and a cross-sectional design was implemented. The results indicate that 31% of children evaluated obtaineda Mathematics Competency Global Index average, with 57% for descriptors: below averageand 22% above average. The private institutions placed a higher percentage of students aboveaverage. The sex and age variable does not provide significant differences.

  7. Association of consumption of products containing milk fat with reduced asthma risk in pre-school children : the PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijga, AH; Smit, HA; Kerkhof, M; de Jongste, JC; Gerritsen, J; Neijens, HJ; Boshuizen, HC; Brunekreef, B

    Background: Environment and lifestyle contribute to the development of asthma in children. Understanding the relevant factors in this relationship may provide methods of prevention. The role of diet in the development of asthma in pre-school children was investigated. Methods: Data from 2978

  8. DYNAMICS OF THE COMPELEX FORMS OF VISUAL PERCEPTION IN CHILDREN OF PRE-SCHOOL AGE (A NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS)

    OpenAIRE

    VASILEVA Neli

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Experimental data in preschool aged children proves the determining role of the auditory and visual processes for future reading skills, therefore the investigation of complex forms of visual perception in this age period is diagnostically important. Objectives: Basic aim of the research is assessment of the sensitive period for the non-verbal perceptive operations in pre-school aged children, and determination of subgroup with low results for non-verbal perception. Method...

  9. Mapping area variability in social and behavioural difficulties among Glasgow pre-schoolers: linkage of a survey of pre-school staff with routine monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, S J E; Marryat, L; Thompson, L; Ellaway, A; White, J; McClung, M; Wilson, P

    2015-11-01

    Social, emotional and behavioural development in early to middle childhood impact upon many outcomes in future life and are influenced by home, neighbourhood and school environments. We used linked data to investigate differences between areas in Glasgow City in level of difficulties in pre-school age children, after consideration of demographics, including area-level deprivation. Pre-school education staff completed Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaires (SDQ) on all children progressing to school from a local authority or partnership (local authority-funded private) pre-school in Glasgow City between 2010 and 2012. These data were linked to individual (age, gender) and area-level (deprivation) demographics from the City Council Education Services Department. Statistical models were fitted to the SDQ scores, adjusting for age, gender, area deprivation, year of school entry, pre-school establishment attended and electoral ward of residence. Correlation between neighbouring wards was incorporated to allow for clustering of scores. Boys and those living in more deprived areas had higher levels of difficulties. Children aged 5.0-5.5 years had fewest difficulties, while the oldest and youngest children had similar levels of difficulties. There were no significant secular trends by year of school entry. There remained differences among areas after adjusting for these variables, with children living in some areas having fewer difficulties than would be expected based on their socio-demographic characteristics. There remained differences in children's levels of difficulties between areas after adjusting for age, gender, area deprivation and year of school entry. Children in some very deprived areas had fewer difficulties than might be expected, while those in relatively affluent areas had more difficulties than expected based on their deprivation level. There may be other, unmeasured, individual- and area-level reasons for children's level of difficulties, and these

  10. Confronting Invisibility: Early Childhood Pre-Service Teachers' Beliefs toward Homeless Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee

    2013-01-01

    Children make up half of the homeless population in the US, and of those, almost 50 percent are under age six. Homeless children face many different challenges in school. These children and their families have been invisible in school due to the indifference and stereotypes about them. This article focuses on early childhood pre-service teachers'…

  11. Nutrient intakes among children and adolescents eating usual pizza products in school lunch compared with pizza meeting HealthierUS School Challenge criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, In Young; Marquart, Len; Reicks, Marla

    2014-05-01

    Pizza is a popular food that can contribute to high intakes of saturated fat and sodium among children and adolescents. The objective of this study was to compare daily nutrient intakes when a pizza product meeting the US Department of Agriculture's criteria for competitive food entrées under the HealthierUS School Challenge (HUSSC) was substituted for usual pizza products consumed during foodservice-prepared school lunch. The study used National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2005-2008) dietary recall data from a cross-sectional sample of US children and adolescents (age 5 to 18 years, n=337) who ate pizza during school lunch on 1 day of dietary recall. Daily nutrient intakes based on the consumption of usual pizza products for school lunch (pre-modeled) were compared with intakes modeled by substituting nutrient values from an HUSSC whole-grain pizza product (post-modeled). Paired t tests were used to make the comparison. Post-modeled intakes were lower in daily energy, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, and sodium compared with pre-modeled intakes among children and adolescents (Ppizza product for usual pizza products may significantly improve dietary quality of children and adolescents eating pizza for school lunch, indicating that it could be an effective approach to improve the nutritional quality of school lunch programs. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Breakfast skipping is associated with differences in meal patterns, macronutrient intakes and overweight among pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon; Potvin Kent, Monique; Farmer, Anna; Tatone-Tokuda, Fabiola

    2009-01-01

    To examine the association between skipping breakfast, daily energy, macronutrients and food intakes, and BMI in pre-school children. A cross-sectional study using information on children's food consumption and measured height and weight. Energy and macronutrient intakes of the children were derived from parent/day-care attendant's responses to 24 h recall interviews and eating behaviour questionnaires. Data obtained from a representative sample (n 2,103) of children born in Quebec (Canada) in 1998. One thousand five hundred and forty-nine children, with a mean age of 49 (sd 3.12) months. Ten per cent of children ate breakfast on fewer than 7 days per week. This behaviour was associated with a lower diet quality and concentrated energy intakes through higher protein intakes at lunch and the consumption of snacks higher in energy and carbohydrate in the afternoon and evening; yet total daily energy intakes were not significantly different from those of pre-school children who ate breakfast every day. Breakfast skippers' mean BMI increased as intake of energy, carbohydrates or servings of grain products increased; however, this was not the case for breakfast eaters. When Cole's cut-off for overweight/obesity was used, overweight/obesity in breakfast skippers was related to the dinner-time consumption of approximately 3,000 kJ (700 kcal) or more for energy intake, approximately 100 g or more of carbohydrates, or approximately 3 servings or more of grain products. Eating breakfast every day is associated with having a healthy body weight, likely due to a more even distribution of energy intake across meals throughout the day.

  13. Cultural Practice of Children's-adult Research Activity in Pre-school Education: Content and Risks (Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alieva T.I.,

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the characteristics of children's "research" activities, discusses the features and examples of its existence in pre-school education. Kinds of activity in which the child shows an educational initiative and curiosity, and also the contents of interests of children of preschool age are discussed. The author shows how everyday life situations, communication with adults and peers become sources of children's "research". In such situations, samples are set and the model of the cultural practices of cognition implemented. The author analyses the elements of technology of children's "research" according to empirical material. This work was supported by Federal Research Centre for Projects Evaluation and Consulting Services (project № 2.48.2016/НМ.

  14. Moral Literacy through Two Lenses: Pre-Service Teachers' Preparation for Character Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Kelly; Bajovic, Mira

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explored how well prepared pre-service teacher candidates are to develop moral literacy. With the mandate in Ontario schools to deliver character education, we were intrigued by the question: How well prepared are teacher candidates to deliver on this requirement based on preservice preparation and the realities of classroom…

  15. Associations between obesity and developmental functioning in pre-school children: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mond, J M; Stich, H; Hay, P J; Kraemer, A; Baune, B T

    2007-07-01

    To examine associations between obesity and impairment in developmental functioning in a general population sample of pre-school children. Standardized medical examinations were conducted in nine consecutive cohorts of male and female children (n=9415) aged between 4.4 and 8.6 years (mean=6.0, s.d.=0.37) residing in the Lower Bavaria region of Germany. Tests designed to assess performance in subdivisions representing four broad developmental domains, namely, motor development, speech development, cognitive development and psycho-social development, were completed by all participants. Boys had significantly higher rates of impairment than girls. The prevalence of obesity in boys was 2.4%, whereas in girls it was 4.3% (chi (2)=21.51, Pmotor skills was higher among obese male children than normal-weight male children (adjusted odds ratio=1.76, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.02, 3.01, Pability to focus attention was higher in obese female children than normal-weight female children (adjusted odds ratio=1.86, 95% CI=1.00, 3.44, Pobesity and impairment in specific aspects of developmental functioning may be evident in younger children.

  16. Looking at sexual education in pre-school education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrella García Quintero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the framework supporting the training of educative agents to influence upon sexual education of boys and girls in pre-school age as a way to attain high quality standard in the education. These rationale starts from the assumption that it is possible to favor the training process of educative agents on the topic by means of integrating actions with a gender centered approach. The proposal is the result of a thorough study based on the socio-historical cultural approach resulting from the doctoral dissertation already presented by the first authoress. At the same time, these results contribute to the research project “Training the family for the intellectual stimulus of pre-school children. Additionally it offers the stages of sexual education at pre-school age.

  17. Determinants of nutritional status of pre-school children in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharati, Susmita; Pal, Manoranjan; Bharati, Premananda

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the spatial distribution of nutritional status of children of less than three years through Z-scores of weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height using data collected by the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-2, 1998-99), India. The nutritional status of pre-school children was regressed on different socio-demographic factors after eliminating the effect of age. The data show that there are gender differences and spatial variations in the nutritional status of children in India. Gender difference is not very pronounced and almost disappears when the effects of age and socio-demographic variables are removed. The spatial difference, especially the rural-urban difference, was found to be very large and decreased substantially when the effects of age and socioeconomic variables were removed. However, the differences were not close to zero. All the variables were found to affect significantly the nutritional status of children. However, the literacy of mothers did not affect height-for-age significantly. The weight-for-age and height-for-age scores showed a dismal picture of the health condition of children in almost all states in India. The worst affected states are Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh. Assam and Rajasthans are also lagging behind. Weight-for-height scores do not give a clear picture of state-wise variation. Goa, Kerala and Punjab are the three most developed states in India and also have the lowest percentages of underweight children according to the Z-scores. Along with these three states come the north-eastern states where women are well educated. Thus overall development, enhancement of level of education and low gender inequality are the key factors for improvement in the health status of Indian children.

  18. Pre-School Attendance and Child Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauchmüller, Robert; Gørtz, Mette; Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    Earlier research suggests that children's development is shaped in their early years of life. This paper examines whether differences in day-care experiences during pre-school age are important for children's cognitive and language development at the age of 15. The analysis is based on class...... performance at the end of elementary schooling. We assess the effects of attended types and qualities of day-care institutions on various child outcomes as measured by school grades in mathematics, science, English and Danish for the whole Danish population as well as outcomes from the 2006 PISA Denmark...... survey and a 2007 PISA Copenhagen survey. We use administrative registries to generate indicators such as child-staff ratios, child-pedagogues ratios, and the share of male staff and of staff with non-Danish origins. Furthermore, we use information on the average levels of educational attainments...

  19. The use of first language scaffolding to teach English as a foreign language to pre-school children during dramatic play in West Sumatera, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulia Dewi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Indonesian community generally perceives that English language teaching should require phonology, vocabulary, grammar, discourse, and pragmatics. As a result, this often demands that pre-school teachers use English all the time. Code switching between English, Indonesian, and Minang – the local language of the region – is perceived negatively, and teachers are often criticized for using a multilingual approach that is “part snake and part eel” [sakarek ula sakarek baluik]. This refers to a negative perception of mixing languages in educational settings. In fact, code switching between Minang (first language, Indonesian (second language, and English (foreign language is the norm of language use in this part of Indonesia. However, in this community, there is a lack of respect for pre-school teachers' professionalism as well as scepticism towards the effectiveness of a multilingual teaching approach, which is used widely at the pre-school level. Vygotsky [14], the Russian psychologist, presents a different perspective on this phenomenon, noting that children learn languages by playing. Their first language can be the main tool to help them understand new words and utterances in context. By using code switching, teachers help pre-school children to link their prior knowledge and experience to the new forms of expression that enable them to derive the meaning of new words from the social context of language use. For this reason, scaffolding techniques should be used by pre-school teachers, particularly in ways which support children's cognitive development in constructing new meanings based on their first language experience. This paper, based on a research study-in-progress at Deakin University, Melbourne, Australia, explores patterns of interaction between pre-school teachers and their students as teachers scaffold the development of EFL through dramatic play in West Sumatera, Indonesia. This interaction is systemic in nature and

  20. Child-targeted fast-food television advertising exposure is linked with fast-food intake among pre-school children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Madeline A; Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Cleveland, Lauren P; Harris, Jennifer L; Hendricks, Kristy; Titus, Linda J

    2017-01-01

    Objective To determine whether exposure to child-targeted fast-food (FF) television (TV) advertising is associated with children’s FF intake in a non-experimental setting. Design Cross-sectional survey conducted April–December 2013. Parents reported their pre-school child’s TV viewing time, channels watched and past-week FF consumption. Responses were combined with a list of FF commercials (ads) aired on children’s TV channels during the same period to calculate children’s exposure to child-targeted TV ads for the following chain FF restaurants: McDonald’s, Subway and Wendy’s (MSW). Setting Paediatric and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in New Hampshire, USA. Subjects Parents (n 548) with a child of pre-school age. Results Children’s mean age was 4·4 years; 43·2 % ate MSW in the past week. Among the 40·8 % exposed to MSW ads, 23·3 % had low, 34·2 % moderate and 42·5 % high exposure. McDonald’s accounted for over 70 % of children’s MSW ad exposure and consumption. Children’s MSW consumption was significantly associated with their ad exposure, but not overall TV viewing time. After adjusting for demographics, socio-economic status and other screen time, moderate MSW ad exposure was associated with a 31 % (95 % CI 1·12, 1·53) increase and high MSW ad exposure with a 26 % (95 % CI 1·13, 1·41) increase in the likelihood of consuming MSW in the past week. Further adjustment for parent FF consumption did not change the findings substantially. Conclusions Exposure to child-targeted FF TV advertising is positively associated with FF consumption among children of pre-school age, highlighting the vulnerability of young children to persuasive advertising and supporting recommendations to limit child-directed FF marketing. PMID:28416041

  1. A model of roles and responsibilities in oral health promotion based on perspectives of a community-based initiative for pre-school children in the U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, E; Rubin, G

    2014-03-01

    (i) To explore dental, school and family perspectives of an oral health promotion (OHP) initiative to improve access for pre-school children in deprived communities; (ii) to develop a model of roles and responsibilities for OHP in community settings. Semi-structured focus groups (n = 6) with dental practice staff (n = 24), and semi-structured interviews with school staff (n = 9) and parents and children (n = 4) who were involved in an OHP initiative for pre-school children. Framework analysis was applied to identify themes. Themes were used to develop a model of roles and responsibilities for OHP, based on the WHO Planning and evaluating health promotion model. Respondents subscribed to a community-based approach to improving access to dental services for pre-school children in deprived areas, with an emphasis on shared responsibility and communication. In addition to macro-level actions in directing health policy and services, commissioners were held responsible for investing in micro-level actions, such as funding OHP training and involving parents, and meso-level actions such as reducing barriers to access. The model we have developed builds on WHO recommendations on health promotion to identify the key roles and responsibilities that should be incorporated into further initiatives in OHP.

  2. Parental feeding behaviour and motivations regarding pre-school age children: A thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylatt, Louise; Cartwright, Tina

    2016-04-01

    Poor childhood diet is a major risk factor for disease and obesity, and parents of pre-school children are in a powerful position to influence diet for life. The technique of thematic synthesis (Thomas & Harden, 2008) was used to synthesise recent qualitative research on parental feeding of pre-school age children (18 months-6 years). The aim was to inform development of nutrition advice by gaining a comprehensive picture of parental feeding behaviours and motivations. Six key parental feeding behaviours were identified: modelling, rewards, pressure and encouragement, repeated exposure, creativity, and limiting intake. Four overarching themes regarding motivations were identified: promoting good health (balance and variety, and weight control); building positive relationships (child involvement, and parental engagement and responsiveness); practicalities and constraints (time, cost, and lack of culinary skill, and pressure and flexibility); and emotional motivations (problem avoidance, and emotional investment). Practicalities and constraints, and emotional motivations impacted more significantly on low income parents. In order to be effective, nutrition advice ought to tap into parents' strong desire to build positive relationships and promote good health while remaining sensitive to the significant constraints and practicalities faced. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Guide Our Feet: Teacher Education and Servant-Leadership in a Children's Defense Fund Freedom School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joyce Hubbard

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative narrative study presents the Children's Defense Fund Freedom School as an exemplar of an educational program with a model of spiritual education, which supports the preparation of pre-service teachers by nurturing an ethos of service. The purpose of this study is to examine the potential for a summer experience of…

  4. Protecting children from rabies with education and pre-exposure prophylaxis: A school-based campaign in El Nido, Palawan, Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deray, Raffy; Rivera, Cesar; Gripon, Shiela; Ulanday, Corazon; Roces, Maria Concepcion; Amparo, Anna Charinna; Attlan, Michael; Demont, Clarisse; Kieffer, Alexia; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Rabies remains endemic in the Philippines. A study was conducted in El Nido, Palawan, Philippines to: (i) detect the true incidence of animal bites in school children aged 5-14 years using active surveillance and compare these data to estimates from the existing passive surveillance system, (ii) evaluate the impact of rabies prevention education and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) on animal bite incidence, and (iii) assess the health economic impact of the interventions. A cohort of 4,700 school children was followed-up for any suspect rabies exposures between January 2011 and December 2012. Data on animal bite incidence from the study cohort were compared to that obtained from a review of consultation records at the Animal Bite Treatment Center (ABTC). PrEP was offered to children in all 27 public elementary schools in El Nido (in January to February 2012). Teachers were given a manual for integrating rabies in the public elementary school curriculum during the school year 2012-13. Active surveillance of the cohort revealed a higher incidence of suspect rabies exposures than that from passive surveillance. Despite a decrease in the number of Category III bites, there was no significant decrease in overall bite incidence as a result of the interventions. However, there was an increase in rabies awareness among school children in all grade levels. There was also a high level of acceptability of PrEP. Children who received PrEP and subsequently were bitten only needed two booster doses for post-exposure prophylaxis, resulting in substantial cost-savings. The true burden of animal bites remains underestimated in ABTC records. PrEP is advantageous in selected population groups, i.e. school-aged children in rabies endemic areas with limited access to animal and human rabies prevention services. Educating school children is beneficial. Strengthening veterinary interventions to target the disease at source is important.

  5. Associations of maternal employment and three-generation families with pre-school children's overweight and obesity in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, E; Lee, J S; Kawakubo, K

    2011-07-01

    Maternal employment has been shown to be associated with childhood overweight and obesity (Ow/Ob), but the presence of family members who care for children in place of the mothers might influence children's Ow/Ob and lifestyles. The influence of maternal employment on children's Ow/Ob should be examined together with the presence of caregivers such as grandparents. The effects of maternal employment and the presence of grandparents on lifestyles and Ow/Ob in Japanese pre-school children were investigated. Cross-sectional study on 2114 children aged 3-6 years who attended all childcare facilities in a city and primary caregivers was conducted. Children's weight and height, family environments (family members, maternal employment, single parent, number of siblings and parental Ow/Ob) and lifestyles (dietary, physical activity and sleeping habits) were surveyed using a self-administered questionnaire. Ow/Ob was defined by the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. The eligible participants were 1765 children. The prevalence of Ow/Ob was 8.4% in boys and 9.9% in girls. Maternal employment was associated positively with irregular mealtimes, unfixed snacking times, bedtime after 10 p.m. and nighttime sleep duration of less than 10 h, whereas three-generation families were associated negatively with irregular mealtimes after adjustment for children's characteristics and family environments. Irregular mealtimes (OR (95% CI); 2.03 (1.36, 3.06)) and nighttime sleep duration of less than 10 h (1.96 (1.28, 3.01)) were associated with increased risks of being Ow/Ob. Both maternal employment and three-generation families were significantly associated with children's Ow/Ob. However, three-generation families maintained a significant association (1.59 (1.08, 2.35)) after adjustment for maternal employment. These study results suggest that the grandparents who care for pre-school children in place of mothers are more likely to contribute to childhood Ow/Ob than maternal

  6. A systematic review and meta-analysis of comprehensive interventions for pre-school children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Tachibana

    Full Text Available There has an increasing number of published trials on psychosocial intervention programmes for pre-school children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. To achieve better quality of unbiased evidence for the effectiveness of ASD interventions, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive review that covers studies with adequate quality standards, such as randomised controlled trials (RCTs, and different types of intervention In this study, we categorize interventions for ASD as behavioural, social-communication focused, and multimodal developmental based on Howlin's classification of early interventions for children with ASD. The aim of this study was to compare these three models and investigate the strengths and weaknesses of each type of intervention and to identify the approaches that contribute to a successful outcome for children with autism.We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. We included RCTs targeting children with ASD 6 years old or younger. A random effects model was used to present the effect estimate for the outcomes. This study also performed combined meta-analyses of all the three models to investigate the overall effectiveness of the intervention programmes.32 randomized controlled studies were found to be eligible for inclusion. The synthesized data included 594 children from 14 RCTs. There was no statistically significant difference in the effects on autism general symptoms between the social-communication-focused model and the multimodal developmental model (p = 0.83. The results suggest that there is evidence of an effect on 'reciprocity of social interaction towards others' (standard mean difference [95% confidential interval] = 0.53[0.29,0.78], p<0.01 and 'parental synchrony' (SMD = 0.99[0.70,1.29], p<0.01.The small number of studies included in the present study limited the ability to make inferences when comparing the three models and investigating the strengths and weaknesses of each type of intervention with

  7. Role of Assessment Tests in the Stability of Intelligence Scoring of Pre-School Children with Uneven/Delayed Cognitive Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, P.; Jong, Y-J.; Hsu, H-Y.; Lung, F-W.

    2011-01-01

    Background: As part of an ongoing clinical service programme for pre-school children with developmental delay in an Asian developing country, we analysed the effect of three assessment tests, that is, Bayley Scale of Infant Development-II, Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised and Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of…

  8. ATTITUDES OF HEALTHY CHILDREN PARENTS TOWARDS HANDICAPPED CHILDREN AT THE PRE-SCHOOL AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruzica KERAMICIEVA

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1970-ties, in the USA and Western and Eastern Europe, the model of segregated education has been abandoned, and nowadays the handicapped children attend regular schools all together with other healthy pupils. This , so called Integrative Pedagogy, proceeds from the mental hygiene aspects according to which the restrictive environment in special schools has not been a favorable one for the development of those children.The integrational process of these children in preschool institutions and schools has rather been difficult due to a number of reasons. As one of them, already mentioned and found in literature , has been the negative attitude of non-handicapped children parents towards those handicapped in their development.The problem of this research is to check and test the attitude of healthy children parents towards handicapped children at preschool age. This research shall also tend to analyze the origin of the such attitudes i. e. , whether they have been a result of an insufficient information and ignorance of the obstacles during development, or been produced by imitation of the environment, or due to an empathy, or even because of the fear that “ such a thing better never enter their home”, etc.We sincerely believe that, revealing the above parents’ attitudes and their origin, would certainly bring finding ways of their successful socialization and making the integrational process of handicapped children with their normal mates in preschool institutions easier.

  9. "A stressful and frightening experience"? Children's nurses' perceived readiness to care for children with cancer following pre-registration nurse education: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jestico, Elizabeth; Finlay, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    In the UK children with cancer are cared for by children's nurses in a variety of settings, specialist and non-specialist. Whilst post-registration specialist education is available to some nurses, many nurses rely solely on pre-registration education to competently care for these children. This study explores whether nurses perceive that this adequately prepares them. To explore the extent to which qualified nurses perceive that pre-registration nurse education prepares them to care for children with cancer; to consider the implications for children's nursing pre-registration curricula. A small-scale qualitative study was undertaken using an interpretivist approach. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six qualified children's nurses in two clinical areas - a specialist children's cancer inpatient ward, and a general children's ward where inpatients included children with cancer. Findings are discussed in relation to three emergent themes: Learning in Theory and Practice, Care of the Child and Family, and Resilience. Participants attached significance to the quantity and quality of practice experience. They reflected on barriers to specific and transferable theoretical learning and stressed the importance of integrating theory and practice. Understanding of family-centred care formed a significant part of their preparation. Preconceptions, communication with families and the emotional impact of this speciality were stressful. Improved pre-registration preparation may have developed participants' resilience. The complexities of caring for children with cancer and their families require well-prepared nurses. Participants' perceptions of preparedness were influenced by aspects of pre-registration education. Their experiences suggest that curricula should be practice-focused and include a range of placements. Specialist theoretical content must be integrated with practice and transferability of knowledge and skills made explicit. Reflection and problem

  10. Expanding Mathematics Preparation of Elementary and Middle School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    One of the major problems facing education today is the inadequate mathematics' preparation of pre-college students and their teachers. Most colleges and universities have well established programs for students planning to teach mathematics at the secondary schools; however, in many institutions pre-secondary mathematics has been addressed only…

  11. Iron deficiency anaemia among apparently healthy pre-school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Iron deficiency, and specifically iron deficiency anaemia, remains one of the most severe and important nutritional deficiencies in the world today. Objective: To estimate the prevalence and associated factors for iron deficiency anaemia among pre-school children in Lagos. Methodology: The study was ...

  12. Pedagogical and didactical rationale of phonemic stimulation process in pre-school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López, Yudenia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the main results of a regional research problem dealing with education in pre-school age. It examines the effectiveness of the didactic conception of the process of phonemic stimulation in children from 3 to 5 years old. The pedagogical and didactic rationale of the process, viewed from the evolutionary, ontogeny, systemic perspective is explained. Likewise, possible scaffolding is illustrated. The suggested procedures focus the provision of support on a systematic and purposely practice which involve first the discrimination of non-verbal sounds and the discrimi-nation of verbal sound later, aiming to the creation of a phonological consciousness.

  13. The relation between musical abilities and the phonological awareness in pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Božič

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The pre-school period plays a very important role in the language development. One of the significant indicators of this development is the phonological awareness. Some of the previous studies reported the presence of the relation between the phonological awareness and musical abilities. Our main goal was to examine this relation with the Test of the phonological awareness and the Test of musical abilities on 67 Slovene preschool children, aged from 5 to 6. We also wanted to investigate the differences between boys (N = 36 and girls (N = 31 and the differences between two age groups (aged from 5 to 5.5 years, N = 32, and from 5.5 to 6 years, N = 35. The results confirmed the connection between musical abilities and the phonological awareness. They also indicated that the recognition of the first and the last phoneme is related to melodic awareness and that phoneme merging is mainly related to rhythm awareness. No significant differences were found between male and female children or between the groups of the children of different ages.

  14. From Past to Present: How Memories of School Shape Parental Views of Children's Schooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kyle

    2015-01-01

    Internationally, there is growing interest in children's transition to school and their readiness for formal education. Parents' memories of school offer important insights into children's preparation for school and how families view schools; however, few studies consider the influence of educational histories. To address this gap, a sample of 24…

  15. Personality traits as predictors of children's social adjustment to school entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Contemporaneous and longitudinal predictive relations between three blocks of predictors and measures of children's social adjustment (social competence, internalizing and externalizing behaviour after the school entry were investigated. The first block of predictors captures expressions of child personality dimensions as perceived by pre-school teachers/assistant school teachers, the second block contains parental education and self-evaluations of parenting in mothers and fathers of the target children, and the third block refers to children's pre-school attendance prior to school entry. Using the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale, school teachers reported on firstgraders' social adjustment. The Inventory of Child Individual Differences was employed to assess personality when the target children were 3, 4, 5, and 6 years old, while at ages 3 and 6 their parents filled-in the Family Environment Questionnaire to provide self-reports on parenting. The blocks of predictors jointly explain a relatively large portion of variance in firstgraders' social adjustment both contemporaneously and longitudinally. Personality characteristics significantly predict all of the criteria measures, while family environment and pre-school attendance explain additional variance in internalizing behaviour (depressive, anxious, isolated, and dependent behaviour, over and above the contribution of personality. Perceptions of children's conscientiousness-openness at the beginning of the school year as well as through early childhood and of their agreeableness in preschool predict teacher ratings of the firstgraders' social competence. Externalizing behaviour (angry, aggressive, egotistical and oppositional behaviour was consistently predicted by low conscientiousness-openness, extraversion-emotional stability, and low agreeableness. Finally, low conscientiousness-openness in school, low extraversion-emotional stability in preschool, maternal inefficient

  16. Mass media and the development of pre-reading of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    GALATÍKOVÁ, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    This thesis maps mass media, especially television broadcasting and electronic devices with connection to the Internet, in the lives of pre-school children, and investigates the relationship between mass media and development of initial reading skills. The theoretical part analyses existing literature relevant to pre-school child development elementary reading and mass media, while the empirical research makes an independent investigation into this phenomenon in society using questionnaires f...

  17. Relationship between anthropometry and motor abilities at pre-school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Toia, Daniela; Klein, Daniel; Weber, Sarah; Wessely, Nicolas; Koch, Benjamin; Tokarski, Walter; Dordel, Sigrid; Struder, Heiko; Graf, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Little is known to date about the relationship between poor motor abilities and overweight or obese pre-school children. Thus, this study examined the association between motor abilities and weight status in 1,228 kindergarten children (45.8% female). Anthropometric data were assessed; age 4.7 + or - 1.0 years; height 108.6 + or - 8.0 cm; weight 19.1 + or - 3.6 kg; BMI 16.1 + or - 1.5 kg/m(2). The modified Karlsruher Motor Ability Screening Test was carried out to determine the motor abilities of speed strength, muscular endurance, coordination, flexibility, and speed. Based on the German BMI reference values, 3.5% of the children were obese, 9.6% overweight, 83.4% normal weight, and 3.5% underweight. During various test tasks, below-average motor abilities were discovered in 44.0-47.3%. In all age groups, overweight and obese children did not differ from their normal and underweight counterparts; except for underweight children which fared worse in flexibility. In contrast to former studies with first graders, overweight or obese pre-school children did not possess worse motor abilities than normal weight children. However, the high number of overweight children and motor deficits suggests that preventive measures should start at this early age. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. BASIC SUPPOSITIONS FOR ORGANIZING AND ESTABLISHING A COHERENT SYSTEM OF EARLY TREATMENT AND PRE-SCHOOL UPBRINGING OF CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DIFFICULTIES IN CONDITIONS OF TRANSITION (situation, problems and needs

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    Ljupco Ajdinski

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available The author of this paper wants to pay attention to the utmost problems of treatment and pre-school upbringing, from several points of view ( health, social, educational, economic, normative etc., that are related to the establishment of the primary conditions and suppositions for successful organization of protection and rehabilitation of these children.Children with developmental difficulties are quite a complex problem of the family, society and professional problem. The complexity and the burden of this problem are seen through the type and level of impairment, through the number of such children, as in providing financial, personnel and other conditions that are needed for successful protection and treatment.Taking into consideration the number of these children, in the paper is given the prognosis according to some percentages used for the whole population by ON and WHO. It is considered that 5-7 % are children with developmental difficulties at pre-school period. because the main topic at this Symposium is early treatment and pre- school upbringing, the early age is taken for the mentioned percentage. According to this, in our country there are about 19.000 children from 0-9 years of age, if this percentage of 6 % is applied from the total number of children at that age, that shows in the latest census of the population in the R. of Macedonia in 1994 , that there are 313.908 children. This number shows the gravity of the problem that is elaborated in this paper. The author stresses that the complexity of this problem increases if we take into consideration the present conditions according to the range of these children with early treatment and preschool upbringing, as apart of the whole system of rehabilitation.The complete treatment, i.e. the rehabilitation of children with developmental difficulties presents the unity of all the provisions and proceedings that are necessary to be undertaken to eliminate or reduce to the minimum

  19. SOME ASPECTS OF TEACHING MEDIA LITERACY TO PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN IN SLOVENIA FROM A PERCEPTION STANDPOINT OF TEACHERS AND PARENTS

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    Jurka Lepičnik Vodopivec

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with media literacy as a multidimensional skill that parents and teachers possess. In this context we warn of the media-technical aspect of this skill and, within this aspect, of parents’ and teachers’ opinion on the presence of media in children’s lives. Following that, the paper explores teachers’ media-didactic competence as a component of educators’ media literacy. In the empiric part we used two aspects of fostering media literacy. One is the media-technical competence of parents and educators, while the other is the media-didactic competence of educators. We found that both parents and teachers believe that media have a strong presence in everyday lives of pre-school children and that they play an important role in teaching pre-school children. Teachers are aware of the importance of early teaching with media, for media and about media with the purpose of developing children’s media literacy, so they will not be afraid of media when they grow up.

  20. PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS’ BELIEFS ABOUT TEACHING ENGLISH TO PRIMARY SCHOOL CHILDREN

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    Tripti K. Karekatti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a part of an ongoing doctoral research on ‘Teacher Talk in ESL Classrooms’. The idea for this was gained through the hypothesis that teachers’ beliefs about English teaching may also mould their talk. The researcher intends here to analyse and comment on teachers’ English teaching beliefs. It is generally accepted that teaching is greatly affected by the belief systems of its practitioners-teachers. Teachers’ beliefs influence their consciousness, teaching attitude, teaching methods and teaching policies, and finally, learners’ development. Horwitz (1987 also states rightly that the formation of teachers’ educational beliefs in language teaching/ learning process will influence, though indirectly, on forming effective teaching methods and will bring about the improvement of learners’ language learning abilities. In Indian context, there is dearth of research evaluating teachers’ beliefs about English teaching. This study explores teachers’ beliefs regarding teaching English to children and tries to explore whether medium of instruction makes any difference in their beliefs. It also intends to determine what similar and different beliefs might be held by in-service teachers from two different mediums. A total of 100 pre-service teachers are the subjects of this study. In order to recognize these teachers’ specific beliefs in a more systematic way, a research instrument, The Questionnaire of Primary School Pre-service English Teachers’ Teaching Beliefs was developed. Almost all of these pre-service teachers expected to have training regarding how to make their talk effective and relevant in classrooms.

  1. Soil-transmitted helminths in pre-school-aged and school-aged children in an urban slum: a cross-sectional study of prevalence, distribution, and associated exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stephanie M; Worrell, Caitlin M; Wiegand, Ryan E; Odero, Kennedy O; Suchdev, Parminder S; Ruth, Laird J; Lopez, Gerard; Cosmas, Leonard; Neatherlin, John; Njenga, Sammy M; Montgomery, Joel M; Fox, LeAnne M

    2014-11-01

    Soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) are controlled by regular mass drug administration. Current practice targets school-age children (SAC) preferentially over pre-school age children (PSAC) and treats large areas as having uniform prevalence. We assessed infection prevalence in SAC and PSAC and spatial infection heterogeneity, using a cross-sectional study in two slum villages in Kibera, Nairobi. Nairobi has low reported STH prevalence. The SAC and PSAC were randomly selected from the International Emerging Infections Program's surveillance platform. Data included residence location and three stools tested by Kato-Katz for STHs. Prevalences among 692 analyzable children were any STH: PSAC 40.5%, SAC 40.7%; Ascaris: PSAC 24.1%, SAC 22.7%; Trichuris: PSAC 24.0%, SAC 28.8%; hookworm slums should be assessed separately in STH mapping. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Open pre-schools at integrated health services - A program theory

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    Agneta Abrahamsson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Family centres in Sweden are integrated services that reach all prospective parents and parents with children up to their sixth year, because of the co-location of the health service with the social service and the open pre-school. The personnel on the multi-professional site work together to meet the needs of the target group. The article explores a program theory focused on the open pre-schools at family centres.Method: A multi-case design is used and the sample consists of open pre-schools at six family centres. The hypothesis is based on previous research and evaluation data. It guides the data collection which is collected and analysed stepwise. Both parents and personnel are interviewed individually and in groups at each centre.Findings: The hypothesis was expanded to a program theory. The compliance of the professionals was the most significant element that explained why the open access service facilitated positive parenting. The professionals act in a compliant manner to meet the needs of the children and parents as well as in creating good conditions for social networking and learning amongst the parents. Conclusion: The compliance of the professionals in this program theory of open pre-schools at family centres can be a standard in integrated and open access services, whereas the organisation form can vary. The best way of increasing the number of integrative services is to support and encourage professionals that prefer to work in a compliant manner.

  3. Open pre-schools at integrated health services - A program theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agneta Abrahamsson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Family centres in Sweden are integrated services that reach all prospective parents and parents with children up to their sixth year, because of the co-location of the health service with the social service and the open pre-school. The personnel on the multi-professional site work together to meet the needs of the target group. The article explores a program theory focused on the open pre-schools at family centres. Method: A multi-case design is used and the sample consists of open pre-schools at six family centres. The hypothesis is based on previous research and evaluation data. It guides the data collection which is collected and analysed stepwise. Both parents and personnel are interviewed individually and in groups at each centre. Findings: The hypothesis was expanded to a program theory. The compliance of the professionals was the most significant element that explained why the open access service facilitated positive parenting. The professionals act in a compliant manner to meet the needs of the children and parents as well as in creating good conditions for social networking and learning amongst the parents. Conclusion: The compliance of the professionals in this program theory of open pre-schools at family centres can be a standard in integrated and open access services, whereas the organisation form can vary. The best way of increasing the number of integrative services is to support and encourage professionals that prefer to work in a compliant manner.

  4. Fairy-Tale Niche Marketing: Neoliberal Appropriation of Pre-School Education

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    Urszula Dzikiewicz-Gazda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author describes specfic mechanisms of neoliberalization at work in pre-school education in Poland. The argument is based on an ethnographic analysis of a theatre performance which crowned one of Wrocław’s educational projects called “Enterprising Pre-school Student”. It demonstrates the workings of neoliberal ideology, which—based on the niche marketing strategy—targets specific needs of particular consumer groups. Addressing children with a specialised marketing message, the strategy uses fairy tales as a tool and cover for instilling desired behaviour patterns in them.

  5. Determination of essential trace elements in diets from pre-school children; Determinacao de elementos traco essenciais em dietas de criancas de idade pre-escolar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maihara, Vera Akiko; San Miguel, Americo T.; Vasconcellos, Marina Beatriz A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1995-12-31

    The contents of Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, Mn, Na, Rb, Se and Zn in the 19 diet samples taken from pre-school children were determined by neutron activation analysis. The diet samples were collected by duplicate portion method. The daily intake values obtained were compared with the RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance) values. The precision and accuracy were evaluated by analyzing two biological reference materials. (author). 7 refs., 4 tabs.

  6. DYNAMICS OF THE COMPELEX FORMS OF VISUAL PERCEPTION IN CHILDREN OF PRE-SCHOOL AGE (A NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

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    Neli VASILEVA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Experimental data in preschool aged children proves the determining role of the auditory and visual processes for future reading skills, therefore the investigation of complex forms of visual perception in this age period is diagnostically important. Objectives: Basic aim of the research is assessment of the sensitive period for the non-verbal perceptive operations in pre-school aged children, and determination of subgroup with low results for non-verbal perception. Methods: The dynamics of the visual per-ception (visual gnosis in typically develop¬ing children were tested with an adapted version of the Poppelreuter-Ghent Test for figure-ground segregation. The total number of overlapping objects is 33, grouped accor¬ding to the level of difficulty. The children are given a group of objects separately in a following sequence and they should segregate and name the objects. Results: A number of 365 typically developing children without diagnosis of visual disorders and without corrected visus took part in the research. All children, aged 4, 5, and 6 from three different settlements attend state nursery schools and have Bulgarian as a mother tongue. A three-factor dispersion analysis was held to define the statistical significance of the independent factors age, gender and settlement. The research’s data define the 5 year olds as sensitive about the dynamics of the complex forms of visual perception, compared to the four year old children (pchildren (pchildren from the big town compared to the capital (pchildren at the age of six demonstrate a low rating

  7. Understanding of Information about Medicines Use among Parents of Pre-School Children in Serbia: Parental Pharmacotherapy Literacy Questionnaire (PTHL-SR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubavić, Stana; Bogavac-Stanojević, Nataša; Jović-Vraneš, Aleksandra; Krajnović, Dušanka

    2018-05-14

    Parental health literacy plays an important role in children’s health, Experiences from pharmacy practice show that is necessary to check if parents understand instructions about use of medicines for children. This study aimed to assess pharmacotherapy literacy of parents of pre-school children and to examine association of parental pharmacotherapy literacy level with parent’s socio-demographic characteristics. The study was cross-sectional, conducted among parents of pre-school children (1⁻7 years of age), in kindergartens in several municipalities of Belgrade, Serbia, during regular parents meetings, from May to October 2016. Functional health literacy was measured by the Serbian version of the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA). Parental pharmacotherapy literacy was assessed with newly constructed PTHL-SR questionnaire with good psychometric characteristics (Parental pharmacotherapy literacy questionnaire—Serbian). Overall, 813 parents participated in the study, mostly females (81.30%), between 30 to 40 years of age (70.85%) with two children (56.70%). Almost all of our study participants (99%) had adequate health literacy as assessed by S-TOFHLA. Mean score on PTHL-SR was 72.83% (standard deviation was 13.37), with better results among females than males (72% of women were in the group of highest PTHL-SR results). Our study showed that many parents (76.5%) knew the appropriate usage of non-prescription medicine for children, 57.2% parents were able to correctly calculate the dose of oral syrup for a child, and only 43.3% were able to interpret non-prescription dosage information written on the package. The majority of parents (61.3%) would make a dosage to child based on age and not on their weight. Every fifth parent with adequate functional health literacy measured by S-TOFHLA test, achieved the lowest results measured by PTHL-SR. Higher performance of the PTHL-SR was significantly correlated with education ( p information

  8. Prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV in upper respiratory tract mucosa in a group of pre-school children

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    Jaroslaw Szydłowski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available [b]introduction[/b]. Human Papillomavirus (HPV is a group of DNA viruses which is an etiological factor of many benign and malignant diseases of the upper respiratory tract mucosa, female genital tract and the skin. HPV infection is considered a sexually-transmitted infection, but can also be transmitted by non-sexual routes, including perinatal vertical transmission, physical contact, iatrogenic infection and autoinoculation. Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis (RRP in children is connected with HPV infection transmitted vertically from mother to child during the passage of the foetus through an infected birth canal. [b]objective. [/b]The aim of this study was to establish the level of Human Papillomaviruses carrier state in upper respiratory tract mucosa in healthy pre-school children, and to identify potential risk factors for HPV infection. [b]materials and method[/b]. After obtaining consent from their parents, 97 pre-school children were examined – 51 girls and 46 boys between the ages of 3 – 5 years; average age – 4 years and 5 months. 68 children were urban dwellers and 29 came from a rural environment. A questionnaire with detailed history was taken including parents’ and child`s personal data, as well as perinatal risk factors in pregnancy. Socio-demographic information was also obtained, including the standard of living, and chosen environmental factors. Routine ENT examination was performed. Exfoliated oral squamous cells were collected from swabs and analysed for the presence of DNA papillomaviruses by polymerase chain reaction. [b]results.[/b] The presence of HPV in the respiratory tract in children was detected in 19.6% cases. ‘High oncogenic potential’ HPVs, such as HPV-16 and HPV-18, were not observed in squamous cell mucosa of the respiratory tract in the children. No significant differences were observed between the HPV carrier state in urban and rural inhabitants.

