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Sample records for preparing non-photosensitive fatty

  1. Effect of Fat-Mineral Preparation From Fish Oil on Fatty Acid Content on Cow Milk

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    Witold Janeczek

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available 8-week-lasting investigation aimed at the assessment of the effect of fish oil application in the form of fat-mineral preparation (F-M on fatty acid content in milk fat. The subject of this investigation were highly efficient dairy cows (primiparous and multiparous. The cows were administered F-M containing fish oil (1% in dry mass of ration which resulted in decreased level of shortchain fatty acids in milk fat and increased level of longchain fatty acids. There was recorded significant increase in isomer cis-9,trans-11 CLA content, as well as the one of polyunsaturated fatty acids of n-3 - EPA and DHA group. The number of n-3 group acid did considerably increase. The fatty acids n-6/n-3 ratio showed significant decrease in both experimental groups.

  2. Poly(vinyl alcohol) composite films with high percent elongation prepared from amylose-fatty ammonium salt inclusion complexes

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    Amylose inclusion complexes prepared from cationic fatty ammonium salts and jet-cooked high amylose starch were combined with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVOH) to form glycerol-plasticized films. Their tensile properties were compared with similar films prepared previously with analogous anionic fatty acid...

  3. The Salts of Fatty Acids as Precursors for Preparation of Silver Nanoparticles in Organic Solvents

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    V. N. Glushko

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The silver salts of fatty acids were studied as precursors for the preparation of colloidal dispersions of silver nanoparticles and UHMWPE (ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene composite with silver nanoparticles, as well as the composition, the spectra and SEM (scanning electron microscopy results.

  4. Analysis of Carbohydrate and Fatty Acid Marker Abundance in Ricin Toxin Preparations for Forensic Information

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    Colburn, Heather A.; Wunschel, David S.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Moran, James J.; Antolick, Kathryn C.; Melville, Angela M.

    2010-07-15

    One challenge in the forensic analysis of ricin samples is determining the method and extent of sample preparation. Ricin purification from the source castor seeds is essentially a protein purification through removal of the non-protein fractions of the seed. Two major, non-protein constituents in the seed are the castor oil and carbohydrates. Ricinoleic acid is a relatively unique fatty acid in nature and is the most abundant component of castor oil, which comprises roughly half the seed weight. The carbohydrate component comprises roughly half of the remaining “mash” left after oil and hull removal. We used derivatization of carbohydrate and fatty acid markers followed by identification and quantification using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to assess compositional changes in ricin samples purified by different methods. The loss of ricinoleic acid indicated steps for oil removal had occurred. Changes to the carbohydrate content of the sample were also observed following protein precipitation. The differential loss of arabinose relative to mannose indicated removal of the major carbohydrate fraction of the seed and enrichment of the protein content. Taken together, these changes in fatty acid and carbohydrate abundance are indicative of the preparation method used for each sample.

  5. Evaluation of sustained release suppositories prepared with fatty base including solid fats with high melting points.

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    Takatori, Toshihito; Shimono, Norihito; Higaki, Kazutaka; Kimura, Toshikiro

    2004-07-08

    To prepare the sustained release suppositories, solid fats such as polyglycerol ester of fatty acids (PGEFs) or beeswax were utilized with a fatty suppository base, Witepsol H15. PGEFs such as decaglycerol heptabehenate (HB750) and hexaglycerol pentastearate (PS500), and beeswax have relatively high melting points. The addition of PGEFs or beeswax to Witepsol H15 increased the apparent viscosity of suppository bases at 37 degrees C without any large change in the melting point of Witepsol H15. Moreover, the apparent viscosity of a mixed base with HB750, PS500 or beeswax at 37 degrees C was significantly correlated with the amount of each solid fat in a mixed base. The release of acetaminophen (AAP), a model drug, from suppositories was delayed by HB750, PS500 or beeswax, and an excellent correlation was observed between the apparent viscosity of these mixed bases and Higuchi's rate constants in each mixed base suppository, suggesting that these solid fats could regulate the drug release from the mixed base suppositories by changing their viscosity. In the in vivo absorption study in rats, several suppositories made from Witepsol H15-HB750 or Witepsol H15-beeswax mixed bases prolonged the rectal absorption of AAP without reducing AUC. In conclusion, by using solid fats such as HB750 and beeswax with relatively high melting points, it is possible to control the rate of drug release from fatty base suppositories for maintaining the plasma concentration of drugs for longer time periods.

  6. Preparation of palm olein enriched with medium chain fatty acids by lipase acidolysis.

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    Chnadhapuram, Mounika; Sunkireddy, Yella Reddy

    2012-05-01

    Medium chain (MC) fatty acids, caprylic (C8:0) and capric (C10:0) were incorporated into palm olein by 1,3-specific lipase acidolysis, up to 36% and 43%, respectively, when added as mixtures or individually after 24h. It was found that these acids were incorporated into palm olein at the expense of palmitic and oleic acids, the former being larger in quantity and reduction of 18:2 was negligible. The modified palm olein products showed reduction in higher molecular weight triacylglycerols (TGs) and increase in concentration of lower molecular weight TGs compared to those of palm olein. Fatty acids at sn-2 position in modified products were: C10:0, 4%; C16:0, 13%; C18:1, 66%; and C18:2, 15.4%. DSC results showed that the onset of melting and solids fat content were considerably reduced in modified palm olein products and no solids were found even at and below 10°C and also the onset of crystallisation was considerably lowered. The cloud point was reduced and iodine value dropped from 55.4 to 38 in modified palm olein. Thus, nutritionally superior palm olein was prepared by introducing MC fatty acids with reduced palmitic acid through lipase acidolysis.

  7. Study on preparation method of Zanthoxylum bungeanum seeds kernel oil with zero trans-fatty acids.

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    Liu, Tong; Yao, Shi-Yong; Yin, Zhong-Yi; Zheng, Xu-Xu; Shen, Yu

    2016-04-01

    The seed of Zanthoxylum bungeanum (Z. bungeanum) is a by-product of pepper production and rich in unsaturated fatty acid, cellulose, and protein. The seed oil obtained from traditional producing process by squeezing or extracting would be bad quality and could not be used as edible oil. In this paper, a new preparation method of Z. bungeanum seed kernel oil (ZSKO) was developed by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of alkali saponification-cold squeezing, alkali saponification-solvent extraction, and alkali saponification-supercritical fluid extraction with carbon dioxide (SFE-CO2). The results showed that the alkali saponification-cold squeezing could be the optimal preparation method of ZSKO, which contained the following steps: Z. bungeanum seed was pretreated by alkali saponification under the conditions of adding 10 %NaOH (w/w), solution temperature was 80 °C, and saponification reaction time was 45 min, and pretreated seed was separated by filtering, water washing, and overnight drying at 50 °C, then repeated squeezing was taken until no oil generated at 60 °C with 15 % moisture content, and ZSKO was attained finally using centrifuge. The produced ZSKO contained more than 90 % unsaturated fatty acids and no trans-fatty acids and be testified as a good edible oil with low-value level of acid and peroxide. It was demonstrated that the alkali saponification-cold squeezing process could be scaled up and applied to industrialized production of ZSKO.

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Waterborne Polyurethaneurea Composed of Dimer Fatty Acid Polyester Polyol

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    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of polyurethaneurea (PUU aqueous dispersions, which were stable at ambient temperature for more than 1 year, were prepared with C 36 -dimer-fatty-acid-based polyester polyol, isophorone diisocyanate, dimethylol propionic acid, and ethylenediamine. The particle size of all these PUU (DPU aqueous dispersions ( <100 nm was less than that of comparable specimens, that is, poly-(neopentyl glycol adipate polyester-polyol-based PUU (APU aqueous dispersions, and the polydispersity index was very narrow ( ≤1.13 . The films prepared with the DPU aqueous dispersions exhibited excellent waterproof performance, such as low amount of water absorption (1.3 wt%, and good mechanical properties (hardness and tensile strength, resulting from the strong hydrogen bonding in urea carbonyl groups and the perfect ordered structure of hard segments compared with those prepared with the APU aqueous dispersions. The surface hydrophobicity of the films prepared with modified DPU aqueous dispersions, which were modified with a fluorinated polyacrylate emulsion, was excellent, as the water contact angle on the surface of such films rose up to 100. The mechanical properties of such modified DPU films were further enhanced.

  9. ANALYSIS OF RICIN TOXIN PREPARATIONS FOR CARBOHYDRATE AND FATTY ACID ABUNDANCE AND ISOTOPE RATIO INFORMATION

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    Wunschel, David S.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Antolick, Kathryn C.; Colburn, Heather A.; Moran, James J.; Melville, Angela M.

    2009-12-01

    This report describes method development and preliminary evaluation for analyzing castor samples for signatures of purifying ricin. Ricin purification from the source castor seeds is essentially a problem of protein purification using common biochemical methods. Indications of protein purification will likely manifest themselves as removal of the non-protein fractions of the seed. Two major, non-protein, types of biochemical constituents in the seed are the castor oil and various carbohydrates. The oil comprises roughly half the seed weight while the carbohydrate component comprises roughly half of the remaining “mash” left after oil and hull removal. Different castor oil and carbohydrate components can serve as indicators of specific toxin processing steps. Ricinoleic acid is a relatively unique fatty acid in nature and is the most abundant component of castor oil. The loss of ricinoleic acid indicates a step to remove oil from the seeds. The relative amounts of carbohydrates and carbohydrate-like compounds, including arabinose, xylose, myo-inositol fucose, rhamnose, glucosamine and mannose detected in the sample can also indicate specific processing steps. For instance, the differential loss of arabinose relative to mannose and N-acetyl glucosamine indicates enrichment for the protein fraction of the seed using protein precipitation. The methods developed in this project center on fatty acid and carbohydrate extraction from castor samples followed by derivatization to permit analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Method descriptions herein include: the source and preparation of castor materials used for method evaluation, the equipment and description of procedure required for chemical derivatization, and the instrument parameters used in the analysis. Two types of derivatization methods describe analysis of carbohydrates and one procedure for analysis of fatty acids. Two types of GC-MS analysis is included in the method development, one

  10. Preparation, characterization, and thermal properties of starch microencapsulated fatty acids as phase change materials thermal energy storage applications

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    Stable starch-oil composites can be prepared from renewable resources by excess steam jet-cooking aqueous slurries of starch and vegetable oils or other hydrophobic materials. Fatty acids such as stearic acid are promising phase change materials (PCMs) for latent heat thermal energy storage applica...

  11. Preparation of a crosslinked bioimprinted lipase for enrichment of polyunsaturated fatty acids from fish processing waste.

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    Yan, Jinyong; Li, Lifan; Tang, Qianli; Jiang, Manzhou; Jiang, Shenzhou

    2010-10-01

    Geotrichum sp. lipase modified with a combined method composed of crosslinking and bioimprinting was employed to selectively hydrolyze waste fish oil for enrichment of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in glycerides. Crosslinked polymerization by monomer (polyethylene glycol 400 dimethyl acrylate), crosslinker (trimethylolpropane trimethylacrylate), and photoinitiator (benzoin methyl ether) coupled to bioimprinting using palmitic acid as imprint molecule, resulted in much more effective enzyme preparation used in aqueous hydrolysis reaction. Since the crosslinked polymerization modification maintained bioimprinted property and gave good dispersion of enzyme in reaction mixture, the crosslinked bioimprinted enzyme exhibited higher hydrolysis temperature, enhanced specific activity, shorter hydrolysis time, and better operational stability compared to free lipase. Crude fish oil was treated at 45 degrees C with this crosslinked bioimprinted lipase for 8 h, and 46% hydrolysis degree resulted in the production of glycerides containing 41% of EPA and DHA (EPA+DHA), achieving 85.7% recovery of initial EPA and DHA. The results suggested that bioimprinted enzymes did not lose their induced property in aqueous environment when prepared according to the described crosslinking-bioimprinting method. It could also be seen that the crosslinked bioimprinted lipase was effective in producing glycerides that contained a higher concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acid with better yield.

  12. Improved zeolite regeneration processes for preparing saturated branched-chain fatty acids

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    Ferrierite zeolite solid is an excellent catalyst for the skeletal isomerization of unsaturated linear-chain fatty acids (i.e., oleic acid) to unsaturated branched-chain fatty acids (i.e., iso-oleic acid) follow by hydrogenation to give saturated branched-chain fatty acids (i.e., isostearic acid). ...

  13. Progress of technology for fatty tertiary amine preparation%脂肪叔胺制备技术进展

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    李峰; 王涛; 张卫民; 张国华

    2016-01-01

    主要从3方面综述了脂肪叔胺制备技术的研发进展。介绍了脂肪叔胺的市场情况及主要用途,其主要作为制备阳离子表面活性剂和两性离子表面活性剂的重要中间体,这2类表面活性剂的主要品种可作为消毒杀菌剂、缓蚀剂、抗静电剂、织物整理剂以及个人护理用品中的活性成分等;重点阐述了脂肪叔胺的制备工艺过程,此工艺的技术关键是催化剂的制备,包括催化剂组分的筛选及其制备过程,目前主要采用的是多元金属复合催化剂,多以Cu与其他金属元素复合;简要回顾了脂肪醇催化胺化技术的发展概况,并对脂肪叔胺制备技术的进一步发展提出了建议。%The progress in field of research and development for preparation of fatty tertiary amines was summarized from three aspects. The marketing and main applications of fatty tertiary amines were introduced, mainly for preparation of cationic surfactants and amphoteric surfactants as important intermediates. The main varieties of these two types of surfactants can be used as active ingredient of disinfectants,corrosion inhibitors, antistatic agents,fabric finishing agents,and personal care products,etc. The preparation process of fatty tertiary amines was emphatically described. The critical technology of this process is the preparation of catalysts,including screening of various components of the catalyst and its preparation conditions. At present, the multiple metallic composite catalyst are mainly adopted,with copper as the main active matter to blend with other metallic elements. A brief review of the development of the technology for catalytic amination of fatty alcohols was included,and the suggestion for the further development of preparation technology of fatty tertiary amines was mentioned.

  14. Optimization of oligoglycerol fatty acid esters preparation catalyzed by Lipozyme 435

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    Wan, F. L.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Oli goglycerol fatty acid esters (OGEs are an important kind of polyglycerol fatty acid esters (PGEs which have been widely used as emulsifiers in food, medicine and cosmetic industries. The aim of this study was to investigate the preparation of OGEs by the esterification of olig oglycerol with linoleic acid in a solvent- free system using Lipozyme 435 as the catalyst. The effects of substrate molar ratio, reaction time, reaction temperature, enzyme dosage, and water addition on the efficiency of esterification (EE were studied. Single factor experiments and response surface methodology (RSM were employed to optimize the reaction parameters. The optimum conditions were obtained as follows: reaction time 4.52 h, reaction temperature 90 °C, enzyme dosage 2 wt% (based on the total substrate mass, the molar ratio of oligoglycerol to linoleic acid 1.59:1 and no water addition. Under these conditions, the experimental EE (95.82±0.22% fitted well with that predicted by RSM (96.15%. Similar results were obtained when the process was scaled up to a production of 500 g in a pilot bubble column reactor (BCR. The enzyme maintained 98.2% of the relative activity after 10 batches of reaction in the BCR. Electro spray ionization mass spectrum was employed to rapidly analyze the esterification products, and most species of OGEs have been identified.Los ésteres grasos de oligoglicerol (OGEs son una clase importante de ésteres de ácidos grasos de poliglicerol (PGE que han sido ampliamente utilizados como emulsionantes en alimentación, medicina y en la industria cosmética. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la preparación de OGEs mediante la esterificación de oligoglicerol con ácido linoleico en un sistema libre de disolvente utilizando Lipozyme 435 como catalizador. Se estudiaron los efectos en la eficiencia de esterificación (EE de la relación molar de sustratos, de los tiempos de reacción, las temperaturas de reacción, la dosis de la

  15. Preparation of sucrose fatty acid esters as food emulsifiers and evaluation of their surface active and emulsification properties.

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    Megahed, Mohamed G.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available A simple method for the preparation of sucrose esters, from fatty acids and the least expensive sucrose, has been conducted. Fatty acids namely lauric, palmitic and oleic were used in their preparation in the absence of any organic solvent. Reasonable yields amounting to 86.5%, 87.3% and 88.6% for sucrose esters of laurate, palmitate and oleate were obtained, respectively. The products were evaluated for their hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB, surface and interfacial tension properties as well as emulsion stability. The results showed that these sucrose esters exhibit similar properties as those of the commercially prepared compounds.

    Se ha llevado a cabo un método simple para la preparación de ésteres de sacarosa a partir de ácidos grasos y sacarosa de bajo coste. Se han usado ácidos laurico, palmítico y oleico en su preparación, en ausencia de solventes orgánicos. Se obtuvieron rendimientos aceptables del 86.5%, 87.3% y 88.6% para los ásteres del láurico, palmítico y oleico respectivamente. En los productos se evaluaron sus balances hidrófilo-lipófilo (HLB, sus propiedades de tensión superficial e interfacial así como su estabilidad en emulsiones. Los resultados mostraron que estos esteres de sacarosa exhiben propiedades similares a las de los compuestos preparados comercialmente.

  16. Scalable preparation of high purity rutin fatty acid esters following enzymatic synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lue, Bena-Marie; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2010-01-01

    Investigations into expanded uses of modified flavonoids are often limited by the availability of these high purity compounds. As such, a simple, effective and relatively fast method for isolation of gram quantities of both long and medium chain fatty acid esters of rutin following scaled-up bios...

  17. Preparation, characterization and thermal properties of styrene maleic anhydride copolymer (SMA)/fatty acid composites as form stable phase change materials

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    Sari, Ahmet; Alkan, Cemil; Karaipekli, Ali; Oenal, Adem [Department of Chemistry, Gaziosmanpasa University, 60240, Tokat (Turkey)

    2008-02-15

    Fatty acids such as stearic acid (SA), palmitic acid (PA), myristic acid (MA) and lauric acid (LA) are promising phase change materials (PCMs) for latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) applications, but high cost is the major drawback of them, limiting their utility area in thermal energy storage. The use of fatty acids as form stable PCMs will increase their feasibilities in practical applications due to the reduced cost of the LHTES system. In this regard, a series of styrene maleic anhydride copolymer (SMA)/fatty acid composites, SMA/SA, SMA/PA, SMA/MA, and SMA/LA, were prepared as form stable PCMs by encapsulation of fatty acids into the SMA, which acts as a supporting material. The encapsulation ratio of fatty acids was as much as 85 wt.% and no leakage of fatty acid was observed even when the temperature of the form stable PCM was over the melting point of the fatty acid in the composite. The prepared form stable composite PCMs were characterized using optic microscopy (OM), viscosimetry and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy methods, and the results showed that the SMA was physically and chemically compatible with the fatty acids. In addition, the thermal characteristics such as melting and freezing temperatures and latent heats of the form stable composite PCMs were measured by using the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique, which indicated they had good thermal properties. On the basis of all the results, it was concluded that form stable SMA/fatty acid composite PCMs had important potential for practical LHTES applications such as under floor space heating of buildings and passive solar space heating of buildings by using wallboard, plasterboard or floors impregnated with a form stable PCM due to their satisfying thermal properties, easy preparation in desired dimensions, direct usability without needing additional encapsulation thereby eliminating the thermal resistance caused by the shell and, thus, reducing the cost of

  18. Preparation and characterization Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang for esterification fatty acid (palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid)

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    Abdulloh, Abdulloh; Aminah, Nanik Siti; Triyono, Mudasir, Trisunaryanti, Wega

    2016-03-01

    Catalyst preparation and characterization of Al3+-bentonite for esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid has been done. Al3+-bentonite catalyst was prepared from natural bentonite of Turen Malang through cation exchange reaction using AlCl3 solution. The catalysts obtained were characterized by XRD, XRF, pyridine-FTIR and surface area analyser using the BET method. Catalyst activity test of Al3+-bentonite for esterification reaction was done at 65°C using molar ratio of metanol-fatty acid of 30:1 and 0.25 g of Al3+-bentonite catalyst for the period of ½, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 hours. Based on the characterization results, the Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst has a d-spacing of 15.63 Ǻ, acid sites of Brönsted and Lewis respectively of 230.79 µmol/g and 99.39 µmol/g, surface area of 507.3 m2/g and the average of radius pore of 20.09 Å. GC-MS analysis results of the oil phase after esterification reaction showed the formation of biodiesel (FAME: Fatty acid methyl ester), namely methyl palmitate, methyl oleate and methyl linoleate. The number of conversions resulted in esterification reaction using Al3+-bentonite Turen Malang catalyst was 74.61%, 37.75%, and 20, 93% for the esterification of palmitic acid, oleic acid and linoleic acid respectively.

  19. Effect of calcium on fatty acid bioaccessibility during in vitro digestion of Cheddar-type cheeses prepared with different milk fat fractions.

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    Ayala-Bribiesca, Erik; Turgeon, Sylvie L; Britten, Michel

    2017-02-08

    Calcium plays an important role in intestinal lipid digestion by increasing the lipolysis rate, but also limits fatty acid bioaccessibility by producing insoluble Ca soaps with long-chain fatty acids at intestinal pH conditions. The aim of this study was to better understand the effect of Ca on the bioaccessibility of milk fat from Cheddar-type cheeses. Three anhydrous milk fats (AMF) with different fatty acid profiles (olein, stearin, or control AMF) were used to prepare Cheddar-type cheeses, which were then enriched or not with Ca using CaCl2 during the salting step. The cheeses were digested in vitro, and their disintegration and lipolysis rates were monitored during the process. At the end of digestion, lipids were extracted under neutral and acidic pH conditions to compare free fatty acids under intestinal conditions in relation to total fatty acids released during the digestion process. The cheeses prepared with the stearin (the AMF with the highest ratio of long-chain fatty acids) were more resistant to disintegration than the other cheeses, owing to the high melting temperature of that AMF. The Ca-enriched cheeses had faster lipolysis rates than the regular Ca cheeses. Chromatographic analysis of the digestion products showed that Ca interacted with long-chain fatty acids, producing Ca soaps, whereas no interaction with shorter fatty acids was detected. Although higher Ca levels resulted in faster lipolysis rates, driven by the depletion of reaction products as Ca soaps, such insoluble compounds are expected to reduce the bioavailability of fatty acids by hindering their absorption. These effects on lipid digestion and absorption are of interest for the design of food matrices for the controlled release of fat-soluble nutrients or bioactive molecules.

  20. Hydrolysis optimization and characterization study of preparing fatty acids from Jatropha curcas seed oil

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    Salimon Jumat

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acids (FAs are important as raw materials for the biotechnology industry. Existing methods of FAs production are based on chemical methods. In this study potassium hydroxide (KOH-catalyzed reactions were utilized to hydrolysis Jatropha curcas seed oil. Results The parameters effect of ethanolic KOH concentration, reaction temperature, and reaction time to free fatty acid (FFA% were investigated using D-Optimal Design. Characterization of the product has been studied using Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, gas chromatography (GC and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The optimum conditions for maximum FFA% were achieved at 1.75M of ethanolic KOH concentration, 65°C of reaction temperature and 2.0 h of reaction time. Conclusions This study showed that ethanolic KOH concentration was significant variable for J. curcas seed oil hydrolysis. In a 18-point experimental design, FFA% of hydrolyzed J. curcas seed oil can be raised from 1.89% to 102.2%, which proved by FTIR and HPLC.

  1. Effect of feeding CLA on plasma and granules fatty acid composition of eggs and prepared mayonnaise quality.

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    Shinn, Sara Elizabeth; Proctor, Andrew; Gilley, Alex D; Cho, Sungeun; Martin, Elizabeth; Anthony, Nicholas B

    2016-04-15

    Eggs rich in trans, trans conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) are significantly more viscous, have more phospholipids containing linoleic acid (LA), and more saturated triacylglycerol species than control eggs. However, the fatty acid (FA) composition of yolk plasma and granule fractions are unreported. Furthermore, there are no reports of mayonnaise rheological properties or emulsion stability by using CLA-rich eggs. Therefore, the objectives were (1) compare the FA composition of CLA-rich yolk granules and plasma, relative to standard control and LA-rich control yolks, (2) compare the rheological properties of mayonnaise prepared with CLA-rich eggs to control eggs and (3) compare the emulsion stability of CLA-yolk mayonnaise. CLA-rich eggs and soy control eggs were produced by adding 10% CLA-rich soy oil or 10% of control unmodified soy oil to the hen's diet. The eggs were used in subsequent mayonnaise preparation. CLA-yolk mayonnaise was more viscous, had greater storage modulus, resisted thinning, and was a more stable emulsion, relative to mayonnaise prepared with control yolks or soy control yolks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Preparation and biological evaluation of 99Tcm-labelled fatty acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Jixin; HU Ji; CHEN Baojun; LUO Lianzhe; LI Hongyu; SHEN Langtao; LUO Zhifu

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to develop radiolabelling fatty acids based on 99Tcm carbonyl chemistry for heart imaging. Undecanoic acids functionalised with iminodiacetatic acid and cysteine were radiolabelled with [99Tcm (CO)3(H2O)3]+ intermediates, and their radiolabelling conditions were carefully studied. Biodistribution of 99Tcm (CO)3-CYST FAC11 and 99Tcm (CO)3-IDA FAC11 were observed in normal mice. The results showed that two 99Tcm-labelled compounds had similar profile in terms of high initial radioactivity uptake and rapid washout of radiotracers in the heart. 99Tcm (CO)3-IDA FAC11 was mainly excreted via hepatobiliary system in contrast to 99Tcm (CO)3-CYST FAC11, which was excreted from urinary system. It may be in part attributed to the more lipophilicity of 99Tcm (CO)3-IDA FAC11 than 99Tcm (CO)3-CYST FAC11.

  3. Methods of preparation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME. Statistical assessment of the precision characteristics from a collaborative trial

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    Pérez-Camino, M. C.

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The official regulations for the control of the olive and olive pomace oils of the European Union (EU and International Olive Oil Council (IOOC include the determination of fatty acids in order to be applied to several purity criteria. The determination of fatty acids require the preparation of the fatty acid methyl esters (FAME for the subsequent analysis by gas chromatography with good precision and reproducibility. Among the methods used in the laboratories of both the industries and the official institutions looking after the olive oil control, the ones selected were: 1 cold methylation with methanolic potash and 2 hot methylation with sodium methylate followed by acidification with sulphuric acid in methanol and heating. A statistical assessment of the precision characteristics were performed on the determination of fatty acids using both methods by a collaborative trial following the directions included in the AOAC regulation (AOAC 1995. In oils with low acidities, the results obtained for both methylation methods were equivalent. However, the olivepomace oil sample (acidity 15.5% showed significative differences between the fatty acid compositions obtained using both methylation methods. Finally, the methylation with the acidic+basic method did not yield an increase of the trans-isomers of the fatty acids.Los métodos oficiales para el control del aceite de oliva y de orujo de oliva de la Unión Europea (UE y del Comité Oleícola Internacional (COI incluyen la determinación de ácidos grasos en la aplicación de varios criterios de pureza. La determinación de ácidos grasos requiere la preparación de los ésteres metílicos de los ácidos grasos (FAME y su posterior análisis mediante cromatografía de gases con una buena repetibilidad y reproducibilidad. Entre los muchos métodos usados por los laboratorios de la industria y de los organismos oficiales de control, se seleccionaron los siguientes: 1 metilación en frío con potasa

  4. Preparation and properties of gem-dichlorocyclopropane derivatives of long-chain fatty esters.

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    Jie, M S; Wong, C F

    1992-01-01

    Methyl oleate (18:1) and linoleate (18:2) were readily transformed to the corresponding gem-dichlorocyclopropane derivatives in high yield, using triethylbenzylammonium chloride as the phase-transfer catalyst in the presence of aqueous NaOH and CHCl3. Reaction of dichlorocarbene with methyl 12-hydroxystearate furnished methyl 12-chlorostearate (49%) and 12-O-formylstearate (19%). The hydroxy group in methyl ricinoleate was protected (O-tetrahydropyran-2'-yl) prior to dichlorocyclopropanation of the ethylenic bond. Removal of the protecting group allowed the hydroxy group to be converted to a chloride, O-acetyl, azido or O-formyl function. Treatment of methyl ricinoleate with thionyl chloride, followed by the reaction with dichlorocarbene gave the corresponding 12-chloro-dichlorocyclopropane derivative. The dichlorocyclopropane derivative of oleic acid was transformed to a C19 allenic fatty acid when treated with t-butyl lithium. However, the remaining dichlorocyclopropane derivatives containing an additional functional group in the alkyl chain, failed to yield the corresponding allenic derivatives. All derivatives were characterized by a combination of spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques, including infrared, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and 13C NMR spectroscopy.

  5. Preparation of volatile fatty acid (VFA) calcium salts by anaerobic digestion of glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaofen; Swan, Janis E; Nair, Giridhar R; Langdon, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    Many potentially useful intermediates such as hydrogen and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) are formed during the complex anaerobic digestion processes that produce methane from biomass. This study recovers VFAs from an anaerobic digester by a combination of gas stripping and absorption with calcium carbonate slurry. Glucose was used as the model substrate because it is readily available, inexpensive, and easily digested. Sludge from a meatworks anaerobic digester produced methane and carbon dioxide (and sometimes a small amount of hydrogen) when batch-fed with glucose. Conditioning the neutral anaerobic sludge to an acidic pH (below 4.8) was achieved using repeated 1 g L(-1) doses of glucose. After conditioning, mainly VFAs and hydrogen were produced. The intermediate VFAs could be stripped using headspace gas. In subsequent fed-batch digestion/stripping cycles, the pH decreased when glucose was added and then increased when the VFA was gas stripped. The predominant acids formed at low pH values were lactic, butyric, and acetic acids. Lactic acid was converted to VFAs during stripping. The VFA calcium salts recovered were 80% butyrate and 20% acetate with minor quantities of propionate and valerate.

  6. Preparation and surface active properties of oxypropylated diol monoesters of fatty acids with an amide oxime terminal group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eissa, A. M.F.

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available Locally produced non-edible oil, namely, rice bran oil (R.B.O. was utilized as starting materials for preparing new nonionic surfactant. Oxypropylated diol monoesters of linoleic and rice bran oil fatty acids were prepared. Also amide oxime derivatives were obtained. Surface active properties of these compounds were measured. Under neutral condition amide eximes served as nonionic surfactants and their properties were similar to other oxypropylated monoesters.

    Se ha utilizado un aceite no comestible de producción local, denominado, aceite de salvado de arroz (R.B.O. como materia prima para la preparación de nuevos tensioactivos no iónicos. Se prepararon diol monoésteres oxipropilados de ácido linoleico y ácidos grasos de aceite de salvado de arroz. También se obtuvieron los derivados de amido oxima. Se midieron las propiedades de tensión superficial de estos compuestos. Bajo condiciones neutras las amido eximas sirvieron como tensioactivos no iónicos y sus propiedades fueron similares a los de otros monoésteres oxipropilados.

  7. Effects of feeding a Moringa oleifera rachis and twig preparation to dairy cows on their milk production and fatty acid composition, and plasma antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tingting; Si, Bingwen; Deng, Kaidong; Tu, Yan; Zhou, Chaolong; Diao, Qiyu

    2017-06-30

    We determined how supplementing the diet of lactating, multiparous Holstein dairy cows with a preparation of Moringa oleifera rachises and twigs affected their milk production and quality and the levels of plasma antioxidants. We found that milk yield increased in cows receiving the 6% (w/w) moringa supplement compared with that of the control. Addition of the moringa supplement increased the concentration of milk fat and decreased the somatic cell count in the milk. However, protein, glucose and total solid and urea nitrogen concentrations in the milk were the same for all treatments. The concentration of glutathione peroxidase increased for cows fed the moringa supplement compared with the control. The percentages of total unsaturated fatty acids, mono-unsaturated fatty acids, and polyunsaturated fatty acids including n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid increased in the milk of cows fed the moringa supplement compared with those of the controls. Addition of the moringa supplement into the diet of lactating multiparous cows improved milk production and health status and modified milk fatty acid profile positively. The results suggested that moringa supplement could be used as a diet supplement for producing high quality and healthier milk. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION, AND PHARMACEUTICAL APPLICATION OF LINEAR DEXTRIN .3. DRUG-RELEASE FROM FATTY SUPPOSITORY BASES CONTAINING AMYLODEXTRIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TEWIERIK, GHP; EISSENS, AC; LERK, CF

    Drug release from fatty suppository bases containing a solid dispersion of diazepam with amylodextrin or a complex of prednisolone with amylodextrin was analyzed in a flow-through model. Being present as a suspension in the fatty base, particles of complex or solid dispersion are transported to the

  9. Eco-friendly microwave-assisted protocol to prepare hyaluronan-fatty acid conjugates and to induce their self-assembly process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calce, Enrica; Mercurio, Flavia Anna; Leone, Marilisa; Saviano, Michele; De Luca, Stefania

    2016-06-05

    An environmentally sustainable and energy-efficient synthetic process has been developed to prepare hyaluronan-based nano-sized material. It consists in a microwave-promoted acylation of the hydroxyl function of the polysaccharide with natural fatty acids, performed under solvent-free conditions. The efficient interaction of the solid reagents with the MW radiation accounts for the obtained high yielded products. The self-assembly process of the obtained compounds very fast occurred in an aqueous medium under MW-radiation, thus allowing the development of a green protocol for the nano-particles preparation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A comparison of two common sample preparation techniques for lipid and fatty acid analysis in three different coral morphotypes reveals quantitative and qualitative differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlan, Jessica A; Rocker, Melissa M; Francis, David S

    2017-01-01

    Lipids are involved in a host of biochemical and physiological processes in corals. Therefore, changes in lipid composition reflect changes in the ecology, nutrition, and health of corals. As such, accurate lipid extraction, quantification, and identification is critical to obtain comprehensive insight into a coral's condition. However, discrepancies exist in sample preparation methodology globally, and it is currently unknown whether these techniques generate analogous results. This study compared the two most common sample preparation techniques for lipid analysis in corals: (1) tissue isolation by air-spraying and (2) crushing the coral in toto. Samples derived from each preparation technique were subsequently analysed to quantify lipids and their constituent classes and fatty acids in four common, scleractinian coral species representing three distinct morphotypes (Acropora millepora, Montipora crassotuberculata, Porites cylindrica, and Pocillopora damicornis). Results revealed substantial amounts of organic material, including lipids, retained in the skeletons of all species following air-spraying, causing a marked underestimation of total lipid concentration using this method. Moreover, lipid class and fatty acid compositions between the denuded skeleton and sprayed tissue were substantially different. In particular, the majority of the total triacylglycerol and total fatty acid concentrations were retained in the skeleton (55-69% and 56-64%, respectively). As such, the isolated, sprayed tissue cannot serve as a reliable proxy for lipid quantification or identification in the coral holobiont. The in toto crushing method is therefore recommended for coral sample preparation prior to lipid analysis to capture the lipid profile of the entire holobiont, permitting accurate diagnoses of coral condition.

  11. Preparation of fatty acid methyl esters from hazelnut, high-oleic peanut and walnut oils and evaluation as biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelnut, walnut and high-oleic peanut oils were converted into fatty acid methyl esters using catalytic sodium methoxide and evaluated as potential biodiesel fuels. These feedstocks were of interest due to their adaptability to marginal lands and their lipid production potentials (780-1780 L ha-1 y...

  12. Enzymatic enrichment of polyunsaturated fatty acids using novel lipase preparations modified by combination of immobilization and fish oil treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinyong; Liu, Sanxiong; Hu, Jiang; Gui, Xiaohua; Wang, Guilong; Yan, Yunjun

    2011-07-01

    Novel modification methods for lipase biocatalysts effective in hydrolysis of fish oil for enrichment of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were described. Based on conventional immobilization in single aqueous medium, immobilization of lipase in two phase medium composed of buffer and octane was employed. Furthermore, immobilization (in single aqueous or in two phase medium) coupled to fish oil treatment was integrated. Among these, lipase immobilized in two phase medium coupled to fish oil treatment (IMLAOF) had advantages over other modified lipases in initial reaction rate and hydrolysis degree. The hydrolysis degree increased from 12% with the free lipase to 40% with IMLAOF. Strong polar and hydrophobic solvents had negative impact on immobilization-fish oil treatment lipases, while low polar solvents were helpful to maintain the modification effect of immobilization-fish oil treatment. After five cycles of usage, the immobilization-fish oil treatment lipases still maintained more than 80% of relative hydrolysis degree.

  13. Statistical evaluation of fatty acid profile and cholesterol content in fish (common carp) lipids obtained by different sample preparation procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiric, Aurelija; Trbovic, Dejana; Vranic, Danijela; Djinovic, Jasna; Petronijevic, Radivoj; Matekalo-Sverak, Vesna

    2010-07-01

    Studies performed on lipid extraction from animal and fish tissues do not provide information on its influence on fatty acid composition of the extracted lipids as well as on cholesterol content. Data presented in this paper indicate the impact of extraction procedures on fatty acid profile of fish lipids extracted by the modified Soxhlet and ASE (accelerated solvent extraction) procedure. Cholesterol was also determined by direct saponification method, too. Student's paired t-test used for comparison of the total fat content in carp fish population obtained by two extraction methods shows that differences between values of the total fat content determined by ASE and modified Soxhlet method are not statistically significant. Values obtained by three different methods (direct saponification, ASE and modified Soxhlet method), used for determination of cholesterol content in carp, were compared by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The obtained results show that modified Soxhlet method gives results which differ significantly from the results obtained by direct saponification and ASE method. However the results obtained by direct saponification and ASE method do not differ significantly from each other. The highest quantities for cholesterol (37.65 to 65.44 mg/100 g) in the analyzed fish muscle were obtained by applying direct saponification method, as less destructive one, followed by ASE (34.16 to 52.60 mg/100 g) and modified Soxhlet extraction method (10.73 to 30.83 mg/100 g). Modified Soxhlet method for extraction of fish lipids gives higher values for n-6 fatty acids than ASE method (t(paired)=3.22 t(c)=2.36), while there is no statistically significant difference in the n-3 content levels between the methods (t(paired)=1.31). The UNSFA/SFA ratio obtained by using modified Soxhlet method is also higher than the ratio obtained using ASE method (t(paired)=4.88 t(c)=2.36). Results of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed that the highest positive impact to

  14. The regulation of the fatty-acid composition of the triacylglycerols in microsomal preparations from avocado mesocarp and the developing cotyledons of safflower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stobart, A K; Stymne, S

    1985-01-01

    The utilisation of [(14)C]glycerol 3-phosphate and [(14)C]linoleoyl-CoA in the synthesis of triacylglycerol has been studied in the microsomal preparations of developing cotyledons of safflower seed. The results confirm that the glycerol backbone, which flows towards triacylglycerol from phosphatidic acid through the Kennedy pathway, can enter phosphatidylcholine from diacylglycerol. The equilibration between diacylglycerol and phosphatidylcholine offers a mechanism for the return of oleate to phosphatidylcholine for desaturation to linoleate. We have established that the oleate entering position 1 of sn-phosphatidylcholine from diacylglycerol is desaturated in situ to linoleate. The results indicate that the diacylglycerol phosphatidylcholine interconvertion coupled to the acyl exchange between acyl-CoA and position 2 of sn-phosphatidylcholine brings about the continuous enrichment of the glycerol backbone with C18-polyunsaturated fatty acids and hence these enzymes are of major importance in regulating the acyl quality of the accumulating triacylglycerols. Microsomal preparations from avocado mesocarp, however, did not have detectable acyl exchange between acyl-CoA and phosphatidylcholine or diacylglycerol phosphatidylcholine interconversion despite the high activity of the enzymes of the Kennedy pathway. A scheme is presented which incorporates many of the observations on triacylglycerol synthesis and provides a working model for the regulation of acyl quality in linoleate-rich vegetable oils.

  15. 椰子油脂肪酸季戊四醇酯的制备%Preparation of coconut oil fatty acid pentaerythritol ester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何节玉; 廖德仲; 秦玉华; 占达东; 陈智伟

    2013-01-01

    Coconut oil fatty acid pentaerythritol ester was prepared through the esterification of coconut oil fatty acid and pentaerythritol with p - toluene sulfonic acid as catalyst and toluene as water - entrainer. The optimal reaction conditions were as follows: catalyst dosage 3 % ( based on the mass of reactants) , molar ratio of coconut oil fatty acid to pentaerythritol 4.4:1, water - entrainer toluene dosage 40% (based on the mass of reactants ) , reaction temperature 150 ℃ and reaction time 3 h. The esterification rate was 97. 2% under the optimal reaction conditions, and the chemical structure of the esterification product was confirmed by FT - IR. The acid value and saponification value of the product were determined as 0.62 mgKOH/g and 254. 9 mgKOH/g, respectively. The'product could be used as base oil for green lubricants production.%以椰子油脂肪酸(CFA)和季戊四醇(PE)为原料,对甲苯磺酸为催化剂,甲苯为带水剂,通过回流分水酯化法合成椰子油脂肪酸季戊四醇酯.获得优化反应条件为:催化剂对甲苯磺酸用量3%(以反应物质量为基准),酸醇物质的量比4.4∶1,带水剂甲苯用量40%(以反应物质量为基准),反应温度150℃,反应时间3h.在此优化条件下,酯化率为97.2%.产物结构经FT-IR光谱证实为椰子油脂肪酸季戊四醇酯(四酯),产物的酸值(KOH)为0.62 mg/g,皂化值(KOH)为254.9 mg/g,可作为生产绿色酯类润滑油的基础油.

  16. Preparation and surface active properties of a-acyloxysuccinic acid derivatives from malic acid and fatty acids of crude rice bran oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sawy, A. A.

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface active compounds were prepared from malic acid by esterification with acyl chloride (IIa-d, of [palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and mixed fatty acids of rice bran oil (RBO (IIe], in the presence of pyridine as catalyst, forming (IIIa-e ,  which are  converted to anionic disodium salt (IVa-e . The prepared a-acyl-oxysuccinic acid derivatives (IIIa-e was oxypropenoxylated with various moles of propylene oxide (n= 2, 4, 6 and 8 to give (V-IXa-d . These compounds were converted to nonionic surfactants with two terminal amide oxime groups  (XV-XIXa-d as molecular aggregations and surface active agents in aqueous media. The structures were confirmed by micro analysis, IR and 1H NMR spectra. The surface active properties of the prepared compounds revealed excellent results.Se han preparado compuestos de tensión superficial a partir de ácido málico por esterificación con cloruro de acilo (IIa-d de [palmítico, esteárico, oleico, linoleico y ácidos grasos mezclados de aceite de gérmen de arroz (RBO (IIe], en presencia de piridina como catalizador, formando (IIIa-e, los cuales son convertidos a sales disódicas aniónicas (IVa-e. El derivado del ácido a-acil-oxisuccínico preparado (IIIa-e fue oxipropenoxilado con varios moles de óxido de propileno (n=2, 4, 6 y 8 para dar (V-IXa-d. Estos compuestos fueron convertidos en tensioactivos no iónicos con dos grupos amida oxima terminal (XV-XIXa-d como agregaciones moleculares y agentes tensioactivos en medio acuoso. Las estructuras se confirmaron por microanálisis, IR y espectros de 1H NMR. Las propiedades tensioactivas de los compuestos preparados revelaron excelentes resultados.

  17. Preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Dardir

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Some hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were prepared by the reaction of linolenic acid and hexanamide (derived from the reaction of hexanoic acid and diethanolamine. The chemical structure for the newly prepared hexanamide-mono and di-linoleniate esters were elucidated using elemental analysis, (FTIR, H 1NMR and chemical ionization mass spectra (CI/Ms spectroscopic techniques. The results of the spectroscopic analysis indicated that they were prepared through the right method and they have high purity. The new prepared esters have high biodegradability and lower toxicity (environmentally friendly so they were evaluated as a synthetic-based mud (ester-based mud for oil-well drilling fluids. The evaluation included study of the rheological properties, filtration and thermal properties of the ester based-muds formulated with the newly prepared esters compared to the reference commercial synthetic-based mud.

  18. Controlled-release fertilizer prepared using a biodegradable aliphatic copolyester of poly(butylene succinate) and dimerized fatty acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubkowski, Krzysztof; Smorowska, Aleksandra; Grzmil, Barbara; Kozłowska, Agnieszka

    2015-03-18

    The preparation and characterization of a controlled-release multicomponent (NPK) fertilizer with the coating layer consisting of a biodegradable copolymer of poly(butylene succinate) and a butylene ester of dilinoleic acid (PBS/DLA) is reported. The morphology and structure of the resulting polymer-coated materials and the thickness of the covering layers were examined using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The mechanical properties of these materials were determined with a strength-testing machine. Nutrient release was measured in water using spectrophotometry, potentiometry, and conductivity methods. The results of the nutrient release experiments from these polymer-coated materials were compared with the requirements for controlled-release fertilizers. A conceptual model is presented describing the mechanism of nutrient release from the materials prepared in this study. This model is based on the concentrations of mineral components inside the water-penetrated fertilizer granules, the diffusion properties of the nutrients in water, and a diffusion coefficient through the polymer layer. The experimental kinetic data on nutrient release were interpreted using the sigmoidal model equation developed in this study.

  19. Preparation of a novel carbon-based solid acid from cassava stillage residue and its use for the esterification of free fatty acids in waste cooking oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingtao; Dong, Xiuqin; Jiang, Haoxi; Li, Guiming; Zhang, Minhua

    2014-04-01

    A novel carbon-based solid acid catalyst was prepared by the sulfonation of incompletely carbonized cassava stillage residue (CSR) with concentrated sulfuric acid, and employed to catalyze the esterification of methanol and free fatty acids (FFAs) in waste cooking oil (WCO). The effects of the carbonization and the sulfonation temperatures on the pore structure, acid density and catalytic activity of the CSR-derived catalysts were systematically investigated. Low temperature carbonization and high temperature sulfonation can cause the collapse of the carbon framework, while high temperature carbonization is not conducive to the attachment of SO3H groups on the surface. The catalyst showed high catalytic activity for esterification, and the acid value for WCO is reduced to below 2mg KOH/g after reaction. The activity of catalyst can be well maintained after five cycles. CSR can be considered a promising raw material for the production of a new eco-friendly solid acid catalyst. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fatty acids - trans fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data supporting a negative effect of dietary trans fatty acids on cardiovascular disease risk is consistent. The primary dietary sources of trans fatty acids include partially hydrogenated fat and rudiment fat. The adverse effect of trans fatty acids on plasma lipoprotein profiles is consisten...

  1. Influences of process parameters on preparation of microparticle used as a carrier system for omega - 3 unsaturated fatty acid ethyl esters used in supplementary nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprecht, A; Schäfer, U; Lehr, C M

    2001-01-01

    Microparticles were prepared by complex coacervation to encapsulate eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl ester (EPA-EE) for incorporation into foods as a nutrition supplement. Gelatin and acacia were used in the coacervation process. With an increasing oil/polymer ratio, both yield and encapsulation rate decreased; with an increasing homogenization time, the yield remained constant while the encapsulation rate slightly increased. Several particle hardening techniques were examined and their influence on particle structure, yield and encapsulation rate were examined. Ethanol hardening was compared to cross-linking with dehydroascrobic acid with respect to both yield and encapsulation rate. The particle diameters for both formulations were similar (ethanol: 38.4 +/- 4.1 microm; cross-linking: 41.8 +/- 3.0 microm). Spray-drying of the coacervates led to the smallest particles (5.2 +/- 1.1 microm), lowest yield and encapsulation rate. All microencapsulation products were assayed for their storage stability over 4 weeks with respect to the oxidation of the encapsulated omega - 3 unsaturated fatty acid ester inside the particles. Hardening with ethanol showed the lowest amount of peroxides: particle wall cross-linking by dehydroascorbic acid and spray-drying were observed to be less protective. All microparticles were characterized for their internal structure with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) after fluorescence labelling of the polymers, in order to localize the oil phase and visualize the distribution of the polymers in the coacervates. With increasing homogenization time, the internal structure changed stepwise from a capsule structure (core/wall) towards a matrix structure. For all experiments, a homogeneous distribution for both polymers, gelatin and acacia was observed inside the particle wall. No influence of the different particle hardening procedures on the polymer distribution was found.

  2. The influence of supplement feed preparation on the fatty acid composition of carp and Chironomidae larvae in a semi-intensive production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živić Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to examine how extruded and pelleted feed affects the fatty acid composition of carp meat and Chironomidae larvae, two-month-old carp specimens were set in two fishponds (L1 and L2. The fatty acid composition of extruded and pelleted feed is characterized by a significantly higher content of ω-3 fatty acids and higher ω-3 to ω-6 fatty acids ratio (ω-3/ω-6 in extruded (11.34±0.12% and 0.315±0.005, respectively compared to pelleted feed (7.72±0.08%, 0.180±0.001, respectively. The fatty acid composition of carp meat is characterized by higher ω-3 fatty acid content and ω-3/ω-6 in carp fed with extruded feed (L1, 6.98±0.53% and 0.295±0.022, respectively compared to carp fed with extruded feed (L2, 5.46±0.07% and 0.232±0.009, respectively. Chironomidae larvae from the fishpond L2 had significantly higher ω-3 fatty acid content (8.22±0.89%, and therefore higher ω-3/ω-6 (0.81±0.09 in comparison to Chironomidae from the L1 fishpond where these parameters were 4.48±0.06% and 0.21±0.01, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31075 i br. 173040

  3. Preparation of triacylglycerols rich in omega-3 fatty acids from sardine oil using a Rhizomucor miehei lipase: focus in the EPA/DHA ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Paulo; Batista, Irineu; Bernardino, Raul J; Bandarra, Narcisa Maria

    2014-02-01

    The increasing evidence on the differential biochemical effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) raises the need of n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid concentrates with different amounts of these fatty acids. In the present work, physicochemical and enzymatic techniques were combined to obtain acylglycerols, mainly triacylglycerols (TAG), rich in n-3 fatty acids. Sardine oil was obtained by washing sardine (Sardina pilchardus) mince with a NaHCO3 solution, hydrolyzed in a KOH-ethanol solution, and concentrated with urea. The esterification reaction was performed in the stoichiometric proportion of substrates for re-esterification to TAG, with 10 % level of Rhizomucor miehei lipase based on the weight of substrates, without any solvent, during 48 h. This procedure led to approximately 88 % of acylglycerols, where more than 66 % were TAG and the concentration of n-3 fatty acids was higher than 60 %, the EPA and DHA ratio (EPA/DHA) was 4:1. The content of DHA in the unesterifed fraction (free fatty acids) increased from 20 to 54 %, while the EPA level in the same fraction decreased from 33 to 12.5 % (EPA/DHA ratio ≈1:4). Computational methods (density functional theory calculations) have been carried out at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level to explain some of the experimental results.