  9. A systematic review and meta-analysis of comprehensive interventions for pre-school children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Yoshiyuki; Miyazaki, Celine; Ota, Erika; Mori, Rintaro; Hwang, Yeonhee; Kobayashi, Eriko; Terasaka, Akiko; Tang, Julian; Kamio, Yoko

    2017-01-01

    There has an increasing number of published trials on psychosocial intervention programmes for pre-school children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To achieve better quality of unbiased evidence for the effectiveness of ASD interventions, it is necessary to conduct a comprehensive review that covers studies with adequate quality standards, such as randomised controlled trials (RCTs), and different types of intervention In this study, we categorize interventions for ASD as behavioural, social-communication focused, and multimodal developmental based on Howlin's classification of early interventions for children with ASD. The aim of this study was to compare these three models and investigate the strengths and weaknesses of each type of intervention and to identify the approaches that contribute to a successful outcome for children with autism. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis. We included RCTs targeting children with ASD 6 years old or younger. A random effects model was used to present the effect estimate for the outcomes. This study also performed combined meta-analyses of all the three models to investigate the overall effectiveness of the intervention programmes. 32 randomized controlled studies were found to be eligible for inclusion. The synthesized data included 594 children from 14 RCTs. There was no statistically significant difference in the effects on autism general symptoms between the social-communication-focused model and the multimodal developmental model (p = 0.83). The results suggest that there is evidence of an effect on 'reciprocity of social interaction towards others' (standard mean difference [95% confidential interval] = 0.53[0.29,0.78], pASD have significant effects on a generalized skill to engage in reciprocal interactions with others. However, the outcomes of 'reciprocity of social interaction towards others' and 'parental synchrony' may be promising targets for interventions involving pre-school children with ASD

  10. [Nasopharyngeal carriage of pneumococcal serotypes in healthy pre-school aged children after 7-valent pneumococcal vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vera, César; Ruiz Andrés, María Ángeles; Arana Navarro, Teresa; Moneo Hernández, Isabel; Castillo Laita, José Antonio; Macipe Costa, Rosa; Revillo Pinilla, María José

    2011-06-11

    To determine the characteristics influencing pneumococcal serotype colonization in healthy pre-school aged children, the distribution of serotypes and their antimicrobial susceptibility, after the introduction of pneumococcal 7-valent conjugate vaccine (VNC-7 v). SUJETOS AND METHODS: Nasopharyngeal samples were collected from children under 6 years of age attending well-child examinations in the province of Zaragoza (Spain). Logistic regression was used to study different variables related to the status of the carriers. Of the 371 children studied 30.7% were found to be carriers. With a vaccine coverage rate of 66%, factors related with presence of pneumococcal carriage were found to be the number of siblings (OR 1.44; CI 95% 1.05-1.97 for each sibling), attending a school or child day care centre (OR 3.99; CI 95% 2.00-7.96) and suffering from a minor upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) (OR 1.72; CI 95% 1.02-2.90). Only 8.7% corresponded to VNC-7 v serotypes. The most common non VNC-7 v serotypes isolated were 19A, 6A, 15B, 11, and 15A. Significantly greater resistance was detected among VNC-7 v serotypes. Children in the setting of this study carried pneumococci more commonly when they have siblings, attend school or day care, or suffer from minor URTI. In the VNC-7 v vaccine era, VNC-7 v serotypes have become rare occurrences (8.7%) and emerging serotypes present better susceptibility to antibiotics. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. COMPETENCE CONDITIONS ENABLING EDUCATION IN PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION ESTABLISHMENTS: PARENTS’ EVALUATION

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    Skaistė Kovienė

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Competence, psychological and material-organisational conditions determine favourable educational environment for parent education in pre-school education establishments. The aim of this research is - to identify competence conditions determining favourable educational environment for parent education in pre-school education establishment. Competence conditions, determining favourable educational environment for parent education in pre-school education establishments, which are formed of pedagogues and parents’ collaboration and parents’ communication between themselves, have been examined in the research. One of the determining factors, forming favourable educational environment for parent education is- pre-school educational establishment pedagogues, therefore both professional and personal pedagogues’ abilities were analysed to apply the most suitable communication and collaboration forms with parents in a concrete situation, to give parents pedagogical-psychological support. Standardised interview was applied for the research (for gathering empiric research data and content analysis (empiric data analysis. Parents of the children attending pre-school education establishments participated in the research. The obtained results allowed making concrete conclusions about competence conditions determining favourable environment for parent education and to identify, according to parents, the most necessary for parents’ education improvement educational environment area, – pedagogues and parents’ communication and collaboration.

  12. Prevalence and factors related to dental caries among pre-school children of Saddar town, Karachi, Pakistan: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawani, Narendar; Nisar, Nighat; Khan, Nazeer; Syed, Shahbano; Tanweer, Navara

    2012-12-27

    Dental caries is highly prevalent and a significant public health problem among children throughout the world. Epidemiological data regarding prevalence of dental caries amongst Pakistani pre-school children is very limited. The objective of this study is to determine the frequency of dental caries among pre-school children of Saddar Town, Karachi, Pakistan and the factors related to caries. A cross-sectional study of 1000 preschool children was conducted in Saddar town, Karachi. Two-stage cluster sampling was used to select the sample. At first stage, eight clusters were selected randomly from total 11 clusters. In second stage, from the eight selected clusters, preschools were identified and children between 3- to 6-years age group were assessed for dental caries. Caries prevalence was 51% with a mean dmft score being 2.08 (±2.97) of which decayed teeth constituted 1.95. The mean dmft of males was 2.3 (±3.08) and of females was 1.90 (±2.90). The mean dmft of 3, 4, 5 and 6-year olds was 1.65, 2.11, 2.16 and 3.11 respectively. A significant association was found between dental caries and following variables: age group of 4-years (p-value dental plaque (p-value dental caries coupled with a high prevalence of unmet dental treatment needs. Association between caries experience and age of child, consumption of non-sweetened milk, dental plaque and poor oral hygiene had been established.

  13. Psychoeducational preparation of children for surgery: the importance of parental involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ho Cheung William; Lopez, Violeta; Lee, Tin Loi Isabel

    2007-01-01

    To examine the effects of therapeutic play intervention on outcomes of children undergoing day surgery, and to highlight the importance of parental involvement in the psychoeducational preparation of children for surgery. A randomized controlled trial, two group pre-test and repeated post-test, between subjects design was employed. Hong Kong Chinese children (7-12 years of age; n=203) admitted for elective surgery in a day surgery unit, along with their parents during a 13-month period, were invited to participate in the study. By using a simple complete randomization method, 97 of children with their parents were assigned to the experimental group receiving therapeutic play intervention, and 106 children with their parents were assigned to the control group receiving routine information preparation. The results showed that both children and their parents in the experimental group reported lower state anxiety scores in pre- and post-operative periods. Children in the experimental group exhibited fewer instances of negative emotional behaviors and parents in the experimental group reported greater satisfaction. The results, however, find no differences in children's post-operative pain between the two groups. The study provides empirical evidence to support the effectiveness of using therapeutic play intervention and the importance of parental involvement in the psychoeducational preparation of children for surgery. The findings heighten the awareness of the importance of integrating therapeutic play and parental involvement as essential components of holistic and quality nursing care to prepare children for surgery.

  14. Child personality measures as contemporaneous and longitudinal predictors of social behaviour in pre-school

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    Maja Zupančič

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Predictive relations from personality measures to children's social behaviour in pre-school were examined for 3 year old children (at Time 1; T1 who were reassessed one year later (at Time 2; T2. At both times, mothers and fathers separately rated children's personality characteristics using the Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003, while the pre-school teachers assessed the same children on the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale (LaFreniere et al., 2001. Three general predictive models were examined, contemporaneous (at T1 and T2, longitudinal, and cumulative. Mother- and father-rated child personality was contemporaneously predictive of children's social behaviour as assessed by their pre-school teachers. The most consistent predictions across the spouses and at both times of measurement were obtained for child externalizing behaviour. More disagreeable and emotionally stable children, as opposed to their less disagreeable and more in stable counterparts, were concurrently observed to exhibit more externalizing tendencies during the time spent in pre-school. Maternal reports were longitudinally predictive of children's social competence and internalizing behaviour and the father reports predicted internalizing and externalizing behaviour one year later. Neuroticism at age 3 was consistently linked to internalizing tendencies at age 4 across parents both longitudinally and cumulatively. Father-rated Disagreeableness at age 3 was predictive of externalizing behaviour one year later in both longitudinal and cumulative models, while the contemporaneous information on child Disagreeableness and Neuroticism (reversed at T2, independent of the respective child traits at T1, significantly improved the cumulative predictions of externalizing behaviour from maternal reports. In general, child personality scores derived from maternal data sets were more powerful predictors of children's social behaviour across

  15. Factors Predisposing to Early Childhood Caries (ECC) in Children of Pre-School Age in the City of Zagreb, Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Lulić-Dukić, O.; Jurić, H.; Dukić, W.; Glavina, D.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors predisposing to early childhood caries (ECC) in pre-school children in the city of Zagreb, Croatia. The investigation was carried out on the sample of 145 children (77 boys and 68 girls) aged between 2 and 5 years, including clinical examination of dental status and survey on the habits among the parents. The overall prevalence of ECC was 30%: in girls it was 25%, and in boys 48%. The study on the risk factors was designed as a c...

  16. Parental knowledge of pre-school child oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Anand; Rao, Arun Prasad; Reddy, Venugopal; Ahamed, Syed Shaheed; Muhammad, Shameer; Thayumanavan, Shanmugam

    2013-10-01

    The dental health of preschool children has extensive implications on the oral heath of the individual as he grows into an adult. Parents/guardians of preschool children play a central role in enforcing proper oral hygiene and preventive regime in these children. This study was conducted with the aim of describing the views of parents/guardians about the dental health of pre-school children. Response was obtained on a 21 point questionnaire from randomly visiting parents of the outpatient section of Rajah Muthiah dental college and Hospital, Annamalainagar, India. The findings of the present study point towards poor awareness among the parents/guardians of preschool children, pertaining to their childs' oral health and this could directly translate to poor oral health among the children in this area.

  17. The influence of early feeding practices on healthy diet variety score among pre-school children in four European birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Louise; Moschonis, George; Oliveira, Andreia; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Manios, Yannis; Xepapadaki, Paraskevi; Lopes, Carla; Moreira, Pedro; Charles, Marie Aline; Emmett, Pauline

    2015-07-01

    The present study examined whether maternal diet and early infant feeding experiences relating to being breast-fed and complementary feeding influence the range of healthy foods consumed in later childhood. Data from four European birth cohorts were studied. Healthy Plate Variety Score (HPVS) was calculated using FFQ. HPVS assesses the variety of healthy foods consumed within and across the five main food groups. The weighted numbers of servings consumed of each food group were summed; the maximum score was 5. Associations between infant feeding experiences, maternal diet and the HPVS were tested using generalized linear models and adjusted for appropriate confounders. The British Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), the French Etude des Déterminants pre et postnatals de la santé et du développement de L'Enfant study (EDEN), the Portuguese Generation XXI Birth Cohort and the Greek EuroPrevall cohort. Pre-school children and their mothers. The mean HPVS for each of the cohorts ranged from 2.3 to 3.8, indicating that the majority of children were not eating a full variety of healthy foods. Never being breast-fed or being breast-fed for a short duration was associated with lower HPVS at 2, 3 and 4 years of age in all cohorts. There was no consistent association between the timing of complementary feeding and HPVS. Mother's HPVS was strongly positively associated with child's HPVS but did not greatly attenuate the relationship with breast-feeding duration. Results suggest that being breast-fed for a short duration is associated with pre-school children eating a lower variety of healthy foods.

  18. Validation of an Online Food Frequency Questionnaire against Doubly Labelled Water and 24 h Dietary Recalls in Pre-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Delisle Nyström

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of easy-to-use and accurate methods to assess the intake of energy, foods and nutrients in pre-school children is needed. KidMeal-Q is an online food frequency questionnaire developed for the LifeGene prospective cohort study in Sweden. The aims of this study were to compare: (i energy intake (EI obtained using KidMeal-Q to total energy expenditure (TEE measured via doubly labelled water and (ii the intake of certain foods measured using KidMeal-Q to intakes acquired by means of 24 h dietary recalls in 38 children aged 5.5 years. The mean EI calculated using KidMeal-Q was statistically different (p < 0.001 from TEE (4670 ± 1430 kJ/24 h and 6070 ± 690 kJ/24 h, respectively. Significant correlations were observed for vegetables, fruit juice and candy between KidMeal-Q and 24 h dietary recalls. Only sweetened beverage consumption was significantly different in mean intake (p < 0.001, as measured by KidMeal-Q and 24 h dietary recalls. In conclusion, KidMeal-Q had a relatively short answering time and comparative validity to other food frequency questionnaires. However, its accuracy needs to be improved before it can be used in studies in pre-school children.

  19. Assessment of symbolic function in Mexican preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. R. Jiménez Barreto

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Development of symbolic function is an important psychological formation of pre-school age and reflects the possibility of the child to use signs and symbols in a conscious way. Assessment of symbolic function can be used as one of preparation for school indicators. The objective of the present study is to characterize the level of symbolic function development in Mexican pre-school children. 59 children were included in the study. The ages of the children were between 5 and 6 years and all of them belonged to sub-urban pre-school institution. All 59 children participated in this study for the first time. Our assessment consisted of specific tasks with symbolic means on materialized, perceptive and verbal levels. Each child was tested individually. Results showed an insufficient development of the symbolic function in all evaluated children. More than 78% of the children showed difficulties during performance in the tasks of assessment; their drawings were undifferentiated and had few essential characteristics. The obtained results show the necessity to implement developmental strategies in order to guarantee the formation of the ability of constant conscious sage of symbolic means at the end of pre-school age.

  20. Impact of normal weight obesity on fundamental motor skills in pre-school children aged 3 to 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musalek, Martin; Kokstejn, Jakub; Papez, Pavel; Scheffler, Christiane; Mumm, Rebekka; Czernitzki, Anna-Franziska; Koziel, Slawomir

    2017-09-01

    Normal weight obesity is defined as having excessive body fat, but normal BMI. Even though previous research revealed that excessive body fat in children inhibited their physical activity and decreased motor performance, there has been only little evidence about motor performance of normal weight obese children. This study aims to establish whether normal weight obese pre-school children aged 3-6 years will have a significantly worse level of fundamental motor skills compared to normal weight non-obese counterparts. The research sample consisted of 152 pre-schoolers selected from a specific district of Prague, the Czech Republic. According to values from four skinfolds: triceps, subscapula, suprailiaca, calf, and BMI three categories of children aged 3-6 years were determined: A) normal weight obese n = 51; B) normal weight non-obese n = 52; C) overweight and obese n = 49. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC-2) was used for the assessment of fundamental motor skills. Normal weight obese children had significantly higher amount of adipose tissue p < 0.001 than normal weight non-obese children but the same average BMI. Moreover, normal weight obese children did not have significantly less amount of subcutaneous fat on triceps and calf compared to their overweight and obese peers. In majority of MABC-2 tests, normal weight obese pre-schoolers showed the poorest performance. Moreover, normal weight obese children had significantly worse total standard score = 38.82 compared to normal weight non-obese peers = 52.27; p < 0.05. In addition, normal weight obese children had a more than three times higher frequency OR = 3.69 CI95% (1.10; 12.35) of severe motor deficit performance ≤ 5 th centile of the MABC-2 norm. These findings are strongly alarming since indices like BMI are not able to identify normal weight obese individual. We recommend verifying real portion of normal weight obese children as they are probably in higher risk of health and motor

  1. Parental concerns in parents of children attending pre- and primary school: analysis of the Portuguese population by District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Algarvio

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, our aim was to assess and analyze parental concerns by Portuguese District. Methods: The participants were 3842 parents of children between 3 and 10 years old, attending preschool and primary school, from 820 public schools in 18 Portuguese Districts. Parents completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, and a Parental Concerns Scale, composed by 5 subscales, family and school problems; feeding, sleep and physical complaints; preparation; fears; and negative behaviors. Results: Portuguese parents concerned about all the dimensions considered in this study. The highest level of concern was obtained in family and school problems, and the lowest level of concern about their children’s fears. There were significant differences between Districts, parents from Porto and Bragança showed the highest levels of concern. Parents from Coimbra, Évora, Beja e Portalegre, presented the lowest levels of concern. Conclusion: Parental concerns are an aspect of general parenting and must be considered by health professionals to promote healthier parents-children relationships. Geographic differences should be further investigated.

  2. Pre-school social abilities: Construction and validation of a scale for children in contexts of poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Betina Lacunza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Social abilities are an essential part of human activity since they have a bearing on self-con­fidence, adoption of roles, self-regulation of behavior and academic performance, among other aspects. This study presents the process of construction and validation of a scale of social abilities for pre-school children. The scale was administered to 318 parents of 3 to 5 years old children of low socio-economic status who attend Primary Health Care Centers in San Miguel de Tucumán, Argentina. Considering the evolutionary and contextual charac­teristics relative to the process of acquisition of social abilities, a different protocol for every age group was designed. The result was a scale with confidence and validity characteristics. The validation of these instruments is helpful for evaluating children in poverty contexts since they enable us to distinguish social resources that allow children’s adaptation.

  3. Comparative investigation of indicators of growth and behavioral disorders in children with normal, low, and very low birth weight at pre-school age in Isfahan during 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Yousefi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is one of the most important indicators of infant's health and could predict their health condition in future. This study was conducted to determine and compare indicators of growth [weight, height, and body mass index (BMI] and behavioral disorders in children with normal, low, and very low birth weight at pre-school age. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive analytical study, 236 children (126 with normal weight, 100 with low birth weight, and 10 with very low birth weight at pre-school age were investigated in three groups. Data collection tools were a two-part questionnaire including the Rutter Children Behavior Questionnaire for parents, and parents' and children's demographic characteristics questionnaire, scale, and stadiometer. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, variance analysis, Chi square, and Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results: The mean of weight, height, and BMI at pre-school age in three groups had a significant difference (P = 0.009 and it was lower in the group with very low birth weight than the other two groups; however, the difference between the group with normal birth weight and the group with low birth weight was not significant (P = 0.10. The mean score of behavioral disorder had no significant difference between groups (P = 0.49. Conclusions: Results showed that children with very low birth weight grew less than the other two groups. Therefore, this group needs special attention and long-term follow-up for taking care of them to ensure better growth. It is recommended to conduct more extended studies to evaluate behavioral disorders in these children.

  4. PRE-SCHOOL UPBRINGING OF CHILDREN WITH DEVELOPMENTAL DIFFICULTIES-CONDITION FOR SUCCESSFUL INTEGRATIONAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora JACOVA

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Preschool upbringing of children with developmental difficulties is the first link in the system of education and upbringing and at the same time the utmost segment in the system of integrational rehabilitation.Initiating the process of preschool upbringing and adequate organized treatment at early age, permits support of the development and maximum usage of the remained capabilities of children with developmental difficulties.The newest world experiences show that the upbringing and educational integration of children with developmental difficulties as asegment of the social integration, should set the main conditions in the frames of upbringing education and rehabilitational continuity and support the minimal restrictive environment for their development.In the pre-school institutions that function on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia, an indifferent attitude towards the children with developmental difficulties is present, due to the uninformed educators for the characteristics and capabilities of these children and their believes for the negative influence of the children with developmental difficulties on the children without impairments, that implicates involvement of subsidery defectological education of present employed staff in the mainstream preschool institutions, also including defectologists in kindergartens for work with children with special difficulties in their development. Also, the data about the educator’s attitude in the mainstream preschool institutions is disturbing, so that they put the accent on the obligation for reducing of the program for work with handicapped children, not taking into consideration that subsidery, special forms and methods are needed beside the programs that are for the main stream group.The goal of our paper is to point out the need of involving of children with light developmental difficulties; the existence of special team in the preschool institutions when involving children with

  5. Real-time PCR Demonstrates Ancylostoma duodenale Is a Key Factor in the Etiology of Severe Anemia and Iron Deficiency in Malawian Pre-school Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Femkje A. M.; Calis, Job C. J.; Phiri, Kamija; Brienen, Eric A. T.; Khoffi, Harriet; Brabin, Bernard J.; Verweij, Jaco J.; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele; van Lieshout, Lisette

    2012-01-01

    Background Hookworm infections are an important cause of (severe) anemia and iron deficiency in children in the tropics. Type of hookworm species (Ancylostoma duodenale or Necator americanus) and infection load are considered associated with disease burden, although these parameters are rarely assessed due to limitations of currently used diagnostic methods. Using multiplex real-time PCR, we evaluated hookworm species-specific prevalence, infection load and their contribution towards severe anemia and iron deficiency in pre-school children in Malawi. Methodology and Findings A. duodenale and N. americanus DNA loads were determined in 830 fecal samples of pre-school children participating in a case control study investigating severe anemia. Using multiplex real-time PCR, hookworm infections were found in 34.1% of the severely anemic cases and in 27.0% of the non-severely anemic controls (panemia (adjusted odds ratio: 2.49 (95%CI 1.16–5.33) and 9.04 (95%CI 2.52–32.47) respectively). Iron deficiency (assessed through bone marrow examination) was positively associated with intensity of A. duodenale infection (adjusted odds ratio: 3.63 (95%CI 1.18–11.20); 16.98 (95%CI 3.88–74.35) and 44.91 (95%CI 5.23–385.77) for low, moderate and high load respectively). Conclusions/Significance This is the first report assessing the association of hookworm load and species differentiation with severe anemia and bone marrow iron deficiency. By revealing a much higher than expected prevalence of A. duodenale and its significant and load-dependent association with severe anemia and iron deficiency in pre-school children in Malawi, we demonstrated the need for quantitative and species-specific screening of hookworm infections. Multiplex real-time PCR is a powerful diagnostic tool for public health research to combat (severe) anemia and iron deficiency in children living in resource poor settings. PMID:22514750

  6. Dietary Intake and Sources of Potassium and the Relationship to Dietary Sodium in a Sample of Australian Pre-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan A. O’Halloran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the intake and food sources of potassium and the molar sodium:potassium (Na:K ratio in a sample of Australian pre-school children. Mothers provided dietary recalls of their 3.5 years old children (previous participants of Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial. The average daily potassium intake, the contribution of food groups to daily potassium intake, the Na:K ratio, and daily serves of fruit, dairy, and vegetables, were assessed via three unscheduled 24 h dietary recalls. The sample included 251 Australian children (125 male, mean age 3.5 (0.19 (SD years. Mean potassium intake was 1618 (267 mg/day, the Na:K ratio was 1.47 (0.5 and 54% of children did not meet the Australian recommended adequate intake (AI of 2000 mg/day for potassium. Main food sources of potassium were milk (27%, fruit (19%, and vegetable (14% products/dishes. Food groups with the highest Na:K ratio were processed meats (7.8, white bread/rolls (6.0, and savoury sauces and condiments (5.4. Children had a mean intake of 1.4 (0.75 serves of fruit, 1.4 (0.72 dairy, and 0.52 (0.32 serves of vegetables per day. The majority of children had potassium intakes below the recommended AI. The Na:K ratio exceeded the recommended level of 1 and the average intake of vegetables was 2 serves/day below the recommended 2.5 serves/day and only 20% of recommended intake. An increase in vegetable consumption in pre-school children is recommended to increase dietary potassium and has the potential to decrease the Na:K ratio which is likely to have long-term health benefits.

  7. [The formation of the self-maintenance skills in the pre-school children presenting with locomotor and coordination disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletaeva-Dubrovina, N A; Burkova, A M

    2016-01-01

    The Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation acknowledges the sharp rise in the prevalence of congenital malformation in this country during the past 30 years. In 2010-2011, this pathology was estimated to occur in 3% of the children. It includes a variety of locomotor and coordination disorders of which the most widespread are infantile cerebral paralysis, ataxia, consequences of perinatal lesions of the central nervous system, etc. This article contains a detailed description of these locomotor and coordination disorders. The objective of the present work was to elaborate and evaluate the program for the formation of the self-maintenance skills in the pre-school children presenting with locomotor and coordination disorders under conditions of family guidance and education. The study was carried out from September 2013 till May 2014 based at MUP DOD "Semeiny klub Nadezhda" ("The Hope Family Club", Municipal unitary facility for children's additional education) and supported by B.N. El'tsin Ural Federal University. It included 10 children suffering from locomotor and coordination disorders of different severity and members of their families. The following methods were used: the self-service skills scorecard , monitoring formation of the motor skills, and Wilcoxon's T-test. The use of the program based on the cooperation with the children's families allowed to achieve positive dynamics in the patients' conditions. Moreover, 30% of them acquired the full scope of the self-maintenance skills. The most pronounced changes in the motor abilities were apparent in the movements of the upper and lower extremitis, walking, and motion in space. The proposed program for the formation of the self-maintenance skills in the pre-school children presenting with locomotor and coordination disorders proved to be highly efficacious. The study has demonstrated the importance of the parents' involvement in the process of formation of the self-maintenance skills and motor abilities

  8. Constructing squares as a mathematical problem solving process in pre-school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA ANGELA SHIAKALLI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Could problem solving be the object of teaching in early education? Could children’s engagement in problem solving processes lead to skills and conceptual understanding development? Could appropriate teaching interventions scaffold children’s efforts? The sample consisted of 25 children attending public pre-school in Cyprus. The children were asked to construct different sized squares. Findings show that children responded positively to the problem and were successful in solving it. During the problem solving process children demonstrated development of skills and conceptual understanding. Teacher-children and children-children interactions played an important role in the positive outcome of the activity.

  9. Prevalence of food neophobia in pre-school children from southern Poland and its association with eating habits, dietary intake and anthropometric parameters: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozioł-Kozakowska, Agnieszka; Piórecka, Beata; Schlegel-Zawadzka, Małgorzata

    2018-04-01

    The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of food neophobia in pre-school children and its association with eating habits, dietary intake and anthropometric parameters. Cross-sectional survey performed in 2012-2013. The Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS) adapted by Wardle, Carnell and Cooke was used to assess the level of food neophobia. Dietary intake was measured using an FFQ and dietary records from three days. Anthropometric measurements were taken to determine children's nutritional status and BMI was computed based on Polish growth charts. Wilcoxon's rank test and Pearson's rank-correlation coefficient were applied to compare the level of food neophobia and frequency of consumption of food products and nutrient intakes. Kindergartens in southern Poland located in or near Cracow. Three hundred and twenty-five pre-school children and their parents. Low neophobia was observed in 12·3 % and high neophobia in 10·8 % of the children examined. Children with a high level of neophobia were significantly less likely (Pfood neophobia were observed. High levels of neophobia are associated with diet variation and may enhance the risk of nutritional deficiencies in children.

  10. Quality of Life and School Absenteeism in Children With Chronic Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Natacha D; Distelberg, Brian; Morrell, Holly E R; Williams-Reade, Jackie; Tapanes, Daniel; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-08-01

    Children and adolescents with a chronic illness (CI) tend to demonstrate diminished physical and social functioning, which contribute to school attendance issues. We investigated the role of social and physical functioning in reducing school absenteeism in children participating in Mastering Each New Direction (MEND), a family-based psychosocial intervention for youths with CI. Forty-eight children and adolescents with a CI (70.8% female, M age = 14.922, SD = 2.143) and their parent(s) completed a health-related quality of life (HRQOL) measure pre- and postintervention. Using multiple mediation, we examined whether parent- and child-rated physical and social HRQOL mediated the relationship between school attendance before and after MEND. Once the mediational model was not supported, we investigated whether HRQOL moderated the relationship between missed school days pre- and postintervention. Neither physical nor social functioning mediated or moderated the relationship between missed school days pre- and postintervention. Instead, higher parent-rated physical functioning directly predicted decreased number of missed school days, while lower parent-rated social and child-rated physical functioning predicted increased missed school days. Parent-perceived HRQOL may have a direct effect on health-related behaviors such as school attendance. Future research should determine whether gains in parent-rated QOL are maintained in the long term and whether these continue to impact markers of functional well-being. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Visual impairment and amblyopia in Malaysian pre-school children - The SEGPAEDS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, F L M; Thavaratnam, L K; Shukor, I N C; Ramasamy, S; Rahmat, J; Reidpath, D D; Allotey, P; Alagaratnam, J

    2018-02-01

    Little is known regarding the extent of visual impairment amongst pre-school children in Malaysia. To determine the prevalence of visual impairment and amblyopia in Malaysian preschool children. A cross-sectional, population-based study was conducted on children aged four to six years from 51 participating kindergartens in the district of Segamat, Johor, Malaysia from 20 March 2016 to 6 April 2016. All subjects had initial eye screening consisting of LogMar visual acuity, orthoptics examination and Spot vision screener assessment. Subjects who failed the initial eye screening were invited for a formal eye assessment consisting of cycloplegic refraction and a comprehensive ocular examination. Definitions of visual impairment and amblyopia were based on the Multi-Ethnic Pediatric Eye Disease Study criteria. A total of 1287 children were recruited. Mean subject age was 5.03 (SD:0.77) and males represented 52.3% of subjects. Subjects by ethnicity were Malay (54.8%), Chinese (27.7%), Indian (15.6%) and Orang Asli (1.9%). Formal eye assessment was required for 221 subjects and 88.8% required ophthalmic intervention. Refractive error, representing 95.4% of diagnosed ocular disorders, comprised of astigmatism (84%), myopia (9%) and hypermetropia (6.9%). With-the-rule astigmatism was present in 93.4% of the subjects with astigmatism. Visual impairment was present in 12.5% of our subjects, with 61% having bilateral visual impairment. Of the subjects with visual impairment, 59.1% had moderate visual impairment. The prevalence of amblyopia was 7.53%, and 66% of the amblyopic subjects had bilateral amblyopia. Our study highlights an urgent need for initiation of preschool vision screening in Malaysia.

  12. Teaching Humility in First-Grade Christian School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonker, Julie E.; Wielard, Cassie J.; Vos, Carolyn L.; Tudder, Ashley M.

    2017-01-01

    Four classes of first-grade children at a Christian school took pre- and post-tests measuring humility. Two intervention classes had devotional lessons on humility and two comparison classes did not. For one week, devotional lessons featured humility-related children's literature, cognitively appropriate discussions, writing about humility, and…

  13. Cultural influence on aims of inclusion of mothers in pre-school children's play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihić-Lisul Ivana

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Child is introduced with the contents of culture at first through numerous influences culture has on family life, especially on defining parenting roles. Patriarchal culture, still strong in Yugoslavia, is full of norms that clearly define roles of elders and men, and excellently demarcates differences between father's and mother's role in bringing up their children, defined by the level of responsibility attached to parents in upbringing and educating a child. Research conducted in Novi Sad, Yugoslavia in January 2002, with the primary aim of diagnosing differences in frequency and quality of parent-pre-school children play concerning many relevant correlates, most important of which is the sex of the parent. Data show high distinctive quality difference in types and approaches to play in regard of the parent in question. Differences show that patriarchal culture's influence is still very strong. The results show that mothers are burdened with the higher level of responsibility, inevitably leading to higher parenting stress. The level of parenting stress can then influence the quality of meeting the requests put to parents, as well as raising level of general anxiety in all the activities concerning the child, therefore the play itself as well.

  14. School-Based Crisis Intervention: Preparing All Personnel to Assist. Practical Intervention in the Schools Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Melissa Allen; Sheen, Dawn

    2005-01-01

    When a student is in dire need of emotional support, caring adults in the school can make a difference. This essential resource helps practitioners prepare all school personnel to respond sensitively and effectively to children and adolescents in crisis. Packed with user-friendly features--including over 50 reproducible tools--the book provides…

  15. Classroom quality at pre-kindergarten and kindergarten and children's social skills and behavior problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekhuizen, Martine L.; Mokrova, Irina L.; Burchinal, Margaret R.; Garrett-Peters, Patricia T.

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on the continuity in the quality of classroom environments as children transition from preschool into elementary school, this study examined the associations between classroom quality in pre-kindergarten and kindergarten and children's social skills and behavior problems in kindergarten and

  16. Preparation for Transnationalism: Changes in China's Top Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, June A.; Liu, Xiangyan

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that new international programs within public secondary schools in China represent a vigorous and legitimatized approach to meeting the demands of newly affluent Chinese families for pre-collegiate education that equals the best international standards and constitutes preparation for higher education at the leading universities…

  17. Nutritional practices in full-day-care pre-schools.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, A

    2011-06-01

    Full-day-care pre-schools contribute significantly to the nutritional intake and acquisition of dietary habits of the pre-school child. The present study investigated nutritional practices in full-day-care pre-schools in Dublin, Ireland, aiming to determine the nutritional support that pre-school managers deem necessary, thereby facilitating the amelioration of existing pre-school nutritional training and practices.

  18. Prevalence of Dietary Supplement Use in Healthy Pre-School Chinese Children in Australia and China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Chen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing use of dietary supplements in many countries including China. This study aimed to document the prevalence of dietary supplements use and characteristics of Chinese pre-school children using dietary supplements in Australia and China. A survey was carried out in Perth, Western Australia of 237 mothers with children under five years old and 2079 in Chengdu and Wuhan, China. A total of 22.6% and 32.4% of the Chinese children were taking dietary supplements in Australia and China, respectively. In China, the most commonly used dietary supplements were calcium (58.5% and zinc (40.4%, while in Australia, the most frequently used types were multi-vitamins/minerals (46.2% and fish oil (42.3%. In Australia, “not working”, “never breastfeed”, “higher education level of the mother” and “older age of the child” were associated with dietary supplement use in children. In China, being unwell and “having higher household income” were significantly related to dietary supplement usage. Because of the unknown effects of many supplements on growth and development and the potential for adverse drug interactions, parents should exercise caution when giving their infants or young children dietary supplements. Wherever possible it is preferable to achieve nutrient intakes from a varied diet rather than from supplements.

  19. Nutritional Status And Its Association With Diabetes Mellitus In School Children, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muninarayana C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Poor health and nutrition may impair both the growth and intellectual development of school children. Incidence of malnutrition related childhood diabetes mellitus has increased and continues to be on the rise.Objectives: To assess the nutritional status by anthropometry and to screen for diabetes by capillary blood examination of school children. Design: Longitudinal study Setting: The study was carried out at Sri R.L.Jalappa Central School, Kolar from August 2008 to December 2009. Methods: All the school children were interviewed with pre-designed and pre-tested proforma. Height, Weight was measured by standard procedures. The nutritional status was analysed by Body Mass Index (BMI for age. The school children were also screened for diabetes mellitus by Finger stick capillary random plasma glucose testing. The children were followed up for any major medical problems during the study period.Participants: All the students studying in the school during study period.Results: Mean height and weight of children were found comparable to the ICMR pooled data. However, compared to NCHS standards and affluent Indian children the mean height and weight were found to be much inferior at all ages. According to BMI for age as per NCHS most of the children were undernourished (79.2% and 3 children (0.6% were overweight. Out of 495 children screened for diabetes 14 children had hyperglycaemia (>160mg/dl. These 14 children were further tested by oral glucose tolerance test and found to have normal blood sugars levels. During the follow up two undernourished children developed diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: The magnitude of malnutrition among school going children was found to be 79%. During the follow up two undernourished children developed diabetes mellitus, hence under nutrition was associated with diabetes mellitus.

  20. The Evaluation Of Effectiveness Of ICDS In 7 Anganwadi Centres On The Health Status Of Pre-School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni M.N

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Impact of Integrated child Development Services (ICDS scheme in 7 Anganwadi centers of Davangere Block on the health status of pre-school children were studied for a period of one year. Total of 547 children, who were enrolled for supplementary nutrition and non-formal education, formed the study group. Impact of the programme on nutritional status was seen only in severely malnourished children (Grade III & IV. Severely malnourished children constituted 9.3% of total initially and 3.9 percent at the end of the study. The number of children belonging to grade I & II malnutrition were 74% initially and 81.5% at the end of the study. Not much improvement in the immunization status for BCG., all three doses of oral polio vaccine and DPT was 42.4, 59.4 and 73.3 percent at the baseline study and 56, 67.7 and 82 percent respectively at the end of the study. The supply of supplementary nutrients and vaccines was irregular. High prevalence of vit. ‘A’ Deficiency and anemia were noted.

  1. Pressing Tasks in the Care of Children of Preschool and School Age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tseytlin, I

    1960-01-01

    ...). It concerns pressing tasks of public health with regard to the care of children of pre-school and school age in order to strengthen the bond between school and life which also promotes the further...

  2. Friendships and social interactions of school-aged children with migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannatta, K; Getzoff, E A; Gilman, D K; Noll, R B; Gerhardt, C A; Powers, S W; Hershey, A D

    2008-07-01

    We set out to evaluate the friendships and social behaviour of school-aged children with migraine. Concern exists regarding the impact of paediatric migraine on daily activities and quality of life. We hypothesized that children with migraine would have fewer friends and be identified as more socially sensitive and isolated than comparison peers. Sixty-nine children with migraine participated in a school-based study of social functioning. A comparison sample without migraine included classmates matched for gender, race and age. Children with migraine had fewer friends at school; however, this effect was limited to those in elementary school. Behavioural difficulties were not found. Middle-school students with migraine were identified by peers as displaying higher levels of leadership and popularity than comparison peers. Concern may be warranted about the social functioning of pre-adolescent children with migraine; however, older children with migraine may function as well as or better than their peers.

  3. Developing Basic Mathematical Skills of Pre-School Children by Using Plasticized Clay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumark, Charung; Puncreobutr, Vichian

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to study the development of basic mathematical skills in preschool children by using plasticized clay. A pre-test and post-test design was adopted for the study to compare the difference before and after the art activity. The experimental group of 15 preschool children of 3-4 years old, attending…

  4. Healthy incentive scheme in the Irish full-day-care pre-school setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Molloy, C Johnston

    2013-12-16

    A pre-school offering a full-day-care service provides for children aged 0-5 years for more than 4 h\\/d. Researchers have called for studies that will provide an understanding of nutrition and physical activity practices in this setting. Obesity prevention in pre-schools, through the development of healthy associations with food and health-related practices, has been advocated. While guidelines for the promotion of best nutrition and health-related practice in the early years\\' setting exist in a number of jurisdictions, associated regulations have been noted to be poor, with the environment of the child-care facility mainly evaluated for safety. Much cross-sectional research outlines poor nutrition and physical activity practice in this setting. However, there are few published environmental and policy-level interventions targeting the child-care provider with, to our knowledge, no evidence of such interventions in Ireland. The aim of the present paper is to review international guidelines and recommendations relating to health promotion best practice in the pre-school setting: service and resource provision; food service and food availability; and the role and involvement of parents in pre-schools. Intervention programmes and assessment tools available to measure such practice are outlined; and insight is provided into an intervention scheme, formulated from available best practice, that was introduced into the Irish full-day-care pre-school setting.

  5. Children’s Play with digital media in pre-primary school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Helle Hovgaard

    2017-01-01

    Danish schools are obliged to work ‘in a playful way’ with digital media according to the demands in the description of the curricula for the pre-primary education (Undervisningsministeriet, 2015). Much money has been spent on the digital infrastructure, but still the professionals in pre......-primary education say, that they are short of time, experience and knowledge when it comes to actual implementation of new media in every day school life. On the other hand most children come from media rich homes. The article addresses the gap between in-and-out of school from a child perspective. The key concepts...... are play and media literacy, and the project’s take on play is inspired by the paradigmatic change towards a participatory and child oriented scientific position. The understanding of media literacy is narrowed down to a trichotomy that implies having access to the media, understanding the media...

  6. Pre-Service Biology Teachers' and Primary School Students' Attitudes toward and Knowledge about Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomazic, Iztok

    2011-01-01

    Snakes are controversial animals emblazoned by legends, but also endangered as a result of human prejudice and fear. The author investigated gender and age-related differences in attitudes to and knowledge of snakes comparing samples of school children and pre-service teachers. It was found that although pre-service teachers had better knowledge…

  7. SUGGESTOPEDIA AS THE METHOD OF THE MUSIC EXPERIENCE FORMATION OF PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya T. Таgiltseva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to consider the possibility of suggestopedia methods use that are successfully practiced in foreign language teaching, pedagogy of music education of preschool children, in starting schools; to find out the degree of methods efficiency of suggestopedia in shaping the musical experience of preschool children in various activities at music lessons. Methods. The theoretical foundations of the article are views and concepts of the Bulgarian researcher, teacher and psychologist, G. Lozanov; he had studied out the suggestopedia method for foreign language teaching, and the theory of meta-subject education on the basis of artistic-creative activity and appeal to masterpieces of art. Monitoring and surveillance over non-verbal behavior of children, surveys and discussions were used as practical methods. Results. Musical experience of the child is considered as the process of the development of musical memory. Many suggestopedia techniques developed by Bulgarian and Russian researchers were selected and tested; those that involve the use of involuntary memorization of music when performing creative tasks: free movement or plastic intonation, paint color schemes, music and organizational tasks related to the preparation and conduct music lessons. Three series of diagnostic tasks associated with memory, remembering and recognition of classical pieces of music unknown for preschoolers were worked out to test the effectiveness of these methods and its integration into the process of preschoolers’ music education. The conducted experiment has shown that methods of suggestopedia provide memory activation – children keep in memory classical music. Scientific novelty. The research demonstrates the application reasonability of suggestopedia methods used at foreign language teaching, music education of preschool children and juniors. It has been proved that involuntary memorizing of classical music by children listening to background

  8. The Urban Teaching Cohort: Pre-Service Training to Support Mental Health in Urban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Tammy; Dinnen, Hannah; Smith-Millman, Marissa K.; Dixon, Maressa; Flaspohler, Paul D.

    2017-01-01

    Supporting students' mental health needs is critical in high-poverty urban school districts where many students are at risk for mental health problems. Although teacher-student relationships are at the core of student mental health promotion in the classroom, many teacher preparation programmes do not adequately prepare pre-service teachers…

  9. Low Sleeping Time, High TV Viewing Time, and Physical Inactivity in School Are Risk Factors for Obesity in Pre-Adolescent Thai Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thasanasuwan, Wiyada; Srichan, Weerachat; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Yamborisut, Uruwan; Wimonpeerapattana, Wanphen; Rojroongwasinkul, Nipa; Khouw, Ilse Tan; Deurenberg, Pual

    2016-03-01

    Explore the association between physically active behavior and obesity in 7- to 12-years-old Thai children. As part of SEANUTS Thailand, information on anthropometry, physical activity, and sociodemographic variables were collected in 7- to 12-years-old urban and rural Thai children. Multi-stage sampling technique was used and 1,345 children (32% urban, and 50.3% boys) participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, and BMI-for-age Z-scores (BAZ) using World Health Organization Growth Reference. Obesity was defined as BAZ > 2SD. Physical activity was assessed using a validated physical activity questionnaire (PAQ). The PAQ provided an activity score, activity time in school, sleeping hours, and TV watching time as categorical variable, low, moderate, and high. Chi-square by likelihood ratio test and logistic regression were used to compare obese and non-obese groups. The overall prevalence of overweight and obesity was 10.2 and 10.8% respectively, whereas 8.2% was classified as thin. Maternal education and religion did not differ between obese and non-obese children. However, obese children's family income was higher. After controlling for family income, maternal education, and religion, obese children were significantly less active during break times in school, slept less, and watched more TV than non-obese. However, there was no difference in the activity score of obese and non-obese children. The study showed that physical activity during break time in school, sleep duration, and hours of TV viewing were associated with obesity in pre-adolescent Thai children. It is important to note that activity score was not associated with obesity. One of the most important benefits to be physically active in childhood is the potential to maintain this behavior into adulthood. Therefore, programs that encourage healthy behaviors and address these modifiable risk factors should be incorporated in the school curriculum.

  10. Analysis of Understanding the Concept of Buoyancy in the Context of its Transfer from Pre-school Teachers to Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Furlan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Kindergarten curricula (Bahovec et al. 1999, 37 cover different areas of education that are sensibly interconnected and integrated. Science is one of the areas that represent child’s first learning about the surrounding world and the first introduction to nature. Science education is a very suitable approach of introducing children into basic research work, since in nature objects and phenomena are more concrete, and hence the children are instinctively attracted. Therefore, science education could act as a starting point for all other areas of education. Teaching science comprises several difficulties, which are mainly connected with the way how contents are introduced to children. This is often a great challenge and great responsibility for pre-school teachers, because the scientific content needs to be explained in an appropriate way taking into consideration the child's age, the use of correct terminology, and at the same time avoiding inadequate generalization and over-simplification. Buoyancy is a natural phenomenon that is experienced by every child, but which, on the other hand, is quite difficult to explain. With the present study we wished to assess the knowledge considering buoyancy of the part-time students within the Pre-school Teaching educational programme at the Faculty of Education of the University of Primorska, which is performed on different locations throughout Slovenia. These students already teach in the kindergartens and should be well acquainted with buoyancy from previously passed physics courses at the Faculty of Education. We examined how they explained the buoyancy to children in kindergartens, and whether the knowledge about buoyancy is affected by their working experience or the location of their study. The results show that the students’ knowledge about buoyancy is insufficient and incomplete. In addition, many misconceptions about buoyancy are transmitted to the children in the process of teaching

  11. Quantifying the visual perception skills of pre-school testees using a novel tangible electronic test instrument

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Smith, Andrew C

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available . These children were found to be less proficient in visualisation skills than their suburban counterparts. A new study was undertaken to ascertain whether there is any difference in cognitive skills, particularly visual perception, between pre-school children from...

  12. The Effect of Project Based Learning in Teaching EFL Vocabulary to Young Learners of English: The Case of Pre-school Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma KİMSESİZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available English language teaching has newly been introduced to pre-school curriculum in Turkey. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of teaching EFL vocabulary to pre-school children through Project Based Learning (PBL. For this purpose, an experimental design, consisted of observation checklists, exam scores and a short survey, was adopted. Firstly, through a short online survey, 150 kindergarten teachers were asked to specify which techniques they commonly used in their English classes. The primary aim here was to define traditional techniques and the rate of PBL use in Turkey. After defining common techniques, 28 children were randomly assigned to experimental (PBL instruction and control groups (traditional instruction equally and the data was collected in real time classroom setting for 8 weeks. The results showed that (1 PBL was rarely adopted in EFL classes in Turkey, (2 PBL instruction could increase EFL vocabulary learning gains when compared to common methods and (3 young learners were observed to have been more active in PBL classes. The effect of PBL instruction was discussed in local, cognitive and motivational perspectives in the light of previous related research. The potential benefits of further PBL use for young EFL learners and implications were also discussed.