  4. Preparation of Biofuel Using Acetylatation of Jojoba Fatty Alcohols and Assessment as a Blend Component in Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    The majority of biodiesel fuels are produced from vegetable oils or animal fats by transesterification of oil with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. In this study, a new class of biofuel is explored by acetylation of fatty alcohols from Jojoba oil. Recently, we reported Jojoba oil methyl este...

  5. Preparation of five 3-MCPD fatty acid esters and the effects of their chemical structures on acute oral toxicity in Swiss mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid esters of 3-monochloro-1, 2-propanediol (3-MCPDEs), including 1-stearic, 1-oleic, 1-linoleic, 1-linoleic-2-palmitic and 1-palmitic-2-linoleic acid esters, were synthetized and examined for their acute oral toxicities in Swiss mice. 3-MCPDEs were obtained through the reaction of 3-MCPD and...

  6. Fatty Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abbreviations Weights & Measures ENGLISH View Professional English Deutsch Japanese Espaniol Find information on medical topics, symptoms, drugs, ... inside liver cells. Just consuming a high-fat diet does not result in fatty liver. Rarely, fat ...

  7. 醇醚糖苷柠檬酸单酯盐的制备与性能研究%Preparation and performance of citrate monoesters salt of ethoxylated fatty alcohols glucoside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛少勇; 杨秀全; 白亮; 周媛; 张军

    2012-01-01

    Through indirect eaterification,citric acid anhydride was synthesized with citric acid and acetic anhydride as raw materials,the citrate monoesters were prepared with synthetic citric acid anhydride and ethoxylated fatty alcohols glucoside (containing excess ethoxylated fatty alcohols) ,and then neutralization with NaOH,Ca (OH)2 and Mg (OH)2 obtained the citrate monoesters disodium salt of ethoxylated fatty alcohols glucoside (MAEG-EC-Na) , citrate monoesters calcium salt of ethoxylated fatty alcohols glucoside (MAEC-EC-Ca) and citrate monoesters magnesium salt of ethoxylated fatty alcohols glucoside (MAEG- EC-Mg). The physicochemical properties of the products were measured. Results showed that the γcmc range of the three products are very small, and the one of citric acid monoester disodium salt of ethoxylated fatty alcohols glucoside is minimum. The order of foaming ability and foam stability of citric acid monoester salt is MAEG-EC-Mg > MAEG-EC-Ca > MAEG-EC-Na.%采用间接酯化法,以柠檬酸和乙酸酐为原料,先合成柠檬酸酐,后与醇醚糖苷(含有未反应的脂肪醇醚)反应,合成了醇醚糖苷柠檬酸单酯,再用NaOH溶液、饱和Ca(OH)2水溶液和Mg(OH)2乳浊液中和制得醇醚糖苷柠檬酸单酯二钠盐(MAEG-EC-Na)、醇醚糖苷柠檬酸单酯钙盐(MAEG-EC-Ca)和醇醚糖苷柠檬酸单酯镁盐(MAEGEC-Mg),对产物的物化性能进行了测定.结果表明,上述3种产品的γcmc变化范围均很小,而柠檬酸单酯二钠盐的cmc最小,柠檬酸单酯盐起泡性能、泡沫稳定性的顺序为MAEG-EC-Mg> MAEG-EC-Ca> MAEG-EC-Na.

  8. High-yield preparation of wax esters via lipase-catalyzed esterification using fatty acids and alcohols from crambe and camelina oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, G; Weitkamp, P; Klein, E; Mukherjee, K D

    2001-02-01

    Fatty acids obtained from seed oils of crambe (Crambe abyssinica) and camelina (Camelina sativa) via alkaline saponification or steam splitting were esterified using lipases as biocatalysts with oleyl alcohol and the alcohols derived from crambe and camelina oils via hydrogenolysis of their methyl esters. Long-chain wax esters were thus obtained in high yields when Novozym 435 (immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica) and papaya (Carica papaya) latex lipase were used as biocatalysts and vacuum was applied to remove the water formed. The highest conversions to wax esters were obtained with Novozym 435 (> or =95%) after 4-6 h of reaction, whereas with papaya latex lipase such a high degree of conversion was attained after 24 h. Products obtained from stoichiometric amounts of substrates were almost exclusively (>95%) composed of wax esters having compositions approaching that of jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) oil, especially when crambe fatty acids in combination with camelina alcohols or camelina fatty acids in combination with crambe alcohols were used as substrates.

  9. Preparation of polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrates from the liver oil of dogfish (Squalus acanthias from the Black Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanova, K.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of the liver oil from the Black Sea dogfish Squalus acanthias, as well as its seasonal variations were determined. A scheme for concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids from the dogfish liver oil by urea complexation was proposed. From 360g of free fatty acids a 48g concentrate was obtained, containing 7,8% C20:4, 16,4% C20:5. 9,2% C22:5 and 49,7% C22:6.

    Se ha determinado la composición en ácidos grasos del aceite de hígado de cazón (Squalus acanthias del Mar Negro, así como sus variaciones estacionales. Se propone un esquema para la concentración de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados de aceite de hígado de cazón mediante complexión de urea. A partir de 360g de ácidos grasos libres se obtuvo un concentrado de 48g, que contenía 7,8% C20:4, 16,4% C20:5, 9,2% C22:5 y 49,7% C22:6.

  10. Perfil de ácidos graxos e teor de colesterol de mortadela elaborada com óleos vegetais Fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of mortadella prepared with vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Felipe Ferraz Yunes

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar o perfil de ácidos graxos e o teor de colesterol em mortadelas elaboradas com diferentes óleos vegetais. Nove tratamentos de mortadela foram elaborados com quatro diferentes óleos vegetais (canola, linhaça, oliva e soja, em dois níveis de substituição (50% e 100%. Os ácidos graxos e o teor de colesterol foram separados e identificados por cromatografia gasosa. Houve predominância dos ácidos graxos oleico, linoleico e palmítico. O teor de ácidos graxos saturados foi menor nos produtos que continham óleos vegetais. A relação PUFA/SFA foi menor no tratamento controle, enquanto que o maior valor foi observado no tratamento com 100% de óleo de linhaça. Os teores de colesterol encontrados foram semelhantes entre todos os tratamentos, sendo superior apenas no tratamento contendo 100% de óleo de soja. Logo, exceto o tratamento com 100% de óleo de soja, todos os outros tratamentos com óleos vegetais apresentaram uma melhor qualidade nutricional quando comparados com o controle.The aim of this study was to evaluate the fatty acid profile and the cholesterol content of mortadella prepared with different vegetable oils. Nine treatments were made with four different vegetable oils (canola, linseed, olive and soy using two substitution levels (50% and 100%. The fatty acids and the cholesterol content were separated and identified by gas chromatography. There was a prevalence of the oleic, linoleic and palmitic fatty acids. The saturated fatty acids were lower in the products with vegetable oils. The PUFA/SFA relation was lower in the control treatment while the higher value was observed in the 100% linseed oil treatment. The cholesterol levels found were similar between all the treatments, but a reduction of these levels were observed in the treatments, being superior only in treatment containing 100% of soybean oil. Thus, except the treatment with 100% of soybean oil, all the other treatments with

  11. Optimization of the preparation process of eucommia seed oil mixed fatty acid and the analysis of its fatty acid composition%杜仲籽油混合脂肪酸制备工艺优化及脂肪酸组成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴丽雅; 黄群; 余佶; 杨万根; 陈功锡; 麻成金

    2013-01-01

    With the eucommia ulmoids oliv seed oil as raw material,eucommia ulmoids oliv seed oil mxed fatty acids was prepared by saponification,acid hydrolysis and extraction by n-hexane under nomal pressure.According to the single factor experiments,super alkaline,saponification temperature,saponification time and acidification pH were selected.The Box-behnken design was used to optimize of saponification and to set up a regression model,the fatty acid composition of fatty acid was analyzed by GC-MS.Results showed that the optimum condition were excess alkali 52%,saponification temperature 77℃,saponification time 82min,acid hydrolysis pH value 2.7,leading to fatty acid value of 159.19mg KOH/g.The relative content of alpha linolenic acid reaches 60.14% by analysing of GC-MS.It could be used as a further separation and extraction of eucommia seed oil of alpha linolenic acid raw material.%以杜仲籽油为原料,在常压下皂化水解并用正己烷萃取制备杜仲籽油混合脂肪酸.在单因素超碱量、KOH-乙醇溶液/油的比例、皂化温度、皂化时间和酸化pH研究的基础上,选取超碱量、皂化温度、皂化时间和酸化pH四个因素,应用响应面设计中的Box-Behnken设计对皂化工艺进行优化并得到回归模型,通过气质联用仪分析杜仲籽油脂肪酸的组成.结果表明,制备杜仲籽油混合脂肪酸的优化工艺条件为:超量碱52%,皂化温度77℃,皂化时间82min,酸化pH2.7,在此优化条件下,测得混合脂肪酸的酸值为159.19mg KOH/g.气质联用仪分析结果显示杜仲籽油混合脂肪酸中α-亚麻酸的相对含量可达60.14%,可以作为进一步分离提取杜仲籽油α-亚麻酸的原料.

  12. Preparation and characterization oF Ru-Sn/Al2O3 catalysts for the hydrogenation of fatty acid methyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanina A. Mazzieri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ru-Sn/Al2O3 catalysts with different Sn loadings were prepared by the coimpregnation method. Several characterization techniques such as TPR, pyridine TPD and catalytic tests for dehydrogenation and hydrogenolysis were used to evaluate and compare such catalysts. TPR results indicate that Sn is deposited both onto the support and as species strongly interacting with Ru. Such non selective deposition modifies the acid and metallic functions of the catalysts. Both total acidity and acid strength distribution are affected: total acidity decreases and new sites of lower acid strength are created. Both dehydrogenating and hydrogenolytic activities are strongly diminished by the addition of Sn. Results of catalytic tests for methyl oleate hydrogenation indicate that methyl stearate is the main product, with only minute amounts of oleyl alcohol produced, and that the addition of Sn diminishes the hydrogenation activity.

  13. Preparation and characterization of Ru-Sn/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts for the hydrogenation of fatty acid methyl esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzieri, Vanina A.; Sad, Mario R.; Vera, Carlos R.; Pieck, Carlos L. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Santa Fe (Argentina). Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Inst. de Investigaciones en Catalisis y Petroquimica; Grau, Ricardo [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Santa Fe (Argentina). Universidad Nacional del Litoral. Inst. de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica

    2010-07-01

    Ru-Sn/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts with different Sn loadings were prepared by the coimpregnation method. Several characterization techniques such as TPR, pyridine TPD and catalytic tests for dehydrogenation and hydrogenolysis were used to evaluate and compare such catalysts. TPR results indicate that Sn is deposited both onto the support and as species strongly interacting with Ru. Such non selective deposition modifies the acid and metallic functions of the catalysts. Both total acidity and acid strength distribution are affected: total acidity decreases and new sites of lower acid strength are created. Both dehydrogenating and hydrogenolytic activities are strongly diminished by the addition of Sn. Results of catalytic tests for methyl oleate hydrogenation indicate that methyl stearate is the main product, with only minute amounts of oleyl alcohol produced, and that the addition of Sn diminishes the hydrogenation activity. (author)

  14. Effects of ultrasound radiation on coconut fatty acid methyl esters preparation by enzyme%超声波辐射对酶法制备椰子油脂肪酸甲酯的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚本前; 刘钟栋

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel, a renewable energy, is environmental friendly. As the substitute and supplement for petroleum, biodiesel has many advantages, such as renewable, easily degradation, low of the combustion emissions and almost no greenhouse effect. In this paper ultrasonic radiation was used in esterifying synthesis biodiesel. The reaction was fast and yield was high. Ultrasonic radiation can assist lipase catalyzed ester synthesis by fatty acid and methanol in organic medium. Effects of different factors and ultrasound radiation on coconut fatty acid methyl esters preparation by enzyme were studied. Coconut fatty acid, ethanol and lipozyme Novozym435 were the major raw material. The single factor is used in optimizing the parameters. The best condition was: enzyme 7% ( mass fraction based on oil) ; water 10% ( mass fraction based on oil) ; ultrasonic power 250W; the total reaction time 25min; n-hexane, 2mL/goil; molar ration of ethanol to coconut fatty acid 2' 1. The transesterification yield of 90. 18% was obtained under the optimum conditions.%生物柴油作为可再生能源,是环境友好的生物燃料,作为石化柴油的替代品及补充品具有可再生、易于降解、燃烧排放的污染物低、基本无温室效应等特点.本文利用超声辐射强化酯化制备生物柴油具有反应速度快,产率高等优点,探讨了超声辐照对有机相中脂肪酶催化脂肪酸与甲醇酯化反应的促进作用.以蒸馏椰子油脂肪酸、甲醇及Novozym435脂肪酶为主要原料,研究了不同因素及超声辐射对酶法促进油脂脂肪酸甲酯化的影响.对反应条件进行单因素实验,确定了最佳反应工艺参数.经分析初步得出脂肪酶催化甲酯化最佳条件为:酶用量7%,水加入量10%,超声功率250W,反应总时间25min,2mL正已烷/1g脂肪酸,甲醇与椰子油脂肪酸的摩尔比2∶1.在此条件下,脂肪酸甲酯转化率达到90.18%.

  15. 栀子油制备脂肪酸乙酯工艺的优化%Optimization of the Preparation Process of Fatty Acid Ethyl Ester from Gardenia Oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟陆丽; 程谦伟; 秦利平

    2012-01-01

    Using gardenia oil as raw material, fatty acid ethyl ester was prepared by NaOH catalyzed transesterification. The effects of molar ratio of alcohol to oil, catalyst dosage, reaction temperature, reaction time on the ethyl esterification were e-valuated through single factor tests, based on which response surface method was adopted to optimize the preparation conditions. The results showed that the optimum conditions for the esterification process were as follows, molar ratio of alcohol to oil, 6.7:1; catalyst dosage, 1.65% of the mass of gardenia oil; reaction temperature, 75℃; reaction time, 2.5 h. Under the optimal conditions, the hydroxyl value of the preduct was 146.62 mg(KOH)/g.%以栀子油为原料,采用碱催化法进行乙酯化反应,采用单因素试验考察醇油摩尔比、催化剂用量、反应温度、反应时间对乙酯化反应产物羟基值的影响,并进一步设计响应面试验优化反应条件.结果表明,栀子油乙酯化的最佳工艺条件为醇油摩尔比6.7∶1,催化剂用量为栀子油质量的1.65%,反应温度75℃,反应时间2.5 h,在此工艺条件下乙酯化反应产物的羟基值为146.62 mg(KOH)/g.

  16. Lipozyme TL IM 催化制备零反式脂肪酸人造奶油基料油的研究%Preparation of trans - free fatty acid margarine base oil catalyzed by Lipozyme TL IM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟英; 杨宏黎; 杨天奎; 季敏; 修志龙; 黄清吉; 黄仕群

    2014-01-01

    The trans - free fatty acid margarine base oil was prepared by the transesterification of palm stearin and soybean oil with Lipozyme TL IM as catalyst, and the triacylglyceride composition,solid fat content and crystallization rate of the transesterification product were analyzed. The results indicated that the triacylglyceride composition of the transesterification product changed significantly, the solid fat con-tent decreased and the crystallization rate increased markedly. The transesterification product contained most β’ crystal by X - ray diffraction analysis and had a wide plastic range by differential scanning calo-rimetry analysis,which was suitable for preparing margarine.%以棕榈硬脂和大豆油为原料,通过 Lipozyme TL IM 催化酯交换法制备零反式脂肪酸人造奶油基料油。对酯交换产物的甘三酯组成、固体脂肪含量、结晶速度等进行了分析,结果发现酯交换产物甘三酯组成发生了较大变化,固体脂肪含量降低,结晶速度明显提高,X -射线衍射分析表明酯交换产物为β’晶型,差示扫描量热分析表明酯交换产物具有较宽的塑性范围,适合用于制备人造奶油。

  17. Dimethyl carbonate-mediated lipid extraction and lipase-catalyzed in situ transesterification for simultaneous preparation of fatty acid methyl esters and glycerol carbonate from Chlorella sp. KR-1 biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yoon Ju; Lee, Ok Kyung; Lee, Eun Yeol

    2014-04-01

    Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and glycerol carbonate were simultaneously prepared from Chlorella sp. KR-1 containing 40.9% (w/w) lipid using a reactive extraction method with dimethyl carbonate (DMC). DMC was used as lipid extraction agent, acyl acceptor for transesterification of the extracted triglycerides, substrate for glycerol carbonate synthesis from glycerol, and reaction medium for the solvent-free reaction system. For 1g of biomass, 367.31 mg of FAMEs and 16.73 mg of glycerol carbonate were obtained under the optimized conditions: DMC to biomass ratio of 10:1 (v/w), water content of 0.5% (v/v), and Novozyme 435 to biomass ratio of 20% (w/w) at 70°C for 24h. The amount of residual glycerol was only in the range of 1-2.5mg. Compared to conventional method, the cost of FAME production with the proposed technique could be reduced by combining lipid extraction with transesterification and omitting the extraction solvent recovery process.

  18. 超声波辅助固体酸催化塔尔油脂肪酸制备生物柴油%Preparation of biodiesel by ultrasonic assisted esterification of Tall oil fatty acid over solid acid catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林炎平; 陈学榕; 黎邵华; 廖燕华; 黄彪

    2011-01-01

    将强酸性阳离子交换树脂加入塔尔油脂肪酸和甲醇混合液中,并在超声波辐射辅助下得到生物柴油,对生物柴油的制备工艺和性能进行研究,同时建立动力学模型.结果表明,超声波辐射的辅助强化,能有效提高生物柴油的得率;在反应温度65℃、反应时间1h、甲醇与TOFA摩尔比为10∶1、脱水剂用量为TOFA6%、树脂NKC-9用量为TOFA40%的最佳工艺条件下,反应平衡常数可达11.18,生物柴油得率为90.0%.建立的动力学模型补充了超声波辐射辅助酯化反应动力学参数,并用此模型解释了各工艺参数呈现的规律.以廉价的制浆黑液回收物塔尔油脂肪酸为原料制备生物柴油,能有效地降低生物柴油价格,提高其市场竞争力,实现塔尔油高附加值利用,具有良好的发展前景.%Biodiesel was prepared by the esterification of Tall oil fatty acid (TOFA) with methanol over the cation exchange resin solid acid catalyst under the assistance of ultrasonic. The preparation process and the characteristic of the biodiesel obtained were investigated; a kinetic model was built. The results showed that the ultrasonic irradiation can effectively improve the yield of biodiesel. The optimum processing condition is 65 t, reaction time of 1 h, mol ratio of methanol/TOFA being 10, dehydrating agent quantity of 6% (based on TOFA) and catalyst amount of 40% (based on TOFA); under such a condition, the biodiesel yield reaches 90.0%. The kinetic parameters for the ultrasonic assisted esterification are obtained, which can well explain process regulation. Current process is economical to prepare biodiesel on the market, because cheap TOFA from black liquor is used as the raw material; it may provide a potential way to efficiently utilize TOFA.

  19. Study on preparation and characteristics of medium chain fatty acids-Vitamin C freeze-dried liposomes%中链脂肪酸-维生素C冻干脂质体的制备研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨水兵; 刘伟; 刘成梅; 刘玮琳; 郑会娟; 周伟; 阴婷婷

    2011-01-01

    以脂溶性药物中链脂肪酸(MCFAs)和水溶性药物维生素C(Vit.C)为模型药物,采用复乳-高压法制备中链脂肪酸-维生素C复方脂质体,并用冷冻干燥技术制备成固体脂质体。通过研究脂质体的形态、粒径分布和包封率,对预冻温度、预冻时间、干燥时间、适宜的冻干保护剂种类、冻干保护剂与卵磷脂的质量比分别进行单因素考察。优选脂质体适宜的预冻温度为-80℃,预冻时间为5h,总干燥时间48h,适宜的冻干保护剂为蔗糖,蔗糖与卵磷脂的质量比为1.5∶1。最优冻干工艺条件下制得的中链脂肪酸-维生素C复合脂质体的维生素C包封率为62.25%,MCFAs包封率为46.30%,平均粒径为115.5nm。并考察了复方脂质体冻干前后粒径、Zeta电位、颗粒形态变化,发现粒径和Zeta电位变化不大,表明复方脂质体具有较好的物理稳定性。%The medium chain fatty acids-vitamin C(MCFAs-Vit.C)complex liposomes were prepared by double emulsion-high pressure microfluidization with lipophilic drugs medium chain fatty acids(MCFAs)and hydrophilic drug vitamin C(Vit.C)as the core material,and solid liposomes were further made by lyophilization.The effects of pre-freezing temperature,pre-freezing time,total freeze-dried time,types of lyoprotectant and the mass ratio of lyoprotectant to lecithin were investigated by taking liposomes shape,size distribution and drugs entrapment efficiency as indexes.The suitable preparation conditions of liposomes were as follows:pre-freezing temperature-80℃,pre-freezing time 5h,total freeze-dried time 48h,sucrose as suitable lyoprotectant,the ratio of sucrose to lecithin(w/w)1.5∶ 1.Under these conditions,the MCFAs-Vit.C complex liposome had 46.30% MCFAs encapsulation efficiency and 62.25% Vit.C encapsulation efficiency with a mean particle size of 115.5nm.In addition,the changes of particle size,Zeta potential and morphology of liposomes before and after

  20. Fatty acid composition of human milk and infant formulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivančica Delaš

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate fatty acid composition of membrane lipids is necessary for structure and function of the developing nervous system. Rapid synthesis of brain tissue occurs during the last trimester of pregnancy and the early postnatal weeks. This synthesis of brain structure involves the formation of complex lipids, many of which contain significant quantities of essential fatty acids and their higher homologs. This study was undertaken to elucidate how fatty acid compositions of available diets for infants meet the requirements for essential fatty acids. Samples of infant formulas, present on the market, as well as milk samples obtained from breast feeding mothers, were extracted by chloroform : methanol mixtures in order to obtain total lipids. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and fatty acid composition was revealed by gas chromatography. Special interest was directed to the content of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. The results have shown that infant formulas, designed to substitute mothers’ breast milk, contain medium chain fatty acids (C 10:0, C 12:0, along with the other saturated fatty acids, in the amounts acceptable for infants’ energy consumption. Although linoleic acid (C18:2, n-6 was present at the level expected to cover needs for essential fatty acids, most of the tested products did not contain sufficient amounts of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, despite the fact that these fatty acids are necessary for undisturbed brain development, ignoring the strong recommendations that they should be used as a supplement in infants’ food.

  1. Preparation of zero trans fatty acid spreads by enzymatic interesterification%零反式脂肪酸涂抹脂基料油酶法酯交换制备研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐子剑; 孟宗; 王兴国; 徐振波; 刘元法

    2012-01-01

    Enzymatic interesterification of palm stearin and sunflower seed oil to preparate zero trans fatty acid spreads was studied. Factors such as speed of stirring, temperature, enzyme dosage and reaction time were investigated to evaluate their influence on the interesterification. At the same time, the melting point, crystallization behavior like the crystal form and crystallization rate of the sample before and after the reaction were conducted. The optimal reaction conditions were determined as follows; stirring speed 200 r/min, lipase load 6% , temperature 701, time 3 h. The melting point of the product of the interesterification decreased significantly, and its crystal form was β', and the crystallization rate of the product was slow compared with the mixture of substrate.%利用固定化脂肪酶催化棕榈油硬脂和葵花籽油进行酯交换反应,制备零反式脂肪酸涂抹脂基料油.考察了不同搅拌速度、反应温度、酶加量和反应时间对酯交换反应的影响,并对反应前后油脂的熔点、晶型和结晶速率等结晶行为进行了分析和比较.结果表明:搅拌速度200 r/min,酶加量6%,在70℃下反应3h为最优的酯交换条件.酯交换产物的熔点大幅下降,晶型主要以β'晶型为主,结晶速率变慢.

  2. Preparation of ethoxylated fatty alcohol carboxylate by catalytic oxidation and its blending performance%催化氧化制备醇醚羧酸盐及其复配性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张望; 李秋小; 李运玲

    2009-01-01

    以脂肪醇聚氧乙烯醚(AEO9)、氧气和氢氧化钠为原料,在自制的Pd/C催化剂作用下催化氧化制备醇醚羧酸盐(AE9C)阴离子表面活性剂.考察了反应条件对产品收率的影响,并研究了AE9C与双癸基二甲基氯化铵(DDMAC10)复配体系的润湿、乳化和泡沫性能.结果表明较佳的反应条件为:温度70℃、压力0.08 Mpa、反应时间4 h,产品的收率可达85%.AE9C与DDMAC10复配具有较好的协同效应.%Ethoxylated fatty alcohol carboxylate (AE9C), an anionic surfactant was synthesized by using AEO9, O2 and NaOH as starting materials with self-made Pd/C catalyst. Reaction conditions were investigated. AE9C product was blended with didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDMAC10). The properties of the blended surfactant, such as foaming power, wetting power and emulsifying power were measured. The experiment results showed that the optimum reaction conditions to prepare AE9C are temperature 70 ℃;pressure 0.08 Mpa;reaction time 4 h. Yield up to 85% can be achieved. The performance of the blended surfactant of AE9C with DDMAC10 showed that such blending has significant synergistic effect.

  3. Fatty acid biosynthesis. VIII. The fate of malonyl-CoA in fatty acid biosynthesis by purified enzymes from lactating-rabbit mammary gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Carey, E.M.; Dils, R.

    1971-01-01

    - 1. We have investigated the formation and utilization of malonyl-CoA in fatty acid synthesis catalysed by preparations of partially purified acetyl-CoA carboxylase and purified fatty acid synthetase from lactating-rabbit mammary gland. - 2. Carboxylation of [1-14C]acetyl-CoA was linked to fatty...

  4. Synthesis and structural analysis of 13C-fatty acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The 13C-labeled fatty acids octanoic-1-13C acid and palmitic-l-13C acid were synthetically prepared from Ba 13CO3. The yield of the former was more than 90% and that of the latter was above 85%. MS, IR, 1H-NMR and 13NMR were performed to analyze the structures of the two 13C-fatty acids, compared with their unlabeled fatty acids.

  5. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of ...

  6. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant ...

  7. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  8. Tertiary fatty amides as diesel fuel substitutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serdari, Aikaterini; Lois, Euripides; Stournas, Stamoulis [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Athens (Greece)

    2000-07-01

    This paper presents experimental results regarding the impact of adding different tertiary amides of fatty acids to mineral diesel fuel; an assessment of the behaviour of these compounds as possible diesel fuel extenders is also included. Measurements of cetane number, cold flow properties (cloud point, pour point and CFPP), density, kinematic viscosity, flash point and distillation temperatures are reported, while initial experiments concerning the effects on particulate emissions are also described. Most of the examined tertiary fatty amides esters have very good performance and they can be easily prepared from fatty acids (biomass). Such compounds or their blends could be used as mineral diesel fuel or even fatty acid methylesters (FAME, biodiesel) substitutes or extenders. (Author)

  9. Facile Synthesis and Structural Characterization of Amylose-Fatty Acid Inclusion Complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, Zheng; Woortman, Albert; Rudolf, Petra; Loos, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Amylose-fatty acid inclusion complexes can be easily prepared by simple mixing in hot aqueous solutions. Above a critical chain length (C6) of the fatty acid insoluble complexes between amylose and each fatty acid (C8, C10, C12, C14, C16) were precipitated from the solution, and characterized by FT-

  10. Fats and fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    The absolute fat requirement of the human species is the amount of essential fatty acids needed to maintain optimal fatty acid composition of all tissues and normal eicosanoid synthesis. At most, this requirement is no more than about 5% of an adequate energy intake. However, fat accounts for appro...

  11. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also......, chlorinated lipids have been found in meat exposed to hypochlorite disinfected water, and in chlorine-treated flour and in products made from such flour. Following exposure to chlorine bleached pulp mill effluents, aquatic organisms may have elevated concentrations of chlorinated fatty acids in their lipids....... However, a natural production of halogenated fatty acids is also possible. In this paper we summarize the present knowledge of the occurrence of halogenated fatty acids in lipids and suggested ways of their formation. In Part II (Trends Anal. Chem. 16 (1997) 274) we deal with methods...

  12. Studies on Production of Biodiesel by Esterification of Fatty Acids by a Lipase Preparation from Candida sp. 99-125%假丝酵母99-125脂肪酶促酯化合成生物柴油的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓利; 聂开立; 王芳; 谭天伟

    2005-01-01

    A self-made lipase preparation from Candida sp. 99-125 was used for the production of biodiesel through enzymatic esterification of fatty acids. The crude lipase powder and fermentation broth were immobilized on a cheap fiber cloth carrier. The conditions of lipase-catalyzed esterification between long-chain fatty acids and methanol in a solvent system were investigated in detail, including the temperature, pH value, substrate concentration, solvent,absorbent agent, enzyme dosage and purity, immobilization method, the mode of addition of substrate. The results show that reaction temperature, pH of lipase micro-environment, substrate concentration, enzyme dosage and purity affect the esterification strongly. Several new methods and enzymatic procedures for improving the enzymatic reaction involving the process cost are also discussed, such as fossil diesel fuel as reaction solvent, immobilization method, multi-step gradient addition of methanol. The esterification degree of 92.8% was obtained with oleic acid and methanol under the optimal reaction condition after 12.5h reaction time. The half-life of the immobilized lipase preparation from crude free lipase powder for esterification was 15 days.

  13. Selective Enrichment of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Oils by Phospholipase A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan Moharana, Tushar; Byreddy, Avinesh R; Puri, Munish; Barrow, Colin; Rao, Nalam Madhusudhana

    2016-01-01

    Omega fatty acids are recognized as key nutrients for healthier ageing. Lipases are used to release ω-3 fatty acids from oils for preparing enriched ω-3 fatty acid supplements. However, use of lipases in enrichment of ω-3 fatty acids is limited due to their insufficient specificity for ω-3 fatty acids. In this study use of phospholipase A1 (PLA1), which possesses both sn-1 specific activity on phospholipids and lipase activity, was explored for hydrolysis of ω-3 fatty acids from anchovy oil. Substrate specificity of PLA1 from Thermomyces lenuginosus was initially tested with synthetic p-nitrophenyl esters along with a lipase from Bacillus subtilis (BSL), as a lipase control. Gas chromatographic characterization of the hydrolysate obtained upon treatment of anchovy oil with these enzymes indicated a selective retention of ω-3 fatty acids in the triglyceride fraction by PLA1 and not by BSL. 13C NMR spectroscopy based position analysis of fatty acids in enzyme treated and untreated samples indicated that PLA1 preferably retained ω-3 fatty acids in oil, while saturated fatty acids were hydrolysed irrespective of their position. Hydrolysis of structured triglyceride,1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, suggested that both the enzymes hydrolyse the fatty acids at both the positions. The observed discrimination against ω-3 fatty acids by PLA1 appears to be due to its fatty acid selectivity rather than positional specificity. These studies suggest that PLA1 could be used as a potential enzyme for selective concentrationof ω-3 fatty acids.

  14. Trans Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  15. Audio-Visual Aid in Teaching "Fatty Liver"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Sambit; Kamath, Ullas; Rao, Guruprasad; Prakash, Jay; Mishra, Snigdha

    2016-01-01

    Use of audio visual tools to aid in medical education is ever on a rise. Our study intends to find the efficacy of a video prepared on "fatty liver," a topic that is often a challenge for pre-clinical teachers, in enhancing cognitive processing and ultimately learning. We prepared a video presentation of 11:36 min, incorporating various…

  16. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles...

  17. Role of bioactive fatty acids in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Hernández, Eva; Chávez-Tapia, Norberto C; Uribe, Misael; Barbero-Becerra, Varenka J

    2016-08-02

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by fat deposition in hepatocytes, and a strong association with nutritional factors. Dietary fatty acids are classified according to their biochemical properties, which confer their bioactive roles. Monounsaturated fatty acids have a dual role in various human and murine models. In contrast, polyunsaturated fatty acids exhibit antiobesity, anti steatosic and anti-inflammatory effects. The combination of these forms of fatty acids-according to dietary type, daily intake and the proportion of n-6 to n-3 fats-can compromise hepatic lipid metabolism. A chemosensory rather than a nutritional role makes bioactive fatty acids possible biomarkers for NAFLD. Bioactive fatty acids provide health benefits through modification of fatty acid composition and modulating the activity of liver cells during liver fibrosis. More and better evidence is necessary to elucidate the role of bioactive fatty acids in nutritional and clinical treatment strategies for patients with NAFLD.

  18. Propylenated fatty acids as emulsifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shattory, Y.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxy propylenyl stéarate, palmitate, laurate, oléate and linoleate were prepared by reaction of propylene oxide with fatty acid at 160 °C for five hours stirring in presence of potassium hydroxide as a catalyst. Physico-chemical properties of the five products, regarding their use as emulsifiers, were determined.

    Se prepararon estearato, palmitato, laurato, oleato y linoleato de hidroxipropilenilos mediante reacción de oxido de propileno con ácido graso a 160 °C durante cinco horas de agitación en presencia de hidróxido potásico como catalizador. Se determinaron las propiedades físico-químicas de los cinco productos, en cuanto a su uso como emulsionantes.

  19. Caveolar fatty acids and acylation of caveolin-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Cai

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Caveolae are cholesterol and sphingolipids rich subcellular domains on plasma membrane. Caveolae contain a variety of signaling proteins which provide platforms for signaling transduction. In addition to enriched with cholesterol and sphingolipids, caveolae also contain a variety of fatty acids. It has been well-established that acylation of protein plays a pivotal role in subcellular location including targeting to caveolae. However, the fatty acid compositions of caveolae and the type of acylation of caveolar proteins remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the fatty acids in caveolae and caveolin-1 bound fatty acids. METHODS: Caveolae were isolated from Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells. The caveolar fatty acids were extracted with Folch reagent, methyl esterificated with BF3, and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS. The caveolin-1 bound fatty acids were immunoprecipitated by anti-caveolin-1 IgG and analyzed with GC/MS. RESULTS: In contrast to the whole CHO cell lysate which contained a variety of fatty acids, caveolae mainly contained three types of fatty acids, 0.48 µg palmitic acid, 0.61 µg stearic acid and 0.83 µg oleic acid/caveolae preparation/5 × 10(7 cells. Unexpectedly, GC/MS analysis indicated that caveolin-1 was not acylated by myristic acid; instead, it was acylated by palmitic acid and stearic acid. CONCLUSION: Caveolae contained a special set of fatty acids, highly enriched with saturated fatty acids, and caveolin-1 was acylated by palmitic acid and stearic acid. The unique fatty acid compositions of caveolae and acylation of caveolin-1 may be important for caveolae formation and for maintaining the function of caveolae.

  20. Free fatty acid profiles of emulsified lipids during in vitro digestion with pancreatic lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xianqian; Ye, Aiqian; Verrier, Timothee; Singh, Harjinder

    2013-08-15

    Individual free fatty acids released from milk protein-stabilized emulsions prepared with milk fat, soya bean oil or tuna fish oil during in vitro digestion with pancreatic lipase were monitored using gas chromatography. The results showed that saturated fatty acids (C16:0 and C18:0) were released faster than unsaturated fatty acids (C18:1n9, C18:2n6 and C18:3n3) from soya bean oil emulsions; short chain fatty acids were released faster than long chain fatty acids from milk fat emulsions; long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, were released more slowly than other fatty acids from fish oil emulsions. The results confirm that the release behaviour of fatty acids from emulsions during digestion is related not only to the position of the fatty acids in the triglycerides in the fat/oil, but also to the length of the carbon chain of the fatty acid. The rates and the extents of the digestion of lipids consisting of short chain fatty acids are higher than those of lipids consisting of long chain fatty acids.

  1. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas

    1997-01-01

    Halogenated fatty acids are the major contributors to organohalogen compounds in lipids of marine mammals, fish, and bivalves. For the initial characterization of these recently noticed compounds, a determination of the halogen concentration has usually been combined with some lipid isolation...... and separation method. This review covers separation by solid phase chromatography, gel permeation chromatography, and liquid-liquid extraction, followed by halogen determination. All studies performed according to this outline have indicated that the major organohalogen compounds are chlorinated fatty acids...... bound in different lipids. For the detection and identification of individual, halogenated fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) liberated from the lipids, gas chromatography (GC) has been employed together with detection methods such as electron capture detection, electrolytic conductivity detection (ELCD...

  2. Synthesis of new fatty acids amides from aminolysis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs); Sintese de novas amidas graxas a partir da aminolise de esteres metilicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Carolina R.; Montes D' Oca, Caroline da Ros; Duarte, Rodrigo da C.; Kurz, Marcia H.S.; Primel, Ednei G.; Clementin, Rosilene M.; Villarreyes, Joaquin Ariel M.; Montes D' Oca, Marcelo G., E-mail: dqmdoca@furg.b [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, RS (Brazil). Escola de Quimica e Alimentos

    2010-07-01

    Recent biochemical and pharmacological studies have led to the characterization of different fatty acid amides as a new family of biologically active lipids. Here, we describe the synthesis of new amides from C16:0, 18:0, 18:1 and 18:1, OH fatty acids (FFA) families with cyclic and acyclic amines and demonstrate for the first time that these compounds produce cytotoxic effects. Application of this method to the synthesis of fatty acid amides was performed using the esters aminolysis as a key step and various carboxylic amides were prepared in good yield from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs). (author)

  3. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  4. Fatty acids of Thiobacillus thiooxidans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, R A

    1971-12-01

    Fatty acid spectra were made on Thiobacillus thiooxidans cultures both in the presence and absence of organic compounds. Small additions of glucose or acetate had no significant effect either on growth or fatty acid content. The addition of biotin had no stimulatory effect but did result in slight quantitative changes in the fatty acid spectrum. The predominant fatty acid was a C(19) cyclopropane acid.

  5. Hypoxia and fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Tomohiro; Shinjo, Satoko; Arai, Takatomo; Kanai, Mai; Goda, Nobuhito

    2014-11-07

    The liver is a central organ that metabolizes excessive nutrients for storage in the form of glycogen and lipids and supplies energy-producing substrates to the peripheral tissues to maintain their function, even under starved conditions. These processes require a considerable amount of oxygen, which causes a steep oxygen gradient throughout the hepatic lobules. Alcohol consumption and/or excessive food intake can alter the hepatic metabolic balance drastically, which can precipitate fatty liver disease, a major cause of chronic liver diseases worldwide, ranging from simple steatosis, through steatohepatitis and hepatic fibrosis, to liver cirrhosis. Altered hepatic metabolism and tissue remodeling in fatty liver disease further disrupt hepatic oxygen homeostasis, resulting in severe liver hypoxia. As master regulators of adaptive responses to hypoxic stress, hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) modulate various cellular and organ functions, including erythropoiesis, angiogenesis, metabolic demand, and cell survival, by activating their target genes during fetal development and also in many disease conditions such as cancer, heart failure, and diabetes. In the past decade, it has become clear that HIFs serve as key factors in the regulation of lipid metabolism and fatty liver formation. This review discusses the molecular mechanisms by which hypoxia and HIFs regulate lipid metabolism in the development and progression of fatty liver disease.

  6. 环氧白花油脂肪酸甲酯的无羧酸法制备工艺%Preparation of epoxidized fatty acid methyl ester of styrax tonkinensis seed oil without carboxylic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈洁; 聂小安; 刘振兴; 王义刚; 蒋剑春

    2014-01-01

    The self-made heteropolyphosphatotungstate was used as phase transformation catalyst in the epoxidation reaction of styrax tonkinensis seed oil. The epoxidation reaction was an efficient and environ-ment friendly process without traditionally used carboxylic acid as catalyst. The reaction conditions were optimized by orthogonal experiment as follows:fatty acid methyl ester of styrax tonkinensis seed oil 10 g, molar ratio of cetylpyridinium chloride monohydrate to phosphoric acid to tung stic acid of heteropoly-phosphatotungstate 2:1:4, hydrogen peroxide dosage 5. 67 g, dropping rate of hydrogen peroxide 150 mL/h,reaction time 0. 5 h and ethyl acetate dosage 20 mL. Under these conditions, the epoxy value of epoxidized styrax tonkinensis seed oil fatty acid methyl ester could reach 4 . 67%. The process had the items of short reaction time and no organic acid waste water pollution.%以白花油为原料,采用自制的季铵盐型磷钨杂多化合物为相转移催化剂,构建无羧酸的均相环氧化反应体系,并通过正交实验优化反应条件。确定的最佳反应条件为:10 g白花油脂肪酸甲酯,氯代十六烷基吡啶、磷酸与钨酸摩尔比2:1:4的季铵盐型磷钨杂多化合物为催化剂,双氧水用量5.67 g,双氧水滴加速度150 mL/h,反应时间0.5 h,乙酸乙酯用量20 mL。在最佳条件下制备的环氧白花油脂肪酸甲酯的环氧值可达4.67%,并可有效缩短反应时间,避免有机酸废水污染。

  7. 蚕蛹油不饱和脂肪酸微胶囊的制备及其性质研究%Study on preparation of silkworm pupa silkworm pupa unsaturated fatty acids microcapsules and its properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晨; 李建科; 张雅丽

    2012-01-01

    以壳聚糖、乳糖等为壁材,蚕蛹油不饱和脂肪酸为芯材,通过喷雾干燥法制备微胶囊。以微胶囊包埋率为评价指标,采用旋转曲面法设计正交实验,优化微胶囊壁材配比为:脱油大豆卵磷脂添加量为壳聚糖的13%(w/w),复配壁材乳糖与基础壁材壳聚糖比例为1.42:1.0(w/w),芯材蚕蛹油不饱和脂肪酸与总壁材质量比0.52:1.0(w/w),此时微胶囊包埋率达到83.31%,效果达到最佳;蚕蛹油不饱和脂肪酸经微胶囊化后流动性良好,且壁材有效阻隔芯材过氧化,货架期可延长至8个月;模拟胃肠液实验中,被壁材包裹的不饱和脂肪酸在胃液中受到保护缓慢释放,在肠液中可迅速释放。%Encapsulation of silkworm pupa unsaturated fatty acids with chitosan and lactose as the main wall material was carried out by a spray-drying process.Response Surface Methodology(RSM)was used to study and optimize technological parameters of the ratio of lecithin,ratio of lactose and chitosan and ratio of core and wall materials.The optimal condition was determined as follows:the ratio of lecithin to chitosan of 13%(w/w),ratio of lactose to chitosan of 1.42:1.0(w/w)and ratio of core to wall of 0.52:1.0(w/w),at which the microencapsulation efficiency(MEE)reached 83.31%.The encapsulated silkworm pupa unsaturated fatty acids produced by this method had good physicochemical properties and dispersibility.The shelf life was extended to 8 months and core material was protected well from oxidation.The release ability was studied.Microcapsules were subjected to an invitro gastrointestinal fluid,in which it showed rapid-release property in intestinal fluid model and sustained-release property in gastric juice.

  8. Diaphragmatic function is enhanced in fatty and diabetic fatty rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreira, Serge; Na, Na; Carillion, Aude; Jiang, Cheng; Beuvin, Maud; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique; Riou, Bruno; Coirault, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with a decrease in mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU) (the "obesity paradox"). We hypothesized that obesity may paradoxically improve diaphragmatic function. Methods Diaphragm contractility was prospectively recorded in vitro in adult male Zucker lean (control), fatty, and diabetic fatty rats, at rest, after 12h mechanical ventilation and after fatigue. We analyzed diaphragm morphology, cytokines, and protein expression of the protein kinase signaling pathways. Results Diaphragm active-force (AF) was higher in fatty (96±7mN.mm-2,P = 0.02) but not in diabetic fatty rats (90±17mN.mm-2) when compared with controls (84±8mN.mm-2). Recovery from fatigue was improved in fatty and diabetic fatty groups compared with controls. Ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction was observed in each group, but AF remained higher in fatty (82±8mN.mm-2,P = 0.03) compared with controls (70±8mN.mm-2). There was neutral lipid droplet accumulation in fatty and diabetic fatty. There were shifts towards a higher cross-sectional-area (CSA) of myosin heavy chain isoforms (MyHC)-2A fibers in fatty and diabetic fatty compared with control rats (P = 0.002 and Pobese rats before and after mechanical ventilation, and is associated with activation of AKT pathway signaling and complex changes in morphology. PMID:28328996

  9. Chemometric analysis of mass spectra of cis and trans fatty acid picolinyl esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben

    1997-01-01

    configuration. Picolinyl esters of fatty acids are prepared by adding carbonyl-diimidazole, 3-hydroxy-methylpyridine and 4-pyrrolidin-o-pyridine to a solution of free fatty acids in dichloromethane. The picolinyl esters dissolved in heptane are then separated by capillary GC on a CP Sil 88 column equipped...

  10. Sophorolipid-derived unsaturated and epoxy fatty acid estolides as plasticizers for poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsaturated and epoxy fatty acid estolides were synthesized from the omega and omega-1 hydroxy fatty acids derived from sophorolipids (SLs) prepared by fermentation from glucose:soybean oil and glucose:oleic acid, respectively. These estolides were utilized as additives in solution-cast poly(3-hydro...

  11. Synthesis of Higher Fatty Acid Starch Esters using Vinyl Laurate and Stearate as Reactants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junistia, Laura; Sugih, Asaf K.; Manurung, Robert; Picchioni, Francesco; Janssen, Leon P. B. M.; Heeres, Hero J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of long-chain fatty esters of corn starch (starch laurate and starch stearate) with a broad range in degree of substitution (DS = 0.24-2.96). The fatty esters were prepared by reacting the starch with vinyl laurate or vinyl stearate in the presence of basic catalys

  12. Molten fatty acid based microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noirjean, Cecile; Testard, Fabienne; Dejugnat, Christophe; Jestin, Jacques; Carriere, David

    2016-06-21

    We show that ternary mixtures of water (polar phase), myristic acid (MA, apolar phase) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB, cationic surfactant) studied above the melting point of myristic acid allow the preparation of microemulsions without adding a salt or a co-surfactant. The combination of SANS, SAXS/WAXS, DSC, and phase diagram determination allows a complete characterization of the structures and interactions between components in the molten fatty acid based microemulsions. For the different structures characterized (microemulsion, lamellar or hexagonal phases), a similar thermal behaviour is observed for all ternary MA/CTAB/water monophasic samples and for binary MA/CTAB mixtures without water: crystalline myristic acid melts at 52 °C, and a thermal transition at 70 °C is assigned to the breaking of hydrogen bounds inside the mixed myristic acid/CTAB complex (being the surfactant film in the ternary system). Water determines the film curvature, hence the structures observed at high temperature, but does not influence the thermal behaviour of the ternary system. Myristic acid is partitioned in two "species" that behave independently: pure myristic acid and myristic acid associated with CTAB to form an equimolar complex that plays the role of the surfactant film. We therefore show that myristic acid plays the role of a solvent (oil) and a co-surfactant allowing the fine tuning of the structure of oil and water mixtures. This solvosurfactant behaviour of long chain fatty acid opens the way for new formulations with a complex structure without the addition of any extra compound.

  13. KRISTALISASI PELARUT SUHU RENDAH PADA PEMBUATAN FRAKSI KAYA VITAMIN E MENGANDUNG TOKOTRIENOL DARI DISTILAT ASAM LEMAK MINYAK SAWIT [Low Temperature Solvent Crystallizationin Tocotrienol Containing Vitamin E Rich Fraction Preparation from Palm Fatty Acid Distillate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kgs Ahmadi1*,

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD is a by-product of physical refining of CPO (Crude Palm Oil in deodorization process. PFAD is a potential source of natural vitamin E, that besides tocopherol, also contains tocotrienol. Both have functions as antioxidant and vitamin. This research studied a method for obtaining vitamin E rich fraction that contained tocotrienol by low temperature hexane solvent crystallization. The elucidation factors were ratio of solvent to unsaponifiable fraction of PFAD(5:1, 6:1, and 7:1 and crystallization temperature (-20, -10, and 0°C. The experiment was conducted in factorial completely randomized design. The research showed that PFAD contains high tocotrienol. Low temperature solvent crystallization of unsaponifiable fraction gave 33.88% increase ofvitamin E concentration compared to control. Temperature and ratio of solvent to unsaponifiable fraction affected enrichment of vitamin E in PFAD. Later, saponification increased vitamin E content in unsaponifiable fraction of PFAD. Enrichment of tocopherol was higher than that of tocotrienol, supposed as a result of improper separation process in crystallization stage. Modulation of Vitamin E concentration during saponification of PFAD increased antioxidant activity compared to unsaponifiable fraction. The best result was achieved at ratio of solvent to unsaponifiable fraction of 6:1 and crystallization temperature of -10°C.

  14. 高级脂肪醇类消泡剂主单体的合成及应用%Preparation and application of the main monomer for high fatty alcohol defoamer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于正浪; 郭睿; 季振青; 贾建民

    2009-01-01

    以基团保护法合成了硬脂酸单甘油酯;通过正交实验研究获得了优化的合成条件:带水剂用量为120(mL/molGT),催化剂用量为5%,甘油与丙酮和硬脂酸的摩尔比为1:1.5:0.7.产物经IR和元素分析表征,确定产物为目的产物.合成的产物与混合高级脂肪醇复配研制出水基乳液非硅消泡剂,通过测定其技术指标及与国内外产品进行比较发现自制消泡剂适用于抄纸和涂布工序中,且性能优异.%Glyceryl monostearate was synthesized by a method of group protection. The optimum conditions for the synthesis were found through orthogonal experiments as: petroleum ether is 120 (mL/molGT), the molar ratio of glycerol I acetone : stearic acid is 1 :5 : 0.7, the mass of catalyst is 5% of glycerol. The elemental analysis and IR spectrogram of the product were identical with the target product. Then the product was mixed with high-level fatty alcohol so as to develop a water-based emulsion non-silicon defoamer. A comparative study on the technical specifications showed that this defoamer is suitable for papermaking and coating process.

  15. Fatty liver in childhood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yesim; Ozturk; Ozlem; Bekem; Soylu

    2014-01-01

    Fatty liver is a growing health problem worldwide. It might evolve to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and cause hepatocellular carcinoma. This disease, which has increased because of eating habits, changes in food content and lifestyle, affects people from childhood. The most important risk factors are obesity and insulin resistance. Besides these factors, gender, ethnicity, genetic predisposition and some medical problems are also important. Cirrhosis in children is rare but is reported. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) has no specific symptoms or signs but should be considered in obese children. NAFLD does not have a proven treatment. Weight loss with family based treatments is the most acceptable management. Exercise and an applicable diet with low glycemic index and appropriate calorie intake are preferred. Drugs are promising but not sufficient in children for today.