  13. Impact of the two different iron fortified cookies on treatment of anemia in preschool children in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landim, Liejy Agnes; Pessoa, Marcia Luiza Dos Santos Beserra; Brandão, Amanda de Castro Amorim Serpa; Morgano, Marcelo Antonio; Marcos Antônio de Mota Araújo, Marcos Antônio De Mota Araújo; Rocha, Maurisrael De Moura; Arêas, José Alfredo Gomes; Moreira-Araújo, Regilda Saraiva Dos Reis

    2016-09-20

    Nutritional intervention in pre-school children using cookies prepared with wheat flour enriched with iron and folic acid (CWFFeFA) and cookies prepared with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) flour fortified with iron and zinc and wheat flour enriched with iron and folic acid (CCFFeZn + WFFeFA). To assess the impact of the ingestion of CWFFeFA and CCFFeZn + WFFeFA by pre-school children, using the cowpea variety BRS-Xiquexique, to control iron-deficiency anaemia. Nutritional intervention was conducted in municipal day care centres selected at random (n = 262) involving pre-school children aged 2 to 5 years living in Teresina, state of Piauí, Brazil. To assess the socioeconomic data, BMI-for-age, haemoglobin levels before and after intervention, and dietary intake, the children were divided into group 1 (G1), which received CWFFeFA (30 g), and group 2 (G2), which received CCFFeZn + WFFeFA (30 g). Food acceptance was evaluated daily. The prevalence of anaemia in G1 and G2 before the nutritional intervention was 12.2% (n = 18) and 11.5% (n = 30), respectively. After intervention, the prevalence decreased to 1.4% in G1 (n = 2) and to 4.2% in G2 (n = 11). Food acceptance by pre-school children in G1 and G2 was 97.4% and 94.3%, respectively. The use of both types of cookie formulations decreased the prevalence of anaemia among pre-school children, and CCFFeZn + WFFeFA yielded the greatest decrease.

  14. The role of pre-school children motor behavior in developing their self-concept

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    Perić Dušan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of motor behavior and general intellectual abilities were performed on a sample of 42 pre-school children (22 boys and 20 girls aged 6 (±3 months; moreover, the self-concept of those children was analysed. For the assessment of their motor behavior six movement tasks were chosen and the Mary Gutrich scale was applied for the analysis of the results. The children's intellectual abilities were assessed by the means of Raven's colored progressive matrices so as to enable the groups to homogenise, as well as to eliminate potential parasite factors when drawing conclusions. The self-concept analysis was performed using the pshychological interview during the course of which the children described their impression of their own abilities with regard to the past, present and future. The data related to the self-concept were complemented with the analysis of the children's drawings. The statistical analysis of the data gathered showed that motor behavior plays a significant role in developing one's self-concept, which is especially true of boys. Even though there is no significant statistical difference between boys and girls with respect to the quality of their motor behavior, there are significant differences between them pertaining to the vocabulary they use when describing their own selves, i.e. their self-concept, especially with respect to the present and future. Boys seem to use more extensive motor-related vocabulary when describing themselves, especially those with greater motor skills. Both boys and girls show a tendency to describe themselves as incapable in the past. When describing their present moment capabilities, girls tend to use vocabulary related to play and independence, whereas they mostly use vocabulary related to professions and sex roles when referring to the future. These findings indicate that social factors are of immense importance from a very early age, especially among girls. Moreover, the results show that

  15. Parental Learning and School Readiness in the Gearing Up for Kindergarten Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Query

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Entering kindergarten is a key moment in a young child’s life, and parents are a child’s first teacher. What can guide parents as they assist children with school readiness? Gearing Up for Kindergarten is an intensive parent education and school readiness program designed to help parents and children prepare for school. Gearing Up for Kindergarten is a parent education program that combines early learning opportunities for pre-kindergarten children with parent education opportunities for adults. This study presents findings from evaluation efforts conducted with 59 Gearing Up for Kindergarten adult participants during the 2006-2007 school year. Participants in the program demonstrated (1 high satisfaction with program quality and experiences, (2 impacts on parental knowledge and confidence, and (3 significant and positive changes in parental practices related to school readiness. Implications for parent education and programs intended to strengthen school readiness among pre-kindergarten children are explored. Parent education on school readiness can provide a substantive resource as parents help their children develop and become ready for the school years.

  16. Children's Early Child Care and Their Mothers' Later Involvement with Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Augustine, Jennifer March; Huston, Aletha C.

    2012-01-01

    Theory and policy highlight the role of child care in preparing children for the transition into school. Approaching this issue in a different way, this study investigated whether children's care experiences before this transition promoted their mothers' school involvement after it, with the hypothesized mechanism for this link being the…

  17. Population deworming every 6 months with albendazole in 1 million pre-school children in north India: DEVTA, a cluster-randomised trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Shally; Peto, Richard; Read, Simon; Richards, Susan M; Pande, Vinod; Bundy, Donald; the DEVTA (Deworming and Enhanced Vitamin A) team

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background In north India many pre-school children are underweight, many have intestinal worms, and 2–3% die at ages 1·0–6·0 years. We used the state-wide Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS) infrastructure to help to assess any effects of regular deworming on mortality. Methods Participants in this cluster-randomised study were children in catchment areas of 8338 ICDS-staffed village child-care centres (under-5 population 1 million) in 72 administrative blocks. Groups of four neighbouring blocks were cluster-randomly allocated in Oxford between 6-monthly vitamin A (retinol capsule of 200 000 IU retinyl acetate in oil, to be cut and dripped into the child's mouth every 6 months), albendazole (400 mg tablet every 6 months), both, or neither (open control). Analyses of albendazole effects are by block (36 vs 36 clusters). The study spanned 5 calendar years, with 11 6-monthly mass-treatment days for all children then aged 6–72 months. Annually, one centre per block was randomly selected and visited by a study team 1–5 months after any trial deworming to sample faeces (for presence of worm eggs, reliably assessed only after mid-study), weigh children, and interview caregivers. Separately, all 8338 centres were visited every 6 months to monitor pre-school deaths (100 000 visits, 25 000 deaths at age 1·0–6·0 years [the primary outcome]). This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00222547. Findings Estimated compliance with 6-monthly albendazole was 86%. Among 2589 versus 2576 children surveyed during the second half of the study, nematode egg prevalence was 16% versus 36%, and most infection was light. After at least 2 years of treatment, weight at ages 3·0–6·0 years (standardised to age 4·0 years, 50% male) was 12·72 kg albendazole versus 12·68 kg control (difference 0·04 kg, 95% CI −0·14 to 0·21, p=0·66). Comparing the 36 albendazole-allocated versus 36 control blocks in analyses of the primary outcome, deaths

  18. Risk Diagnosis for the Development of Social Behaviour Disorders in Pre-school Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butollo, W.

    This paper is a summary of a study concerned with identification of risk variables which affect the development of social and emotional behavior in young children. Families with pre-schoolers responded to a questionnaire designed to screen children who might be considered high risk. The screening results were validated with behavior observations…

  19. Pre-Service Teacher Education for Mental Health and Inclusion in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Melanie-Anne; Rodger, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Pre-service teacher education in mental health and mental health literacy is essential to creating the conditions necessary to support the mental health and wellness of children and youth in schools. Many teachers report never having received any education about mental health, but recognize the importance of this knowledge in meeting the needs of…

  20. Preparing Pre-Service School Librarians for Science-Focused Collaboration with Pre-Service Elementary Teachers: The Design and Impact of a Cross-Class Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Casey H.

    2015-01-01

    Numerous authors in the library and information science (LIS) field have called for more authentic collaborative experiences for students in school librarian education programs, particularly experiences that partner school library students with pre-service teachers to collaboratively design instruction. The first-iteration, design-based study…

  1. Linking families with pre-school children from healthcare services to community resources: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Jacky; Conway, David I; Gnich, Wendy; Macpherson, Lorna M D

    2017-03-08

    Poor health and health inequalities persist despite increasing investment in health improvement programmes across high-income countries. Evidence suggests that to reduce health inequalities, a range of activities targeted at different levels within society and throughout the life course should be employed. There is a particular focus on addressing inequalities in early years as this may influence the experience of health in adulthood. To address the wider determinants of health at a community level, a key intervention which can be considered is supporting patients to access wider community resources. This can include processes such as signposting, referral and facilitation. There is a lack of evidence synthesis in relation to the most effective methods for linking individuals from health services to other services within communities, especially when considering interventions aimed at families with young children. The aim of this study is to understand the way health services can best help parents, carers and families with pre-school children to engage with local services, groups and agencies to address their wider health and social needs. The review may inform future guidance to support families to address wider determinants of health. The study is a systematic review, and papers will be identified from the following electronic databases: Web of Science, Embase, MEDLINE and CINAHL. A grey literature search will be conducted using an internet search engine and specific grey literature databases (TRiP, EThOS and Open Grey). Reference lists/bibliographies of selected papers will be searched. Quality will be assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool for quantitative studies and the CASP tool for qualitative studies. Data will be synthesised in a narrative form and weighted by study quality. It is important to understand how health services can facilitate access to wider services for their patients to address the wider

  2. Epidemiologic survey of eye in Cangzhou school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Dong Yang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the common ocular diseases in school children age of 6 to 14 years old in Cangzhou, Hebei, China and find the relative risk factors. METHODS:From March 2011 to October 2012, 20 schools including 1 and 6 grade school children were randomly selected as survey venues by Cangzhou Eye Hosipital. Then, 3 150 people as the selected residents were enrolled, which was figured out through the random cluster sampling procedure. Every participant completed questionnaire, and a series of examination. SPSS 16.0 was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS:Totally 3 150 residents finally took part in this study.(1There were 2672 eyes suffered lower vision CONCLUSION:The rate of low vision in school children is higher, among these the rate of myopia is the highest. All these result suggested: Family and community should pay sufficient attention to conduct children's eye health and prepare a balanced behaviour, to prevent the occurrence of ophthalmopathy.

  3. Body Composition and Cardiovascular Health in School-aged children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klakk, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    . Methods This study is based on prospective data from 10 public schools, six intervention and four control schools matched according to the uptake area of the schools and socio-economic position of the parents. Intervention schools provided four additional PE lessons per week, where as control schools...... continued as usual (two PE lessons per week). A total of 1507 children (intervention n=773, control n=734) attending pre-school to the 4th grade in 2008 were invited to participate in the CHAMPS study-DK and 1218 (81%) children and their parents accepted. Height, weight, waist circumference, DXA scans......, Cardio respiratory fitness (CRF), blood pressure, pubertal stage and fasting blood samples were obtained at baseline (2008) and follow-up (2010). Information on parental education level, household income and birth weight were collected from questionnaires during the first school year. Results...

  4. Association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and screen time among pre-school children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cutumisu Nicoleta

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sedentary behavior is considered a separate construct from physical activity and engaging in sedentary behaviors results in health effects independent of physical activity levels. A major source of sedentary behavior in children is time spent viewing TV or movies, playing video games, and using computers. To date no study has examined the impact of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES on pre-school children's screen time behavior. Methods Proxy reports of weekday and weekend screen time (TV/movies, video games, and computer use were completed by 1633 parents on their 4-5 year-old children in Edmonton, Alberta between November, 2005 and August, 2007. Postal codes were used to classified neighborhoods into low, medium or high SES. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were conducted to examine relationships between screen time and neighborhood SES. Results Girls living in low SES neighborhoods engaged in significantly more weekly overall screen time and TV/movie minutes compared to girls living in high SES neighborhoods. The same relationship was not observed in boys. Children living in low SES neighborhoods were significantly more likely to be video game users and less likely to be computer users compared to children living in high SES neighborhoods. Also, children living in medium SES neighborhoods were significantly less likely to be computer users compared to children living in high SES neighborhoods. Conclusions Some consideration should be given to providing alternative activity opportunities for children, especially girls who live in lower SES neighborhoods. Also, future research should continue to investigate the independent effects of neighborhood SES on screen time as well as the potential mediating variables for this relationship.

  5. Evaluation of a kindergarten-based nutrition education intervention for pre-school children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chuanlai; Ye, Dongqing; Li, Yingchun; Huang, Yongling; Li, Li; Gao, Yongqing; Wang, Sufang

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of nutrition education in kindergartens and to promote healthy dietary habits in children. Prospective cohort study. Four kindergartens with 1252 children were randomized to the intervention group and three with 850 children to the control group. The personal nutritional knowledge, attitudes and dietary behaviours of the parents were also investigated. Each month, children and parents in the intervention group participated in nutrition education activities. The main outcome measures were anthropometrics and diet-related behaviours of the children and the nutritional knowledge and attitudes of the parents at baseline, 6 months (mid-term) and 1 year (post-test). Baseline demographic and socio-economic characteristics were also collected. Seven kindergartens from Hefei, the capital city of Anhui Province, eastern China. Two thousand one hundred and two 4- to 6-year-old pre-schoolers from seven kindergartens participated. The prevalence of children's unhealthy diet-related behaviours decreased significantly and good lifestyle behaviours increased in the group receiving nutrition education compared with controls. Parental eating habits and attitudes to planning their children's diets also changed appreciably in the intervention group compared with the control group (P education improves pre-schoolers' lifestyle behaviours and brings about beneficial changes in parents' attitudes to planning their children's diets and their own personal eating habits.

  6. Something special: Care, pre-school television and the dis/abled child

    OpenAIRE

    Holdsworth, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Through a close reading of the series Something Special (2003–), this article explores the implicit and explicit rhetorics of ‘care’ within the remit and content of the UK pre-school children’s channel CBeebies. With its address to an audience that includes disabled children and children with special educational needs, CBeebies is celebrated as an inclusive site of play and learning for its diverse audience of 0–6 year-olds. In Something Special (2003–), for example, Mr Tumble’s playful encou...

  7. A qualitative study of teacher's perceptions of an intervention to prevent conduct problems in Jamaican pre-schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Henningham, H; Walker, S

    2009-09-01

    There is a growing evidence base showing the efficacy of school-based interventions to prevent conduct problems but few evaluations have addressed teachers' perceptions of these programmes. Teachers' views on the acceptability, feasibility and usefulness of an intervention will influence implementation fidelity and programme sustainability and can help further our understanding of how the intervention works and how it may be improved. A pilot study of the Incredible Years Teacher Training Programme supplemented by a curriculum unit on social and emotional skills was conducted in inner-city pre-schools in Kingston, Jamaica. Three pre-schools comprising 15 classrooms participated in the intervention which involved seven monthly teacher workshops and 14 weekly child lessons in each class. At the end of the intervention in-depth individual interviews were conducted with each intervention teacher. Teachers reported benefits to their own teaching skills and professional development, to their relationships with children and to the behaviour, social-emotional competence and school readiness skills of the children in their class. Teachers also reported benefits to teacher-parent relationships and to children's behaviour at home. A hypothesis representing the teachers' perceptions of how the intervention achieved these benefits was developed. The hypothesis suggests that intervention effects were due to teachers' gains in skills and knowledge in three main areas: (1) a deeper understanding of young children's needs and abilities; (2) increased use of positive and proactive strategies; and (3) explicitly teaching social and emotional skills. These changes then led to the variety of benefits reported for teachers, children and parents. Teachers reported few difficulties in implementing the majority of strategies and strongly recommended wider dissemination of the intervention. The intervention was valued by Jamaican pre-school teachers and teachers felt they were able to

  8. Food choices made by low-income households when feeding their pre-school children: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Sally; Rabiee-Khan, Fatemeh

    2015-10-01

    The growing concern about poor dietary practices among low-income families has led to a 'victim blaming' culture that excludes wider social and environmental factors, which influence household food choices. This small-scale qualitative study investigated influences on the diets of young children in families on a low income in the West Midlands, UK. Using semi-structured interview schedule, rich data was gathered through individual interviews with 11 mothers of pre-school children. Information was collected about the type and range of food given following the introduction of solid foods including factors influencing parent's knowledge and diet, sources of nutrition advice and financial constraints. Food accessibility and storage issues were also explored. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using a modified grounded theory approach. Findings highlighted that parents and professionals may have different interpretations about 'cooking from scratch'. The results indicated that some parents have poor understanding of what constitutes a healthy diet. However, most parents included fruit and vegetables to varying degrees and were motivated to give their children healthy foods, suggesting that, with adequate support and information, the diets of these children could be improved. There was evidence that when striving to improve the diet of their children, many parents' diets also improved. The findings from this small-scale in-depth study highlighted a number of issues for local and national policy and practice in the area of nutrition and child health in the early years. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Energy and nutrient intake in preschool and school age Mexican children: National Nutrition Survey 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barquera Simón

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate energy and nutrient intake and adequacy in preschool and school age Mexican children, using the National Nutrition Survey 1999 (NNS-1999. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty four-h dietary recalls from pre-school (n=1 309 and school (n=2 611 children obtained from a representative sub-sample of the NNS-1999 were analyzed. Intakes and adequacies were estimated and compared across four regions, socio-economic strata, and between urban and rural areas, and indigenous vs. non-indigenous children. RESULTS: Median energy intake in pre-school children was 949 kcal and in school children 1 377 kcal, with adequacies 150% in both age groups. The North and Mexico City regions had the highest fat intake and the lowest fiber intake. Children in the South region, indigenous children, and those in the lowest socio-economic stratum had higher fiber and carbohydrate intakes and the lowest fat intake. These children also showed the highest risks of inadequacies for vitamin A, vitamin C, folate, iron, zinc and calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Mexico is experiencing a nutrition transition with internal inequalities across regions and socio-economic strata. Food policy must account for these differences in order to optimize resources directed at social programs.

  10. Piaget's Theory of Intellectual Development and Its Implication for Instructional Management at Pre-Secondary School Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simatwa, Enose M. W.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional management focuses on planning, execution and evaluation of learning experiences. For teachers in pre-secondary schools to plan, execute and evaluate learning experiences effectively, they need to have good understanding of the process of cognitive development in children. Piaget has postulated that children progress through a series…

  11. Auditory processing, speech perception and phonological ability in pre-school children at high-risk for dyslexia: a longitudinal study of the auditory temporal processing theory

    OpenAIRE

    Boets, Bart; Wouters, Jan; Van Wieringen, Astrid; Ghesquière, Pol

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates whether the core bottleneck of literacy-impairment should be situated at the phonological level or at a more basic sensory level, as postulated by supporters of the auditory temporal processing theory. Phonological ability, speech perception and low-level auditory processing were assessed in a group of 5-year-old pre-school children at high-family risk for dyslexia, compared to a group of well-matched low-risk control children. Based on family risk status and first gra...

  12. Social factors and television use during meals and snacks is associated with higher BMI among pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Lise; Farmer, Anna; Girard, Manon; Peterson, Kelly

    2008-12-01

    The present paper examines the relationship between social factors, food consumption during television viewing, and overall television viewing and how these are associated with BMI when the role of familial and social factors are considered in a population-based birth cohort of pre-school children from Québec (Canada). The analyses were performed using data from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec (1998-2002) (LSCDQ). The study follows a representative sample (n 2103) of children born in 1998 in the Canadian province of Québec. A nutrition assessment was conducted on 1549 children aged 4.5 years and included a 24 h dietary recall, an eating behaviour and television viewing questionnaire, and a measurement of children's heights and weights. Statistical analyses were performed. Nearly one-quarter of children ate at least twice daily in front of the television. Children who consumed snacks while watching television on a daily basis had higher BMI than children who did so less frequently. Children who ate snacks in front of the television every day, or some times during the week, ate more carbohydrates (total), more fat and less protein, fewer fruits and vegetables, and drank soft drinks more often than children who never ate snacks in front of the television. Health professionals should target parents of children at risk of overweight/obesity with focused strategies to help children change the types of foods consumed during television viewing and to reduce the time spent watching television, particularly during meal times, which may change children's dietary intake and eating patterns.

  13. Cost-effectiveness analysis of a communication-focused therapy for pre-school children with autism: results from a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byford, Sarah; Cary, Maria; Barrett, Barbara; Aldred, Catherine R; Charman, Tony; Howlin, Patricia; Hudry, Kristelle; Leadbitter, Kathy; Le Couteur, Ann; McConachie, Helen; Pickles, Andrew; Slonims, Vicky; Temple, Kathryn J; Green, Jonathan

    2015-12-21

    Autism is associated with impairments that have life-time consequences for diagnosed individuals and a substantial impact on families. There is growing interest in early interventions for children with autism, yet despite the substantial economic burden, there is little evidence of the cost-effectiveness of such interventions with which to support resource allocation decisions. This study reports an economic evaluation of a parent-mediated, communication-focused therapy carried out within the Pre-School Autism Communication Trial (PACT). 152 pre-school children with autism were randomly assigned to treatment as usual (TAU) or PACT + TAU. Primary outcome was severity of autism symptoms at 13-month follow-up. Economic data included health, education and social services, childcare, parental productivity losses and informal care. Clinically meaningful symptom improvement was evident for 53 % of PACT + TAU versus 41 % of TAU (odds ratio 1.91, p = 0.074). Service costs were significantly higher for PACT + TAU (mean difference £4,489, p < 0.001), but the difference in societal costs was smaller and non-significant (mean difference £1,385, p = 0.788) due to lower informal care rates for PACT + TAU. Improvements in outcome generated by PACT come at a cost. Although this cost is lower when burden on parents is included, the cost and effectiveness results presented do not support the cost-effectiveness of PACT + TAU compared to TAU alone. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN58133827.

  14. Psychomotor education, an aspect of general formation of pre-school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardian Shingjergji

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Current developments of scientific thinking in the field of education are increasingly demanding in various disciplines for young people as a matter of urgency. It is already known that child development is conditioned by ancestry, socio-cultural environment, including interaction with peers and adults. Albanian institutions (kindergarten compared to contemporary experience in more developed countries have to deal with issues such as: (1 The development of a run or optimal acceleration enrichment motor for kindergarten children, seen as an important element of the formation of the human personality and its preparation to cope with various situations of life ; (2 The role of infrastructure in the natural development of the personality of children and the educational process as a whole; (3 Parental community involvement as a fundamental prerequisite of real development of the child; (4The qualification level of the teaching staff in the elementary education system and the preparation of students teacher. I hope to add my contribution through this paper, not only by identifying the problems above, but also in presenting alternatives of a development model of kindergarten children motors skills progress, compared to contemporary experience in more developed countries. Keywords: ; ; ; ;

  15. Assessing the accuracy and feasibility of a refractive error screening program conducted by school teachers in pre-primary and primary schools in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teerawattananon, Kanlaya; Myint, Chaw-Yin; Wongkittirux, Kwanjai; Teerawattananon, Yot; Chinkulkitnivat, Bunyong; Orprayoon, Surapong; Kusakul, Suwat; Tengtrisorn, Supaporn; Jenchitr, Watanee

    2014-01-01

    As part of the development of a system for the screening of refractive error in Thai children, this study describes the accuracy and feasibility of establishing a program conducted by teachers. To assess the accuracy and feasibility of screening by teachers. A cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study was conducted in 17 schools in four provinces representing four geographic regions in Thailand. A two-staged cluster sampling was employed to compare the detection rate of refractive error among eligible students between trained teachers and health professionals. Serial focus group discussions were held for teachers and parents in order to understand their attitude towards refractive error screening at schools and the potential success factors and barriers. The detection rate of refractive error screening by teachers among pre-primary school children is relatively low (21%) for mild visual impairment but higher for moderate visual impairment (44%). The detection rate for primary school children is high for both levels of visual impairment (52% for mild and 74% for moderate). The focus group discussions reveal that both teachers and parents would benefit from further education regarding refractive errors and that the vast majority of teachers are willing to conduct a school-based screening program. Refractive error screening by health professionals in pre-primary and primary school children is not currently implemented in Thailand due to resource limitations. However, evidence suggests that a refractive error screening program conducted in schools by teachers in the country is reasonable and feasible because the detection and treatment of refractive error in very young generations is important and the screening program can be implemented and conducted with relatively low costs.

  16. Predictors of needs for community and financial resources for families of pre-school children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertule D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of predictors of family needs for the families of preschool children with cerebral palsy (CP is important for provision of efficient and cost-effective services. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics of children, families and services that are risk factors to meeting family needs for community and financial resources. 234 parents of pre-school children with CP completed a modified version of the Family Needs Survey (FNS, the Measure of Processes of Care (MPOC-20, and a demographic questionnaire. The gross motor function level and communication function level of children were classified on the basis of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS and the Communication Function Classification System (CFCS respectively. Two hierarchical multiple regression models were generated to determine the predictors of unmet family needs. The socialisation and communication skills of children, as well as caregiver employment and family income levels were significant predictors of family needs for community resources (adjusted R2=0.44. Significant risk factors in terms of family needs for financial resources included the child's gross motor limitations, caregiver employment, low levels of family income and no ability to receive services on the basis of enabling and partnership principles (adjusted R2=0.51. A child's limitations in terms of communication, gross motor functions and socialisation, as well as the socioeconomic status of the child's family, must be taken into account when planning services for families with preschool children with CP.

  17. Motor skill delays in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation therapy as an important risk factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverna, Livia; Tremolada, Marta; Bonichini, Sabrina; Tosetto, Barbara; Basso, Giuseppe; Messina, Chiara; Pillon, Marta

    2017-01-01

    CNS-directed therapies for the treatment of leukemia can adversely affect the acquisition of new skills, such as reading/writing and math. Two years after the end of treatments, children show gross and fine motor skill delays that may persist even when patients are considered healed. The goal of the present study was to assess motor skills difficulties in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment. Particular attention has been paid to those patients who had undergone Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) and to the relationship between motor delays and age bands. Participants were 60 children (median age of 5; inter quartile range: 3.07-5.76), including 31 females and 29 males, 91.7% of them were affected by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 8.3% by acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Five children had undergone HCST. Parents were interviewed by Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) on children's motor skills and filled in the Italian Temperament Questionnaire (QUIT). VABS's total scores were converted into equivalent mental age scores (EMA). A score difference of at least three months between current age and equivalent mental age was considered a developmental delay. Non-parametric analyses were run to understand if HSCT treatment and a specific age band influence children's motor skills. Significant delays were found in global motor skills (56.7%) as well as in fine and gross motor domains. Mann Whitney U tests showed that children with HSCT were reported to have lower gross motor mean ranks (U = 62; p = 0.004; Mean rank = 15.40) than peers without HSCT (Mean rank = 31.87) and lower mean rank values on motor temperament scale (U = 9; p = 0.003; HSCT Mean rank = 4.75 versus no HSCT Mean rank = 27.81). Kruskal Wallis' tests identified the high risk treatment showing that HSCT experience negatively impacted the motor skills and temperamental motor activity of pre-school children one year after the diagnosis of leukemia.

  18. Motor skill delays in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation therapy as an important risk factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Taverna

    Full Text Available CNS-directed therapies for the treatment of leukemia can adversely affect the acquisition of new skills, such as reading/writing and math. Two years after the end of treatments, children show gross and fine motor skill delays that may persist even when patients are considered healed. The goal of the present study was to assess motor skills difficulties in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment. Particular attention has been paid to those patients who had undergone Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT and to the relationship between motor delays and age bands. Participants were 60 children (median age of 5; inter quartile range: 3.07-5.76, including 31 females and 29 males, 91.7% of them were affected by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL, and 8.3% by acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Five children had undergone HCST. Parents were interviewed by Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS on children's motor skills and filled in the Italian Temperament Questionnaire (QUIT. VABS's total scores were converted into equivalent mental age scores (EMA. A score difference of at least three months between current age and equivalent mental age was considered a developmental delay. Non-parametric analyses were run to understand if HSCT treatment and a specific age band influence children's motor skills. Significant delays were found in global motor skills (56.7% as well as in fine and gross motor domains. Mann Whitney U tests showed that children with HSCT were reported to have lower gross motor mean ranks (U = 62; p = 0.004; Mean rank = 15.40 than peers without HSCT (Mean rank = 31.87 and lower mean rank values on motor temperament scale (U = 9; p = 0.003; HSCT Mean rank = 4.75 versus no HSCT Mean rank = 27.81. Kruskal Wallis' tests identified the high risk treatment showing that HSCT experience negatively impacted the motor skills and temperamental motor activity of pre-school children one year after the diagnosis of leukemia.

  19. Integration оf Foreign Educational Technologies іn the Content of Program of Pre-School Education in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadiia Frolenkova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Reveals the integration and implementation of foreign educational technologies in the content of educational programs of preschool education in Ukraine. The emphasis on the implementation of programs for the ideas of Waldorf education, Montessori programs, “SelfEsteem”, “Step by Step”, “Education for sustainable development for children of pre-school age”. It is proved that the integration of foreign educational technologies in the process of optimizing the scientific and methodological support preschool education content Ukraine simulated based priority, primarily oriented humanistic, pedagogical ideas and technologies.Key words: educational technologies, integration, educational program, content of preschool education, children of pre-school age.

  20. Factors predisposing to early childhood caries (ECC) in children of pre-school age in the city of Zagreb, Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulić-Dukić, O; Jurić, H; Dukić, W; Glavina, D

    2001-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate factors predisposing to early childhood caries (ECC) in pre-school children in the city of Zagreb, Croatia. The investigation was carried out on the sample of 145 children (77 boys and 68 girls) aged between 2 and 5 years, including clinical examination of dental status and survey on the habits among the parents. The overall prevalence of ECC was 30%: in girls it was 25%, and in boys 48%. The study on the risk factors was designed as a classic case-control study. The mean value of dmfs index among the cases amounted to 8.6, in comparison to 5.2 in the control group (pteeth-brushing habit after first 24 months did (p importance of early introduction of teeth-brushing and giving up the nightly consumption of sweet beverages in prevention of ECC.

  1. Small-Group Phonological Awareness Training for Pre-Kindergarten Children with Hearing Loss Who Wear Cochlear Implants and/or Hearing Aids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werfel, Krystal L.; Douglas, Michael; Ackal, Leigh

    2016-01-01

    This case report details a year-long phonological awareness (PA) intervention for pre-kindergarten children with hearing loss (CHL) who use listening and spoken language. All children wore cochlear implants and/or hearing aids. Intervention occurred for 15 min/day, 4 days per week across the pre-kindergarten school year and was delivered by…

  2. Associations between usual school lunch attendance and eating habits and sedentary behaviour in French children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuisson, C; Lioret, S; Dufour, A; Volatier, J L; Lafay, L; Turck, D

    2012-12-01

    Our objective was to investigate whether school lunch attendance was associated with overall eating habits and sedentary behaviour in a French sample of children and adolescents. Data for the study were taken from the second French cross-sectional dietary survey (INCA2-2006-07). In total, 1413 school children aged 3-17 years old were classified according to their school type and their usual school lunch attendance. Eating habits included meal regularity, dietary diversity, purchase in vending machine, snacking habits and frequency of eating in fast-foods. Two composite indices of eating habits were derived from multiple correspondence analyses. Sedentary behaviour was assessed by the average daily screen times for TV and computer. The association between school lunch attendance and each variable was tested. Multivariate association between school lunch attendance and the composite indices of eating habits and sedentary behaviours was studied. In all, 69.0% (CI(95%): 64.2-73.9) of secondary school children and 63.0% (CI(95%): 58.5-67.5) of pre- and elementary school children usually attended school lunch at least once a week. Pre- and elementary school children attending school lunches showed a higher dietary diversity score (P=0.02) and ate morning snacks more frequently (P=0.02). In secondary school children, attending school canteen was related to a lower rate of skipping breakfast (P=0.04) and main meals (P=0.01). In all school children, school lunch attendance was simultaneously associated with healthier overall eating habits and less sedentary behaviour. In France, children attending school canteens seem to have healthier eating habits and display less sedentary behaviour, independently of their socio-economic and demographic background.

  3. Physical Activity and Music to Support Pre-School Children's Mathematics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elofsson, Jessica; Englund Bohm, Anna; Jeppsson, Catarina; Samuelsson, Joakim

    2018-01-01

    In order to give all children equal opportunities in school, methods to prevent early differences are needed. The overall aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of two structured teaching methods: Math in Action, characterised by physical activity and music, and common numerical activities. Children (28 girls, 25 boys) were…

  4. Reliability and Validity Study for the Coloured Progressive Matrices Test between the Ages of 3-9 for Determining Gifted Children in the Pre-School Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bildiren, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study was to test the Coloured Progressive Matrices Test with regard to reliability and validity for the 3-9 age sample group because of the lack of diagnostic tools for the pre-school period. The sample group of the study was comprised of a total of 925 children with 433 girls (46.8%) and 492 boys (53.2%). Coloured…

  5. Computer-Related Posture and Discomfort in Primary School Children: The Effects of a School-Based Ergonomic Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockrell, Sara; Earle, Deirdre; Galvin, Rose

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a school-based ergonomic intervention on childrens' posture and discomfort while using computers using a pre/post test study design. The sample comprised 23 children age 9 and 10 years. Posture was assessed with Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and a workstation assessment was completed using a Visual…

  6. An investigation into the minimum accelerometry wear time for reliable estimates of habitual physical activity and definition of a standard measurement day in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hislop, Jane; Law, James; Rush, Robert; Grainger, Andrew; Bulley, Cathy; Reilly, John J; Mercer, Tom

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the number of hours and days of accelerometry data necessary to provide a reliable estimate of habitual physical activity in pre-school children. The impact of a weekend day on reliability estimates was also determined and standard measurement days were defined for weekend and weekdays.Accelerometry data were collected from 112 children (60 males, 52 females, mean (SD) 3.7 (0.7)yr) over 7 d. The Spearman-Brown Prophecy formula (S-B prophecy formula) was used to predict the number of days and hours of data required to achieve an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.7. The impact of including a weekend day was evaluated by comparing the reliability coefficient (r) for any 4 d of data with data for 4 d including one weekend day.Our observations indicate that 3 d of accelerometry monitoring, regardless of whether it includes a weekend day, for at least 7 h  d(-1) offers sufficient reliability to characterise total physical activity and sedentary behaviour of pre-school children. These findings offer an approach that addresses the underlying tension in epidemiologic surveillance studies between the need to maintain acceptable measurement rigour and retention of a representatively meaningful sample size.

  7. Visual impairment in urban school children of low-income families in Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sambuddha; Mukhopadhyay, Udayaditya; Maji, Dipankar; Bhaduri, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate pattern of visual impairment in school children from low-income families in Kolkata, India, an institutional cross-sectional study was conducted among 2570 children of 10 primary schools. Ocular examination including refraction was done and pattern of visual impairment and refractive error was studied. The age range was 6-14 years. Refractive error was seen in 14.7%. Only 4 children were already wearing correction. Myopia and hypermetropia was present in 307 (11.9%) and 65 (2.5%) children, respectively. Visual acuity of less than 6/12 in better eye was present in 109 (4.2%) and 5 (0.2%) children pre- and post-correction, respectively. Eighteen children had amblyopia. Although prevalence of refractive error in this group is less compared to school children of all income categories reported from other cities of India, it is more compared to school children of all income categories from the same city. Refractive error mostly remains uncorrected in this group.

  8. Children's early child care and their mothers' later involvement with schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosnoe, Robert; Augustine, Jennifer March; Huston, Aletha C

    2012-01-01

    Theory and policy highlight the role of child care in preparing children for the transition into school. Approaching this issue in a different way, this study investigated whether children's care experiences before this transition promoted their mothers' school involvement after it, with the hypothesized mechanism for this link being the cultivation of children's social and academic skills. Analyses of 1,352 children (1 month-6 years) and parents in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development revealed that mothers were more involved at their children's schools when children had prior histories of high-quality nonparental care. This pattern, which was fairly stable across levels of maternal education and employment, was mediated by children's academic skills and home environments. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  9. Pre-Medical Preparation in Microbiology among Applicants and Matriculants in Osteopathic Medical School in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Raddy L; Guercio, Erik; Martinez, Luis R

    2017-01-01

    It is recognized that medical school curricula contain significant microbiology-related content as part of the training of future physicians who will be responsible stewards of antimicrobials. Surprisingly, osteopathic and allopathic medical schools do not require pre-medical microbiology coursework, and the extent to which medical students have completed microbiology coursework remains poorly understood. In this report, we show that fewer than 3% of applicants and matriculants to osteopathic medical school (OMS) have completed an undergraduate major or minor in microbiology, and fewer than 17% of applicants and matriculants to OMS have completed one or more microbiology-related courses. These data demonstrate limited pre-medical microbiology-related knowledge among osteopathic medical students, which may be associated with an increase in perceived stress when learning this content or during clinical rotations as well as a potential lack of interest in pursuing a career in infectious diseases.

  10. LGBTQ Parents: Their Perceptions and Attitudes Regarding Their Ontological Experiences within Their Children's School Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Becky

    2016-01-01

    School can be inhospitable for any lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) parents with children in pre-K-12 classrooms (Kosciw & Diaz, 2008). Some LGBTQ parents feel they must be silent and discreet so their children will not endure any discrimination at school (Fakhrid-Deen & COLAGE, 2010). Some reasons for this silence…

  11. A Critical Analysis on Primary Schools Preparedness for the Transition of Autistic Children in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otina, Salmon O.; Thinguri, Ruth W.

    2016-01-01

    Autistic children, characterized by impaired social interactions, impaired communication, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behaviors, are also entitled to education just like the other children in the society. It is therefore important that primary schools in Kenya get prepared so that the children are able to transit to schools from their…

  12. From Picturebook to Multilingual Collage: Bringing Learners’ First Language and Culture into the Pre-school Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma McGilp

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a project with a small group of children learning English as an a language (EAL at a pre-school in Scotland. The project however could be replicated across the globe, in any classroom with a diverse range of learners, with particular benefit to minority and newly arrived migrant children. At the project’s core was the aim to bring the children’s first language and culture into the classroom, drawing in particular on Cummin’s (1984 Common Underlying Proficiency model, which asserts that knowledge of one language can assist learners in their acquisition of another. The project used multicultural picturebooks to validate the learner’s experiences and culture, and then called on parents’ funds of knowledge to make the children’s first language visible in the classroom. This joint working between the children, parents and the pre-school culminated in the production of a multilingual collage – a prominent display that recognises the value of the children’s first language in the classroom, builds bridges between home and school and is reflective, and proud, of an increasingly multilingual Scotland.

  13. Understanding low uptake of mass treatment for intestinal schistosomiasis among school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhumuza, Simon; Olsen, Annette; Nuwaha, Fred

    2015-01-01

    among school children is low and to suggest strategies for improved uptake. This was a cross-sectional qualitative study in which 24 focus group discussions and 15 key informant interviews were conducted 2 months after MDA. The focus group discussions were held with school children in twelve primary...... schools and the key informant interviews were held with school teachers, sub-county health assistants and the District Vector Control Officer. The study shows that the low uptake of praziquantel among school children is a result of a complex interplay between individual, interpersonal, institutional......, yet many parents cannot meet the cost of a daily meal due to the prevailing poverty in the area. It is concluded that strategies to improve uptake of praziquantel among school children need to be multi-pronged addressing not only the preparation and motivation of teachers and health education...

  14. Head Start, Pre-Kindergarten, and Academic School Readiness: A Comparison Among Regions in the U.S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Fuhua; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Child care programs (including Head Start, pre-Kindergarten [pre-K], and other center-based care) can differ, with patterns of use based on their location. Yet little research has examined how Head Start and pre-K programs affect children’s academic school readiness, including vocabulary and reading skills at school entry, in the South as compared to other regions. To examine this further, secondary data (n = 2,803) collected in the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study were examined. Overall findings suggest, regardless of region, that Head Start and pre-K participants had higher academic skills at school entry than their counterparts. In addition, when Head Start was compared to other center-based care and pre-K was compared to other care arrangements, both had larger effects on improving academic skills in the South than in other regions. These findings imply that Head Start and pre-K programs should target children who otherwise would receive non-parental non-center-based care. Future research should focus on why the effects of Head Start and pre-K vary between the South and other regions. PMID:23729917

  15. FOOD HABIT AMONG ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN IN URBAN BOGOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evy Damayanthi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Food habit strongly predicts individual nutritional status. It is largely influenced by family food habit and family socioeconomic, partly by nutrition education learning in the school.  Objectives of this study were to analyze elementary school children eating habit and examine whether it relates to family socioeconomic and nutritional status. One hundred elementary school children, and their mother, from one school in urban Bogor were chosen purposively according to SIBERMAS Program criteria (i.e. grade 4th and 5th, morning school, having UKS program and not having canteen. Self administered, structured pre-coded questionnaire were used to collect the data. Nutritional status was assessed using weight and height, and body mass index for age (BAZ and height for age (HAZ were then calculated using AnthroPlus software developed by WHO (2009. School children were 8-11 years old (mean 9.37 + 0.66 years, more girls (54%, and mostly had normal nutritional status using both indexes (72% for BAZ and 95% for HAZ. School children were commonly from middle class as indicated by father education (sarjana and mother (senior high school.  Almost all school children (99% knew breakfast was important and 81% of them ate breakfast. Only 32% school children brought lunch box everyday although 92% stated their habit to bring lunch box to school. Buying snack in school was also common among school children. Generally school children ate rice 3 times a day (2.95 + 0.97 with fish, meat, chicken (2.47 + 1.14, tempe and

  16. Animated educational video to prepare children for MRI without sedation: evaluation of the appeal and value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeszak, Szofia; Man, Rachel; Love, Andrew; Langmack, Gill; Wharrad, Heather; Dineen, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    MRI scans can be distressing for children and often require sedation. Educating children about what to expect reduces anxiety and increases likelihood of successful non-sedated MRI scans. Multimedia tools are a popular means of education. Animated video could provide a free, accessible method of preparing children for MRI scans. To evaluate a new animation video for preparing children for MRI, specifically for decreasing in-scanner motion and examination failure. We recruited 24 healthy children ages 5-11 years. Participants underwent pre- and post-viewing questionnaires and structured interviews. We then compared median Likert scale score changes between pre- and post-animation questions and analyzed the interview framework. Participants were filmed viewing the animation to calculate time spent looking at the screen to assess how well the video retained children's attention. There were significant improvements in median scores regarding what to expect, checking for metal and keeping still. There were no significant changes in other knowledge-based topics. There were significant improvements in median scores for anxiety-based topics. On average, children watched the screen for 98.9% of the 174-s animation. The animation improved knowledge, reduced anxiety, retained attention and was enjoyed by participants. It can be accessed freely via the Internet to help prepare children ages 5-11 for having an MRI scan. (orig.)

  17. Animated educational video to prepare children for MRI without sedation: evaluation of the appeal and value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeszak, Szofia [University of Nottingham, Radiological Sciences, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Man, Rachel; Love, Andrew [Nottingham Trent University, School of Art and Design, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Langmack, Gill; Wharrad, Heather [University of Nottingham, Health E-learning and Media group, School of Health Sciences, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Dineen, Robert A. [University of Nottingham, Radiological Sciences, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom); University of Nottingham, Sir Peter Mansfield Imaging Centre, Queen' s Medical Centre, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-15

    MRI scans can be distressing for children and often require sedation. Educating children about what to expect reduces anxiety and increases likelihood of successful non-sedated MRI scans. Multimedia tools are a popular means of education. Animated video could provide a free, accessible method of preparing children for MRI scans. To evaluate a new animation video for preparing children for MRI, specifically for decreasing in-scanner motion and examination failure. We recruited 24 healthy children ages 5-11 years. Participants underwent pre- and post-viewing questionnaires and structured interviews. We then compared median Likert scale score changes between pre- and post-animation questions and analyzed the interview framework. Participants were filmed viewing the animation to calculate time spent looking at the screen to assess how well the video retained children's attention. There were significant improvements in median scores regarding what to expect, checking for metal and keeping still. There were no significant changes in other knowledge-based topics. There were significant improvements in median scores for anxiety-based topics. On average, children watched the screen for 98.9% of the 174-s animation. The animation improved knowledge, reduced anxiety, retained attention and was enjoyed by participants. It can be accessed freely via the Internet to help prepare children ages 5-11 for having an MRI scan. (orig.)

  18. Investigation of the Effects of Brain Teasers on Attention Spans of Pre-School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altun, Meryem; Hazar, Muhsin; Hazar, Zekihan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of brain teasers on attention spans of preschool children of age six. The study was conducted using an experimental design with a control group and pre-test/post-test. The sample of the study is children of age six selected via random appointment among ones who were enrolled in the Merkez…

  19. Motor skill delays in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation therapy as an important risk factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonichini, Sabrina; Tosetto, Barbara; Basso, Giuseppe; Messina, Chiara; Pillon, Marta

    2017-01-01

    CNS-directed therapies for the treatment of leukemia can adversely affect the acquisition of new skills, such as reading/writing and math. Two years after the end of treatments, children show gross and fine motor skill delays that may persist even when patients are considered healed. The goal of the present study was to assess motor skills difficulties in pre-school children with leukemia one year after treatment. Particular attention has been paid to those patients who had undergone Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) and to the relationship between motor delays and age bands. Participants were 60 children (median age of 5; inter quartile range: 3.07–5.76), including 31 females and 29 males, 91.7% of them were affected by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and 8.3% by acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Five children had undergone HCST. Parents were interviewed by Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) on children’s motor skills and filled in the Italian Temperament Questionnaire (QUIT). VABS’s total scores were converted into equivalent mental age scores (EMA). A score difference of at least three months between current age and equivalent mental age was considered a developmental delay. Non-parametric analyses were run to understand if HSCT treatment and a specific age band influence children’s motor skills. Significant delays were found in global motor skills (56.7%) as well as in fine and gross motor domains. Mann Whitney U tests showed that children with HSCT were reported to have lower gross motor mean ranks (U = 62; p = 0.004; Mean rank = 15.40) than peers without HSCT (Mean rank = 31.87) and lower mean rank values on motor temperament scale (U = 9; p = 0.003; HSCT Mean rank = 4.75 versus no HSCT Mean rank = 27.81). Kruskal Wallis’ tests identified the high risk treatment showing that HSCT experience negatively impacted the motor skills and temperamental motor activity of pre-school children one year after the diagnosis of leukemia. PMID

  20. Investigation of 2013 pre-school education program in the context of values in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neriman Aral

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been aimed to examine the acquisition and indicators in the Pre-school Education Program 2013, updated and implemented in 2013, according to the development areas in terms of values education in the study. For this purpose, content analysis method from qualitative research methods was used. The values addressed with in the direction of the theory of values have been divided into categories and subcategories. The final form of the category of values was given in line with the opinion of experts. The specified values have been analyzed according to their status of acquisition and indicators for children. As a result of the study, it has been found that the value of responsibility was given a great place in the pre-school education program and it is followed by the values of respect, solidarity, trust, love, tolerance, freedom, equality, friendship and justice respectively.  Depending on the results obtained, it may be recommended that more attention is paid to the individual interests and needs of children, all values are equally integrated into the program and school-family cooperation is ensured about the values.