  16. Chemometric analysis of mass spectra of cis and trans fatty acid picolinyl esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben

    1997-01-01

    Capillary GC of fatty acid methyl esters with MS detection only yields information about the molecular weight of the compound. However, if picolinyl esters of fatty acids are analysed in this way it is possible to obtain more information about their structure, perhaps even the cis or trans...... configuration. Picolinyl esters of fatty acids are prepared by adding carbonyl-diimidazole, 3-hydroxy-methylpyridine and 4-pyrrolidin-o-pyridine to a solution of free fatty acids in dichloromethane. The picolinyl esters dissolved in heptane are then separated by capillary GC on a CP Sil 88 column equipped...

  17. Selective Enrichment of Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Oils by Phospholipase A1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Ranjan Moharana

    Full Text Available Omega fatty acids are recognized as key nutrients for healthier ageing. Lipases are used to release ω-3 fatty acids from oils for preparing enriched ω-3 fatty acid supplements. However, use of lipases in enrichment of ω-3 fatty acids is limited due to their insufficient specificity for ω-3 fatty acids. In this study use of phospholipase A1 (PLA1, which possesses both sn-1 specific activity on phospholipids and lipase activity, was explored for hydrolysis of ω-3 fatty acids from anchovy oil. Substrate specificity of PLA1 from Thermomyces lenuginosus was initially tested with synthetic p-nitrophenyl esters along with a lipase from Bacillus subtilis (BSL, as a lipase control. Gas chromatographic characterization of the hydrolysate obtained upon treatment of anchovy oil with these enzymes indicated a selective retention of ω-3 fatty acids in the triglyceride fraction by PLA1 and not by BSL. 13C NMR spectroscopy based position analysis of fatty acids in enzyme treated and untreated samples indicated that PLA1 preferably retained ω-3 fatty acids in oil, while saturated fatty acids were hydrolysed irrespective of their position. Hydrolysis of structured triglyceride,1,3-dioleoyl-2-palmitoylglycerol, suggested that both the enzymes hydrolyse the fatty acids at both the positions. The observed discrimination against ω-3 fatty acids by PLA1 appears to be due to its fatty acid selectivity rather than positional specificity. These studies suggest that PLA1 could be used as a potential enzyme for selective concentrationof ω-3 fatty acids.

  18. Esterification of free fatty acids in biodiesel production with sulphonated pyrolysed carbohydrate catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    carbohydrates. These were prepared by pyrolysis of the carbohydrates in inert atmosphere at 300-450°C in 1-15 h and sulphonation in concentrated or fuming sulphuric acid at 150°C. A monophasic fatty model mixture of lauric acid, tricaprylate and methanol was subsequently treated with the prepared catalysts....... Conversion of free fatty acids to methyl esters were monitored by gas chromatography. Sulphonated pyrolysed sugar or starch showed free fatty acid conversions of about 75% in 1 h and about 95% in 3 h....

  19. DIETARY ADENINE ALLEVIATES FATTY LIVER INDUCED BY OROTIC ACID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanes Buang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of dietary adenine in fatty liver induced by orotic acid (OA were studied. Rats were paired-fed 1% OA-supplemented diets with/or without 0.25% adenine or a diet without OA for 10 days. Serum lipid profiles were measured using enzyme assay kits. Lipids of liver tissues were extracted and liver lipid contents were determined. A peach of liver was prepared to determine the activities of fatty acid synthase (FAS and fatty acid β-oxidation. The results showed that liver TG content of OA-fed rats increased markedly in comparison to basal group.  However, the addition of adenine to the diet reversed promotion of liver TG content to basal level. It was also found that FAS activities decreased. Furthermore, these diets reversed the inhibition of fatty acid β-oxidation to basal level and induced the serum lipid levels secretion. Therefore, the alleviation of fatty liver in OA-treated rats given dietary adenine is associated with the inhibition of FAS activities accompanied with the promotion of mitochondrial fatty acid β-oxidation and the promotion of serum lipid secretion from the hepatic tissue into the bloodstream.

  20. Omega-3 Fatty Acids during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY S HARE W ITH W OMEN OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS DURING PREGNANCY During pregnancy, your ... the foods you eat and vitamins you take. Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3s) are an important ...

  1. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Content in Various Tissues of Different Persian Gulf Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Zibaee Nezhad

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fatty acids of omega-3 family have high nutritional value and can prevent coronary heart disease.These fatty acids are found in various fish and sea foods. To investigate the level of omega-3 fatty acids indifferent kind of fish head, muscle and liver from 30 species of fish collected from Persian Gulf.Material and Methods: In this experimental study, the fish were collected by hunting from Boushehr and Hormozgansea ports. Their head, muscle and liver fatty acids were determined on their methylated fatty acids dissolvedin N-hexin. Quantitative analysis of fatty acids was performed by gas chromatography (GC with methylmyristateused as the reference material in this analysis and the qualitative analysis of fatty acids was done bygas chromatography and mass spectrometer (GC- mass and cod liver oil which contained all of omega-3 fattyacids used as standard.Results: Our study showed that some fish were good sources of omega-3 fatty acids and Trout (Ghezel-ALA,Bartail flathead (Zaminkan-e-domnavari, Malabar blood snapper (Sorkhoo malabari had maximum levels ofomega-3 in all body tissues. Other types of fish were rich in omega 3 fatty acids in separate organs, such as liverin Bartail flathead (Zaminkan-e-domnavari, head in Sillago Sihama (Shoort and muscle in Trout (Ghezel-ALA. In contrast, lesser amount of omega 3 fatty acids is found in tissues of other species of fish such as Silverpomfret (Halva sefid, Longfin trevally (Gish-e-derazbale and Xiphophorus Hellerii (Dom-shamshiri.Conclusion: This research showed that the liver of fish had the highest level of omega-3 fatty acids and fish musclecontained more omega-3 fatty acids than the head. Thus for having maximum levels of omega-3 fatty acids inthe diet, all fish tissues can be served. As liver and head of fish are not usually consumed, it is recommended thatsuch organs be used for preparation of omega 3-containing cardio supportive supplements.

  2. 20 Years of Fatty Acid Analysis by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcone Augusto Leal de Oliveira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A review taking into account the literature reports covering 20 years of fatty acid analysis by capillary electrophoresis is presented. This paper describes the evolution of fatty acid analysis using different CE modes such as capillary zone electrophoresis, non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography and microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography employing different detection systems, such as ultraviolet-visible, capacitively coupled contactless conductivity, laser-induced fluorescence and mass spectrometry. In summary, the present review signals that CE seems to be an interesting analytical separation technique that is very useful for screening analysis or quantification of the usual fatty acids present in different matrices, offering short analysis times and a simple sample preparation step as inherent advantages in comparison with the classical methodology, making it a separation technique that is very attractive for quality control in industry and government agencies.

  3. Traditional food in Serbia: Sources, recipes and fatty acids profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Tamara B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional foods play a major role in traditions of different cultures and regions for thousands of years while preparation methods of traditional foods are part of the folklore of a country or a region. This paper presents recipes and fatty acid profiles of selected commonly consumed traditional foods in Serbia. The obtained fatty acid composition data are used for making conclusions about meals which are commonly consumed in Serbia. Traditional Serbian dairy products, cheese and kajmak, contained 70% SFAs (mostly palmitic acid. Commonly used meal in Serbian cuisine, prebranac, also contained palmitic acid and oleic acid (38.67% and 35.58% respectively, while linoleic acid was presented with 17.34%, similarly to vanilice. Ajvar, frequently used as a salad, is rich in linoleic acid (49.12% but less rich in palmitic acid. Trans fatty acids were found in very small amounts in all foods.

  4. Fatty Acid Structure and Degradation Analysis in Fingerprint Residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleik, Stefanie; Spengler, Bernhard; Schäfer, Thomas; Urbach, Dieter; Luhn, Steven; Kirsch, Dieter

    2016-09-01

    GC-MS investigations were carried out to elucidate the aging behavior of unsaturated fatty acids in fingerprint residues and to identify their degradation products in aged samples. For this purpose, a new sample preparation technique for fingerprint residues was developed that allows producing N-methyl- N-trimethylsilyl-trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) derivatives of the analyzed unsaturated fatty acids and their degradation products. MSTFA derivatization catalyzed by iodotrimethylsilane enables the reliable identification of aldehydes and oxoacids as characteristic MSTFA derivatives in GCMS. The obtained results elucidate the degradation pathway of unsaturated fatty acids. Our study of aged fingerprint residues reveals that decanal is the main degradation product of the observed unsaturated fatty acids. Furthermore, oxoacids with different chain lengths are detected as specific degradation products of the unsaturated fatty acids. The detection of the degradation products and their chain length is a simple and effective method to determine the double bond position in unsaturated compounds. We can show that the hexadecenoic and octadecenoic acids found in fingerprint residues are not the pervasive fatty acids Δ9-hexadecenoic (palmitoleic acid) and Δ9-octadecenoic (oleic acid) acid but Δ6-hexadecenoic acid (sapienic acid) and Δ8-octadecenoic acid. The present study focuses on the structure identification of human sebum-specific unsaturated fatty acids in fingerprint residues based on the identification of their degradation products. These results are discussed for further investigations and method developments for age determination of fingerprints, which is still a tremendous challenge because of several factors affecting the aging behavior of individual compounds in fingerprints.

  5. Esterification of free fatty acids in biodiesel production with sulphonated pyrolysed carbohydrate catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    carbohydrates. These were prepared by pyrolysis of the carbohydrates in inert atmosphere at 300-450°C in 1-15 h and sulphonation in concentrated or fuming sulphuric acid at 150°C. A monophasic fatty model mixture of lauric acid, tricaprylate and methanol was subsequently treated with the prepared catalysts...

  6. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Je Min; Lee, Hyungjae; Kang, SeokBeom; Park, Woo Jung

    2016-01-04

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  7. Fatty Acid Desaturases, Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Regulation, and Biotechnological Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Min Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are considered to be critical nutrients to regulate human health and development, and numerous fatty acid desaturases play key roles in synthesizing PUFAs. Given the lack of delta-12 and -15 desaturases and the low levels of conversion to PUFAs, humans must consume some omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in their diet. Many studies on fatty acid desaturases as well as PUFAs have shown that fatty acid desaturase genes are closely related to different human physiological conditions. Since the first front-end desaturases from cyanobacteria were cloned, numerous desaturase genes have been identified and animals and plants have been genetically engineered to produce PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Recently, a biotechnological approach has been used to develop clinical treatments for human physiological conditions, including cancers and neurogenetic disorders. Thus, understanding the functions and regulation of PUFAs associated with human health and development by using biotechnology may facilitate the engineering of more advanced PUFA production and provide new insights into the complexity of fatty acid metabolism.

  8. Synthesis of glycerides containing n-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid by solvent-free acidolysis of fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, H S; Arcos, J A; Ward, D J; Hill, C G

    2000-12-05

    Menhaden oil, a rich source of n-3 fatty acids, was interesterified with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in a reaction medium composed solely of substrates and either free or immobilized commercial lipase preparations. Of five lipases tested, an immobilized preparation from Mucor miehei provided the fastest rate of incorporation of CLA into fish oil acylglycerols; however, and as observed with most of the lipases utilized, a significant proportion of the n-3 fatty acid residues were liberated in the process. A soluble lipase from Candida rugosa converted free CLA to acylglycerol residues while leaving the n-3 fatty acid residues virtually untouched. Even though the reaction rate was slower for this enzyme than for the other four lipase preparations, the specificity of the free C. rugosa lipase gives it the greatest potential for commercial use in preparing fish oils enriched in CLA residues but still retaining their original n-3 fatty acid residues.

  9. Morphological characteristics, oxidative stability and enzymic hydrolysis of amylose-fatty acid complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinopoulou, Anna; Papastergiadis, Efthimios; Raphaelides, Stylianos N; Kontominas, Michael G

    2016-05-05

    Complexes of amylose with fatty acids varying in carbon chain length and degree of unsaturation were prepared at 30, 50 or 70°C by dissolving amylose in 0.1N KOH and mixing with fatty acid potassium soap solution. The complexes were obtained in solid form as precipitates after neutralization. SEM microscopy revealed that the morphology of the complexes was that of ordered lamellae separated from amorphous regions whereas confocal laser scanning microscopy showed images of the topography of the guest molecules in the complex matrix. FTIR spectroscopy revealed that the absorption peak attributed to carbonyl group of free fatty acid was shifted when the fatty acid was in the form of amylose complex. Thermo-gravimetry showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were effectively protected from oxidation when they were complexed with amylose whereas enzymic hydrolysis experiments showed that the guest molecules were quantitatively released from the amylose complexes.

  10. Characterization of Sorghum and Millet with Special Reference to Fatty Acid and Volatile Profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Farhan Jahangir Chughtai

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum and millet are important food staples in semi-arid tropics of Asia and Africa. Sorghum and millet are cereal grains that have prospective to be used as substitute to wheat flour for celiac patients. These are considered as the good source of many important and essential fatty acids. The volatile profiling of these two important crops is comparable to other cereals as well. The present study was an effort to explore biochemical composition of commercially available sorghum and millet varieties with special reference to their fatty acid and volatile profiling. Chemical composition of sorghum and millet was determined according to respective methods. Fatty acid methyl esters were prepared and then subjected to GC-FID for fatty acids analysis. The results indicated that both sorghum and millet oils are rich in essential fatty acids comprising mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Main fatty acids that are identified in current study includes palmitic acid, oleic acid, palmitoleic acid, behenic acid, linoleic acid, linoleic acid, stearic acid, myristic acid, etc. On the other hand volatile compounds from sorghum and millet were determined by preparing their respective volatile samples by using calvenger apparatus with suitable volatile extracting solvent. Volatile samples were then subjected to GC-MS analysis and respected results were compared with NIST library. About 30 different volatiles were identified in millet varieties while 35 different compounds were discovered in sorghum varieties belonging to aldehydes, ketones, benzene derivatives, esters, alcohols, sulphur compounds.

  11. Quantiifcation of methyl esters of fatty acids in the oil of Physalis minima by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muhammad Nasimullah Qureshi; Fazal Wajid; Inayat-ur-Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate quantification of methyl esters of fatty acids in the oil extracted from Physalis minima (P. minima) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Methods: Oil was extracted from the shade dried plant with n-hexane through Soxhlet extraction. Fatty acids that present in the oil were derivatized to fatty acid methyl esters and analysed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Results:A total of nine fatty acids were detected in quantifiable amount in the oil. Both the saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids were identified. Palmitic acid was found in the highest concentration as 46.83%. Linoleic acid (ω-6) and linolenic acid (ω-3) were obtained in appreciable amount as 16.98%and 14.80%respectively among the unsaturated fatty acids in the oil under study. From the literature review, it appeared that fatty acids were determined for the first time in the oil of P. minima. Conclusions: Presence of these important fatty acids in high amount makes P. minima oil beneficial for health, which can be used in the preparation of phytopharmaceutical or pharmaceutical preparations. Moreover, the results of this study are useful for the phytopharmaceutical industries to establish their quality control profile.

  12. Quantification of methyl esters of fatty acids in the oil of Physalis minima by GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Nasimullah Qureshi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate quantification of methyl esters of fatty acids in the oil extracted from Physalis minima (P. minima using gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Methods: Oil was extracted from the shade dried plant with n-hexane through Soxhlet extraction. Fatty acids that present in the oil were derivatized to fatty acid methyl esters and analysed through gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. Results: A total of nine fatty acids were detected in quantifiable amount in the oil. Both the saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids were identified. Palmitic acid was found in the highest concentration as 46.83%. Linoleic acid (ω-6 and linolenic acid (ω-3 were obtained in appreciable amount as 16.98% and 14.80% respectively among the unsaturated fatty acids in the oil under study. From the literature review, it appeared that fatty acids were determined for the first time in the oil of P. minima. Conclusions: Presence of these important fatty acids in high amount makes P. minima oil beneficial for health, which can be used in the preparation of phytopharmaceutical or pharmaceutical preparations. Moreover, the results of this study are useful for the phytopharmaceutical industries to establish their quality control profile.

  13. Preparation and Properties of Dimeric Fatty Acid/Polyethylene Glycol Polyester Terminated with Rosin Acid%松香酸封端的二聚脂肪酸/聚乙二醇聚酯的合成及性能表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯光炷; 崔英德; 卢奎; 渠海; 李和平

    2006-01-01

    以妥尔油脂肪酸二聚酸为原料,先与聚乙二醇 (PEG 400) 缩聚后得到聚酯,然后再用松香对聚酯封端,制备了松香基聚酯醚型非离子高分子表面活性剂,并对其性能进行了研究.聚酯适宜的制备工艺条件:减压条件下,反应物二聚酸与聚乙二醇的摩尔比为1:1.20,催化剂SnCl2用量为二聚酸质量的 0.30 %,反应温度 200 ℃,反应时间 6 h,酯化率达到 98.11 %.产物的数均相对分子质量(Mn) 6 135,重均相对分子质量(Mw) 7 438,相对分子质量分布系数(Mw/Mn)为1.212且呈好的窄分布状态.正交试验优化后的松香封端反应的条件为:再补加聚酯质量 0.20 % 的催化剂SnCl2,聚酯与松香物质的量之比为1:1.30,反应温度 215 ℃,反应时间 2.8 h,封端率达 62.75 %.红外光谱验证了目标产物的存在.性能研究表明,产物具有很好的钙皂分散力、消泡和抑泡力、乳化性和乳化稳定性.%A new kind of non-ionic polymeric surfactant, the dimeric fatty acid (DFA)/polyethylene glycol (PEG) polyester terminated with rosin acid, was prepared with rosin acid and a polyester which was synthesized from DFA and PEG 400, and its surface activities were studied. The optimum reaction conditions of esterification were as follows: molar ratio of DFA /PEG 400 1:1.20, stannous chloride as the preferable catalyst at amount 0.30 % of DFA, reaction temperature 200 ℃, reaction time 6 h, the conversion can reach 98.11 %. Number-average molecular weight (Mn) of the product is 6 135. Weight-average molecular weight (Mw) of the product is 7 438. The coefficient of distribution of molecular weight (Mw/Mn) is 1.212, which indicates a narrow distribution of molecular weight. Orthogonal experiment results of rosin acid terminated reaction of dimeric fatty acid polyethylene glycol polyester showed that optimum reaction conditions were as follows: molar ratio of materials n(DFA/PEG polyester):n(rosin acid) 1:1.30, dosage of catalyst SnCl2 0.20 % of

  14. Is acetylcarnitine a substrate for fatty acid synthesis in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roughan, G. (Horticulture Research Inst., Auckland (New Zealand)); Post-Beittenmiller, D.; Ohlrogge, J. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States)); Browse, J. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (United States))

    1993-04-01

    Long-chain fatty acid synthesis from [1-[sup 14]C]acetylcarnitine by chloroplasts isolated from spinach (Spinacia oleracea), pea (Pisum sativum), amaranthus (Amaranthus lividus), or maize (Zea mays) occurred at less than 2% of the rate of fatty acid synthesis from [1-[sup 14]C]acetate irrespective of the maturity of the leaves or whether the plastids were purified using sucrose or Percoll medium. [1-[sup 14]C]Acetylcarnitine was not significantly utilized by highly active chloroplasts rapidly prepared from pea and spinach using methods not involving density gradient centrifugation. [1-[sup 14]C]Acetylcarnitine was recovered quantitatively from chloroplast incubations following 10 min in the light. Unlabeled acetyl-L-carnitine (0.4 mM) did not compete with [1-[sup 14]C]acetate (0.2 mM) as a substrate for fatty acid synthesis by any of the more than 70 chloroplast preparations tested in this study. Carnitine acetyltransferase activity was not detected in any chloroplast preparation and was present in whole leaf homogenates at about 0.1% of the level of acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase activity. When supplied to detached pea shoots and detached spinach, amaranthus, and maize leaves via the transpiration stream, 1 to 4% of the [1-[sup 14]C]acetylcarnitine and 47 to 57% of the [1-[sup 14]C]acetate taken up was incorporated into lipids. Most (78--82%) of the [1-[sup 14]C]acetylcarnitine taken up was recovered intact. It is concluded that acetylcarnitine is not a major precursor for fatty acid synthesis in plants. 29 refs., 5 tabs.

  15. 棉籽油与棕榈硬脂化学酯交换法制备零反式脂肪酸起酥油的研究%Chemical transesterification of cottonseed oil and palm stearin for preparation of zero trans fatty acids shortening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王辉; 唐年初; 赵晨伟

    2014-01-01

    The transesterification of palm stearin and cottonseed oil catalyzed by sodium methylate was studied. The effects of reaction temperature, catalyst dosage and reaction time on the solid fat content ( SFC) at 20℃ of the transesterification product were investigated. The optimal transesterification condi-tions were determined as follows:reaction temperature 90℃,catalyst dosage 0. 5%,reaction time 60 min. Moreover,the SFC of the transesterification product was compared with commercial baking shortening Quantong butter and its crystal form was analyzed. The result showed that the transesterification product prepared by palm stearin and cottonseed oil with mass ratio 1∶1 had similar SFC with the commercial bak-ing shortening Quantong butter, zero trans fatty acids and β′ crystal form, which was suitable for being used as baking shortening.%通过研究甲醇钠催化棕榈硬脂和棉籽油酯交换反应,以酯交换产物在20℃条件下固体脂肪含量( SFC)为指标,考察了反应温度、催化剂用量、反应时间对酯交换反应的影响。确定的最佳酯交换条件为:反应温度90℃,催化剂用量0.5%,反应时间60 min。通过酯交换产物SFC与市售焙烤型起酥油全统酥油SFC比较以及晶型分析,得出棕榈硬脂与棉籽油质量比为1∶1的酯交换产物,其SFC与市售焙烤起酥油全统酥油相似,结晶形态为β′型,且不含反式脂肪酸,符合零反式脂肪酸起酥油性质要求,适宜用作焙烤起酥油。

  16. Liver cirrhosis and fatty liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008075 Effect of Jiangzhi granules on expression of leptin receptor mRNA, P-JAK2 and P-STAT3 in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. MA Zansong(马赞颂), et al. Dept Gastroenterol, Instit Spleen and Stomach Dis, Longhua Hosp. Shanghai TCM Univ, Shanghai 200032.World Chin J Digestol 2007;15(32):3360-3366. Objective To study the effect of Jiangzhi granules on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in rats, and on the expression of

  17. Differentiating fatty and non-fatty tissue using photoacoustic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Leo; Rohling, Robert; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Salcudean, Septimiu; Tang, Shuo

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a temporal-domain intensity-based photoacoustic imaging method that can differentiate between fatty and non-fatty tissues. PA pressure intensity is partly dependent on the tissue's speed of sound, which increases as temperature increases in non-fatty tissue and decreases in fatty tissue. Therefore, by introducing a temperature change in the tissue and subsequently monitoring the change of the PA intensity, it is possible to distinguish between the two types of tissue. A commercial ultrasound system with a 128-element 5-14 MHz linear array transducer and a tunable ND:YAG laser were used to produce PA images. Ex-vivo bovine fat and porcine liver tissues were precooled to below 10°C and then warmed to room-temperature over ~1 hour period. A thermocouple monitored the temperature rise while PA images were acquired at 0.5°C intervals. The averaged intensity of the illuminated tissue region at each temperature interval was plotted and linearly fitted. Liver samples showed a mean increase of 2.82 %/°C, whereas bovine fat had a mean decrease of 6.24 %/°C. These results demonstrate that this method has the potential to perform tissue differentiation in the temporal-domain.

  18. Expression of fatty acid synthase in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Christoph; Riener, Marc-Oliver; Kirovski, Georgi; Saugspier, Michael; Steib, Kathrin; Weiss, Thomas S; Gäbele, Erwin; Kristiansen, Glen; Hartmann, Arndt; Hellerbrand, Claus

    2010-03-25

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic lipid accumulation which starts with simple hepatic steatosis and may progress toward inflammation (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis [NASH]). Fatty acid synthase (FASN) catalyzes the last step in fatty acid biosynthesis, and thus, it is believed to be a major determinant of the maximal hepatic capacity to generate fatty acids by de novo lipogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze the correlation between hepatic steatosis and inflammation with FASN expression. In vitro incubation of primary human hepatocytes with fatty acids dose-dependently induced cellular lipid-accumulation and FASN expression, while stimulation with TNF did not affect FASN levels. Further, hepatic FASN expression was significantly increased in vivo in a murine model of hepatic steatosis without significant inflammation but not in a murine NASH model as compared to control mice. Also, FASN expression was not increased in mice subjected to bile duct ligation, an experimental model characterized by severe hepatocellular damage and inflammation. Furthermore, FASN expression was analyzed in 102 human control or NAFLD livers applying tissue micro array technology and immunohistochemistry, and correlated significantly with the degree of hepatic steatosis, but not with inflammation or ballooning of hepatocytes. Quantification of FASN mRNA expression in human liver samples confirmed significantly higher FASN levels in hepatic steatosis but not in NASH, and expression of SREBP1, which is the main transcriptional regulator of FASN, paralleled FASN expression levels in human and experimental NAFLD. In conclusion, the transcriptional induction of FASN expression in hepatic steatosis is impaired in NASH, while hepatic inflammation in the absence of steatosis does not affect FASN expression, suggesting that FASN may serve as a new diagnostic marker or therapeutic target for the progression of NAFLD.

  19. Enzymatic esterification of tapioca maltodextrin fatty acid ester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomrati, Sunsanee; Gohtani, Shoichi

    2014-01-01

    In this work new types of hydrophobically modified maltodextrin were prepared by enzyme-catalyzed reaction of maltodextrin and three fatty acids: decanoic acid (C-10), lauric acid (C-12) and palmitic acid (C-16). Lipase obtained from Thermomyces lanuginosus was found to be a useful biocatalyst in the maltodextrin esterification. Esterified maltodextrin with a degree of substitution (DS) 0.015-0.084 was prepared at the optimum conditions of 60 °C for 4 h. The DS was found to be at its highest when maltodextrin and fatty acids were taken in the ratio 1:0.5. The functional properties of these esterified maltodextrin were investigated. All esterified maltodextrin did not completely dissolve in water. Esterified maltodextrin at a concentration of 25% (w/w) exhibited Newtonian flow behavior similar to that of native maltodextrin. Esterified maltodextrin had a higher viscosity compare to native maltodextrin. X-ray diffraction pattern of esterified maltodextrin indicated crystallization of the fatty acid side chains. The thermal stability of esterified maltodextrin was checked by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Esterified maltodextrin was then used as an emulsifier to make n-hexadecane O/W emulsions. The emulsions were characterized according to their oil droplet characteristics and emulsification index.

  20. 40 CFR 721.3720 - Fatty amide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty amide. 721.3720 Section 721.3720... Fatty amide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a fatty amide (PMN P-91-87) is subject to reporting under this...

  1. Maastricht essential fatty acid birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wurff, Inge; De Groot, Renate; Stratakis, Nikos; Gielen, Marij; Hornstra, Gerard; Zeegers, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    The Maastricht Essential Fatty Acid Birth cohort (MEFAB) was established in 1989 to study the changes in fatty acid concentration during pregnancy and how this related to the fatty acid concentrations of the neonate. The original sample contains data of 1203 subjects. Some participants whom particip

  2. Acute fatty liver in pregnancy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, A.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Peters, W.H.M.; Steegers, E.A.P.

    2002-01-01

    When confronted with liver abnormalities during the third trimester of pregnancy, one should consider acute fatty liver of pregnancy. The differential diagnosis with (pre-)eclampsia and HELLP syndrome is sometimes difficult. In these cases a liver biopsy is helpful though rarely performed during pre

  3. Surface plasmon resonance-enhanced fluorescence implementation of a single-step competition assay: demonstration of fatty acid measurement using an anti-fatty acid monoclonal antibody and a Cy5-labeled fatty acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vareiro, Margarida M L M; Tranchant, Isabelle; Maplin, Sandra; Zak, Kris; Gani, M M; Slevin, Christopher J; Hailes, Helen C; Tabor, Alethea B; Cameron, Petra J; Jenkins, A Toby A; Williams, David E

    2008-06-15

    The development of a single-step, separation-free method for measurement of low concentrations of fatty acid using a surface plasmon resonance-enhanced fluorescence competition assay with a surface-bound antibody is described. The assay behavior was unexpectedly complex. A nonlinear coverage-dependent self-quenching of emission from surface-bound fluorescent label was deduced from the response kinetics and attributed to a surface plasmon-mediated energy transfer between adsorbed fluorophores, modified by the effects of plasmon interference. Principles of assay design to avoid complications from such effects are discussed. An anti-fatty acid mouse monoclonal antibody reacting to the alkyl chain was prepared and supported on a gold chip at a spacing appropriate for surface-plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy (SPEFS), by applying successively a self-assembled biotinylated monolayer, then streptavidin, then biotinylated protein A, and then the antibody, which was crosslinked to the protein A. Synthesis of a fluorescently (Cy5) tagged C-11 fatty acid is reported. SPEFS was used to follow the kinetics of the binding of the labeled fatty acid to the antibody, and to implement a competition assay with free fatty acid (undecanoic acid), sensitive at the 1 microM scale, a sensitivity limit caused by the low affinity of antibodies for free fatty acids, rather than the SPEFS technique itself. Free fatty acid concentration in human serum is in the range 0.1-1mM, suggesting that this measurement approach could be applied in a clinical diagnostic context. Finally, a predictive, theoretical model of fatty acid binding was developed that accounted for the observed "overshoot" kinetics.

  4. Maximized PUFA measurements improve insight in changes in fatty acid composition in response to temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dooremalen, Coby; Pel, Roel; Ellers, Jacintha

    2009-10-01

    A general mechanism underlying the response of ectotherms to environmental changes often involves changes in fatty acid composition. Theory predicts that a decrease in temperature causes an increase in unsaturation of fatty acids, with an important role for long-chain poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). However, PUFAs are particularly unstable and susceptible to peroxidation, hence subtle differences in fatty acid composition can be challenging to detect. We determined the fatty acid composition in springtail (Collembola) in response to two temperatures (5 degrees C and 25 degrees C). First, we tested different sample preparation methods to maximize PUFAs. Treatments consisted of different solvents for primary lipid extraction, mixing with antioxidant, flushing with inert gas, and using different temperature exposures during saponification. Especially slow saponification at low temperature (90 min at 70 degrees C) in combination with replacement of headspace air with nitrogen during saponification and methylation maximized PUFAs for GC analysis. Applying these methods to measure thermal responses in fatty acid composition, the data showed that the (maximized) proportion of C(20) PUFAs increased at low acclimation temperature. However, C(18) PUFAs increased at high acclimation temperature, which is contrary to expectations. Our study illustrates that PUFA levels in lipids may often be underestimated and this may hamper a correct interpretation of differential responses of fatty acid composition.

  5. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoto, Lawrence; Vreuls, Rene J. J.; Irth, Hubertus; Pel, Roel; Stellaard, Frans

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) has in recent times become an important tool for the fatty acid profiling of human blood and plasma. An at-line procedure used in the fatty acid profiling of whole/intact aquatic micro-organisms without any sample preparation was adapted for this work. A direct thermal

  6. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoto, L.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Irth, H.; Pel, R.; Stellaard, F.

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) has in recent times become an important tool for the fatty acid profiling of human blood and plasma. An at-line procedure used in the fatty acid profiling of whole/intact aquatic micro-organisms without any sample preparation was adapted for this work. A direct thermal

  7. Enzymatic synthesis of fatty amides from palm olein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mulla, Emad A Jaffar; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa Bt; Rahman, Mohd Zaki A

    2010-01-01

    Fatty amides have been successfully synthesized from palm olein and urea by a one-step lipase catalyzed reaction. The use of immobilized lipase as the catalyst for the preparation reaction provides an easy isolation of the enzyme from the products and other components in the reaction mixture. The fatty amides were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) technique and elemental analysis. The highest conversion percentage (96%) was obtained when the process was carried out for 36 hours using urea to palm oil ratio of 5.2: 1.0 at 40 degrees C. The method employed offers several advantages such as renewable and abundant of the raw material, simple reaction procedure, environmentally friendly process and high yield of the product.

  8. Is a fatty pancreas a banal lesion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Smereczyński

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available So far, a fatty pancreas has been related to obesity and the ageing processes in the body. The current list of pathogenetic factors of the condition is clearly extended with genetically conditioned diseases (cystic fibrosis, Shwachman-Diamond syndrome and Johanson-Blizzard syndrome, pancreatitis, especially hereditary and obstructive, metabolic and hormonal disorders (hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperinsulinemia and hypercortisolemia, alcohol overuse, taking some medicines (especially adrenal cortex hormones, disease of the liver and visceral adiposis. As regards lipomatosis of that organ resulting mainly from dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia, the term “nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease” was introduced. Experimental studies on animals and histological preparations of the pancreatic fragments show that the lipotoxicity of the collected adipocytes collected ion the organ release a cascade of proinflammatory phenomena, and even induces the processes of carcinogenesis. Pancreas adiposis is best defined in Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging. However, a series of works proved the usefulness in the diagnostics of that pathology of transabdominal and endoscopic ultrasonography. In that method, the degree of adiposis was based on the comparison of echogenicity of the pancreas and the liver, renal parenchyma, spleen and/or retroperitoneal adipose. Recently, the evaluation was expanded by the evaluation of the degree of pancreatic adipose with the pancreas-to-liver index, utilizing to that end a special computer program. According to our experience, the simplest solution is the method utilized by us. On one crosssection of the body of the pancreas, its echogenicity is assessed in comparison to retroperitoneal adipose and the visibility of the splenic vein, pancreatic duct and the major retroperitoneal vessels. Depending on the visualization of these structures, it is possible to determine the degree of pancreas adiposis

  9. Essential fatty acids and lipid mediators. Endocannabinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Caramia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1929 Burr and Burr discovered the essential fatty acids omega-6 and omega-3. Since then, researchers have shown a growing interest in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA as precursors of “lipid mediator” molecules, often with opposing effects, prostaglandins, prostacyclins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes, lipossines, resolvines, protectines, maresins that regulate immunity, platelet aggregation, inflammation, etc. They showed that the balance between omega-3 and omega-6 acids has a profound influence on all the body’s inflammatory responses and a raised level of PUFA omega-3 in tissue correlate with a reduced incidence of degenerative cardiovascular disease, some mental illnesses such as depression, and neuro-degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s. The CYP-catalyzed epoxidation and hydroxylation of arachidonic acid (AA were established recently as the so-called third branch of AGE cascade. Cytochrome P450 (CYP epoxygenases convert AA to four epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET regioisomers, that produce vascular relaxation anti-inflammatory effects on blood vessels and in the kidney, promote angiogenesis, and protect ischemic myocardium and brain. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are accessible to CYP enzymes in the same way as AA. Metabolites derived from EPA include epoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (EETR and hydroxyeicosapentaenoic acids (19- and 20-HEPE, whereas DHA include epoxydocosapentaenoic acids (EDPs hydroxydocosahexaenoic acids (21- and 22-HDoHE. For many of the CYP isoforms, the n-3 PUFAs are the preferred substrates and the available data suggest that some of the vasculo- and cardioprotective effects attributed to dietary n-3 PUFAs may be mediated by CYP-dependent metabolites of EPA and DHA. From AA derives also endocannabinoids like anandamide (N-arachidonoylethanolamine and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, capable of mimicking the pharmacological actions of the active principle of Cannabis sativa preparations such as

  10. Microencapsulation of coco fatty acid mixture for thermal energy storage with phase change material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozonur, Y.; Mazman, M.; Paksoy, H.O.; Evilya, H. [Cukurova University, Adana (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2005-07-01

    Thermal energy storage systems provide several alternatives for efficient energy use and energy conservation. Microcapsules of natural coco fatty acid mixture were prepared to be used as phase change materials for thermal energy storage. The coacervation technique was used for the microencapsulation process. Several alternatives for the capsule wall material were tried. The microcapsules were characterized according to their geometric profiles, phase transition temperatures, mean particle sizes, chemical stabilities, and their thermal cycling. The diameters of microcapsules prepared in this study were about 1 mm. Coco fatty acid mixtures have kept their geometrical profiles even after 50 thermal cycles for melting and freezing operations in temperature range from 22 to 34{sup o}C. It was found that gelatin+gum Arabic mixture was the best wall material for microencapsulating coco fatty acid mixtures. (author)

  11. Enhanced bioavailability of EPA from emulsified fish oil preparations versus capsular triacylglycerol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pre-emulsified fish oil supplements, an alternative to capsular triacylglycerol, may enhance the uptake of LCn3 fatty acids it contains. A randomized, Latin-square crossover design was used to compare the effects of four fish oil supplement preparations on phospholipid (PLFA) and chylomicron fatty ...

  12. A New Method for Preparation and Characterization of Lipo-alkaloid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yong; XU Qing-xuan; SONG Feng-rui; LIU Zhi-qiang; LIU Shu-ying

    2004-01-01

    A simple route for the preparation of lipo-alkaloid is presented. When aconitine or one of its analogues is heated with a fatty acid for 20 min at 100 ℃ in water, the C8 acetyl group of aconitine is displaced by a long chain fatty acyl group. The structures of the products were characterized by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

  13. Preparation and Thermal Properties of Fatty Acid/Inorganic Nano-particle Form-Stable Phase Change Material%脂肪酸/无机纳米颗粒基定形相变材料的制备与热性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟多; 王立久

    2013-01-01

    以工业水玻璃为纳米SiO2前驱物,以癸酸(CA)和月桂酸(LA)二元低共熔酸为相变芯材,在表面活性剂的参与下,采用溶胶-凝胶法一步制备出纳米级复合定形相变蓄热材料.利用透射电子显微镜,扫描电子显微镜,傅里叶红外光谱仪,方差扫描量热法和热重分析等测试技术对此定形相变蓄热材料的结构和性能进行分析,并采用瞬态热线法测量了其导热系数.结果表明:相变芯材在吸热熔化后不会产生流动和渗漏;复合相变材料中脂肪酸含量(质量分数)为46%,具有良好的相变蓄热性能(相变温度19.57℃,相变潜热71.28 J/g)和热稳定性;复合相变材料导热系数为0.178 W/(m·K),可作为一种良好的隔热、保温建筑材料.%A kind of form-stable phase change material (PCM) based on capric-lauric acid eutectic acting as the heat-absorbing material and nano silicon dioxide serving as the supportive material was prepared by sol-gel method. The morphology, chemical characteristics and thermal properties of the composite PCM were investigated by transmission electron microscopy(TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results indicate that fatty acid eutectic can be immobilized in the three-dimensional network structure when the composite PCM is heated to above the phase change temperature. The proportion of the CA-LA eutectic in the composite PCM is 46%(by mass). The phase change temperature and latent heat of the composite PCM were determined as 19. 57 °C and 71. 28 J/g, respectively. Mean-while, thermal conductivity of the composite was measured to be 0. 178 W/(m · K) by using the transient hot-wire method. Thus it can be applied for energy conservation as the thermal insulation material.

  14. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Ameer Y; Burnham, W McIntyre; Auvin, Stéphane

    2010-08-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are dietary fatty acids that are involved in a myriad of physiologic processes in the brain. There is some evidence suggesting that PUFAs-and particularly omega-3 PUFAs-may have anticonvulsant effects, both in humans and in animals. In the present review, we assess the evidence related to the antiseizure properties of the n-3 PUFAs, discuss their possible mechanism(s) of action, and make recommendations for future clinical trials. In general, the available data from cell cultures and whole animal studies support the idea that the n-3 PUFAs have antiseizure properties. Future clinical trials involving the n-3 PUFAs should involve higher doses and longer periods of administration in order to definitively assess their possible antiseizure effects.

  15. The effects of cyclodextrins on drug release from fatty suppository bases : III. Application of cyclodextrin derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijlink, H.W.; Paiotti, S.; Eissens, Anko; Lerk, C.F.

    1992-01-01

    The complexation of both n-butyl-4-aminobenzoate and diazepam with dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin, respectively, was studied. Solid complexes were prepared by freeze-drying. The complexes were incorporated in fatty suppositories and drug release was studied, both in v

  16. Coriander Seed Oil Methyl Esters as Biodiesel Fuel: Unique Fatty Acid Composition and Excellent Oxidative Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) seed oil methyl esters were prepared and evaluated as an alternative biodiesel fuel and contained an unusual fatty acid (FA) hitherto unreported as the principle component in biodiesel fuels: petroselinic (6Z-octadecenoic; 68.5 wt %) acid. Most of the remaining FA...

  17. The effects of cyclodextrins on drug release from fatty suppository bases : III. Application of cyclodextrin derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijlink, H.W.; Paiotti, S.; Eissens, Anko; Lerk, C.F.

    1992-01-01

    The complexation of both n-butyl-4-aminobenzoate and diazepam with dimethyl-beta-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin, respectively, was studied. Solid complexes were prepared by freeze-drying. The complexes were incorporated in fatty suppositories and drug release was studied, both in

  18. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sadeghian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is increasing in pediatric age group parallel to the growing prevalence of obesity and overweight all around the world. So changing in life style and   interventions on obesogenic environment is cornerstone of NAFLD therapy in obese children. Some experts recommend that children and adolescents be encouraged to follow a low-fat, low-glycemic-index diet that includes eating a minimum of 5 servings of vegetables and fruits daily, engaging in physical activity for at least 1 hour daily, and minimizing television/computer time to 2 hours daily.  In spite of effectiveness of weight loss and exercise in improvement NAFLD, this goal is very difficult to be achieved and pharmacological approaches have become necessary. Pharmacologic therapies against one or more specific factors and/or molecules involved in the development of NAFLD (i.e., insulin resistance, free fatty acid lipid toxicity, and oxidative stress also might slow the progression of NAFLD to NASH or cirrhosis.  On this basis, insulin sensitizers, antioxidants, cytoprotective agents, and dietary supplementations have been evaluated in pediatric clinical trials but there is no approved pharmacologic therapy for NAFLD or NASH. Not all obese children affected by NAFLD. Diet modification and regular exercise beside to serial medical follow up highly suggested for this group of children. Normal weight and thin children with NAFLD or NASH should be investigated appropriately in a logical manner based on causes of primary liver steatosis in children and treatment of underlying disease can cause improvement fatty liver in these patients.   Keywords: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis; Children; Steatosis; Treatment

  19. New backing layer for transdermal drug delivery systems: coatings based on fatty acid and beeswax on chitosan films

    OpenAIRE

    Rullier-Birat, Bénédicte; Cazalbou, Sophie; Nassar, Maria Alejandra; Sandrine, Cavalie; Tourrette, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    International audience; Fatty acids and beeswax are known to improve barrier properties of biodegradable materials. Thanks to their hydrophobic character, they can act as a barrier against water giving to the material more occlusive properties. This work was aimed at preparing fatty acid and beeswax coatings for a transdermal drug delivery system. In order to study occlusive properties of these coatings, water vapor permeability and contact angle measurements were carried out. The most homoge...

  20. Aspirin increases mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppala, Radha; Dudiak, Brianne; Beck, Megan E; Bharathi, Sivakama S; Zhang, Yuxun; Stolz, Donna B; Goetzman, Eric S

    2017-01-08

    The metabolic effects of salicylates are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of aspirin on fatty acid oxidation. Aspirin increased mitochondrial long-chain fatty acid oxidation, but inhibited peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, in two different cell lines. Aspirin increased mitochondrial protein acetylation and was found to be a stronger acetylating agent in vitro than acetyl-CoA. However, aspirin-induced acetylation did not alter the activity of fatty acid oxidation proteins, and knocking out the mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 did not affect the induction of long-chain fatty acid oxidation by aspirin. Aspirin did not change oxidation of medium-chain fatty acids, which can freely traverse the mitochondrial membrane. Together, these data indicate that aspirin does not directly alter mitochondrial matrix fatty acid oxidation enzymes, but most likely exerts its effects at the level of long-chain fatty acid transport into mitochondria. The drive on mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation may be a compensatory response to altered mitochondrial morphology and inhibited electron transport chain function, both of which were observed after 24 h incubation of cells with aspirin. These studies provide insight into the pathophysiology of Reye Syndrome, which is known to be triggered by aspirin ingestion in patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Solution preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results.

  2. Differentiating prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters (P-OM3) from dietary-supplement omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunton, Stephen; Collins, Nancy

    2007-05-01

    A reliable means of treating hyper-triglyceridemia is the use of large doses of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Modest levels of EPA and DHA may be obtained from food, particularly fatty fish. This article is intended to review clinically relevant differences between dietary-supplement omega-3 fatty acids and prescription omega-3-acid ethyl esters (P-OM3). PubMed and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Website were searched for articles published between 1995 and 2007 that contained the terms fish oil, fatty acids, n-3 fatty acids, omega fatty acids, docosahexaenoic acid, or eicosapentaenoic acid. Articles discussing sources, recommended intake, and differences among various formulations of omega-3 fatty acids were selected for review. A limitation to this review is the lack of head-to-head clinical trials using P-OM3 and dietary-supplement omega-3 fatty acids. Many types of nonprescription dietary supplements of omega-3 fatty acids are available; however, the efficacy, quality, and safety of these products are open to question because they are not regulated by the same standards as pharmaceutical agents. P-OM3 is the only omega-3 fatty acid product (Omacor capsules) approved by the US FDA available in the United States as an adjunct to diet to reduce very high (> or = 500 mg/dL) triglyceride levels in adult patients. P-OM3 can be used with confidence by practitioners who want to provide therapeutic doses of omega-3 fatty acids in a preparation that has been documented to be both safe and effective.

  3. Tebuconazole Regulates Fatty Acid Composition of Etiolated Winter Wheat Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Korsukova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid composition of shoots of unhardened and hardened to cold etiolated winter wheat seedlings grown from seeds treated with tebuconazole-based protectant «Bunker» (content of tebuconazole 60 grams per liter, g/L, and the seedlings frost resistance has been studied. It is shown that treatment of winter wheat seeds by «Bunker» preparation (1,5 microliter per gram of seeds, µl/g is accompanied by an increase of the fatty acids unsaturation in the shoots and increase of the seedlings frost resistance (–8°C, 24 h. The most pronounced decrease in the content of saturated palmitic acid and increase in the content of unsaturated α-linolenic acid were observed during cold hardening of winter wheat seedlings grown from seeds treated by tebuconazole-based protectant. It is concluded that the seeds treatment with tebuconazole-based protectant causes changes of fatty acid composition of winter wheat seedlings to increase their frost resistance.

  4. Synthesis and properties of fatty acid starch esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Henning; Vorwerg, Waltraud; Wetzel, Hendrik

    2013-10-15

    Being completely bio-based, fatty acid starch esters (FASEs) are attractive materials that represent an alternative to crude oil-based plastics. In this study, two synthesis methods were compared in terms of their efficiency, toxicity and, especially, product solubility with starch laurate (C12) as model compound. Laurates (DS>2) were obtained through transesterification of fatty acid vinylesters in DMSO or reaction with fatty acid chlorides in pyridine. The latter lead to higher DS-values in a shorter reaction time. But due to the much better solubility of the products compared to lauroyl chloride esterified ones, vinylester-transesterification was preferred to optimize reaction parameters, where reaction time could be shortened to 2h. FASEs C6-C18 were also successfully prepared via transesterification. To determine the DS of the resulting starch laurates, the efficient ATR-IR method was compared with common methods (elementary analysis, (1)H NMR). Molar masses (Mw) of the highly soluble starch laurates were analyzed using SEC-MALLS (THF). High recovery rates (>80%) attest to the outstanding solubility of products obtained through transesterification, caused by a slight disintegration during synthesis. Particle size distributions (DLS) demonstrated stable dissolutions in CHCl3 of vinyl laurate esterified - contrary to lauroyl chloride esterified starch. For all highly soluble FASEs (C6-C18), formation of concentrated solutions (10 wt%) is feasible. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Electrogenicity of hepatocellular fatty acid uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsing, C; Kassner, A; Gajdzik, L; Graf, J; Stremmel, W

    1998-08-18

    Sensitivity of cellular fatty acids uptake to the membrane potential difference is still a matter of controversy. For direct evaluation of potential sensitivity the effect of changing membrane potential on uptake of a fluorescent long chain fatty acid derivative, 12-NBD-stearate, in isolated rat hepatocytes, was examined. Changes in membrane potential were achieved by patch clamp procedures. Fatty acid influx was simultaneously determined by recording of cell fluorescence. Hyperpolarization from -30 to -70 mV accelerated fatty acid influx whereas depolarization to +50 mV reduced uptake. After obtaining equilibrium hyperpolarization increased cell fluorescence, whereas depolarization pushed NBD-stearate out of cells. Potential sensitivity of uptake was dependent on the fatty acid concentrations in the medium with most prominent effects at low unbound concentrations. These data show that, at low fatty acid concentrations, uptake is, in part, driven by an intracellular negative electric membrane potential.

  6. Texture of butter from cows with different milk fatty acid compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobe, G; Hammond, E G; Freeman, A E; Lindberg, G L; Beitz, D C

    2003-10-01

    Milk fatty acid composition and textural properties of butter are known to be affected by the cows' diets. We examined the phenotypic variation in milk fatty acid composition among cows fed the same diet to see if the variation was sufficient to produce butter with different textural properties. Ten cows were selected that tested higher (n = 5) or lower (n = 5) in their proportion of milk unsaturated fatty acids. Milk samples were collected a week after testing, and butter was prepared from the individual samples. Milk and butter samples were again analyzed for fatty acid composition. Butter at 5 degrees C was evaluated by a sensory panel for spreadability and by a texture analyzer at both 5 and 23 degrees C for hardness and adhesiveness. Milk and butter samples from cows with a more unsaturated milk fatty acid composition had a lower atherogenic index, and the butter samples were more spreadable, softer, and less adhesive. Thus, phenotypic variation in milk fatty acid composition among cows fed the same diet is sufficient to produce butter with different textural properties.

  7. Fatty acid content of selected seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Ilkay; Sener, Bilge

    2002-01-01

    Fatty acid content of selected seed oils from world-wide edible fruits, Ceratonia ciliqua (carob) from Caesalpiniaceae family, Diospyros kaki (persimmon) from Ebenaceae family, Zizyphus jujuba (jujube) from Rhamnaceae family, and Persea gratissima (avocado pear) from Lauraceae family, were determined by capillary gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to find new natural sources for essential fatty acids. Among the seed oils analyzed, Ceratonia ciliqua has been found to have the highest essential fatty acid content.

  8. Pathophysiology of Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petta, Salvatore; Gastaldelli, Amalia; Rebelos, Eleni; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Messa, Piergiorgio; Miele, Luca; Svegliati-Baroni, Gianluca; Valenti, Luca; Bonino, Ferruccio

    2016-01-01

    The physiopathology of fatty liver and metabolic syndrome are influenced by diet, life style and inflammation, which have a major impact on the severity of the clinicopathologic outcome of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. A short comprehensive review is provided on current knowledge of the pathophysiological interplay among major circulating effectors/mediators of fatty liver, such as circulating lipids, mediators released by adipose, muscle and liver tissues and pancreatic and gut hormones in relation to diet, exercise and inflammation. PMID:27973438

  9. Fatty Acids in Veterinary Medicine and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rutland, Catrin S.; Mostyn, Alison; Simpson, Siobhan

    2017-01-01

    Fatty acid regulation is an essential process for all animals. A number of studies have shown that diet affects the levels/availability of fatty acids in the body but increasingly evidence shows that disease states can alter the amounts within the body too. Fatty acid levels and availability have been altered by a number of diseases, disorders and reactions including inflammatory responses, heart disease and heart failure and wound repair. They are also essential during the growth and develop...

  10. Docosahexaenoic acid content is significantly higher in ghrita prepared by traditional Ayurvedic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpana S Joshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ghee (clarified butter also known as ghrita, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda. Ghee is mostly prepared by traditional method in Indian households or by direct cream method at industry level. Ayurvedic classics mention that ghrita made from cow milk is superior. However, there is no scientific comparison available on preparation methods and essential fatty acids content of ghrita. Objective: To investigate fatty acid composition of ghrita prepared by traditional/Ayurvedic method and commercial method (direct cream method. Materials and Methods: Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME extracted from ghrita samples were analysed on Gas Chromatography (GC Shimadzu B using capillary column BPX70 (0.32 mmFNx0160 m, ID of 0.25 mm. The fatty acids in the samples were identified by comparing peaks with the external standard 68A (Nu-Chek-Prep, Inc.USA. Significant differences between the experimental groups were assessed by analysis of variance. Results: Distribution of fatty acids was compared in ghrita samples prepared by traditional method and direct cream method which is commercially used. Saturated fatty acids were predominant in both the groups. Mono unsaturated fatty acids and poly unsaturated fatty acids were in the range of 17-18% and 3-6% respectively. DHA content was significantly higher in ghee prepared by traditional method using curd starter fermentation. Conclusion: The findings suggested that ghrita prepared by traditional ayurvedic methods contains higher amount of DHA; Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which is a major component of retinal and brain tissues and remains important in prevention of various diseases.

  11. delta 13C analyses of vegetable oil fatty acid components, determined by gas chromatography--combustion--isotope ratio mass spectrometry, after saponification or regiospecific hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, S E; Evershed, R P; Rossell, J B

    1998-05-01

    The delta 13C values of the major fatty acids of several different commercially important vegetable oils were measured by gas chromatography--combustion--isotope ratio mass spectrometry. The delta 13C values obtained were found to fall into two distinct groups, representing the C3 and C4 plants classes from which the oils were derived. The delta 13C values of the oils were measured by continuous flow elemental isotope ratio mass spectrometry and were found to be similar to their fatty acids, with slight differences between individual fatty acids. Investigations were then made into the influence on the delta 13C values of fatty acids of the position occupied on the glycerol backbone. Pancreatic lipase was employed to selectively hydrolyse fatty acids from the 1- and 3-positions with the progress of the reaction being followed by high-temperature gas chromatography in order to determine the optimum incubation time. The 2-monoacylglycerols were then isolated by thin-layer chromatography and fatty acid methyl esters prepared. The delta 13C values obtained indicate that fatty acids from any position on the glycerol backbone are isotopically identical. Thus, whilst quantification of fatty acid composition at the 2-position and measurement of delta 13C values of oils and their major fatty acids are useful criteria in edible oil purity assessment, measurement of delta 13C values of fatty acids from the 2-position does not assist with oil purity assignments.

  12. Solution Structure and Backbone Dynamics of Human Liver Fatty Acid Binding Protein: Fatty Acid Binding Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Jun; Lücke, Christian; Chen, Zhongjing; Qiao, Ye; Klimtchuk, Elena; Hamilton, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP), a cytosolic protein most abundant in liver, is associated with intracellular transport of fatty acids, nuclear signaling, and regulation of intracellular lipolysis. Among the members of the intracellular lipid binding protein family, L-FABP is of particular interest as it can i), bind two fatty acid molecules simultaneously and ii), accommodate a variety of bulkier physiological ligands such as bilirubin and fatty acyl CoA. To better understand the p...

  13. Veal fatty acid composition of different breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivica Kos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Veal fatty acid composition in M. Longissimus thoracis was investigated in different calf breeds (Simmental, Holstein, Simmental x Holstein. Calves were reared on the same farm under identical feeding and handling conditions. Simmental calves had higher polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA but lower saturated fatty acid (SFA and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA values than Holstein and crossbreed calves (P<0,05. The PUFA/SFA ratio was the highest in Simmental calves and the lowest in Holstein calves. Simmental calves also had the highest n-6/n-3 ratio while the crossbreed calves had the lowest n-6/n-3 ratio.

  14. Saturated fatty acids activate TLR-mediated proinflammatory signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shurong; Rutkowsky, Jennifer M; Snodgrass, Ryan G; Ono-Moore, Kikumi D; Schneider, Dina A; Newman, John W; Adams, Sean H; Hwang, Daniel H

    2012-09-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TLR2 were shown to be activated by saturated fatty acids (SFAs) but inhibited by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). However, one report suggested that SFA-induced TLR activation in cell culture systems is due to contaminants in BSA used for solubilizing fatty acids. This report raised doubt about proinflammatory effects of SFAs. Our studies herein demonstrate that sodium palmitate (C16:0) or laurate (C12:0) without BSA solubilization induced phosphorylation of inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB α, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p44/42 mitogen-activated-kinase (ERK), and nuclear factor-κB subunit p65, and TLR target gene expression in THP1 monocytes or RAW264.7 macrophages, respectively, when cultured in low FBS (0.25%) medium. C12:0 induced NFκB activation through TLR2 dimerized with TLR1 or TLR6, and through TLR4. Because BSA was not used in these experiments, contaminants in BSA have no relevance. Unlike in suspension cells (THP-1), BSA-solubilized C16:0 instead of sodium C16:0 is required to induce TLR target gene expression in adherent cells (RAW264.7). C16:0-BSA transactivated TLR2 dimerized with TLR1 or TLR6 and through TLR4 as seen with C12:0. These results and additional studies with the LPS sequester polymixin B and in MyD88(-/-) macrophages indicated that SFA-induced activation of TLR2 or TLR4 is a fatty acid-specific effect, but not due to contaminants in BSA or fatty acid preparations.

  15. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, K.F.A.M; Erp van - Baart, M.A.; Anttolainen, M.; Becker, W.; Church, S.M.; Couet, C.; Hermann-Kunz, E.; Kesteloot, H.; Leth, T.; Martins, I.; Moreiras, O.; Moschandreas, J.; Pizzoferrato, L.; Rimestad, A.H.; Thorgeirsdottir, H.; Amelsvoort, J.M.M. van; Aro, A.; Kafatos, A.G.; Lanzmann-Petithory, D.; Poppel, G. van

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries. Design and subjects: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of fa

  16. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulshof, K.F.A.M; Erp van - Baart, M.A.; Anttolainen, M.; Becker, W.; Church, S.M.; Couet, C.; Hermann-Kunz, E.; Kesteloot, H.; Leth, T.; Martins, I.; Moreiras, O.; Moschandreas, J.; Pizzoferrato, L.; Rimestad, A.H.; Thorgeirsdottir, H.; Amelsvoort, J.M.M. van; Aro, A.; Kafatos, A.G.; Lanzmann-Petithory, D.; Poppel, G. van

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) and other fatty acids in 14 Western European countries. Design and subjects: A maximum of 100 foods per country were sampled and centrally analysed. Each country calculated the intake of individual trans and other fatty acids, clusters of

  17. Difluoromethane preparation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, A.; Sandt, E.J.A.; Van Bekkum, H.; Makkee, M.; Moulijn, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract of NL 9401574 (A) The invention relates to a method for preparing difluoromethane, wherein dichlorodifluoromethane or monochlorodifluoromethane is brought into contact with hydrogen in the presence of palladium on activated carbon, wherein the loading of the palladium on the activated c

  18. Changes of cellular fatty acids of soil Actinobacteria producing antibiotics

    OpenAIRE

    LIPENSKÁ, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Changes of cellular fatty acids in membrane of Actinobacteria. Changes of fatty acids are significant biomarkers of changing conditions of surroundings. This can also indicate production of antibiotics along with production of atypical fatty acids.

  19. Study of Thiosemicarbazone Derivative of Essential Fatty Acid

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Essential fatty acids results in numerous health benefits. Only two fatty acids are known to be essential for human alpha-linolenic acid (an omega-3 fatty acid) and linoleic acid (an omega-6 fatty acid).The importance of omega-3 fatty acids for physical well-being has been recognised for several decades . Omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, antiarrhythmic and hypolipidaemic effects. Cannabis sativa (Hemp) is an angiosperm belonging to the cannabaceae family and cannabi...

  20. CKD and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targher, Giovanni; Chonchol, Michel B; Byrne, Christopher D

    2014-10-01

    The possible link between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and chronic kidney disease (CKD) recently has attracted considerable scientific interest. Accumulating clinical evidence indicates that the presence and severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated significantly with CKD (defined as decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate and/or proteinuria) and that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease predicts the development and progression of CKD, independently of traditional cardiorenal risk factors. Experimental evidence also suggests that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease itself may exacerbate systemic and hepatic insulin resistance, cause atherogenic dyslipidemia, and release a variety of proinflammatory, procoagulant, pro-oxidant, and profibrogenic mediators that play important roles in the development and progression of CKD. However, despite the growing evidence linking nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with CKD, it has not been definitively established whether a causal association exists. The clinical implication for these findings is that patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease may benefit from more intensive surveillance or early treatment interventions to decrease the risk of CKD. In this review, we discuss the evidence linking nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with CKD and the putative mechanisms by which nonalcoholic fatty liver disease contributes to kidney damage. We also briefly discuss current treatment options for this increasingly prevalent disease that is likely to have an important future impact on the global burden of disease.

  1. Phylogenomic reconstruction of archaeal fatty acid metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibrova, Daria V.; Galperin, Michael Y.; Mulkidjanian, Armen Y.

    2014-01-01

    While certain archaea appear to synthesize and/or metabolize fatty acids, the respective pathways still remain obscure. By analyzing the genomic distribution of the key lipid-related enzymes, we were able to identify the likely components of the archaeal pathway of fatty acid metabolism, namely, a combination of the enzymes of bacterial-type β-oxidation of fatty acids (acyl-CoA-dehydrogenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase, and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) with paralogs of the archaeal acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase, an enzyme of the mevalonate biosynthesis pathway. These three β-oxidation enzymes working in the reverse direction could potentially catalyze biosynthesis of fatty acids, with paralogs of acetyl-CoA C-acetyltransferase performing addition of C2 fragments. The presence in archaea of the genes for energy-transducing membrane enzyme complexes, such as cytochrome bc complex, cytochrome c oxidase, and diverse rhodopsins, was found to correlate with the presence of the proposed system of fatty acid biosynthesis. We speculate that because these membrane complexes functionally depend on fatty acid chains, their genes could have been acquired via lateral gene transfer from bacteria only by those archaea that already possessed a system of fatty acid biosynthesis. The proposed pathway of archaeal fatty acid metabolism operates in extreme conditions and therefore might be of interest in the context of biofuel production and other industrial applications. PMID:24818264

  2. Polyunsaturated fatty acids for multiple sclerosis treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monserrat Kong-González

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Fatty acids have an important role in structure and function of the nervous system. Recently, epidemiologic studies on neurodegenerative disorders have evaluated the usefulness of polyunsaturated fatty acids on multiple sclerosis. OBJECTIVE To examine recent studies, clinical trials, and reviews on the therapeutic effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids in multiple sclerosis. METHODS We conducted a search in MEDLINE/PubMed and Cochrane Library with the terms "fatty acids", "omega-3" and "omega-6" in combination with "multiple sclerosis". Articles were selected according to their relevance on the topic. RESULTS Epidemiologic studies have shown benefits of dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids -especially omega-3- in relation to inflammatory, autoimmune and neurodegenerative disorders. In contrast, the studies do not show a beneficial effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids in multiple sclerosis. However, there are limitations related to design and sample issues in these studies CONCLUSIONS There is some evidence of a protective effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the risk of multiple sclerosis. Despite this, to date controlled trials have not produced definite results on the benefits of supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids in patients with multiple sclerosis. Any potential benefit will have to be confirmed in the long term.

  3. Fatty acids in an estuarine mangrove ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikunhi, Nabeel M; Narayanasamy, Rajendran; Kandasamy, Kathiresan

    2010-06-01

    Fatty acids have been successfully used to trace the transfer of organic matter in coastal and estuarine food webs. To delineate these web connections, fatty acid profiles were analyzed in species of microbes (Azotobacter vinelandii, and Lactobacillus xylosus), prawns (Metapenaeus monoceros and Macrobrachium rosenbergii) and finfish (Mugil cephalus), that are associated with decomposing leaves of two mangrove species, Rhizophora apiculata and Avicennia marina. The fatty acids, except long chain fatty acids, exhibit changes during decomposition of mangrove leaves with a reduction of saturated fatty acids and an increase of monounsaturated fatty acids. The branched fatty acids are absent in undecomposed mangrove leaves, but present significantly in the decomposed leaves and in prawns and finfish, representing an important source for them. This revealed that the microbes are dominant producers that contribute significantly to the fishes and prawns in the mangrove ecosystem. This work has proved the fatty acid biomarkers as an effective tool for identifying the trophic interactions among dominant producers and consumers in this mangrove.

  4. Effect of fatty acids on leukocyte function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pompéia C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids have various effects on immune and inflammatory responses, acting as intracellular and intercellular mediators. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs of the omega-3 family have overall suppressive effects, inhibiting lymphocyte proliferation, antibody and cytokine production, adhesion molecule expression, natural killer cell activity and triggering cell death. The omega-6 PUFAs have both inhibitory and stimulatory effects. The most studied of these is arachidonic acid that can be oxidized to eicosanoids, such as prostaglandins, leukotrienes and thromboxanes, all of which are potent mediators of inflammation. Nevertheless, it has been found that many of the effects of PUFA on immune and inflammatory responses are not dependent on eicosanoid generation. Fatty acids have also been found to modulate phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species production, cytokine production and leukocyte migration, also interfering with antigen presentation by macrophages. The importance of fatty acids in immune function has been corroborated by many clinical trials in which patients show improvement when submitted to fatty acid supplementation. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain fatty acid modulation of immune response, such as changes in membrane fluidity and signal transduction pathways, regulation of gene transcription, protein acylation, and calcium release. In this review, evidence is presented to support the proposition that changes in cell metabolism also play an important role in the effect of fatty acids on leukocyte functioning, as fatty acids regulate glucose and glutamine metabolism and mitochondrial depolarization.

  5. Dioxygenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wadman, M.W.

    2007-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids play a central role in all biological systems. They are constituents of the plasma membrane and serve as precursors to signaling molecules generated in response to external events. The conversion of polyunsaturated fatty acids into signaling molecules starts by the hydrol

  6. Nickel inhibits mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppala, Radha; McKinney, Richard W; Brant, Kelly A; Fabisiak, James P; Goetzman, Eric S

    2015-08-07

    Nickel exposure is associated with changes in cellular energy metabolism which may contribute to its carcinogenic properties. Here, we demonstrate that nickel strongly represses mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation-the pathway by which fatty acids are catabolized for energy-in both primary human lung fibroblasts and mouse embryonic fibroblasts. At the concentrations used, nickel suppresses fatty acid oxidation without globally suppressing mitochondrial function as evidenced by increased glucose oxidation to CO2. Pre-treatment with l-carnitine, previously shown to prevent nickel-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma cells, did not prevent the inhibition of fatty acid oxidation. The effect of nickel on fatty acid oxidation occurred only with prolonged exposure (>5 h), suggesting that direct inhibition of the active sites of metabolic enzymes is not the mechanism of action. Nickel is a known hypoxia-mimetic that activates hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF1α). Nickel-induced inhibition of fatty acid oxidation was blunted in HIF1α knockout fibroblasts, implicating HIF1α as one contributor to the mechanism. Additionally, nickel down-regulated the protein levels of the key fatty acid oxidation enzyme very long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (VLCAD) in a dose-dependent fashion. In conclusion, inhibition of fatty acid oxidation by nickel, concurrent with increased glucose metabolism, represents a form of metabolic reprogramming that may contribute to nickel-induced carcinogenesis.

  7. Historical perspectives on fatty acid chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acids are basic renewable chemical building blocks that can be used as intermediates for a multitude of products. Today the global value of fatty acids exceeds 18 billion dollars and is expected to increase to nearly 26 billion over the period from 2014-2019. From it auspicious beginnings, the...

  8. Mechanisms of gene regulation by fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgiadi, A.; Kersten, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of specific dietary fatty acids has been shown to influence risk and progression of several chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, cancer, and arthritis. In recent years, insights into the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of fatty acids have improved consi

  9. Incorporation of extracellular fatty acids by a fatty acid kinase-dependent pathway in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Joshua B; Frank, Matthew W; Jackson, Pamela; Subramanian, Chitra; Rock, Charles O

    2014-04-01

    Acyl-CoA and acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthetases activate exogenous fatty acids for incorporation into phospholipids in Gram-negative bacteria. However, Gram-positive bacteria utilize an acyltransferase pathway for the biogenesis of phosphatidic acid that begins with the acylation of sn-glycerol-3-phosphate by PlsY using an acyl-phosphate (acyl-PO4 ) intermediate. PlsX generates acyl-PO4 from the acyl-ACP end-products of fatty acid synthesis. The plsX gene of Staphylococcus aureus was inactivated and the resulting strain was both a fatty acid auxotroph and required de novo fatty acid synthesis for growth. Exogenous fatty acids were only incorporated into the 1-position and endogenous acyl groups were channeled into the 2-position of the phospholipids in strain PDJ39 (ΔplsX). Extracellular fatty acids were not elongated. Removal of the exogenous fatty acid supplement led to the rapid accumulation of intracellular acyl-ACP and the abrupt cessation of fatty acid synthesis. Extracts from the ΔplsX strain exhibited an ATP-dependent fatty acid kinase activity, and the acyl-PO4 was converted to acyl-ACP when purified PlsX is added. These data reveal the existence of a novel fatty acid kinase pathway for the incorporation of exogenous fatty acids into S. aureus phospholipids.

  10. Dynamic regulation of fatty acid pools for improved production of fatty alcohols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teixeira, Paulo Goncalves; Ferreira, Raphael; Zhou, Yongjin J.

    2017-01-01

    faa4 Delta strain constitutively expressing a carboxylic acid reductase from Mycobacterium marinum (MmCAR) and an endogenous alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh5) for in vivo production of fatty alcohols from FFAs. We observed production of fatty acids and fatty alcohols with different rates leading to high...... loss of precursors that compromises the process yield. In the present study, we aimed for dynamic expression of the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase gene FAA1 to regulate FFA and acyl-CoA pools in order to improve fatty alcohol production yields. Results: We analyzed the metabolite dynamics of a faa1 Delta...... levels of FFAs not being converted to the final product. To address the issue, we expressed the MmCAR + Adh5 pathway together with a fatty acyl-CoA reductase from Marinobacter aquaeolei to enable fatty alcohol production simultaneously from FFA and acyl-CoA, respectively. Then, we expressed FAA1 under...

  11. Different impacts of short-chain fatty acids on saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis in Aurantiochytrium sp. SD116.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaojin; Tan, Yanzhen; Liu, Yajun; Zhang, Jingtao; Liu, Guanglei; Feng, Yingang; Cui, Qiu

    2013-10-16

    Aurantiochytrium is an important docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) producer containing two kinds of fatty acid synthesis pathways, that is, the fatty acid synthase pathway (FAS) for saturated fatty acid synthesis and the polyketide synthase pathway (PKS) for polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis. To understand the regulation mechanism between the two pathways, the impacts of six short-chain fatty acids on the fatty acid synthesis of Aurantiochytrium sp. SD116 were studied. All short-chain fatty acids showed little effect on the cell growth, but some of them significantly affected lipid accumulation and fatty acid composition. Pentanoic acid and isovaleric acid greatly inhibited the synthesis of saturated fatty acids, whereas the polyunsaturated fatty acid synthesis was not affected. Analysis of malic enzyme activity, which supplied NADPH for saturated fatty acids biosynthesis, indicated that the two fatty acid synthesis pathways can utilize different substrates and possess independent sources of NADPH.

  12. Radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids: Evaluation of catabolites formed in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Reske, S.N.; Kirsch, G.; Ambrose, K.R.; Blystone, S.L.; Goodman, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    Radioiodinated terminal iodophenyl-substituted long-chain fatty acids containing either racemic mono-methyl or geminal dimethyl-branching in the alkyl chain have been shown to exhibit delayed myocardial clearance properties which make these agents useful for the SPECT evaluation of myocardial fatty acid uptake patterns. Although the myocardial clearance rate of 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S- methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) is considerably delayed, in comparison with the IPPA straight-chain analogue, analysis of the radioiodinated lipids present in the outflow tract of isolated rat hearts administered BMIPP have clearly demonstrated the presence of a polar metabolite. The synthesis of ..beta..-hydroxy fatty acids has been developed to allow investigation of the possible formation of ..beta..-hydroxy catabolites in vivo. The preparation of ..beta..-hydroxy BMIPP and ..beta..-hydroxy IPPA are described, and the possible significance of their formation in vivo discussed. 4 figs.

  13. Intermolecular crosslinking of fatty acyl chains in phospholipids: use of photoactivable carbene precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, C M; Radhakrishnan, R; Gerber, G E; Olsen, W L; Quay, S C; Khorana, H G

    1979-01-01

    Phospholipids containing photolysable carbene precursors (beta-trifluoro-alpha-diazopropionoxy and m-diazirinophenoxy groups) in omega-positions of sn-2 fatty acyl chains were prepared. Photolysis of their vesicles produced crosslinked products in 40-60% yields. Crosslinking was mostly intermolecular and occurred by carbene insertion into the C-H bonds of a second fatty acyl chain. Crosslinking products were characterized by (i) their gel permeation behavior, (ii) analysis of products formed by base-catalyzed transesterification, (iii) degradation with phospholipases A2 and C, (iv) gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and (v) use of mixtures of phospholipids carrying the carbene precursors and a phospholipid containing radioactively labeled fatty acyl groups. Nitrenes generated from the aliphatic or aromatic azido groups in phospholipids were unsatisfactory for forming crosslinks by insertion in C-H bonds. PMID:288050

  14. Catalytic Decarboxylation of Fatty Acids to Aviation Fuels over Nickel Supported on Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jianghua; Shi, Juanjuan; Fu, Jie; Leidl, Jamie A.; Hou, Zhaoyin; Lu, Xiuyang

    2016-06-01

    Decarboxylation of fatty acids over non-noble metal catalysts without added hydrogen was studied. Ni/C catalysts were prepared and exhibited excellent activity and maintenance for decarboxylation. Thereafter, the effects of nickel loading, catalyst loading, temperature, and carbon number on the decarboxylation of fatty acids were investigated. The results indicate that the products of cracking increased with high nickel loading or catalyst loading. Temperature significantly impacted the conversion of stearic acid but did not influence the selectivity. The fatty acids with large carbon numbers tend to be cracked in this reaction system. Stearic acid can be completely converted at 370 °C for 5 h, and the selectivity to heptadecane was around 80%.

  15. Fatty acid composition of commercially available Iranian edible oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Asgary

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: Trans-fatty acids (TFAs, unsaturated fats with at least one double bond in the Trans configuration, are industrially formed in large quantities when vegetable oils are partially hydrogenated. This study was  ndertaken to quantify the amounts of the common fatty acids in several commercial oils marketing in Iran.
    • METHODS: The most consumed commercially available brands of vegetable oils were randomly selected from products available in supermarkets. A 10g sample was drawn from each mixed sample and prepared for fatty cid analysis by gas chromatography (GC.
    • RESULTS: Palmitic acid (C16:0 and stearic acid (C18:0 jointly constituted 21% of total fatty acids in partially hydrogenated vegetable oils (PHVOs. More than one third of total fatty acids in Iranian PHVOs were Trans fats. TFAs constituted almost 1% and 3% of total fatty  cids in Iranian cooking and frying oils. This study  howed higher contents of TFAs in Iranian commercially available hydrogenated vegetable oils. Statistical Package for Social Sciences was used for all statistical analyses.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Although

    • How Prepared is Prepared Enough?

      Science.gov (United States)

      Porter-Levy; Macleod; Rickert

      1996-10-01

      A 17-year-old female was in the final stage in treatment of right unilateral cleft lip and palate. She had undergone a number of previous surgeries. Hearing and speech were good on evaluation, and her social and family situation were deemed excellent. After preparatory orthodontics she underwent a Lefort I maxillary advancement. Surgery was successful and she was admitted into postoperative recovery. However, the lack of adequate preoperative preparation caused traumatic reaction from the patient and her parents: anxiety over appearance, crying, refusal of oral fluids and oral care, refusal of analgesia, and refusal to mobilize. The patience and persistence of hospital staff slowly overcame all adversities and the patient moved on to full and successful recovery, but this case prompted changes in preoperative procedures and involvement of patients and their families in postoperative meal selection, planing, and preparation.

    • Preparation of esters of gallic acid with higher primary alcohols

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Kerk, G.J.M. van der; Verbeek, J.H.; Cleton, J.C.F.

      1951-01-01

      The esters of gallic acid and higher primary alcohols, especially fatty alcohols, have recently gained considerable interest as possible antioxidants for fats. Two independent methods for the preparation of these esters are described. In the first method the hitherto unknown compound galloyl chlorid

    • Clinical implications of fatty pancreas: Correlations between fatty pancreas and metabolic syndrome

      Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

      Jun Seok Lee; Sang Heum Kim; Dae Won Jun; Jee Hye Han; Eun Chul Jang; Ji Young Park; Byung Kwan Son; Seong Hwan Kim; Yoon Ju Jo; Young Sook Park; Yong Soo Kim

      2009-01-01

      AIM: To investigate the clinical implications of lipid deposition in the pancreas (fatty pancreas). METHODS: The subjects of this study were 293 patients who had undergone abdominal computed tomography (CT) and sonography. Fatty pancreas was diagnosed by sonographic findings and subdivided into mild, moderate, and severe fatty pancreas groups comparing to the retroperitoneal fat echogenicity. RESULTS: Fatty pancreas was associated with higher levels for visceral fat, waist circumference, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, free fatty acid, γ-GTP, insulin, and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) than the control group ( P < 0.05). HOMAIR, visceral fat, triglyceride, and ALT also tended to increase with the degree of fat deposition in the pancreas on sonography. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, HOMA-IR, visceral fat, and ALT level were independently related to fatty pancreas after adjustment for age, body mass index, and lipid profile. The incidence of metabolic syndrome in the fatty pancreas group was significantly higher than in the control group, and the numbers of metabolic syndrome parameters were significantly higher in the fatty pancreas group ( P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Sonographic fatty pancrease showed higher insulin resistance, visceral fat area, triglyceride, and ALT levels than normal pancreases. Fatty pancreas also showed a strong correlation with metabolic syndrome.

    • Fatty acid synthesis is inhibited by inefficient utilization of unusual fatty acids for glycerolipid assembly.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bates, Philip D; Johnson, Sean R; Cao, Xia; Li, Jia; Nam, Jeong-Won; Jaworski, Jan G; Ohlrogge, John B; Browse, John

      2014-01-21

      Degradation of unusual fatty acids through β-oxidation within transgenic plants has long been hypothesized as a major factor limiting the production of industrially useful unusual fatty acids in seed oils. Arabidopsis seeds expressing the castor fatty acid hydroxylase accumulate hydroxylated fatty acids up to 17% of total fatty acids in seed triacylglycerols; however, total seed oil is also reduced up to 50%. Investigations into the cause of the reduced oil phenotype through in vivo [(14)C]acetate and [(3)H]2O metabolic labeling of developing seeds surprisingly revealed that the rate of de novo fatty acid synthesis within the transgenic seeds was approximately half that of control seeds. RNAseq analysis indicated no changes in expression of fatty acid synthesis genes in hydroxylase-expressing plants. However, differential [(14)C]acetate and [(14)C]malonate metabolic labeling of hydroxylase-expressing seeds indicated the in vivo acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity was reduced to approximately half that of control seeds. Therefore, the reduction of oil content in the transgenic seeds is consistent with reduced de novo fatty acid synthesis in the plastid rather than fatty acid degradation. Intriguingly, the coexpression of triacylglycerol synthesis isozymes from castor along with the fatty acid hydroxylase alleviated the reduced acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity, restored the rate of fatty acid synthesis, and the accumulation of seed oil was substantially recovered. Together these results suggest a previously unidentified mechanism that detects inefficient utilization of unusual fatty acids within the endoplasmic reticulum and activates an endogenous pathway for posttranslational reduction of fatty acid synthesis within the plastid.

    • Effect of some saturated and unsaturated fatty acids on prostaglandin biosynthesis in washed human blood platelets from (1-/sup 14/ C)arachidonic acid

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Srivastava, K.C.; Awasthi, K.K.; Lindegard, P.; Tiwari, K.P.

      1982-03-01

      The effects of some saturated (lauric, palmitic and stearic) an unsaturated (linoleic, gamma-linolenic, alpha-linolenic and oleic) fatty acids at 0.1. 0.25 and 0.5 mM concentrations on the in vitro metabolization of (1-14 C) arachidonic acid by washed human blood platelets have been studied. Effects of these fatty acids were studied with intact as well as lysed platelet preparations. With intact platelet preparations it was found that (i) all unsaturated fatty acids enhanced the biosynthesis of TxB2, PGE2, PGD2 and PGF2 alpha, (ii) unsaturated fatty acids reduced the formation of HHT and HETE with the exception of oleic acid which showed very little effect, (iii) unsaturated fatty acids reduced the formation of MDA, whereas palmitic and stearic acids increased its formation and (iv) all unsaturated fatty acids reduced the synthesis of prostaglandin endoperoxides. These results support our previous observations where effects of fatty acids were examined at higher concentrations (10). At 0.1 mM FA concentration, inconsistent results were obtained. With lysed platelet preparations all cyclooxygenase products were reduced in presence of unsaturated fatty acids, whereas HETE formation was reduced only in presence of linoleic and gamma-linolenic acids. Electron micrographs of washed platelet suspensions were obtained with untreated platelet preparations and platelet preparations treated with 0.25 and 0.5 mM linoleic acid concentrations. The results are discussed in the light of a possible soap-like effect of FA salt on platelets.

  1. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids accelerate airway repair by activating FFA4 in club cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung-Pil; Park, Soo-Jin; Kang, Saeromi; Koh, Jung-Min; Sato, Koichi; Chung, Hae Young; Okajima, Fumikazu; Im, Dong-Soon

    2017-03-17

    A GPCR named FFA4 (also known as GPR120) was found to act as a GPCR for omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Its expression has been reported in lung epithelial club cells. The authors investigated whether supplementation of the omega-3 fatty acids benefits lung health. Omacor® (7.75 mg kg-1), clinically prescribed preparation of omega-3 fatty acids and FFA4-knockout mice were utilized in a naphthalene-induced mouse model of acute airway injury (one injection of 30 mg kg-1, i.p.). Naphthalene injection induced complete destruction of bronchiolar epithelial cells within a day. Appearance of bronchiolar epithelial cells was observed after 21 days in control mice. It was found, however, that supplementation of omacor accelerated the recovery. The appearance of bronchiolar epithelial cells was observed between 7 and 14 days after naphthalene injury in omacor-treated mice. In isolated club cells, omega-3 fatty acids were found to stimulate cell proliferation and migration but to inhibit cell differentiation. Using pharmacological tools and FFA4-knockout mice, FFA4 was found to be responsible for omega-3 fatty acids-induced proliferation in vitro in club cells. Furthermore, accelerated recovery from naphthalene-induced airway injury in omacor-treated mice was not observed in FFA4-knockout mice in vivo. Present findings indicate that omega-3 fatty acids-induced proliferation of bronchiole epithelial cells through FFA4 is responsible for omacor-induced accelerated recovery from airway injury. Therefore, intermittent administration of omacor needs to be tested for acute airway injury, because omega-3 fatty acids stimulate proliferation but inhibits differentiation of club cells.

  2. Omega-3 fatty acids: Mechanisms of benefit and therapeutic effects in pediatric and adult NAFLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobili, Valerio; Alisi, Anna; Musso, Giovanni; Scorletti, Eleonora; Calder, Philip C; Byrne, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is currently considered the most common liver disease in industrialized countries, and it is estimated that it will become the most frequent indication for liver transplantation in the next decade. NAFLD may be associated with moderate (i.e. steatosis) to severe (i.e. steatohepatitis and fibrosis) liver damage and affects all age groups. Furthermore, subjects with NAFLD may be at a greater risk of other obesity-related complications later in life, and people with obesity and obesity-related complications (e.g. metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease) are at increased risk of developing NAFLD. To date, there is no licensed treatment for NAFLD and therapy has been mainly centered on weight loss and increased physical activity. Unfortunately, it is often difficult for patients to adhere to the advised lifestyle changes. Therefore, based on the known pathogenesis of NAFLD, several clinical trials with different nutritional supplementation and prescribed drugs have been undertaken or are currently underway. Experimental evidence has emerged about the health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids, a group of polyunsaturated fatty acids that are important for a number of health-related functions. Omega-3 fatty acids are present in some foods (oils, nuts and seeds) that also contain omega-6 fatty acids, and the best sources of exclusively omega-3 fatty acids are oily fish, krill oil and algae. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the pathogenesis of NAFLD, and we also discuss the molecular and clinical evidence for the benefits of different omega-3 fatty acid preparations in NAFLD.

  3. Clinical investigation of fatty liver by CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Katsumoto; Takayama, Tetsuo; Sano, Hiroshi; Katada, Naoyuki; Takeichi, Masayuki

    1984-09-01

    Of CT 6800 studies 56 cases of diffuse fatty infiltration confirmed by liver biopsy were investigated and compared with those of chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. It was found that CT diagnosis of severe fatty infiltration (fatty liver) is specific when the ratios of CT values of liver to those of spleen are less than 0.85. This criterion was satisfied in 169 cases with fatty liver (diffuse: 141 cases, focal: 28 cases). Obesity, diabetes and alcohol abuse were the main causative factors in both diffuse and focal fatty liver. The percentage of cases showing no abnormal blood chemistry was high as compared with those in previous reports based on liver biopsy. The changes in CT values of the liver faithfully reflected the improvement of each causal factor and reciprocal changes were observed between diffuse and focal fatty liver in repeated CT examinationns. It was concluded that CT is useful in estimating the effect of treatment as well as in diagnosis of fatty liver.

  4. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilievska, Biljana; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Hjalmarsdottir, Martha Asdis; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w) on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax's nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties.

  5. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Ilievska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax’s nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties.

  6. Topical Formulation Comprising Fatty Acid Extract from Cod Liver Oil: Development, Evaluation and Stability Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilievska, Biljana; Loftsson, Thorsteinn; Hjalmarsdottir, Martha Asdis; Asgrimsdottir, Gudrun Marta

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a pharmaceutical formulation containing fatty acid extract rich in free omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid for topical use. Although the health benefits of cod liver oil and other fish oils taken orally as a dietary supplement have been acknowledged and exploited, it is clear that their use can be extended further to cover their antibacterial properties. In vitro evaluation showed that 20% (v/v) fatty acid extract exhibits good activity against strains of the Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptoccoccus pyogenes and Streptoccoccus pneumonia. Therefore, free polyunsaturated fatty acids from cod liver oil or other fish oils can be used as safe and natural antibacterial agents. In this study, ointment compositions containing free fatty acids as active antibacterial agents were prepared by using various natural waxes and characterized. The effects of different waxes, such as carnauba wax, ozokerite wax, laurel wax, beeswax, rice bran wax, candelilla wax and microcrystalline wax, in the concentration range of 1% to 5% (w/w) on the ointment texture, consistency and stability were evaluated. The results showed significant variations in texture, sensory and rheological profiles. This was attributed to the wax’s nature and chain composition. Microcrystalline wax gave the best results but laurel wax, beeswax and rice bran wax exhibited excellent texturing, similar sensory profiles and well-balanced rheological properties. PMID:27258290

  7. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in horses

    OpenAIRE

    Tanja Hess; Trinette Ross-Jones

    2014-01-01

    Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) are a family of essential fatty acids with many biological activities. These fatty acids are incorporated into cell membranes, changing their structural and functional characteristics. N-3 PUFA can act by modulating inflammatory responses at different levels. Omega-3 PUFA can be converted in the body to longer-chain n-3 PUFA at a limited rate and are differently converted in body systems. It appears that when specific longer-chain n-3 PUFA are de...

  8. Fatty acid composition of selected prosthecate bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, R N; Schmidt, J M

    1976-10-11

    The cellular fatty acid composition of 14 strains of Caulobacter speices and types, two species of Prosthecomicrobium, and two species of Asticcacaulis was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. In most of these bacteria, the major fatty acids were octadecenoic acid (C18:1), hexadecenoic acid (C16:1) and hexadecanoic acid (C16:0). Some cyclopropane and branched chain fatty acids were detected in addition to the straight chained acids. Hydroxytetradecanoic acid was an important component of P.enhydrum but significant amounts of hydroxy acids were not detected in other prosthecate bacteria examined.

  9. Elevated body mass index and fatty liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marović Dragana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Obesity and overweight, expressed by elevated Body Mass Index (BMI, result from excessive consumption of fatty food and carbohydrates above the body needs. The fat from the blood, through free fatty acids, is taken directly into the liver. Objective The aim of this study was to examine correlation among the accepted ultrasonography findings of the fatty liver and the normal ultrasonography findings and the elevated average level of BMI and those with normal BMI in examinees in one investigation. All was done aimed at proving that the BMI is one of the direct factors of the increased occurence of fatty liver. METHOD The method of the investigation consisted of anthropometric measuring of height and weight on the basis of which there were established BMI values. Consequently, the examinees were divided in two groups: one with normal BMI (under 24.9 kg/m2 and the other with increased BMI (over 25 kg/m2. Fatty liver was diagnosed when the liver of the examinees was observed by ultrasonography. Thus there were given subgroups of the examinees, one with the findings of fatty liver and the second with a normal finding, without changes. After that, the obtained results were statistically analysed. Results It was found that the average level of BMI in the examinees was by two units higher in the subgroup with ultrasonography findings of fatty liver than the average value of BMI in the subgroup with the normal ultrasonography findings of the liver. The difference was tested by the Student's t-test and a significant difference was found. The difference in frequencies of the appearance of the finding of fatty liver in the subgroups was tested by χ2-test. A statistically significant difference was found in frequencies of the appearance of fatty liver in the subgroup with the increased value of BMI. Conclusion The increased BMI, which is represented by overweight and obesity, is one of the direct risk factors which cause fatty liver, checked by

  10. Production of hydroxy fatty acids by microbial fatty acid-hydroxylation enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Rok; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2013-12-01

    Hydroxy fatty acids are widely used in chemical, food, and cosmetic industries as starting materials for the synthesis of polymers and as additives for the manufacture of lubricants, emulsifiers, and stabilizers. They have antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities and therefore can be applied for medicinal uses. Microbial fatty acid-hydroxylation enzymes, including P450, lipoxygenase, hydratase, 12-hydroxylase, and diol synthase, synthesize regio-specific hydroxy fatty acids. In this article, microbial fatty acid-hydroxylation enzymes, with a focus on region-specificity and diversity, are summarized and the production of mono-, di-, and tri-hydroxy fatty acids is introduced. Finally, the production methods of regio-specific and diverse hydroxy fatty acids, such as gene screening, protein engineering, metabolic engineering, and combinatory biosynthesis, are suggested. © 2013.

  11. Fatty Acid Composition of Meat from Ruminants, with Special Emphasis on trans Fatty Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Ovesen, L.; Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    The fatty acid composition was determined in 39 samples of beef, 20 samples of veal, and 34 samples of lamb, representative of the supply of ruminant meat in Denmark. Five cuts of beef and veal and three cuts of lamb with increasing fat content were selected, and analysis of the fatty acid methyl...... esters was performed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) on a polar 50-m capillary column CP Sil 88 with flame-ionization detection. Lamb had the highest content of saturated fatty acids (52.8 +/- 1.8 g/100 g fatty acids), higher than beef and veal (45.3 +/- 3.1 and 45.4 +/- 0.8 g/100 g fatty acids...... of trans fatty acids from ruminant meat is estimated at 0.2 g/d....

  12. Rapid analysis of fatty acid profiles in raw nuts and seeds by microwave-ultrasonic synergistic in situ extraction-derivatisation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui-Lin; Song, Shuang-Hong; Wu, Mei; He, Tian; Zhang, Zhi-Qi

    2013-12-15

    Based on microwave-ultrasonic synergistic in situ extraction-derivatisation (MUED), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was proposed for rapid analysis of fatty acid profiles in raw nut and seed materials. Several critical experimental parameters for MUED, including reaction temperature, microwave power, amounts of catalyst and derivatisation reagent, have been optimised using response surface methodology. The results showed that the chromatographic peak areas of total fatty acids and the content of total unsaturated fatty acids obtained with MUED were markedly higher than those obtained by the conventional method (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). The MUED method simplified the handling steps compared to the conventional procedure, shortened the sample preparation time whilst improving the extraction and derivatisation efficiency of lipids, and reduced oxidisation and decomposition of the unsaturated fatty acids. The simplicity, robustness and practicality of this method highlighted its significant potential for application in the rapid analysis of fatty acids in natural food resource samples.

  13. Isolation and identification of C-19 fatty acids with anti-tumor activity from the spores of Ganoderma lucidum (reishi mushroom).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pei; Hirano, Tomoya; Chen, Zhiqing; Yasuhara, Tadashi; Nakata, Yoshihiro; Sugimoto, Akiko

    2012-04-01

    We previously showed that ethanolic extracts of spores of Ganoderma lucidum inhibit tumor cell proliferation and induce apoptosis of HL-60 cells. The active constituents appeared to be long-chain fatty acids, particularly carbon-19 (C-19) fatty acids which have not been reported in spores of Ganoderma lucidum. In the present study, two of these C-19 fatty acids which are key compounds in the activities, were identified as their 2-naphthyl ester derivatives after esterification of a mixture of fatty acids obtained from the spores. The active compounds were determines as nonadecanoic acid and cis-9-nonadecenoic acid. The location of the double bond of cis-9-nonadecenoic acid was demonstrated by GC-MS analysis, based on the fragmentation pattern of the adduct prepared from the fatty acid and dimethyl disulfide.

  14. Fatty Acid Composition of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing.

    OpenAIRE

    Aktümsek, Abdurrahman; ÖZTÜRK, Celâleddin; KAŞIK, Giyasettin

    1998-01-01

    Fatty acid compositions of fruit body, stem, lamellae and total of Agaricus bisporus were seperately analysed by GLC. In the all fatty acid compositions of A. bisporus, linoleic acid were predominant. Percentages of linoleic acid were varied between 53.45 - 68.78%. It was showed that the other major fatty acids were palmitic, oleic and stearic acid in the fatty acid compositions.

  15. Analysis of Fatty Acid Content and Composition in Microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuer, G.; Evers, W.A.C.; Vree, de J.H.; Kleinegris, D.M.M.; Martens, D.E.; Wijffels, R.H.; Lamers, P.P.

    2013-01-01

    A method to determine the content and composition of total fatty acids present in microalgae is described. Fatty acids are a major constituent of microalgal biomass. These fatty acids can be present in different acyl-lipid classes. Especially the fatty acids present in triacylglycerol (TAG) are of c

  16. Fatty Acid Composition of Meat from Ruminants, with Special Emphasis on trans Fatty Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Torben; Ovesen, L.; Hansen, K.

    1998-01-01

    esters was performed by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) on a polar 50-m capillary column CP Sil 88 with flame-ionization detection. Lamb had the highest content of saturated fatty acids (52.8 +/- 1.8 g/100 g fatty acids), higher than beef and veal (45.3 +/- 3.1 and 45.4 +/- 0.8 g/100 g fatty acids...

  17. Enzymatic synthesis and application of fatty acid ascorbyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Marija M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid ascorbyl esters are liposoluble substances that possess good antioxidative properties. These compounds could be synthesized by using various acyl donors for acylation of vitamin C in reaction catalyzed by chemical means or lipases. Enzymatic process is preferred since it is regioselective, performed under mild reaction conditions, with the obtained product being environmentally friendly. Polar organic solvents, ionic liquids, and supercritical fluids has been successfully used as a reaction medium, since commonly used solvents with high Log P values are inapplicable due to ascorbic acid high polarity. Acylation of vitamin C using fatty acids, their methyl-, ethyl-, and vinyl esters, as well as triglycerides has been performed, whereas application of the activated acyl donors enabled higher molar conversions. In each case, majority of authors reported that using excessive amount of the acyl donor had positive effect on yield of product. Furthermore, several strategies have been employed for shifting the equilibrium towards the product by water content control. These include adjusting the initial water activity by pre-equilibration of reaction mixture, enzyme preparation with water vapor of saturated salt solutions, and the removal of formed water by the addition of molecular sieves or salt hydrate pairs. The aim of this article is to provide a brief overview of the procedures described so far for the lipase-catalyzed synthesis of fatty acid ascorbyl esters with emphasis on the potential application in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutics. Furthermore, it has been pointed out that the main obstacles for process commercialization are long reaction times, lack of adequate purification methods, and high costs of lipases. Thus, future challenges in this area are testing new catalysts, developing continuous processes for esters production, finding cheaper acyl donors and reaction mediums, as well as identifying standard procedures for

  18. Update on fatty liver disease and steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Fatima Zahra; Kleiner, David E

    2011-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a broad term that includes liver diseases characterized by abnormal hepatocellular accumulations of lipid that cannot be related to alcohol abuse. It may be found in both adults and children, particularly those who are obese or have insulin resistance. Steatohepatitis is a specific pattern of injury within the spectrum of NAFLD and this pattern is associated with fibrotic progression and cirrhosis. In addition to steatohepatitis, a distinct form of fibrotic fatty liver disease exists in children. There have been a number of recent advances in the characterization of histologic changes in NAFLD. In light of these recent reports, this study will: (1) review the histologic features of steatosis and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in adults; (2) review the variation of histologic patterns of pediatric fatty liver disease; and (3) discuss the validity and use of the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease Activity Score.

  19. Uridine prevents fenofibrate-induced fatty liver.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thuc T Le

    Full Text Available Uridine, a pyrimidine nucleoside, can modulate liver lipid metabolism although its specific acting targets have not been identified. Using mice with fenofibrate-induced fatty liver as a model system, the effects of uridine on liver lipid metabolism are examined. At a daily dosage of 400 mg/kg, fenofibrate treatment causes reduction of liver NAD(+/NADH ratio, induces hyper-acetylation of peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme (ECHD and acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1, and induces excessive accumulation of long chain fatty acids (LCFA and very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA. Uridine co-administration at a daily dosage of 400 mg/kg raises NAD(+/NADH ratio, inhibits fenofibrate-induced hyper-acetylation of ECHD, ACOX1, and reduces accumulation of LCFA and VLCFA. Our data indicates a therapeutic potential for uridine co-administration to prevent fenofibrate-induced fatty liver.

  20. Antisense technologies targeting fatty acid synthetic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jinshun; Liu, Feng; Jiang, Yuyang

    2012-05-01

    Fatty acid synthesis is a coordinated process involving multiple enzymes. Overexpression of some of these enzymes plays important roles in tumor growth and development. Therefore, these enzymes are attractive targets for cancer therapies. Antisense agents provide highly specific inhibition of the expression of target genes and thus have served as powerful tools for gene functional studies and potential therapeutic agents for cancers. This article reviews different types of antisense agents and their applications in the modulation of fatty acid synthesis. Patents of antisense agents targeting fatty acid synthetic enzymes are introduced. In addition, miR-122 has been shown to regulate the expression of fatty acid synthetic enzymes, and thus antisense agent patents that inhibit miR-122 expression are also discussed.

  1. Introduction to fatty acids and lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdge, Graham C; Calder, Philip C

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the structure, function and metabolism of fatty acids and lipids that are of particular importance in the context of parenteral nutrition. Lipids are a heterogeneous group of molecules that share the common property of hydrophobicity. Lipids range in structure from simple short hydrocarbon chains to more complex molecules, including triacylglycerols, phospholipids and sterols and their esters. Lipids within each class may differ structurally. Fatty acids are common components of complex lipids, and these differ according to chain length and the presence, number and position of double bonds in the hydrocarbon chain. Structural variation among complex lipids and among fatty acids gives rise to functional differences that result in different impacts upon metabolism and upon cell and tissue responses. Fatty acids and complex lipids exhibit a variety of structural variations that influence their metabolism and their functional effects.

  2. Convergent and stereospecific synthesis of complex skipped polyenes and polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macklin, Todd K; Micalizio, Glenn C

    2010-08-01

    Skipped polyenes (that is, 1,4-dienes and higher homologues) are stereodefined components of a vast array of biologically important natural products, including polyunsaturated fatty acids. Although widespread in nature, these architectures are generally considered to represent significant barriers to efficient chemical synthesis. Partial reduction of skipped poly-ynes provides a pathway to a subset of such structures, but general chemical methods for the preparation of skipped polyenes that contain varied stereochemistries and substitution patterns are lacking. Here, we describe a metal-promoted reductive cross-coupling reaction between vinylcyclopropanes and alkynes (or vinylsilanes) that provides stereoselective access to a diverse array of skipped polyenes through a process that establishes one C-C bond, generates up to three stereodefined alkenes, and can be used to introduce stereogenic centres at the central positions of the skipped polyene motif. We also demonstrate the significance of the present bond construction by preparing substituted and stereodefined polyunsaturated synthetic fatty acids.

  3. Reversible fatty infiltration of the liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostel, F.; Hauger, W.

    1987-11-01

    Case studies show that acute pancreatitis occurring independently or combined with a preceding abuse of alcohol may be the cause of fatty infiltration of the liver. These fat areas can evolve in a very short time and provoke in the case of focal incidence diagnostic problems of differentiation against abscesses of metastases. Due to this fact and because of the rapid reversibility of the fatty infiltration under therapy, the safest method to clarify the situation consists of short-term CT controls.

  4. Fatty acyl-CoA reductase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, Steven E.; Somerville, Chris R.

    1998-12-01

    The present invention relates to bacterial enzymes, in particular to an acyl-CoA reductase and a gene encoding an acyl-CoA reductase, the amino acid and nucleic acid sequences corresponding to the reductase polypeptide and gene, respectively, and to methods of obtaining such enzymes, amino acid sequences and nucleic acid sequences. The invention also relates to the use of such sequences to provide transgenic host cells capable of producing fatty alcohols and fatty aldehydes.

  5. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A.