  1. [Use of social marketing to increase water consumption among school-age children in Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriedo, Ángela; Bonvecchio, Anabelle; López, Nancy; Morales, Maricruz; Mena, Carmen; Théodore, Florence L; Irizarry, Laura

    2013-01-01

    To increase water consumption in school children in Mexico City through a social marketing intervention. Cluster quasi-experimental design. Intervention of three months in schools, including water provision and designed based on social marketing. Reported changes in attitude, knowledge and behavior were compared pre and post intervention. Children of the intervention group (n=116) increased in 38% (171 ml) water consumption during school time, control group (n=167) decreased its consumption in 21% (140 ml) (pwater consumption among children, strategy that might contribute to mitigate childhood obesity.

  2. Experiences of parents of children with special needs at school entry: a mixed method approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqua, A; Janus, M

    2017-07-01

    The transition from pre-school to kindergarten can be complex for children who need special assistance due to mental or physical disabilities (children with 'special needs'). We used a convergent mixed method approach to explore parents' experiences with service provision as their children transitioned to school. Parents (including one grandparent) of 37 children aged 4 to 6 years completed measures assessing their perceptions of and satisfaction with services. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with 10 parents to understand their experience with services. Post transition, parents reported lower perceptions of services and decreased satisfaction than pre-transition. The following themes emerged from the qualitative data: qualities of services and service providers, communication and information transfer, parent advocacy, uncertainty about services, and contrasts and contradictions in satisfaction. The qualitative findings indicate that parents were both satisfied and concerned with aspects of the post-transition service provision. While the quantitative results suggested that parents' experience with services became less positive after their children entered school, the qualitative findings illustrated the variability in parents' experiences and components of service provision that require improvements to facilitate a successful school entry. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. An Investigation of School Violence and Pre-Service Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaleb, Karen Nykorchuk; Andersen, Amy; Hueston, Harry

    2008-01-01

    All educators need to be aware of issues regarding school violence. Recent years have shown that violence can happen in a variety of school settings. This study conducted a one-group, pretest-posttest, pre-experimental design to explore pre-service teachers' perceptions regarding school violence. First, pre-service educators were asked to complete…

  4. Prevalence of negative life events and chronic adversities in European pre- and primary-school children: results from the IDEFICS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanaelst, Barbara; Huybrechts, Inge; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Bammann, Karin; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalambos; Eiben, Gabriele; Konstabel, Kenn; Michels, Nathalie; Molnar, Denes; Moreno, Luis A; Pigeot, Iris; Reisch, Lucia; Siani, Alfonso; Vyncke, Krishna; De Henauw, Stefaan

    2012-11-22

    Children are not always recognized as being susceptible to stress, although childhood stressors may originate from multiple events in their everyday surroundings with negative effects on children's health. As there is a lack of large-scale, European prevalence data on childhood adversities, this study presents the prevalence of (1) negative life events and (2) familial and social adversities in 4637 European pre- and primary-school children (4-11 years old), using a parentally-reported questionnaire embedded in the IDEFICS project ('Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS'). The following findings were observed: (1) Certain adversities occur only rarely, while others are very regular (i.e. parental divorce); (2) A large percentage of children is shielded from stressors, while a small group of children is exposed to multiple, accumulating adversities; (3) The prevalence of childhood adversity is influenced by geographical location (e.g. north versus south), age group and sex; (4) Childhood adversities are associated and co-occur, resulting in potential cumulative childhood stress. This study demonstrated the importance of not only studying traumatic events but also of focusing on the early familial and social environment in childhood stress research and indicated the importance of recording or monitoring childhood adversities.

  5. School-based sleep education program improves sleep and academic performance of school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Somerville, Gail; Bergmame, Lana; Fontil, Laura; Paquin, Soukaina

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of a school-based sleep education program aimed at improving the sleep and academic performance of school-age children. Using a community-based participatory research approach, we created a school-based sleep education program, "Sleep for Success"™ (SFS), composed of four distinct modules that addressed the children, their family and community, the school staff, and decision makers within the school setting. Implementation was carried out in three elementary schools. Seventy-one students participated in the evaluation of the program. The effectiveness of the SFS program was evaluated using non-randomized controlled before-and-after study groups (intervention and control) assessed over two time points (pre- and post-program implementation). Before (baseline) and after implementation, sleep and academic performance were measured using actigraphy and report card marks, respectively. In the intervention group, true sleep was extended by 18.2 min per night, sleep efficiency improved by 2.3%, and sleep latency was shortened by 2.3 min, and report card grades in mathematics and English improved significantly. No changes were noted in the control group. Participation in the sleep education program was associated with significant improvements in children's sleep and academic performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. School Age Outcomes of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who Received Community-Based Early Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinen, Zoe; Clark, Megan; Paynter, Jessica; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2018-05-01

    This study followed children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) from early intervention into their early schooling years, when they were aged between 6 and 9 years, on autism symptom severity and cognitive functioning. The children, matched at pre-intervention, were compared on type of community provided service: 31 were in receipt of community-based group Early Start Denver Model and 28 had received other community provisions for ASD. Irrespective of groups, cognitive functioning was found to have significantly improved by school age compared to pre-intervention. Autism symptom severity increased during the same developmental period, seemingly driven by an increase in restricted and repetitive behaviours over time. In contrast, both groups displayed improved social affect by school age.

  7. Oral Health Knowledge, Attitude, and Approaches of Pre-Primary and Primary School Teachers in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Ankita; Oswal, Kunal C; Sajnani, Dipti A; Sajnani, Anand K

    2016-01-01

    Background. School teachers have an internationally recognized potential role in school-based dental education and considerable importance has therefore been attributed to their dental knowledge. The objectives of this study were to determine the oral health related knowledge, attitudes, and approaches of pre-primary and primary school teachers in the city of Mumbai. Methods. The descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in the suburban regions of Mumbai using a self-administered questionnaire and involved 511 teachers. Results. Teachers demonstrated inappropriate or incomplete knowledge regarding children's oral health. Only 53.2% knew that an individual has two sets of dentition. Moreover, only 45.4% of the teachers knew that a primary dentition consists of 20 teeth. Only 56.9% of the teachers asked their children to clean their mouth after snacking during school hours. 45.0% of the teachers were unaware of fluoridated tooth pastes whilst 78.9% of them were unaware of school water fluoridation programmes. Also, 54.8% of the teachers never discussed the oral health of children with their parents during parents meet. Conclusions. The studied school teachers demonstrated incomplete oral health knowledge, inappropriate oral practices, and unfavourable approaches to children's oral health. There is a definite and immediate need for organized training of school teachers on basic oral health knowledge.

  8. Family Resources in Two Generations and School Readiness among Children of Teen Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomby, Paula; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Mollborn, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Overall, children born to teen parents experience disadvantaged cognitive achievement at school entry compared to children born to older parents. However, within this population there is variation, with a significant fraction of teen parents’ children acquiring adequate preparation for school entry during early childhood. We ask whether the family background of teen parents explains this variation. We use data on children born to teen mothers from three waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (N~700) to study the association of family background with children's standardized reading and mathematics achievement scores at kindergarten entry. When neither maternal grandparent has completed high school, children's scores on standardized assessments of math and reading achievement are one-quarter to one-third of a standard deviation lower compared to families where at least one grandparent finished high school. This association is net of teen mothers’ own socioeconomic status in the year prior to children's school entry. PMID:26806989

  9. Pre-registration children's and young people's nurse preparation. A SWOT analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jim; McEwing, Gillian; Glasper, Edward Alan

    2006-12-01

    An investigation was undertaken into the views of nurse educators on current approaches to preparing children's and young people's nurses in the UK. A convenience sample of lead academics in 17 child health nursing departments of British universities was contacted by email and invited to liaise with colleagues to generate lists of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) of the educational system. Thirteen departments provided data that were analysed and themed. Major themes included the common foundation programme, clinical skills learning, clinical placements and employment. More detailed evaluative work should be undertaken before wholesale changes are made to a relatively new curriculum.

  10. METHODS AND TECHNIQUES OF TEACHING CHILDREN OF PRE-SCHOOL AGE THE SPORTS DANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARNACOVA ELEONORA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article exposes some conclusions about the influence of the sports dance on the multilateral development of a preschool child`s personality. The author presents methods and techniques used in the didactic activity of teaching-learning the sports dance in groups of children of under school age. At the same time, she outlines the methods of organizing systematically her classes and the fact that the teacher is free to choose the time when to deliver theoretical courses or have practical classes taking in consideration the children`s individual abilities.

  11. Socio-Economic Segregation of Disadvantaged Children between Schools in Pakistan: Comparing the State and Private Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    The distribution of children in different school-types and regions in Pakistan suggests that access and opportunities in education are not evenly accessible for many children. Segregation at school level is an important concern for equity and social justice because the adverse effects of segregation increase the pre-existing gap in opportunities…

  12. Interações afetivas na família e na pré-escola Affective interactions in family and in pre-school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Maria Canhetti Mondin

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A presente pesquisa com crianças pré-escolares enfoca as relações afetivas como elementos indispensáveis à compreensão do crescimento da criança e os papéis da família e da escola nesse empreendimento. Assim, seu objetivo central consistiu na análise das interações afetivas de crianças na família e na pré-escola. Participaram 40 crianças de 4 a 6 anos, matriculadas em uma instituição pré-escolar municipal, localizada no interior do Estado de São Paulo, suas mães e dez professoras. Foram utilizados como instrumentos a observação, o questionário e a entrevista. O primeiro dirigiu-se ao comportamento das crianças no contexto pré-escolar, o segundo ao comportamento das professoras com as crianças e o terceiro destinou-se às mães, cujas verbalizações permitiram constatar as relações interpessoais no ambiente familiar. Os resultados revelaram que as crianças com dificuldades nas relações interpessoais na escola também as apresentavam no ambiente familiar.This research with pre-school children focused affective relations as indispensable elements to understand the growing of a child, and the role of the family and the school in such achievement. Its main goal consisted in the analysis of the affective interactions of children in the family and in pre-school. 40 children (4-6 years old from a municipal pre-school institution (in the State of São Paulo took part in the study, as well as their mothers and 10 teachers. Three instruments have been utilized: observation, questionnaire and interview. The first was used to investigate children's behavior in the pre-school context; the second one referred to the teachers' attitude toward the children, and the third one was dedicated to the mothers, whose verbalizations unveiled the personal relationships in the familiar environment. The results revealed that children with personal relationship problems at school, also presented the same problem at home.

  13. Children's Readiness Gains in Publically Funded, Community-Based Pre-Kindergarten Programs for 4 Year Olds and Preschool for 3 Year Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Peggy; Warde, Beverly; Peluso, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Many states provide public funding to facilitate school readiness for community-based pre-K and preschool programs for 4 year old children and "at risk" 3 year old children. Little research exists on the school readiness gains of children participating in these "garden variety" community-based programs. Objective:…

  14. Effects of a self-esteem intervention program on school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalgas-Pelish, Peggy

    2006-01-01

    Self-esteem is essential for school-aged children's optimum health. High self-esteem is linked to increased school performance, improved health, and productive behavior. This study reports on the effects of a four-lesson self-esteem enhancement program for six groups of 5th and 6th grade children (N=98). The interactive lessons dealt with an overview of self-esteem, media influences, hiding emotions, and changes in self-esteem. Using a pre-test/ post-test design, Coopersmith's Self-Esteem Inventory (SEI) was used to measure self-esteem. The self-esteem subscales dealing with general and social areas were found to significantly increase over time (pself-esteem score. Mean scores showed that children who had friends had more significant changes than those who did not have friends. Children with lower socioeconomic status had lower scores at both the pre and post testing with significance in the general and social subscales. No significance was found related to racial group, family make-up, or the number of household chores or activities. This study supports the effectiveness of a self-esteem enhancement program for girls, those children with friends, and those in lower socioeconomic status. Future research is needed to understand what contributes to the self-esteem of children who report that they do not have friends.

  15. DNA damage in buccal mucosa cells of pre-school children exposed to high levels of urban air pollutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Ceretti

    Full Text Available Air pollution has been recognized as a human carcinogen. Children living in urban areas are a high-risk group, because genetic damage occurring early in life is considered able to increase the risk of carcinogenesis in adulthood. This study aimed to investigate micronuclei (MN frequency, as a biomarker of DNA damage, in exfoliated buccal cells of pre-school children living in a town with high levels of air pollution. A sample of healthy 3-6-year-old children living in Brescia, Northern Italy, was investigated. A sample of the children's buccal mucosa cells was collected during the winter months in 2012 and 2013. DNA damage was investigated using the MN test. Children's exposure to urban air pollution was evaluated by means of a questionnaire filled in by their parents that included items on various possible sources of indoor and outdoor pollution, and the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 in the 1-3 weeks preceding biological sample collection. 181 children (mean age ± SD: 4.3 ± 0.9 years were investigated. The mean ± SD MN frequency was 0.29 ± 0.13%. A weak, though statistically significant, association of MN with concentration of air pollutants (PM10, PM2.5 and NO2 was found, whereas no association was apparent between MN frequency and the indoor and outdoor exposure variables investigated via the questionnaire. This study showed a high MN frequency in children living in a town with heavy air pollution in winter, higher than usually found among children living in areas with low or medium-high levels of air pollution.

  16. Sulphur cement pre-composition and process for preparing such sulphur cement pre-composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    The invention provides a process for the preparation of a sulphur cement pre-composition comprising reacting sulphur modifier with polysulphide-containing organosilane to obtain in the presence of sulphur the sulphur cement pre-composition, wherein the organosilane has the general molecular formula:

  17. Characteristics and pre-travel preparation of travelers at a Canadian pediatric tertiary care travel clinic: A retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiao Wei; Pell, Lisa G; Akseer, Nadia; Khan, Sarah; Lam, Ray E; Louch, Debra; Science, Michelle; Morris, Shaun K

    2016-01-01

    International travelers are susceptible to a wide spectrum of travel related morbidities. Despite rising number of international travelers in Canada, the demographics, risk profiles, and preventative strategies of high-risk traveler groups, including pediatric travelers visiting friends and relatives (VFRs) are not well described. A descriptive analysis was conducted on pre-travel consultations completed between January 2013 and August 2014 at a large pediatric tertiary care center in Toronto, Canada. Data on demographics, travel characteristics, and pre-travel interventions were extracted from 370 pre-travel consultations. Results were compared between all VFR and non-VFR travelers, as well as between children traveling to visit friends and relatives, for vacation, and for education and/or volunteer purposes. Forty-eight percent of consultations were for children travel to visit friends and/or relatives than for other purposes (29% vs 9%, p travel for >28 days than children traveling for vacation (43% vs 1%, p traveling for education/volunteer purposes (43% vs 21%, p = 0.03). Around half of cVFRs traveled to destinations in Asia (51%). The majority stayed with locals, friends and/or relatives (85%), and nearly all traveled to urban destinations (98%). The most prescribed interventions for children were azithromycin (84%), Dukoral (66%), and the hepatitis A vaccine (60%). Atovaquone/proguanil was the most commonly prescribed antimalarial for children. Children that travel to visit friends and relatives represent a unique travel group and may require specific considerations during pre-travel preparations. Our findings can help develop targeted pre-travel strategies for children VFRs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Does the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Training programme have positive effects for young children exhibiting severe externalizing problems in school?: a quasi-experimental pre-post study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkhaug, Bente; Drugli, May Britt; Handegård, Bjørn Helge; Lydersen, Stian; Åsheim, Merethe; Fossum, Sturla

    2016-10-26

    Young children exhibiting severe externalizing problems in school are at risk of developing several poor outcomes. School-based intervention programs have been found to be effective for students with different problems, including those with behavioral problems, emotional distress, or social problems. The present study investigated whether the IY-TCM programme, as a universal stand-alone school intervention programme, reduced severe child externalizing problems as reported by the teacher, and evaluated if these children improved their social competence, internalizing problems, academic performances and student- teacher relationship as a result of the IY TCM training. A quasi-experimental pre-post study was conducted, including 21 intervention schools and 22 control schools. Children in 1 st - 3 rd grade (age 6-8 years) assessed by their teacher as having severe externalizing problems on the Sutter-Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory-Revised (SESBI-R) total Intensity score, were included in the study, N = 83 (65 boys and 18 girls). Treatment effects were evaluated using 3- level linear mixed models analysis. In our study we found no differences in change between the two conditions from baseline to follow-up in externalizing problems, social skills, internalizing problems and closeness with teacher. The intervention condition did however show advantageous development in terms of student-teacher conflicts and increased academic performances. The IY Teacher Classroom Management program is not sufficient being a stand-alone universal program in a Norwegian primary school setting, for students with severe externalizing problems. However; some important secondary findings were found. Still, young school children with severe externalizing problems are in need of more comprehensive and tailored interventions.

  19. Does the Incredible Years Teacher Classroom Management Training programme have positive effects for young children exhibiting severe externalizing problems in school?: a quasi-experimental pre-post study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bente Kirkhaug

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Young children exhibiting severe externalizing problems in school are at risk of developing several poor outcomes. School-based intervention programs have been found to be effective for students with different problems, including those with behavioral problems, emotional distress, or social problems. The present study investigated whether the IY-TCM programme, as a universal stand-alone school intervention programme, reduced severe child externalizing problems as reported by the teacher, and evaluated if these children improved their social competence, internalizing problems, academic performances and student- teacher relationship as a result of the IY TCM training. Methods A quasi-experimental pre-post study was conducted, including 21 intervention schools and 22 control schools. Children in 1st – 3rd grade (age 6–8 years assessed by their teacher as having severe externalizing problems on the Sutter–Eyberg Student Behavior Inventory-Revised (SESBI-R total Intensity score, were included in the study, N = 83 (65 boys and 18 girls. Treatment effects were evaluated using 3- level linear mixed models analysis. Results In our study we found no differences in change between the two conditions from baseline to follow-up in externalizing problems, social skills, internalizing problems and closeness with teacher. The intervention condition did however show advantageous development in terms of student-teacher conflicts and increased academic performances. Conclusion The IY Teacher Classroom Management program is not sufficient being a stand-alone universal program in a Norwegian primary school setting, for students with severe externalizing problems. However; some important secondary findings were found. Still, young school children with severe externalizing problems are in need of more comprehensive and tailored interventions.

  20. SUGGESTOPEDIA AS THE METHOD OF THE MUSIC EXPERIENCE FORMATION OF PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya T. Таgiltseva; Filip D. Shavov

    2015-01-01

    The article aims to consider the possibility of suggestopedia methods use that are successfully practiced in foreign language teaching, pedagogy of music education of preschool children, in starting schools; to find out the degree of methods efficiency of suggestopedia in shaping the musical experience of preschool children in various activities at music lessons. Methods. The theoretical foundations of the article are views and concepts of the Bulgarian researcher, teacher and psychologist, G...

  1. Sport stacking activities in school children's motor skill development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhua; Coleman, Diane; Ransdell, Mary; Coleman, Lyndsie; Irwin, Carol

    2011-10-01

    This study examined the impact of a 12-wk. sport stacking intervention on reaction time (RT), manual dexterity, and hand-eye coordination in elementary school-aged children. 80 Grade 2 students participated in a 15-min. sport stacking practice session every school day for 12 wk., and were tested on psychomotor performance improvement. Tests for choice RT, manual dexterity, and photoelectric rotary pursuit tracking were conducted pre- and post-intervention for both experimental group (n = 36) and the controls (n = 44) who did no sport stacking. Students who had the intervention showed a greater improvement in two-choice RT. No other group difference was found. Such sport stacking activities may facilitate children's central processing and perceptual-motor integration.

  2. An Exploration of Life Skills Programme on Pre-School Children in Embu West, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatumu, Jane Ciumwari; Kathuri, Wilfred Njeru

    2018-01-01

    The Life Skills Programme, which is one of the newest programmes in the Kenya Preschool educational system was explored to establish the impact it had on the lives of preschool children in Embu West, Kenya. A primary school that is perceived as having well-disciplined children was purposively selected. The sample consisted of 39 students, 43…

  3. Intensive Behavioral Intervention for School-Aged Children with Autism: Una Breccia nel Muro (UBM)--A Comprehensive Behavioral Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Leonardo; Vicari, Stefano; Valeri, Giovanni; D'Elia, Lidia; Arima, Serena; Strauss, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Although, reviews and outcome research supports empirical evidence for Early Intensive Behavior Intervention in pre-scholars, intensive behavioral service provision for school-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are less subject to research studies. In order to provide effective behavioral interventions for school-aged children it…

  4. Promoting School Mental Health Competencies: Exploring the Utility of Decision Cases for Pre-Service Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iachini, Aidyn L.; Wolfer, Terry A.

    2015-01-01

    Preparation of the school mental health (SMH) workforce is an important priority. Significant gaps remain, however, in our understanding of which pre-service training strategies may be most effective for promoting essential cross-disciplinary SMH competencies. In response, this paper describes the case method of teaching and provides pilot…

  5. Prevalence of pre-diabetes, diabetes, pre-hypertension, and hypertension in children weighing more than normal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Phatale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Prevalence of pre-diabetes, diabetes, pre-hypertension (pre-HT, and hypertension (HT in children weighing more than normal. Materials and Methods: Three- to eighteen-year old children weighing more than normal were included. Pathological short children were excluded. According to Centre for Disease Control (CDC, children are grouped into overweight (OW and obese (OB. Indian B.P. reference tables are used for defining HT and pre-HT. [2] HbA1c by HPLC (BIO RAD method was used to define pre-diabetes and diabetes. [3] Children with HbA1c ≥6.5 were subjected for Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT. C-peptide assay was done to rule out (r/o IDDM. Observations: When we compare this with our earlier presentation at PEDICON 2011, we found that hypertension (HTN (22.9% vs. 23.07% is not significantly different but pre-HTN (28.09% vs. 33.9%, pre-diabetes mellitus (pre-DM (3.7% vs. 64.3%, and diabetes mellitus (DM (0.35% vs. 3.8% are significantly high in this study. Conclusion: (1 Prevalence of HT (22.90% vs. 23.07% is similar in both groups but pre-HT (33.9% vs. 28.09% is high in this study. (2 Significant rise in prevalence of diabetes (3.84% vs. 0.35% and pre-diabetes (64.33% vs. 3.7% is seen in this study. (3 This change is because of using HbA1c as screening tool in children weighing more than normal.

  6. Pre-School Education in Morocco and Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzoubaa, Khadija; Benghabrit-Remaoun, Nouria

    2004-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the current state of early childhood care in the Maghreb, in particular in Morocco and Algeria, where the pre-schooling rate for 5-year-olds is on the increase. Extending pre-school infrastructures and the need to create unified curricula have been among the most urgent questions to be tackled over the last decade in…

  7. Social Justice and School Leadership Preparation: Can We Shift Beliefs, Values, and Commitments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, James G.; Harper, Robert E.; Koschoreck, James W.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between a social justice curriculum and the dispositions of graduate students enrolled in an online pre-service school principal preparation program. Data Collection: Students were asked to write reflective essays before the course began and again after the course was over discussing their…

  8. Prenatal to Preschool: An Integrated Approach to School Readiness for Native Hawaiian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Hannah; And Others

    This report outlines the Pre-kindergarten Educational Program (PREP) of Kamehameha Schools Bishop Estate in Hawaii, an integrated early education program serving families with children from the prenatal stage through age 5. The paper first discusses the program's three components and how they adapt to developmental changes in children and…

  9. [Overweight in primary school-age children. Prevalence and risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, M B; Bausback-Schomakers, S; Hanschmann, K M; Gerhards, B; Kuhn, K; Krackhardt, B

    2015-10-01

    Various studies show that pre-school age is a sensitive period for the development of overweight and obesity. During a longitudinal study between 2010 and 2013, the municipal health authority (city of Frankfurt) in cooperation with the university children's hospital investigated the development of weight in children aged 5 to 8. The weight and height of a collective of 5720 children were measured (2010/11). In addition, nutritional and exercise habits, as well as media consumption was documented for 4758 children through a questionnaire during the school enrolment procedure. The weight and height of 3481 children were measured again in the second grade (2012/13). Over a period of 24 months, the percentage of overweight (not obese) children increased from 7.5 to 9.4 % and that of obese children from 4.5 to 5.0 %. 164 of 2818 children with a normal initial weight (5.8 %) changed to percentile class overweight or obese. 79 of 260 children who were initially overweight, not obese (30 %), changed to the group of normal weight, but only 4 out of 156 obese children (3 %). Increased TV consumption (> 1 h per day), availability of their own television, lack of physical activity, and consumption of high-calorie drinks were risk factors for the development of overweight during the primary school age. 72 % of parents of overweight children and 22 % of obese children falsely classified their children as normal weight. Targeted education about the risk of obesity in the primary school age and offers for early intervention should be established in the healthcare services concerned.

  10. Reading Development in Typically Developing Children and Children With Prenatal or Perinatal Brain Lesions: Differential School Year and Summer Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir-Lira, Özlem Ece; Levine, Susan C

    2016-01-01

    Summer slide, uneven growth of academic skills over the calendar year, captures the fact that the learning gains children make over the school year do not continue at the same pace over the summer, when children are typically not in school. We compared growth of reading skills during the school year and over the summer months in children with pre-or perinatal brain lesion (PL) and typically-developing (TD) children from varying socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds as a new way to probe the role of structured environmental support in functional plasticity for reading skills in children with PL. Results showed that children with PL performed lower than TD children on both reading decoding and reading comprehension. Group differences were primarily driven by children with larger lesions and children with right hemisphere lesions (RH). For reading comprehension, children with RH showed greater growth during the school year but more slide during the summer months than both TD children and children with left hemisphere lesions, implicating a particularly strong role of structured input in supporting reading comprehension in this group. TD children from lower SES backgrounds fell behind their TD peers from higher SES backgrounds on decoding and reading comprehension, but did not show differential patterns of school year and summer growth. Overall, results highlight the importance of considering the role of a host of factors interacting at multiple levels of analyses, including biological and environmental, in influencing developmental trajectories of typically and atypically-developing children.

  11. Six years of vision screening tests in pre-school children in kindergartens of Wroclaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmigiel, Marta; Geniusz, Malwina; Szmigiel, Ireneusz

    2017-09-01

    Detection of vision defects of a child without professional knowledge is not easy. Very often, the parents of a small child does not know that their child sees incorrect. Also the youngster, not knowing any other way of seeing, does not know that it is not the best. While the vision of a small child is not yet fully formed, it is worth checking them very early. Defects detected early gives opportunity for the correction of anomalies, which might give the effect of the normal development of vision. According to the indications, the American Optometric Association (AOA) control eye examination should be performed between the ages of 6 months to 3 years, before going to school and then every two years. Members of SPIE Student Chapter, in cooperation with the Visual Optics Group working on the Department of Optics and Photonics (Faculty of Fundamental Problems, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology) for 6 years offer selected kindergartens of Wroclaw participation in project "Screening vision tests in pre-school children". Depending on the number of involved members of the student chapter and willing to cooperate students of Ophthalmology and Optometry, vision screening test was carried out in up to eight kindergartens every year. The basic purpose of screening vision test is to detect visual defects to start the correction so early in life as possible, while increasing the efficiency of the child's visual potential. The surrounding community is in fact more than enough examples of late diagnose vision problems, which resulted in lack of opportunity or treatment failure

  12. Preparation and procedures of pre-commissioning on DECY-13 cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silakhuddin

    2016-01-01

    A preparation and procedures for pre-commissioning of DECY-13 Cyclotron have been discussed and the steps for these have been arranged. Pre-commissioning is a testing stage of individual subsystems when all subsystems have been integrated into a cyclotron system. The discussion was taken from references, the next the readiness of devices was studied and then the preparation and procedures of the pre-commissioning were arranged. The results of the discussion are that for doing the pre-commissioning of the cyclotron DECY-13 still requires the completion of RF-dee subsystem and some components for testing are still to be completed. (author)

  13. Strategies for Astronomers in the Preparation of Pre-Service Elementary and Secondary Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, G. R.

    2004-12-01

    Making an impact on pre-service teacher preparation is challenging and requires a multi-faceted approach. To begin with, it's advisable to be informed by the education research and consensus policy statements published by the teacher education community, and to make meaningful connections with educators in this field. Two significant books to consult in this area come from the National Academy Press: "How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School" (NRC, 2000; see in particular chapter 8 on 'Teacher Learning') and "Educating Teachers of Science, Mathematics, and Technology: New Practices for the New Millennium" (NRC, 2001). Much can also be learned from joining the Association for the Education Teachers of Science (AETS; www.TheAETS.org) and/or attending its annual conferences, which attract various science teacher educators. It goes without saying that most teachers tend to teach science the way they learned it themselves, at least as a "default" pedagogical approach. Thus, initiatives in pre-service teacher preparation should include efforts to involve constructivist, inquiry-based teaching and learning in the undergraduate science lecture and laboratory courses that future teachers are enrolling in. Another important area in teacher education is the "science methods" course that a pre-service teacher enrolls in, through a college or school of education. Science methods courses are usually offered in both elementary and secondary education, and the approaches in each are of course different. Pre-service teachers in methods courses are often most concerned with classroom management strategies, and there is usually not much time in these courses for guidance on astronomy-specific (or any discipline-specific) curriculum and instruction. But experiences with short "interventions" in both elementary and secondary science methods courses have demonstrated that talking about and working hands-on with a well-designed space science curriculum resource (e.g. "The

  14. Science and Mathematics Teaching Efficacy Beliefs of Pre-School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydogdu, Bülent; Peker, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to examine science and mathematics teaching efficacy beliefs of pre-school teachers in terms of some variables. The sample of the study was comprised of 191 pre-school teachers working in a city in Aegean Region of Turkey. Since it attempted to define self-efficacy beliefs of pre-school teachers toward science and…

  15. Behavioral Skills Training in Portuguese Children With School Failure Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Galindo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper postulates that psychology can make an important contribution at an individual level to help children with school failure problems in a context where too little applied research has been conducted on the instructional needs of these children. Some data are analyzed, revealing that, despite some progress, school failure is still a main educational problem in many countries. In this study, Behavioral Skills Training (BST was applied in Portugal to train children with school failure difficulties. BST is a method based on Applied Behavior Analysis, a teaching package consisting of a combination of behavioral techniques: instructions, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback. Two empirical studies are presented. Their main purpose was to develop behavioral diagnostic and training techniques to teach lacking skills. School success was defined in terms of a set of skills proposed by teachers and school failure as a lack of one or more of these skills. The main instrument was a package of training programs to be applied in three areas: basic behavior (precurrents, academic behavior, or social behavior. The second instrument is a package of check-lists, aimed to determine the level of performance of the child in an area. This check-list was applied before (pre-test and after (post-test training. In the first study, 16, 7- to 8-year old children were trained. They were attending the second or third grades and having academic difficulties of different origins. The effects of the training programs are evaluated in terms of percentage of attained objectives, comparing a pre- and a post-test. The results showed an increase in correct responses after training in all cases. To provide a sounder demonstration of the efficacy of the training programs, a second study was carried out using a quasi-experimental design. A multiple baseline design was applied to three 10- to 11-year-old children, referred by teachers because of learning difficulties in the fourth

  16. A pilot study of the Incredible Years Teacher Training programme and a curriculum unit on social and emotional skills in community pre-schools in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Henningham, H; Walker, S; Powell, C; Gardner, J Meeks

    2009-09-01

    School-based interventions involving teacher and/or child training have been shown to benefit teacher practices and to prevent conduct problems and improve children's social and emotional competence in developed countries; however, we are aware of no reports from a developing country. We conducted a pilot study of the Incredible Years Teacher Training programme and a curriculum unit on social and emotional skills based on concepts and activities drawn from the Incredible Years Dina Dinosaur Classroom Curriculum to determine if this approach is appropriate for use with Jamaican pre-school teachers and children. Five pre-schools in Kingston, Jamaica were randomly assigned to an intervention (3 pre-schools with 15 classrooms) or control (2 pre-schools with 12 classrooms) condition. Intervention involved seven whole-day teacher workshops using the Incredible Years Teacher Training programme supplemented by 14 child lessons in each class. The project was evaluated through structured observations of four categories of teacher behaviour and four observer ratings: two rating scales of child behaviour and two rating scales of classroom atmosphere. Significant intervention benefits were found to teachers' behaviour with increased positive behaviour [b = 7.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.5, 12.3], reduced negative behaviour (b =-3.5; 95% CI: -6.6, -0.2) and increases in the extent to which teachers promoted children's social and emotional skills (b = 46.4; 95% CI: 11.0, 81.7). The number of teacher commands was not significantly reduced (b =-2.71; 95% CI: -6.01, 0.59). Significant intervention benefits were found to ratings of child behaviour with an increase in children's appropriate behaviour (b = 5.7, 95% CI: 1.0, 10.8) and in children's interest and enthusiasm (b = 7.2, 95% CI: 0.9, 13.5). Intervention also benefited classroom atmosphere with increases in opportunities provided for children to share and help each other (b = 1.3, 95% CI: 0.5, 2.1) and in teacher warmth

  17. Effect of a Preoperative Preparation Program on Anxiety in School-age Children Undergoing Surgery Using a Factorial Design

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    Maliheh Shoja

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgery is a stressful experience in children. Therefore, the familiarization of this population with treatment processes by means of appropriate training tools and techniques can be an effective way to control their anxiety. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a preoperative preparation program on anxiety in school-age children undergoing surgery using a factorial design. Method: This clinical trial was conducted on 81 children aged 6-12 years as candidates for elective surgery at Doctor Sheikh Hospital in Mashhad, Iran, in 2016. A preparation program was implemented with two methods (i.e., displaying video tutorials with and without nurses’ explanations and on two different days (i.e., prior to and on the day of operation using a factorial design. The estimation of children’s anxiety was accomplished by using the Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale administered before training and prior to operating room admission. The data were analyzed by statistical tests in SPSS software, version 16. Results: The study groups were comparable in terms of demographic characteristics (P>0.05. There was no significant differences among the four groups regarding manifest anxiety based on the place of referral (i.e., department or clinic (P=0.22, presentation or non-presentation of explanations by nurses (P=0.12, and their interaction effects (P=0.22. Implications for Practice: No significant difference was observed among the four groups in terms of manifest anxiety. Therefore, all four training methods were effective in reducing anxiety in children. Consequently, each of these methods can be used depending on human resources and infrastructure of each department.

  18. Improving the Leadership Skills of Pre-Service School Librarians through Leadership Pre-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniella

    2014-01-01

    School librarian guidelines encourage active leadership in schools. Two ways school librarian educators can encourage school librarians to be leaders are to embed the standards into the certification curriculum and to assess the leadership potential of pre-service school librarians in order to adapt the curriculum to their needs. This mixed-method…

  19. Children's collaborative encounters in pre-school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svinth, Lone

    2013-01-01

    Collaboration is often described as a situation whereby two or more children work together towards a common goal. When viewed from a socio-cultural learning perspective, a broader understanding of collaboration is suggested. This article investigates the forms and pathways of children...

  20. An Exploration of the Differential Effects of Parents' Authoritarianism Dimensions on Pre-school Children's Epistemic, Existential, and Relational Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Margherita; Carraro, Luciana; Castelli, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Research on adult populations has widely investigated the deep differences that characterize individuals who embrace either conservative or liberal views of the world. More recently, research has started to investigate these differences at very early stages of life. One major goal is to explore how parental political ideology may influence children's characteristics that are known to be associated to different ideological positions. In the present work, we further investigate the relations between parents' ideology and children cognitive processing strategies within the framework of political ideology as motivated social cognition (Jost et al., 2003) and the dual process model of political ideology (Duckitt et al., 2002). Specifically, epistemic (implicit attitudes toward order vs. chaos), existential (negativity and threat bias), and relational needs (conformity measure) were assessed in pre-school children (N = 106; 4–6 years). For each child at least one parent completed both the Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) and the Right Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) measures. Interestingly, results indicated that mothers' and fathers' responses had unique associations with children's socio-cognitive motivations, and different findings emerged in relation to the two facets of parental authoritarianism, namely dominance (i.e., SDO) and submission (i.e., RWA). More specifically, children's existential needs appeared to be more related to mothers' RWA scores, whereas children's epistemic needs appeared to be more related to fathers' SDO. Finally, parents' RWA and SDO scores appeared to have opposite effects on children's relational needs: children's conformity increased at increasing levels of mothers' RWA and decreased at increasing levels of fathers' SDO. Overall, however, results were relatively weak and several links between the responses of parents and their children were not significant, suggesting caution in drawing strong conclusions about the impact of parents

  1. An Exploration of the Differential Effects of Parents' Authoritarianism Dimensions on Pre-school Children's Epistemic, Existential, and Relational Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Margherita; Carraro, Luciana; Castelli, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Research on adult populations has widely investigated the deep differences that characterize individuals who embrace either conservative or liberal views of the world. More recently, research has started to investigate these differences at very early stages of life. One major goal is to explore how parental political ideology may influence children's characteristics that are known to be associated to different ideological positions. In the present work, we further investigate the relations between parents' ideology and children cognitive processing strategies within the framework of political ideology as motivated social cognition (Jost et al., 2003) and the dual process model of political ideology (Duckitt et al., 2002). Specifically, epistemic (implicit attitudes toward order vs. chaos), existential (negativity and threat bias), and relational needs (conformity measure) were assessed in pre-school children ( N = 106; 4-6 years). For each child at least one parent completed both the Social Dominance Orientation (SDO) and the Right Wing Authoritarianism (RWA) measures. Interestingly, results indicated that mothers' and fathers' responses had unique associations with children's socio-cognitive motivations, and different findings emerged in relation to the two facets of parental authoritarianism, namely dominance (i.e., SDO) and submission (i.e., RWA). More specifically, children's existential needs appeared to be more related to mothers' RWA scores, whereas children's epistemic needs appeared to be more related to fathers' SDO. Finally, parents' RWA and SDO scores appeared to have opposite effects on children's relational needs: children's conformity increased at increasing levels of mothers' RWA and decreased at increasing levels of fathers' SDO. Overall, however, results were relatively weak and several links between the responses of parents and their children were not significant, suggesting caution in drawing strong conclusions about the impact of parents

  2. INCLUSIVE CULTURE IN PRE-SCHOOL INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena NOVACHEVSKA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Inclusive education is a rational concept that refers to the overall and long-term transformation of institutional systems in society, especially in education. Along with the transformation, a number of important and unresolved issues still appear in both theory and practice, as the duty of pre-school institutions and schools is to educate every student in the mainstream education system. One of the most important aspects of inclusion is the inclusive culture. Regardless of the good inclusive policy and practice, one cannot talk about successful inclusion without a properly developed inclusive institutional culture.This paper is a contribution to the research considering the development of inclusive culture in three preschool institutions. It is based on the thinking and attitudes of the pre­school staff toward the necessity of developing and nurturing an inclusive culture. Successful inclusion of pupils with special needs in the mainstream school system cannot be conceived without an inclusive culture.

  3. A Pilot Study of a 6-Week Parenting Program for Mothers of Pre-school Children Attending Family Health Centers in Karachi, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Khowaja

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Recently, parenting programs to address behavioural and emotional problems associated with child maltreatment in developing countries have received much attention. There is a paucity of literature on effective parent education interventions in the local context of Pakistan. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of offering a 6-week parenting program for mothers of pre-school children attending family health centres (FHCs in Karachi, the largest metropolitan city of Pakistan. Methods A pilot quasi-experimental trial was conducted. Two FHCs were selected, one as the intervention and the second as the control. A total of 57 mothers of pre-school children (n = 30 intervention; n = 27 control participated in this study. Mothers in the intervention group received SOS Help for parents module, while mothers in the control group received information about routine childcare. A parenting scale (PS was administered before the program was implemented and repeated 2 weeks after the program was completed in both groups. Statistical analysis was performed to compare participants’ attributes. Descriptive analysis was conducted to compare pre- and post-test mean scores along with standard deviation for parenting subscales in the intervention and control groups. Results A total of 50 mothers (n = 25 intervention; n = 25 control completed the 6-week program. Attrition was observed as 5/30 (17% in the intervention arm and 2/27 (2% in the control arm. Mothers commonly reported the burden of daily domestic and social responsibilities as the main reason for dropping out. Furthermore, the majority of participants in the control group recommended increasing the duration of weekly sessions from 1 to 1.5 hours, thereby decreasing the program period from 6 to 4 weeks. Mothers in intervention group reported substantial improvement in parenting skills as indicated by mean difference in their pre- and post-test scores for laxness and over

  4. Daily Report Cards as a School-Based Intervention for Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Darren A.; Whittaker, Sarah; Ford, Tamsin J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes daily report cards and the evidence relating to their use in schools for children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This intervention typically involves teachers evaluating a student's behaviour at school against pre-determined targets and parents subsequently providing reinforcement at home for positive…

  5. Prevalence of intolerance to food additives among Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, G.; Madsen, C.; Saval, P.

    1993-01-01

    The prevalence of intolerance to food additives was assessed in a group of unselected school children aged 5-16 years. A study group of 271 children was selected on the basis of the results of a questionnaire on atopic disease answered by 4,274 (86%) school children in the municipality of Viborg......, Denmark. The children in the study group followed an elimination diet for two weeks before they were challenged with a mixture of food preservatives, colourings and flavours. The challenge was open and the additives were prepared as a fizzy lemonade. If the open challenge was positive, a double-blind...... the double-blind challenge which was positive in 6 cases. Five of these 6 children had positive reactions to synthetic colourings and 1 to citric acid. No serious reactions were seen. Based upon calculations of the results from this study and an earlier multi-center study in children referred to hospital...

  6. Head Teachers and Teachers as Pioneers in Facilitating Dyslexic Children in Primary Mainstream Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahima Salman Jaka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the perceptions of school heads and teachers in facilitating young dyslexic children in primary mainstream schools of Pakistan. Through purposive sampling, the researcher selected eight participants: Four primary school heads and four primary teachers from elite schools of Karachi. The research instrument selected for this study was in-depth interviews to get a deeper insight of school heads and teachers perceptions regarding the facilitation of dyslexic children. The findings revealed that children with dyslexia face many emotional and academic problems and only a few elite schools provide policy to facilitate them in mainstream education. Findings showed that some schools hired remedial teaching services or special education services and the school heads and primary teachers put in immense effort in preparing intervention plans and evaluation plans to suit individual and young dyslexic children needs. It was also suggested that positivity of the learning environment depends upon the teachers. The findings further disclosed that unlike the more developed nations, apart from a few elite schools in Pakistan, there is no importance paid to professional training related to dyslexia.