    2017-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has emerged a major challenge because of it prevalence, difficulties in diagnosis, complex pathogenesis, and lack of approved therapies. As the burden of hepatitis C abates over the next decade, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease will become the major form of chronic liver disease in adults and children and could become the leading indication for liver transplantation. This overview briefly summarizes the most recent data on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and...

  6. Digestion and absorption of fatty acids in the ruminant

    OpenAIRE

    Cuvelier, Christine; Cabaraux, Jean-François; Dufrasne, Isabelle; Istasse, Louis; Hornick, Jean-Luc

    2005-01-01

    From a biochemical point of view, in ruminants, there are two major groups of fatty acids. They are firstly the volatile fatty acids from the rumen metabolism of dietary carbohydrates, and secondly the fatty acids from the rumen metabolism of lipids. This second group is made of the fatty acids synthesized by the microorganisms of the rumen and the fatty acids originating from the hydrolysis of dietary triacylglycerols, which are mostly hydrogenated by microorganisms in the rumen before intes...

  7. Production of hydroxylated fatty acids in genetically modified plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Weston, AU); Boddupalli, Sekhar S. (Manchester, MI)

    2011-08-23

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  8. [Elimination of all trans fatty acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katan, M B

    2008-02-09

    At the start of the 20th century, the production of trans fatty acids was originally largely driven by the increasing demand for margarine. The two Dutch margarine firms Van den Bergh and Jurgens played an important role in this early development. In the early 1990s it was shown that trans fatty acids increase the risk of heart disease. Unilever, the successor to Van den Bergh and Jurgens, then took the lead in eliminating trans fatty acids from retail foods worldwide. As a result, intake in The Netherlands fell from 15 g per day in 1980 to 3 g per day in 2003. Dairy products and meat are now the major source of trans fatty acids. The effects on health of these ruminant trans fatty acids are unclear. There are three lessons to be learned from the rise and fall of trans fatty acids. First, a history of safe use does not guarantee safety of food components, because routine surveillance will fail to detect adverse effects on common illnesses with long incubation periods. Second, it shows that it is more effective and easier to change the composition of foods than to change consumer behaviour. And third, governments can have a major impact on consumers' health by mandating the use of healthier food ingredients.

  9. Fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis in astrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auestad, N.

    1988-01-01

    Astrocytes were derived from cortex of two-day-old rat brain and grown in primary culture to confluence. The metabolism of the fatty acids, octanoate and palmitate, to CO{sub 2} in oxidative respiration and to the formation of ketone bodies was examined by radiolabeled tracer methodology. The net production of acetoacetate was also determined by measurement of its mass. The enzymes in the ketogenic pathway were examined by measuring enzymic activity and/or by immunoblot analyses. Labeled CO{sub 2} and labeled ketone bodies were produced from the oxidation of fatty acids labeled at carboxy- and {omega}-terminal carbons, indicating that fatty acids were oxidized by {beta}-oxidation. The results from the radiolabeled tracer studies also indicated that a substantial proportion of the {omega}-terminal 4-carbon unit of the fatty acids bypassed the {beta}-ketothiolase step of the {beta}-oxidation pathway. The ({sup 14}C)acetoacetate formed from the (1-{sup 14}C)labeled fatty acids, obligated to pass through the acetyl-CoA pool, contained 50% of the label at carbon 3 and 50% at carbon 1. In contrast, the ({sup 14}C)acetoacetate formed from the ({omega}-1)labeled fatty acids contained 90% of the label at carbon 3 and 10% at carbon 1.

  10. Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammatory Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip C. Calder

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Long chain fatty acids influence inflammation through a variety of mechanisms; many of these are mediated by, or at least associated with, changes in fatty acid composition of cell membranes. Changes in these compositions can modify membrane fluidity, cell signaling leading to altered gene expression, and the pattern of lipid mediator production. Cell involved in the inflammatory response are typically rich in the n-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid, but the contents of arachidonic acid and of the n-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA can be altered through oral administration of EPA and DHA. Eicosanoids produced from arachidonic acid have roles in inflammation. EPA also gives rise to eicosanoids and these often have differing properties from those of arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids. EPA and DHA give rise to newly discovered resolvins which are anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving. Increased membrane content of EPA and DHA (and decreased arachidonic acid content results in a changed pattern of production of eicosanoids and resolvins. Changing the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response also affects production of peptide mediators of inflammation (adhesion molecules, cytokines etc.. Thus, the fatty acid composition of cells involved in the inflammatory response influences their function; the contents of arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA appear to be especially important. The anti-inflammatory effects of marine n-3 PUFAs suggest that they may be useful as therapeutic agents in disorders with an inflammatory component.

  11. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A P; Aggarwal, K K; Zhang, P-Y

    2015-01-01

    Cardioceuticals are nutritional supplements that contain all the essential nutrients including vitamins, minerals, omega-3-fatty acids and other antioxidants like a-lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10 in the right proportion that provide all round protection to the heart by reducing the most common risks associated with the cardiovascular disease including high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels and factors that contribute to coagulation of blood. Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to significantly reduce the risk for sudden death caused by cardiac arrhythmias and all-cause mortality in patients with known coronary heart disease. Omega-3 fatty acids are also used to treat hyperlipidemia and hypertension. There are no significant drug interactions with omega-3 fatty acids. The American Heart Association recommends consumption of two servings of fish per week for persons with no history of coronary heart disease and at least one serving of fish daily for those with known coronary heart disease. Approximately 1 g/day of eicosapentaenoic acid plus docosahexaenoic acid is recommended for cardio protection. Higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids are required to reduce elevated triglyceride levels (2-4 g/day). Modest decreases in blood pressure occur with significantly higher dosages of omega-3 fatty acids.

  12. Trans fatty acids and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T A; McIntyre, M; Nicolosi, R J

    2001-01-01

    Trans fatty acids are found in partially hydrogenated vegetable oil, in meats, and in dairy products. Their effect on blood cholesterol concentrations was examined decades ago, but recently there has been renewed interest in understanding how trans fatty acids affect blood lipids and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations. Current advice to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk includes decreasing the consumption of saturated and total fat to help manage blood cholesterol concentrations. Saturated fat contributes significantly to total fat intake and markedly raises blood cholesterol concentrations. Trans fatty acids, which are consumed in much smaller quantities, have been shown to be modestly hypercholesterolemic in studies that have substituted hydrogenated vegetable oils for unhydrogenated oils. In contrast, when partially hydrogenated vegetable oils containing trans fatty acids are substituted for cholesterol-raising saturated fats, blood cholesterol levels are reduced. Partially hydrogenated vegetable oils are used in place of saturated fat in many food products. These foods can help consumers lower their saturated fat intake to achieve dietary recommendations. The following review critically examines the role of hydrogenated fats in the food supply, the metabolism of trans fatty acids, and the scientific literature surrounding the effects of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and trans fatty acids on blood cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk.

  13. Possibilities for preventing fatty liver in cows during peripartal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šamanc Horea

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of these investigations was to examine possibilities for preventing fatty liver in cows during the peripartal period using the preparation HEPARENOL which includes methionine, lysine and choline in its composition. Investigations were performed on cattle of the Holstein breed whose average production during their last lactation was 8120 liters. The cows included in the experiment were divided into three groups of 10 cows each. Cows of the first group were administered the preparation HEPARENOL perorally 5-7 days before partus in daily doses of 50 ml per animal, and then daily during the first seven days after parturition in daily doses of 100 ml per animal. The second group of cows were administered the preparation in the same way as the first group, but they also received vitamin C injected deep i.m. in doses of 1000 mg per animal per day. The third group of cows were not exposed to any treatment and served as the control group. The body condition of the cows was marked according to the system Elanco Animal Health Bulletin Al 8478. Blood samples were taken by puncture of the jugular vein before the beginning of treatment, and on the third and 12th days after partus. The glucose concentration was determined in the blood samples. On the 12th day after partus, liver tissue samples were taken by biopsy for pathohistological examinations. Since the cows were fed in the same way and were in the same phase of the production-reproduction cycle, the average score of the body condition before treatment was approximately the same. However, on the 3rd day after partus, cows of the second experimental group showed average values that were significantly lower in comparison with the other two groups of cows. It is very interesting that a significantly lower value of glycemia (x=1.93±0.34 mmol/l was established in the same group of cows at this time. In cows of the first experimental and the control group, glycemia was approximately the same

  14. Omega-3 fatty acids as adjunctive therapy in Crohns disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Angie

    2006-01-01

    Crohns disease is an inflammatory bowel disease that can have a significant impact on the health of those afflicted. The etiology of the disease is unknown, but genetic, environmental, dietary, and immunological factors are thought to be involved. Multiple nutrients can become depleted during active disease due to inadequate intake or malabsorption. Preventing these deficiencies is paramount in the care of those suffering from Crohns disease. Often the traditional treatments (medications) have limited effectiveness and negative side effects that inhibit their use. Enteral nutrition has promising therapeutic benefits, but its use is often limited to the pediatric population due to poor patient acceptability. Omega-3 fatty acids have been investigated for their anti-inflammatory properties as an alternative to traditional care. This article reviews the etiology of Crohns disease, nutritional deficiencies, traditional treatments, and the use of omega-3 fatty acids in the prevention of Crohns recurrence. The results from clinical trials have been conflicting, but a new fish oil preparation that limits the side effects of traditional fish oil therapy shows promise as an adjunctive treatment for Crohns disease. Continued research is needed to validate these findings.

  15. Dynamic regulation of fatty acid pools for improved production of fatty alcohols in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Paulo Gonçalves; Ferreira, Raphael; Zhou, Yongjin J; Siewers, Verena; Nielsen, Jens

    2017-03-15

    In vivo production of fatty acid-derived chemicals in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires strategies to increase the intracellular supply of either acyl-CoA or free fatty acids (FFAs), since their cytosolic concentrations are quite low in a natural state for this organism. Deletion of the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase genes FAA1 and FAA4 is an effective and straightforward way to disable re-activation of fatty acids and drastically increase FFA levels. However, this strategy causes FFA over-accumulation and consequential release to the extracellular medium, which results in a significant loss of precursors that compromises the process yield. In the present study, we aimed for dynamic expression of the fatty acyl-CoA synthetase gene FAA1 to regulate FFA and acyl-CoA pools in order to improve fatty alcohol production yields. We analyzed the metabolite dynamics of a faa1Δ faa4Δ strain constitutively expressing a carboxylic acid reductase from Mycobacterium marinum (MmCAR) and an endogenous alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh5) for in vivo production of fatty alcohols from FFAs. We observed production of fatty acids and fatty alcohols with different rates leading to high levels of FFAs not being converted to the final product. To address the issue, we expressed the MmCAR + Adh5 pathway together with a fatty acyl-CoA reductase from Marinobacter aquaeolei to enable fatty alcohol production simultaneously from FFA and acyl-CoA, respectively. Then, we expressed FAA1 under the control of different promoters in order to balance FFA and acyl-CoA interconversion rates and to achieve optimal levels for conversion to fatty alcohols. Expressing FAA1 under control of the HXT1 promoter led to an increased accumulation of fatty alcohols per OD600 up to 41% while FFA levels were decreased by 63% compared with the control strain. Fine-tuning and dynamic regulation of key metabolic steps can be used to improve cell factories when the rates of downstream reactions are limiting. This avoids loss of

  16. [Omega-3 fatty acids in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourre, Jean-Marie

    2005-02-01

    The brain is one of the organs with the highest level of lipids (fats). Brain lipids, formed of fatty acids, participate in the structure of membranes, for instance 50 % fatty acids are polyunsaturated in the gray matter, 1/3 are of the omega-3 family, and are thus of dietary origin. The omega-3 fatty acids (mainly alpha-linolenic acid, ALA) participated in one of the first experimental demonstration of the effect of dietary substances (nutrients) on the structure and function of the brain. Experiments were first of all carried out on ex vivo cultured brain cells, then on in vivo brain cells (neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes) from animals fed ALA deficient diet, finally on physicochemical (membrane fluidity), biochemical, physiological, neurosensory (vision an auditory responses), and behavioural or learning parameters. These findings indicated that the nature of polyunsaturated fatty acids (in particular omega-3) present in formula milks for human infants determines to a certain extend the visual, neurological, and intellectual abilities. Thus, in view of these results and of the high polyunsaturated fatty acid content of the brain, it is normal to consider that they could be involved in psychiatric diseases and in the cognitive decline of ageing. Omega-3 fatty acids appear effective in the prevention of stress, however their role as regulator of mood is a matter for discussion. Indeed, they play a role in the prevention of some disorders including depression (especially post partum), as well as in dementia, particularly Alzheimer's disease. Their role in major depression and bipolar disorder (manic-depressive disease), only poorly documented, is not clearly demonstrated. The intervention of omega-3 in dyslexia, autism, and schizophrenia has been suggested, but it does not necessarily infer a nutritional problems. The respective importance of the vascular system (where the omega-3 are actually active) and the cerebral parenchyma itself, remain to be

  17. Enzymatic synthesis of palm olein-based fatty thiohydroxamic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mulla, Emad A Jaffar; Yunus, Wan Md Zin Wan; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa Bt; Rahman, Mohd Zaki Ab

    2010-01-01

    Fatty thiohydroxamic acids (FTAs) have been successfully synthesized from palm olein and thiohydroxamic acid by a one-step lipase catalyzed reaction. The use of immobilized lipase (Lipozyme RMIM) as the catalyst for the preparation reaction provides an easy isolation of the enzyme from the products and other components in the reaction mixture. The FTAs were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) technique and elemental analysis. The highest conversion percentage (95 %) was obtained when the process was carried out for 30 hours using urea to palm oil ratio of 6.0: 1.0 at 40 °C. The method employed offers several advantages such as renewable and abundant of the raw material, simple reaction procedure, environmentally friendly process and high yield of the product.

  18. Pectin functionalized with natural fatty acids as antimicrobial agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calce, Enrica; Mignogna, Eleonora; Bugatti, Valeria; Galdiero, Massimiliano; Vittoria, Vittoria; De Luca, Stefania

    2014-07-01

    Several pectin derivatives were prepared by chemical modifications of the polysaccharide with natural fatty acids. The obtained biodegradable pectin-based materials, pectin-linoleate, pectin-oleate and pectin-palmitate, were investigated for their antimicrobial activity against several bacterial strains, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Good results were obtained for pectin-oleate and pectin-linoleate, which inhibit the growth of the selected microorganisms by 50-70%. They exert the better antimicrobial activity against S. aureus. Subsequently, the pectin-oleate and the pectin-linoleate samples were coated on polyethylene films and were assessed for their capacity to capture the oxygen molecules, reducing its penetration into the polymeric support. These results confirmed a possible application of the new materials in the field of active food packaging.

  19. Reaction kinetics of free fatty acids esterification in palm fatty acid distillate using coconut shell biochar sulfonated catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Arif; Rochmadi, Wijaya, Karna; Budiman, Arief

    2015-12-01

    Recently, a new strategy of preparing novel carbon-based solid acids has been developed. In this research, the esterification reactions of Palm Fatty Acid Distillate (PFAD) with methanol, using coconut shell biochar sulfonated catalyst from biomass wastes as catalyst, were studied. In this study, the coconut shell biochar sulfonated catalysts were synthesized by sulfonating the coconut shell biochar using concentrated H2SO4. The kinetics of free fatty acid (FFA) esterification in PFAD using a coconut shell biochar sulfonated catalyst was also studied. The effects of the mass ratio of catalyst to oil (1-10%), the molar ratio of methanol to oil (6:1-12:1), and the reaction temperature (40-60°C) were studied for the conversion of PFAD to optimize the reaction conditions. The results showed that the optimal conditions were an methanol to PFAD molar ratio of 12:1, the amount of catalyst of 10%w, and reaction temperature of 60°C. The proposed kinetic model shows a reversible second order reaction and represents all the experimental data satisfactorily, providing deeper insight into the kinetics of the reaction.

  20. Understanding the complexity of trans fatty acid reduction in the American diet: American Heart Association Trans Fat Conference 2006: report of the Trans Fat Conference Planning Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckel, Robert H; Borra, Susan; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Yin-Piazza, Shirley Y

    2007-04-24

    A 2-day forum was convened to discuss the current status and future implications of reducing trans fatty acids without increasing saturated fats in the food supply while maintaining functionality and consumer acceptance of packaged, processed, and prepared foods. Attendees represented the agriculture and oilseed industry and oil processing, food manufacturing, food service, government, food technology, and health and nutrition disciplines. Presentations included food science behind fatty acid technology, the health science of dietary fatty acids, alternatives to trans fatty acids, and the use of alternatives in food manufacturing and food service. The reduction of trans fatty acids in the food supply is a complex issue involving interdependent and interrelated stakeholders. Actions to reduce trans fatty acids need to carefully consider both intended and unintended consequences related to nutrition and public health. The unintended consequence of greatest concern is that fats and oils high in saturated fats, instead of the healthier unsaturated fats, might be used to replace fats and oils with trans fatty acids. Many different options of alternative oils and fats to replace trans fatty acids are available or in development. Decisions on the use of these alternatives need to consider availability, health effects, research and development investments, reformulated food quality and taste, supply-chain management, operational modifications, consumer acceptance, and cost. The conference demonstrated the value of collaboration between the food industry and health and nutrition professionals, and this conference model should be used to address other food development, processing, and/or technology issues.

  1. Proportions of rumen volatile fatty acids in relation to milk fatty acid profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaeminck, B.; Fievez, V.; Dhanoa, M.S.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Dewhurst, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted in order to develop and validate principal component (PC) regressions for predicting rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) proportions, based on a combination of milk odd and branched chain fatty acids (MOBCFA). Grass- or legume silage and concentrate-based diets were fed

  2. Effect of variations in the fatty acid chain on functional properties of oligofructose fatty acid esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, van S.E.H.J.; Schols, H.A.; Linden, van der E.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Oligofructose fatty acid esters are surfactants that considerably lower the surface tension of an air/water interface, provide the interface with a high dilatational modulus and lead to a high foam stability. In this study, we investigate the effect of the molecular structure of oligofructose fatty

  3. Analysis of mixtures of fatty acids and fatty alcohols in fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yilan; Chen, Ting; Yang, Maohua; Wang, Caixia; Huo, Weiyan; Yan, Daojiang; Chen, Jinjin; Zhou, Jiemin; Xing, Jianmin

    2014-01-03

    Microbial production of fatty acids and fatty alcohols has attracted increasing concerns because of energy crisis and environmental impact of fossil fuels. Therefore, simple and efficient methods for the extraction and quantification of these compounds become necessary. In this study, a high-performance liquid chromatography-refractive index detection (HPLC-RID) method was developed for the simultaneous quantification of fatty acids and fatty alcohols in these samples. The optimum chromatographic conditions are C18 column eluted with methanol:water:acetic acid (90:9.9:0.1, v/v/v); column temperature, 26°C; flow rate, 1.0mL/min. Calibration curves of all selected analytes showed good linearity (r(2)≥0.9989). The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the 10 compounds were less than 4.46% and 5.38%, respectively, which indicated that the method had good repeatability and precision. Besides, a method for simultaneous extraction of fatty acids and fatty alcohols from fermentation broth was optimized by orthogonal design. The optimal extraction conditions were as follows: solvent, ethyl acetate; solvent to sample ratio, 0.5:1; rotation speed, 2min at 260rpm; extraction temperature, 10°C. This study provides simple and fast methods to simultaneously extract and quantify fatty acids and fatty alcohols for the first time. It will be useful for the study of microbial production of these products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Fortification of foods with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Brothersen, Carl; McMahon, Donald J

    2014-01-01

    A $600 million nutritional supplements market growing at 30% every year attests to consumer awareness of, and interests in, health benefits attributed to these supplements. For over 80 years the importance of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) consumption for human health has been established. The FDA recently approved the use of ω-3 PUFAs in supplements. Additionally, the market for ω-3 PUFA ingredients grew by 24.3% last year, which affirms their popularity and public awareness of their benefits. PUFAs are essential for normal human growth; however, only minor quantities of the beneficial ω-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are synthesized by human metabolism. Rather PUFAs are obtained via dietary or nutritional supplementation and modified into other beneficial metabolites. A vast literature base is available on the health benefits and biological roles of ω-3 PUFAs and their metabolism; however, information on their dietary sources and palatability of foods incorporated with ω-3 PUFAs is limited. DHA and EPA are added to many foods that are commercially available, such as infant and pet formulae, and they are also supplemented in animal feed to incorporate them in consumer dairy, meat, and poultry products. The chief sources of EPA and DHA are fish oils or purified preparations from microalgae, which when added to foods, impart a fishy flavor that is considered unacceptable. This fishy flavor is completely eliminated by extensively purifying preparations of n-3 PUFA sources. While n-3 PUFA lipid autoxidation is considered the main cause of fishy flavor, the individual oxidation products identified thus far, such as unsaturated carbonyls, do not appear to contribute to fishy flavor or odor. Alternatively, various compound classes such as free fatty acids and volatile sulfur compounds are known to impart fishy flavor to foods. Identification of the causative compounds to reduce and eventually eliminate fishy flavor is important

  5. Screening of the entire USDA castor germplasm collection for oil content and fatty acid composition for optimum biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming Li; Morris, J Bradley; Tonnis, Brandon; Pinnow, David; Davis, Jerry; Raymer, Paul; Pederson, Gary A

    2011-09-14

    Castor has tremendous potential as a feedstock for biodiesel production. The oil content and fatty acid composition in castor seed are important factors determining the price for production and affecting the key fuel properties of biodiesel. There are 1033 available castor accessions collected or donated from 48 countries worldwide in the USDA germplasm collection. The entire castor collection was screened for oil content and fatty acid composition by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. Castor seeds on the average contain 48.2% oil with significant variability ranging from 37.2 to 60.6%. Methyl esters were prepared from castor seed by alkaline transmethylation. GC analysis of methyl esters confirmed that castor oil was composed primarily of eight fatty acids: 1.48% palmitic (C16:0), 1.58% stearic (C18:0), 4.41% oleic (C18:1), 6.42% linoleic (C18:2), 0.68% linolenic (C18:3), 0.45% gadoleic (C20:1), 84.51% ricinoleic (C18:1-1OH), and 0.47% dihydroxystearic (C18:0-2OH) acids. Significant variability in fatty acid composition was detected among castor accessions. Ricinoleic acid (RA) was positively correlated with dihydroxystearic acid (DHSA) but highly negatively correlated with the five other fatty acids except linolenic acid. The results for oil content and fatty acid composition obtained from this study will be useful for end-users to explore castor germplasm for biodiesel production.

  6. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourre, Jean-Marie

    2007-01-01

    This review details the specific needs of women for omega-3 fatty acids, including alpha linoleic acid (ALA) and the very long chain fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acid (dietary or in capsules) ensures that a woman's adipose tissue contains a reserve of these fatty acids for the developing fetus and the breast-fed newborn infant. This ensures the optimal cerebral and cognitive development of the infant. The presence of large quantities of EPA and DHA in the diet slightly lengthens pregnancy, and improves its quality. Human milk contains both ALA and DHA, unlike that of other mammals. Conditions such as diabetes can alter the fatty acid profile of mother's milk, while certain diets, like those of vegetarians, vegans, or even macrobiotic diets, can have the same effect, if they do not include seafood. ALA, DHA and EPA, are important for preventing ischemic cardiovascular disease in women of all ages. Omega-3 fatty acids can help to prevent the development of certain cancers, particularly those of the breast and colon, and possibly of the uterus and the skin, and are likely to reduce the risk of postpartum depression, manic-depressive psychosis, dementias (Alzheimer's disease and others), hypertension, toxemia, diabetes and, to a certain extend, age-related macular degeneration. Omega-3 fatty acids could play a positive role in the prevention of menstrual syndrome and postmenopausal hot flushes. The normal western diet contains little ALA (less than 50% of the RDA). The only adequate sources are rapeseed oil (canola), walnuts and so-called "omega-3" eggs (similar to wild-type or Cretan eggs). The amounts of EPA and DHA in the diet vary greatly from person to person. The only good sources are fish and seafood, together with "omega-3" eggs.

  7. Production of unusual fatty acids in rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roscoe Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable-derived oils are of interest for industrial applications partly because of the chemical similarity of plant oils to mineral oils but also because of the economic need to reduce overproduction of seed oils for nutritional use. Complex oils can be produced in seeds as a low cost agricultural product based on renewable solar energy that requires less refining and is biodegradable and thus produces less adverse effects on the environment. In addition, biotechnologies have accelerated selection programmes and increased the genetic diversity available for the development of new varieties of oilseeds with specific fatty acid compositions. In the developing oilseed, energy and carbon are stored as lipid under the form of triacylglycerol, that is, a glycerol molecule to which three fatty acids are esterified. Fatty acids comprise a linear chain of carbon atoms, the first of which carries an organic acid group. The chain length and the presence of double bonds determine the properties of the fatty acid which in turn determine the physical and chemical properties of the oil of storage lipids and hence their economic value. In addition to the common C16- and C18-saturated and unsaturated fatty acids of membrane lipids, the seed storage lipids of many plant species contain unusual fatty acids (UFAs which can vary in chain length, in the degree of unsaturation, possess double bonds in unusual positions, or can contain additional functional groups such as hydroxy, epoxy, cyclic and acetylenic groups [1]. These unusual fatty acids are of value as industrial feedstocks and their uses include the production of fuels and lubricants, soap and detergents, paints and varnishes, adhesives and plastics (Figure 1.

  8. Rheological profiling of organogels prepared at critical gelling concentrations of natural waxes in a triacylglycerol solvent

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Ashok; Babaahmadifooladi, Mehrnoosh; Lesaffer, Ans; Dewettinck, Koen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to use a detailed rheological characterization to gain new insights into the gelation behavior of natural waxes. To make a comprehensive case, six natural waxes (differing in the relative proportion of chemical components: hydrocarbons, fatty alcohols, fatty acids, and wax esters) were selected as organogelators to gel high-oleic sunflower oil. Flow and dynamic rheological properties of organogels prepared at critical gelling concentrations (Cg) of waxes were studied...

  9. Omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: epidemiology and effects on cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Trevor A

    2014-09-01

    Clinical and epidemiological studies provide support that the polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid from fish and fish oils are cardioprotective, particularly in the setting of secondary prevention. Omega-3 fatty acids benefit multiple cardiometabolic risk factors including lipids, blood pressure, vascular reactivity and cardiac function, as well as having antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative actions. Omega-3 fatty acids do not associate with any adverse effects and do not adversely interact with prescriptive drugs such as lipid-lowering, antihypertensive or hypoglycaemic medications. Clinical studies suggest that doses up to 4 g daily when prescribed with anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs do not associate with increased risk of major bleeding episodes. Omega-3 fatty acids have gained widespread usage by general practitioners and clinicians in clinical settings such as pregnancy and infant development, secondary prevention in coronary heart disease patients and treatment of dyslipidaemias. Health authorities currently recommend an intake of at least two oily fish meals per week for the general population which equates to approximately 500 mg per day of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. In patients with coronary heart disease the guidelines recommend 1 g daily supplements and in hypertriglyceridaemic patients up to 4 g per day. These doses are now achievable with readily available purified encapsulated preparations of omega-3 fatty acids. However, a more practical recommendation for increasing omega-3 fatty acid intake in the general population is to incorporate fish as part of a healthy diet that includes increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, and moderation of salt intake.

  10. Probing fatty acid metabolism in bacteria, cyanobacteria, green microalgae and diatoms with natural and unnatural fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beld, Joris; Abbriano, Raffaela; Finzel, Kara; Hildebrand, Mark; Burkart, Michael D

    2016-04-01

    In both eukaryotes and prokaryotes, fatty acid synthases are responsible for the biosynthesis of fatty acids in an iterative process, extending the fatty acid by two carbon units every cycle. Thus, odd numbered fatty acids are rarely found in nature. We tested whether representatives of diverse microbial phyla have the ability to incorporate odd-chain fatty acids as substrates for their fatty acid synthases and their downstream enzymes. We fed various odd and short chain fatty acids to the bacterium Escherichia coli, cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, green microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. Major differences were observed, specifically in the ability among species to incorporate and elongate short chain fatty acids. We demonstrate that E. coli, C. reinhardtii, and T. pseudonana can produce longer fatty acid products from short chain precursors (C3 and C5), while Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 lacks this ability. However, Synechocystis can incorporate and elongate longer chain fatty acids due to acyl-acyl carrier protein synthetase (AasS) activity, and knockout of this protein eliminates the ability to incorporate these fatty acids. In addition, expression of a characterized AasS from Vibrio harveyii confers a similar capability to E. coli. The ability to desaturate exogenously added fatty acids was only observed in Synechocystis and C. reinhardtii. We further probed fatty acid metabolism of these organisms by feeding desaturase inhibitors to test the specificity of long-chain fatty acid desaturases. In particular, supplementation with thia fatty acids can alter fatty acid profiles based on the location of the sulfur in the chain. We show that coupling sensitive gas chromatography mass spectrometry to supplementation of unnatural fatty acids can reveal major differences between fatty acid metabolism in various organisms. Often unnatural fatty acids have antibacterial or even therapeutic properties. Feeding of short

  11. Production of ethoxylated fatty acids derived from Jatropha non-edible oil as a nonionic fat-liquoring agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shattory, Y; Abo-Elwafa, Ghada A; Aly, Saadia M; Nashy, El-Shahat H A

    2012-01-01

    Natural fatty derivatives (oleochemicals) have been used as intermediate materials in several industries replacing the harmful and expensive petrochemicals. Fatty ethoxylates are one of these natural fatty derivatives. In the present work Jatropha fatty acids were derived from the non edible Jatropha oil and used as the fat source precursor. The ethoxylation process was carried out on the derived fatty acids using a conventional cheap catalyst (K₂CO₃) in order to obtain economically and naturally valuable non-ionic surfactants. Ethoxylation reaction was proceeded using ethylene oxide gas in the presence of 1 or 2% K₂CO₃ catalyst at 120 and 145°C for 5, 8 and 12 hours. The prepared products were evaluated for their chemical and physical properties as well as its application as non- ionic fat-liquoring agents in leather industry. The obtained results showed that the number of ethylene oxide groups introduced in the fatty acids as well as their EO% increased as the temperature and time of the reaction increased. The highest ethoxylation number was obtained at 145°C for 8 hr. Also, the prepared ethoxylated products were found to be effective fat-liquors with high HLB values giving stable oil in water emulsions. The fat-liquored leather led to an improvement in its mechanical properties such as tensile strength and elongation at break. In addition, a significant enhancement in the texture of the treated leather by the prepared fat-liquors as indicated from the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images was observed.

  12. Effects of Different High Fat Diets on Fatty Acid Composition of Skeletal Muscle and Liver in Nude Mice Bearing Pancreatic Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-jie DUAN; Feng WANG; Zhong-wen LIU; Ming YU

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impacts of different dietary fatty acids on fatty acid composition in skeletal muscle and liver in nude mice bearing pancreatic cancer.MethodsSixty C57BL/6 nude mice were randomly divided into 6 groups: saturated fatty acid-fed group (SFA group), monounsaturated fatty acid-fed group (MUFA group), n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid-fed group (n-6 PUFA group), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid-fed group (n-3 PUFA group), iso-caloric control (ISO-C) and normal control (NC). Four high fat diets containing 15% oils derived from coconut (SFA group), olive (MUFA group), soybean (n-6 PUFA group) andflaxseed (n-3 PUFA group) respectively, were prepared. ISO-C and NC groups were fed diet containing 4%-5% soybean oil. After one week of feeding, HPAF-Ⅱ human pancreatic cancer cells were transplanted orthotopically. The mice were fed corresponding diets in the following 14 weeks and then sacrificed. Skeletal muscle and liver tissues were sampled. Fatty acids in the samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.ResultsFatty acid composition of skeletal muscle and liver were similar between ISO-C group and NC group.Compared to ISO-C group, the contents of fatty acids in skeletal muscle were: (1) palmitic acid (C16:0), hepentadecane acid (C17:0), stearic acid (C18:0) and arachidonic acid (C20:0) increased inSFA group (P< 0.05); (2)oleic acid (C18:1) increased in MUFA group (P< 0.05); (3)γ-linolenic acid (γ-C18:3) increased in n-6 PUFA group (P<0.05);(4) linolenic acid (C18:3), eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) and clupanodonic acid (C22:5) increased in n-3 PUFA group (P<0.05). In the liver, the contents of fatty acids were: (1) saturated fatty acids not increased in SFA group; (2) eicosenoic acid (C20:1) increased in MUFA group (P< 0.05); (3) eicosadienoic acid (C20:2) and arachidonic acid (C20:4) increased in n-6 PUFA group (P < 0.05); (4) linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, clupanodonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid increased in n-3 PUFA

  13. Obesity, fatty liver and liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yan; Fan, Jian-Gao

    2005-05-01

    It has been suggested that obesity and fatty liver may be associated with the morbidity and mortality of liver cancer, and the early diagnosis and effective treatment of fatty liver coupled with liver cancer are supposed to improve the prognosis of obese patients. This review was attempted to understand the relationship between obesity, fatty liver and liver cancer. An English-language literature search using PUBMED (1990-2004) on obesity, fatty liver and liver cancer and other related articles in Chinese. Obesity is associated with the risk of death from all cancers and from cancers at individual sites including liver cancer, and it is an independent risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and cryptogenic cirrhosis. Because nonalcoholic steatohepatitis has been implicated as a major cause of cryptogenic cirrhosis, the development of HCC may be part of progressive nature of this condition. Obesity is associated with the incidence and mortality of HCC. More frequent surveillance for HCC may be warranted in obese patients with fatty liver and attempts should be made to interrupt the progression from simple hepatic steatosis to steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and ultimately HCC.

  14. Preparation of deglycosylated egg white avidin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, E A; De Meester, F; Kulik, T; Wilchek, M

    1995-04-01

    A simple procedure for the preparation of deglycosylated avidin is described. Commercially obtained avidin was treated with a mixed microbial culture. The cells were capable of growing on the oligosaccharide residues, but generally ignored the polypeptide portion of the egg white glycoprotein. The resultant deglycosylated avidin retained its biotin-binding characteristics. The major bacterial strain (strain BECH080), responsible for the deglycosylation, was isolated. On the basis of elementary biochemical tests, fatty acid, and phenotypic analyses, the isolate was identified as a strain of Flavobacterium meningosepticum. The primary enzymatic activity that caused the removal of the oligosaccharide residues of avidin appeared to be similar to endoglycosidase F.

  15. Five Decades with Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: Chemical Synthesis, Enzymatic Formation, Lipid Peroxidation and Its Biological Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Catalá

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available I have been involved in research on polyunsaturated fatty acids since 1964 and this review is intended to cover some of the most important aspects of this work. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have followed me during my whole scientific career and I have published a number of studies concerned with different aspects of them such as chemical synthesis, enzymatic formation, metabolism, transport, physical, chemical, and catalytic properties of a reconstructed desaturase system in liposomes, lipid peroxidation, and their effects. The first project I became involved in was the organic synthesis of [1-14C] eicosa-11,14-dienoic acid, with the aim of demonstrating the participation of that compound as a possible intermediary in the biosynthesis of arachidonic acid “in vivo.” From 1966 to 1982, I was involved in several projects that study the metabolism of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In the eighties, we studied fatty acid binding protein. From 1990 up to now, our laboratory has been interested in the lipid peroxidation of biological membranes from various tissues and different species as well as liposomes prepared with phospholipids rich in PUFAs. We tested the effect of many antioxidants such as alpha tocopherol, vitamin A, melatonin and its structural analogues, and conjugated linoleic acid, among others.

  16. Bilayers and wormlike micelles at high pH in fatty acid soap systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenlong; Liu, Huizhong; Song, Aixin; Hao, Jingcheng

    2016-03-01

    Bilayers at high pH in the fatty acid systems of palmitic acid/KOH/H2O, palmitic acid/CsOH/H2O, stearic acid/KOH/H2O and stearic acid/CsOH/H2O can form spontaneously (Xu et al., 2014, 2015). In this work, the bilayers can still be observed at 25°C with an increase of the concentration of fatty acids. We found that wormlike micelles can also be prepared in the fatty acid soap systems at high pH, even though the temperature was increased to be 50°C. The viscoelasticity, apparent viscosity, yield stress of the bilayers were determined by the rheological measurements. Wormlike micelles were identified by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) and emphasized by the rheological characterizations, which are in accordance with the Maxwell fluids with good fit of Cole-Cole plots. The phase transition temperature was determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the transition process was recorded. The regulating role of counterions of fatty acids were discussed by (CH3)4N(+), (C2H5)4N(+), (C3H7)4N(+), and (C4H9)4N(+) as comparison, concluding that counterions with appropriate hydrated radius were the vital factor in the formation wormlike micelles.

  17. FAT SOLUBLE VITAMINS AND FATTY ACIDS COMPOSITION OF BLACK SEA CYSTOSEIRA BARBATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselina Panayotova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Brown alga Cystoseira barbata is the most widely distributed seaweed in the Black Sea. There is limited information about fat soluble vitamins content and fatty acids composition of this specie from Bulgarian Black Sea coast. The aim of this study was to determine fat soluble vitamins, pigments, total lipid and fatty acid composition of Cystoseira barbata. Fat soluble vitamins (vitamin E and D, pigments (β-carotene and astaxanthin and total cholesterol were analyzed simultaneously using HPLC/UV/FL system equipped with RP analytical column. Sample preparation procedure includes alkaline saponification, followed by liquid-liquid extraction. Brown seaweed Cystoseira barbata contained high amounts of α-tocopherol and β-carotene. Lipids were extracted by following the method of Bligh and Dyer. The residual lipid fraction was methylated using base-catalyzed transmethylation with methanolic potassium hydroxide. Fatty acid composition was analyzed by GC/MS. Cystoseira barbata was rich in linoleic (C18:2n6 and eicosopentaenoic acid (C20:5n3 although total lipid content was generally low. High levels of α-tocopherol correlate with high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids. As an antioxidant α-tocopherol preserves tissue PUFA from oxidation.

  18. Fatty Acid Composition of Tobacco Seed Oil and Synthesis of Alkyd Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MUKHTAR,Azam; ULLAH,Habib; MUKHTAR,Hamid

    2007-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of tobacco seed oil revealed that the oil is rich in unsaturated fatty acids, having linoleic acid (71.63%), oleic acid (13.46%) and palmitic acid (8.72%) as the most abundant unsaturated and saturated fatty acids respectively. So the tobacco oil was characterized as semi-drying type on the basis of fatty acid composition. The synthesis of alkyd resin was carried out by alcoholysis or monoglyceride process using an alkali refined tobacco seed oil, pentaerythritol, cis-1,2,3,6-tetrahydrophthalic anhydride along with lithium hydroxide as catalyst.The alkyd resin so prepared was found to be bright and of low color with high gloss. The drying and hardness properties and adhesion of the tobacco seed oil derived alkyd resin were also found a bit superior to those of other alkyd resins of the same oil length. In addition, the water and acid resistance of the said alkyd was also found comparable to the other alkyds.

  19. Prevalent mutations in fatty acid oxidation disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, N; Andresen, B S; Bross, P

    2000-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The mutational spectrum in a given disease-associated gene is often comprised of a large number of different mutations, of which a single or a few are present in a large proportion of diseased individuals. Such prevalent mutations are known in four genes of the fatty acid oxidation: t...... of the disease in question and determination of the carrier frequency in the general population may help in elucidating the penetrance of the genotype. This is exemplified in disorders of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation....

  20. Cold Flow Properties of Fatty Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Kleinová

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of cold fl ow properties of neat esters of branched chain alcohols with fatty acids and blends of these esters with fossil diesel fuel. According to the determined CFPP values, the influence of alcohol branching on the fuel filterability is negligible and was detected only in the case of 2-ethyl hexanol. Fossil fuel blending with fatty esters up to 10 % vol. does not substantially change the cold flow properties of fossil fuel. DSC cooling scan parameters should be employed to predict CFPP of blended diesel fuel.

  1. Omega 3 fatty acids and the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakiner-Egilmez, Tulay

    2008-01-01

    The health benefits of fish oil have been known for decades. Most of the health benefits of fish oil can be attributed to the presence of omega-3 essential fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Clinical studies have suggested that DHA and EPA lower triglycerides; slow the buildup of atherosclerotic plaques; lower blood pressure slightly; as well as reduce the risk of death, heart attack, and arrhythmias. Studies have also shown that omega-3 fatty acids may slow the progression of vision loss from AMD and reverse the signs of dry eye syndrome.

  2. Fatty acids, eicosanoids and PPAR gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion-Letellier, Rachel; Savoye, Guillaume; Ghosh, Subrata

    2016-08-15

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) belongs to the family of nuclear nuclear receptors and is mainly expressed in adipose tissue, hematopoietic cells and the large intestine. Contrary to other nuclear receptors that mainly bind a single specific ligand, there are numerous natural PPARγ ligands, in particular fatty acids or their derivatives called eicosanoids. PPARγ have pleiotropic functions: (i) glucose and lipid metabolism regulation, (ii) anti-inflammatory properties, (iii) oxidative stress inhibition, (iv) improvement of endothelial function. Its role has been mainly studied by the use synthetic agonists. In this review, we will focus on the effects of PPARγ mediated through fatty acids and how these have beneficial health properties.

  3. Cells and methods for producing fatty alcohols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F.; Youngquist, Tyler J.

    2017-07-18

    Recombinant cells and methods for improved yield of fatty alcohols. The recombinant cells harbor a recombinant thioesterase gene, a recombinant acyl-CoA synthetase gene, and a recombinant acyl-CoA reductase gene. In addition, a gene product from one or more of an acyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene, an enoyl-CoA hydratase gene, a 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase gene, and a 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase gene in the recombinant cells is functionally deleted. Culturing the recombinant cells produces fatty alcohols at high yields.

  4. SLC27 fatty acid transport proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Courtney M; Stahl, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The uptake and metabolism of long chain fatty acids (LCFA) are critical to many physiological and cellular processes. Aberrant accumulation or depletion of LCFA underlie the pathology of numerous metabolic diseases. Protein-mediated transport of LCFA has been proposed as the major mode of LCFA uptake and activation. Several proteins have been identified to be involved in LCFA uptake. This review focuses on the SLC27 family of fatty acid transport proteins, also known as FATPs, with an emphasis on the gain- and loss-of-function animal models that elucidate the functions of FATPs in vivo and how these transport proteins play a role in physiological and pathological situations.

  5. Fatty acid composition of forage herb species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warner, D.; Jensen, Søren Krogh; Cone, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    The use of alternative forage species in grasslands for intensive livestock production is receiving renewed attention. Data on fatty acid composition of herbs are scarce, so four herbs (Plantago lanceolata, Achillea millefolium, Cichorium intybus, Pastinaca sativa) and one grass species (timothy......, Phleum pratense) were sown in a cutting trial. The chemical composition and concentration of fatty acids (FA) of individual species were determined during the growing season. Concentrations of crude protein and FA were generally higher in the herbs than in timothy. C. intybus had the highest nutritive...

  6. Fatty acids and coronary heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Woodside, J.V.; Kromhout, D

    2005-01-01

    During the last century much evidence has accumulated to suggest that from a public health perspective the type of fat is more important than the amount of fat. Saturated and trans-fatty acids increase and both n-6 and n-3 PUFA decrease the risk of CHD. Most of the knowledge about the effects of dietary fatty acids on CHD risk is based on observational studies and controlled dietary experiments with intermediate end points (e.g. blood lipoprotein fractions). Information from high-quality rand...

  7. PPAR/RXR Regulation of Fatty Acid Metabolism and Fatty Acid -Hydroxylase (CYP4 Isozymes: Implications for Prevention of Lipotoxicity in Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Hardwick

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty liver disease is a common lipid metabolism disorder influenced by the combination of individual genetic makeup, drug exposure, and life-style choices that are frequently associated with metabolic syndrome, which encompasses obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistant diabetes. Common to obesity related dyslipidemia is the excessive storage of hepatic fatty acids (steatosis, due to a decrease in mitochondria -oxidation with an increase in both peroxisomal -oxidation, and microsomal -oxidation of fatty acids through peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs. How steatosis increases PPAR activated gene expression of fatty acid transport proteins, peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid -oxidation and -oxidation of fatty acids genes regardless of whether dietary fatty acids are polyunsaturated (PUFA, monounsaturated (MUFA, or saturated (SFA may be determined by the interplay of PPARs and HNF4 with the fatty acid transport proteins L-FABP and ACBP. In hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis, the -oxidation cytochrome P450 CYP4A gene expression is increased even with reduced hepatic levels of PPAR. Although numerous studies have suggested the role ethanol-inducible CYP2E1 in contributing to increased oxidative stress, Cyp2e1-null mice still develop steatohepatitis with a dramatic increase in CYP4A gene expression. This strongly implies that CYP4A fatty acid -hydroxylase P450s may play an important role in the development of steatohepatitis. In this review and tutorial, we briefly describe how fatty acids are partitioned by fatty acid transport proteins to either anabolic or catabolic pathways regulated by PPARs, and we explore how medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA CYP4A and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA CYP4F -hydroxylase genes are regulated in fatty liver. We finally propose a hypothesis that increased CYP4A expression with a decrease in CYP4F genes may promote the progression of steatosis to

  8. Technological Aspects of Chemoenzymatic Epoxidation of Fatty Acids, Fatty Acid Esters and Vegetable Oils: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugeniusz Milchert

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The general subject of the review is analysis of the effect of technological parameters on the chemoenzymatic epoxidation processes of vegetable oils, fatty acids and alkyl esters of fatty acids. The technological parameters considered include temperature, concentration, amount of hydrogen peroxide relative to the number of unsaturated bonds, the amounts of enzyme catalysts, presence of solvent and amount of free fatty acids. Also chemical reactions accompanying the technological processes are discussed together with different technological options and significance of the products obtained.

  9. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Revisited: Structure Elucidation and Metabolic Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beld, Joris; Lee, D. John

    2014-01-01

    Fatty acids are primary metabolites synthesized by complex, elegant, and essential biosynthetic machinery. Fatty acid synthases resemble an iterative assembly line, with an acyl carrier protein conveying the growing fatty acid to necessary enzymatic domains for modification. Each catalytic domain is a unique enzyme spanning a wide range of folds and structures. Although they harbor the same enzymatic activities, two different types of fatty acid synthase architectures are observed in nature. During recent years, strained petroleum supplies have driven interest in engineering organisms to either produce more fatty acids or specific high value products. Such efforts require a fundamental understanding of the enzymatic activities and regulation of fatty acid synthases. Despite more than one hundred years of research, we continue to learn new lessons about fatty acid synthases’ many intricate structural and regulatory elements. In this review, we summarize each enzymatic domain and discuss efforts to engineer fatty acid synthases, providing some clues to important challenges and opportunities in the field. PMID:25360565

  10. Short communication Fatty acid and cholesterol content, chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    This study aimed to determine the fatty acid and chemical composition and ... ground in a knife mill, homogenized and frozen at -18 ºC pending analysis in triplicate. .... 2008), the qualitative and quantitative fatty acid composition were different,.

  11. Solvent-free lipase-catalyzed preparation of diacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Nikolaus; Mukherjee, Kumar D

    2004-08-25

    Various methods have been applied for the enzymatic preparation of diacylglycerols that are used as dietary oils for weight reduction in obesity and related disorders. Interesterification of rapeseed oil triacylglycerols with commercial preparations of monoacylglycerols, such as Monomuls 90-O18, Mulgaprime 90, and Nutrisoft 55, catalyzed by immobilized lipase from Rhizomucor miehei (Lipozyme RM IM) in vacuo at 60 degrees C led to extensive (from 60 to 75%) formation of diacylglycerols. Esterification of rapeseed oil fatty acids with Nutrisoft, catalyzed by Lipozyme RM in vacuo at 60 degrees C, also led to extensive (from 60 to 70%) formation of diacylglycerols. Esterification of rapeseed oil fatty acids with glycerol in vacuo at 60 degrees C, catalyzed by Lipozyme RM and lipases from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipozyme TL IM) and Candida antarctica (lipase B, Novozym 435), also provided diacylglycerols, however, to a lower extent (40-45%). Glycerolysis of rapeseed oil triacylglycerols with glycerol in vacuo at 60 degrees C, catalyzed by Lipozyme TL and Novozym 435, led to diacylglycerols to the extent of fatty acids with Monomuls resulted in minor reduction of its activity. The products of esterification of rapeseed oil fatty acids with Monomuls and glycerol yielded upon short-path vacuum distillation residues (diacylglycerol oils) containing 66-70% diacylglycerols.

  12. 21 CFR 172.863 - Salts of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Salts of fatty acids. 172.863 Section 172.863 Food... Multipurpose Additives § 172.863 Salts of fatty acids. The food additive salts of fatty acids may be safely..., magnesium, potassium, and sodium salts of the fatty acids conforming with § 172.860 and/or oleic...

  13. Therapeutic Benefits Of ?-3 Fatty Acids from Fish

    OpenAIRE

    Samanta S Khora

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids play important roles in human nutrition and disease management. Fish are rich in Omega-3 Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (LC- PUFAs). Marine fish are the best source of these fatty acids. They typically include eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The major health maintenance and prevention of diseases recognized in EPA and DHA. These forms of fatty acids have excellent body usability com...

  14. Trans Fatty Acids: Their Chemical Structures, Formation and Dietary Intake

    OpenAIRE

    O. Daglioglu; Tasan, M.

    2005-01-01

    Trans fatty acids are unsaturated fatty acids with at least a double bond in trans configuration or geometry.The double-bond angle of the trans fatty acids is smaller than the cis isomeric configuration and the acylchain is more linear, resulting in a more rigid molecule with different physical properties such as a highermelting point and greater thermodynamic stability. These appear in dairy fat because of ruminal activity, andin hydrogenated oils. Trans unsaturated fatty acids are solid fat...

  15. Distinct fatty acid profile of ten brown macroalgae

    OpenAIRE

    Graça Silva; Pereira, Renato B.; Patrícia Valentão; Andrade, Paula B.; Carla Sousa

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the consumption of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids has beneficial effects on human health. In this work, ten brown macroalgae species collected along the Portuguese west coast were studied for their fatty acids composition by GC-MS after alkaline hydrolysis and derivatization. The results of this survey showed that different macroalgae from the same region display distinct fatty acids profile. Concerning ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic ac...