  7. Decision making about pre-medication to children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proczkowska-Björklund, M; Runeson, I; Gustafsson, P A; Svedin, C G

    2008-11-01

    Inviting the child to participate in medical decisions regarding common medical procedures might influence the child's behaviour during the procedures. We wanted to study nurse decision-making communication regarding pre-medication before ear, nose and throat (ENT) surgery. In total, 102 children (3-6 years) signed for ENT surgery were video-filmed during the pre-medication process. The nurse decision-making communication was identified, transcribed and grouped in six main categories dependent on the level of participation (self-determination, compromise, negotiation, questioning, information, lack of communication). Associations between child factors (age, gender, verbal communication and non-verbal communication) and different nurse decision-making communication were studied. Associations between the decision-making communication and verbal hesitation and/or the child's compliance in taking pre-medication were also studied. Totally, information was the most frequently used category of decision making communication followed by negotiation and questioning. To the children showing signs of shyness, the nurse used more negotiation, questions and self-determination communication and less information. The nurse used more compromise, negotiation and gave less information to children with less compliance. No specific type of nurse decision-making communication was associated with verbal hesitation. The most important predictors for verbal hesitation were none or hesitant eye contact with nurse (OR = 4.5) and placement nearby or in parent's lap (OR = 4.7). Predictors for less compliance in taking pre-medication were verbal hesitation from the child (OR = 22.7) and children who did not give any verbal answer to nurse initial questions (OR = 5.5). Decision-making communication could not predict the child's compliance during pre-medication. Although negotiation, questioning and self-determination communication were associated with more unwillingness to take pre

  8. Culturally responsive engineering education: A case study of a pre-college introductory engineering course at Tibetan Children's Village School of Selakui

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Marisol Mercado

    Culturally responsive teaching has been argued to be effective in the education of Indigenous youth. This approach emphasizes the legitimacy of a group's cultural heritage, helps to associate abstract academic knowledge with the group's sociocultural context, seeks to incorporate a variety of strategies to engage students who have different learning styles, and strives to integrate multicultural information in the educational contents, among other considerations. In this work, I explore the outcomes of a culturally responsive introductory engineering short course that I developed and taught to Tibetan students at Tibetan Children's Village of Selakui (in Uttarakhand, India). Based on my ethnographic research in Tibetan communities in northern India, I examine two research questions: (a) What are the processes to develop and implement a pre-college culturally responsive introductory engineering course? and (b) How do Tibetan culture and Buddhism influence the engineering design and teamwork of the pre-college Tibetan students who took the course? I designed then taught the course that featured elementary lectures on sustainability, introductory engineering design, energy alternatives, and manufacturing engineering. The course also included a pre-college engineering design project through which Tibetan high school students investigated a problem at the school and designed a possible solution to it. Drawing from postcolonial studies, engineering studies, engineering and social justice, Buddhist studies, and Tibetan studies, I provide an analysis of my findings. Based on my findings, I conclude that my culturally responsive approach of teaching was an effective method to help students feel that their cultural background was respected and included in a pre-college engineering course; however, some students felt resistance toward the teaching approach. In addition, the culturally relevant content that connected with their ways of living in their school, Tibetan

  9. Continuing the promise: Recruiting and preparing Hmong-American educators for Central Wisconsin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie McClain-Ruelle

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The state of Wisconsin, and in the broader context, the middle states of the United States experienced a large influx of Hmong families starting in the early 1980’s and into the 1990’s. With this influx a large number of young, Southeast Asian children entered the PK-12 classrooms, often with the support of bilingual aides. While many of the children flourished within this newer context, they were mostly guided in their classrooms by white, Anglo educators. Although theseeducators work to meet the needs of all children, there were few to no Hmong educators working with these same children in the PK-12 setting. At the same time, a number of Hmong young adults were serving as bilingual aides in these classrooms. Project Forward, a federally funded Title VII grant, has worked to create a shift in these roles, preparing Hmong college students to become educators in the PK-12 settings. In 1999, Central Wisconsin enrolled approximately3,200 Hmong children in the PK-12 schools; at the same time, Central Wisconsin employed merely seven Hmong teachers in the classrooms. The goal of the grant program described in this paper is to prepare teachers of Southeast Asian background for early childhood, elementary, secondary and K-12 classrooms. The Central Wisconsin grant has supported a total of 35 Southeast Asian students in their pursuit of teaching careers. Fulfilling the goal of preparingteachers who can serve as role models for Southeast Asian children in our schools has met with successes and struggles. This article presents consideration of the central factors affectingrecruitment, retention and preparation of Hmong pre-service teachers in Central Wisconsin. The article includes a brief historical examination of the immigration of the Hmong population intothe United States, a consideration of the Hmong culture as it affects recruitment and retention of pre-service teachers and evidence related to successes and struggles experienced by Project

  10. Seasonal prevalence and incidence of Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia duodenalis and associated diarrhoea in children attending pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwila, J.; Phiri, I.G.K.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2011-01-01

    Prevalence, incidence and seasonal variation of Cryptosporidium and Giardia duodenalis were studied over a 12-month period in 100 children from four pre-schools in Kafue, Zambia. Questionnaire data and a single stool sample were collected monthly from each child. Samples were processed using...... a commercial kit (Meridian Diagnostics Inc., USA) and oo(cysts) visualised by immunofluorescence microscopy. Cryptosporidium was detected in 30.7% (241/786; 95% CI = 27.5-33.9) while G. duodenalis was detected in 29.0% (228/786; 95% CI = 25.8-32.2). A total of 86% experienced one or more episodes...... of cryptosporidiosis while 75% had giardiasis. Cumulative incidence per 100 children was 75.4 for Cryptosporidium and 49.0 for G. duodenalis. Both infections were significantly more common in the wet compared to the dry season (34.8%, 162/466 vs. 24.7%, 79/320, P = 0.003 and 35.2%, 164/466 vs. 20.0%, 64/320, P

  11. Simulated surgical workshops enhance medical school students’ preparation for clinical rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Johnson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundA major focus of the medical school curriculum is to ensure medical students are well prepared prior to entering clinical rotations, which includes the compulsory surgical rotation.AimsThe objective of this research was to design and formally evaluate a set of real-life surgical workshops aimed at better preparing medical students for their clinical rotation in surgery. These workshops would be incorporated into the pre-clinical medical school curriculum.MethodDedicated surgical workshops were introduced into the preclinical component of the Bachelor of Medicine/Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS program at our University in 2009. These workshops encompassed training in the clinical skills needed in the perioperative and wider hospital setting. A survey comprising of eight to nine ranked questions (utilising a five-point Likert Scale as well as three short answer questions was administered to the medical students after they completed their compulsory surgical clinical rotation.ResultsThe overall response rate to the survey evaluating the surgical workshops was 79% (123/155. The mean of the ranked questions ranged from 4.05 to 4.89 which indicated that the students found the workshops useful. When evaluating the short answer questions (via topic coding, additional information was provided that supported and explained the survey findings and also included suggestions for improvements.ConclusionThe findings of the medical student survey demonstrated the value of incorporating dedicated preparatory surgical workshops in the medical school pre-clinical curriculum. However, further research is warranted to determine if this inclusion translated into improved student performance during the clinical surgical rotation.

  12. Personal hygiene among primary school children living in a slum of Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, M

    2013-09-01

    For children, maintenance of personal hygiene helps to improve the quality of life and longevity. This is of particular importance in a slum community with compromised living situation. This study was undertaken to find out the knowledge and practice of personal hygiene among the primary school children living in a slum area, to identify any misconception among them regarding the maintenance of personal hygiene, to find out their morbidity pattern, and also to elicit the relationship between practice of personal hygiene among the children and the literacy status of their mother. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted among 104 primary school children of a primary school situated in the slum area of Chetla, Kolkata, India with the help of a predesigned, pre-tested and structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed statistically by simple proportions and tests of significance. It was found that the female students were more knowledgeable than the male students regarding the maintenance of personal hygiene. There was a wide gap between practice and knowledge of personal hygiene among the primary school children living in the slum area. Even, misconceptions do exist on certain indicators of personal hygiene among the students. Statistically significant association was observed between practices of personal hygiene among the primary school children and the literacy status of their mother. Future of a society depends considerably on the health of its children. The parents and the school teachers, as constructive shapers of children's health behaviors, should play a responsible role in early education of children on personal hygiene.

  13. Professional Identity and Burnout among Pre-School, Elementary, and Post-Elementary School Teachers in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisherman, Shraga

    2015-01-01

    The novelty of the present study is its attempt to distinguish between pre-school, elementary, and post-elementary school teachers, regarding the relationship between professional identity and burnout. Two hundred and forty teachers responded to two questionnaires: professional identity and teacher burnout scales. Pre-school teachers were found to…

  14. Factors of children's school readiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljubica Marjanovič Umek

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to examine the effect of preschool on children's school readiness in connection with their intellectual abilities, language competence, and parents' education. The sample included 219 children who were 68 to 83 months old and were attending the first year of primary school. Children were differentiated by whether or not they had attended preschool before starting school. Children's intellectual ability was determined using Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices (CPM; Raven, Raven, & Court, 1999, language competence using the Lestvice splošnega govornegarazvoja–LJ (LSGR–LJ, Scales of General Language Development; Marjanovič Umek, Kranjc, Fekonja in Bajc, 2004, and school readiness with the Preizkus pripravljenosti za šolo (PPŠ, Test of School Readiness; Toličič, 1986. The results indicate that children's intellectual ability and language competence have a high predictive value for the school readiness — they explained 51% of the variance in children's scores on the PPŠ. Preschool enrollment has a positive effect on school readiness for children whose parents have a low level of education, but not for those whose parents are highly educated.

  15. Foreign Languages at the Pre-School Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Raymond; Ford, James F.

    French was added to the early childhood curriculum at the New School in Fayetteville, Arkansas, after a review of the literature on the subject indicated potential beneficial effects of teaching foreign languages to young children. Some of the advantages to be gained by the children were greater readiness for school work in general, greater…

  16. Science and Scientific Curiosity in Pre-school—The teacher's point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spektor-Levy, Ornit; Kesner Baruch, Yael; Mevarech, Zemira

    2013-09-01

    Nowadays, early science education is well-accepted by researchers, education professionals and policy makers. Overall, teachers' attitudes and conceptions toward the science subject domain and science education influence their ways of teaching and engagement. However, there is a lack of research regarding factors that affect this engagement in pre-school years. The main assumption of this study is that teachers' attitudes regarding science in pre-school can shape children's engagement in science and develop their scientific curiosity. Therefore, the main objectives of this study are to investigate the attitudes of pre-school teachers toward engaging in science and to explore their views about the nature of curiosity: who is a curious child and how can a child's natural curiosity be fostered? An extensive survey was conducted among 146 pre-school teachers by employing both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Results indicate that most of the participants believe that scientific education should begin in early childhood; very young children can investigate and take part in a process of inquiry; and scientific activities in pre-school can influence children's long-term attitudes toward science. Despite these views, most participants felt they did not possess sufficient scientific knowledge. Furthermore, participants expressed diverse opinions when asked to identify what constitutes curiosity, how the curious child can be identified and how a child's curiosity can be fostered. The research findings carry significant implications regarding how to implement scientific activities in pre-school, and how to encourage pre-school teachers to engage children in scientific activities in a way that will nurture their natural curiosity.

  17. Teaching children about bicycle safety: an evaluation of the New Jersey Bike School program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Ugo; Noland, Robert B; Von Hagen, Leigh Ann

    2013-03-01

    There are multiple health and environmental benefits associated with increasing bicycling among children. However, the use of bicycles is also associated with severe injuries and fatalities. In order to reduce bicycle crashes, a bicycling education program was implemented in selected New Jersey schools and summer camps as part of the New Jersey Safe Routes to School Program. Using a convenience sample of participants to the program, an opportunistic study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of two bicycle education programs, the first a more-structured program delivered in a school setting, with no on-road component, and the other a less structured program delivered in a summer camp setting that included an on-road component. Tests administered before and after training were designed to assess knowledge acquired during the training. Questions assessed children's existing knowledge of helmet use and other equipment, bicycle safety, as well as their ability to discriminate hazards and understand rules of the road. Participating children (n=699) also completed a travel survey that assessed their bicycling behavior and their perception of safety issues. Response to individual questions, overall pre- and post-training test scores, and changes in test scores were compared using comparison of proportion, t-tests, and ordinary least-squares (OLS) regression. Improvements between the pre-training and post-training test are apparent from the frequency distribution of test results and from t-tests. Both summer camps and school-based programs recorded similar improvements in test results. Children who bicycled with their parents scored higher on the pre-training test but did not improve as much on the post-training test. Without evaluating long-term changes in behavior, it is difficult to ascertain how successful the program is on eventual behavioral and safety outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gender differences in the association between stop-signal reaction times, body mass indices and/or spontaneous food intake in pre-school children: an early model of compromised inhibitory control and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, R D; Rivera, J; Silveira, P P; Steiner, M; Gaudreau, H; Hamilton, J; Kennedy, J L; Davis, C; Dube, L; Fellows, L; Wazana, A; Matthews, S; Meaney, M J

    2015-04-01

    Poor inhibitory control is associated with overeating and/or obesity in school-age children, adolescents and adults. The current study examined whether an objective and reliable marker of response inhibition, the stop-signal reaction time (SSRT), is associated with body mass index (BMI) z-scores and/or food intake during a snack test in pre-school children. The current sample consisted of 193 pre-school children taking part in a longitudinal study of early brain development (Maternal Adversity, Vulnerability and Neurodevelopment (the MAVAN project)). Linear mixed-effect models were used to examine whether the SSRT measured at age 48 months associated with BMI z-scores and/or dietary intake during a laboratory-based snack test. After controlling for significant covariates including maternal BMI, there was a significant gender by SSRT interaction effect in predicting 48-month BMI z-scores. Post-hoc analysis revealed an association between longer SSRTs (poor response inhibition) and higher BMIs in girls but not boys. Across both girls and boys, longer SSRTs were associated with greater intake of carbohydrates and sugars during the snack test. The association between SSRT scores and BMI z-scores in girls was not statistically mediated by carbohydrate or sugar intake. At 48 months of age, slower response inhibition on the Stop-Signal Task associates with higher BMI z-scores in girls, and with higher intake of carbohydrates and sugars during a snack test across both genders. Ongoing follow-up of these children will help clarify the implications of these associations for longer term macronutrient intake, eating-related pathology and/or pathological weight gain over time.

  19. Preparing perservice teachers to teach elementary school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amy D.

    The development of scientifically literate citizens begins in the elementary school. Yet elementary school teachers are ill prepared to teach science (Trygstad, Smith, Banilower, Nelson, & Horizon Research, Inc., 2013). The research base on teacher preparation finds that programs designed to prepare elementary teachers are inadequate in providing both the content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge necessary to teach science effectively (Baumgartner, 2010; Bodzin & Beerer, 2003; Bulunuz & Jarrett 2009). This mixed methods study examined what happened when a science methods course was interactively co-taught by an expert in elementary teaching methods and a physics expert. This study also aimed to discover what aspects of the curriculum pre-service teachers (PSTs) said helped them in developing their understanding of science content and scientific reasoning, and how to implement inquiry practices to teach science. A nested case study of three PSTs provided descriptive portraits of student experiences in the class. A whole class case analysis was used to examine what PSTs learned in terms of science, scientific reasoning skills, and pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) from their experiences in the course. It was found that students often conflated science content with the experiences they had in learning the content. Although PSTs felt the interactive co-teaching model effectively created a balance between theory and practice, it was their experiences doing science--conducting physical experiments, developing and discussing scientific models, and the use of inquiry-based instruction--that they credited for their learning. Even with careful curriculum planning, and a course purposely designed to bridge the theory to practice gap, this study found one semester-long methods course to be insufficient in providing the vast content knowledge and PCK elementary school science teachers need.

  20. Decrease of Bullying Behavior in Children Age School Based on Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Indah Iswanti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The violence that occurs in education is known as bullying. Violence can occur in mild degrees such as cheating on exams, to fights or beatings that result in death. Bullying in children often leads to school phobias (ask for school change, reduced learning concentration, decreased learning achievement, and likes to carry certain items. Interventions that can be done include Problem Solving Therapy (PST, Behavior Modification (behavior modification, and Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT. The purpose of this study was to produce CBT modules in school-aged children that were useful for reducing bullying behavior, using a pre-post test with control group design. The subject of this research is 52 elementary school age children in Tembalang District Semarang selected by purposive sampling technique. Data were collected using bullying behavior checklist, CBT module and workbook, then analyzed using T-Test. The results showed a decrease in bullying behavior in the intervention group after CBT Individual therapy was given.

  1. Teaching children about mental health and illness: a school nurse health education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desocio, Janiece; Stember, Lisa; Schrinsky, Joanne

    2006-04-01

    A mental health education program designed by school nurses for children ages 10- 12 was developed in 2000-2001 and expanded with broader distribution in 2004-2005. Six classroom sessions, each 45 minutes in length, provided information and activities to increase children's awareness of mental health and illness. Education program content included facts about the brain's connection to mental health, information about healthy ways to manage stress, resources and activities to promote mental health, common mental health problems experienced by children, and how to seek help for mental health problems. Classes included a combination of didactic presentation and open discussion, encouraging students to ask questions and allowing the school nurse to correct misinformation. Analysis of pre- and posttests from 370 elementary and middle school students revealed statistically significant improvements in their knowledge of mental health and mental illness.

  2. Impact Of IEC Intervention On Knowledge Regarding AIDS Amongst Senior Secondary School Children Of East Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhasin S. K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research questions: 1. What is the level of awareness regarding HIV/AIDS amongst school children in East Delhi? 2. What is the impact of IEC intervention on the level of awareness regarding HIV/AIDS in these children? Objective: To find out the impact of IEC intervention on awareness regarding HIV/AIDS amongst senior secondary boys and girls in schools of East Delhi. Study design: Pre and post IEC interventional study. Settings: In four randomly selected senior secondary schools in East Delhi. Participants: 294 boys and 333 girls of class XI and XII in pre IEC group and 239 boys and 203 girls in post IEC group. Intervention: An IEC package of exhibition of posters, videotapes and intra group open discussion. Outcome variables: Proportion (prevalence of school children having correct knowledge of various aspects of HIV/AIDS after IEC intervention. Statistical analysis: Chi-square test. Results: IEC intervention significantly generated an enhancing effect on most aspects of their awareness towards HIV/AIDS among both boys and girls. Conclusions: There is an urgent need to impart health education for dispelling misconceptions regarding this disease.

  3. Effectiveness of a parental training programme in enhancing the parent-child relationship and reducing harsh parenting practices and parental stress in preparing children for their transition to primary school: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ho Cheung William; Chan, Sophia S C; Mak, Yim Wah; Lam, Tai Hing

    2013-11-16

    Entering primary school is an important childhood milestone, marking the beginning of a child's formal education. Yet the change creates a time of vulnerability for the child, the parents and the parent-child relationship. Failure to adjust to the transition may place the family in a psychologically devastating position. The aims of this study were to test the effectiveness of a parental training programme in enhancing the parent-child relationship and decreasing parental stress by reducing harsh parenting in preparing children for the transition to primary school. A randomised controlled trial incorporating a two-group pre-test and repeated post-test was conducted in one of the largest public housing estates in Hong Kong. A total of 142 parents were recruited, with 72 parents randomly assigned to the experimental group and 70 to the control group. Harsh parenting practices, parent-child relationships and parental stress were assessed. In comparison to parents in the control group, those in the experimental group engaged in less harsh parenting practices and reported better parent-child relationships. However, parental stress scores did not differ significantly between the two groups. This study addressed a gap in the literature by examining the effectiveness of the training programme for enhancing parent-child relationship and decreasing parental stress at the time of a child's transition to primary school. The findings from this study provide empirical evidence of the effectiveness of the parental training programme and highlight the significance of parenting in promoting a smooth transition for children from kindergarten to primary 1. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01845948.

  4. The impact of insecticide-treated school uniforms on dengue infections in school-aged children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, Annelies; Byass, Peter; Olanratmanee, Phanthip; Maskhao, Pongsri; Sringernyuang, Luechai; Logan, James G; Lindsay, Steve W; Banks, Sarah; Gubler, Duane; Louis, Valérie R; Tozan, Yesim; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn

    2012-11-15

    There is an urgent need to protect children against dengue since this age group is particularly sensitive to the disease. Since dengue vectors are active mainly during the day, a potential target for control should be schools where children spend a considerable amount of their day. School uniforms are the cultural norm in most developing countries, worn throughout the day. We hypothesise that insecticide-treated school uniforms will reduce the incidence of dengue infection in school-aged children. Our objective is to determine the impact of impregnated school uniforms on dengue incidence. A randomised controlled trial will be conducted in eastern Thailand in a group of schools with approximately 2,000 students aged 7-18 years. Pre-fabricated school uniforms will be commercially treated to ensure consistent, high-quality insecticide impregnation with permethrin. A double-blind, randomised, crossover trial at the school level will cover two dengue transmission seasons. Practical issues and plans concerning intervention implementation, evaluation, analysing and interpreting the data, and possible policy implications arising from the trial are discussed. clinicaltrial.gov. NCT01563640.

  5. Questions and Answers about School-Age Children in Self-Care: A Sloan Work and Family Research Network Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan Work and Family Research Network, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Sloan Work and Family Research Network has prepared Fact Sheets that provide statistical answers to some important questions about work-family and work-life issues. This Fact Sheet includes statistics about Children in Self-Care, and answers the following questions about school-age children in self-care: (1) How many school-age children are in…

  6. School buses, air pollution and children's health : improving children's health and local air quality by reducing school bus emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrotta, K. [Ontario Public Health Association, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2005-11-01

    The exhaust gases from school buses was examined and recommendations were presented for the establishment of a healthy school bus program in Ontario that is directed at improving children's health and local air quality. The Ontario Public Health Association is concerned with school bus emissions because they are heavy-duty vehicles that emit large quantities of diesel-related air pollutants such as fine particulate matter, nitrogen oxides and diesel particulates. In addition, school buses can be self-polluting vehicles that expose children on-board to high levels of fine particulates and diesel particulate matter. Both these pollutants have been associated with a range of acute and chronic health problems such as asthma, respiratory infections, allergies, and school absences. With nearly 800,000 Ontario children being transported on school buses annually, these exposures can represent a serious public health concern, as childhood exposures can also influence the health of exposed individuals later in life. Exposure studies have found that tailpipe and engine emissions contribute greatly to concentrations of air pollutants on-board school buses. The studies also showed that on-board concentrations were also influenced by local air quality in the communities studied, traffic density, wind direction, the configuration of windows, idling and queuing patterns. It was recommended that the use of ultra-low sulphur diesel fuel along with the installation of diesel particulate filters and closed crankcase filters can reduce the concentrations of air pollutants on-board school buses to almost ambient air levels, even under idling conditions. This report recommended the replacement of pre-1994 school buses, the retrofitting of 1994-2003 school buses with filters, and maintaining proper maintenance, idling and vehicle operation practices. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Exploring the Causes of Low Immunization Status in School Going Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri Inamdar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although a definitive immunization program has been advocated for children in our country, the immunization coverage is far from satisfactory. There is paucity of survey studies related to immunization pattern. Objective: This study has been undertaken to explore the social and attitudinal factors with parents resulting into adverse immunization. Material and Methods: The study was school based cross-sectional study conducted in 50 schools of Indore district selected by random sampling from three groups. Information was collected from parents by providing pre-tested questionnaire. Result: Association of parent’s literacy and socioeconomic status with successful immunization could be established. Overall coverage rate with vaccines was poor in school going girls as compared to the boys; proving thereby that gender discrimination exists putting girls in disadvantageous position. Conclusion: It can be expected that the immunization status of school children will improve if identified risk factors such as parental education, socioeconomic status, awareness status are improved and attitudinal gender discrimination is curbed.

  8. [Comparative analysis of the efficacy of a playful-narrative program to teach mathematics at pre-school level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil Llario, M D; Vicent Catalá, Consuelo

    2009-02-01

    Comparative analysis of the efficacy of a playful-narrative program to teach mathematics at pre-school level. In this paper, the effectiveness of a programme comprising several components that are meant to consolidate mathematical concepts and abilities at the pre-school level is analyzed. The instructional methodology of this programme is compared to other methodologies. One-hundred 5-6 year-old children made up the sample that was distributed in the following conditions: (1) traditional methodology; (2) methodology with perceptual and manipulative components, and (3) methodology with language and playful components. Mathematical competence was assessed with the Mathematical Criterial Pre-school Test and the subtest of quantitative-numeric concepts of BADyG. Participants were evaluated before and after the academic course during which they followed one of these methodologies. The results show that the programme with language and playful components is more effective than the traditional methodology (p<.000) and also more effective than the perceptual and manipulative methodology (p<.000). Implications of the results for instructional practices are analyzed.

  9. Growth performance and iron status of rural Beninese school-age children in post-and pre-harvest season

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitchikpe, C.E.S.; Ram, D.; Ead, A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Kok, F.J.

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies are major public health problems in developing countries. Most affected groups are children, adolescents, women of reproductive age and pregnant women. School-age children also represent an important vulnerable age category because they are still in the

  10. Balance-related exercise as a preparation to cross-country skiing practice in visually impaired children

    OpenAIRE

    Chmelíčková, Hana

    2008-01-01

    Title: Balance-related excercise as a preparation to cross-country skiing practice in visually impaired children. Objectives of the Thesis: The goal of this thesis is to test the possibilitiy of implementation of selected balance- related excercise in visually impaired children. Method: The testing pool consisted of six pupils attending the Special school for Visually Impaired Children between 14 and 15 years of age. Over the period of ten weeks, selected exercise geared towards the cross-cou...

  11. Neighbourhood ethnic diversity buffers school readiness impact in ESL children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puchala, Chassidy; Vu, Lan T H; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2010-01-01

    Contextual factors, as measured by neighbourhood characteristics, shape the experiences children have and affect their "school readiness", i.e., whether they are well or poorly prepared for the transition from home to kindergarten. This study assessed the independent effects of individual and neighbourhood factors on school readiness; specifically, it examined whether and to what degree neighbourhood factors modified children's language ability and thus their school readiness in a population of children in Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. The study included all children attending kindergarten in 2001, 2003 and 2005 in Saskatoon. School readiness and child characteristics were measured by the Early Development Instrument (EDI). The EDI measures child development at school commencement in five domains: physical health and well-being, social competence, emotional maturity, cognitive and language development, and communication skills and general knowledge. Data from the 2001 Census were used to characterize Saskatoon's neighbourhoods. Multilevel modeling examined the independent and buffering or exacerbating effects of individual and neighbourhood factors on the relation between English as a Second Language (ESL) status in children and EDI domain scores. ESL children had significantly lower scores on all EDI domains compared with non-ESL children. Certain factors (e.g., younger age, male, Aboriginal status, having special needs) were significantly related to lower readiness in terms of the emotional maturity, and communication skills and general knowledge domains. Importantly, children who lived in neighbourhoods that were highly transient (with a higher proportion of residents who had moved in the previous year) had lower EDI scores on both domains, and those in neighbourhoods with lower rates of employment had lower EDI scores on communication skills and general knowledge. Neighbourhood ethnic diversity mitigated the negative impact of ESL status on school readiness for both

  12. Sleep disorders in high school and pre-university students

    OpenAIRE

    Célia R.S. Rocha; Sueli Rossini; Rubens Reimão

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is a period in which youngsters have to make choices such as applying for university. The selection process is competitive, and it brings distress and anxiety, risk factors for the appearance of sleep disorders. Objective: To verify the occurrence of sleep disorders in third-year high school and pre-university students. Method: This cross-sectional descriptive study comprised a sample of 529 students (M=241, F=288) from three public schools, four private schools and two pre-univer...

  13. What Kills Science in School?: Lessons from Pre-Service Teachers' Responses to Urban children's Science Inquiries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusov, Eugene

    2018-06-01

    This opportunistic case-study highlights striking differences in 6 urban children's and 12 preservice suburban middle-class teachers' perception of science and discuss consequences of science education and beyond. I found that all of the interviewed urban children demonstrated scientific inquiries and interests outside of the school science education that can be characterized by diverse simultaneous discourses from diverse practices, i.e., "heterodiscoursia" (Matusov in Culture & Psychology, 17(1), 99-119, 2011b), despite their diverse, positive and negative, attitudes toward school science. In contrast to the urban children's mixed attitudes to science, the preservice teachers view science negatively. They could not see science inquiries in the videotaped interviews of the urban children. There seemed to be many reasons for that. One of the possible reasons for that was that the preservice teachers tried to purify the science practice. Another reason was that they did not see a necessity to be interested and engaged in the curriculum that they are going to teach in future. The pedagogical consequences and remedies are discussed.

  14. Children's understanding of fraction and decimal symbols and the notation-specific relation to pre-algebra ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Michelle A; Cordes, Sara

    2018-04-01

    Fraction and decimal concepts are notoriously difficult for children to learn yet are a major component of elementary and middle school math curriculum and an important prerequisite for higher order mathematics (i.e., algebra). Thus, recently there has been a push to understand how children think about rational number magnitudes in order to understand how to promote rational number understanding. However, prior work investigating these questions has focused almost exclusively on fraction notation, overlooking the open questions of how children integrate rational number magnitudes presented in distinct notations (i.e., fractions, decimals, and whole numbers) and whether understanding of these distinct notations may independently contribute to pre-algebra ability. In the current study, we investigated rational number magnitude and arithmetic performance in both fraction and decimal notation in fourth- to seventh-grade children. We then explored how these measures of rational number ability predicted pre-algebra ability. Results reveal that children do represent the magnitudes of fractions and decimals as falling within a single numerical continuum and that, despite greater experience with fraction notation, children are more accurate when processing decimal notation than when processing fraction notation. Regression analyses revealed that both magnitude and arithmetic performance predicted pre-algebra ability, but magnitude understanding may be particularly unique and depend on notation. The educational implications of differences between children in the current study and previous work with adults are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Health-related quality of life, emotional and behavioral problems in mild to moderate prematures at (pre-)school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketharanathan, N.; Lee, W.; Mol, A.C. de

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a gap in the knowledge of longterm outcome of mild to moderate prematures compared to the extreme prematures or very low birth weight infants. AIM: Determine health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and prevalence of emotional and behavioral problems in (pre-)school age children

  16. Children’s play with digital media in a Danish pre-primary school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Helle Hovgaard

    2016-01-01

    Danish schools are obliged to work ‘in a playful way’ with digital media according to the demands in the descriptions of the curricula for pre-primary education (Undervisningsministeriet, 2015). Much money has been spent on digital infrastructure, but still professionals in preprimary education say...... that they are short of time, experience and knowledge when it comes to actual implementation of new media in everyday school life. On the other hand, most children come from media-rich homes. This article addresses the gap between in and out of school from a child’s perspective. The key concepts are play and media...... literacy, and the project’s take on play is inspired by the paradigmatic change towards a participatory and child-oriented scientific position. The understanding of media literacy is narrowed down to a trichotomy that implies having access to media, understanding media and creating/ expressing oneself...

  17. Everyday Family Experience: A Child’s Home Preparation for School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majerčíková Jana

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The family life of a child of compulsory school age is influenced by the way that a child’s educational career is discussed and practically supported. This is transmitted into normal family life through the completion of the child’s homework and any other school-related responsibilities. The parent is considered an actor who contributes significantly to the supervision of the child’s homework. Methods: This research project explored how parents and children describe their experience of homework through semi-structured interviews with elementary school pupils and their parents. The results are presented in our study. Seven, mostly university-educated parents and six pupils were interviewed at the start of compulsory schooling, when the bonds and interaction are the most intensive between parents and children in the context of homework. The transcribed interviews were analysed using the technique of open coding. Codes identified were repeatedly read, reviewed and subsequently grouped into categories with the aim of description and explanation. Results: The survey revealed that the completion of homework in the parent - child interaction is an implicit part of everyday family life. Homework and advance home preparation are considered to be the responsibility of the parent as well as the child, on the other hand, the home preparation is also time-consuming and gendermarked. Limitations: The limitations of the study relate primarily to the construction of the research sample. The intentional sample of parents was determined by socioeconomic status and quantity and also by the parents’ willingness to share their parenting experience, and for the child by the extent of data gathered. In further research, this will be supported by observation in the home setting. Conclusions: The research findings contribute to a description of the child’s life in the family and confirm the importance of inevitable parental participation in their

  18. Relation Between Percent Body Fat and Fundamental Motor Skills in Pre-School Children age 3-6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Musalek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is quite well known that excessive body fat in children is interpreted as a marker of inhibited physical activity and motor performance. This study aimed to establish whether severe impairment of fundamental motor skills (defined as performance under 5th centile of norms will be significantly more frequently identified in pre-schoolers age 3-6 years with amount of body fat higher than 85th centile of norms. Research sample consisted of 496 (females=241, males=255 pre-schoolers selected from specific district of Prague, Czech Republic. The MABC-2 was used for the assesment fundamental motor skills. Equations for body fat estimation in children identified 35.8% children with body fat˃85th centile of norms, 61.7% within 15th–85th centile, and 2.5% of children˂15th centile of norms. Results revealed that children whose body fat was higher than 85th centile of norms or lower than 15th centile had double the frequency of severe motor problems. Interestingely on the other hand we found no signficant differences in the frequency of high above average performances˃90th centile in MABC-2 between fat 8.4% and non fat children 10.7%. We suggest that amount of body fat is not a clear predictor for the degree of fundamental motor skills.

  19. Impact Of Nutrition Education On Urral School Children Of Burdwan, West Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswas A.B

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A nutrition education programme was conducted for 324 children of two (boys and girls Secondary schools in a village of Burdwan district. Lesson plans and evaluation parameters were formulated based on pre- determined learning objectives. The main methods of training were lectures and discussions using simple and relevant aids. Impact of training was evaluated by pre- training and post- training assessments of knowledge, attitude and dietary practice of students. Results revealed that poor pre- training mean score of knowledge was increased significantly following training but declined thereafter, although final mean score was significantly higher than basal knowledge status. Mean score of attitude also increased significantly but did not decline. Inconsistency of results regarding change in dietary practices observed was recognized as a short coming of isolated training of children only, because dietary habit of a community depends on various factors.

  20. Preparing Professional School Counselors as Collaborators in Culturally Competent School Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Judith; Bustamante, Rebecca M.

    2009-01-01

    In collaboration with principals and other leadership team members, professional school counselors have ethical responsibilities in promoting culturally competent school environments. Pre-service training is the ideal time for school counselors and principals to develop the necessary background information, tools, and assessment skills to assist…

  1. Pre-school manager training: a cost-effective tool to promote nutrition- and health-related practice improvements in the Irish full-day-care pre-school setting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Johnston Molloy, Charlotte

    2013-10-18

    To evaluate the impact on nutrition- and health-related practice of two methods of delivery of a nutrition and health intervention in Irish full-day-care pre-schools: training of pre-school managers only or training of managers and their staff.

  2. Contribuição da educação infantil para o letramento: um estudo a partir do conhecimento de crianças sobre textos The contribution of pre-school to literacy: a study about children's textual knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Tarciana de Almeida Barros

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Considerando que mesmo indivíduos não alfabetizados fazem usos sociais da leitura e da escrita e que a escola tem papel importante nestes usos, o presente estudo investigou a contribuição da educação infantil para o letramento em crianças ainda não alfabetizadas. Em uma perspectiva psicológica, o letramento foi examinando a partir do conhecimento sobre textos e seus portadores. Crianças na faixa etária entre 7 e 8 anos com diferentes níveis de escolaridade (três anos, dois anos, um ano e sem educação infantil foram solicitadas a identificar diferentes portadores de textos (Tarefa 1 e a discriminar textos de diferentes gêneros (Tarefa 2. Observou-se que as crianças tinham um conhecimento limitado sobre textos e seus portadores, e que os anos de educação infantil não propiciaram o desenvolvimento deste conhecimento.Taking into consideration that even illiterate individuals make social uses of reading and writing, and that school has an important role in such uses, this study investigated the contribution that pre-school education has to literacy in terms of social practice for illiterate children. In a psychological perspective, literacy was examined based on the knowledge of texts and their media. Children aged 7 and 8 with different levels of schooling (three years, two years, one year, and no pre-school education were asked to identify different text media (Task 1 and to discriminate texts of different genres (Task 2. We observed that children had limited knowledge of texts and their media, and that the years of pre-school education did not promote the development of such knowledge.

  3. Malnutrition and poor oral health status are major risks among primary school children at Lasbela, Balochistan, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustufa, Muhammad Ayaz; Jamali, Abdul Karim; Sameen, Ifra; Burfat, Fateh Muhammad; Baloch, Mir Yousaf; Baloch, Abdul Hameed; Baloch, Ghulam Rasool; Lashari, Shazia Kulsoom; Ayaz, Sobiya Mohiuddin; Baloch, Muhammad Younus

    2017-05-19

    This survey was focusing on health and oral hygiene status of primary school children at Lasbela district considering the comparatively less developed and socio demographically deprived part of the Country. A cross sectional survey was conducted to determine the health status of primary school children in seven tehseels of district Lasbela, Balochistan after applying proportionate sampling technique from March 2015 to July 2015. Field teams visited assigned schools to screen children and collect health related data on predesigned and pre coded proforma. Out of 200 schools, 196 schools found opened, while 2% of schools (04) remained closed. A total of 6363 students were clinically screened. About 45% of the school children had normal body mass index (BMI) and rest were falling in different categories of malnutrition. More than 19% had ear, nose and throat (ENT) problems and around 19% presented with clinical anemia. Less than 50% of children had scar of BCG vaccination and 4% informed about use of gutka/supari chewing (smokeless tobacco use). In conclusion, we estimated high prevalence of malnutrition, poor oral health including smokeless tobacco use, and low BCG coverage among primary school children at Lasbela. Current scenario suggests immediate and contextually focused interventions to confine existing public health risks and avoid future burden of disease.

  4. Acceptability of delivery of dietary advice in the dentistry setting to address obesity in pre-school children: a case study of the Common Risk Factor Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Emily J

    2015-07-01

    The Common Risk Factor Approach proposes that public health efforts can be improved by multiple agencies working together on a shared risk factor. The present study aimed to assess the acceptability to parents, dental practice staff and commissioners of the delivery of dietary advice in the dentistry setting in order to address obesity. Semi-structured focus groups with dental practice staff and one-to-one interviews with parents of pre-school children and public health commissioners involved in an oral health promotion initiative delivering dietary advice in dental surgeries. Data were analysed using the Framework Approach. General dental practice surgeries and pre-schools in areas of high deprivation in north-east England. Parents (n 4), dental practice staff (n 23) and one commissioner. All participants found acceptable the concept of delivering public health messages in non-conventional settings. Dental practice staff were concerned about the potential for conflicting messages and deprioritisation of oral health advice, and they identified practical barriers to delivery, such as lack of training. Parents were very apprehensive about the potential of such approaches to stigmatise overweight children, including bullying. Uncertainty over the causes of obesity led to confusion about its solutions and the roles of public health and health care. Major concerns about the implementation of the Common Risk Factor Approach were raised by parents and dental practice staff. Specific dietary guidance for both oral health and healthy weight, as well as further research into issues of suitability, feasibility and stigmatisation, are needed.

  5. School Counseling Faculty Perceptions and Experiences Preparing Elementary School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman-Scott, Emily; Watkinson, Jennifer Scaturo; Martin, Ian; Biles, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    School counselors' job roles and preferences reportedly vary by educational level (i.e., elementary, middle and high school); however, several organizations, such as the American School Counselor Association, conceptualize and recommend school counseling practice and preparation through a K-12 lens. Little is known about how or if school…

  6. User-centred design and experience prototyping: Design and implementation of pre-handwriting intervention to children with coordination difficulties/dyspraxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Muhammad Fakri; Senan, Norhalina; Suparjoh, Suriawati; Keay-Bright, Wendy

    2017-10-01

    We have proposed a method to assist children with coordination difficulties or dyspraxia to improve their pre-handwriting skills. We have chosen an animation technique called `Rotoscopy', a method that normally been used in animation and film production and adapted it to Rotoscopy Pre-handwriting Interface (RPI) prototypes using the interactive whiteboard (IWB) as interaction device. The motivation of this research is to discover how efficient if Rotoscopy is used beyond its normal purposes; and how it gives benefits in terms of behavioural and motivational aspects rather than commercial and profit point of view. Implementation of RPI prototypes has taken place through series of workshops with a teacher and a group of children with handwriting difficulties at a special education school in Caerphilly, Cardiff, United Kingdom. In the workshops children were given pre-handwriting activities in two different environments. They have been trained to use RPI prototypes and IWB, as well as pen and paper tasks. Their activities and action have been observed and recorded using video camera. Evaluation method is based-on video analysis of children's pre-handwriting result and their reaction and motivation during the workshop. It was learnt that majority of children who used RPI prototypes and IWB have produced better results in terms of accuracy of the drawing as compared to results of pen and paper activities. Furthermore the children were more motivated to use the prototypes and IWB rather than using pen and paper. The study's contribution to knowledge includes offering a new way to improve children's pre-handwriting skills using computer animation technique and touch-based devices.

  7. School age test or procedure preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your child with books, bubbles, games, hand-held video games, or other activities. PLAY PREPARATION Children often avoid ... using this type of communication. Older children may benefit from videos that show children of the same age explaining, ...

  8. Experiences of parents regarding a school-readiness intervention for pre-school children facilitated by Community Health Nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari Prinsloo

    2015-01-01

    When CHN students engage with communities through service learning, a school-readiness intervention may serve as a powerful tool to provide parents with the support that is needed to empower them with the skills to contribute towards their children’s early childhood development. It may improve the parent–child relationship which is critical in the development of children.

  9. Preparing School Leaders for Educational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granito, John A.

    1972-01-01

    Paper attempts to identify two of the reasons for the slow progress of school superintendents in bringing positive, significant, and lasting improvement to their schools, and to develop a scheme for preparing central staff and school principals for the change process. (Author)

  10. Prevalence of areca nut chewing in the middle school-going children of Indore, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Khandelwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess areca nut chewing habit among middle school-aged children in Indore, India. Areca nut is chewed by itself, and in various scented preparations. It is associated with carcinogenesis, foreign body aspiration in children, and oral submucous fibrosis and may aggravate asthma. Materials and Methods: A retrospective collection of data to evaluate the prevalence of areca nut chewing among 3896 children was done. A simple random sampling was done. Children of both sexes were included in this study. Results: 27.06% of the school-going children (1054/3896 had areca nut chewing habit. More boys chewed areca nut than girls (2:1. 45.42% of school going children of rural area pander to areca nut chewing habit, whereas in urban area 20.09% children are indulged. Government school children are more involved in areca nut chewing habit. 81.02% of the children used sweetened and flavoured form of areca nut. The majority of the users were not aware of harmful effects that the use of areca nut might be harmful for health Conclusion: To diminish the use of areca nut, the Indian Government should consider limiting trade, advertising, and actively communicating its health risks to the public and should deem heavy taxes on it.

  11. The impact of insecticide-treated school uniforms on dengue infections in school-aged children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilder-Smith Annelies

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is an urgent need to protect children against dengue since this age group is particularly sensitive to the disease. Since dengue vectors are active mainly during the day, a potential target for control should be schools where children spend a considerable amount of their day. School uniforms are the cultural norm in most developing countries, worn throughout the day. We hypothesise that insecticide-treated school uniforms will reduce the incidence of dengue infection in school-aged children. Our objective is to determine the impact of impregnated school uniforms on dengue incidence. Methods A randomised controlled trial will be conducted in eastern Thailand in a group of schools with approximately 2,000 students aged 7–18 years. Pre-fabricated school uniforms will be commercially treated to ensure consistent, high-quality insecticide impregnation with permethrin. A double-blind, randomised, crossover trial at the school level will cover two dengue transmission seasons. Discussion Practical issues and plans concerning intervention implementation, evaluation, analysing and interpreting the data, and possible policy implications arising from the trial are discussed. Trial registration clinicaltrial.gov. Registration number: NCT01563640

  12. Effect of obesity and lifestyle on the oral health of pre adolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Nithya; Suresh, M; Chandrasekaran, S C

    2014-02-01

    Worldwide estimates of childhood obesity are as high as 43 million, and rates continue to increase each year. Childhood obesity is a growing problem in the present era and it causes serious consequences in the later years. In today's society, electronic media have been thoroughly integrated into the fabric of life, with television, video games, and computers being central to both work and play. While these media outlets can provide education and entertainment to children, many researches are concerned with the negative impact of electronic media on children. The current study aimed to evaluate the correlation, as to how oral hygiene and periodontal health were influenced by obesity and lifestyle factors, among pre-adolescents of ages of 9-12 years. This study was conducted in schools located around Velachery, Chennai, India. A total of 426 children of age group of 9-12 years were selected. Information on their socio-economic, dietary, oral health statuses and time spent in leisure activities were assessed by using a questionnaire, followed by BMI estimation and these variables were correlated with their oral hygiene statuses. The prevalence of poor oral hygiene and poor dietary habits was observed in children who spent more time in watching television, playing videogames and using computer. Good oral hygiene was observed in children who had visited dentists in the past. There is a strong association of lifestyle factors with oral hygiene in pre-adolescent children. Sedentary lifestyle, with more leisure activities, has a negative impact on the oral health of children.

  13. Rural and urban children with asthma: are school health services meeting their needs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillemeier, Marianne M; Gusic, Maryellen E; Bai, Yu

    2006-09-01

    Children with asthma spend a large portion of their day in school, and the extent to which public schools are prepared to meet their health needs is an important issue. The objective of this study was to identify asthma policies and practices in rural and urban school settings and to compare them with current National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute recommendations. A stratified random sample of school nurses who represented each of the 500 active Pennsylvania school districts were surveyed in 2004 concerning nurse staffing patterns, availability of asthma monitoring and treatment-related equipment, emergency preparedness, availability of asthma-related support and case management services, school-specific procedures including identification of children with asthma and accessibility of inhaler medication during school hours, presence and content of written asthma management plans, and perceived obstacles to asthma management in the school setting. Sampling weights were incorporated into the analyses to take the survey design into account. The overall response rate was 76%, with a total of 757 surveys analyzed. In more than half of secondary schools and three quarters of elementary schools, nurses were present asthma attack were not always available. In 72% of rural schools, children were allowed to self-carry rescue inhalers, as compared with 47% of urban schools. Asthma management plans were on file for only 1 quarter of children with asthma, and important information often was omitted. Approximately half of the schools were equipped with peak flow meters and nebulizers, and spacers were available in 1 third of schools. Improvements are needed to bring schools into compliance with current recommendations, including more consistent availability of knowledgeable staff, improved access to asthma monitoring and treatment-related equipment, more universal use of asthma management plans, and greater access to inhalers while at school, including increasing the

  14. PLAYING ORIGAMI ENHANCE THE CREATIVITY OF SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Sufyanti Arief

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Critical period for creativity development happened at school aged. Playing Origami is a stimulation that can be done to develop child’s creativity optimally. The aimed of this study was to analyze the effect of playing origami toward creativity development at school age in 4th grade elementary school Krian, Sidoarjo. Method: This study was used a pre experimental and purposive sampling design. The populations were children who age in the sixth until seventh age in 4th grade elementary school Krian, Sidoarjo. There were 41 respondents for this research who met the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was the playing origami while the dependent variable was creativity development of school age. Data were collected by using questionnaire and Figural Creativity test to know the creativity level before and after intervention, and then analyzed by using Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test with significance level of a£0.05. Result: The result showed that there was an effect of play origami toward the creativity development of school age with significant level (p=0.000. Discussion: It can be concluded that playing origami can develop the creativity of school aged children. Every child should be facilitated by provide a chance, supportt and activity that can improve their creativity development that can be useful for them and other people. Further study was recommended to analyze the effect of playing origami on decreasing stress hospitalization.