  16. Audio-visual aid in teaching "fatty liver".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Sambit; Kamath, Ullas; Rao, Guruprasad; Prakash, Jay; Mishra, Snigdha

    2016-05-06

    Use of audio visual tools to aid in medical education is ever on a rise. Our study intends to find the efficacy of a video prepared on "fatty liver," a topic that is often a challenge for pre-clinical teachers, in enhancing cognitive processing and ultimately learning. We prepared a video presentation of 11:36 min, incorporating various concepts of the topic, while keeping in view Mayer's and Ellaway guidelines for multimedia presentation. A pre-post test study on subject knowledge was conducted for 100 students with the video shown as intervention. A retrospective pre study was conducted as a survey which inquired about students understanding of the key concepts of the topic and a feedback on our video was taken. Students performed significantly better in the post test (mean score 8.52 vs. 5.45 in pre-test), positively responded in the retrospective pre-test and gave a positive feedback for our video presentation. Well-designed multimedia tools can aid in cognitive processing and enhance working memory capacity as shown in our study. In times when "smart" device penetration is high, information and communication tools in medical education, which can act as essential aid and not as replacement for traditional curriculums, can be beneficial to the students. © 2015 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44:241-245, 2016. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  17. Preparing for Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preparing for Surgery Home For Patients Search FAQs Preparing for Surgery ... Surgery FAQ080, August 2011 PDF Format Preparing for Surgery Gynecologic Problems What is the difference between outpatient ...

  18. Preparing for Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preparing for Surgery Home For Patients Search FAQs Preparing for Surgery ... Surgery FAQ080, August 2011 PDF Format Preparing for Surgery Gynecologic Problems What is the difference between outpatient ...

  19. Trans Fatty Acids in Margarine%人造奶油中反式脂肪酸研究概述①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王挥; 汪金; 陈卫军; 赵松林

    2015-01-01

    High trans fatty acids content is one of the most important bottlenecks which restricts the development of margarine industry. In this paper, the main source and harm of trans fatty acid in margarine and the preparation of margarine base oil with zero trans fatty acid were reviewed, viewing to provide theoretical basis for researching and marketing of zero trans fat margarine.%反式脂肪酸含量高是制约人造奶油持续发展的重要瓶颈。本文主要从人造奶油中反式脂肪酸的来源、危害及零反式脂肪酸基料油的制备等方面进行概述,为零反式脂肪酸人造奶油产品的开发及市场推广提供理论依据。

  20. Preparation of Highly Purified Stearidonic Acid from Echium Oil via an Enzymatic Method Combined with Preparative High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Ji Yeon; Kim, Nam Ho; Oh, Se-Wook; Kim, In-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Stearidonic acid (SDA), an n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), can be obtained from plant origin oils and it can be a good source of PUFA for vegetarians. SDA can be easily converted to longer PUFA such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Highly purified stearidonic acid (SDA) was prepared successfully from echium oil via an enzymatic method combined with preparative high performance liquid chromatography. In the 1(st) step, SDA enrichment was accomplished using Candida rugosa lipase and 39.5% of SDA was obtained in the fatty acid fraction. Subsequently, the 1(st) reaction mixture was used for the 2(nd) enzymatic esterification without any separation process. The 2(nd) esterification was conducted for further SDA enrichment in a packed-bed reactor using Lipozyme RM IM from Rhizomucor miehei and the SDA content increased in a very short residence time. Ethanol was selected as an appropriate alcohol to react as an acyl receptor, and the other conditions for SDA enrichment were optimized at 20°C of temperature, and 1:4 of molar ratio (i.e., fatty acid to ethanol). Under these conditions, 51.6% of SDA was obtained in the fatty acid fraction after a residence time of 15 min. Finally, highly purified SDA (purity, >99%) was obtained by prep-HPLC using the SDA-rich fraction obtained from the two-step lipase-catalyzed esterification.

  1. 21 CFR 573.914 - Salts of volatile fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Salts of volatile fatty acids. 573.914 Section 573... Food Additive Listing § 573.914 Salts of volatile fatty acids. (a) Identity. The food additive is a... contains ammonium or calcium salts of volatile fatty acids and shall conform to the...

  2. 75 FR 71556 - Polyoxyalkylated Glycerol Fatty Acid Esters; Tolerance Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Polyoxyalkylated Glycerol Fatty Acid Esters; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY... from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of polyoxyalkylated glycerol fatty acid esters; the... ethylene oxide or propylene oxide, also known as polyoxyalkylated glycerol fatty acid esters, when used as...

  3. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. 172.854 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.854 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids, up to and including the decaglycerol esters, may be safely used in food in...

  4. A Review of the Metabolic Origins of Milk Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anamaria COZMA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Milk fat and its fatty acid profile are important determinants of the technological, sensorial, and nutritional properties of milk and dairy products. The two major processes contributing to the presence of fatty acids in ruminant milk are the mammary lipogenesis and the lipid metabolism in the rumen. Among fatty acids, 4:0 to 12:0, almost all 14:0 and about a half of 16:0 in milk fat derive from de novo synthesis within the mammary gland. De novo synthesis utilizes as precursors acetate and butyrate produced through carbohydrates ruminal fermentation and involves acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase as key enzymes. The rest of 16:0 and all of the long-chain fatty acids derive from mammary uptake of circulating lipoproteins and nonesterified fatty acids that originate from digestive absorption of lipids and body fat mobilization. Further, long-chain fatty acids as well as medium-chain fatty acids entering the mammary gland can be desaturated via Δ-9 desaturase, an enzyme that acts by adding a cis-9-double bond on the fatty acid chain. Moreover, ruminal biohydrogenation of dietary unsaturated fatty acids results in the formation of numerous fatty acids available for incorporation into milk fat. Ruminal biohydrogenation is performed by rumen microbial population as a means of protection against the toxic effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Within the rumen microorganisms, bacteria are principally responsible for ruminal biohydrogenation when compared to protozoa and anaerobic fungi.

  5. Naturally occurring fatty acids: source, chemistry and uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural occurring fatty acids are a large and complex class of compounds found in plants and animals. Fatty acids are abundant and of interest because of their renewability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, low cost, and fascinating chemistry. Of the many fatty acids, only 20-25 of them are widel...

  6. Trans fatty acids and cardiovascular health: research completed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, I.A.; Wanders, A.J.; Katan, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    This review asks the question if further research on trans fatty acids and cardiovascular health is needed. We therefore review the evidence from human studies on trans fatty acids and cardiovascular health, and provide a quantitative review of effects of trans fatty acid intake on lipoproteins. The

  7. Relationship between fatty acids and the endocrine and neuroendocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhathena, Sam J

    2006-01-01

    Significant interactions exist between fatty acids and the endocrine system. Dietary fatty acids alter both hormone and neuropeptide concentrations and also their receptors. In addition, hormones affect the metabolism of fatty acids and the fatty acid composition of tissue lipids. The principal hormones involved in lipid metabolism are insulin, glucagon, catecholamines, cortisol and growth hormone. The concentrations of these hormones are altered in chronic degenerative conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, which in turn leads to alterations in tissue lipids. Lipogenesis and lipolysis, which modulate fatty acid concentrations in plasma and tissues, are under hormonal control. Neuropeptides are also involved in lipid metabolism in brain and other tissues. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are also precursors for eicosanoids including prostaglandins, leucotrienes, and thromboxanes, which have hormone-like activities. Fatty acids in turn affect the endocrine system. Saturated and trans fatty acids decrease insulin concentration leading to insulin resistance. In contrast, polyunsaturated fatty acids increase plasma insulin concentration and decrease insulin resistance. In humans, omega3 polyunsaturated fatty acids alter the levels of opioid peptides in plasma. Free fatty acids have been reported to inhibit glucagon release. Fatty acids also affect receptors for hormones and neuropeptides.

  8. Fatty acid supply of growing pigs in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Linh Quang

    2002-01-01

    This thesis concerns the influence of essential dietary fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and growth performance of growing pigs kept on samll holdings in Central Vietnam. Essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized by the body and have to be ingested with the feed. There a

  9. Focal fatty infiltra- tion and focal fatty sparing of the liver

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is caused by focal ... has also been described in children.1. The most common cause is alcohol abuse, although diabetes, obesity, cer- tain drugs, toxins ... infiltration was not initially consid- ered are reported.

  10. Fatty acids and coronary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodside, J.V.; Kromhout, D.

    2005-01-01

    During the last century much evidence has accumulated to suggest that from a public health perspective the type of fat is more important than the amount of fat. Saturated and trans-fatty acids increase and both n-6 and n-3 PUFA decrease the risk of CHD. Most of the knowledge about the effects of

  11. Trans Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mozaffarian, D.; Katan, M.B.; Ascherio, A.; Stampfer, M.J.; Willett, W.C.

    2006-01-01

    Trans fats, unsaturated fatty acids with at least one double bond in the trans configuration (Figure 1), are formed during the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, a process that converts vegetable oils into semisolid fats for use in margarines, commercial cooking, and manufacturing processes. F

  12. Dietary Fatty Acids and Predementia Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Solfrizzi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available An increasing body of epidemiological evidence suggests that elevated saturated fatty acids (SFA could have negative effects on age-related cognitive decline (ARCD. Furthermore, a reduction of risk for cognitive decline and mild cognitive impairment (MCI has been found in population samples with elevated fish consumption, and high intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA, particularly n-3 PUFA. However, recent findings from clinical trials with n-3 PUFA supplementation showed efficacy on depressive symptoms in non–Vapolipoprotein E (APOE ε4 carriers, and on cognitive symptoms only in very mild Alzheimer's disease (AD subgroups, MCI patients, and cognitively unimpaired non-APOE ε4 carriers. These data, together with epidemiological evidence, support the idea that n-3 PUFA may play a role in maintaining adequate cognitive functioning in predementia syndromes, but not when the AD process has already taken over. Therefore, at present, no definitive dietary recommendations on fish and unsaturated fatty acids consumption, or lower intake of saturated fat, in relation to the risk for dementia and cognitive decline are possible.

  13. Obesity, Intrapancreatic Fatty Infiltration, and Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hua; Maitra, Anirban; Wang, Huamin

    2015-08-01

    Obesity and intrapancreatic fatty infiltration are associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer and its precursor lesions. The interplay among obesity, inflammation, and oncogenic Kras signaling promotes pancreatic tumorigenesis. Targeting the interaction between obesity-associated inflammation and Kras signaling may provide new strategies for prevention and therapy of pancreatic cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Trans Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mozaffarian, D.; Katan, M.B.; Ascherio, A.; Stampfer, M.J.; Willett, W.C.

    2006-01-01

    Trans fats, unsaturated fatty acids with at least one double bond in the trans configuration (Figure 1), are formed during the partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils, a process that converts vegetable oils into semisolid fats for use in margarines, commercial cooking, and manufacturing processes. F

  15. Fatty acids and coronary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woodside, J.V.; Kromhout, D.

    2005-01-01

    During the last century much evidence has accumulated to suggest that from a public health perspective the type of fat is more important than the amount of fat. Saturated and trans-fatty acids increase and both n-6 and n-3 PUFA decrease the risk of CHD. Most of the knowledge about the effects of die

  16. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Hess

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFA are a family of essential fatty acids with many biological activities. These fatty acids are incorporated into cell membranes, changing their structural and functional characteristics. N-3 PUFA can act by modulating inflammatory responses at different levels. Omega-3 PUFA can be converted in the body to longer-chain n-3 PUFA at a limited rate and are differently converted in body systems. It appears that when specific longer-chain n-3 PUFA are desired these need to be supplemented directly in the diet. In different species some evidence indicates a potential effect on improving insulin sensitivity. Recently, a novel class of n-3 PUFA-derived anti-inflammatory mediators have been recognized, termed E-series and D-series resolvins, formed from EPA and DHA, respectively. N-3 PUFA derived resolvins and protectins are heavily involved in the resolution of inflammation. Supplementation with n-3 fatty acids in horses may help manage chronic inflammatory conditions such as osteoarthritis, equine metabolic syndrome, laminitis, and thereby help to improve longevity of sport horse.

  17. Fatty Acid Content of Indonesian Aquatic Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TRI PRARTONO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available High utilization of fossil fuel increases the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and results in global warming phenomenon. These things establish the world’s thought to look for the other alternative energy that can reduce the use of fossil fuel even to be replaced by the substitute. Recently, Indonesia has been doing the research of microalgae as a feedstock of an alternative biofuel. Fatty acid content that microalgae have is also high to produce biofuel. The steps used in this research is a 7 days cultivation, harvesting, extraction using hexane, and fatty acid identification using Gas Chromatography of microalgae species. Fatty acid component in some species such as Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus sp., Nannochloropsis sp., and Isochrysis sp. is between 0.21-29.5%; 0.11-25.16%; 0.30-42.32%; 2.06-37.63%, respectively, based on dry weight calculation. The high content of fatty acid in some species of microalgae showed the potential to be the feedstock of producing biofuel in overcoming the limited utilization from petroleum (fossil fuel presently.

  18. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A

    2017-02-28

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease has emerged a major challenge because of it prevalence, difficulties in diagnosis, complex pathogenesis, and lack of approved therapies. As the burden of hepatitis C abates over the next decade, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease will become the major form of chronic liver disease in adults and children and could become the leading indication for liver transplantation. This overview briefly summarizes the most recent data on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Ongoing clinical trials are focused on an array of disease mechanisms and reviewed here are how these treatments fit into the current paradigm of substrate overload lipotoxic liver injury. Many of the approaches are directed at downstream events such as inflammation, injury and fibrogenesis. Addressing more proximal processes such as dysfunctional satiety mechanisms and inappropriately parsimonious energy dissipation are potential therapeutic opportunities that if successfully understood and exploited would not only address fatty liver disease but also the other components of the metabolic syndrome such as obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemia.

  19. Fatty Acids as Surfactants on Aerosol Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tervahattu, H.; Juhanoja, J.; Niemi, J.

    2003-12-01

    Fatty acids (n-alcanoic acids) are common compounds in numerous anthropogenic and natural emissions. According to Rogge et al. (1993), catalyst-equipped automobiles emitted more than 600 μg km-1 of fatty acids which was over 50% of all identified organics in fine aerosol emissions. Coal burning produces fatty acids ranging from about 1700 mg kg-1 for bituminous coal to over 10000 mg kg-1 for lignite (Oros and Simoneit, 2000). Similarly, biomass burning is an important source for aerosol fatty acids. They are the major identified compound group in deciduous tree smoke, their total emission factor being measured as 1589 mg kg-1 which was 56% of all identified organic compounds (Oros and Simoneit, 2001a). Large amounts of fatty acid are also emitted from burning of conifer trees and grass (Oros and Simoneit, 2001a; Simoneit, 2002). Fatty acids have been reported to be major constituents of marine aerosols in many investigations (Barger and Garrett, 1976; Gagosian et. al, 1981; Sicre et al., 1990; Stephanou, 1992). It has been suggested that as the marine aerosol particles form, they acquire a coating of organic surfactants (Blanchard, 1964; Gill et al., 1983; Middlebrook et al., 1998; Ellison et al., 1999). Amphiphilic molecules, including lipids, can be assembled as monomolecular layers at air/water interfaces as well as transported to a solid support. Recently, we could show by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry that fatty acids are important ingredients of the outermost surface layer of the sea-salt aerosol particles (Tervahattu et al., 2002). In their TOF-SIMS studies on the surface composition of atmospheric aerosols, Peterson and Tyler (2002) found fatty acids on the surface of Montana forest fire particles. In this work we have studied by TOF-SIMS the surface chemical composition of aerosol particles emitted from field fires in the Baltic and other East European countries and transported to Finland as well as aerosol particles transported from

  20. Essential fatty acid requirements of cats: pathology of essential fatty acid deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, M L; Anderson, B C; Rogers, Q R; Buffington, C A; Morris, J G

    1984-07-01

    The pathologic changes of essential fatty acid (EFA) deficiency were studied in specific-pathogen-free, domestic shorthair cats which were fed purified diets for 1.5 to 2.5 years. Cats fed an EFA-deficient diet exhibited signs of deficiency: severe fatty degeneration of the liver, excessive fat in the kidneys, dystrophic mineralization of the adrenal glands, degeneration of the testes, and hyperkeratosis of the skin. Minor clinical pathologic changes were consistent with liver damage. Fatty acid analyses of plasma lipids revealed low concentrations of linoleate and other n6-fatty acids, and high concentrations of n7- and n9-fatty acids, consistent with EFA deficiency. These signs of deficiency were prevented by including safflower seed oil in the diet at a concentration to supply linoleate at 6.7% of dietary energy. Therefore, linoleate is an EFA for the cat, despite negligible conversion of linoleate to arachidonate in cat liver. However, in cats fed a diet containing linoleate, but lacking arachidonate, there was mild mineralization of the kidneys, and the neutral fat content of the liver was slightly higher than that of cats fed a diet containing arachidonate and other long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Also, 2 of the 19 cats fed arachidonate-deficient diets developed unusual inflammatory skin lesions. In cats fed a diet containing hydrogenated coconut oil, safflower seed oil, and chicken fat, fatty livers developed despite the presence of high levels of linoleate. The fatty livers appeared to result from a specific deleterious effect of the medium-chain triglycerides in hydrogenated coconut oil. Most of the organ pathologic changes of EFA deficiency in the cat can be prevented by feeding dietary linoleate. Linoleate meets the EFA requirement for functions which depend on proper membrane structure: growth, lipid transport, normal skin and coat condition, and maintenance of the epidermal permeability barrier. However, dietary arachidonate is required by the

  1. Preparation of ethyl magnesium bromide for regiospecific analysis of triacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Yasuhiro; Tomita, Yuki; Haba, Yusuke

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure for preparation of a Grignard reagent, ethyl magnesium bromide, used for partial deacylation of triacylglycerols (TAG) in their regiospecific analysis. Magnesium turnings were reacted with ethereal solution of bromoethane in a screw-capped test tube to synthesize 2 mL of 1 M ethyl magnesium bromide. Continuously stirred with a vortex mixer, the reaction smoothly proceeded at room temperature. Regiospecific analysis of 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol using this product showed that fatty acid compositions of the sn-1(3) and sn-2 positions were contaminated by less than 2 mol% of fatty acids migrated from isomeric positions. The analyses of lard and cod liver/mackerel oil TAG showed typical distribution patterns of 16:0, 22:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 in pig and fish depot TAG. These results confirmed the view that the freshly prepared reagent is usable for regiospecific analysis of TAG.

  2. The effect of dietary oil containing (n-3) fatty acids on the fatty acid, physicochemical, and organoleptic characteristics of pig meat and fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leskanich, C O; Matthews, K R; Warkup, C C; Noble, R C; Hazzledine, M

    1997-03-01

    An investigation was made to alter the fatty acid composition of pork and a pork product in line with human dietary advice while not adversely affecting factors controlling consumer acceptability. Pigs (n = 150) were assigned to three dietary treatments with 25 intact male-female pairs per treatment. Diet A (control) contained 3% of a 4:1 (wt/ wt) tallow-soybean oil mixture. Diets B and C contained 2% rapeseed oil plus 1% fish oil. Diets A, B, and C were supplemented with 100, 100, and 250 mg of all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate/kg of diet, respectively. Pigs were given ad libitum access to feed from 52 kg live weight until 95 kg (slaughter). Sausages were prepared from the resulting cuts. Tissues of pigs were evaluated in terms of fat firmness, color, fatty acid composition, and contents of alpha-tocopherol and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). Organoleptic characteristics of chops and sausages were evaluated by a trained taste panel. Pigs fed Diets B and C had improved feed conversion ratios (P sausage from pigs fed Diets B and C with associated alterations in n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratios that accorded with contemporary human dietary recommendations. Levels of alpha-tocopherol and TBARS were significantly altered in the tissues. There were no appreciable differences between treatments in carcass characteristics, including color. The overall organoleptic acceptability of chops and sausages was not different between the treatments.

  3. Essential fatty acids and human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chia-Yu; Ke, Der-Shin; Chen, Jen-Yin

    2009-12-01

    The human brain is nearly 60 percent fat. We've learned in recent years that fatty acids are among the most crucial molecules that determine your brain's integrity and ability to perform. Essential fatty acids (EFAs) are required for maintenance of optimal health but they can not synthesized by the body and must be obtained from dietary sources. Clinical observation studies has related imbalance dietary intake of fatty acids to impaired brain performance and diseases. Most of the brain growth is completed by 5-6 years of age. The EFAs, particularly the omega-3 fatty acids, are important for brain development during both the fetal and postnatal period. Dietary decosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is needed for the optimum functional maturation of the retina and visual cortex, with visual acuity and mental development seemingly improved by extra DHA. Beyond their important role in building the brain structure, EFAs, as messengers, are involved in the synthesis and functions of brain neurotransmitters, and in the molecules of the immune system. Neuronal membranes contain phospholipid pools that are the reservoirs for the synthesis of specific lipid messengers on neuronal stimulation or injury. These messengers in turn participate in signaling cascades that can either promote neuronal injury or neuroprotection. The goal of this review is to give a new understanding of how EFAs determine our brain's integrity and performance, and to recall the neuropsychiatric disorders that may be influenced by them. As we further unlock the mystery of how fatty acids affect the brain and better understand the brain's critical dependence on specific EFAs, correct intake of the appropriate diet or supplements becomes one of the tasks we undertake in pursuit of optimal wellness.

  4. Human placenta metabolizes fatty acids: implications for fetal fatty acid oxidation disorders and maternal liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, Prem; Bennett, Michael J; Sadovsky, Yoel; Nelson, D Michael; Rakheja, Dinesh; Strauss, Arnold W

    2003-06-01

    The role of fat metabolism during human pregnancy and in placental growth and function is poorly understood. Mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation disorders in an affected fetus are associated with maternal diseases of pregnancy, including preeclampsia, acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and the hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome called HELLP. We have investigated the developmental expression and activity of six fatty acid beta-oxidation enzymes at various gestational-age human placentas. Placental specimens exhibited abundant expression of all six enzymes, as assessed by immunohistochemical and immunoblot analyses, with greater staining in syncytiotrophoblasts compared with other placental cell types. beta-Oxidation enzyme activities in placental tissues were higher early in gestation and lower near term. Trophoblast cells in culture oxidized tritium-labeled palmitate and myristate in substantial amounts, indicating that the human placenta utilizes fatty acids as a significant metabolic fuel. Thus human placenta derives energy from fatty acid oxidation, providing a potential explanation for the association of fetal fatty acid oxidation disorders with maternal liver diseases in pregnancy.

  5. [Studies of performance evaluation and criteria for trans-fatty acids analysis using GC-FID].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takahiro; Ishikawa, Tomoko; Matsuda, Rieko

    2013-01-01

    Performance evaluation methods and criteria for trans-fatty acids analysis using GC-FID were examined. The measurement method constructed in this study was based on the American Oil Chemists' Society (AOCS) official standard methods Ce1h-05. The method for fat extraction from general foods was based on the methods for nutrition labeling notified by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan and AOAC 996.06. To estimate trueness and precision, fortified samples were analyzed following the established experimental design. Five molecular species of trans-fatty acids that are rarely contained in foods were used for preparing the fortified samples. To estimate precision, more than four degrees of freedom of variance are required. Based on the results, within-laboratory trueness and reproducibility will be set at 90-110% and 10% (RSD%), respectively.

  6. Ternary mixture of fatty acids as phase change materials for thermal energy storage applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karunesh Kant

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the development of ternary mixtures of fatty acids for low temperature thermal energy storage applications. The commercial grade fatty acids such as Capric Acid (CA, Lauric Acid (LA, Palmitic Acid (PA and Stearic Acid (SA, have been used to prepare stable, solid–liquid phase change material (PCM for the same. In this regard, a series of ternary mixture i.e. CA–LA–SA (CLS and CA–PA–SA (CPS have been developed with different weight percentages. Thermal characteristics of these developed ternary mixture i.e. melting temperature and latent heat of fusion have been measured by using Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC technique. The synthesized materials are found to have melting temperature in the range of 14–21 °C (along with adequate amount of latent heat of fusion, which may be quite useful for several low temperature thermal energy storage applications.

  7. In vitro biological activities and fatty acid profiles of Pistacia terebinthus fruits and Pistacia khinjuk seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacıbekiroğlu, Işil; Yılmaz, Pelin Köseoğlu; Haşimi, Nesrin; Kılınç, Ersin; Tolan, Veysel; Kolak, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    This study reports in vitro anticholinesterase, antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of the n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethanol and ethanol-water extracts prepared from Pistacia terebinthus L. fruits and Pistacia khinjuk Stocks seeds as well as their total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and fatty acid compositions. Ethanol and ethanol-water extracts of both species exhibited higher anticholinesterase activity than galanthamine. Among ABTS, DPPH and CUPRAC assays, the highest antioxidant capacity of the extracts was found in the last one. P. terebinthus ethanol extract being rich in flavonoid content showed the best cupric reducing effect. All extracts possessed no antimicrobial activity. The main fatty acid in P. terebinthus fruits (52.52%) and P. khinjuk seeds (59.44%) was found to be oleic acid. Our results indicate that P. terebinthus fruits and P. khinjuk seeds could be a good source of anticholinesterase compounds, and could be phytochemically investigated.

  8. Could a high-fat diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids impair the cardiovascular system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medei, Emiliano; Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Pereira-Junior, Pedro Paulo; Leopoldo, André Soares; Campos, Dijon Henrique Salomé; Raimundo, Juliana Montani; Sudo, Roberto Takashi; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Bruder-Nascimento, Thiago; Cordellini, Sandra; Nascimento, José Hamilton Matheus; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos

    2010-12-01

    Dyslipidemia results from consumption of a diet rich in saturated fatty acids and is usually associated with cardiovascular disease. A diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids is usually associated with improved cardiovascular condition. To investigate whether a high-fat diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids (U-HFD) - in which fatty acid represents approximately 45% of the total calories - impairs the cardiovascular system. Male, 30-day-old Wistar rats were fed a standard (control) diet or a U-HFD containing 83% unsaturated fatty acid for 19 weeks. The in vivo electrocardiogram, the spectral analysis of heart rate variability, and the vascular reactivity responses to phenylephrine, acetylcholine, noradrenaline and prazosin in aortic ring preparations were analyzed to assess the cardiovascular parameters. After 19 weeks, the U-HFD rats had increased total body fat, baseline glucose levels and feed efficiency compared with control rats. However, the final body weight, systolic blood pressure, area under the curve for glucose, calorie intake and heart weight⁄final body weight ratio were similar between the groups. In addition, both groups demonstrated no alteration in the electrocardiogram or cardiac sympathetic parameters. There was no difference in the responses to acetylcholine or the maximal contractile response of the thoracic aorta to phenylephrine between groups, but the concentration necessary to produce 50% of maximal response showed a decrease in the sensitivity to phenylephrine in U-HFD rats. The cumulative concentration- effect curve for noradrenaline in the presence of prazosin was shifted similarly in both groups. The present work shows that U-HFD did not impair the cardiovascular parameters analyzed.

  9. Could a high-fat diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids impair the cardiovascular system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medei, Emiliano; Lima-Leopoldo, Ana Paula; Pereira-Junior, Pedro Paulo; Leopoldo, André Soares; Campos, Dijon Henrique Salomé; Raimundo, Juliana Montani; Sudo, Roberto Takashi; Zapata-Sudo, Gisele; Bruder-Nascimento, Thiago; Cordellini, Sandra; Nascimento, José Hamilton Matheus; Cicogna, Antonio Carlos

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia results from consumption of a diet rich in saturated fatty acids and is usually associated with cardiovascular disease. A diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids is usually associated with improved cardiovascular condition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a high-fat diet rich in unsaturated fatty acids (U-HFD) – in which fatty acid represents approximately 45% of the total calories – impairs the cardiovascular system. METHODS: Male, 30-day-old Wistar rats were fed a standard (control) diet or a U-HFD containing 83% unsaturated fatty acid for 19 weeks. The in vivo electrocardiogram, the spectral analysis of heart rate variability, and the vascular reactivity responses to phenylephrine, acetylcholine, noradrenaline and prazosin in aortic ring preparations were analyzed to assess the cardiovascular parameters. RESULTS: After 19 weeks, the U-HFD rats had increased total body fat, baseline glucose levels and feed efficiency compared with control rats. However, the final body weight, systolic blood pressure, area under the curve for glucose, calorie intake and heart weight/final body weight ratio were similar between the groups. In addition, both groups demonstrated no alteration in the electrocardiogram or cardiac sympathetic parameters. There was no difference in the responses to acetylcholine or the maximal contractile response of the thoracic aorta to phenylephrine between groups, but the concentration necessary to produce 50% of maximal response showed a decrease in the sensitivity to phenylephrine in U-HFD rats. The cumulative concentration-effect curve for noradrenaline in the presence of prazosin was shifted similarly in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The present work shows that U-HFD did not impair the cardiovascular parameters analyzed. PMID:21165364

  10. Total lipids and fatty acid profile in the liver of wild and farmed catla catla fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, M.; Shaihid chatha, S. A.; Tahira, I.; Hussain, B.

    2010-07-01

    This experimental work was aimed to study the moisture content, total lipids and fatty acid profile in the liver of wild and farmed freshwater major carp Catla catla of three different weight categories designated as W{sub 1} (601-900g), W{sub 2} (901- 1200)g and W{sub 3} (1201-1500g). Seven fish specimens of each of the three weight categories of wild and farmed Catla catla were obtained from Trimu Head, Jhang and Fish Hatchery, Satiana Road and Faisalabad, respectively. The fish were dissected to remove the liver and after weighing, liver samples were prepared and subjected to chemical analysis. Wild Catla catla liver had a significantly (p <0.05) higher moisture content as compared to the farmed species. Farmed Catla catla deposited significantly (p < 0.05) higher lipid contents in liver. Proportions of saturated fatty acids varied irregularly in the lipids of the liver from both wild and farmed Catla catla. Saturated fatty acids C12:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C20:0 and C22:0 were identified with considerable percentages in the liver of Catla catla from both habitats and monounsaturated fatty acid C18:1 was found in considerable amounts in the liver of both major carp. Polyunsaturated fatty acids such as C18:3 (n-6) and C20: 2 (n-6) were detected in the liver of the wild fish of W{sub 2} and W{sub 3} and was similar in the W{sub 3} weight category of the farmed species. (Author) 22 refs.

  11. Identification of protective components that prevent the exacerbation of goose fatty liver: Characterization, expression and regulation of adiponectin receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Tuoyu; Yang, Biao; Li, Fuyuan; Xia, Lili; Wang, Qianqian; Zhao, Xing; Gong, Daoqing

    2016-01-01

    Fat accumulation in the liver is a natural process in goose, which prepares goose for long-distance migration. In contrast to mammalian fatty liver that usually progresses into an irreversible status, steatohepatitis, goose fatty liver can return to normal without obvious pathological damage, suggesting a protective system exists in goose liver. This study was to identify the components of this system. We first focused on goose adiponectin receptor 1 and 2 (Adipor1/2) as they have ceramidase activity, and can cleave ceramide, a group of proinflammatory signaling lipid species. Quantitative analysis indicated that tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnfα), a key proinflammatory cytokine, was down-regulated in goose fatty liver by overfeeding. This inhibition of Tnfα was accompanied with reduced adiponectin and increased Adipor1/2 in the adipose tissues and in the livers of the overfed geese, respectively. To investigate the regulation of goose Adipor2 in the context of fatty liver, we treated goose primary hepatocytes with fatty liver associated factors. Data indicated that Adipor2 was upregulated by glucose and oleate but not palmitate. Its expression was even suppressed by high level of insulin. The regulation of Adipor1 by these factors was quite similar to that of Adipor2 except that glucose did not induce Adipor1. Together, these findings suggest the upregulation of Adipor1/2 may, at least partially, contribute to the inhibition of inflammation in goose fatty liver, and the expression of Adipor1/2 can be regulated by fatty liver-associated factors.

  12. Incremental effect of a calcium salt of cis-monounsaturated fatty acids supplement on milk fatty acid composition in cows fed maize silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliem, K E; Reynolds, C K; Humphries, D J; Kirkland, R M; Barratt, C E S; Livingstone, K M; Givens, D I

    2013-05-01

    In most Western countries, saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake exceeds recommended levels, which is considered a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). As milk and dairy products are major contributors to SFA intake in many countries, recent research has focused on sustainable methods of producing milk with a lower saturated fat concentration by altering dairy cow diets. Human intervention studies have shown that CVD risk can be reduced by consuming dairy products with reduced SFA and increased cis-monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) concentrations. This milk fatty acid profile can be achieved by supplementing dairy cow diets with cis-MUFA-rich unsaturated oils. However, rumen exposure of unsaturated oils also leads to enhanced milk trans fatty acid (TFA) concentrations. Because of concerns about the effects of TFA consumption on CVD, feeding strategies that increase MUFA concentrations in milk without concomitant increases in TFA concentration are preferred by milk processors. In an attempt to limit TFA production and increase the replacement of SFA by cis-MUFA, a preparation of rumen-protected unsaturated oils was developed using saponification with calcium salts. Four multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows in mid-late lactation were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d periods to investigate the effect of incremental dietary inclusion of a calcium salt of cis-MUFA product (Ca-MUFA; 20, 40, and 60 g/kg of dry matter of a maize silage-based diet), on milk production, composition, and fatty acid concentration. Increasing Ca-MUFA inclusion reduced dry matter intake linearly, but no change was observed in estimated ME intake. No change in milk yield was noted, but milk fat and protein concentrations were linearly reduced. Supplementation with Ca-MUFA resulted in a linear reduction in total SFA (from 71 to 52 g/100 g of fatty acids for control and 60 g/kg of dry matter diets, respectively). In addition, concentrations of both cis- and trans-MUFA were

  13. Adipose tissue Fatty Acid patterns and changes in antrhropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2011-01-01

    in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. Methods 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate......Introduction Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns...

  14. Determination of Fatty Acid in Asparagus by Gas Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra HAJRULAI-MUSLIU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Asparagus contain a lot of macronutrients and micronutrients including folate, dietary fibre (soluble and insoluble and phenolic compounds. Also asparagus is a good source of unsaturated linoleic and linolenic fatty acids which are precursors for Eicosapentanoic acid (EPA and Docosahexanoic acid (DHA. Unsaturated fatty acids have important biological effects and they have important role in human health. The objective of this study was to analyze fatty acid composition of asparagus as a potential source of linoleic and linolenic acid - a precursor for EPA and DHA. For this reason we analyzed fifty seven samples of asparagus collected from the local market. We used AOAC 996.06 method and analyses were performed with gas chromatograph with flame-ionization detector (GC-FID. The highest concentration of fatty acid in the asparagus was linoleic acid (C18:2n6 which content in asparagus is 25.620±1.0%. Also, asparagus is good source of -linolenic fatty acid (C18:3n3 and content of this fatty acid in asparagus is 8.840±0.3%. The omega-6 to omega-3 (n6/n3 ratio in asparagus was 3.19. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs were higher than monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, and from saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid was most frequent with 24.324±1.0%. From our study we can conclude that asparagus is very good source of unsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic and linolenic fatty acids.

  15. The synthesis and characterization of fatty acid salts of chitosan as novel matrices for prolonged intragastric drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bani-Jaber, Ahmad; Hamdan, Imad; Alkawareek, Mahmoud

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to prepare fatty acid salts of chitosan (CS) and to evaluate the salts as matrices for sustained drug release and prolonged gastric retention. CS-laurate and CS-palmitate were formed by mixing saturated CS solution and aqueous solutions of sodium laurate and sodium palmitate, respectively, and collected by centrifugation. They were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Different matrices as effervescent tablets were prepared using each of these CS-salts, CS and the corresponding physical mixtures of CS and the fatty acids. Sodium bicarbonate as an effervescent agent and ranitidine HCl as a model drug were incorporated into these matrices. In vitro buoyancy and drug dissolution were studied for the matrices in 0.1 M HCl. Tablets with fatty acid salts of CS showed both rapid and prolonged buoyancy (> 8 h). Comparatively, CS tablets exhibited a short floatation period (tablets were completely disintegrated within 1 h of soaking. In addition, slow and prolonged drug release was achieved from tablets of fatty acid salts of CS with average drug release of 80.1 and 71.8% for CS-laurate and CS-palmitate, respectively. Rapid drug release (> 80% at 1 h) was exhibited by tablets with CS or the physical mixtures.

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids, nutrient retention values, and sensory meat eating quality in cooked and raw Australian lamb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flakemore, Aaron Ross; Malau-Aduli, Bunmi Sherifat; Nichols, Peter David; Malau-Aduli, Aduli Enoch Othniel

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated omega-3 intramuscular fatty acids in the longissimus thoracis et lumborum of commercially prepared Australian lamb loin chops. Meats, denuded of external fats were cooked by means of conductive dry-heat using a fry grilling hot plate, to a core temperature of 70°C. An untrained consumer panel assessed meat appearance, aroma, tenderness, juiciness, taste and overall liking. Results showed no compositional alterations (P>0.05) to omega-3 fatty acids due to cooking treatment, whereas on absolute terms (mg/100g muscle) omega-3 fatty acids significantly (P<0.05) increased. The mean EPA+DHA content of the cooked meat at 32.8±2.3mg/100g muscle exceeded the minimum 30mg/100g per edible portion required for the defined Australian classification as 'source' long-chain (≥C20) omega-3 for cooked lamb. A 3.4% intramuscular fat content in the initial raw meat was sufficient to maintain acceptable overall sensory eating quality. Results endorse the application of this cooking method to enable delivery of health beneficial long-chain omega-3 fatty acids of commercially prepared Australian lamb loin chops to consumers without impediments to sensory eating properties.

  17. Marine lipids and the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Müllertz, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Marine lipids are enriched with omega-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acids are important membrane lipids and have many recognized health benefits, the bioavailability of these fatty acids can therefore be important for achieving...... of omega-3 fatty acids has been reported to be affected by several factors; among the important factors were the digestion and absorption processes of omega-3 containing lipids in the gastrointestinal tract. Both lipid structures and food structures can affect the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids....... Human studies have shown that the relative bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil (triglyceride formulation) was similar to that from fish, whereas lower relative bioavailability was observed from fatty acid ethyl ester (FAEE) formulation in comparison with other lipid formulations...

  18. Adipose tissue Fatty Acid patterns and changes in antrhropometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns...... in adipose tissue fatty acids and changes in anthropometry. Methods 34 fatty acid species from adipose tissue biopsies were determined in a random sample of 1100 men and women from a Danish cohort study. We used sex-specific principal component analysis and multiple linear regression to investigate...... the associations of adipose tissue fatty acid patterns with changes in weight, waist circumference (WC), and WC controlled for changes in body mass index (WCBMI), adjusting for confounders. Results 7 principal components were extracted for each sex, explaining 77.6% and 78.3% of fatty acid variation in men...

  19. [Biology of essential fatty acids (EFA)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobryniewski, Jacek; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    Essential Fatty Acids (EFA), are unsaturated fatty acids not produced by human being, but essential for proper functioning of the human body. To EFA-s belongs: linoleic acid (LA) (18:2,cis detla(9,12), omega6)--precursor o f gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) (18:3,cisA6,9,12, )6) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)(18:3,cisdelta(9, 12, 15), omega3)--product of dehydrogenation of linoleic acid (LA). Most important EFA is gamma-linolenic acid (GLA)--18 carbons, one-carboxylic, non-branched fatty acid with 3 double cis-bonds (the last is situated by 6-th carbon from methylic end). The diet devoided of EFA leads to decreased growth, skin and kidney injury and infertility. Modern research of GLA and others EFA's is concerned mainly on therapeutic impact on the inflammatory process. The biogenic amines, cytokines, prostaglandins, tromboxanes and leukotrienes are the main inflammatory mediators. The last three are described with the common name eicosanoides (eico-twenty). Eicosanoides are synthesized from 20-carbon unsaturated fatty acids: dihomo-gamma-linoleic (DGLA) (20:3, cis delta(8,11,14), omega6), arachidonic acid (AA-20:4, cis delta(5,8,11,14), omega6), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA-20:5, cis delta(5,8,11,14,17, omega3). Derivatives of gamma and gamma-linolenic acids regulate the inflammatory process, through their opposed activity. PG2, leucotrien C4 and tromboxan A2 have the strongest proinflammatory action. Derivatives of alpha-linolenic acid 15-HETE and prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) have weak pro-inflammatory action, or even anti-inflammatory (PGE1), and additionally, they inhibit the transformation of arachidonic acid (AA) to leukotriens. delta6-desaturase (transformes linolenic acid into gamma-linolenic acid by making additional double bond) is the slowest step of the fatty acid metabolism. It's activity is impaired by many physiological and pathologic factors and leads to gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) deficiency. The gamma-linolenic acid

  20. Role of fatty acids in the pathogenesis of obesity and fatty liver: impact of bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verna, Elizabeth C; Berk, Paul D

    2008-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) spans a spectrum from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) to cirrhosis. Simple steatosis is the substrate upon which the more serious entities in the spectrum develop; it is the first "hit" in the multistep pathogenesis of NASH, which is considered the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. Demonstration of the existence of regulatable fatty acid transport mechanisms has contributed to clarifying the role of fatty acid disposition in obesity, the various components of NAFLD, and the metabolic syndrome. Hepatic steatosis is closely linked to obesity. This linkage is based on the fact that obesity results in marked enlargement of the intraabdominal visceral fat depots. The eventual development of insulin resistance leads to continuous lipolysis within these depots, releasing fatty acids into the portal circulation, where they are rapidly translocated to the liver and reassembled into triglycerides. Reactive oxygen species, generated in the liver from oxidation of fatty acids, are precipitating factors in the cascade of events leading from simple steatosis to NASH. Dysregulation of fatty acid disposition, with ectopic lipid accumulation in other tissues, is a major contributing factor to other components of the metabolic syndrome. Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for severe obesity, but its role in the management of the various forms of fatty liver disease is unclear. Our review of the literature that includes both initial and follow-up liver biopsies suggests that most obese patients with simple steatosis and NASH who undergo bariatric surgery will achieve improvement in hepatic histology, but that occasional patients, especially those who lose weight very rapidly, may show worsening of either fibrosis or steatohepatitis.

  1. Omega-3 fatty acids (ῳ-3 fatty acids) in epilepsy: animal models and human clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGiorgio, Christopher M; Taha, Ameer Y

    2016-10-01

    There is growing interest in alternative and nutritional therapies for drug resistant epilepsy. ῳ-3 fatty acids such as fish or krill oil are widely available supplements used to lower triglycerides and enhance cardiovascular health. ῳ-3 fatty acids have been studied extensively in animal models of epilepsy. Yet, evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials in epilepsy is at an early stage. This report focuses on the key ῳ-3 fatty acids DHA and EPA, their incorporation into the lipid bilayer, modulation of ion channels, and mechanisms of action in reducing excitability within the central nervous system. This paper presents pre-clinical evidence from mouse, rat, and canine models, and reports the efficacy of n-3 fatty acids in randomized controlled clinical trials. An English language search of PubMed and Google scholar for the years 1981-2016 was performed for animal studies and human randomized controlled clinical trials. Expert commentary: Basic science and animal models provide a cogent rationale and substantial evidence for a role of ῳ-3 fatty acids in reducing seizures. Results in humans are limited. Recent Phase II RCT evidence suggests that low to moderate dose of ῳ-3 fatty acids reduce seizures; however, larger multicenter randomized trials are needed to confirm or refute the evidence. The safety, health effects, low cost and ease of use make ῳ-3 fatty acids an intriguing alternative therapy for drug resistant epilepsy. Though safety of profile is excellent, the human data is not yet sufficient to support efficacy in drug resistant epilepsy at this time.

  2. Fatty acid facts, Part I. Essential fatty acids as treatment for depression, or food for mood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawels, E K J; Volterrani, D

    2008-10-01

    The epidemic character of depressive disorders has prompted further research into dietary habits that could make an etiological contribution. One clear change in the diet of the population in developed countries has been the replacement of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids by saturated fats and trans-fats as well as by omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are essential fatty acids, and the members of the -3 and -6 series are crucial for human health. In biochemical processes there is a competition between these two series. A higher dietary intake of omega-6 results in the excessive incorporation of these molecules in the cell membrane with numerous pathological consequences, presumably due to the formation of proinflammatory eicosanoids. Members of the omega-3 family and their derivatives modulate the inflammatory action. Essential fatty acids play a major role in brain development and brain functioning. The omega-3 series members docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) provide fluidity to the cell membrane, facilitating certain processes including neurotransmission and ion channel flow. It is thought that omega-3 deficiency during the fetal and postnatal period may have a long-term effect at various levels. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a positive association between omega-3 deficits and mood disorders. As for treatment, there is convincing evidence that add-on omega-3 fatty acids to standard antidepressant pharmacotherapy results in improved mood. There is no evidence that fatty acid monotherapy has a mood-elevating effect, with a possible exception for childhood depression. There are indications that omega-3 has a prophylactic effect on perinatal depression and has a negative effect on natural killer cell activity and T-lymphocyte function. These observations need further study in view of the popularity of self-medication. Copyright 2008 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of fatty acid activation on photosynthetic production of fatty acid-based biofuels in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Qianqian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Direct conversion of solar energy and carbon dioxide to drop in fuel molecules in a single biological system can be achieved from fatty acid-based biofuels such as fatty alcohols and alkanes. These molecules have similar properties to fossil fuels but can be produced by photosynthetic cyanobacteria. Results Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strains containing either overexpression or deletion of the slr1609 gene, which encodes an acyl-ACP synthetase (AAS, have been constructed. The complete segregation and deletion in all mutant strains was confirmed by PCR analysis. Blocking fatty acid activation by deleting slr1609 gene in wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 led to a doubling of the amount of free fatty acids and a decrease of alkane production by up to 90 percent. Overexpression of slr1609 gene in the wild-type Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 had no effect on the production of either free fatty acids or alkanes. Overexpression or deletion of slr1609 gene in the Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 mutant strain with the capability of making fatty alcohols by genetically introducing fatty acyl-CoA reductase respectively enhanced or reduced fatty alcohol production by 60 percent. Conclusions Fatty acid activation functionalized by the slr1609 gene is metabolically crucial for biosynthesis of fatty acid derivatives in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. It is necessary but not sufficient for efficient production of alkanes. Fatty alcohol production can be significantly improved by the overexpression of slr1609 gene.

  4. Polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berquin, Isabelle M; Edwards, Iris J; Kridel, Steven J; Chen, Yong Q

    2011-12-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) play important roles in the normal physiology and in pathological states including inflammation and cancer. While much is known about the biosynthesis and biological activities of eicosanoids derived from ω6 PUFA, our understanding of the corresponding ω3 series lipid mediators is still rudimentary. The purpose of this review is not to offer a comprehensive summary of the literature on fatty acids in prostate cancer but rather to highlight some of the areas where key questions remain to be addressed. These include substrate preference and polymorphic variants of enzymes involved in the metabolism of PUFA, the relationship between de novo lipid synthesis and dietary lipid metabolism pathways, the contribution of cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases as well as terminal synthases and prostanoid receptors in prostate cancer, and the potential role of PUFA in angiogenesis and cell surface receptor signaling.

  5. Laser signals' nonlinear change in fatty acids

    CERN Document Server

    Ghelmez-Dumitru, M; Piscureanu, M; Sterian, A

    2003-01-01

    Previous works showed that thin layers of fatty acids and fatty acid-cholesterol mixtures behaved as optical liquid crystals, even at low incident laser power. The paper presents an experimental and computer study of laser signals, emergent from such samples, in presence of fluctuations. The optical emergent laser beams' features at different incident parameters were experimentally determined for different type (c.w. and pulsed) lasers, as for example helium-neon and Nd sup 3 sup + glass lasers. The results were correlated with the amount of cholesterol in mixtures and with their response in external electric field. These measurements are in all cases affected by fluctuations. We developed some computer-based procedures, by using the TableCurve3D from Jandel Scientific software and equations Runge-Kutta in MATLAB for taking into account these fluctuations.

  6. [Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rau, Monika; Weiss, Johannes; Geier, Andreas

    2015-07-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common chronic liver disease in Europe and in the USA with rising prevalence. Patients with a metabolic syndrome (diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia) are patients at risk with the highest prevalence for NAFLD. Progression from a non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) occurs in 5-20% of patients with the potential to develop a liver fibrosis/cirrhosis. NASH patients and NAFLD patients with higher fibrosis should be identified because they are at risk of a higher mortality. A specific treatment for NASH is not available at the moment. Therefore, the treatment of risk factors and metabolic syndrome has high priority.

  7. Pediatric Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Vikas; Mansoor, Sana; Furuya, Katryn N

    2016-05-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions, and by 2012, more than one third of American children were overweight or obese. As a result, increasingly, children are developing complications of obesity including liver disease. In fact, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the most common form of chronic liver disease seen in children today. Recently, there has been a burgeoning literature examining the pathogenesis, genetic markers, and role of the microbiome in this disease. On the clinical front, new modalities of diagnosing hepatic steatosis and hepatic fibrosis are being developed to provide non-invasive methods of surveillance in children. Lastly, the mainstay of treatment of pediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been largely through lifestyle interventions, namely, dieting and exercise. Currently, there are a number of clinical trials examining novel lifestyle and drug therapies for NAFLD that are registered with the US National Institutes of Health ClinicalTrials.gov website.

  8. Fatty acids composition of 10 microalgal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thidarat Noiraksar

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of 10 species of microalgae was determined at the exponential phase and the stationary phase. The microalgae consist of two species of diatoms, Bacillariophyceae, (Nitzschia cf. ovalis, Thalassiosira sp. five species of green microalgae, Prasinophyceae (Tetraselmis sp. and Chlorophyceae, (Dictyosphaerium pulchellum, Stichococcus sp., Chlorella sp., Scenedesmus falcatus and three species of blue green microalgae, Cyanophyceae (Anacystis sp., Synechococcus sp., Synechocystis sp..Medium for culture diatoms and green microalgae was F/2, and BG-11 media was used for Cyanophyceae. The microalgae were cultured beneath light intensity 143 μEm-2s-1, light: dark illustration 12:12 hrs., temperature 28ºC, and salinities 8-30 psu. The microalgae were harvested for analyzing fatty acid by centrivugal machine at 3500 rpm. for 5 min. at temperature 20ºC and stored at -80ºC prior to analysis.Fatty acids composition of microalgae differed from species to species. The majority fatty acids composition of diatoms at the exponential phase and the stationary phase were C16:1n-7 (17.12-31.47% and 28.22-42.02%, C16:0 (13.25-19.61% and 18.83-20.67%, C20:5 n-3 (16.65-26.67% and 11.32-23.68% respectively. The principle fatty acids composition of green microalgae, Prasinophyceae, Tetraselmis sp. were C18:3n-3 (16.17-16.67%, C16:0 (15.33-17.45%, C18:1n-9 (12.25-15.43%, C18:2n-6 (9.66-19.97%. The fatty acids composition of green microalgae, Chlorophyceae, were C18:3 n-3 (20.02-26.49% and 15.35- 30.63%, C16:0 (5.76-17.61% and 11.41-20.03%, C18:2n-6 (4.67-17.54% and 7.48-20.61% respectively. The major amounts of fatty acids content of blue green microalgae were C16:1n-7 (9.28-34.91% and 34.48- 35.04%, C14:0 (13.34-25.96% and 26.69-28.24%, C16:0 (5.89-29.15% and 5.70-16.81% except for Anacystis sp.which had a high amount of C18:3 n-3 (23.18-27.98% but low amount of C14:0 (3.66-4.98%.Bacillariophyceae contained the highest amount of highly unsaturated

  9. Quality of [omega]-3 fatty acid enriched low-fat chicken meat patties incorporated with selected levels of linseed flour/oil and canola flour/oil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ripudaman Singh; Manish K Chatli; Ashim K Biswas; Jhari Sahoo

    2014-01-01

    ...]-3 enriched fatty acids chicken meat patties (CMP) prepared with the incorporation of 4% linseed flour (T^sub 1^), 2% canola flour (T^sub 2^), 3% linseed oil (T^sub 3^), and 4% canola oil (T^sub 4...

  10. Lipid fatty acid profile analyses in liver and serum in rats with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis using improved gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acids (FA) are essential components of lipids and exhibit important biological functions. The analyses of FAs are routinely carried out by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, after multi-step sample preparation. In this study, several key experimental factors were carefully examined, validat...

  11. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hossein Bahrami

    2005-01-01

    @@ TO THE EDITOR Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an increasingly known medical entity with high prevalence, about 1 0 to 24 percent in general population and up to 74% in obese population[1]. The prevalence of the disease is expected to increase worldwide, as we are encountering the global obesity epidemic and the trend in developing countries toward the Western lifestyles. However, it looks that there are some differences between the demographic and epidemiologic features of NAFLD in developing and developed countries.

  12. Amino and fatty acids in carbonaceous meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvenvolden, K. A.

    1974-01-01

    Analyses of two carbonaceous meteorites have provided much of the latest evidence which seems to support Oparin's theory on the origin of life. The meteorites involved are the Murray meteorite, which fell in 1950, and the Murchison meteorite, which fell in 1969. The amino acids in the two meteorites are similar in composition. Eight of the twenty amino acids found belong to amino acids present in proteins. A number of monocarboxylic and dicarboxylic fatty acids were also found in the meteorites.

  13. Histopathology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth; M; Brunt; Dina; G; Tiniakos

    2010-01-01

    Histological analysis of liver biopsies remains a standard against which other methods of assessment for the presence and amount of hepatic injury due to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) are measured.Histological evaluation remains the sole method of distinguishing steatosis from advanced forms of NAFLD,i.e.nonalcoholic steatohepatitis(NASH) and fibrosis.Included in the lesions of NAFLD are steatosis,lobular and portal inflammation,hepatocyte injury in the forms of ballooning and apoptosis,and fibros...

  14. [Acute fatty liver in pregnancy: revealing fetal fatty acid oxidation disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamireau, D; Feghali, H; Redonnet-Vernhet, I; Mesli, S; Carles, D; Brissaud, O

    2012-03-01

    Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (AFLP) and hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count (HELLP) syndrome are serious maternal illnesses occurring in the third trimester of pregnancy with significant perinatal and maternal mortality. AFLP may result from mitochondrial defects in the beta-oxidation of fatty acids, in particular a deficiency of the long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD) in the fetus. Clinical findings in AFLP vary and its diagnosis is complicated by a significant overlap in clinical and biochemical features with HELLP syndrome. We report the case of 2 siblings who died, the first one in the neonatal period of asphyxia with multivisceral presentation and the second one from sudden death at 7 months. Autopsy of the latter infant revealed hepatic steatosis associated with cardiomyopathy, which led to suspicion of a fatty acid oxidation deficiency. Mutation analysis demonstrated that both children were homozygous for the common mutation c.1528G>C and the parents were heterozygous for this same mutation. This case demonstrates the importance of screening mothers with acute fatty liver disease of pregnancy and their children at birth for a metabolic disease. This article proposes several metabolic tests for mother and child suspected of having beta-oxidation of a fatty acid disorder.

  15. Unsaturated fatty acids, desaturases, and human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyungjae; Park, Woo Jung

    2014-02-01

    With the increasing concern for health and nutrition, dietary fat has attracted considerable attention. The composition of fatty acids in a diet is important since they are associated with major diseases, such as cancers, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) requires the expression of dietary fat-associated genes, such as SCD, FADS1, FADS2, and FADS3, which encode a variety of desaturases, to catalyze the addition of a double bond in a fatty acid chain. Recent studies using new molecular techniques and genomics, as well as clinical trials have shown that these genes and UFA are closely related to physiological conditions and chronic diseases; it was found that the existence of alternative transcripts of the desaturase genes and desaturase isoforms might affect human health and lipid metabolism in different ways. In this review, we provide an overview of UFA and desaturases associated with human health and nutrition. Moreover, recent findings of UFA, desaturases, and their associated genes in human systems are discussed. Consequently, this review may help elucidate the complicated physiology of UFA in human health and diseases.

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids and oxidative stability of ice cream supplemented with olein fraction of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Rahman; Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad

    2017-02-07

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) has been regarded as good source of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids with cardiac, hepatic, hypotensive, antiallergic and antidiabetic role. Concentration of omega-3 fatty acids in chia oil can be enhanced by fractionation. Olein/low melting fraction of chia oil has higher concentration of omega-3 fatty acids. Therefore, main objective of current investigation was determination of various concentration effect of olein fraction of chia oil on omega-3 fatty acids, oxidative stability and sensory characteristics of ice cream. Ice cream samples were prepared by partially replacing the milk fat with olein fraction of chia oil at 5, 10, 15 and 20% concentrations (T1, T2, T3 and T4), respectively. Ice cream prepared from 100% milk fat was kept as control. Ice cream samples stored at -18 °C for 60 days were analysed at 0, 30 and 60 days of the storage period. Fatty acid profile, total phenolic contents, total flavonoids, free fatty acids, peroxide value, anisidine value and sensory characteristics of ice cream samples was studied. Concentration of α-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid in T4 was 13.24, 0.58, 0.42 and 0.31%, respectively. Total phenolic contents of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were recorded 0.12, 1.65, 3.17, 5.19 and 7.48 mg GAE/mL, respectively. Total flavonoid content of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were found 0.08, 0.64, 1.87, 3.16 and 4.29 mg Quercetin Equivalent/mL. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 was noted 5.61, 17.43, 36.84, 51.17 and 74.91%, respectively. After 60 days of storage period, the highest peroxide value of 1.84 (MeqO2/kg) was observed in T4, which was much less than allowable limit of 10 (MeqO2/kg). Flavour score was non-significant after 30 days of storage period. Supplementation of ice cream with olein fraction of chia oil enhanced the concentration of omega-3 fatty acids and improved

  17. Unusual fatty acid substitution in lipids and lipopolysaccharides of Helicobacter pylori.

    OpenAIRE

    Geis, G; Leying, H; Suerbaum, S; Opferkuch, W

    1990-01-01

    Cellular fatty acids, phospholipid fatty acids, and lipopolysaccharide fatty acids of four strains of Helicobacter pylori were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography. The presence of myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid, beta-hydroxypalmitic acid, and beta-hydroxystearic acid was confirmed. In phospholipids, myristic acid and 19-carbon cyclopropane fatty acid were the major fatty acids. Hydroxy fatty acids and unsaturated fatt...

  18. Targets for modulation of fatty acid oxidation in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopaschuk, Gary D

    2004-03-01

    Fatty acids are a major source of fuel used by the heart to provide large amounts of energy necessary to sustain contractile function. In the healthy heart, a balance between fatty acid and carbohydrate use ensures that energy supply to the heart matches demand. However, myocardial ischemia causes profound changes in metabolism, including alterations in glucose and fatty acid metabolism that can lead to excessive myocardial fatty acid oxidation, which occurs at the expense of glucose oxidation. This contributes to cellular acidosis, a decrease in cardiac efficiency and contractile dysfunction in the ischemic heart. Inhibition of fatty acid oxidation has recently emerged as a promising approach to the prevention of these adverse effects of fatty acids. As a result, a number of key enzymes involved in the metabolism of fatty acids are potential targets for therapeutic intervention in myocardial ischemia. This includes inhibition of fatty acid uptake into the myocyte, inhibition of mitochondrial fatty acid uptake and direct inhibition of fatty acid beta-oxidation. This review describes these potential targets for modulation of energy metabolism in the heart.

  19. Trans fatty acids and cardiovascular health: research completed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, I A; Wanders, A J; Katan, M B

    2013-05-01

    This review asks the question if further research on trans fatty acids and cardiovascular health is needed. We therefore review the evidence from human studies on trans fatty acids and cardiovascular health, and provide a quantitative review of effects of trans fatty acid intake on lipoproteins. The results show that the effect of industrially produced trans fatty acids on heart health seen in observational studies is larger than predicted from changes in lipoprotein concentrations. There is debate on the effect of ruminant trans fatty acids and cardiovascular disease. Of special interest is conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), which is produced industrially for sale as supplements. Observational studies do not show higher risks of cardiovascular disease with higher intakes of ruminant trans fatty acids. However, CLA, industrial and ruminant trans fatty acids all raise plasma low-density lipoprotein and the total to high-density lipoprotein ratio. Gram for gram, all trans fatty acids have largely the same effect on blood lipoproteins. In conclusion, the detrimental effects of industrial trans fatty acids on heart health are beyond dispute. The exact size of effect will remain hard to determine. Further research is warranted on the effects of ruminant trans fatty acids and CLA on cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.

  20. Dietary supplementation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deline, Marshall L; Vrablik, Tracy L; Watts, Jennifer L

    2013-11-29

    Fatty acids are essential for numerous cellular functions. They serve as efficient energy storage molecules, make up the hydrophobic core of membranes, and participate in various signaling pathways. Caenorhabditis elegans synthesizes all of the enzymes necessary to produce a range of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. This, combined with the simple anatomy and range of available genetic tools, make it an attractive model to study fatty acid function. In order to investigate the genetic pathways that mediate the physiological effects of dietary fatty acids, we have developed a method to supplement the C. elegans diet with unsaturated fatty acids. Supplementation is an effective means to alter the fatty acid composition of worms and can also be used to rescue defects in fatty acid-deficient mutants. Our method uses nematode growth medium agar (NGM) supplemented with fatty acid sodium salts. The fatty acids in the supplemented plates become incorporated into the membranes of the bacterial food source, which is then taken up by the C. elegans that feed on the supplemented bacteria. We also describe a gas chromatography protocol to monitor the changes in fatty acid composition that occur in supplemented worms. This is an efficient way to supplement the diets of both large and small populations of C. elegans, allowing for a range of applications for this method.

  1. Analysis of fatty acid content and composition in microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Guido; Evers, Wendy A C; de Vree, Jeroen H; Kleinegris, Dorinde M M; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H; Lamers, Packo P

    2013-10-01

    A method to determine the content and composition of total fatty acids present in microalgae is described. Fatty acids are a major constituent of microalgal biomass. These fatty acids can be present in different acyl-lipid classes. Especially the fatty acids present in triacylglycerol (TAG) are of commercial interest, because they can be used for production of transportation fuels, bulk chemicals, nutraceuticals (ω-3 fatty acids), and food commodities. To develop commercial applications, reliable analytical methods for quantification of fatty acid content and composition are needed. Microalgae are single cells surrounded by a rigid cell wall. A fatty acid analysis method should provide sufficient cell disruption to liberate all acyl lipids and the extraction procedure used should be able to extract all acyl lipid classes. With the method presented here all fatty acids present in microalgae can be accurately and reproducibly identified and quantified using small amounts of sample (5 mg) independent of their chain length, degree of unsaturation, or the lipid class they are part of. This method does not provide information about the relative abundance of different lipid classes, but can be extended to separate lipid classes from each other. The method is based on a sequence of mechanical cell disruption, solvent based lipid extraction, transesterification of fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and quantification and identification of FAMEs using gas chromatography (GC-FID). A TAG internal standard (tripentadecanoin) is added prior to the analytical procedure to correct for losses during extraction and incomplete transesterification.

  2. [Chemical and nutritional changes during preparation of whole corn tortillas prepared with instant flour obtained by extrusion process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez Aldapa, C A; Martínez Bustos, F; Figueroa Cárdenas, J D; Ordorica Falomir, C A; González Hernández, J

    1996-12-01

    Chemical changes of some nutritional components (protein, total dietary fiber, vitamins, lysine, tryptophan, ether extract and fatty acids) of tortillas made from instant whole corn flour prepared by extrusion process (CINVESTAV process) were evaluated. The tortillas prepared by extrusion process were compared with tortillas made by traditional process and raw corn. The protein content of tortillas from both processes were statistically similar to those of the raw corn, although the traditional tortillas showed the lowest actual values. Tortillas from traditional process contained the lowest amount of total dietary fiber and available lysine. The loss of protein, crude fiber, total dietary fiber, available lysine, tryptophan, and vitamin contents during traditional tortillas process, was attributable to the partial loss of pericarp, aleurone and germ tissue during the process. Tortillas prepared by both processes showed loss of vitamins. The thermal treatment in both processes (traditional and extrusion) decreased the ether extract and fatty acids contents. Tortillas prepared by extrusion process showed better nutritional characteristics than traditional tortillas prepared by nixtamalization process.

  3. Catalytic cracking of fatty oils and fatty acids. A novel route towards bio-jet fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heil, Volker; Kraft, Axel; Menne, Andreas; Unger, Christoph A. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Umwelt-, Sicherheits- und Energietechnik UMSICHT, Oberhausen (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Components for bio-jet fuel production can be achieved by catalytic cracking of fatty oils and fatty acids over activated carbon catalyst. At reaction temperatures of about 450 C, mainly C15- and C16-n-Alkanes that can be isomerized for jet fuel-usage are produced. They can be used for bio-kerosene after isomerization. Introducing high-oleic feedstock like HO-sunflower-oil and slightly raising the reaction temperature leads to high amounts of n-alkanes in the jet-fuel boiling range. The process proves to be very robust concerning feedstock compositions and impurities. Therefore, catalytic cracking over activated carbon is an ideal pathway to transform not only bio-based oils, but also their wastes and fatty acid-containing by-products from plant oil processing into high-quality fuel components. Using alternative catalysts leads to an enhanced production of alkylated benzenes which are indispensable for aviation jet fuel. (orig.)

  4. Rice endosperm protein slows progression of fatty liver and diabetic nephropathy in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Masatoshi; Watanabe, Reiko; Yamaguchi, Miki; Hosojima, Michihiro; Saito, Akihiko; Fujii, Mikio; Fujimura, Shinobu; Kadowaki, Motoni

    2016-10-01

    We previously reported that rice endosperm protein (REP) has renoprotective effects in Goto-Kakizaki rats, a non-obese diabetic model. However, whether these effects occur in obese diabetes remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the effects of REP on obese diabetes, especially on fatty liver and diabetic nephropathy, using the obese diabetic model Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. In total, 7-week-old male ZDF rats were fed diets containing 20 % REP or casein (C) for 8 weeks. Changes in fasting blood glucose levels and urinary markers were monitored during the experimental period. Hepatic lipids and metabolites were measured and renal glomeruli were observed morphologically. HbA1c levels were significantly lower in rats fed REP, compared with C (Pdiabetes, fatty liver and diabetic nephropathy.

  5. Methods of refining and producing isomerized fatty acid esters and fatty acids from natural oil feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, Thomas E.; Cohen, Steven A.; Gildon, Demond L.; Beltran, Leslie V.; Kunz, Linda A.; Pals, Tessa M.; Quinn, Jordan R; Behrends, Jr., Raymond T.; Bernhardt, Randal J.

    2016-07-05

    Methods are provided for refining natural oil feedstocks and producing isomerized esters and acids. The methods comprise providing a C4-C18 unsaturated fatty ester or acid, and isomerizing the fatty acid ester or acid in the presence of heat or an isomerization catalyst to form an isomerized fatty ester or acid. In some embodiments, the methods comprise forming a dibasic ester or dibasic acid prior to the isomerizing step. In certain embodiments, the methods further comprise hydrolyzing the dibasic ester to form a dibasic acid. In certain embodiments, the olefin is formed by reacting the feedstock in the presence of a metathesis catalyst under conditions sufficient to form a metathesized product comprising olefins and esters, separating the olefins from the esters in the metathesized product, and transesterifying the esters in the presence of an alcohol to form a transesterified product having unsaturated esters.

  6. Fat characteristics and fatty acid profile of sea cucumbers (Holothuria Scabra obtained from the coasts of the Bushehr province -Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Jadavi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sea cucumbers are belonging to echinoderms and one of the important members of the food chain in temperate ecosystems and tropical coral reefs. The medicinal and nutritional uses of these invertebrates are primordial and are important as ecological, biological and economic properties. Holothuria Scabra, as one of the most valuable commercial species of sea cucumber in the world, is the dominant species in many Persian Gulf coasts such as the Bushehr province coasts. Conspicuous characteristics such as the use of inexpensive foods in their culture, the rather rapid, easy and low cost growth and reproduction, the possibility of culture with other fish, reduce the organic substrate in pools, the broad tolerance in water factors changes such as salinity and temperature it has selected them to culture.It seems they are containing the significant amounts of nutrients, especially appreciated fatty acids. Therefore, the aims of the current study are determination of total fat content, quality and quantity evaluations of some physicochemical parameters such as acid value (AV, peroxide value (PV, and refractive index (RI as well as, identify the profile of fatty acids in the fat. Materials & Methods: In this study, after collecting the 36 samples of sea cucumbers from the coasts of the bushehr province, sample preparation, and extraction of fat, their fatty acids profile were analyzed using gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID. Results: The peroxide and the acid values were 0.62±0.0435 and 0.7553±0.0034. The optical refractive index of the oil was 1467 at 26°C, and total fat was also 2%. Among 19 identified fatty acids obtained from the GC analysis of Holothuria Scabra oil, fatty acids: heneicosanoic acid, linoleic acid, palimitic acid, stearic acid, linoleic acid, and Meristic acid, with respectively amounts of 40.81%, 27.5%, 15.24%, 4.73%, 4.46% and 2.38% had the highest values, and other fatty acids were negligible

  7. Separation of cis-fatty acids from saturated and trans-fatty acids by nanoporous polydicyclopentadiene membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Abhinaba; Bowden, Ned B

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the separation of mixtures of fatty acid salts using a new organic solvent nanofiltration membrane based on polydicyclopentadiene (PDCPD). Mixtures of free fatty acids could not be separated by the membranes because they permeated at similar rates. When triisobutylamine was added to the fatty acids, the cis-fatty acid salts (oleic, petroselinic, vaccenic, linoleic, and linolenic acid) had slower permeation though the membranes than saturated (stearic acid) and trans-fatty acid (elaidic acid) salts. The reason for the difference in permeation was due to the formation of stable salt pairs between the amine and fatty acids that increased their cross-sectional areas. The fatty acid salts derived from saturated and trans-fatty acids were smaller than the critical area cutoff for the PDCPD membranes, so they readily permeated. In contrast, the fatty acid salts derived from the cis-fatty acids had critical areas larger than critical area cutoff of the PDPCD membranes and had slowed permeation. The partitioning coefficients of fatty acids and fatty acid salts were investigated to demonstrate that they were not responsible for the difference in permeation. The use of pressure was investigated to greatly accelerate the permeation through the membranes. For a solvent mixture of 35/65 (v/v) toluene/hexanes, the permeation of solvent was approximately 39 L m(-2) h(-1). This value is similar to values reported for permeation through membranes used in industry. The separation of a mixture of fatty acids based on the composition of soybean oil was investigated using pressure. The saturated fatty acid salts were almost completely removed from the cis-fatty acid salts when iBu(3)N was used as the amine to form the salt pairs. The separation of the cis-fatty acids found in soybean oil was investigated with Pr(3)N as the amine. The oleic acid salt (oleic acid has one cis double bond) preferentially permeated the membrane while the linoleic (two cis double bonds

  8. Fatty acid and sn-2 fatty acid composition in human milk from Granada (Spain) and in infant formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, A; López-Sabater, M C; Campoy-Folgoso, C; Rivero-Urgell, M; Castellote-Bargalló, A I

    2002-12-01

    To investigate differences in fatty acid and sn-2 fatty acid composition in colostrum, transitional and mature human milk, and in term infant formulas. Departament de Nutrició i Bromatologia, University of Barcelona, Spain and University Hospital of Granada, Spain. One-hundred and twenty mothers and 11 available types of infant formulas for term infants. We analysed the fatty acid composition of colostrum (n=40), transitional milk (n=40), mature milk (n=40) and 11 infant formulas. We also analysed the fatty acid composition at sn-2 position in colostrum (n=12), transitional milk (n=12), mature milk (n=12), and the 11 infant formulas. Human milk in Spain had low saturated fatty acids, high monounsaturated fatty acids and high linolenic acid. Infant formulas and mature human milk had similar fatty acid composition. In mature milk, palmitic acid was preferentially esterified at the sn-2 position (86.25%), and oleic and linoleic acids were predominantly esterified at the sn-1,3 positions (12.22 and 22.27%, respectively, in the sn-2 position). In infant formulas, palmitic acid was preferentially esterified at the sn-1,3 positions and oleic and linoleic acids had higher percentages at the sn-2 position than they do in human milk. Fatty acid composition of human milk in Spain seems to reflect the Mediterranean dietary habits of mothers. Infant formulas resemble the fatty acid profile of human milk, but the distribution of fatty acids at the sn-2 position is markedly different.

  9. Starch aerogel beads obtained from inclusion complexes prepared from high amylose starch and sodium palmitate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch aerogels are a class of low density highly porous renewable materials currently prepared from retrograded starch gels and are of interest for their good surface area, porosity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. Recently, we have reported on starches containing amylose-fatty acid salt h...

  10. 利用GC/MS分析草鱼内脏鱼油和菜籽油的脂肪酸组成%Comparative analysis of fatty acids composition in grass carp oil and rapeseed oil using GC/MS method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡卫强; 宋军; 刘忠义

    2011-01-01

    采用气质联用法对草鱼内脏鱼油和菜籽油的脂肪酸组成进行分析测定.结果表明,草鱼内脏鱼油中共检测出19种脂肪酸,其中饱和脂肪酸有7种,不饱和脂肪酸有12种;菜籽油中共检出14种脂肪酸,其中饱和脂肪酸有5种,不饱和脂肪酸有9种,两者脂肪酸的主要组成均为不饱和脂肪酸.因此可以利用草鱼内脏鱼油制备生物柴油.%The compositions of fatty acids in both grass carp oil and rap-seed oil are investigated by gas chromatography - mass spectrom-etry (GC/MS). The results showed that nineteen fatty acids, including seven saturated fatty acids and twelve unsaturated fatty acids, were identified in grass carp oil, and fourteen fatty acids, including five saturated fatty acids and nine unsaturated fatty acids, were detected in rap-seed oil. Unsaturated fatty acids are the main compositions in both oils. The results could indicate the grass carp oil was used to prepare biodiesel.

  11. Preparing for Multiple Births

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Video Games, and the Internet Preparing for Multiple Births KidsHealth > For Parents > Preparing for Multiple Births Print ... a combination of both. The Risks of Multiple Births The most common risk involved with multiple births ...

  12. Automatic 1H-NMR Screening of Fatty Acid Composition in Edible Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Castejón

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we introduce an NMR-based screening method for the fatty acid composition analysis of edible oils. We describe the evaluation and optimization needed for the automated analysis of vegetable oils by low-field NMR to obtain the fatty acid composition (FAC. To achieve this, two scripts, which automatically analyze and interpret the spectral data, were developed. The objective of this work was to drive forward the automated analysis of the FAC by NMR. Due to the fact that this protocol can be carried out at low field and that the complete process from sample preparation to printing the report only takes about 3 min, this approach is promising to become a fundamental technique for high-throughput screening. To demonstrate the applicability of this method, the fatty acid composition of extra virgin olive oils from various Spanish olive varieties (arbequina, cornicabra, hojiblanca, manzanilla, and picual was determined by 1H-NMR spectroscopy according to this protocol.

  13. Automatic 1H-NMR Screening of Fatty Acid Composition in Edible Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castejón, David; Fricke, Pascal; Cambero, María Isabel; Herrera, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we introduce an NMR-based screening method for the fatty acid composition analysis of edible oils. We describe the evaluation and optimization needed for the automated analysis of vegetable oils by low-field NMR to obtain the fatty acid composition (FAC). To achieve this, two scripts, which automatically analyze and interpret the spectral data, were developed. The objective of this work was to drive forward the automated analysis of the FAC by NMR. Due to the fact that this protocol can be carried out at low field and that the complete process from sample preparation to printing the report only takes about 3 min, this approach is promising to become a fundamental technique for high-throughput screening. To demonstrate the applicability of this method, the fatty acid composition of extra virgin olive oils from various Spanish olive varieties (arbequina, cornicabra, hojiblanca, manzanilla, and picual) was determined by 1H-NMR spectroscopy according to this protocol. PMID:26891323

  14. Phospholipid Fatty Acids as Physiological Indicators of Paracoccus denitrificans Encapsulated in Silica Sol-Gel Hydrogels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Trögl

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA content was determined in samples of Paracoccus denitrificans encapsulated in silica hydrogel films prepared from prepolymerized tetramethoxysilane (TMOS. Immediately after encapsulation the total PLFA concentration was linearly proportional to the optical density (600 nm of the input microbial suspension (R2 = 0.99. After 7 days this relationship remained linear, but with significantly decreased slope, indicating a higher extinction of bacteria in suspensions of input concentration 108 cells/mL and higher. trans-Fatty acids, indicators of cytoplasmatic membrane disturbances, were below the detection limit. The cy/pre ratio (i.e., ratio of cyclopropylated fatty acids (cy17:0 + cy19:0 to their metabolic precursors (16:1ω7 + 18:1ω7, an indicator of the transition of the culture to a stationary growth-phase, decreased depending on co-immobilization of nutrients in the order phosphate buffer > mineral medium > Luria Broth rich medium. The ratio, too, was logarithmically proportional to cell concentration. These results confirm the applicability of total PLFA as an indicator for the determination of living biomass and cy/pre ratio for determination of nutrient limitation of microorganisms encapsulated in sol-gel matrices. This may be of interest for monitoring of sol-gel encapsulated bacteria proposed as optical recognition elements in biosensor construction, as well as other biotechnological applications.

  15. Milk fat globules: fatty acid composition, size and in vivo regulation of fat liquidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmen, H; Patton, S

    1988-07-01

    Populations of large and small milk fat globules were isolated and analyzed to determine differences in fatty acid composition. Globule samples were obtained by centrifugation from milks of a herd and of individual animals produced under both pasture and barn feeding. Triacylglycerols of total globule lipids were prepared by thin layer chromatography and analyzed for fatty acid composition by gas chromatography. Using content of the acids in large globules as 100%, small globules contained fewer short-chain acids, -5.9%, less stearic acid, -22.7%, and more oleic acids, +4.6%, mean values for five trials. These differences are consistent with alternative use of short-chain acids or oleic acid converted from stearic acid to maintain liquidity at body temperature of milk fat globules and their precursors, intracellular lipid droplets. Stearyl-CoA desaturase (EC 1.14.99.5), which maintains fluidity of cellular endoplasmic reticulum membrane, is suggested to play a key role in regulating globule fat liquidity. Possible origins of differences between individual globules in fatty acid composition of their triacylglycerols are discussed.

  16. Ultra-Small Fatty Acid-Stabilized Magnetite Nanocolloids Synthesized by In Situ Hydrolytic Precipitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheireddine El-Boubbou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple, fast, large-scale, and cost-effective preparation of uniform controlled magnetic nanoparticles remains a major hurdle on the way towards magnetically targeted applications at realistic technical conditions. Herein, we present a unique one-pot approach that relies on simple basic hydrolytic in situ coprecipitation of inexpensive metal salts (Fe2+ and Fe3+ compartmentalized by stabilizing fatty acids and aided by the presence of alkylamines. The synthesis was performed at relatively low temperatures (~80°C without the use of high-boiling point solvents and elevated temperatures. This method allowed for the production of ultra-small, colloidal, and hydrophobically stabilized magnetite metal oxide nanoparticles readily dispersed in organic solvents. The results reveal that the obtained magnetite nanoparticles exhibit narrow size distributions, good monodispersities, high saturation magnetizations, and excellent colloidal stabilities. When the [fatty acid] : [Fe] ratio was varied, control over nanoparticle diameters within the range of 2–10 nm was achieved. The amount of fatty acid and alkylamine used during the reaction proved critical in governing morphology, dispersity, uniformity, and colloidal stability. Upon exchange with water-soluble polymers, the ultra-small sized particles become biologically relevant, with great promise for theranostic applications as imaging and magnetically targeted delivery vehicles.

  17. An oleate 12-hydroxylase from Ricinus communis L. is a fatty acyl desaturase homolog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Loo, F J; Broun, P; Turner, S; Somerville, C

    1995-01-01

    Recent spectroscopic evidence implicating a binuclear iron site at the reaction center of fatty acyl desaturases suggested to us that certain fatty acyl hydroxylases may share significant amino acid sequence similarity with desaturases. To test this theory, we prepared a cDNA library from developing endosperm of the castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis L.) and obtained partial nucleotide sequences for 468 anonymous clones that were not expressed at high levels in leaves, a tissue deficient in 12-hydroxyoleic acid. This resulted in the identification of several cDNA clones encoding a polypeptide of 387 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 44,407 and with approximately 67% sequence homology to microsomal oleate desaturase from Arabidopsis. Expression of a full-length clone under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in transgenic tobacco resulted in the accumulation of low levels of 12-hydroxyoleic acid in seeds, indicating that the clone encodes the castor oleate hydroxylase. These results suggest that fatty acyl desaturases and hydroxylases share similar reaction mechanisms and provide an example of enzyme evolution. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7624314

  18. An oleate 12-hydroxylase from Ricinus communis L. is a fatty acyl desaturase homolog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van De Loo, F.J. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Broun, P.; Turner, S.; Somerville, C. [Carnegie Institution of Washington, Stanford, CA (United States)

    1995-07-18

    Recent spectroscopic evidence implicating a binuclear iron site at the reaction center of fatty acyl desaturases suggested to us that certain fatty acyl hydroxylases may share significant amino acid sequence similarity with desaturases. To test this theory, we prepared a cDNA library from developing endosperm of the castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis L.) and obtained partial nucleotide sequences for 468 anonymous clones that were not expressed at high levels in leaves, a tissue deficient in 12-hydroxyoleic acid. This resulted in the identification of several cDNA clones encoding a polypeptide of 387 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 44,407 and with {approx}67% sequence homology to microsomal oleate desaturase from Arabidopsis. Expression of a full-length clone under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter in transgenic tobacco resulted in the accumulation of low levels of 12-hydroxyoleic acid in seeds, indicating that the clone encodes the castor oleate hydroxylase. These results suggest that fatty acyl desaturases and hydroxylases share similar reaction mechanisms and provide an example of enzyme evolution. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Fatty acid composition of Mediterranean buffalo milk fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Proto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to investigate the variation in fatty acid composition of milk fat from four buffalo (Bubalus bubalis herds under different feeding management and ration composition. Changes in milk fatty acid composition were monitored on a weekly basis. Saturated fatty acids (65.5% predominated in buffalo milk fat; monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids were 27.0% and 4.5%, respectively. Of saturated fatty acids, the content of palmitic acid was the highest (30.6% followed by stearic acid (12.0% and myristic acid (10.7%. Of the unsaturated fatty acids the content of oleic acid was the highest (26.6%. The average content of conjugated linoleic acid (0.76±0.33 was higher than the maximal values generally reported for dairy cow.

  20. Feedlot lamb meat fatty acids profile characterization employing gas chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.I. Cruz-Gonzalez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fat is an important constituent in diet, not only as an energy source, but for its essential fatty acids associated to fats in foods, considering that some polyunsaturated fatty acids like linoleic, linolenic and arachidonic cannot be synthesized by superior animals like humans. Scientific evidence show that the fatty acids ingest can affect the thrombotic tendency, cardiac rhythm, endothelial function systematic inflammation, insulin sensibility and oxidative stress. Samples from 21 ovine crossbreds from Pelibuey, Blackbelly, Dorper and Katahadin (40 kg average weight feed with corn based balanced diets were taken from loin area 18 h after refrigeration. Saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids levels were analyzed by gas chromatography. Results in this work showed that the healthy fatty acids levels are higher as compared to saturated fatty acids levels, indicating that this meat can influence consumer’s buying choice decision regarded to their health.

  1. Fatty acids, inflammation and intestinal health in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yulan

    2015-01-01

    The intestine is not only critical for nutrient digestion and absorption, but also is the largest immune organ in the body. However, in pig production, inflammation induced by numerous factors, such as pathogen infection and stresses (e.g., weaning), results in intestinal mucosal injury and dysfunction, and consequently results in poor growth of pigs. Dietary fatty acids not only play critical roles in energy homeostasis and cellular membrane composition, but also exert potent effects on intestinal development, immune function, and inflammatory response. Recent studies support potential therapeutic roles for specific fatty acids (short chain and medium chain fatty acids and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids) in intestinal inflammation of pigs. Results of these new lines of work indicate trophic and cytoprotective effects of fatty acids on intestinal integrity in pigs. In this article, we review the effect of inflammation on intestinal structure and function, and the role of specific fatty acids on intestinal health of pigs, especially under inflammatory conditions.

  2. Bioavailability of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Hahn, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    Supplements have reached a prominent role in improving the supply of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids, such as Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA 20:5n-3) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6n-3). Similar to other nutrients, the availability of omega-3 fatty acids is highly variable and determined by numerous factors. However, the question of omega-3 fatty acids bioavailability has long been disregarded, which may have contributed to the neutral or negative results concerning their effects in several studies. This review provides an overview of the influence of chemical binding form (free fatty acids bound in ethylesters, triacylglycerides or phospholipids), matrix effects (capsule ingestion with concomitant intake of food, fat content in food) or galenic form (i.e. microencapsulation, emulsification) on the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids. There is a need to systematically investigate the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids formulations, which might be a key to designing more effective studies in the future.

  3. Synthesis of fatty monoester lubricant base oil catalyzed by Fe-Zn double-metal cyanide complex

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ravindra K Raut; Mehejabeen Shaikh; Srinivas Darbha

    2014-07-01

    Fatty monoester lubricant base oils as high as 96.7 mol% were prepared by reacting methyl oleate with long-chain alcohols viz., 2-ethyl-1-hexanol (C8−OH), 1-decanol (C10OH) and 1-dodecanol (C12OH) in the presence of a solid Fe-Zn double-metal cyanide (DMC) complex catalyst. Unlike many other acid catalysts, DMC doesn't produce undesired ether side products. The catalyst was reusable in four recycling experiments with little loss in catalytic activity and ester yield. The long-chain esters prepared in the study have the desired physical properties for their application as lubricant base oils.

  4. A practical synthesis of long-chain iso-fatty acids (iso-C12-C19) and related natural products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Mark B; Williams, Spencer J

    2013-01-01

    A gram-scale synthesis of terminally-branched iso-fatty acids (iso-C12-C19) was developed commencing with methyl undec-10-enoate (methyl undecylenate) (for iso-C12-C14) or the C15 and C16 lactones pentadecanolide (for iso-C15-C17) and hexadecanolide (for iso-C18-C19). Central to the approaches outlined is the two-step construction of the terminal isopropyl group through addition of methylmagnesium bromide to the ester/lactones and selective reduction of the resulting tertiary alcohols. Thus, the C12, C17 and C18 iso-fatty acids were obtained in three steps from commercially-available starting materials, and the remaining C13-C16 and C19 iso-fatty acids were prepared by homologation or recursive dehomologations of these fatty acids or through intercepting appropriate intermediates. Highlighting the synthetic potential of the iso-fatty acids and various intermediates prepared herein, we describe the synthesis of the natural products (S)-2,15-dimethylpalmitic acid, (S)-2-hydroxy-15-methylpalmitic acid, and 2-oxo-14-methylpentadecane.

  5. A practical synthesis of long-chain iso-fatty acids (iso-C12–C19 and related natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark B. Richardson

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A gram-scale synthesis of terminally-branched iso-fatty acids (iso-C12–C19 was developed commencing with methyl undec-10-enoate (methyl undecylenate (for iso-C12–C14 or the C15 and C16 lactones pentadecanolide (for iso-C15–C17 and hexadecanolide (for iso-C18–C19. Central to the approaches outlined is the two-step construction of the terminal isopropyl group through addition of methylmagnesium bromide to the ester/lactones and selective reduction of the resulting tertiary alcohols. Thus, the C12, C17 and C18 iso-fatty acids were obtained in three steps from commercially-available starting materials, and the remaining C13–C16 and C19 iso-fatty acids were prepared by homologation or recursive dehomologations of these fatty acids or through intercepting appropriate intermediates. Highlighting the synthetic potential of the iso-fatty acids and various intermediates prepared herein, we describe the synthesis of the natural products (S-2,15-dimethylpalmitic acid, (S-2-hydroxy-15-methylpalmitic acid, and 2-oxo-14-methylpentadecane.

  6. TECHNOLOGY FOR OIL ENRICHED BY POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Leshukov

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The technology of butter with the "OmegaTrin" complex with the balanced content of polynonsaturated fat acids is developed. Studied the fatty acid composition of milk - raw materials, optimal amount of insertion of polyunsaturated fatty acids, organoleptic characteristics of enriched butter; studied physico-chemical properties and biological value (biological effectiveness of the final product, fatty acid composition of a new product, set the shelf life and developed an oil recipe.

  7. Emerging roles for specific fatty acids in developmental processes

    OpenAIRE

    Vrablik, Tracy L.; Watts, Jennifer L.

    2012-01-01

    Animals synthesize a vast range of fatty acids serving diverse cellular functions. The roles of specific fatty acids in early development are just beginning to be characterized. In this Perspective, a study by Kniazeva et al. (in the March 15, 2012, issue) that describes the particular combination of a branched chain fatty acid and an acyl-CoA synthetase required for critical cellular processes during early embryogenesis in C. elegans is discussed.

  8. Dietary Supplementation of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Caenorhabditis elegans

    OpenAIRE

    Deline, Marshall L.; Vrablik, Tracy L.; Watts, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids are essential for numerous cellular functions. They serve as efficient energy storage molecules, make up the hydrophobic core of membranes, and participate in various signaling pathways. Caenorhabditis elegans synthesizes all of the enzymes necessary to produce a range of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. This, combined with the simple anatomy and range of available genetic tools, make it an attractive model to study fatty acid function. In order to investigate the genetic pathways...

  9. Metabolomics of dietary fatty acid restriction in patients with phenylketonuria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Mütze

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with phenylketonuria (PKU have to follow a lifelong phenylalanine restricted diet. This type of diet markedly reduces the intake of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids especially long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA. Long-chain saturated fatty acids are substrates of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation for acetyl-CoA production. LC-PUFA are discussed to affect inflammatory and haemostaseological processes in health and disease. The influence of the long term PKU diet on fatty acid metabolism with a special focus on platelet eicosanoid metabolism has been investigated in the study presented here. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 12 children with PKU under good metabolic control and 8 healthy controls were included. Activated fatty acids (acylcarnitines C6-C18 in dried blood and the cholesterol metabolism in serum were analyzed by liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. Fatty acid composition of plasma glycerophospholipids was determined by gas chromatography. LC-PUFA metabolites were analyzed in supernatants by LC-MS/MS before and after platelet activation and aggregation using a standardized protocol. Patients with PKU had significantly lower free carnitine and lower activated fatty acids in dried blood compared to controls. Phytosterols as marker of cholesterol (re- absorption were not influenced by the dietary fatty acid restriction. Fatty acid composition in glycerophospholipids was comparable to that of healthy controls. However, patients with PKU showed significantly increased concentrations of y-linolenic acid (C18:3n-6 a precursor of arachidonic acid. In the PKU patients significantly higher platelet counts were observed. After activation with collagen platelet aggregation and thromboxane B(2 and thromboxane B(3 release did not differ from that of healthy controls. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Long-term dietary fatty acid restriction influenced the intermediates of mitochondrial beta

  10. Important bioactive properties of omega-3 fatty acids

    OpenAIRE

    Rui Xu

    2015-01-01

    Good health has been linked with healthy diet. N-3 fatty acids are required for proper functioning of many physiological systems. There is a large body of evidence documenting the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids with the first double bond at the third position from methyl-terminal on health benefits. Scientific evidence is accumulating to substantiate the role omega-3 fatty acids play in conditions such as cardiovascular disease, certain cancers and other diseases. The availability of ...

  11. Succinct synthesis of saturated hydroxy fatty acids and

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaspersen, Mads Holmgaard; Jenkins, Laura; Dunlop, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Saturated hydroxy fatty acids make up a class of underexplored lipids with potentially interesting biological activities. We report a succinct and general synthetic route to saturated hydroxy fatty acids hydroxylated at position 6 or higher, and exemplify this with the synthesis of hydroxylauric...... acids. All regioisomers of hydroxylauric acids were tested on free fatty acid receptors FFA1, FFA4 and GPR84. The results show that the introduction of a hydroxy group and its position have a high impact on receptor activity....

  12. Identification of characteristic fatty acids to quantify triacylglycerols in microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peili eShen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid profiles of lipids from microalgae are unique. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are generally enriched in polar lipids, whereas saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids constitute the majority of fatty acids in triacylglycerols (TAG. Each species has characteristic fatty acids, and their content is positively or negatively correlated with TAGs. The marine oleaginous diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum was used as the paradigm to determine the quantitative relationship between TAG and characteristic fatty acid content. Fatty acid profiles and TAG content of Phaeodactylum tricornutum were determined in a time course. C16:0/C16:1 and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n3 were identified as characteristic fatty acids in TAGs and polar lipids, respectively. The percentage of those characteristic fatty acids in total fatty acids had a significant linear relationship with TAG content and thus the correlation coefficient presenting r2 were 0.96, 0.94 and 0.97 respectively. The fatty acid-based method for TAG quantification could also be applied to other microalgae such as Nannochloropsis oceanica in which the r2 of C16:0, EPA were 0.94, 0.97 respectively and Chlorella pyrenoidosa, whose r2 value correspondingly between C18:1, C18:3 and TAG content were 0.91, 0.99 as well. This characteristic fatty acid-based method provided a distinct way to quantify TAGs in microalgae, by which TAGs could be measured precisely by immediate transesterification from wet biomass rather than using conventional methods. This procedure simplified the operation and required smaller samples than conventional methods.

  13. Soft drinks consumption and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William; Nseir; Fares; Nassar; Nimer; Assy

    2010-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) is a common clinical condition which is associated with metabolic syndrome in 70% of cases.Inappropriate dietary fat intake,excessive intake of soft drinks,insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress combine to increase free fatty acid delivery to the liver,and increased hepatic triglyceride accumulation contributes to fatty liver.Regular soft drinks have high fructose corn syrup which contains basic sugar building blocks,fructose 55% and glucose 45%.Soft drinks...

  14. Fatty acid biosynthesis in novel ufa mutants of Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich-Tanrikulu, M; Stafford, A E; Lin, J T; Makapugay, M I; Fuller, G; McKeon, T A

    1994-10-01

    New mutants of Neurospora crassa having the ufa phenotype have been isolated. Two of these mutants, like previously identified ufa mutants, require an unsaturated fatty acid for growth and are almost completely blocked in the de novo synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids. The new mutations map to a different chromosomal location than previously characterized ufa mutations. This implies that at least one additional genetic locus controls the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids in Neurospora.

  15. Thesis Preparation Manual

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    "This Thesis Preparation Manual has been written to provide you with format and procedure guidance for preparing and processing your thesis at the Naval Postgraduate School. It covers both unclassified and classified theses. All theses and thesis technical reports must be prepared in accordance with these guidelines. Please note that this manual is not written in the thesis format." form the Foreword

  16. Ameliorative effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids against palmitic acid-induced insulin resistance in L6 skeletal muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawada Keisuke

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatty acid-induced insulin resistance and impaired glucose uptake activity in muscle cells are fundamental events in the development of type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia. There is an increasing demand for compounds including drugs and functional foods that can prevent myocellular insulin resistance. Methods In this study, we established a high-throughput assay to screen for compounds that can improve myocellular insulin resistance, which was based on a previously reported non-radioisotope 2-deoxyglucose (2DG uptake assay. Insulin-resistant muscle cells were prepared by treating rat L6 skeletal muscle cells with 750 μM palmitic acid for 14 h. Using the established assay, the impacts of several fatty acids on myocellular insulin resistance were determined. Results In normal L6 cells, treatment with saturated palmitic or stearic acid alone decreased 2DG uptake, whereas unsaturated fatty acids did not. Moreover, co-treatment with oleic acid canceled the palmitic acid-induced decrease in 2DG uptake activity. Using the developed assay with palmitic acid-induced insulin-resistant L6 cells, we determined the effects of other unsaturated fatty acids. We found that arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids improved palmitic acid-decreased 2DG uptake at lower concentrations than the other unsaturated fatty acids, including oleic acid, as 10 μM arachidonic acid showed similar effects to 750 μM oleic acid. Conclusions We have found that polyunsaturated fatty acids, in particular arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids prevent palmitic acid-induced myocellular insulin resistance.

  17. Fish oil at low dietary levels enhances physiological activity of sesamin to increase hepatic fatty acid oxidation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    We previously demonstrated that a diet containing fish oil at a level of 80 g/kg strongly stimulated the physiological activity of a sesame sesamin preparation containing sesamin and episesamin at equal amounts to increase hepatic fatty acid oxidation. This study was conducted to clarify whether fish oil at lower dietary levels enhances the physiological activity of sesamin to increase hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Rats were fed experimental diets supplemented with 0 or 2 g sesamin/kg, and containing 0, 15 or 30 g fish oil/kg for 15 days. Among rats fed sesamin-free diets, diets containing 15 and 30 g fish oil/kg slightly increased the activity of enzymes involved in hepatic fatty acid oxidation. Sesamin increased these values irrespective of the presence or absence of fish oil in diets; however, the extent of the increase of many parameters was much greater in rats given fish oil-containing diets than in those fed a fish oil-free diet. Diets simultaneously containing sesamin and fish oil increased the gene expression of various peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation enzymes in a synergistic manner; but they were ineffective in causing a synergistic increase in mRNA levels of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation enzymes. The extent of the synergistic increase in the activity of hepatic fatty acid oxidation enzymes and mRNA levels of the peroxisomal enzymes was indistinguishable between diets containing 15 and 30 g fish oil/kg and appeared comparable to that observed previously with a diet containing 80 g fish oil/kg.

  18. Dietary omega-3 fatty acid intake and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psota, Tricia L; Gebauer, Sarah K; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2006-08-21

    Dietary omega-3 fatty acids decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Both epidemiologic and interventional studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on many CVD end points, including all CVD (defined as all coronary artery disease [CAD], fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction [MI], and stroke combined), all CAD, fatal and nonfatal MI, stroke, sudden cardiac death, and all-cause mortality. Much of the evidence comes from studies with fish oil and fish; to a lesser extent, data relate to plant-derived omega-3 fatty acids. Cardioprotective benefits have been observed with daily consumption of as little as 25 to 57 g (approximately 1 to 2 oz) of fish high in omega-3 fatty acids, an intake equivalent to >or=1 fish meal weekly or even monthly, with greater intakes decreasing risk further in a dose-dependent manner, up to about 5 servings per week. Fish, including farm-raised fish and their wild counterparts, are the major dietary sources of the longer-chain omega-3 fatty acids. Sources of plant-derived omega-3 fatty acids include flaxseed, flaxseed oil, walnuts, canola oil, and soybean oil. Because of the remarkable cardioprotective effects of omega-3 fatty acids, consumption of food sources that provide omega-3 fatty acids--especially the longer-chain fatty acids (>or=20 carbons) from marine sources--should be increased in the diet to decrease CVD risk significantly.

  19. Echinococcus granulosus fatty acid binding proteins subcellular localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvite, Gabriela; Esteves, Adriana

    2016-05-01

    Two fatty acid binding proteins, EgFABP1 and EgFABP2, were isolated from the parasitic platyhelminth Echinococcus granulosus. These proteins bind fatty acids and have particular relevance in flatworms since de novo fatty acids synthesis is absent. Therefore platyhelminthes depend on the capture and intracellular distribution of host's lipids and fatty acid binding proteins could participate in lipid distribution. To elucidate EgFABP's roles, we investigated their intracellular distribution in the larval stage by a proteomic approach. Our results demonstrated the presence of EgFABP1 isoforms in cytosolic, nuclear, mitochondrial and microsomal fractions, suggesting that these molecules could be involved in several cellular processes.

  20. Chemical composition and fatty acid contents in farmed freshwater prawns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina de Gasperi Portella

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition and fatty acid contents of Amazonian and giant river prawns. After four-month farming, with the same diet for both species, palmitic and stearic acids were the main saturated fatty acids. Oleic acid was the main monounsatured fatty acid, and the eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids were the most abundant polyunsaturated acids. Amazonian prawn has higher levels of protein and polyunsaturated fatty acids than those of the giant river prawn, which shows its potential for aquaculture.

  1. Overproduction of fatty acids in engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaowei; Guo, Daoyi; Cheng, Yongbo; Zhu, Fayin; Deng, Zixin; Liu, Tiangang

    2014-09-01

    The long hydrocarbon fatty acyl chain is energy rich, making it an ideal precursor for liquid transportation fuels and high-value oleo chemicals. As Saccharomyces cerevisiae has many advantages for industrial production compared to Escherichia coli. Here, we attempted to engineer Saccharomyces cerevisiae for overproduction of fatty acids. First, disruption of the beta-oxidation pathway, elimination of the acyl-CoA synthetases, overexpression of different thioesterases and acetyl-CoA carboxylase ACC1, and engineering the supply of precursor acetyl-CoA. The engineered strain XL122 produced more than 120 mg/L of fatty acids. In parallel, we inactivated ADH1, the dominant gene for ethanol production, to redirect the metabolic flux to fatty acids synthesis. The engineered strain DG005 produced about 140 mg/L fatty acids. Additionally, Acetyl-CoA carboxylase was identified as a critical bottleneck of fatty acids synthesis in S. cerevisiae with a cell-free system. However, overexpression of ACC1 has little effect on fatty acids biosynthesis. As it has been reported that phosphorylation of ACC1 may influent its activity, so phosphorylation sites of ACC1 were further identified. Although the regulatory mechanisms remain unclear, our results provide rationale for future studies to target this critical step. All these efforts, particularly the discovery of the limiting step are critical for developing a "cell factory" for the overproduction of fatty acids by using type I fatty acids synthase in yeast or other fungi.

  2. Nitro-fatty acids: novel anti-inflammatory lipid mediators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rubbo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitro-fatty acids are formed and detected in human plasma, cell membranes, and tissue, modulating metabolic as well as inflammatory signaling pathways. Here we discuss the mechanisms of nitro-fatty acid formation as well as their key chemical and biochemical properties. The electrophilic properties of nitro-fatty acids to activate anti-inflammatory signaling pathways are discussed in detail. A critical issue is the influence of nitroarachidonic acid on prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthases, redirecting arachidonic acid metabolism and signaling. We also analyze in vivo data supporting nitro-fatty acids as promising pharmacological tools to prevent inflammatory diseases.