  15. [Nutritional assessment of the menus served in municipal nursery schools in Granada].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiquer, Isabel; Haro, Ana; Cabrera-Vique, Carmen; Muñoz-Hoyos, Antonio; Galdó, Gabriel

    2016-10-01

    The school canteen plays today an essential role in child nutrition and for consolidating appropriate eating habits. In Spain, the guidelines for school meals have been established by the NAOS strategy and the Perseus program, and are especially aimed at school children of 6-10 years. However, there is a lack of information on menus offered in pre-school education centres, which take in children of pre-school age. The aim of this study was to evaluate the composition and the food supplied in pre-schools of the province of Granada. A study was conducted on the menus offered in public pre-schools in Granada, with a population of 420 children aged 2-6 years old. A total of 20 menus were analysed, and details were collected including direct information on the ingredients used, the proportion of these in each dish, and the form of preparation. The daily intake of energy and nutrients, as well as the frequency of weekly supply of the different food groups were studied. The average energy content of the menus was 512.5kcal, distributed into protein (17.3%), carbohydrates (48.8%), and lipids (33.9%). A suitable supply of fibre (7.8g/day) was observed, but content of calcium and zinc did not reach recommended levels. The supply of vegetables was adequate, with a daily presence of salad, as well as vegetables, meat, fish and fruit. Menus evaluated represent an adequate content of energy, and proper supply of the different groups of foods, especially vegetables, fruits and salads. A great effort is observed in the centres to adapt meals to nutritional recommendations. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. The Relation of Maternal Emotional and Cognitive Support During Problem Solving to Pre-Academic Skills in Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leerkes, Esther M.; Blankson, A. Nayena; O’Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of 263 mother-child dyads, we examined the extent to which maternal emotional and cognitive support during a joint problem solving task when children were 3-years-old predicted children’s academic skills one year later independent of each other, the quality of the home learning environment, and maternal emotional responsiveness. When all parenting measures were examined simultaneously, only maternal emotional support during problem solving and the quality of the home learning environment predicted unique variation in gains in pre-academic skills from age 3 to age 4. The positive effect of emotional support during problem solving was especially apparent for children whose pre-academic skills were low at age 3. These findings are discussed in light of the changing demands placed on young children and their parents as they prepare for entry to the formal school system. PMID:22121336

  17. Pre-Service Primary School Teachers' Spatial Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchis, Iuliana

    2017-01-01

    Spatial abilities are used in many aspects of everyday life, thus developing these abilities should be one of the most important goal of Mathematics Education. These abilities should be developed starting with early school years, thus pre-school and primary school teachers have an important role in setting the foundation of these abilities. A…

  18. Cluster (school) RCT of ParentCorps: impact on kindergarten academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotman, Laurie Miller; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Calzada, Esther J; Huang, Keng-Yen; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Palamar, Joseph J; Petkova, Eva

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate the impact of an early childhood, family-centered, school-based intervention on children's kindergarten academic achievement. This was a cluster (school) randomized controlled trial with assessments from pre-kindergarten (pre-k) entry through the end of kindergarten. The setting was 10 public elementary schools with 26 pre-k classes in 2 school districts in urban disadvantaged neighborhoods serving a largely black, low-income population. Participants were 1050 black and Latino, low-income children (age 4; 88% of pre-k population) enrolled in 10 schools over 4 years. Universal intervention aimed to promote self-regulation and early learning by strengthening positive behavior support and effective behavior management at home and school, and increasing parent involvement in education. Intervention included after-school group sessions for families of pre-k students (13 2-hour sessions; co-led by pre-k teachers) and professional development for pre-k and kindergarten teachers. The outcome measures were standardized test scores of kindergarten reading, writing, and math achievement by independent evaluators masked to intervention condition (primary outcome); developmental trajectories of teacher-rated academic performance from pre-k through kindergarten (secondary outcome). Relative to children in control schools, children in intervention schools had higher kindergarten achievement test scores (Cohen's d = 0.18, mean difference = 2.64, SE = 0.90, P = .03) and higher teacher-rated academic performance (Cohen's d = 0.25, mean difference = 5.65, SE = 2.34, P = .01). Early childhood population-level intervention that enhances both home and school environments shows promise to advance academic achievement among minority children from disadvantaged, urban neighborhoods.

  19. Particularities of Speech Readiness for Schooling in Pre-School Children Having General Speech Underdevelopment: A Social and Pedagogical Aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanova, Irina A.; Borisova, Elena A.; Shapovalova, Olga E.; Karynbaeva, Olga V.; Vorotilkina, Irina M.

    2018-01-01

    The relevance of the research is due to the necessity of creating the pedagogical conditions for correction and development of speech in children having the general speech underdevelopment. For them, difficulties generating a coherent utterance are characteristic, which prevents a sufficient speech readiness for schooling forming in them as well…

  20. School performance and school behavior of children affected by AIDS in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xiaoming; Lv, Yunfei; Li, Xiaoming; Fang, Xiaoyi; Zhao, Guoxiang; Lin, Xiuyun; Hong, Yan; Zhang, Liying; Stanton, Bonita

    2009-01-01

    It is generally recognized that the AIDS epidemic will have a negative effect on the orphans’ school education. However, few studies have been carried out to examine the school performance and school behavior of AIDS orphans and vulnerable children (children living with HIV-infected parents). Using both self-report and teacher evaluation data of 1625 children from rural central China, we examined the impact of parental HIV/AIDS on children's school performances (academic marks, educational expectation, and student leadership) and school behaviors (e.g., aggression, shy/anxious and assertive social skills). Results indicate that AIDS orphans and vulnerable children had disadvantages in school performances in comparison to their peers from the same community who did not experience AIDS-related death and illness in their family (comparison children). AIDS orphans had the lowest academic marks based on the reports of both children and teachers. Educational expectation was significantly lower among AIDS orphans and vulnerable children than comparison children from teacher's perspective. AIDS orphans were significantly more likely to demonstrate aggressive, impulsive and anxious behaviors than non-orphans. Moreover, orphans have more learning difficulties. Vulnerable children were also at a disadvantage on most measures. The data suggest that a greater attention is needed to the school performance and behavior of children affected by AIDS. The findings also indicate that AIDS relief and assistance program for children should go beyond the school attendance and make efforts to improve their school performance and education aspiration. PMID:20107622

  1. Mindfulness Training in Primary Schools Decreases Negative Affect and Increases Meta-Cognition in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickery, Charlotte E.; Dorjee, Dusana

    2016-01-01

    Studies investigating the feasibility and impact of mindfulness programs on emotional well-being when delivered by school teachers in pre-adolescence are scarce. This study reports the findings of a controlled feasibility pilot which assessed acceptability and emotional well-being outcomes of an 8-week mindfulness program (Paws b) for children aged 7–9 years. The program was delivered by school teachers within a regular school curriculum. Emotional well-being was measured using self-report questionnaires at baseline, post-training and 3 months follow-up, and informant reports were collected at baseline and follow-up. Seventy one participants aged 7–9 years were recruited from three primary schools in the UK (training group n = 33; control group n = 38). Acceptability of the program was high with 76% of children in the training group reporting ‘liking’ practicing mindfulness at school, with a strong link to wanting to continue practicing mindfulness at school (p mindfulness and emotion regulation scores from baseline to post-training (p = 0.038) and baseline to follow-up (p = 0.033). Findings from this study provide initial evidence that the Paws b program in children aged 7–9 years (a) can be feasibly delivered by primary school teachers as part of the regular curriculum, (b) is acceptable to the majority of children, and (c) may significantly decrease negative affect and improve meta-cognition. PMID:26793145

  2. Primary school children\\'s perspectives on common diseases and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Existing school health programmes in Uganda target children above five years for de-worming, oral hygiene and frequent vaccination of girls of reproductive age. Objective:To assess primary school children\\'s perspectives on common diseases they experience and medicines used in order to suggest reforms ...

  3. Psycho-developing needs of children and spatial features for children's stay

    OpenAIRE

    Stanković Danica

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to look for possibilities of more quality constructing, i.e. a better organization and materialization of pre-school premises, and also to deal with the problem which comes up considering children's developing needs, based on the psychological aspect and features such space has to have as children's residence. Here in the study has been done a systematization of the possible features of the space in pre-school premises where children can spend time considering the...

  4. COMMUNICATION WITH PARENTS PRE-SCHOOL EDUCATION VIA MODERN TECHNOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    KOZLOVÁ, Lucie

    2009-01-01

    My bachelor thesis address the question of communication with parents in the pre-school education using modern technologies in our and other countries. In this thesis I tried to determine the real state of usage of modern communication technologies at chosen pre-school education facilities by interview research. Based on this research I suggest the optimal solution of this communication problem on the level of current modern communication technologies.

  5. Vaccination of School Children With Live Mumps Virus Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furesz, J.; Nagler, F. P.

    1970-01-01

    Live, attenuated mumps virus vaccine (Mumpsvax) was administered to 146 school children 6 to 9 years of age. One child developed clinical mumps nine days after vaccination; epidemiological and serological data strongly suggest that this child had become infected before vaccination. Apart from this single instance there were no apparent clinical reactions that could be ascribed to the administration of the vaccine. Sixty-three of the 146 children with no clinical history of mumps had an initial serum neutralizing antibody titre of less than 1:2. Specific antibodies to mumps virus were detected in 93.5% of the sera of the susceptible children 28 days after vaccination, and the geometric mean antibody titre of these sera was low (1:6). Of the 80 initially seropositive children 21 (26.2%) showed a significant antibody response to the vaccine and this was influenced by the pre-existing antibody level. These data have further demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the live mumps vaccine in children. PMID:5420994

  6. Factors of Social Adjustment to School: Child's Personality, Family and Pre-School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Maja; Kavcic, Tina

    2011-01-01

    The role of child's characteristics (gender, cognitive ability, mother-perceived personality traits), family environment (maternal education, self-reported parenting practices) and pre-school experience (at least three years vs. no experience) in social adjustment to school, reflected through teacher reports on social competence and internalising…

  7. Islamic Pre-School Management and Its Implications towards Students’ Learning Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosniati Hakim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Islamic education in schools had not completely assessed the development of students’ character and personality. Therefore, additional religious education through non-formal education and religious practices were needed in Islamic Pre-Schools. It provided a forum to foster, develop, cultivate, and transform the religious value of the students to improve their personality. The purpose of this research was to examine social phenomenon that occur naturally through the facts related to management activities of students. Qualitative research was used in this study where the data taken from head of Islamic pre-school and the school deputy, teacher, staffs, mosque administrators of Baitul Haadi, administrator of the school, staffs of Ministry of Religious Affairs as well as Islamic pre-school inspectors, parents, community leaders, and administrators of professional organizations. The finding showed that students’ management applied in Islamic pre-school through the management functions is able to provide the successful of student’s education and learning implementation. It was also found that student management applied in Islamic pre-school is planning activities of students’ admission process through the administration regularly with various regulations related to the success of education. Thus, it is expected that the government will provide the guidance and implement constant supervision in accordance with applicable regulations.

  8. Elementary school children's science learning from school field trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Marilyn Petty

    This research examines the impact of classroom anchoring activities on elementary school students' science learning from a school field trip. Although there is prior research demonstrating that students can learn science from school field trips, most of this research is descriptive in nature and does not examine the conditions that enhance or facilitate such learning. The current study draws upon research in psychology and education to create an intervention that is designed to enhance what students learn from school science field trips. The intervention comprises of a set of "anchoring" activities that include: (1) Orientation to context, (2) Discussion to activate prior knowledge and generate questions, (3) Use of field notebooks during the field trip to record observations and answer questions generated prior to field trip, (4) Post-visit discussion of what was learned. The effects of the intervention are examined by comparing two groups of students: an intervention group which receives anchoring classroom activities related to their field trip and an equivalent control group which visits the same field trip site for the same duration but does not receive any anchoring classroom activities. Learning of target concepts in both groups was compared using objective pre and posttests. Additionally, a subset of students in each group were interviewed to obtain more detailed descriptive data on what children learned through their field trip.

  9. Health impact assessment and monetary valuation of IQ loss in pre-school children due to lead exposure through locally produced food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierkens, J; Buekers, J; Van Holderbeke, M; Torfs, R

    2012-01-01

    A case study has been performed which involved the full chain assessment from policy drivers to health effect quantification of lead exposure through locally produced food on loss of IQ in pre-school children at the population level across the EU-27, including monetary valuation of the estimated health impact. Main policy scenarios cover the period from 2000 to 2020 and include the most important Community policy developments expected to affect the environmental release of lead (Pb) and corresponding human exposure patterns. Three distinct scenarios were explored: the emission situation based on 2000 data, a business-as-usual scenario (BAU) up to 2010 and 2020 and a scenario incorporating the most likely technological change expected (Most Feasible Technical Reductions, MFTR) in response to current and future legislation. Consecutive model calculations (MSCE-HM, WATSON, XtraFOOD, IEUBK) were performed by different partners on the project as part of the full chain approach to derive estimates of blood lead (B-Pb) levels in children as a consequence of the consumption of local produce. The estimated B-Pb levels were translated into an average loss of IQ points/child using an empirical relationship based on a meta-analysis performed by Schwartz (1994). The calculated losses in IQ points were subsequently further translated into the average cost/child using a cost estimate of €10.000 per loss of IQ point based on data from a literature review. The estimated average reduction of cost/child (%) for all countries considered in 2010 under BAU and MFTR are 12.16 and 18.08% as compared to base line conditions, respectively. In 2020 the percentages amount to 20.19 and 23.39%. The case study provides an example of the full-chain impact pathway approach taking into account all foreseeable pathways both for assessing the environmental fate and the associated human exposure and the mode of toxic action to arrive at quantitative estimates of health impacts at the individual and

  10. Pennsylvania Pre-K Counts: End of Year Report, 2009-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Pennsylvania Pre-K Counts was created to provide research-based, high quality pre-kindergarten opportunities to at-risk children across the commonwealth by leveraging the existing early education services in schools, Keystone STARS child care programs, Head Start, and licensed nursery schools. The standards are high and the accountability…

  11. Plasma cytokines, chemokines and cellular immune responses in pre-school Nigerian children infected with Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noone Cariosa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with over one million deaths annually, particularly in children under five years. This study was the first to examine plasma cytokines, chemokines and cellular immune responses in pre-school Nigerian children infected with Plasmodium falciparum from four semi-urban villages near Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria. Methods Blood was obtained from 231 children (aged 39–73 months who were classified according to mean P. falciparum density per μl of blood (uninfected (n = 89, low density (10,000, n = 22. IL-12p70, IL-10, Nitric oxide, IFN-γ, TNF, IL-17, IL-4 and TGF-β, C-C chemokine RANTES, MMP-8 and TIMP-1 were measured in plasma. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained and examined markers of innate immune cells (CD14, CD36, CD56, CD54, CD11c AND HLA-DR. T-cell sub-populations (CD4, CD3 and γδTCR were intracellularly stained for IL-10, IFN-γ and TNF following polyclonal stimulation or stimulated with malaria parasites. Ascaris lumbricoides was endemic in these villages and all data were analysed taking into account the potential impact of bystander helminth infection. All data were analysed using SPSS 15 for windows and in all tests, p Results The level of P. falciparum parasitaemia was positively associated with plasma IL-10 and negatively associated with IL-12p70. The percentage of monocytes was significantly decreased in malaria-infected individuals while malaria parasitaemia was positively associated with increasing percentages of CD54+, CD11c+ and CD56+ cell populations. No association was observed in cytokine expression in mitogen-activated T-cell populations between groups and no malaria specific immune responses were detected. Although A. lumbricoides is endemic in these villages, an analysis of the data showed no impact of this helminth infection on P. falciparum parasitaemia or on immune responses associated with P. falciparum infection

  12. The uses and abuses of power: teaching school leadership through children's literature

    OpenAIRE

    Thomson, Pat

    2014-01-01

    There are relatively few studies of how representations of teachers, schools and educational administrators in popular films and television might be, and are, used in leadership preparation. This paper seeks to add to this small body of work; it reports on an exploratory study of the representation of headteachers in contemporary children's fiction. Thirty-one texts are analysed to ascertain key themes and the major characterisations. The paper draws on children's literature scholars to argue...

  13. Impact of multimodal preoperative preparation program on children undergoing surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Reshma Aranha

    2017-01-01

    surgery in terms of decreasing the fear and anxiety, stabilizing the physiological parameters of children and can be used in preparing school-aged children for surgery and can be practiced in the clinical setup.

  14. Strengthening Children's Math Skills with Enhanced Instruction: The Impacts of Making Pre-K Count and High 5s on Kindergarten Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattera, Shira K.; Jacob, Robin; Morris, Pamela A.

    2018-01-01

    Early math skills are a strong predictor of later achievement for young children, not only in math, but in other domains as well. Exhibiting strong math skills in elementary school is predictive of later high school completion and college attendance. To that end, the Making Pre-K Count and High 5s studies set out to rigorously assess whether…

  15. Does school breakfast benefit children's educational performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, L; Ani, C C; Grantham-mcgregor, S

    1997-09-01

    This article reviews several research studies on the impact of the lack of breakfast among students. Recent data reveal that about 20% of Nigerian children were wasted or had weight-for-height measurements under the 5th percentile of the US National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) standard. In Ghana, 41% of children were underweight or had a weight-for-age under -2 standard deviations of the NCHS standards. In Tanzania, about 34% of children were underweight. Many more students in Africa are attending school, but many are leaving primary school early or failing secondary school examinations. It is argued that poor nutritional status affects children's ability to learn. Research reveals several hypotheses about how breakfast affects children's cognition, behavior, and school performance. Children may not attend school at all due to the inability to purchase food to eat at school, or insufficient food resources at home to provide sufficient energy to walk long distances to school. In four studies, two in the USA and the others in Peru and Jamaica, findings reveal that when undernourished children missed breakfast, they performed worse in tests of cognition. Adequately nourished children's performance was unaffected by missing breakfast. A study in four Jamaican schools found that children had more creative ideas when they received a breakfast for 2 weeks than when they did not receive breakfast. Two Swedish studies found that children with a high-calorie breakfast improved in cognition compared to those receiving a low-calorie breakfast. One study found that children in well-equipped classrooms paid more attention in class after having breakfast. Children in overcrowded classes and poorly equipped schools were less likely to pay attention after breakfast. Long-term effects are less well studied, but findings clearly support the benefits of breakfast.

  16. Knowledge, attitudes, and environment: what primary care providers say about pre-school vision screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh-Tootle, Wendy L; Funkhouser, Ellen; Frazier, Marcela G; Crenshaw, Katie; Wall, Terry C

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and environment of primary care providers, and to develop a conceptual framework showing their impact on self-reported pre-school vision screening (PVS) behaviors. Eligible primary care providers were individuals who filed claims with Medicaid agencies in Alabama, South Carolina, or Illinois, for at least eight well child checks for children aged 3 or 4 years during 1 year. Responses were obtained on-line from providers who enrolled in the intervention arm of a randomized trial to improve PVS. We calculated a summary score per provider per facet: (1) for behavior and knowledge, each correct answer was assigned a value of +1; and (2) for attitudes and environment, responses indicating support for PVS were assigned a value of +1, and other responses were assigned -1. Responses were available from 53 participants (43 of 49 enrolled pediatricians, 8 of 14 enrolled family physicians, one general physician, and one nurse practitioner). Recognizing that amblyopia often presents without outward signs was positively related to good PVS: [odds ratio (OR) = 3.9; p = 0.06]. Reporting that "preschool VS interrupts patient flow" posed a significant barrier (OR = 0.2; p = 0.05). Providers with high summed scores on attitudes (OR = 6.0; p = 0.03), or knowledge and attitudes (OR = 11.4; p attitudes or environment, and "good" PVS behavior (p = 0.04). PVS is influenced by positive attitudes, especially when combined with knowledge about amblyopia. Interventions to improve PVS should target multiple facets, emphasizing (1) asymptomatic children are at risk for amblyopia, (2) specific evidence-based tests have high testability and sensitivity for amblyopia in pre-school children, and (3) new tests minimize interruptions to patient flow.

  17. Self-Management Training for Chinese Obese Children at Risk for Metabolic Syndrome: Effectiveness and Implications for School Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jiying; Anderson, Laura M.; Ji, Hong

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the results of a school-based self-management intervention for Chinese obese children at risk for metabolic syndrome. Twenty-eight Chinese obese children (M age?=?10 years) and their parents participated in the study. Metabolic syndrome risk factors were measured pre- and post-intervention. The risk factors included Body Mass…

  18. Prevalence of obesity among the school-going children of Lahore and associated factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, H.; Javaid, A.; Mehmood, M.; Anwar, A.; Anwar, F.A.; Ijaz, A.; Joiya, H.U.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of obesity among the school- going children (6 and 7 grade) of Lahore and ascertain the associated factors. Method: A descriptive study with sample size of 293 children conducted over a period of four months in two private sector schools of Lahore. Information was gathered by the help of a pre designed questionnaire after getting formal consent from parents. Children included in the study were healthy with no reported chronic illness. Body weight was measured in minimal clothing using a weight scale; body height was measured in erect posture without shoes using a stadiometer. Obesity, underweight and overweight were defined by plotting BMI against age (in months and years) on WHO BMI-for-age (5-19 years [percentiles]) charts. Results: Out of 293 children 11.9% were obese (more than 97 percentile) while 21.8% were overweight (85 97 percentile). Among obese children 74.3% were found to watch TV for 1-2 hours daily while 25.7% watch TV for 3-4 hours. 48.6% of obese children did not participate in any field sports while 34.3% have less than 3 hours participation in field sports. Among parents of obese children, 60% were found to have little or no influence on their children's food intake at school whereas 22.9% parents of obese children never advise them against eating junk food. Parents think that ban on advertisements promoting unhealthy foods (75.1%) and use of popular media characters in promoting healthy foods (83.6%) and exercise can help in preventing obesity in children. Conclusion: This study shows that high prevalence of obesity and overweight among children in private schools has direct relationship with decreased physical activity and other factors like watching TV, role of media and lack of diet control by parents. (author)

  19. Assessment of Knowledge Regarding Oral Hygiene among Parents of Pre-School Children Attending Pediatric Out Patient Department in Dhulikhel Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, K; Shrestha, D; Ghimire, N; Younjan, R; Sanjel, S

    2015-01-01

    Level of knowledge regarding oral hygiene among the parents of pre-school children plays an important role on maintaining the good oral hygiene of their children. In Nepal, sufficient research has not been carried out on this area. Objective of this study is to assess the level of knowledge on oral hygiene of preschool children's parents attending pediatric outpatient department in Dhulikhel Hospital. A descriptive study was conducted from November 2012 to January 2013 among one hundred parents of preschool children visiting pediatrics outpatient department of Dhulikhel Hospital. Paper and pencil based semi structured questionnaire was used for collecting data. Questions related to demographic information and knowledge were asked. Thirty questions were used for assessing knowledge level. Knowledge score was calculated by allocating one point for each correct answer and zero point for each wrong answer. Analyzed data were presented in terms of numbers and percentages. Total knowledge scores were categorized based on percentage. Knowledge score was categorized on four group - exclusive intervals - namely-poor (0-40%), moderate (40-60%), good (60-80%) and excellent (80-100%). Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test were applied to check significance difference and chisquare test was used to check association among different background characteristic. It was found that 81% had moderate knowledge, 15% had poor knowledge and 4% had good knowledge about oral hygiene. Median knowledge score was found to be 15 with range 10 to 21. Following variables were found to be significant difference on knowledge category: Education status (poral health problem (p = 0.008), Further significant association was found between knowledge category and educational status (pknowledge category and past experience (pKnowledge regarding oral hygiene was found satisfactory among the parents of preschool children visiting pediatric OPD of Dhulikhel Hospital.

  20. Web-based Dietary Assessment for 8-11 Year Old School-children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia

    status and BMI of the children. Possible causes may be the weight and health focus of the study, social desirability and the diet reporting itself. When using plasma carotenoid concentrations as a reference, the WebDASC’s ability to rank participants according to FJV intake was good and the Web...... ability and social desirability which in addition is influenced by the OPUS study. Furthermore, they are untrained in the task and they may not be involved in food shopping or preparation and therefore have little insight into the foods they eat. The overall aim of the present project was to deliver......Background and aim The potential health effects of a New Nordic Diet (NND) are to be tested in the Danish OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) School Meal study among 8-11- year-old school-children. Valid and reliable dietary...

  1. Age dynamic of physical condition changes in pre-school age girls, schoolgirls and students, living in conditions of Eastern Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Y. Lebedinskiy

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to analyze dynamic of physical condition, considering sex (females and age of the tested, living in region with unfavorable ecology. Material: we studied pre school age girls (n=1580, age 4-7 years. In the research we did not include children with chronic diseases, who were under observation. We tested schoolgirls (n=3211, age 7-17 years and girl students (n=5827, age 17-21 years, 1-4 years of study. Girl students were divided into five age groups: from 17 to 21 years. All participants lived in conditions of Eastern Siberia (Irkutsk. This region is characterized by unfavorable ecology and climate geographic characteristics. Results: in dynamic of physical condition of pre-school girls, schoolgirls and students we marked out three substantial periods of it characteristics' changes. Age 7-8 years is critical (transition from 1st to 2nd stage. The least values of these characteristics are found in older (after 17-18 years ages. In students we observed relative stabilization of these indicators. Conclusions: the received results shall be considered in building physical education training process in pre-school educational establishments, secondary comprehensive schools and higher educational establishments.

  2. Involving children in meal preparation. Effects on food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Horst, Klazine; Ferrage, Aurore; Rytz, Andreas

    2014-08-01

    The question of how to promote healthy eating habits in children is relevant because most children do not meet the recommended vegetable intake. Involving children in food preparation could be an opportunity to develop healthy eating behaviors and to increase vegetable consumption. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of children's involvement in meal preparation on their food and vegetable intake. A between-subject experiment was conducted with 47 children aged 6 to 10 years. In condition 1 (n = 25), children prepared a lunch meal (pasta, breaded chicken, cauliflower, and salad) with the assistance of a parent. In condition 2 (n = 22), the meal was prepared by the parent alone. Independent samples t-tests were conducted to compare intake in the "child cooks" and "parent cooks" conditions. Children in the child cooks condition ate significantly more salad 41.7 g (76.1%), more chicken 21.8 g (27.0%), and more calories 84.6 kcal (24.4%) than children in the parent cooks condition. Between before cooking and directly after cooking the meal, children in the child cooks condition reported significantly increased feelings of valence (feeling positive) and dominance (feeling in control). This study confirms that involving children in meal preparation can increase vegetable intake. Because of the potential effect on energy intake, parents need to be made aware of appropriate portion sizes for their children. Taking this into account, encouraging parents to involve their children in the preparation of healthy and balanced meals could be a valuable intervention strategy to improve the diets and vegetable intake of children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of physics departments in the recruitment, preparation and support of pre-college teachers of physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Lane

    2008-05-01

    The United States faces a critical shortage of qualified physics and physical science teachers. The number of high school students taking physics is increasing but the number of physics majors pursuing careers in pre-college teaching is not nearly sufficient to meet the demand. College and university physics departments have content expertise and ready access to potential future teachers of physics. In order to address the crisis in physics and physical science education, APS, AAPT, and AIP have developed the PhysTEC project. Seattle Pacific University is one of six fully funded PhysTEC sites. The PhysTEC project also supports a coalition of more than one hundred institutions that are committed to improving K-12 physics and physical science education. This talk will describe the national PhysTEC project along with our local PhysTEC program. We will explore ways in which physics departments can more fully integrate the preparation of pre-college physics teachers within existing departmental priorities. We will discuss opportunities for regional partnerships between 2-year and 4-year colleges, school districts, and teacher preparation programs. We will also highlight ways in which our research on the learning and teaching of physics informs the development of tools that teachers and teacher educators can use to diagnose student ideas and to design subsequent instruction that capitalizes on these ideas. In collaboration with Stamatis Vokos, Seattle Pacific University and Pam Kraus, Facet Innovations LLC.

  4. School Administrators' Perceptions of Factors that Influence Children's Active Travel to School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Anna E.; Pluto, Delores M.; Ogoussan, Olga; Banda, Jorge A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Increasing children's active travel to school may be 1 strategy for addressing the growing prevalence of obesity among school age children. Using the School Travel Survey, we examined South Carolina school district leaders' perceptions of factors that influence elementary and middle school students walking to school. Methods: Frequency…

  5. External Genital Anomaly and Phimosis Prevalence in Male School Children in Sakarya Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Budak

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The goal of the study was to determine external genital anomaly types in children attending primary school (6-15 years old in Sakarya. Material and Method: 1573, 6-15 years old student randomly selected from 8 schools inside the province. The students were examined in an appropriate room in the school, and external genital anomalies were identified and noted. Results: In this study, a total of 106 (6,7 % anomalies were identified in 1573 students. The most common anomalies were phimosis 3,6 % (56 and undescended testis 2,6 % (41. Discussion: This study shows that the ratio of the external genital anomaly that needs to be cured before primary school is high. Socioeconomic differences and environmental factors can affect anomaly prevalence. Health care workers all over the country should be trained regarding the issue. In addition to these, to identify genital anomalies before children start primary school, specific training programs should be prepared for parents.

  6. School absence and its effect on school performance for children born with orofacial clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Jane; Raynes-Greenow, Camille; Turner, Robin; Bower, Carol; Dodson, Alan; Hancock, Kirsten; Nassar, Natasha

    2017-07-17

    School absence is associated with lower performance on standardized tests. Children born with orofacial clefts (OFC) are likely to have more absence than children without OFC; however, school absence for children with OFC has not been quantified. We aimed to describe school absence and its relationship with school performance for children with and without OFC. Population-based record-linked cohort study of children (402 with OFC, 1789 without OFC) enrolled in schools in Western Australia, 2008 to 2012. We compared median school absence rates using Wilcoxon rank tests, and investigated the impact of school absence on standardized scores from reading, numeracy, and writing tests, using multivariable models fitted by generalized estimating equations. In Semester 1, at each primary school year level, children without OFC and children with cleft lip only or cleft palate only had similar median absence rates (approximately 1 week). Children with cleft lip and palate had significantly higher absence rates in Years 4 to 6 (between 1 and 2 weeks). During secondary school, median absence rates were higher (2 weeks) for all children, but not statistically different between children with and without OFC. Higher absence was significantly associated with lower standardized reading, numeracy, and writing scores. However, having a cleft of any type had little influence on the association between absence and test scores. School absence affected school performance for all children. Absence did not differentially disadvantage children born with OFC, suggesting current practices to identify and support children with OFC are minimizing effects of their absence on school performance. Birth Defects Research 109:1048-1056, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. School Perceptions of Children Raised by Grandparents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Oliver W.

    2018-01-01

    Increasing numbers of children raised by grandparents are students in schools. Their substitute family structure and precursors to the emergence of this family structure have implications for the children's school performance. Research suggests teachers view these children as at risk for difficult school functioning. The aforementioned judgment is…

  8. Children's rights and school psychology: children's right to participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdown, Gerison; Jimerson, Shane R; Shahroozi, Reza

    2014-02-01

    The Convention on the Rights of the Child detailed an international imperative to fulfilling, protecting, and respecting the rights of every child. In particular, the Convention set out a clear mandate for guaranteeing opportunities for children to be heard on all matters of concern to them. The attainment of these goals involves respecting and valuing children as active participants in the educational process. If fully implemented, the right of children to express views and have them taken seriously, throughout the school environment, would represent one of the most profound transformations in moving towards a culture of respect for children's rights, for their dignity and citizenship, and for their capacities to contribute significantly towards their own well-being. These values and principles are consistent with those of the school psychology profession, thus, school psychologists are encouraged to be at the Center of the process advocating and actualizing the Convention in schools throughout the world. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Body mass status of school children and adolescents in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Foong Ming; Gan, Chong Ying; Zaleha, Mohd Kassim Siti

    2004-01-01

    Lifestyle and disease patterns in Malaysia have changed following rapid economic development. It is important to find out how these changes have affected the nutritional status and health behaviour of the population, especially school children and adolescents. Therefore a survey on school children's and adolescents' health behaviours and perception in Kuala Lumpur was initiated. This paper only reports the observed body mass status of the school children. A total of 3620 school children were selected in this survey using the method of multi-stage sampling. The students were surveyed using pre-tested questionnaires while weight and height were measured by the research team in the field. Using the cut-off of BMI-for-age >or= 95th percentile and students and 14.8% of underweight students. When analysed by gender; 7.5% of boys and 7.1% girls were overweight, while 16.2% of the boys and 13.3% of the girls were underweight. The youngest age group (11 years old) had the highest prevalence of underweight as well as overweight. With increasing age, the prevalence of underweight and overweight decreased and more children were in the normal weight range. The overall prevalence of overweight among the three ethnic groups was similar. However the prevalence of underweight was highest among the Indian students (24.9%), followed by Malays (18.9%) and Chinese (9.5%) (P Malaysia. The promotion of healthy eating and physical activities is required to address the problems of under- and over-nutrition in order to build up a strong and healthy nation in the future.

  10. Assessment of morphological-functional state of children with cochlear implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Pysanko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: assessment of morphological-functional state of pre-school age children with cochlear implants and substantiation of need in post-operative rehabilitation in period of preparation for comprehensive school. Material: we tested weakly hearing children with cochlear implants (n=127, age - 5.6±0.6 years. They were the main group. Control group consisted of children with normal hearing (n=70, age - 5.7±0.4 years. Morphological-functional state was assessed by indicators of physical and biological condition, visual analyzer, posture parameters and foot arch, muscular system and level of coordination. We calculated index of integral morphological-functional state assessment. Results: Morphological functional state of most of children (with cochlear implants was characterized by low physical condition indicators and disharmony. We observed delay in biological development. Index of morphological-functional state integral assessment witnesses, that such child can not study in comprehensive school. Rehabilitation program can reduce the gap between children with normal hearing and those with cochlear implants. Conclusions: Rehabilitation program facilitates quicker domestic and social rehabilitation of children at the account of widening the circle of communication, learning new actions and conceptions. It can permit for such children to study at school together with their healthy peers.

  11. University-affiliated schools as sites for research learning in pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hennie

    University-affiliated schools as sites for research learning in pre-service teacher education ... they can also learn from good example, in well-functioning schools, where they can also get .... school can offer in terms of signs and tools to achieve.

  12. Migrant Preschool Children's School Readiness and Early Elementary School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassolie, Tanya; López, Claudia; De Feyter, Jessica; Hartman, Suzanne C.; Winsler, Adam

    2018-01-01

    Little is known about the early educational performance of children in migrant farmworker families. The authors examined the school readiness and early school success of 289 four-year-old preschool children of migrant families attending Redlands Christian Migrant Association centers. Children's school readiness was assessed and public school…

  13. [Nutritional contribution of snacks to food patterns in school children who are overweight or obese compared to school children who are of normal weight in Cartago, Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra López, Marianela; Llobet León, Laia; Fernández Rojas, Xinia

    2012-12-01

    In order to assess the nutritional contribution of snacks to food patterns in school children, a sample of 80 Costa Rican elementary schoolchildren: 40 children who were overweight or obese (the case group) and 40 children with normal weight (the control group) were evaluated. The anthropometric evaluation included weight, height, and triceps skinfold thickness. Food patterns were determined using a 3-day food diary. Snacks consumed throughout the day were classified and analyzed according to their place of preparation and location of consumption and to the time of the day in which they were consumed. The results of this study revealed that "afternoon snacks" and "snacks prepared and eaten at home" were the most frequently consumed snacks by both case and control groups. The girls in the case group had a significantly larger intake of energy and carbohydrates in their "afternoon snacks" and the "snacks prepared and eaten at home" as compared to girls in the control group. Boys in the case group showed a significantly greater consumption of saturated fat in the "snacks prepared and eaten at home" as compared to boys in the control group. It was concluded that the intake of "afternoon snacks" and of those "prepared and eaten at home" could be related with the incidence of overweight/obesity in the sample of study and therefore nutrition education aimed at parents and children is crucial and could play an important role in its prevention.

  14. Sun Protection Among New Zealand Primary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Ryan; Leung, William; Stanley, James; Reeder, Anthony; Mackay, Christina; Smith, Moira; Barr, Michelle; Chambers, Tim; Signal, Louise

    2017-12-01

    Schools are an important setting for raising skin cancer prevention awareness and encouraging sun protection. We assessed the clothes worn and shade used by 1,278 children in eight schools in the Wellington region of New Zealand. These children were photographed for the Kids'Cam project between September 2014 and March 2015 during school lunch breaks. Children's mean clothing coverage (expressed as a percentage of body area covered) was calculated. Data on school sun-safety policies were obtained via telephone. Mean total body clothing coverage was 70.3% (95% confidence interval = 66.3%, 73.8%). Body regions with the lowest mean coverage were the head (15.4% coverage), neck (36.1% coverage), lower arms (46.1% coverage), hands (5.3% coverage), and calves (30.1% coverage). Children from schools with hats as part of the school uniform were significantly more likely to wear a hat (52.2%) than children from schools without a school hat (2.7%). Most children (78.4%) were not under the cover of shade. Our findings suggest that New Zealand children are not sufficiently protected from the sun at school. Schools should consider comprehensive approaches to improve sun protection, such as the provision of school hats, sun-protective uniforms, and the construction of effective shade.

  15. The Chinese number naming system and its impact on the arithmetic performance of pre-schoolers in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Sharon Sui Ngan

    2012-06-01

    Asian children, including Chinese children, perform better than their English-speaking peers in cross-national mathematics studies. This superior Asian performance is attributed to several factors including cultural beliefs, educational systems and practices, and the Chinese number naming system. Given the limited empirical evidence on pre-school mathematics learning in Chinese societies, the outcomes of Western studies are often borrowed and adopted in curriculum planning in Asian schools. The study reported in this paper investigated the performance of Hong Kong Chinese pre-school children based on Western studies involving English-speaking children, and examined the relationship between the Chinese number naming system and children's performance in number and operation concepts. Data were collected from 299 pre-school children aged between 3 and 5 years. The learning sequence of the children in mastering number and operation concepts was established using the Rasch Model. This study provides empirical evidence for the feasibility of borrowing lists of mathematics concepts from studies of English-speaking children to serve as a reference for school-based curriculum planning in a Chinese-speaking context. However, it is not enough to establish the relationship between children's performance and the Chinese number naming system. Classroom instruction and cultural beliefs in mathematics learning are also important in explaining children's performance.

  16. Research on pre-scientific concept of light in children's cognitive activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Zhigao; Yu, Yang; Yan, Dan; Yang, Shulin

    2017-08-01

    Based on the theory of Ausubel's meaningful learning and cognitive characteristic of childens pre-scientific concept, two students of Huang Gang Middle School have been interviewed continuously about cognition of interaction between light and matter. Comprehension degree of childens pre-scientific concept about interaction between light and matter has been deeply understood, formation of strategy of childens pre-scientific concept has been discussed. Several influence factors related to formation of childens pre-scientific concept have been analyzed, such as sex, family environment, and learning experience of kindergarten and primary school.

  17. Active transport among Czech school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pavelka

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Active transport is a very important factor for increasing the level of physical activity in children, which is significant for both their health and positive physical behaviour in adult age. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to establish the proportion of Czech children aged 11 to 15 who select active transport to and from school and, at the same time, describe socio-economic and socio-demographic factors influencing active transport to and from school among children. METHODS: To establish the socio-demographic factors affecting active transport, data of a national representative sample of 11 to 15 year-old elementary school children in the Czech Republic (n = 4,425. Research data collection was performed within an international research study called Health Behaviour in School Aged Children in June 2010. Statistical processing of the results was made using a logistic regression analysis in the statistical programme IBM SPSS v 20. RESULTS: Active transport to and from school is opted for in the Czech Republic by approximately 2/3 of children aged 11 to 15. Differences between genders are not statistically significant; most children opting for active transport are aged 11 (69%. An important factor increasing the probability of active transport as much as 16 times is whether a child's place of residence is in the same municipality as the school. Other factors influencing this choice include BMI, time spent using a computer or a privateroom in a family. A significant factor determining active transport by children is safety; safe road crossing, opportunity to leave a bicycle safely at school, no fear of being assaulted on the way or provision of school lockers where children can leave their items. CONCLUSIONS: Active transport plays an important role in increasing the overall level of physical activity in children. Promotion of active transport should focus on children who spend more time using a computer; attention should also be

  18. PREVALENCE OF ASTHMA IN ISFAHAN JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL CHILDREN (1998-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M GOLSHAN

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Asthma is the most common chronic disease in children. Unfortunately there are not exact epidemiologic data concerning the prevalence of this disorder in Iranian children. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of asthma or respiratory symptoms in Isfahan Junior high school children. Methods. From 1998 Oct. to 1999 May. 3986 children from urban junior high schools children were selected by a proportional random cluster sampling. A self administered questionnaire prepared by International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISSAC modified by several supplementary questions was distributed among the selected children. The response rate was 98.5 percent (N=3924. Of these children, 2588 pupils who had at least one positive answer referring to respiratory symptoms were invited to AL-Zahra medical center for further evaluation, but 1710 pupils (66 percent of the invited attended the clinic and underwent complete medical interview, physical examination and post-exercise pulmonary function testing. Those children who failed to attend the clinic were examined at their schools (774 cases and 104 absent pupils were not examined. Our criterion for the diagnosis of asthma was the positive history of wheezing and dyspnea. Results. The overall prevalence of asthma was 19.6 percent with a male to female ratio of 1.7:1 (P<0.0001. The frequencies of wheezing ever in life and sleep disturbed by wheeze were 31.7 percent and 9.5 percent, respectively. Wheeze and rhoncus on chest auscultation while the children were examined in clinic or school was recorded in 4.2 percent and 3.5 percent of the population, respectively. Pulmonary function tests revealed FEV1:5,80 percent of predicted value (prd in 5.9 percent, FEF 25-75£70 Percent prd in 9.6 percent and FEF75£70 percent prd in 20.5 percent of tested children. The three later findings correlated to history of wheezing and dyspnea (P < 0.0001. Discussion. The prevalence of

  19. Student pharmacists provide tobacco use prevention education to elementary school children: A pilot experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroff, Jared L; Wolff, Marissa L; Andros, Christina; Nemec, Eric C

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a service learning experience involving tobacco prevention education and to measure the education's effect on the learners' knowledge of tobacco products. Student pharmacists planned and presented a 40-min tobacco prevention education program using the Tar Wars curriculum to fourth and fifth grade students at three suburban elementary schools in Western Massachusetts. Mean scores on a five-question assessment given to school age children before and after the presentation were compared. A total of 206 elementary school students in ten classrooms participated. The average survey score increased from 1.87 on the pre-survey to 3.72 out of a maximum of five on the post-survey (Peducation to three suburban elementary schools. The children demonstrated an increase in short-term knowledge regarding tobacco use. Tobacco prevention is a unique co-curricular opportunity for student pharmacists to get involved in their community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Overweight and obesity at school entry among migrant and German children: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeb Hajo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity have become a global epidemic and are increasing rapidly in both childhood and adolescence. Obesity is linked both to socioeconomic status and to ethnicity among adults. It is unclear whether similar associations exist in childhood. The aim of the present study was to assess differences in overweight and obesity in migrant and German children at school entry. Methods The body mass index (BMI was calculated for 525 children attending the 2002 compulsory pre-school medical examinations in 12 schools in Bielefeld, Germany. We applied international BMI cut off points for overweight and obesity by sex and age. The migration status of children was based on sociodemographic data obtained from parents who were interviewed separately. Results The overall prevalence of overweight in children aged 6–7 was 11.9% (overweight incl. obesity, the obesity prevalence was 2.5%. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher for migrant children (14.7% and 3.1% than for German children (9.1% and 1.9%. When stratified by parental social status, migrant children had a significantly higher prevalence of overweight than German children in the highest social class. (27.6% vs. 10.0%, p = 0.032 Regression models including country/region and socioeconomic status as independent variables indicated similar results. The patterns of overweight among migrant children differed only slightly depending on duration of stay of their family in Germany. Conclusion Our data indicate that children from ethnic minorities in Germany are more frequently overweight or obese than German children. Social class as well as family duration of stay after immigration influence the pattern of overweight and obesity in children at school entry.

  1. Gender differences in the daily physical activities of Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glen; Pfister, Gertrud Ursula; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the daily physical activities of Danish children with a focus on describing and explaining gender differences. Accelerometer measurements of physical activity in different contexts, as well as questionnaire data, were collected from more than 500 children...... at pre-school and later at third grade. The study showed that boys were generally more physically active than girls (18% at age 6–7, and 16% at age 9–10, both p differences in the types of activities undertaken by the two genders. These findings are in accordance with numerous other...... studies in Denmark as well as internationally. However, this study adds to this knowledge by showing that the gender difference in total amounts of activity was mainly due to large gender differences in the amounts of self-organized physical activity such as after-school day care (difference at age 6...

  2. Changes in School Food Preparation Methods Result in Healthier Cafeteria Lunches in Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Timothy K; Liebert, Mina L; Peterson, Hannah J; Howard Smith, Jennifer; Sutliffe, Jay T; Day, Aubrey; Mack, Jodi

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of a districtwide food best practices and preparation changes in elementary schools lunches, implemented as part of the LiveWell@School childhood obesity program, funded by LiveWell Colorado/Kaiser Permanente Community Health Initiative. Longitudinal study examining how school changes in best practices for food preparation impacted the types of side items offered from 2009 to 2015 in elementary school cafeterias in a high-need school district in southern Colorado. Specifically, this study examined changes in side items (fruits, vegetables, potatoes, breads, and desserts). In Phase 1 (2009-2010), baseline data were collected. During Phase 2 (2010-2011), breaded and processed foods (e.g., frozen nuggets, pre-packaged pizza) were removed and school chefs were trained on scratch cooking methods. Phase 3 (2011-2012) saw an increased use of fresh/frozen fruits and vegetables after a new commodity order. During Phase 4 (2013-2015), chef consulting and training took place. The frequency of side offerings was tracked across phases. Analyses were completed in Fall 2016. Because of limited sample sizes, data from Phases 2 to 4 (intervention phases) were combined for potatoes and desserts. Descriptive statistics were calculated. After adjusting for length of time for each phase, Pearson chi-square tests were conducted to examine changes in offerings of side items by phase. Fresh fruit offerings increased and canned fruit decreased in Phases 1-4 (p=0.001). A significant difference was observed for vegetables (p=0.001), with raw and steamed vegetables increasing and canned vegetables decreasing from Phase 1 to 4. Fresh potatoes (low in sodium) increased and fried potatoes (high in sodium) decreased from Phase 1 to Phases 2-4 (p=0.001). Breads were eliminated entirely in Phase 2, and dessert changes were not significant (p=0.927). This approach to promoting healthier lunch sides is a promising paradigm for improving elementary

  3. Visual Acuity in Primary School Pupils in Lagos, Nigeria | Okoro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in visual acuity. Conclusion: Eye defects occur among school children with potential negative effects. Pre-school entry eye examinations and regular screening is advocated and glasses should be made available for children with refractive error. Keywords: Visual Acuity, Screening, School Children, School Health ...

  4. The Preparation of School Psychologists in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzichristou, Chryse; Polychroni, Fotini

    2014-01-01

    The paper describes the preparation of school psychologists in Greece. It discusses the social and cultural contexts that have influenced the evolution of the discipline of psychology, the beginning of training programs in school psychology, and the current status of school psychological services. The structure of the Graduate Program of School…

  5. Clinical outcomes of primary palatoplasty in pre-school-aged cleft palate children in Srinagarind hospital: quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradubwong, Suteera; Mongkholthawornchai, Siriporn; Keawkhamsean, Natda; Patjanasoontorn, Niramol; Chowchuen, Bowornsilp

    2014-10-01

    collaboration of the Tawanchai Cleft Center and the government, as well as with private and non-governmental organizations was exceptional, particularly in regard to providing proper and continuous treatment for patients with cleft lips and/or cleft palate. The findings reflect a good quality of life in the pre-schooled children with cleft lip and cleft palate that received treatment from the Tawanchai Cleft Center at Srinagarind Hospital. Furthermore, the study showed that the problems associated with the condition, only affected the family's lives at a minimal level.

  6. Self-efficacy and enjoyment of middle school children performing the progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run (PACER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Irene; Robertson, Robert J; Fertman, Carl I; Nagle, Elizabeth F; McConnaha, Wendell R; Rabin, Bruce S

    2013-10-01

    Self-efficacy and enjoyment were examined among 34 middle school children (M age = 12.5 yr.) performing the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER). Exercise self-efficacy (running) and physical activity enjoyment were measured after viewing a video illustrating the PACER, and subsequently following a PACER test. Significantly greater pre- than post-exercise self-efficacy was reported; enjoyment scores did not differ. Ratings of self-efficacy were higher before exercise than after, but enjoyment scores were not significantly different. A significant correlation was found between post-exercise self-efficacy and enjoyment, but not between pre-exercise self-efficacy and enjoyment. Although positive correlations were found between PACER laps and pre-/post-exercise self-efficacy, correlations with ratings of enjoyment were not significant. Exercise self-efficacy was associated with children's beliefs about the task-specific PACER aerobic exercise; however, exercise enjoyment was stable. Children's self-efficacy and enjoyment beliefs should be considered when developing interventional strategies to promote aerobic exercise participation.

  7. Computer-based attention training in the schools for children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a preliminary trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Naomi J; Sheldrick, Radley Christopher; Gotthelf, David; Perrin, Ellen C

    2011-07-01

    Objective. This study examined the efficacy of 2 computer-based training systems to teach children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to attend more effectively. Design/methods. A total of 41 children with ADHD from 2 middle schools were randomly assigned to receive 2 sessions a week at school of either neurofeedback (NF) or attention training through a standard computer format (SCF), either immediately or after a 6-month wait (waitlist control group). Parents, children, and teachers completed questionnaires pre- and postintervention. Results. Primary parents in the NF condition reported significant (P ADHD index, the BASC Attention Problems Scale, and on the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning (BRIEF). Conclusion. This randomized control trial provides preliminary evidence of the effectiveness of computer-based interventions for ADHD and supports the feasibility of offering them in a school setting.

  8. Pre-Service Teachers' Conceptions of Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odafe, Victor U.

    2011-01-01

    Probability knowledge and skills are needed in science and in making daily decisions that are sometimes made under uncertain conditions. Hence, there is the need to ensure that the pre-service teachers of our children are well prepared to teach probability. Pre-service teachers' conceptions of probability are identified, and ways of helping them…

  9. Social anxiety in pre-adolescent children: What do we know about maintenance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldorsson, Brynjar; Creswell, Cathy

    2017-12-01

    The cognitive theory of social anxiety disorder (SAD) is one of the most widely accepted accounts of the maintenance of the disorder in adults, yet it remains unknown if, or to what extent, the same cognitive and behavioral maintenance mechanisms that occur in adult SAD also apply to SAD among pre-adolescent children. In contrast to the adult literature, current models of SAD in children mostly account for etiology and maintenance processes are given limited attention. Consequently, their clinical utility for the treatment of SAD in children may be limited. This narrative review, first, critically examines the different theoretical conceptualizations of the maintenance of social anxiety in the child and adult literature and illustrates how these have resulted in different treatment approaches and clinical understanding. Second, it reviews the available evidence relating to hypotheses about the maintenance of SAD in children as derived from adult cognitive and etiological models. Third, it highlights the need to attend directly to child specific maintenance mechanisms in SAD, to draw on cognitive theory, and to account for the influence of childhood-specific contextual (e.g. family and school-based interactions) and developmental factors on children's social experiences. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. The Rural Special Education Project: A School-Based Program That Prepares Special Educators to Teach Native American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prater, Greg; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A Northern Arizona University program prepares preservice special education teachers to work with Native American children and families. University students live on the Navajo reservation and receive practical classroom experience at Kayenta Unified School District (Arizona). Anglo students are paired with Navajo students who act as "cultural…

  11. Parent emotional expressiveness and children's self-regulation: Associations with abused children's school functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haskett, Mary E.; Stelter, Rebecca; Proffit, Katie; Nice, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Objective Identifying factors associated with school functioning of abused children is important in prevention of long-term negative outcomes associated with school failure. The purpose of this study was to examine the degree to which parent emotional expressiveness and children's self-regulation predicted early school behavior of abused children. Methods The sample included 92 physically abused children ages 4-7 and one of their parents (95.7% mothers). Parents completed a measure of their own emotional expressiveness, and parents and teachers provided reports of children's self-regulatory skills. Children's school functioning was measured by observations of playground aggression and teacher reports of aggression and classroom behavior. Results Parents’ expression of positive and negative emotions was associated with various aspects of children's self-regulation and functioning in the school setting. Links between self-regulation and children's school adjustment were robust; poor self-regulation was associated with higher aggression and lower cooperation and self-directed behavior in the classroom. There was minimal support for a mediating role of children's self-regulation in links between parent expressiveness and children's behavior. Practice implications Findings point to the relevance of parent emotional expressivity and children's self-regulatory processes in understanding physically abused children's functioning at the transition to school. Although further research is needed, findings indicate that increasing parental expression of positive emotion should be a focus in treatment along with reduction in negativity of abusive parents. Further, addressing children's self-regulation could be important in efforts to reduce aggression and enhance children's classroom competence. PMID:22565040

  12. Families with School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The…

  13. The impact of food and nutrient-based standards on primary school children's lunch and total dietary intake: a natural experimental evaluation of government policy in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Suzanne; Delve, Jennifer; Stamp, Elaine; Matthews, John N S; White, Martin; Adamson, Ashley J

    2013-01-01

    In 2005, the nutritional content of children's school lunches in England was widely criticised, leading to a major policy change in 2006. Food and nutrient-based standards were reintroduced requiring primary schools to comply by September 2008. We aimed to determine the effect of the policy on the nutritional content at lunchtime and in children's total diet. We undertook a natural experimental evaluation, analysing data from cross-sectional surveys in 12 primary schools in North East England, pre and post policy. Dietary data were collected on four consecutive days from children aged 4-7 years (n = 385 in 2003-4; n = 632 in 2008-9). We used linear mixed effect models to analyse the effects of gender, year, and lunch type on children's mean total daily intake. Both pre- and post-implementation, children who ate a school lunch consumed less sodium (mean change -128 mg, 95% CI: -183 to -73 mg) in their total diet than children eating home-packed lunches. Post-implementation, children eating school lunches consumed a lower % energy from fat (-1.8%, -2.8 to -0.9) and saturated fat (-1.0%; -1.6 to -0.5) than children eating packed lunches. Children eating school lunches post implementation consumed significantly more carbohydrate (16.4 g, 5.3 to 27.6), protein (3.6 g, 1.1 to 6.0), non-starch polysaccharides (1.5 g, 0.5 to 1.9), vitamin C (0.7 mg, 0.6 to 0.8), and folate (12.3 µg, 9.7 to 20.4) in their total diet than children eating packed lunches. Implementation of school food policy standards was associated with significant improvements in the nutritional content of school lunches; this was reflected in children's total diet. School food- and nutrient-based standards can play an important role in promoting dietary health and may contribute to tackling childhood obesity. Similar policy measures should be considered for other environments influencing children's diet.

  14. The impact of food and nutrient-based standards on primary school children's lunch and total dietary intake: a natural experimental evaluation of government policy in England.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Spence

    Full Text Available In 2005, the nutritional content of children's school lunches in England was widely criticised, leading to a major policy change in 2006. Food and nutrient-based standards were reintroduced requiring primary schools to comply by September 2008. We aimed to determine the effect of the policy on the nutritional content at lunchtime and in children's total diet. We undertook a natural experimental evaluation, analysing data from cross-sectional surveys in 12 primary schools in North East England, pre and post policy. Dietary data were collected on four consecutive days from children aged 4-7 years (n = 385 in 2003-4; n = 632 in 2008-9. We used linear mixed effect models to analyse the effects of gender, year, and lunch type on children's mean total daily intake. Both pre- and post-implementation, children who ate a school lunch consumed less sodium (mean change -128 mg, 95% CI: -183 to -73 mg in their total diet than children eating home-packed lunches. Post-implementation, children eating school lunches consumed a lower % energy from fat (-1.8%, -2.8 to -0.9 and saturated fat (-1.0%; -1.6 to -0.5 than children eating packed lunches. Children eating school lunches post implementation consumed significantly more carbohydrate (16.4 g, 5.3 to 27.6, protein (3.6 g, 1.1 to 6.0, non-starch polysaccharides (1.5 g, 0.5 to 1.9, vitamin C (0.7 mg, 0.6 to 0.8, and folate (12.3 µg, 9.7 to 20.4 in their total diet than children eating packed lunches. Implementation of school food policy standards was associated with significant improvements in the nutritional content of school lunches; this was reflected in children's total diet. School food- and nutrient-based standards can play an important role in promoting dietary health and may contribute to tackling childhood obesity. Similar policy measures should be considered for other environments influencing children's diet.

  15. Time course of EEG slow-wave activity in pre-school children with sleep disordered breathing: a possible mechanism for daytime deficits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Sarah N; Walter, Lisa M; Nisbet, Lauren C; Jackman, Angela R; Anderson, Vicki; Nixon, Gillian M; Davey, Margot J; Trinder, John; Hoffmann, Robert; Armitage, Roseanne; Horne, Rosemary S C

    2012-09-01

    Daytime deficits in children with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) are theorized to result from hypoxic insult to the developing brain or fragmented sleep. Yet, these do not explain why deficits occur in primary snorers (PS). The time course of slow wave EEG activity (SWA), a proxy of homeostatic regulation and cortical maturation, may provide insight. Clinical and control subjects (N=175: mean age 4.3±0.9 y: 61% male) participated in overnight polysomnography (PSG). Standard sleep scoring and power spectral analyses were conducted on EEG (C4/A1; 0.5-sleep stages and respiratory parameters. Repeated-measures ANCOVA evaluated group differences in the time course of SWA. Four groups were classified: controls (OAHI ≤ 1 event/h; no clinical history); PS (OAHI ≤ 1 event/h; clinical history); mild OSA (OAHI=1-5 events/h); and moderate to severe OSA (MS OSA: OAHI>5 events/h). Group differences were found in the percentage of time spent in NREM Stages 1 and 4 (psleep pressure but impaired restorative sleep function in pre-school children with SDB, providing new insights into the possible mechanism for daytime deficits observed in all severities of SDB. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. "Pre-schoolers in the playground" an outdoor physical activity intervention for children aged 18 months to 4 years old: study protocol for a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sally E; Jackson, Cath; Akhtar, Shaheen; Bingham, Daniel D; Ainsworth, Hannah; Hewitt, Catherine; Richardson, Gerry; Summerbell, Carolyn D; Pickett, Kate E; Moore, Helen J; Routen, Ash C; O'Malley, Claire L; Brierley, Shirley; Wright, John

    2013-10-09

    The pre-school years are considered critical for establishing healthy lifestyle behaviours such as physical activity. Levels of physical activity track through childhood into adulthood, thus establishing habitual physical activity early in life is vital. Time spent outdoors is associated with greater physical activity and playground interventions have been shown to increase physical activity in school aged children. There are few pre-school, playground-based interventions, and evaluations of these have found mixed results. A recent report published by the UK Chief Medical Officer (CMO) highlighted that new interventions to promote movement in the early years (0-5 years old) are needed. The aim of this study is to undertake a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) of an outdoor playground-based physical activity intervention for parents and their children aged 18 months to 4 years old ("Pre-schoolers in the Playground"; PiP) and to assess the feasibility of conducting a full scale cluster RCT. The PiP intervention is grounded in behavioural theory (Social Cognitive Theory), and is in accordance with the CMO guidance for physical activity in the early years. It is informed by existing literature and data collected from focus groups with parents. One hundred and fifty pre-school children affiliated to 10 primary schools will be recruited. Schools will be randomised to either the PiP intervention arm or the control arm (usual practice). Children in the intervention arm will be invited to attend three 30 minute outdoor play sessions per week for 30 weeks (3 school terms) at the school. Feasibility will be assessed by examining recruitment rates, attendance, attrition, acceptability of the trial and of the PiP intervention to parents, fidelity of intervention implementation, capability and capacity for schools to deliver the intervention. Health outcomes and the feasibility of outcome measurement tools will be assessed. These include physical activity via

  17. Exploring the school attendance of children with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Piccin Zanni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The childhood epilepsy is a chronic disease that can have an impact in various spheres of life of the child, including academic performance and school attendance. This study aimed to describe and compare the school attendance of children with epilepsy who attend mainstream and special schools. Participants were 56 children aged between 7 and 14 years who attended regular or special schools located in two Brazilian cities of medium size. To collect the information we used two instruments: Data sheet of identification and characterization of the child and Data sheet to record the attendance school. The results showed that children in special schools had higher rates of absenteeism compared to students in regular schools. Additionally, we observed that these children use more drugs and have implications on health more severe than children in regular schools. Thus, it is the childhood epilepsy as a disease complex that brings substantial effects on various areas of children’s lives by reinforcing the need for studies that might expand the knowledge to and the experiences associated with the education of these children.

  18. A STUDY ON THE RELATION BETWEEN THE VALUE BEHAVIOUR AND PROBLEM SOLVING SKILLS OF THE PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Saide Özbey

    2017-01-01

    The study was designed to examine the value behaviour and interpersonal problem solving skills of the preschool children according to variables like their age, sex and the type of the schools they attend and to determine the relation between their value behaviour and their problem solving skills. The sample of the study consists of 321 children who were selected by random sampling method among the children of 48-72 months who attend to public and private kindergartens in the districts of Keçi...

  19. Pre-School Children's Encounters with "The Magic Flute"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyland, Berenice; Acker, Aleksandra; Ferris, Jill; Deans, Jan

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a music programme in an Australian early learning centre. Through a repertoire of songs, games and instruments, the children were introduced to music forms, including opera. Mozart's Magic Flute was presented to these children by watching the Metropolitan Opera's latest film performance. Because this opera seized the…

  20. The Socialization of Home-Schooled Children in Rural Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Mecham, Neil A.

    2004-01-01

    Concern over the social development of children who are home schooled has caused parents and educators to question the wisdom of this practice. A review of home-schooling research has not revealed whether a difference exists between the social skills of homeschooled children and children who attend public schools. This study explored the socialization of home-schooled children by comparing Social Skills Rating System scores of home-schooled children with the scores of their mothers and a comp...

  1. Children's perceptions of school-based violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumpel, T P; Meadan, H

    2000-09-01

    An important first step in understanding school-based violence is understanding children's subjective perceptions of the phenomena. Understanding these perceptions is likely to be a major factor in determining the integrity of both prevalence and intervention studies. We investigated how elementary and secondary aged children perceived school-based violence. A sample of 979 children from a nested random sample of elementary (grades 3-6) and middle school (grades 7-8) classrooms in Jerusalem participated in this study. To understand children's perception of school violence, we used an instrument composed of 19 dichotomous items, each presenting a one-line description of a behaviour, which the respondent would define as either 'intentionally harmful' or not. Eighth graders were significantly less likely to label the behaviours described as violent compared to all other grades; and seventh graders were less likely as compared to third, fourth and fifth graders; also, some between-gender differences were found. The respondents often view the behaviours described as intentional and aggressive; this finding should serve as an impetus to widen the scope of school-based violence interventions to include these behaviours, especially for younger children.

  2. Improvement in nutrition-related knowledge and behaviour of urban Asian Indian school children: findings from the 'Medical education for children/Adolescents for Realistic prevention of obesity and diabetes and for healthy aGeing' ( MARG) intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Priyali; Misra, Anoop; Gupta, Nidhi; Hazra, Daya Kishore; Gupta, Rajeev; Seth, Payal; Agarwal, Anand; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Jain, Arvind; Kulshreshta, Atul; Hazra, Nandita; Khanna, Padmamalika; Gangwar, Prasann Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Tallikoti, Pooja; Mohan, Indu; Bhargava, Rooma; Sharma, Rekha; Gulati, Seema; Bharadwaj, Swati; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Goel, Kashish

    2010-08-01

    Increasing prevalence of childhood obesity calls for comprehensive and cost-effective educative measures in developing countries such as India. School-based educative programmes greatly influence children's behaviour towards healthy living. We aimed to evaluate the impact of a school-based health and nutritional education programme on knowledge and behaviour of urban Asian Indian school children. Benchmark assessment of parents and teachers was also done. We educated 40 196 children (aged 8-18 years), 25 000 parents and 1500 teachers about health, nutrition, physical activity, non-communicable diseases and healthy cooking practices in three cities of North India. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to assess randomly selected 3128 children, 2241 parents and 841 teachers before intervention and 2329 children after intervention. Low baseline knowledge and behaviour scores were reported in 75-94 % government and 48-78 % private school children, across all age groups. A small proportion of government school children gave correct answers about protein (14-17 %), carbohydrates (25-27 %) and saturated fats (18-32 %). Private school children, parents and teachers performed significantly better than government school subjects (P nutrition-related knowledge and behaviour of urban Asian Indian children, parents and teachers. This successful and comprehensive educative intervention could be incorporated in future school-based health and nutritional education programmes.

  3. A parent-based intervention to promote healthy eating and active behaviours in pre-school children: evaluation of the MEND 2-4 randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouteris, H; Hill, B; McCabe, M; Swinburn, B; Busija, L

    2016-02-01

    There is a paucity of studies evaluating targeted obesity prevention interventions in pre-school children. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of a parent-based obesity prevention intervention for pre-schoolers - MEND (Mind, Exercise, Nutrition … Do It!) 2-4 on child diet, eating habits, physical activity/sedentary behaviours, and body mass index (BMI). Parent-child dyads attended 10 weekly 90-min workshops relating to nutrition, physical activity and behaviours, including guided active play and healthy snack time. Assessments were conducted at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and 6 and 12 months post-intervention; child intake of vegetables, fruit, beverages, processed snack foods, fussiness, satiety responsiveness, physical activity, sedentary behaviour and neophobia were assessed via parent proxy report. Parent and child height and weight were measured. Two hundred one parent-child dyads were randomized to intervention (n = 104) and control (n = 97). Baseline mean child age was 2.7 (standard deviation [SD] 0.6) years, and child BMI-for-age z-score (World Health Organization) was 0.66 (SD 0.88). We found significant positive group effects for vegetable (P = 0.01) and snack food (P = 0.03) intake, and satiety responsiveness (P = 0.047) immediately post-intervention. At 12 months follow-up, intervention children exhibited less neophobia (P = 0.03) than controls. Future research should focus on additional strategies to support parents to continue positive behaviour change. ACTRN12610000200088. © 2015 World Obesity.

  4. A Phonologically Based Intervention for School-Age Children with Language Impairment: Implications for Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Michaela J.; Park, Jungjun; Saxon, Terrill F.; Colson, Karen A.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted utilizing a quasi-experimental pre- and postgroup design to examine the effects of a phonologically based intervention aimed to improve phonological awareness (PA) and reading abilities in school-age children with language impairment (LI) in Grades 1 through 3. The intervention included instruction in PA and sound-symbol…

  5. Families with school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The authors assess the potential capacity of schools to help meet the needs of working families through changes in school schedules and after-school programs and conclude that the flexibility parents need to balance family-work responsibilities probably cannot be found in the school setting. They argue that workplaces are better able than schools to offer the flexibility that working parents need to attend to basic needs of their children, as well as to engage in activities that enhance their children's academic performance and emotional and social well-being. Two types of flexible work practices seem especially well suited to parents who work: flextime arrangements that allow parents to coordinate their work schedules with their children's school schedules, and policies that allow workers to take short periods of time off--a few hours or a day or two-to attend a parent-teacher conference, for example, or care for a child who has suddenly fallen ill. Many companies that have instituted such policies have benefited through employees' greater job satisfaction and employee retention. Yet despite these measured benefits to employers, workplaces often fall short of being family friendly. Many employers do not offer such policies or offer them only to employees at certain levels or in certain types of jobs. Flexible work practices are almost nonexistent for low-income workers, who are least able to afford alternative child care and may need flexibility the most. Moreover the authors find that even employees in firms with flexible practices such as telecommuting may be reluctant to take advantage of them, because the workplace culture

  6. An after-school exercise program improves fitness, and body composition in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrel, Aaron L; Logue, Julie; Deininger, Heidi; Clark, R Randall; Curtis, Vanessa; Montague, Paul; Baldwin, Sharon

    2011-07-01

    Reduced cardiovascular fitness (CVF) is a risk factor for obesity and cardiovascular disease. It has previously shown that a school-based fitness curriculum can improve CVF, and other health indicators in middle school aged children. Whether an afterschool program improves CVF and other health markers in elementary-school children is unresolved. The objective of this study was therefore to determine whether an on-site afterschool-based fitness program improves body composition, cardiovascular fitness level, in elementary school children. 80 elementary school children were evaluated in a "fitness-oriented" afterschool program managed by the local YMCA. Children underwent evaluation of cardiovascular fitness by maximal VO 2 treadmill testing and body composition by dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), at baseline (prior to the school-year) and again at end of the school year. Findings revealed that, at baseline, children had a mean age of 8.8 years, BMI of 18.7± 3, with a maximal VO 2 of 40.03 ± 7.6 ml/kg/min, and percent body fat of 28.7 ± 7%. After a 9-month intervention, children maximal VO 2 increased to 44.8 ± 7.5 ml/kg/min (p=0.04) and percent body fat decreased to 25.8 ± 6.2% (p=0.033). The study concluded that on-site afterschool programming focusing on fitness improved body composition and cardiovascular fitness, in elementary school children. Combined with prior studies, these data demonstrate that afterschool-based fitness curricula can benefit both obese and non-obese children. It was therefore recommended that, partnerships with schools to promote fitness even outside of school time should be a part of a school approach to improving children's health.

  7. More active pre-school children have better motor competence at school starting age: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Salmon, Jo; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2016-10-10

    Almost half of young children do not achieve minimum recommendations of 60 daily minutes in physical activity. Physical activity is potentially an important determinant of the development of motor competence in children. This study is one of very few longitudinal studies in this area and the first to investigate early childhood physical activity as a predictor of subsequent motor skill competence. Children were assessed as part of the Melbourne InFANT Program longitudinal cohort study at 19 months, 3.5 years and 5 years. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (accelerometry) was assessed at each time point. At age 5, children were also assessed in actual (Test of Gross Motor Development-2) and perceived motor competence (Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence). General linear models were performed with all 12 skills (six object control and six locomotor skills), both actual and perceived, at age 5 as the respective outcome variables. Predictor variables alternated between MVPA at 19 months, 3.5 years and 5 years. Based on standardized TGMD-2 scores most children were average or below in their skill level at age 5. MVPA at 19 months was not a predictor of actual or perceived skill at age 5. MVPA at 3.5 years was associated with actual locomotor skill (B = 0.073, p = 0.033) and perceived total skill at 5 years of age (B = 0.059, p = 0.044). MVPA was not a predictor of actual or perceived object control skill at any age. Parents and preschool staff should be informed that more time in MVPA as a preschool child contributes to locomotor skill and to perceptions of skill ability in a child of school starting age. Understanding this relationship will assist in intervention development.

  8. More active pre-school children have better motor competence at school starting age: an observational cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Barnett

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Almost half of young children do not achieve minimum recommendations of 60 daily minutes in physical activity. Physical activity is potentially an important determinant of the development of motor competence in children. This study is one of very few longitudinal studies in this area and the first to investigate early childhood physical activity as a predictor of subsequent motor skill competence. Methods Children were assessed as part of the Melbourne InFANT Program longitudinal cohort study at 19 months, 3.5 years and 5 years. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA (accelerometry was assessed at each time point. At age 5, children were also assessed in actual (Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and perceived motor competence (Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence. General linear models were performed with all 12 skills (six object control and six locomotor skills, both actual and perceived, at age 5 as the respective outcome variables. Predictor variables alternated between MVPA at 19 months, 3.5 years and 5 years. Results Based on standardized TGMD-2 scores most children were average or below in their skill level at age 5. MVPA at 19 months was not a predictor of actual or perceived skill at age 5. MVPA at 3.5 years was associated with actual locomotor skill (B = 0.073, p = 0.033 and perceived total skill at 5 years of age (B = 0.059, p = 0.044. MVPA was not a predictor of actual or perceived object control skill at any age. Conclusion Parents and preschool staff should be informed that more time in MVPA as a preschool child contributes to locomotor skill and to perceptions of skill ability in a child of school starting age. Understanding this relationship will assist in intervention development.

  9. Pre-Primary Education of Roma Children in Serbia: Barriers and Possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunčica Macura-Milovanović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Serbia, as in the other countries of the Western Balkans and South-Eastern Europe, the most disadvantaged communities belong to the Roma minority. The present paper demonstrates the conditions of Roma preschool children in Serbia: primarily their early education, but also habitation and health in Roma settlements. The data highlight the under-representation of Roma children in pre-primary education, although their growing up in extremely deprived settlements would suggest a need for their earliest possible inclusion in pre-primary services. The paper analyses the following barriers to the access of Roma children to the system of pre-primary education: the poverty of Roma families; discrimination and prejudice towards Roma; the lack of intercultural provision; insufficient inter-sectorial cooperation; the underdeveloped network of preschool institutions; and the absence of kindergartens in Roma settlements. In addition, possible ways to increase the coverage of Roma children in pre-primary education are discussed. As a transitory solution, the paper proposes comprehensivecommunity-based programmes that could contribute to the education, care, health and overall development of young Roma children before their inclusion in desegregated programmes in preschool institutions.

  10. Prevalence and risk factors for tobacco smoking among pre-adolescent Pacific children in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosa, Vili; Gentles, Dudley; Glover, Marewa; Scragg, Robert; McCool, Judith; Bullen, Chris

    2014-09-01

    Pacific New Zealanders have a high prevalence of smoking, with many first smoking in their pre-adolescent years. To identify risk factors for tobacco smoking among Pacific pre-adolescent intermediate school children. A cross-sectional survey of 2208 Pacific students aged between 10 and 13 years from four South Auckland intermediate schools who were asked about their smoking behaviour between the years 2007 and 2009. The prevalence of Pacific ever-smokers (for 2007) in Year 7 was 15.0% (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 12.0%-18.3%) and Year 8, 23.0% (95% CI 19.5%-26.7%). Multivariate modelling showed the risk factors for ever-smoking were Cook Island ethnic group (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.26-2.36, ref=Samoan), boys (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.14-1.89), age (OR 1.65; 95% CI 1.36-2.00), exposure to smoking in a car within the previous seven days (OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.67-3.01), anyone smoking at home within the previous seven days (OR 1.52; 95% CI 1.12-2.04) and receiving more than $NZ20 per week as pocket money/allowance (OR=1.91, 95% CI 1.23-2.96). Parents control and therefore can modify identified risk factors for Pacific children's smoking initiation: exposure to smoking at home or in the car and the amount of weekly pocket money the child receives. Primary health care professionals should advise Pacific parents to make their homes and cars smokefree and to monitor their children's spending. This study also suggests a particular need for specific Cook Island smokefree promotion and cessation resources.

  11. THE ENVIRONMENT AS A CRUCIAL LEARNING FACTOR AT PRE-SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Močinić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, the author hypothesizes that physical environment is an essential factor for developing an educational project. The environment is considered a sort of "third educator", playing a decisive role in determining the quality of learning. Classrooms, laboratory, the corridor, the structure of the building itself and the context in which the building is placed; the colours of the walls, the quality of natural and artificial light in the building, the furniture and materials for learning are variables which determine the environment where a child lives, learns, experiences, begins relationships with other people. The educator is very important in the process of a child's development. By means of direct and indirect action, he/she can create an attractive space in the building, more accessible for the processes of functional learning. The empirical research, described in the present survey, underlines the importance of pre-schools as an important place for meeting, interaction, listening and reciprocity leading toward an improvement in the relationship between the child and the school environment. In particular, this empirical research will show the diversity of the places and materials teachers made available to children.

  12. Assessment of young learners in the pre-literacy period in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radić-Bojanić Biljana B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the fact that English is an obligatory subject in Serbian schools since the first grade, many parents opt for an early start and enroll their children in English classes while they are still in kindergarten, before they can actually read or write. Another context in which young learners learn English in Serbia are the first two grades of primary school, which are also considered to belong to the pre-literacy period because children learn the Latin alphabet only in the second semester of the second grade. For those reasons pupils in Serbia do not read or write in English until the age of 9, so the question is how the teacher can implement assessment in the pre-literacy period. Relying on informal interviews with 15 teachers, this paper intends to investigate how assessment is done with very young learners in the pre-literacy period in private and state-owned primary schools and to present a solution based on the competences that children in this age group already possess, as well as on the teaching and learning aspects which are of great value for the improvement of children's English language competence.

  13. Feasibility of a school reintegration programme for children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, R D; Erickson, S J

    2009-07-01

    Despite children with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia missing a significant amount of school, little empirical literature guides the optimal content, setting and timing of a school reintegration programme. We examined the feasibility of a 4-month school reintegration intervention by: (1) developing collaboration with a community-based advocacy organisation; (2) developing intervention modules and observable end points; and (3) determining how the study achieved recruitment expectations. Eight families with children aged 6-12 years diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and parents were enrolled in the study. An experienced advocate implemented a series of eight modules over a 4-month period (twice per month) with the families. Participants completed pre-post measures. Successful collaboration with the advocacy organisation and the development of an intervention module series were achieved. Recruitment aims proved more difficult: enrolment was extended when recruitment for the original 1- to 6-month post-diagnosis window proved difficult. The advocate was able to complete between three and seven of the modules (mean = 5.2, standard deviation = 1.5). Families preferred clinic-based intervention. Challenges faced and lessons learned include: (1) advocacy organisations may be useful resources for school reintegration interventions; (2) school reintegration interventions must be flexibly applied; and (3) measurement end points constructed to gauge programme effectiveness.

  14. Pre-service elementary teachers' understanding of scientific inquiry and its role in school science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macaroglu, Esra

    The purpose of this research was to explore pre-service elementary teachers' developing understanding of scientific inquiry within the context of their elementary science teaching and learning. More specifically, the study examined 24 pre-service elementary teachers' emerging understanding of (1) the nature of science and scientific inquiry; (2) the "place" of scientific inquiry in school science; and (3) the roles and responsibilities of teachers and students within an inquiry-based learning environment. Data sources consisted primarily of student-generated artifacts collected throughout the semester, including pre/post-philosophy statements and text-based materials collected from electronic dialogue journals. Individual data sources were open-coded to identify concepts and categories expressed by students. Cross-comparisons were conducted and patterns were identified. Assertions were formed with these patterns. Findings are hopeful in that they suggest pre-service teachers can develop a more contemporary view of scientific inquiry when immersed in a context that promotes this perspective. Not surprisingly, however, the prospective teachers encountered a number of barriers when attempting to translate their emerging ideas into practice. More research is needed to determine which teacher preparation experiences are most powerful in supporting pre-service teachers as they construct a framework for science teaching and learning that includes scientific inquiry as a central component.

  15. Enhancing Pre-Service Special Educator Preparation through Combined Use of Virtual Simulation and Instructional Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson-Ahmad, Maria

    2018-01-01

    To meet the ever-increasing teaching standards, pre-service special educators need extensive and advanced opportunities for pedagogical preparation prior to entering the classroom. Providing opportunities for pre-service special educators to practice such strategies within a virtual simulation environment offers teacher preparation programs a way…

  16. SCHOOL AND OUT-OF-SCHOOL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY OF CHILDREN IN RURAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Podstawski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : The aim of the study was to assess the level of school and out-of-school physical activity of children living in rural area at the early stage of their education. Material : The research was conducted in 2009 at primary school in Świętajno (a village. The study group consisted of 42 girls and 44 boys from the 1 st, 2 nd and 3 rd grade of primary school, aged 7-10. The children were chosen by means of a purposeful selection and surveyed by a questionnaire consisting of five open-ended and five closed-ended questions. Results : The research showed that the children living in the rural area at the early stage of their education eagerly participated in the classes of physical education held at school. The most popular physical activities among the children included: games and plays with the ball and other equipment, running, gymnastics (among girls and matches and competitions (among boys. The outdoor physical activities in which the children were involved outside of school were spontaneous and unorganized including mainly cycling, roller-skating, skating or skiing. Conclusions : A marginal percentage of children participated in out-of-school sports trainings or other physical education-oriented classes (e.g. swimming lessons. A relatively high percentage of children devoted a great deal of their free time to watching television, DVDs or playing on the computer.

  17. Pre-operative skin preparation practices: results of the 2007 French national assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgey, F; Thibon, P; Ertzscheid, M-A; Bernet, C; Gautier, C; Mourens, C; Bettinger, A; Aggoune, M; Galy, E; Lejeune, B; Kadi, Z

    2012-05-01

    Pre-operative skin preparation, aimed at reducing the endogenous microbial flora, is one of the main preventive measures employed to decrease the likelihood of surgical site infection. National recommendations on pre-operative management of infection risks were issued in France in 2004. To assess compliance with the French national guidelines for pre-operative skin preparation in 2007. A prospective audit was undertaken in French hospitals through interviews with patients and staff, and observation of professional practice. Compliance with five major criteria selected from the guidelines was studied: patient information, pre-operative showering, pre-operative hair removal, surgical site disinfection and documentation of these procedures. Data for 41,188 patients from all specialties at 609 facilities were analysed. Patients were issued with information about pre-operative showering in 88.2% of cases [95% confidence interval (CI) 87.9-88.5]. The recommended procedure for pre-operative showering, including hairwashing, with an antiseptic skin wash solution was followed by 70.3% of patients (95% CI 69.9-70.8); this percentage was higher when patients had received appropriate information (P pre-operative surgical hygiene, 82.3% of cases; and pre-operative site disinfection, 71.7% of cases. The essential content of the French guidelines seems to be understood, but reminders need to be issued. Some recommendations may need to be adapted for certain specialties. Copyright © 2012 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pre-schoolers in the playground” an outdoor physical activity intervention for children aged 18 months to 4 years old: study protocol for a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The pre-school years are considered critical for establishing healthy lifestyle behaviours such as physical activity. Levels of physical activity track through childhood into adulthood, thus establishing habitual physical activity early in life is vital. Time spent outdoors is associated with greater physical activity and playground interventions have been shown to increase physical activity in school aged children. There are few pre-school, playground-based interventions, and evaluations of these have found mixed results. A recent report published by the UK Chief Medical Officer (CMO) highlighted that new interventions to promote movement in the early years (0–5 years old) are needed. The aim of this study is to undertake a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) of an outdoor playground-based physical activity intervention for parents and their children aged 18 months to 4 years old (“Pre-schoolers in the Playground”; PiP) and to assess the feasibility of conducting a full scale cluster RCT. The PiP intervention is grounded in behavioural theory (Social Cognitive Theory), and is in accordance with the CMO guidance for physical activity in the early years. It is informed by existing literature and data collected from focus groups with parents. Methods/Design One hundred and fifty pre-school children affiliated to 10 primary schools will be recruited. Schools will be randomised to either the PiP intervention arm or the control arm (usual practice). Children in the intervention arm will be invited to attend three 30 minute outdoor play sessions per week for 30 weeks (3 school terms) at the school. Feasibility will be assessed by examining recruitment rates, attendance, attrition, acceptability of the trial and of the PiP intervention to parents, fidelity of intervention implementation, capability and capacity for schools to deliver the intervention. Health outcomes and the feasibility of outcome measurement tools will be assessed. These

  19. Communication, Community, and Disconnection: Pre-Service Teachers in Virtual School Field Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkens, Christian; Eckdahl, Kelli; Morone, Mike; Cook, Vicki; Giblin, Thomas; Coon, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of 11 graduate-level pre-service teachers completing Virtual School Field Experiences (VSFEs) with cooperating teachers in fully online, asynchronous high school courses in New York State. The VSFEs included a 7-week online teacher training course, and a 7-week online field experience. Pre-service teachers…

  20. Parental Divorce and Children's Schooling in Rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sophia

    2016-12-01

    A growing body of literature has examined the impact of different types of family structures on children's schooling in sub-Saharan Africa. These studies have investigated how living arrangements, gender of the household head, parental death, and paternal migration are related to schooling. Although many sub-Saharan African countries have high divorce rates, very few studies have explored the impact of parental divorce on children's schooling. The present study uses three waves of data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH) to investigate the effect of parental divorce on children's schooling and the possible mechanisms driving this relationship. Unlike prior studies, this study uses child-level fixed-effects models to control for selection into divorce. Results show that parental divorce is associated with lower grade attainment and a larger schooling gap, defined as the number of years a child is behind in school (among children currently attending school). Although no association exists between parental divorce and current school attendance, girls affected by divorce are significantly less likely to be attending school. Differences in economic resources, maternal coresidence, or maternal psychological well-being do not explain the relationship between parental divorce and children's schooling.

  1. Maternal Parenting Styles, School Involvement, and Children's School Achievement and Conduct in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stright, Anne Dopkins; Yeo, Kim Lian

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the roles of children's perceptions of maternal parenting styles (warmth, psychological control, and behavioral control) and maternal involvement in school-focused parenting practices (home-based involvement, home-school conferencing, and school-based involvement) predicting children's school achievement and conduct in…

  2. Methodological framework for the ergonomic design of children's playground equipment: a Serbian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grozdanovic, Miroljub; Jekic, Savko; Stojiljkovic, Evica

    2014-01-01

    Adequate application of the static and dynamic anthropometric measures of pre-school children in ergonometric design of children's playground equipment should eliminate all dangers and difficulties in their use. Possibilities of injuries, insecure movements, discomfort able positions and some other dangerous actions may be minimized; and safety and health protection of pre-school children will be increased. Children's playground represents a significant space of activity for pre-school children. Therefore, it is necessary to apply ergonomic principles which contribute to the adjustment of the playground elements to children's anatomic features. Based on the results presented in this paper, new constructions were designed and new playgrounds were installed in Serbia. Participants were children from three pre-school age groups: Junior age group (3-4 years of age, 17 children), Medium age group (4-5 years of age, 22 children), and Senior age group (5-6 years of age, 26 children). Thirty-one static anthropometric measures (12 in standing position, 11 in sitting position, 7 related to dimensions of hand, foot an head, with body weight and shoe size) and 15 dynamic anthropometric measures (7 in standing position, 6 in sitting position and 2 dimension of foot and hand) were defined for the study. Measurements were taken using an anthrop-meter, a flexible measuring tape. Equations for ergonomic design of children's playground elements were also defined. Basic statistical data of static and dynamic anthropometric measurements of the pre-school children are presented in this paper, as well as the statistical calculation of the corrective anthropometric measurements. Measurements were performed in "Poletarac" kindergarten, part of the pre-school institution "Radost" in Cacak. Elements of playground equipment in "Bambi" kindergarten in Kragujevac (the Indian tent "wigwam", gate-house, swing and carousel) were designed and built using these parameters. Based on the obtained

  3. The Relevance of Budget Preparation in School Administration | Fan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It demands a periodic preparation of the school budget. This paper therefore examines the concept of budgeting, its advantages in our school system and suggests some accounting requirements which are aimed at making the preparation of a budget less cumbersome and more realistic. It highlights four types of budgets: ...

  4. Achievement and School Behavior among Children with Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Wendy S.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compared the school behavior of 15 epileptic children with that of diabetic and healthy children. The epileptic children were more likely to attribute the success or failure of their school performance to unknown sources of control, and to hold less positive feelings about school and their own self-worth. (Author)

  5. Salivary Hormones Response to Preparation and Pre-competitive Training of World-class Level Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhem, Gaël; Hanon, Christine; Gendreau, Nicolas; Bonneau, Dominique; Guével, Arnaud; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the response of salivary hormones of track and field athletes induced by preparation and pre-competitive training periods in an attempt to comment on the physiological effects consistent with the responses of each of the proteins measured. Salivary testosterone, cortisol, alpha-amylase, immunoglobulin A (IgA), chromogranin A, blood creatine kinase activity, and profile of mood state were assessed at rest in 24 world-class level athletes during preparation (3 times in 3 months) and pre-competitive (5 times in 5 weeks) training periods. Total mood disturbance and fatigue perception were reduced, while IgA (+61%) and creatine kinase activity (+43%) increased, and chromogranin A decreased (−27%) during pre-competitive compared to preparation period. A significant increase in salivary testosterone (+9 to +15%) and a decrease in testosterone/cortisol ratio were associated with a progressive reduction in training load during pre-competitive period (P athletics training. PMID:26635619

  6. The role of community health nurses in behavioral modification of parents of children with behavioral disorders in primary schools in Isfahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehaghani, Abdollah Rezaei; Ershadi, Kobra; Pahlavanzadeh, Saeid; Ahmadi, Sayed Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    Mental health is of great importance in childhood and the foundation of personality of every individual is laid during this period. Moreover, behavioral problems are common in children, and a lot of the individual, familial, and social disorders originate from the fact that these problems are not treated at the right time. More important is that the behavioral problems of children are rooted in the behavior and upbringing of parents. Therefore, we carried out the present study to investigate the role of community health nurses in modifying the behavior of parents whose children have behavioral problems. This research was a pre- and post-training quasi-experimental study. The study was carried out with the participation of the parents of 44 first-grade primary school children with reported behavioral problems. The instrument used in the study was a self-made questionnaire. The data was analyzed by SPSS software, using descriptive and inferential statistical methods (t-test and repeated ANOVA). The mean scores of parents' behavior before, immediately after, and one month after training exhibited a significant difference in both fathers and mothers (p = 0.04 in fathers and p parents led to a change in their behavior towards children, it is advisable to prepare and implement such programs.

  7. Optimized pre-thinning procedures of ion-beam thinning for TEM sample preparation by magnetorheological polishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hu; Yin, Shaohui; Zhang, Guanhua; Liu, Chunhui; Tang, Qingchun; Guo, Meijian

    2017-10-01

    Ion-beam-thinning is a well-established sample preparation technique for transmission electron microscopy (TEM), but tedious procedures and labor consuming pre-thinning could seriously reduce its efficiency. In this work, we present a simple pre-thinning technique by using magnetorheological (MR) polishing to replace manual lapping and dimpling, and demonstrate the successful preparation of electron-transparent single crystal silicon samples after MR polishing and single-sided ion milling. Dimples pre-thinned to less than 30 microns and with little mechanical surface damage were repeatedly produced under optimized MR polishing conditions. Samples pre-thinned by both MR polishing and traditional technique were ion-beam thinned from the rear side until perforation, and then observed by optical microscopy and TEM. The results show that the specimen pre-thinned by MR technique was free from dimpling related defects, which were still residual in sample pre-thinned by conventional technique. Nice high-resolution TEM images could be acquired after MR polishing and one side ion-thinning. MR polishing promises to be an adaptable and efficient method for pre-thinning in preparation of TEM specimens, especially for brittle ceramics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Implementing Children's Human Rights Education in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covell, Katherine; Howe, R. Brian; McNeil, Justin K.

    2010-01-01

    Evaluations of a children's rights education initiative in schools in Hampshire, England--consistent with previous research findings--demonstrate the effectiveness of a framework of rights for school policy, practice, and teaching, for promoting rights-respecting attitudes and behaviors among children, and for improving the school ethos. The value…

  9. Dental Caries Status, Socio-Economic, Behavioral and Biological Variables among 12-Year-Old Palestinian School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sgan-Cohen, H D; Bajali, M; Eskander, L; Steinberg, D; Zini, A

    2015-01-01

    There are currently inadequate data regarding the prevalence of dental caries and its associated variables, among Palestinian children. To determine the current prevalence of dental caries and related variables, among Palestinian children in East Jerusalem. A stratified sample of 286 East Jerusalem Palestinian children was selected, employing randomly chosen sixth grade clusters from three pre-selected socio-economic school groups. Dental caries was recorded according to WHO recommendations. Salivary flow, pH, buffer capacity and microbial parameters, were recorded according to previously employed methodologies. The mean level of caries experience, by DMFT, was 1.98 ± 2.05. This level was higher than those found among Israeli children, but lower than several other Middle Eastern countries. In uni-variate analysis, significant associations were revealed between caries and school categories, which indicated lower, middle and higher socio-economic position(SEP), mothers' employment, home densities, dental visits, tooth brushing, Streptococci mutans (SM), Lactobacilli (LB), and saliva pH. According to a linear logistic regression model, children learning in lower SEP schools, with higher SM levels and more acidic saliva, had a higher chance of experiencing dental caries. These findings should be considered in the planning of services and dental health care programs for Palestinian children.

  10. Observation of the Effectiveness of Drama Method in Helping to Acquire the Addition-Subtraction Skills by Children at Preschool Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soydan, Sema; Quadir, Seher Ersoy

    2013-01-01

    Principal aim of this study is to show the effectiveness of the program prepared by researchers in order to enable 6 year-old children attending pre-school educational institutions to effectively gain addition subtraction skills through a drama-related method. The work group in the research comprised of 80 kids who continued their education in…

  11. Cognitive and behavioural effects of a school breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, L M; Rose, C; Griesel, R D

    1997-01-01

    The cognitive and behavioural effects of a school breakfast were explored in a study of 55 children in Grade II and Standard 1 at a farm school outside Johannesburg. A previous study had confirmed widespread undernutrition and micronutrient deficiencies among the children. For comparative purposes, 55 children at an inner-city school, among whom no signs of undernutrition were found, were assessed in the same way. Three different types of measures of attention, distractibility, short-term memory and activity level were used: psychometric testing of the children; teacher ratings of children's classroom behaviour, and coded video-recorded classroom behaviour. A pre- and post-test design was employed to assess the effects of a school breakfast, continually in place in the experimental school for a period of 6 weeks. The results indicated significant change from pre- to post-test assessment among the experimental children in respect of the psychometric measures, teacher-rated hyperactivity and video-recorded classroom behaviour. With regard to the latter measure, the children showed a decline in both the occurrence and duration of off-task and out-of-seat behaviour, and an increase in active participation in class and positive peer interaction. While the children in the comparison group also showed some changes from pre- to post-test, probably attributable to the effects of observation, familiarity with the test materials and developmental change, the changes were not generalised or consistent. The findings support the conclusion that a school breakfast programme had a beneficial effect on the cognitive and behavioural performance of socially disadvantaged, undernourished children in their first 2 years of school.

  12. School Playground Facilities as a Determinant of Children's Daily Activity: A Cross-Sectional Study of Danish Primary School Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glen; Bugge, Anna; El-Naaman, Bianca

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity.......This study investigates the influence of school playground facilities on children's daily physical activity....

  13. Kajian TerapanElemen Interior Ruang Pre-Schoolpada Angels N I Children Day Care Di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Hindiarto, Fransisca

    2015-01-01

    One of the many ways to improve the quality of Human Resource is to also improve our education quality. Children Day Care is a form of non-formal pre-school program with the basis focusing to physical and mental development such as character, behaviour, knowledge, soft skills, and creativity to provide the child enough provision to succeed later in life. The day care also function as a second family and home for a certain time in a day where parents have to work. The goal of the research is t...

  14. Intestinal parasitic infection among school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, B; Shrestha, S; Madhikarmi, N L; Adhikari, R

    2012-01-01

    Intestinal parasitosis is a major public health problem of developing countries, children being major victims. Higher prevalence has been reported among school children, mostly in hilly regions of Nepal. This study aims at assessing prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among school children of a school in a border town of Nepal and the associated factors. Fecal samples from the students were examined by direct smear technique and result was correlated with their socioeconomic status and hygienic behavior. The chi-square test was used for analytical assessment. The prevalence rate was 13.9%, girls being highly infected (19.1%) than boys (10.3%) (P>0.05). Entamoeba histolytica (36.0%) was the commonest parasite followed by A. lumbricoides (28.0%). The highest positive rate was found among children of 5 years and less age (29.2%) and least among those above 12 years (5.3%) (P>0.05). Those from family size 5 and less than 5 were least infected (10.5%). Children of illiterate parents (16.7%) and farmers (17.1%) were more infected than literate ones and non-farmers (P>0.05). 8.7% of positive children had multi-parasitic infection. Children drinking untreated water (15.0%) were more infected than those drinking treated water (5.5%) (P>0.05). Intestinal parasitic infection was found among 17% school children. Awareness on infectious diseases, improving hygiene, and application of supportive programs for parents to elevate socioeconomic conditions may reduce the burden of infection.

  15. Desenvolvimento cognitivo de crianças prematuras de muito baixo peso na idade pré-escolar Pre-school cognitive development of very low birth weight preterm children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. B. B. Méio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o desenvolvimento cognitivo na idade pré-escolar de recém-nascidos prematuros de muito baixo peso. MÉTODOS: Uma coorte de prematuros nascidos entre janeiro de 1991 e setembro de 1993, com peso igual ou menor que 1.500 g, egressos de uma unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal pública, foi avaliada na idade pré-escolar pelo teste WPPSI-R, aplicado por psicólogas. Foram excluídas crianças com malformações, síndromes genéticas ou infecção congênita, transferidas de outra instituição, nascidas de parto domiciliar e com condições que impedissem a aplicação do teste. Avaliaram-se crianças pré-escolares de uma escola na mesma cidade, nascidas a termo, para comparação. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 79/129 crianças, com peso de nascimento médio de 1.219,6 g (±168,9; 44/61 delas (72,1% estavam na escola. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos (estudo e perda. As médias dos escores obtidos pelas crianças do estudo foram: total - 75,6±11,9; executivo - 77±12,9; e verbal - 78,6±11,1. Nas crianças da escola, as médias foram: total - 85,1±13,2; executivo - 85,3±13,8; e verbal - 87,7±13,9. Essa diferença foi significativa tanto para os escores total (p OBJECTIVE: To examine the cognitive development of school-aged children born preterm and with very low birthweight. METHODS: A cohort of premature infants born between January, 1991, and September, 1993 was examined at pre-school age. All fo them were born in a public Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, with birth weight less than 1,500g. The WPPSI-R Test was used for cognitive evaluation and applied by psychologists. Babies with malformations, genetic syndromes, congenital infections, transferred from other institutions or born at home, and those with conditions which precluded the application of the test, were excluded. A group of pre-school children in the same city, born at term, were tested for comparison. RESULTS: 79 children were

  16. Communicative Approach to Inclusive Education in Pre-School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraukle, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of the basic principles of inclusive education motivates the inclusion of children with special needs in general education schools. The paper presents the process of implementing inclusive education in Latvia and the teachers' and parents' understanding of the role of communication in including children with special needs,…

  17. Who gets help for pre-school communication problems? Data from a prospective community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeat, J; Wake, M; Ukoumunne, O C; Eadie, P; Bretherton, L; Reilly, S

    2014-03-01

    Pre-school communication problems are common, with implications for school readiness and educational achievement. Help is available from a variety of community healthcare providers. This study examined the extent to which help is received, and the predictors of service receipt. Prospective community study, in Melbourne, Victoria. At age 4 years, we assessed the speech, receptive and expressive language and fluency of 1607 children and gave feedback to their parents. At age 5 years, 983 families provided data on service use for communication problems between and 4 and 5 years. We compared service use between participants with and without impairment, and used logistic regression to estimate the strength of association between potential predictors (gender, socio-economic status, maternal education, English-speaking background status, family history of speech and language problems and parent concern) and service use (binary outcome). Data were available for both communication status and service use for 753 children. Only 44.9% of the 196 children with communication impairment received help from a professional. Furthermore, 7% of the 557 that did not meet criteria for communication impairment nevertheless received help from a professional. Parent concern was the strongest predictor of service use (adjusted odds ratio = 9.0; 95% CI: 5.6-14.8). Both over- and under-servicing for communication problems were evident. This study shows that accessing help for communication problems requires more than simply informing parents about the problem and having services available; there is a need for systematic support to get the right children to services. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Understanding the school 'climate': secondary school children and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Susan; Bernier, Sandrine; Blanchet, Aymeric; Derkenne, Chantal; Clement, Florence; Petitjean, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    This interdisciplinary study analyzes the production, circulation and reception of messages on climate change in secondary schools in France. The objective is to understand how political and educational policy initiatives influence the ways in which schools contribute to creating youngsters' perceptions and opinions about climate change. In order to study the conditions of production and reception of information about climate change, a survey was conducted in four French secondary schools, in the 'Bas Rhin' and 'Nord' departments, and local political actors in each department were interviewed. The cross disciplinary analytical and methodological approach uses the tools of sociological inquiry, information science, and political science: questionnaires and interviews were conducted with members of the educational and governmental communities of each school and department, semiotic and discursive analyses of corpuses of documents were carried out, in order to characterize documents used by students and teachers at school or in more informal contexts; the nature and extent of the relations between the political contexts and school directives and programs were also discussed. This interdisciplinary approach, combining sociological, communicational, and political methods, was chosen in response to the hypothesis that three types of variables (social, communicational and political) contribute to the structuring and production of messages about climate change in schools. This report offers a contextualized overview of activities developed within the four secondary schools to help sensitize children to the risks associated with climate change. A study of the networks of individuals (teachers, staff, members of associations, etc.) created in and around the school environment is presented. The degree of involvement of these actors in climate change programs is analyzed, as it is related to their motives and objectives, to the school discipline taught, and to the position

  19. Preoperative bowel preparation in children: Polyethylene glycol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preoperative bowel preparation in children: Polyethylene glycol versus normal saline. ... In children, (is this standard of care?: this method is mostly followed) this is usually ... Patients and Methods: Thirty patients, admitted in the Department of ...

  20. Alignment of Content and Pedagogy in an Earth Systems Course for Pre-Service Middle School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, T.; Teed, R.; Slattery, W.

    2006-12-01

    In 2003 the Ohio Department of Education developed the Ohio K-12 Science Content Standards. These new science standards substantially tracked the goals and objectives of The National Research Council's National Science Education Standards. The Ohio K-12 Science Content Standards followed the National Standards in the content areas of Physical Science, Life Science and Earth and Space Science. At the same time, the state's K-12 schools were gearing up for a new high school graduation requirement, the successful passing of a high-stakes Ohio Graduation Test, given during a student's tenth grade year. Earth and Space science questions make up approximately one third of the science test items. To make it more likely that teachers have the requisite science content knowledge Ohio has recently changed from certification of K-12 teachers to a more content rich licensure standard. This new licensure requirement splits the older certification designation of K-8 into the elementary and middle school licensure areas. Under the new licensure requirements middle school licensure candidates wishing to earn a science concentration now have to take 15 semester hours of content class work in Science. The Ohio Department of Education has strongly suggested that teacher preparation institutions develop new courses for middle school educators in all four areas of concentration, including science. In response to this call for new courses science education faculty in all science areas worked together to develop a comprehensive suite of courses that would target the science content standards guidelines in the state and national standards. The newly developed Earth and Space science course is titled Earth Systems. The course carries 4.5quarter hours of credit and is intended expressly for pre-service middle school (grades 4- 9) science teachers. The content is structured around three modules of study that are designed to develop interdisciplinary science content within the context of past

  1. Utilization of oral health services by mothers of preschool children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine oral health services utilization by mothers of pre school children in Jos North Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Four Primary Health Care (PHC) Clinics in Jos North Local Government Area Participants: 200 mothers of pre school children

  2. Dropout of Children from schools in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Wagle, Dhirendra

    2012-01-01

    Nepal, a developing country of the south-asian region has bigger problem of children not completing the full cycle of basic education. In other words, large number of children dropout of schools, especially in the primary and secondary level of schooling. Especially, the situation is worse for those of the backward and socially disadvantaged populations and of the rural and the remote areas. Being in this frame, this study focused on the reasons of dropout of children from schools and the pos...

  3. School Psychologists' Role Concerning Children with Chronic Illnesses in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraclough, Camille; Machek, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the role of school psychologists in working with children with chronic illnesses in the schools. A total of 300 practicing school psychologists in public schools, drawn from the National Association of School Psychologists membership directory, completed a standard mail survey. The survey solicited information on (a) graduate…

  4. School accidents to children: time to act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, A

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the profile of injuries sustained by children in school accidents and suggest preventive measures. DESIGN: A five month prospective study of children attending an urban accident and emergency (A&E) department. SUBJECTS: 500 children who sustained injuries in school due to a variety of activities. RESULTS: 10 and 12 year old pupils suffered most injuries in school grounds/playgrounds, on concrete, or on grass/soil surfaces due to random activities resulting in striking or being struck by objects/persons, tripping or slipping, and sports (mainly football); 65.5% of these activities were not supervised and 67.4% occurred "out of lessons"; 22% sustained fractures or dislocations, 28.2% needed follow up treatment, and 1.4% were admitted. CONCLUSIONS: Injuries to children in school are a cause for concern. Effective preventive measures should concentrate on (a) specific target areas using schemes based on individual school, and (b) establishing a credible system of monitoring of their effectiveness. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9248914

  5. Overweight and school performance among primary school children: the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldwijk, Jorien; Fries, Marieke C E; Bemelmans, Wanda J E; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Smit, Henriëtte A; Koppelman, Gerard H; Wijga, Alet H

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between overweight and school performance among primary school children prospectively and including a broad range of potential confounding factors. In addition it was investigated what factors mediate this association. For this purpose, data of 2,159 12-year-old children who participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study were used. Two indicators of school performance were parental reported when children were 12 years of age and included (i): the score on a standardized achievement test that Dutch children have to complete at the end of their primary education (Cito)-test and (ii): the teacher's advice regarding a child's potential performance level in secondary education. Children's height and weight were measured by a trained research assistant at the age of 8 and by their parents at the age of 12. Overweight was defined using age and gender specific cut-off points. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to assess the association between overweight and school performance. Besides, both confounder and mediation analyses were conducted. Results showed lower Cito-test scores and lower teacher's school-level advice among overweight children. These associations were no longer significant when adjusting for parental educational level, skipping breakfast, and screen time. This study found no independent association between overweight and school performance among primary school children. Results showed strong confounding by parental educational level.

  6. Registered Indian Children's School Success and Intergenerational Effects of Residential Schooling in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Senécal

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Using the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, this study investigates factors associated with school success (as perceived by parents among off-reserve Registered Indian children aged 6 to 14 in Canada. Holding other factors constant, Registered Indian children were more likely to be doing well at school if they were living in households with high income, were living in adequately maintained dwellings, or spoke an Aboriginal language at home. Boys and older children, on the other hand, were less likely to be doing well at school, as were children who were living in larger households, experienced food insecurity, or had parents who attended residential school. Mediation analyses revealed that the negative intergenerational effect of parental residential schooling on children’s school success was partially attributable to household characteristics or economic status. Indeed, former residential school attendees were found to be more likely to live in households with a lower income, live in larger households, and report that their family had experienced food insecurity. These characteristics were, in turn, found to be negatively associated with children’s school success.

  7. Hypothesis: Impregnated school uniforms reduce the incidence of dengue infections in school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilder-Smith, A; Lover, A; Kittayapong, P; Burnham, G

    2011-06-01

    Dengue infection causes a significant economic, social and medical burden in affected populations in over 100 countries in the tropics and sub-tropics. Current dengue control efforts have generally focused on vector control but have not shown major impact. School-aged children are especially vulnerable to infection, due to sustained human-vector-human transmission in the close proximity environments of schools. Infection in children has a higher rate of complications, including dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndromes, than infections in adults. There is an urgent need for integrated and complementary population-based strategies to protect vulnerable children. We hypothesize that insecticide-treated school uniforms will reduce the incidence of dengue in school-aged children. The hypothesis would need to be tested in a community based randomized trial. If proven to be true, insecticide-treated school uniforms would be a cost-effective and scalable community based strategy to reduce the burden of dengue in children. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Uses and Abuses of Power: Teaching School Leadership through Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Pat

    2014-01-01

    There are relatively few studies of how representations of teachers, schools and educational administrators in popular films and television might be, and are, used in leadership preparation. This paper seeks to add to this small body of work; it reports on an exploratory study of the representation of headteachers in contemporary children's…

  9. Playing to Learn: An Overview of the Montessori Approach with Pre-School Children with Autism Spectrum Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Laura

    2016-01-01

    This article explores some of the literature concerning the effectiveness of the Montessori educational approach for children with ASC within an English school context. Firstly, there is a discussion, including a short historical review, regarding the ideology of inclusion and how it has impacted upon mainstream education. Also, how this can be…

  10. Sleep disorders in high school and pre-university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Célia R S; Rossini, Sueli; Reimão, Rubens

    2010-12-01

    Adolescence is a period in which youngsters have to make choices such as applying for university. The selection process is competitive, and it brings distress and anxiety, risk factors for the appearance of sleep disorders. To verify the occurrence of sleep disorders in third-year high school and pre-university students. This cross-sectional descriptive study comprised a sample of 529 students (M=241, F=288) from three public schools, four private schools and two pre-university courses - a middle-class neighborhood in the city of São Paulo - aged between 16 and 19 years old. We used the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) - a standardized questionnaire. The participants (52.9%) took about 30 minutes to fall asleep, with an average of 306.4 minutes asleep, moderate daytime sleepiness (n=243, 45.9%) and indisposition (n=402, 75.9%) to develop the activities. The scores (M and F) were similar regarding problems that affect sleep. The investigated population showed sleep disorders and poor sleep quality.

  11. Insulin resistance in obese pre-pubertal children: Relation to body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heba Elsedfy

    2014-04-16

    Apr 16, 2014 ... of pre-pubertal obese children, and to investigate the relation- .... children P 10 years, HDL-Cholesterol <35 mg/dl) [18]. .... HDL: high density lipoprotein, TG: triglycerides, IFG: impaired fasting glucose, IGT: impaired glucose ...

  12. Food preparation supplies predict children's family meal and home-prepared dinner consumption in low-income households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2014-05-01

    Frequent family meals and home food preparation are considered important for children's nutritional health and weight maintenance. This cross-sectional study tested whether these parent-driven behaviors are related to the availability of food preparation supplies in low-income urban households. Caregivers of children ages 6-13 provided information on family meal frequency, child consumption of home-prepared dinners, household food insecurity, and attitudes towards cooking. Researchers used a newly developed Food Preparation Checklist (FPC) to assess the availability of 41 food preparation supplies during a physical audit of the home environment. Caregivers and children provided anthropometric measurements and jointly reported on child dietary intake. In ordinal logistic regression models, greater home availability of food preparation supplies was associated with more frequent family meals and child consumption of home-prepared dinners. Associations were independent of household financial strain, food insecurity, caregiver attitudes toward cooking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Fewer food preparation supplies were available in households characterized by greater food insecurity, lower income, and negative caregiver attitudes towards cooking, but did not differ by child or caregiver weight status. As in prior studies, more frequent family meals and consumption of home-prepared dinners were associated with healthier child dietary intake in several areas. We conclude that food preparation supplies are often limited in the most socioeconomically disadvantaged households, and their availability is related to the frequency with which children consume family meals and home-prepared dinners. The potential role of food preparation supplies as contributors to socioeconomic disparities in child nutritional health and obesity deserves further study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. School outcomes of children with special health care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Christopher B; Bevans, Katherine B; Riley, Anne W; Crespo, Richard; Louis, Thomas A

    2011-08-01

    To examine the associations between having a special health care need and school outcomes measured as attendance, student engagement, behavioral threats to achievement, and academic achievement. A total of 1457 children in the fourth through sixth grades from 34 schools in 3 school districts and their parents provided survey data; parents completed the Children With Special Health Care Needs Screener. School records were abstracted for attendance, grades, and standardized achievement test scores. Across 34 schools, 33% of children screened positive for special health care needs. After adjusting for sociodemographic and school effects, children with special health care needs had lower motivation to do well in school, more disruptive behaviors, and more frequent experiences as a bully victim. They experienced significantly lower academic achievement, as measured by grades, standardized testing, and parental-assessed academic performance. These findings were observed for children who qualified as having a special health care need because they had functional limitations attributed to a chronic illness or a behavioral health problem but not for those who qualified only because they took prescription medications. Specific subgroups of children with special health care needs are at increased risk for poor school outcomes. Health and school professionals will need to collaborate to identify these children early, intervene with appropriate medical and educational services, and monitor long-term outcomes.

  14. School Outcomes of Children With Special Health Care Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevans, Katherine B.; Riley, Anne W.; Crespo, Richard; Louis, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between having a special health care need and school outcomes measured as attendance, student engagement, behavioral threats to achievement, and academic achievement. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: A total of 1457 children in the fourth through sixth grades from 34 schools in 3 school districts and their parents provided survey data; parents completed the Children With Special Health Care Needs Screener. School records were abstracted for attendance, grades, and standardized achievement test scores. RESULTS: Across 34 schools, 33% of children screened positive for special health care needs. After adjusting for sociodemographic and school effects, children with special health care needs had lower motivation to do well in school, more disruptive behaviors, and more frequent experiences as a bully victim. They experienced significantly lower academic achievement, as measured by grades, standardized testing, and parental-assessed academic performance. These findings were observed for children who qualified as having a special health care need because they had functional limitations attributed to a chronic illness or a behavioral health problem but not for those who qualified only because they took prescription medications. CONCLUSIONS: Specific subgroups of children with special health care needs are at increased risk for poor school outcomes. Health and school professionals will need to collaborate to identify these children early, intervene with appropriate medical and educational services, and monitor long-term outcomes. PMID:21788226

  15. Delivering Technological Literacy to a Class for Elementary School Pre-Service Teachers in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuksoo

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted with the aim of creating a new introductory course emphasizing the development of technological literacy for elementary school pre-service teachers. This study also aimed to investigate elementary school pre-service teachers' attitudinal transition toward elementary school technology education (ESTE) and its…

  16. The value of (pre)school playgrounds for children’s physical activity level : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.I. (Sanne) de Vries; Karen Broekhuizen; Anne-Marie Scholten

    2014-01-01

    The (pre)school environment is an important setting to improve children’s health. Especially, the (pre)school playground provides a major opportunity to intervene. This review presents an overview of the existing evidence on the value of both school and preschool playgrounds on children’s health in

  17. The Role of School Principals in Shaping Children's Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, Yair; Oreg, Shaul

    2016-12-01

    Instilling values in children is among the cornerstones of every society. There is wide agreement that beyond academic teaching, schools play an important role in shaping schoolchildren's character, imparting in them values such as curiosity, achievement, benevolence, and citizenship. Despite the importance of this topic, we know very little about whether and how schools affect children's values. In this large-scale longitudinal study, we examined school principals' roles in the development of children's values. We hypothesized that relationships exist between principals' values and changes in children's values through the mediating effect of the school climate. To test our predictions, we collected data from 252 school principals, 3,658 teachers, and 49,401 schoolchildren. A multilevel structural-equation-modeling analysis yielded overall support for our hypotheses. These findings contribute to understanding the development of children's values and the far-reaching impact of leaders' values. They also demonstrate effects of schools on children beyond those on academic achievement.

  18. Methylphenidate use and school performance among primary school children: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schans, Jurjen; Çiçek, Rukiye; Vardar, Sefike; Bos, Jens Hj; de Vries, Tjalling W; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hak, Eelko

    2017-03-29

    There is no conclusive evidence that stimulants have beneficial effects on major associated outcome parameters, particularly school performance. We assessed the differences in school performance among children using methylphenidate at the end of primary school in relation to various parameters of methylphenidate use. We linked children from a pharmacy prescription database with standardized achievement test results at the end of primary school. We explored differences in test scores between current methylphenidate users versus never users and methylphenidate users who stopped treatment at least 6 months before the test, early versus late starters, different dosage of methylphenidate, and concurrent antipsychotic or asthma treatment. Out of the 7736 children, 377 (4.9%) children were treated with methylphenidate at the time of the test. After adjusting for confounders the methylphenidate users (532.58 ± .48) performed significantly lower on the test than never users (534.72 ± .11). Compared with late starters of methylphenidate treatment (536.94 ± 1.51) we found significantly lower test scores for the early starters (532.33 ± .50). Our study indicates that children using methylphenidate still perform less at school compared to their peers. Our study also suggests that earlier start of methylphenidate treatment is associated with a lower school performance compared to children starting later with the treatment. This result could either indicate a limited effect of long term treatment or a more strongly affected group of early starters.

  19. Pre-Travel Medical Preparation of Business and Occupational Travelers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Nomana M.; Jentes, Emily S.; Brown, Clive; Han, Pauline; Rao, Sowmya R.; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Hagmann, Stefan H.F.; LaRocque, Regina C.; Ryan, Edward T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to understand more about pre-travel preparations and itineraries of business and occupational travelers. Methods: De-identified data from 18 Global TravEpiNet clinics from January 2009 to December 2012 were analyzed. Results: Of 23,534 travelers, 61% were non-occupational and 39% occupational. Business travelers were more likely to be men, had short times to departure and shorter trip durations, and commonly refused influenza, meningococcal, and hepatitis B vaccines. Most business travelers indicated that employers suggested the pre-travel health consultation, whereas non-occupational travelers sought consultations because of travel health concerns. Conclusions: Sub-groups of occupational travelers have characteristic profiles, with business travelers being particularly distinct. Employers play a role in encouraging business travelers to seek pre-travel consultations. Such consultations, even if scheduled immediately before travel, can identify vaccination gaps and increase coverage. PMID:26479857

  20. Refractive Errors in Primary School Children in Nigeria | Faderin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of refractive errors in primary school children in the Nigerian Army children school. Bonny Camp, Lagos, Nigeria. A total of 919 pupils from two primary schools (one private school and one public school) were screened. The schools and classes were selected using ...

  1. Social learning and aggressive and playful behaviors of pre-school boys / Aprendizagem social e comportamentos agressivo e lúdico de meninos pré-escolares

    OpenAIRE

    Timoteo Madaleno Vieira; Francisco Dyonisio C. Mendes; Leonardo Conceição Guimarães

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the interaction between social learning factors measured by questionnaires and aggressive and playful behaviors of pre-school children, through direct observation during their playful break time. The subjects were 15 boys between four and six years old who were enrolled in a non-profit child care center in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. A multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant effects of aggressive models at home on aggression levels during playful behavior. Children exp...

  2. [Language observation protocol for teachers in pre-school education. Effectiveness in the detection of semantic and morphosyntactic difficulties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ygual-Fernández, Amparo; Cervera-Merida, José F; Baixauli-Fortea, Inmaculada; Meliá-De Alba, Amanda

    2011-03-01

    A number of studies have shown that teachers are capable of recognising pupils with language difficulties if they have suitable guidelines or guidance. To determine the effectiveness of an observation-based protocol for pre-school education teachers in the detection of phonetic-phonological, semantic and morphosyntactic difficulties. The sample consisted of 175 children from public and state-subsidised schools in Valencia and its surrounding province, together with their teachers. The children were aged between 3 years and 6 months and 5 years and 11 months. The protocol that was used asks for information about pronunciation skills (intelligibility, articulation), conversational skills (with adults, with peers), literal understanding of sentences, grammatical precision, expression through discourse, lexical knowledge and semantics. There was a significant correlation between the teachers' observations and the criterion scores on intelligibility, literal understanding of sentences, grammatical expression and lexical richness, but not in the observations concerning articulation and verbal reasoning, which were more difficult for the teachers to judge. In general, the observation protocol proved to be effective, it guided the teachers in their observations and it asked them suitable questions about linguistic data that were relevant to the determination of difficulties in language development. The use of this protocol can be an effective strategy for collecting information for use by speech therapists and school psychologists in the early detection of children with language development problems.

  3. Sleep Habits of Elementary and Middle School Children in South Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surani, Salim; Hesselbacher, Sean; Surani, Saherish; Sadasiva, Sreevidya; Surani, Zoya; Surani, Sara S; Khimani, Amina; Subramanian, Shyam

    2015-01-01

    Background. Sleep difficulties, including insufficient sleep and inadequate sleep hygiene, have been prevalent among children. Sleep deprivation can lead to poor grades, sleepiness, and moodiness. We undertook this study to assess the prevalence of sleep abnormalities among elementary and middle school students in South Texas and how the groups compare with one another. Method. After approval from the appropriate school district for a sleep education program, a baseline survey was taken of elementary and middle school students, using the Children's Sleep Habit Questionnaire-Sleep Self-Report Form, which assessed the domains of bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, sleep anxiety, sleep duration, night awakening, and daytime sleepiness. Results. The survey was completed by 499 elementary and 1008 middle school children. Trouble sleeping was reported by 43% in elementary school, compared with 29% of middle school children. Fifty percent of middle school children did not like sleeping, compared with 26% in elementary school. Bedtime resistance, sleep onset delay, and nighttime awakening were more common among elementary school students. Daytime sleepiness was more common among the middle school children when compared to elementary school children. Conclusions. Sleep abnormalities are present in elementary school children with changes in sleep habits into middle school.

  4. Pre-marital sexual debut and its associated factors among in-school adolescents in eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oljira Lemessa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More adolescents in Ethiopia are in school today than ever, but few studies have assessed the sexual behaviour of these learners. Thus, this study tried to assess pre-marital sexual debut and factors associated with it among in-school adolescents in Eastern Ethiopia. Methods A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted using a facilitator guided selfadministered questionnaire. Respondents were students attending regular school classes in fourteen high schools. The proportion of adolescents involved in pre-marital sexual debut and the mean age at sexual debut was computed. Factors associated with pre-marital sexual debut were assessed using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression. Results About one in four, 686 (24.8% never married in-school adolescent respondents reported pre-marital sexual debut of these 28.8% were males and 14.7% were females (p  Conclusion A significant proportion of in-school adolescents were engaged in sexual relationship. Thus, public health interventions should consider the broader determinants of premarital sexual debut, including the ecological factors in which the behavior occurs.

  5. Primary School Pre-Service Mathematics Teachers' Views on Mathematical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karali, Diren; Durmus, Soner

    2015-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify the views of pre-service teachers, who attended a primary school mathematics teaching department but did not take mathematical modeling courses. The mathematical modeling activity used by the pre-service teachers was developed with regards to the modeling activities utilized by Lesh and Doerr (2003) in their…

  6. Bringing Nature to Schools to Promote Children's Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma-Brymer, Vinathe; Bland, Derek

    2016-07-01

    Physical activity (PA) is essential for human health and wellbeing across all age, socioeconomic, and ethnic groups. Engagement with the natural world is a new defining criterion for enhancing the benefits of PA, particularly for children and young people. Interacting with nature benefits children's social and emotional wellbeing, develops resilience, and reduces the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus across all population groups. Governments around the world are now recognizing the importance of children spending more active time outdoors. However, children's outdoor activities, free play, and nature-related exploration are often structured and supervised by adults due to safety concerns and risks. In this context, schools become more accessible and safe options for children to engage in PA outdoors with the presence of nature features. Research on school designs involving young children has revealed that children prefer nature-related features in school environments. Affordances in nature may increase children's interest in physically active behaviors. Given that present school campuses are designed for operational efficiency and economic reasons, there is a need to re-design schools responding to the positive role of nature on human health. If schools were re-designed to incorporate diverse natural features, children's PA and consequent health and wellbeing would likely improve markedly.

  7. Elevated blood pressure among primary school children in Dar es salaam, Tanzania: prevalence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhihi, Alfa J; Njelekela, Marina A; Mpembeni, Rose N M; Muhihi, Bikolimana G; Anaeli, Amani; Chillo, Omary; Kubhoja, Sulende; Lujani, Benjamin; Maghembe, Mwanamkuu; Ngarashi, Davis

    2018-02-13

    Whilst the burden of non-communicable diseases is increasing in developing countries, little data is available on blood pressure among Tanzanian children. This study aimed at determining the blood pressure profiles and risk factors associated with elevated blood pressure among primary school children in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. We conducted a cross sectional survey among 446 children aged 6-17 years from 9 randomly selected primary schools in Dar es Salaam. We measured blood pressure using a standardized digital blood pressure measuring machine (Omron Digital HEM-907, Tokyo, Japan). We used an average of the three blood pressure readings for analysis. Elevated blood pressure was defined as average systolic or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90th percentile for age, gender and height. The proportion of children with elevated blood pressure was 15.2% (pre-hypertension 4.4% and hypertension 10.8%). No significant gender differences were observed in the prevalence of elevated BP. Increasing age and overweight/obese children were significantly associated with elevated BP (p = 0.0029 and p < 0.0001) respectively. Similar associations were observed for age and overweight/obesity with hypertension. (p = 0.0506 and p < 0.0001) respectively. In multivariate analysis, age above 10 years (adjusted RR = 3.63, 95% CI = 1.03-7.82) was significantly and independently associated with elevated BP in this population of school age children. We observed a higher proportion of elevated BP in this population of school age children. Older age and overweight/obesity were associated with elevated BP. Assessment of BP and BMI should be incorporated in school health program in Tanzania to identify those at risk so that appropriate interventions can be instituted before development of associated complications.

  8. Children's Exposure to Radon in Nursery and Primary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Pedro T B S; Nunes, Rafael A O; Alvim-Ferraz, Maria C M; Martins, Fernando G; Sousa, Sofia I V

    2016-03-30

    The literature proves an evident association between indoor radon exposure and lung cancer, even at low doses. This study brings a new approach to the study of children's exposure to radon by aiming to evaluate exposure to indoor radon concentrations in nursery and primary schools from two districts in Portugal (Porto and Bragança), considering different influencing factors (occupation patterns, classroom floor level, year of the buildings' construction and soil composition of the building site), as well as the comparison with IAQ standard values for health protection. Fifteen nursery and primary schools in the Porto and Bragança districts were considered: five nursery schools for infants and twelve for pre-schoolers (seven different buildings), as well as eight primary schools. Radon measurements were performed continuously. The measured concentrations depended on the building occupation, classroom floor level and year of the buildings' construction. Although they were in general within the Portuguese legislation for IAQ, exceedances to international standards were found. These results point out the need of assessing indoor radon concentrations not only in primary schools, but also in nursery schools, never performed in Portugal before this study. It is important to extend the study to other microenvironments like homes, and in time to estimate the annual effective dose and to assess lifetime health risks.

  9. Health status of school children during questionnaire survey in Ogun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that school children in Ogun State do not perceive themselves to be healthy and suggest the use of school health questionnaire to assess and identify common health problems in school children. Keywords: School-age children, common health problems, questionnaire, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology Vol.

  10. Epidemiology of Intestinal Polyparasitism among Orang Asli School Children in Rural Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Delaimy, Ahmed K.; Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham M.; Nasr, Nabil A.; Sady, Hany; Atroosh, Wahib M.; Nashiry, Mohammed; Anuar, Tengku S.; Moktar, Norhayati; Lim, Yvonne A. L.; Mahmud, Rohela

    2014-01-01

    Background This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the current prevalence and risk factors associated with intestinal polyparasitism (the concurrent infection with multiple intestinal parasite species) among Orang Asli school children in the Lipis district of Pahang state, Malaysia. Methods/Principal findings Fecal samples were collected from 498 school children (50.6% boys and 49.4% girls), and examined by using direct smear, formalin-ether sedimentation, trichrome stain, modified Ziehl Neelsen stain, Kato-Katz, and Harada Mori techniques. Demographic, socioeconomic, environmental, and personal hygiene information were collected by using a pre-tested questionnaire. Overall, 98.4% of the children were found to be infected by at least one parasite species. Of these, 71.4% had polyparasitism. The overall prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. infections were 95.6%, 47.8%, 28.3%, 28.3%, 14.1% and 5.2%, respectively. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that using an unsafe water supply as a source for drinking water, presence of other family members infected with intestinal parasitic infections (IPI), not washing vegetables before consumption, absence of a toilet in the house, not wearing shoes when outside, not cutting nails periodically, and not washing hands before eating were significant risk factors associated with intestinal polyparasitism among these children. Conclusions/Significance Intestinal polyparasitism is highly prevalent among children in the peninsular Malaysian Aboriginal communities. Hence, effective and sustainable control measures, including school-based periodic chemotherapy, providing adequate health education focused on good personal hygiene practices and proper sanitation, as well as safe drinking water supply should be implemented to reduce the prevalence and consequences of these infections in this population. PMID:25144662

  11. Pre-Travel Health Preparation of Pediatric International Travelers: Analysis From the Global TravEpiNet Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagmann, Stefan; LaRocque, Regina C; Rao, Sowmya R; Jentes, Emily S; Sotir, Mark J; Brunette, Gary; Ryan, Edward T

    2013-12-01

    Children frequently travel internationally. Health-related data on such children are limited. We sought to investigate the demographics, health characteristics, and preventive interventions of outbound US international pediatric travelers. We analyzed data from 32 099 travelers presenting for pre-travel healthcare at the Global TravEpiNet (GTEN), a national consortium of 19 travel clinics, from January 1, 2009 to June 6, 2012. A total of 3332 (10%) of all GTEN travelers were children (traveled mostly for leisure (36%) or to visit friends or relatives (VFR) (36%). Most popular destination regions were Africa (41%), Southeast Asia (16%), Central America (16%), and the Caribbean (16%). Compared with children traveling for leisure, VFR children were more likely to present travel consultation (44% vs 28%), intended to travel for 28 days or longer (70% vs 22%), and to travel to Africa (62% vs 32%). Nearly half of the pediatric travelers (46%) received at least 1 routine vaccine, and most (83%) received at least 1 travel-related vaccine. Parents or guardians of one third of the children (30%) refused at least 1 recommended travel-related vaccine. Most pediatric travelers visiting a malaria-endemic country (72%) received a prescription for malaria chemoprophylaxis. Ten percent of travelers seeking pre-travel healthcare at GTEN sites are children. VFR-travel, pre-travel consultation close to time of departure, and refusal of recommended vaccines may place children at risk for travel-associated illness. Strategies to engage pediatric travelers in timely, pre-travel care and improve acceptance of pre-travel healthcare interventions are needed. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Lunchbox contents of Australian school children: room for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanigorski, A M; Bell, A C; Kremer, P J; Swinburn, B A

    2005-11-01

    In light of the increasing prevalence of obesity in children and the potential of schools as a setting for intervention, we aimed to identify the main foods and beverages consumed at primary school and to determine differences in consumption patterns between children who used the school canteen and those who did not. Cross-sectional survey of school foods in 1681 5-12 y old children, 2003-2004. Barwon South-Western region of Victoria, Australia. The school food provided an average (+/-s.e.m.) of 3087+/-26 kJ. Bread was the most frequently consumed food and contributed 20% of total energy at school, biscuits 13%, fruit 10%, muesli/fruit bars 8%, packaged snacks 7%, and fruit juice/cordial 6%. About 10% of children used the school canteen and these children obtained more total energy and more energy from cakes, fast foods and soft drink than noncanteen users (Pjunk food'). Fruit intake in primary schools seems reasonably high but could be targeted for further increase as part of promoting a healthy diet. Of concern, however, are the excessive amounts of energy-dense foods in school lunchboxes. These should be considered a priority for health promotion efforts along with reducing the consumption of sweetened drinks. These measures are urgently needed to improve the school-based diets of Australian children and attempt to curb the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity.

  13. Improvement the nutritional status of pre-school children following intervention with a supplement containing iron, zinc, copper, vitamin A, vitamin C and prebiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Carla Vidigal Castro

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the effects of a vitamin and mineral fortified powder product supplemented with inulin, on the iron and vitamin A status of 110 pre-schools childrens in Viçosa, MG, Brazil. The 2 to 5-year-old children were submitted to anthropometric (weight and height, biochemical (erythrocytes, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume – MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin - MCH, serum iron, ferritin and serum retinol and dietary (direct food weighing, 24 h recall, and food intake record evaluations, at the beginning and at the end of a 45-day intervention. The supplement (30 g was provided daily as part of the afternoon snack, diluted in 100 mL of water, 5 times/week and it supplied 30% of the recommended daily doses of iron, zinc, copper and vitamins A and C. Dietary and biochemical data was compared by the Wilcoxon test, and anthropometric data by the paired t-test. Values of z-scores for weight and height, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, MCV, MCH and ferritin were significantly higher after intervention; no change was observed in serum retinol. The prebiotic-containing supplement significantly increased the intake of energy, macro and micronutrients, and was effective in improving the iron and anthropometric status.

  14. Pre-Kindergarten Child Care and Behavioral Outcomes among Children of Immigrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Kao, Grace

    2009-01-01

    The school transition model suggests that children's transitions into formal schooling can have lasting and profound implications for their educational careers, though this model is rarely used to understand the outcomes of children of immigrants. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), a nationally…

  15. Development of overweight and obesity among primary school children-a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häkkänen, Paula; Ketola, Eeva; Laatikainen, Tiina

    2016-08-01

    School health care is crucial for obesity prevention. Data on constancy of childhood obesity are still scarce, but highly necessary for risk evaluation. We examined from electronic health records (EHRs) the continuity of obesity during primary school and searched for social and behavioural characteristics associated with childhood obesity. From randomly selected 2000 Finnish sixth graders (aged 12-14), we identified 402 'ever overweight' and 172 'ever obese' children who were overweight or obese at least once since their first grade. These cohort data of growth measurements and the content of all pre-seventh grade health checks were retrospectively analysed from EHRs. Of the ever obese and ever overweight children, 69.3% (95% CI: 65.2-73.4%) continued to be overweight or obese in sixth grade. Of the ever obese children, nearly 40% were obese in first grade and 56% were obese or overweight in all six grades. Furthermore, 80% were obese or overweight already before school age. Obese children had experienced more bullying than overweight children (43.6% versus 30.8%, P = 0.003), had more frequently special needs for studying (25.6% versus 14.7%, P = 0.002) or had undergone a serious family crisis (20.3% versus 11.4%, P = 0.005). Electronic data on children's growth and psychosocial characteristics are potentially useful when aiming for early action to counter obesity. Such routinely collected data appear to be underutilized and should be further exploited both in individual and population level to develop screening and treatment processes. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Pre-Service Science Teacher Preparation in China: Challenges and Promises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enshan; Liu, Cheng; Wang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to present an overview of pre-service science teacher preparation in China, which is heavily influenced by Chinese tradition, Confucianism, and rapid social and economic development. The policies, science teacher education systems and related programs jointly contribute to producing enough science teachers for…

  17. What teacher educators consider as best practices in preparing pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports on an investigation into what teacher educators consider to be best practices in how to prepare pre-service teachers to effectively deal with the challenges of teaching Mathematics in multilingual contexts, and how what teacher educators consider as best practices inform their own classroom practice.

  18. Contributions of After School Programs to the Development of Fundamental Movement Skills in Children.

    S