  3. Herbal medicines for fatty liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao Lan; Xie, Liang Zhen; Zhu, Jiang; Li, George Q; Grant, Suzanne J; Liu, Jian Ping

    2013-08-24

    Fatty liver disease is potentially a reversible condition that may lead to end-stage liver disease. Since herbal medicines such as Crataegus pinnatifida and Salvia miltiorrhiza have increasingly been used in the management of fatty liver disease, a systematic review on herbal medicine for fatty liver disease is needed. To assess the beneficial and harmful effects of herbal medicines for people with alcoholic or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We searched The Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 3, 2012), MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Science Citation Index Expanded to 1 March 2012. We also searched the Chinese BioMedical Database, Traditional Chinese Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Chinese VIP Information, Chinese Academic Conference Papers Database and Chinese Dissertation Database, and the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database to 2 March 2012. We included randomised clinical trials comparing herbal medicines with placebo, no treatment, a pharmacological intervention, or a non-pharmacological intervention such as diet or lifestyle, or Western interventions in participants with fatty liver disease. Two review authors extracted data independently. We used the 'risk of bias' tool to assess the risk of bias of the included trials. We assessed the following domains: random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding, incomplete outcome data, selective outcome reporting, and other sources of bias. We presented the effects estimates as risk ratios (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) or as mean differences (MD) with 95% CI, depending on the variables of the outcome measures. We included 77 randomised clinical trials, which included 6753 participants with fatty liver disease. The risks of bias (overestimation of benefits and underestimation of harms) was high in all trials. The mean sample size was 88 participants

  4. Hyperinsulinemia and skeletal muscle fatty acid trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaley, Jill A; Shadid, Samyah; Sheehan, Michael T; Guo, ZengKui; Jensen, Michael D

    2013-08-15

    We hypothesized that insulin alters plasma free fatty acid (FFA) trafficking into intramyocellular (im) long-chain acylcarnitines (imLCAC) and triglycerides (imTG). Overnight-fasted adults (n = 41) received intravenous infusions of [U-¹³C]palmitate (0400-0900 h) and [U-¹³C]oleate (0800-1400 h) to label imTG and imLCAC. A euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (1.0 mU·kg fat-free mass⁻¹·min⁻¹) clamp (0800-1400 h) and two muscle biopsies (0900 h, 1400 h) were performed. The patterns of [U-¹³C]palmitate incorporation into imTG-palmitate and palmitoylcarnitine were similar to those we reported in overnight postabsorptive adults (saline control); the intramyocellular palmitoylcarnitine enrichment was not different from and correlated with imTG-palmitate enrichment for both the morning (r = 0.38, P = 0.02) and afternoon (r = 0.44, P = 0.006) biopsy samples. Plasma FFA concentrations, flux, and the incorporation of plasma oleate into imTG-oleate during hyperinsulinemia were ~1/10th of that observed in the previous saline control studies (P women than men, suggesting that sex differences in intramyocellular palmitate trafficking may occur under hyperinsulinemic conditions. We conclude that plasma FFA trafficking into imTG during hyperinsulinemia is markedly suppressed, and these newly incorporated FFA fatty acids do not readily enter the LCAC preoxidative pools. Hyperinsulinemia does not seem to inhibit the entry of fatty acids from imTG pools that were labeled under fasting conditions, possibly reflecting the presence of two distinct imTG pools that are differentially regulated by insulin.

  5. Effect of liver fatty acid binding protein on fatty acid movement between liposomes and rat liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, M; Brecher, P

    1987-01-01

    Although movement of fatty acids between bilayers can occur spontaneously, it has been postulated that intracellular movement is facilitated by a class of proteins named fatty acid binding proteins (FABP). In this study we have incorporated long chain fatty acids into multilamellar liposomes made of phosphatidylcholine, incubated them with rat liver microsomes containing an active acyl-CoA synthetase, and measured formation of acyl-CoA in the absence or presence of FABP purified from rat liver. FABP increased about 2-fold the accumulation of acyl-CoA when liposomes were the fatty acid donor. Using fatty acid incorporated into liposomes made either of egg yolk lecithin or of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, it was found that the temperature dependence of acyl-CoA accumulation in the presence of FABP correlated with both the physical state of phospholipid molecules in the liposomes and the binding of fatty acid to FABP, suggesting that fatty acid must first desorb from the liposomes before FABP can have an effect. An FABP-fatty acid complex incubated with microsomes, in the absence of liposomes, resulted in greater acyl-CoA formation than when liposomes were present, suggesting that desorption of fatty acid from the membrane is rate-limiting in the accumulation of acyl-CoA by this system. Finally, an equilibrium dialysis cell separating liposomes from microsomes on opposite sides of a Nuclepore filter was used to show that liver FABP was required for the movement and activation of fatty acid between the compartments. These studies show that liver FABP interacts with fatty acid that desorbs from phospholipid bilayers, and promotes movement to a membrane-bound enzyme, suggesting that FABP may act intracellularly by increasing net desorption of fatty acid from cell membranes. PMID:3446187

  6. Regiospecific synthesis of new fatty N-acyl trihalomethylated pyrazoline derivatives from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, Paulo; Santos, Juliane M. dos; D' Oca, Marcelo G. M.; Piovesan, Luciana A., E-mail: lpiovesan@gmail.com [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (UFRS), RS (Brazil). Escola de Quimica e Alimentos; Kuhn, Bruna L.; Moreira, Dayse N.; Flores, Alex F.C.; Martins, Marcos A.P. [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2012-11-15

    A series of new fatty N-acyl trihalomethylated pyrazoline derivatives from fatty acid methyl esters was synthesized by the cyclo condensation of respective fatty hydrazides with 4-alkoxy- 1,1,1-trial omethyl-3-alquen-2-ones. Efficient and regiospecific cyclizations catalyzed by BF{sub 3}-MeOH gave the desired products in good to excellent yields and at high purity. (author)

  7. Omega-3 fatty acids, phenolic compounds and antioxidant characteristics of chia oil supplemented margarine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Taj, Imran; Ajmal, Muhammad; Junaid, Muhammad

    2017-05-31

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) is known as power house of omega fatty acids which has great health benefits. It contains up to 78% linolenic acid (ω-3) and 18% linoleic acid (ω-6), which could be a great source of omega-3 fatty acids for functional foods. Therefore, in this study, margarines were prepared with supplementation of different concentrations of chia oil to enhance omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidant characteristics and oxidative stability of the product. Margarines were formulated from non-hydrogenated palm oil, palm kernel and butter. Margarines were supplemented with 5, 10, 15 and 20% chia oil (T1, T2, T3 and T4), respectively. Margarine without any addition of chia oil was kept as control. Margarine samples were stored at 5 °C for a period of 90 days. Physico-chemical (fat, moisture, refractive index, melting point, solid fat index, fatty acids profile, total phenolic contents, DPPH free radical scavenging activity, free fatty acids and peroxide value) and sensory characteristics were studied at the interval of 45 days. The melting point of T1, T2, T3 and T4 developed in current investigation were 34.2, 33.8, 33.1 and 32.5 °C, respectively. The solid fat index of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 47.21, 22.71, 20.33, 18.12 and 16.58%, respectively. The α-linolenic acid contents in T1, T2, T3 and T4 were found 2.92, 5.85, 9.22, 12.29%, respectively. The concentration of eicosanoic acid in T2, T3 and T4 was 1.82, 3.52, 6.43 and 9.81%, respectively. The content of docosahexanoic acid in T2, T3 and T4 was present 1.26, 2.64, 3.49 and 5.19%, respectively. The omega-3 fatty acids were not detected in the control sample. Total phenolic contents of control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 samples were 0.27, 2.22, 4.15, 7.23 and 11.42 mg GAE/mL, respectively. DPPH free radical scavenging activity for control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 was noted 65.8, 5.37, 17.82, 24.95, 45.42 and 62.8%, respectively. Chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, quercetin, phenolic glycoside k and phenolic

  8. Intestinal absorption of essential fatty acids under physiological and essential fatty acid-deficient conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minich, DM; Vonk, RJ; Verkade, HJ

    The adequate supply of essential fatty acids (EFA) to the body depends upon sufficient dietary intake and subsequent efficient intestinal absorption. Lipid malabsorption is not only a leading cause of EFA deficiency (EFAD), but also occurs secondarily to EFAD. Understanding the relationship between

  9. Ruminal fatty acid metabolism : altering rumen biohydrolgenation to improve milk fatty acid profile of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Nutritional guidelines promote a reduced intake of saturated fatty acids (FA) and increased intake of unsaturated FA by humans. Milk and dairy products contain a high proportion of saturated FA caused by extensive alterations of dietary lipids in the rumen through the processes of lipolysis and

  10. Intake of fatty acids in Western Europe with emphasis on trans fatty acids: The TRANSFAIR study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hulshof, K. F. A. M.; Erp-Baart, M. A. van; Anttolainen, M.;

    1999-01-01

    and from clusters of fatty acids was less. Only in Finland, Italy, Norway and Portugal total fat did provide on average less than 35% of energy intake. Saturated fatty acids (SFA) provided on average between 10% and 19% of total energy intake, with the lowest contribution in most Mediterranean countries....... TFA intake ranged from 0.5% (Greece, Italy) to 2.1% (Iceland) of energy intake among men and from 0.8% (Greece) to 1.9% among women (Iceland) (1.2-6.7 g/d and 1.7-4.1 g/d, respectively). The TFA intake was lowest in Mediterranean countries (0.5-0.8 en%) but was also below 1% of energy in Finland...... and Germany. Moderate intakes were seen in Belgium, The Netherlands, Norway and UK and highest intake in Iceland. Trans isomers of C-18:1 were the most TFA in the diet. Monounsaturated fatty acids contributed 9-12% of mean daily energy intake (except for Greece, nearly 18%) and polyunsaturated fatty acids 3...

  11. Hyperinsulinemia and skeletal muscle fatty acid trafficking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaley, Jill A.; Shadid, Samyah; Sheehan, Michael T.; Guo, ZengKui

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that insulin alters plasma free fatty acid (FFA) trafficking into intramyocellular (im) long-chain acylcarnitines (imLCAC) and triglycerides (imTG). Overnight-fasted adults (n = 41) received intravenous infusions of [U-13C]palmitate (0400–0900 h) and [U-13C]oleate (0800–1400 h) to label imTG and imLCAC. A euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (1.0 mU·kg fat-free mass−1·min−1) clamp (0800–1400 h) and two muscle biopsies (0900 h, 1400 h) were performed. The patterns of [U-13C]palmitate incorporation into imTG-palmitate and palmitoylcarnitine were similar to those we reported in overnight postabsorptive adults (saline control); the intramyocellular palmitoylcarnitine enrichment was not different from and correlated with imTG-palmitate enrichment for both the morning (r = 0.38, P = 0.02) and afternoon (r = 0.44, P = 0.006) biopsy samples. Plasma FFA concentrations, flux, and the incorporation of plasma oleate into imTG-oleate during hyperinsulinemia were ∼1/10th of that observed in the previous saline control studies (P < 0.001). At the time of the second biopsy, the enrichment in oleoylcarnitine was <25% of that in imTG-oleate and was not correlated with imTG-oleate enrichment. The intramyocellular nonesterified fatty acid-palmitate-to-imTG-palmitate enrichment ratio was greater (P < 0.05) in women than men, suggesting that sex differences in intramyocellular palmitate trafficking may occur under hyperinsulinemic conditions. We conclude that plasma FFA trafficking into imTG during hyperinsulinemia is markedly suppressed, and these newly incorporated FFA fatty acids do not readily enter the LCAC preoxidative pools. Hyperinsulinemia does not seem to inhibit the entry of fatty acids from imTG pools that were labeled under fasting conditions, possibly reflecting the presence of two distinct imTG pools that are differentially regulated by insulin. PMID:23820622

  12. Hyperinsulinemia and skeletal muscle fatty acid trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Kanaley, Jill A.; Shadid, Samyah; Sheehan, Michael T.; Guo, ZengKui; Jensen, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that insulin alters plasma free fatty acid (FFA) trafficking into intramyocellular (im) long-chain acylcarnitines (imLCAC) and triglycerides (imTG). Overnight-fasted adults (n = 41) received intravenous infusions of [U-13C]palmitate (0400–0900 h) and [U-13C]oleate (0800–1400 h) to label imTG and imLCAC. A euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic (1.0 mU·kg fat-free mass−1·min−1) clamp (0800–1400 h) and two muscle biopsies (0900 h, 1400 h) were performed. The patterns of [U-13C]palmitate in...

  13. The Danish trans-fatty acids ban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2017-01-01

    In 2003 an executive order was issued banning industrially produced trans-fatty acids above a low level in food items in Denmark. To date, only a few other countries have followed Denmark’s example. The way health consequences of trans fats were translated by the different actors enabled...... the creation of alliances between researchers, politicians, administration and industry. Danish researchers interpreted the research in a way to suit their ‘mental maps’ and to support their initially set goal to reduce industrially produced trans fats. The process displayed a ‘co-production’ where research...

  14. Pediatric Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Haley Bush; Pegah Golabi; Younossi, Zobair M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: With the increase in the prevalence of obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become among the leading causes of chronic liver disease in the pediatric age group. Once believed to be a “two-hit process”, it is now clear that the actual pathophysiology of NAFLD is complex and involves multiple pathways. Moreover, NAFLD is not always benign, and patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are at increased risk of developing advanced stages of liver disease. It h...

  15. Engineered Production of Short Chain Fatty Acid in Escherichia coli Using Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawed, Kamran; Mattam, Anu Jose; Fatma, Zia; Wajid, Saima; Abdin, Malik Z; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyric acid, have a broad range of applications in chemical and fuel industries. Worldwide demand of sustainable fuels and chemicals has encouraged researchers for microbial synthesis of SCFAs. In this study we compared three thioesterases, i.e., TesAT from Anaerococcus tetradius, TesBF from Bryantella formatexigens and TesBT from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, for production of SCFAs in Escherichia coli utilizing native fatty acid synthesis (FASII) pathway and modulated the genetic and bioprocess parameters to improve its yield and productivity. E. coli strain expressing tesBT gene yielded maximum butyric acid titer at 1.46 g L-1, followed by tesBF at 0.85 g L-1 and tesAT at 0.12 g L-1. The titer of butyric acid varied significantly depending upon the plasmid copy number and strain genotype. The modulation of genetic factors that are known to influence long chain fatty acid production, such as deletion of the fadD and fadE that initiates the fatty acid degradation cycle and overexpression of fadR that is a global transcriptional activator of fatty acid biosynthesis and repressor of degradation cycle, did not improve the butyric acid titer significantly. Use of chemical inhibitor cerulenin, which restricts the fatty acid elongation cycle, increased the butyric acid titer by 1.7-fold in case of TesBF, while it had adverse impact in case of TesBT. In vitro enzyme assay indicated that cerulenin also inhibited short chain specific thioesterase, though inhibitory concentration varied according to the type of thioesterase used. Further process optimization followed by fed-batch cultivation under phosphorous limited condition led to production of 14.3 g L-1 butyric acid and 17.5 g L-1 total free fatty acid at 28% of theoretical yield. This study expands our understanding of SCFAs production in E. coli through FASII pathway and highlights role of genetic and process optimization to enhance the desired product.

  16. Engineered Production of Short Chain Fatty Acid in Escherichia coli Using Fatty Acid Synthesis Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawed, Kamran; Mattam, Anu Jose; Fatma, Zia; Wajid, Saima; Abdin, Malik Z.; Yazdani, Syed Shams

    2016-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyric acid, have a broad range of applications in chemical and fuel industries. Worldwide demand of sustainable fuels and chemicals has encouraged researchers for microbial synthesis of SCFAs. In this study we compared three thioesterases, i.e., TesAT from Anaerococcus tetradius, TesBF from Bryantella formatexigens and TesBT from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, for production of SCFAs in Escherichia coli utilizing native fatty acid synthesis (FASII) pathway and modulated the genetic and bioprocess parameters to improve its yield and productivity. E. coli strain expressing tesBT gene yielded maximum butyric acid titer at 1.46 g L-1, followed by tesBF at 0.85 g L-1 and tesAT at 0.12 g L-1. The titer of butyric acid varied significantly depending upon the plasmid copy number and strain genotype. The modulation of genetic factors that are known to influence long chain fatty acid production, such as deletion of the fadD and fadE that initiates the fatty acid degradation cycle and overexpression of fadR that is a global transcriptional activator of fatty acid biosynthesis and repressor of degradation cycle, did not improve the butyric acid titer significantly. Use of chemical inhibitor cerulenin, which restricts the fatty acid elongation cycle, increased the butyric acid titer by 1.7-fold in case of TesBF, while it had adverse impact in case of TesBT. In vitro enzyme assay indicated that cerulenin also inhibited short chain specific thioesterase, though inhibitory concentration varied according to the type of thioesterase used. Further process optimization followed by fed-batch cultivation under phosphorous limited condition led to production of 14.3 g L-1 butyric acid and 17.5 g L-1 total free fatty acid at 28% of theoretical yield. This study expands our understanding of SCFAs production in E. coli through FASII pathway and highlights role of genetic and process optimization to enhance the desired product. PMID:27466817

  17. International perspectives on coal preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  18. Enhancement of neutrophil-mediated killing of Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood forms by fatty acids: importance of fatty acid structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaratilake, L M; Ferrante, A; Robinson, B S; Jaeger, T; Poulos, A

    1997-10-01

    Effects of fatty acids on human neutrophil-mediated killing of Plasmodium falciparum asexual blood forms were investigated by using a quantitative radiometric assay. The results showed that the antiparasitic activity of neutrophils can be greatly increased (>threefold) by short-term treatment with fatty acids with 20 to 24 carbon atoms and at least three double bonds. In particular, the n-3 polyenoic fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, and the n-6 fatty acid, arachidonic acid, significantly enhanced neutrophil antiparasitic activity. This effect was >1.5-fold higher than that induced by an optical concentration of the known agonist cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). At suboptimal concentrations, the combination of arachidonic acid and TNF-alpha caused a synergistic increase in neutrophil-mediated parasite killing. The fatty acid-induced effect was independent of the availability of serum opsonins but dependent on the structure of the fatty acids. The length of the carbon chain, degree of unsaturation, and availability of a free carboxyl group were important determinants of fatty acid activity. The fatty acids which increased neutrophil-mediated killing primed the enhanced superoxide radical generation of neutrophils in response to P. falciparum as detected by chemiluminescence. Scavengers of oxygen radicals significantly reduced the fatty acid-enhanced parasite killing, but cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase inhibitors had no effect. These findings have identified a new class of immunoenhancers that could be exploited to increase resistance against Plasmodium species.

  19. Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Gruczyńska, Eliza; Ścibisz, Iwona; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2016-12-15

    This study determined and compared the contents of bioactive components in plant seed oils extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method) and chloroform/methanol (Folch method) from coriander, caraway, anise, nutmeg and white mustard seeds. Oleic acid dominated among unsaturated fatty acids in nutmeg and anise seed oils while petroselinic acid was present in coriander and caraway oils. Concerning sterols, β-sitosterol was the main component in seed oils extracted with both methods. The content of total phenolics in nutmeg, white mustard and coriander seed oils extracted with chloroform/methanol was higher than in their counterparts prepared with n-hexane. The seed oil samples extracted according to the Folch method exhibited a higher ability to scavenge DPPH radicals compared to the oil samples prepared with the Soxhlet method. DPPH values of the methanolic extracts derived from oils produced with the Folch method were also higher than in the oils extracted with n-hexane.

  20. [Optimized sample preparation for metabolome studies on Streptomyces coelicolor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yihong; Li, Shanshan; Ai, Guomin; Wang, Weishan; Zhang, Buchang; Yang, Keqian

    2014-04-01

    Streptomycetes produce many antibiotics and are important model microorgansims for scientific research and antibiotic production. Metabolomics is an emerging technological platform to analyze low molecular weight metabolites in a given organism qualitatively and quantitatively. Compared to other Omics platform, metabolomics has greater advantage in monitoring metabolic flux distribution and thus identifying key metabolites related to target metabolic pathway. The present work aims at establishing a rapid, accurate sample preparation protocol for metabolomics analysis in streptomycetes. In the present work, several sample preparation steps, including cell quenching time, cell separation method, conditions for metabolite extraction and metabolite derivatization were optimized. Then, the metabolic profiles of Streptomyces coelicolor during different growth stages were analyzed by GC-MS. The optimal sample preparation conditions were as follows: time of low-temperature quenching 4 min, cell separation by fast filtration, time of freeze-thaw 45 s/3 min and the conditions of metabolite derivatization at 40 degrees C for 90 min. By using this optimized protocol, 103 metabolites were finally identified from a sample of S. coelicolor, which distribute in central metabolic pathways (glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway and citrate cycle), amino acid, fatty acid, nucleotide metabolic pathways, etc. By comparing the temporal profiles of these metabolites, the amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways were found to stay at a high level during stationary phase, therefore, these pathways may play an important role during the transition between the primary and secondary metabolism. An optimized protocol of sample preparation was established and applied for metabolomics analysis of S. coelicolor, 103 metabolites were identified. The temporal profiles of metabolites reveal amino acid and fatty acid metabolic pathways may play an important role in the transition from primary to

  1. Replacement of dietary saturated fatty acids by trans fatty acids lowers serum HDL cholesterol and impairs endothelial function in healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de N.M.; Bots, M.L.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    We tested whether trans fatty acids and saturated fatty acids had different effects on flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD), a risk marker of coronary heart disease (CHD). Consumption of trans fatty acids is related to increased risk of CHD, probably through effects on lipoproteins. Trans fatty acids di

  2. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Enriched Chevon (Goat Meat Lowers Plasma Cholesterol Levels and Alters Gene Expressions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, control chevon (goat meat and omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon were obtained from goats fed a 50% oil palm frond diet and commercial goat concentrate for 100 days, respectively. Goats fed the 50% oil palm frond diet contained high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA in their meat compared to goats fed the control diet. The chevon was then used to prepare two types of pellets (control or enriched chevon that were then fed to twenty-male-four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10 in each group for 12 weeks to evaluate their effects on plasma cholesterol levels, tissue fatty acids, and gene expression. There was a significant increase in ALA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in the muscle tissues and liver of the rats fed the enriched chevon compared with the control group. Plasma cholesterol also decreased (P<0.05 in rats fed the enriched chevon compared to the control group. The rat pellets containing enriched chevon significantly upregulated the key transcription factor PPAR-γ and downregulated SREBP-1c expression relative to the control group. The results showed that the omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon increased the omega-3 fatty acids in the rat tissues and altered PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c genes expression.

  3. Time course effects of fermentation on fatty acid and volatile compound profiles of Cheonggukjang using new soybean cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kye Man Cho

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of the potential probiotic Bacillus subtilis CSY191 on the fatty acid profiles of Cheonggukjang, a fermented soybean paste, prepared using new Korean brown soybean cultivars, protein-rich cultivar (Saedanbaek, and oil-rich cultivar (Neulchan. Twelve fatty acids were identified in the sample set—myristic, palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic, vaccenic, linoleic, α-linolenic, arachidic, gondoic, behenic, and lignoceric acids—yet, no specific changes driven by fermentation were noted in the fatty acid profiles. To further explore the effects of fermentation of B. subtilis CSY191, complete profiles of volatiles were monitored. In total, 121, 136, and 127 volatile compounds were detected in the Saedanbaek, Daewon (control cultivar, and Neulchan samples, respectively. Interestingly, the content of pyrazines—compounds responsible for pungent and unpleasant Cheonggukjang flavors—was significantly higher in Neulchan compared to that in Saedanbaek. Although the fermentation period was not a strong factor affecting the observed changes in fatty acid profiles, we noted that profiles of volatiles in Cheonggukjang changed significantly over time, and different cultivars represented specific volatile profiles. Thus, further sensory evaluation might be needed to determine if such differences influence consumers' preferences. Furthermore, additional studies to elucidate the associations between B. subtilis CSY191 fermentation and other nutritional components (e.g., amino acids and their health-promoting potential are warranted.

  4. High yields of fatty acid and neutral lipid production from cassava bagasse hydrolysate (CBH) by heterotrophic Chlorella protothecoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junhui; Liu, Xiaoguang; Wei, Dong; Chen, Gu

    2015-09-01

    The fermentation process for high yields of fatty acid and neutral lipid production from cassava bagasse hydrolysate (CBH) was developed by heterotrophic Chlorella protothecoides. An efficient single-step enzymatic hydrolysis of cassava bagasse (CB) by cellulase was firstly developed to produce >30 g/L of reducing sugars. The concentrated CBH was subsequently applied in a batch culture, producing 7.9 g/L of dry biomass with yield of 0.44 g/g reducing sugar and 34.3 wt% of fatty acids and 48.6 wt% of neutral lipids. Furthermore, fed-batch fermentation using CBH achieved higher yields of fatty acids (41.0 wt% and a titer of 5.83 g/L) and neutral lipids (58.4 wt% and yield of 0.22 g/g reducing sugar). Additionally, the fatty acid profile analysis showed that the intercellular lipid was suitable to prepare high-quality biodiesel. This study demonstrated the feasibility of using CBH as low-cost feedstock to produce crude algal oil for sustainable biodiesel production.

  5. Identification of poultry meat-derived fatty acids functioning as quorum sensing signal inhibitors to autoinducer-2 (AI-2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, K W; Soni, K A; Hume, M E; Beier, R C; Jesudhasan, P; Pillai, S D

    2007-11-01

    Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) is a compound that plays a key role in bacterial cell-to-cell communication (quorum sensing). Previous research has shown certain food matrices inhibit this signaling compound. Using the reporter strain, Vibrio harveyi BB170, quorum-sensing inhibitors contained in poultry meat wash (PMW) samples were characterized by molecular weight and hydrophobic properties using liquid chromatography systems. Most fractions that demonstrated AI-2 inhibition were 13.7 kDa or less, and had hydrophobic properties. Hexane was used to extract inhibitory compounds from a PMW preparation and the extract was further separated by gas chromatography (GC). Several fatty acids were identified and quantified. Linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid were each tested for inhibition at 0.1, 1, and 10 mM concentrations. All samples expressed AI-2 inhibition (ranging from approximately 25% to 99%). Fatty acids, combined in concentrations equivalent to those determined by GC analysis, expressed inhibition at 59.5%, but higher combined concentrations (10- and 100-fold) had inhibition at 84.4% and 69.5%, respectively. The combined fatty acids (100-fold) did not demonstrate a substantial decrease in colony plate counts, despite presenting high AI-2 inhibition. These fatty acids, through modulating quorum sensing by inhibition, may offer a unique means to control foodborne pathogens and reduce microbial spoilage.

  6. Fatty acid preference of mycelium-bound lipase from a locally isolated strain of Geotrichum candidum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loo, Joo Ling; Lai, Oi Mlng; Long, Kamariah; Ghazali, Hasanah Mohd

    2007-12-01

    Mycelium-bound lipase (MBL) was prepared using a strain of Geotrichum candidum isolated from local soil. At the time of maximum lipase activity (54 h), the mycelia to which the lipase was bound were harvested by filtration and centrifugation. Dry MBL was prepared by lyophilizing the mycelia obtained. The yield of MBL was 3.66 g/l with a protein content of 44.11 mg/g. The lipase activity and specific lipase activity were 22.59 and 510 U/g protein, respectively. The moisture content of the MBL was 3.85%. The activity of free (extracellular) lipase in the culture supernatant (after removal of mycelia) was less than 0.2 U/ml. The MBL showed selectivity for oleic acid over palmitic acid during hydrolysis of palm olein, indicating that the lipase from G. candidum displayed high substrate selectivity for unsaturated fatty acid containing a cis-9 double bond, even in crude form. This unique specificity of MBL could be a direct, simple and inexpensive way in the fats and oil industry for the selective hydrolysis or transesterification of cis-9 fatty acid residues in natural triacylglycerols.

  7. Imaging of hepatic steatosis and fatty sparing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karcaaltincaba, Musturay [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara 06100 (Turkey)]. E-mail: musturayk@yahoo.com; Akhan, Okan [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara 06100 (Turkey)

    2007-01-15

    Radiology has gained importance in the non-invasive diagnosis of hepatic steatosis. Ultrasonography is usually the first imaging modality for the evaluation of hepatic steatosis. Unenhanced CT with or without dual kVp measurement and MRI with in and out of phase sequence can allow objective evaluation of hepatic steatosis. However, none of the imaging modalities can differentiate non-alcoholic steatohepatitis/fatty liver disease from simple steatosis. Evaluation of hepatic steatosis is important in donor evaluation before orthotopic liver transplantation and hepatic surgery. Recently, one-stop shop evaluation of potential liver donors has become possible by CT and MRI integrating vascular, parenchymal, volume and steatosis evaluation. Moreover hepatic steatosis (diffuse, multinodular, focal, subcortical, perilesional, intralesional, periportal and perivenular), hypersteatosis and sparing (geographic, nodular and perilesional or peritumoral) can cause diagnostic problems as a pseudotumor particularly in the evaluation of oncology patients. Liver MRI is used as a problem-solving tool in these patients. In this review, we discuss the current role of radiology in diagnosing, quantifying hepatic steatosis and solutions for diagnostic problems associated with fatty infiltration and sparing.

  8. Modulating fatty acid oxidation in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionetti, Vincenzo; Stanley, William C; Recchia, Fabio A

    2011-05-01

    In the advanced stages of heart failure, many key enzymes involved in myocardial energy substrate metabolism display various degrees of down-regulation. The net effect of the altered metabolic phenotype consists of reduced cardiac fatty oxidation, increased glycolysis and glucose oxidation, and rigidity of the metabolic response to changes in workload. Is this metabolic shift an adaptive mechanism that protects the heart or a maladaptive process that accelerates structural and functional derangement? The question remains open; however, the metabolic remodelling of the failing heart has induced a number of investigators to test the hypothesis that pharmacological modulation of myocardial substrate utilization might prove therapeutically advantageous. The present review addresses the effects of indirect and direct modulators of fatty acid (FA) oxidation, which are the best pharmacological agents available to date for 'metabolic therapy' of failing hearts. Evidence for the efficacy of therapeutic strategies based on modulators of FA metabolism is mixed, pointing to the possibility that the molecular/biochemical alterations induced by these pharmacological agents are more complex than originally thought. Much remains to be understood; however, the beneficial effects of molecules such as perhexiline and trimetazidine in small clinical trials indicate that this promising therapeutic strategy is worthy of further pursuit.

  9. Effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haibo; Gao, Qinfeng; Dong, Shuanglin; Zhou, Jishu; Ye, Zhi; Lan, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The present study was conducted to understand the effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) on growth, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity and the immunity of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka). Five experimental diets were prepared, containing graded levels of n-3 HUFAs (0.46%, 0.85%, 1.25%, 1.61% and 1.95%, respectively), and the 0.46% group was used as control group. The specific growth rates, fatty acid profiles, activities and gene expression of antioxidative enzymes and lysozyme of the sea cucumbers that were fed with the 5 experimental diets were determined. The results showed that the specific growth rate of sea cucumbers in all the treatment groups significantly increased compared to the control group (P sea cucumbers. The contents of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in the body wall of the sea cucumbers gradually increased with the increasing levels of n-3 HUFAs in the diets. The suitable supplement of n-3 HUFAs in diets improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) of sea cucumbers by up-regulating the expression of SOD and CAT mRNA in sea cucumbers. However, excess n-3 HUFAs in diets caused lipid peroxidation, inhibited the expression of lysozyme (LSZ) mRNA and decreased the activities of LSZ in sea cucumbers. In summary, the suitable supplement levels of n-3 HUFAs in diets of sea cucumbers A. japonicus were estimated between 0.85% and 1.25% considering the growth performance, cost and the indicators of antioxidant capacity and immunity.

  10. Differentiation of Bacillus anthracis from Bacillus cereus by gas chromatographic whole-cell fatty acid analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Lawrence, D.; Heitefuss, S; Seifert, H S

    1991-01-01

    Three strains of Bacillus anthracis and seven strains of Bacillus cereus were grown on complex medium and on synthetic medium. Gas chromatographic analysis of whole-cell fatty acids of strains grown on complex medium gave nearly identical fatty acid patterns. Fatty acid patterns of strains grown on synthetic medium showed a high content of branched-chain fatty acids. Significant differences between the fatty acid patterns of the two species were found. Odd iso/anteiso fatty acid ratios were a...

  11. Syntrophic degradation of fatty acids by methanogenic communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stams, A.J.M.; Worm, P.; Sousa, D.Z.; Alves, M.M.; Plugge, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    In methanogenic environments degradation of fatty acids is a key process in the conversion of organic matter to methane and carbon dioxide. For degradation of fatty acids with three or more carbon atoms syntrophic communities are required. This chapter describes the general features of syntrophic de

  12. Interaction between fatty acid and the elastin network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, van J.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction between salts of fatty acids (FAS) and elastin. Absorption of fatty acids in elastin may affect the elasticity of elastin-containing tissue. Such phenomena could, for instance, be of relevance for the understanding of the

  13. 40 CFR 721.3629 - Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids... Substances § 721.3629 Triethanolamine salts of fatty acids. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as triethanolamine salts of...

  14. Increased Brain Fatty Acid Uptake in Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmi, Anna; Iozzo, Patricia; Viljanen, Antti; Hirvonen, Jussi; Fielding, Barbara A.; Virtanen, Kirsi; Oikonen, Vesa; Kemppainen, Jukka; Viljanen, Tapio; Guiducci, Letizia; Haaparanta-Solin, Merja; Någren, Kjell; Solin, Olof; Nuutila, Pirjo

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We measured brain fatty acid uptake in a group of 23 patients with MS and 7 age-matched healthy control subjects during fasting conditions using positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C]-palmitate and [18F]fluoro-6-thia-heptadecanoic acid ([18F]-FTHA). Sixteen MS subjects were restudied after 6 weeks of very low calorie diet intervention. RESULTS At baseline, brain global fatty acid uptake derived from [18F]-FTHA was 50% higher in patients with MS compared with control subjects. The mean percentage increment was 130% in the white matter, 47% in the gray matter, and uniform across brain regions. In the MS group, the nonoxidized fraction measured using [11C]-palmitate was 86% higher. Brain fatty acid uptake measured with [18F]-FTHA-PET was associated with age, fasting serum insulin, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index. Both total and nonoxidized fractions of fatty acid uptake were associated with BMI. Rapid weight reduction decreased brain fatty acid uptake by 17%. CONCLUSIONS To our knowledge, this is the first study on humans to observe enhanced brain fatty acid uptake in patients with MS. Both fatty acid uptake and accumulation appear to be increased in MS patients and reversed by weight reduction. PMID:20566663

  15. Why do polyunsaturated fatty acids lower serum cholesterol?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beynen, A.C.; Katan, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    Replacement of saturated by polyunsaturated fatty acids in the diet may lower serum very low-density and low-density lipoprotein concentrations because the liver preferentially converts polyunsaturated fatty acids into ketone bodies instead of into very low-density lipoprotein triglycerides. Thus un

  16. Polyunsaturated fatty acid status of Dutch vegans and omnivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Brouwer, D A; Hasperhoven, M B; Hettema, Y; Bemelmans, W J; Muskiet, F A

    2000-01-01

    We compared the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status of Dutch vegans and omnivores to investigate whether disparities can be explained by different diets and long chain PUFA (LCP) synthesis rates. Dietary intakes and fatty acid compositions of erythrocytes (RBC), platelets (PLT), plasma choleste

  17. Optimization of creamy vegetable spreads for fatty acid composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cream-plant spreads optimization method by fatty acid content is developed. Product organoleptic properties analysis is carried out, its microstructure and fatty acid content is evaluated, acid and peroxide numbers are defined. Milk plasma active acidity alteration is examined and rational shelf life is determined.

  18. Distillation of natural fatty acids and their chemical derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well over 1,000 different fatty acids are known which are natural components of fats, oils (triacylglycerols), and other related compounds. These fatty acids can have different alkyl chain lengths, 0-6 carbon-carbon double bonds possessing cis- or trans-geometry, and can contain a variety of functio...

  19. Volatile fatty acids production in ruminants and the role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    organic volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and microbial protein then become available to the ... short-chain fatty acids and lactate (Ritzhaupt et al.,. 1998a,b; Muller et al., 2002; .... staining for MCT4 was visualized in strata spinosum and basale. In the ...

  20. Metabolic Engineering of Oleaginous Yeasts for Fatty Alcohol Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Wei, Hui; Knoshaug, Eric; Van Wychen, Stefanie; Xu, Qi; Himmel, Michael E.; Zhang, Min

    2016-04-25

    To develop pathways for advanced biological upgrading of sugars to hydrocarbons, we are seeking biological approaches to produce high carbon efficiency intermediates amenable to separations and catalytic upgrading to hydrocarbon fuels. In this study, we successfully demonstrated fatty alcohol production by oleaginous yeasts Yarrowia lipolytica and Lipomyces starkeyi by expressing a bacteria-derived fatty acyl-CoA reductase (FAR). Moreover, we find higher extracellular distribution of fatty alcohols produced by FAR-expressing L. starkeyi strain as compared to Y. lipolytica strain, which would benefit the downstream product recovery process. In both oleaginous yeasts, long chain length saturated fatty alcohols were predominant, accounting for more than 85% of the total fatty alcohols produced. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of fatty alcohol production in L. starkeyi. Taken together, our work demonstrates that in addition to Y. lipolytica, L. starkeyi can also serve as a platform organism for production of fatty acid-derived biofuels and bioproducts via metabolic engineering. We believe strain and process development both will significantly contribute to our goal of producing scalable and cost-effective fatty alcohols from renewable biomass.

  1. DETERGENCY OF THE 12 TO 18 CARBON SATURATED FATTY ACIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    saturated fatty acids ) were explored to determine the relationship of the detergencies of such systems to the physico-chemical nature (HLB, hydrophile...suggested that in such systems the chief action is van der Waals adsorption between hydr oxide mole ratio adducts of tridecyl alcohol are poor detergents of the saturated fatty acids .

  2. Lipase-mediated resolution of branched chain fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsman, N.W.J.T.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Padt, A. van der; Boom, R.M.; Riet, K. van 't; Groot, A.E. de

    2002-01-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs) are fatty acids substituted with alkyl groups. Many of them are chiral and therefore occur in two enantiomeric forms. This review describes their occurrence in Nature, their biosynthesis, their properties as flavours, and their enzymatic kinetic resolution. Many li

  3. Interaction between fatty acid salts and the elastin network.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, van J.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the interaction between salts of fatty acids (FAS) and elastin. Absorption of fatty acids in elastin may affect the elasticity of elastin-containing tissue. Such phenomena could, for instance, be of relevance for the understanding of the formation of a

  4. An overview of the properties of fatty acid alkyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid alkyl esters of plant oils, especially in the form of methyl esters, have numerous applications with fuel use having received the most attention in recent times due to the potential high volume. Various properties imparted by neat fatty acid alkyl esters have been shown to influence fuel ...

  5. Chemical Sciences A comparative study of triglyceride and fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Triglyceride and fatty acid composition were determined for palm oils from three different ... Much of the variations occurred in triglycerides with two or more unsaturated fatty acids in their ...

  6. Increased brain fatty acid uptake in metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karmi, Anna; Iozzo, Patricia; Viljanen, Antti

    2010-01-01

    To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it.......To test whether brain fatty acid uptake is enhanced in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS) and whether weight reduction modifies it....

  7. Analysis of fatty liver by CT values in obese children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naganuma, Yoshihiro; Tomizawa, Shuichi; Ikarashi, Kozo; Tohyama, Jun; Ozawa, Kanzi [Niigata Hospital National Sanatorium, Kashiwazaki (Japan); Uchiyama, Makoto

    1996-06-01

    Liver attenuation values were measured by CT in 97 (183 times) obese children with ages 3 to 18 years and a diagnosis of fatty liver was made in 42 subjects. Liver/spleen ration from CT measurements showed a significant negative correlation with the percentage of standard body weight, and with the systolic pressure. In children with fatty liver, systolic pressure and serum GOT, GPT, ChE, TC, TG, ApoB and insulin were significantly higher than those in children without fatty liver. After a low-calorie dietary regimen and exercise therapy, the liver/spleen ratio and GPT improved in all children. The diagnosis of fatty infiltration (fatty liver) was made with a liver/spleen ratio of less than 1.0 as determined by the number of measurements taken, a reasonable criterion for the diagnosis of fatty liver by CT in children. There were some children with elevated GPT who showed normal CT findings. This may be caused by overnutrition which was associated with fatty infiltration, since GPT decreased in all these children after treatment. The present study suggests that CT is a useful procedure in diagnosing fatty liver, and in monitoring and determining efficacy of treatment in obese children. (author)

  8. Alternative origins for omega-3 fatty acids in the diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenihan-Geels, Georgia; Bishop, Karen S.

    2016-01-01

    Fish and seafood are important sources for LC PUFAs, EPA and DHA. These fatty acids may be synthesised in the body from short-chain fatty acids, including ALA; however, the enzymes involved in this pathway are considered inefficient. This means direct EPA and DHA sources are an important part of

  9. Therapeutic effect of osthole on hyperlipidemic fatty liver in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan ZHANG; Mei-lin XIE; Lu-jia ZHU; Zhen-lun GU

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To study the effects of osthole on hyperlipidemic fatty liver and investigate the possible mechanisms. Methods: A rat model with hyperlipidemic fatty liver was successfully established by feeding fatty milk for 6 weeks. The experimental rats were then treated with 5-20 mg/kg osthole for 6 weeks. The mouse hypedipi-demic model was induced by feeding fatty milk when they were treated with 10-20 mg/kg osthole for 3 weeks. Results: After treatment with osthole, the levels of rat serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein-choles-terol significantly decreased as compared with the fatty liver model group (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Hepatic weight and its coefficient, the hepatic tissue contents of TC,TG, and malondialdehyde, also significantly decreased (P<0.05 or P<0.01). In fatty milk-induced hyperlipidemic mice, the post-heparin plasma activities of lipo-protein lipase (LPL), hepatic lipase (HL), and total lipase (TL) significantly increased after treatment with 10-20 mg/kg osthole for 3 weeks (P<0.05 or P<0.01).Importantly, the histological evaluation of rat liver demonstrated that osthole dramatically decreased lipid accumulation (P<0.01). Conclusion: Osthole was found to have therapeutic effects on fatty milk-induced rat fatty liver; the mecha-nisms might be associated with its anti-oxidation and the elevation of the activi-ties of LPL and HL.

  10. Fatty acid profile of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study reports the fatty acid profiles of 25 alternative lipid feedstocks for the production of bio-based fuels and chemicals. Lipids were extracted using hexane from oil-bearing seeds using a standard Soxhlet apparatus. Fatty acid profiles were measured using gas chromatography-flame ionization...

  11. Polyunsaturated fatty acid status of Dutch vegans and omnivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Brouwer, D A; Hasperhoven, M B; Hettema, Y; Bemelmans, W J; Muskiet, F A

    2000-01-01

    We compared the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status of Dutch vegans and omnivores to investigate whether disparities can be explained by different diets and long chain PUFA (LCP) synthesis rates. Dietary intakes and fatty acid compositions of erythrocytes (RBC), platelets (PLT), plasma

  12. Polyunsaturated fatty acid status of Dutch vegans and omnivores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Brouwer, D A; Hasperhoven, M B; Hettema, Y; Bemelmans, W J; Muskiet, F A

    2000-01-01

    We compared the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status of Dutch vegans and omnivores to investigate whether disparities can be explained by different diets and long chain PUFA (LCP) synthesis rates. Dietary intakes and fatty acid compositions of erythrocytes (RBC), platelets (PLT), plasma choleste

  13. Lipase-mediated resolution of branched chain fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsman, N.W.J.T.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Padt, A. van der; Boom, R.M.; Riet, K. van 't; Groot, A.E. de

    2002-01-01

    Branched chain fatty acids (BCFAs) are fatty acids substituted with alkyl groups. Many of them are chiral and therefore occur in two enantiomeric forms. This review describes their occurrence in Nature, their biosynthesis, their properties as flavours, and their enzymatic kinetic resolution. Many li

  14. New phenstatin-fatty acid conjugates: synthesis and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinhui; Brown, David P; Wang, Yi-Jun; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2013-09-15

    New phenstatin-fatty acid conjugates have been synthesized and tested against the KB-3-1, H460, MCF-7 and HEK293 cell lines, with an increase in anti-proliferative activity being observed at the micro-molar level paralleling an increase in un-saturation in the fatty acid component.

  15. Seasonal changes on total fatty acid composition of carp (Cyprinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... the melting temperatures of ω3 fatty acids are lower than ω6 fatty acids ... caught, they were transported on ice to the laboratories, filleted and frozen. .... is essential in the diet to help prevent coronary heart disease by reducing ...

  16. Synthesis of fatty acid starch esters in supercritical carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muljana, Henky; van der Knoop, Sjoerd; Keijzer, Danielle; Picchioni, Francesco; Janssen, Leon P. B. M.; Heeres, Hero J.

    2010-01-01

    This manuscript describes an exploratory study on the synthesis of fatty acid/potato starch esters using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO(2)) as the solvent. The effects of process variables such as pressure (6-25 MPa), temperature (120-150 degrees C) and various basic catalysts and fatty acid der

  17. Plasma concentrations of trans fatty acids in persons with type 2 diabetes between September 2002 and April 200412345

    OpenAIRE

    Schwenke, Dawn C.; Foreyt, John P.; Edgar R Miller; Reeves, Rebecca S.; Vitolins, Mara Z.

    2013-01-01

    Background: transFatty acids (TFAs) increase cardiovascular disease risk. TFAs and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the food supply may be declining with reciprocal increases in cis-monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and saturated fatty acids (SFAs).

  18. [Aesthetic surgery, psychic preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiss, R

    2003-10-01

    The aesthetic surgery impacts the psychological picture of the body. The candidate must be prepared to this change in appearance. If not, the surgeon must suggest the psychological preparation, evaluating the risk of dissatisfaction, in order to allow the surgical and narcissistic success of his operation. The author, a psychiatric, beneficiary in a strong experience of a surgical assistance, develops the interest of such a preparation upon a period of about 15 years (1988-2002).

  19. Genetic variability of fatty acids in bovine milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyeurt H.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids composition of bovine milk influences the technological properties of butterfat and also presents some potential benefits for human health. Impact of feeding on fat composition is well described in the literature; less information is available about the impact of genetics. Based on few studies, essentially conducted to isolate some feeding effect, the breed seemed to influence the fatty acids composition. The variation in the activity of δ-9 desaturase, key enzyme in the production of monounsaturated fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in milk, could explain these differences. Very few studies have been focussing on the estimation of genetic parameters of fatty acids composition. However, the moderate heritability estimates observed by these studies for the major fatty acids could suggest a potential genetic effect.

  20. [Raman spectrometry of several saturated fatty acids and their salts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Man; Guan, Ping; Liu, Wen-hui; Liu, Yan

    2006-11-01

    Saturated fatty acids and their salts widely exist in the nature, and they are well known as important chemical materials. Their infrared spectra have been studied in detail. Nevertheless, few works on the Raman spectra characteristics of saturated fatty acids and their salts have been published before. Man-made crystals of acetic acid, stearic acid, calcium acetate, magnesium acetate, calcium stearate and magnesium stearate were investigated by means of Fourier transform Raman spectrometry for purpose of realizing their Raman spectra. Positive ions can cause the distinctions between the spectra of saturated fatty acids and their salts. The differences in mass and configuration between Ca2+ and Mg2+ result in the Raman spectra's diversity between calcium and magnesium salts of saturated fatty acids. Meanwhile, it is considered that the long carbon chain weakened the influence of different positive ions on the salts of saturated fatty acids.

  1. Regulation of hepatic gene expression by saturated fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallim, T; Salter, A M

    2010-01-01

    Diets rich in saturated fatty acids have long been associated with increased plasma cholesterol concentrations and hence increased risk of cardiovascular disease. More recently, they have also been suggested to promote the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. While there is now considerable evidence to suggest that polyunsaturated fatty acids exert many of their effects through regulating the activity of transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator activated receptors, sterol regulatory binding proteins (SREBPs) and liver X receptor, our understanding of how saturated fatty acids act is still limited. Here we review the potential mechanisms whereby saturated fatty acids modulate hepatic lipid metabolism thereby impacting on the synthesis, storage and secretion of lipids. Evidence is presented that their effects are, at least partly, mediated through modulation of the activity of the SREBP family of transcription factors.

  2. Important bioactive properties of omega-3 fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Xu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Good health has been linked with healthy diet. N-3 fatty acids are required for proper functioning of many physiological systems. There is a large body of evidence documenting the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids with the first double bond at the third position from methyl-terminal on health benefits. Scientific evidence is accumulating to substantiate the role omega-3 fatty acids play in conditions such as cardiovascular disease, certain cancers and other diseases. The availability of n-3 fatty acids to various tissues is of major importance to health and depends on dietary intake for both normal development and in the prevention and management of chronic diseases.In this review we will summarize the biological properties of omega-3 fatty acids.

  3. Heterogeneity in limb fatty acid kinetics in type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sacchetti, M; Olsen, D B; Saltin, B

    2005-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In order to test the hypothesis that disturbances in skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism with type 2 diabetes are not equally present in the upper and lower limbs, we studied fatty acid kinetics simultaneously across the arm and leg of type 2 diabetic patients (n=6) and matched...... control subjects (n=7) for 5 h under baseline conditions and during a 4-h hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. METHODS: Limb fatty acid kinetics was determined by means of continuous [U-(13)C]palmitate infusion and measurement of arteriovenous differences. RESULTS: The systemic palmitate rate...... in the dysregulation of skeletal muscle fatty acid metabolism, with only the leg, but not the arm, showing an impairment of fatty acid kinetics at baseline and during a hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp causing a physiological increase in insulin concentration....

  4. Modifications of proteins by polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxidation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refsgaard, Hanne; Tsai, Lin; Stadtman, Earl

    2000-01-01

    The ability of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters to modify amino acid residues in bovine serum albumin (BSA), glutamine synthetase, and insulin in the presence of a metal-catalyzed oxidation system [ascorbate/Fe(lll)/O-2] depends on the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acid. The fatty acid......-dependent generation of carbonyl groups and loss of lysine residues increased in the order methyl linoleate fatty acids were oxidized in the presence...... in the formation of protein carbonyls, These results are consistent with the proposition that metal-catalyzed oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids can contribute to the generation of protein carbonyls by direct interaction of lipid oxidation products (alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes) with lysine residues...

  5. [Possible route for thiamine participation in fatty acid synthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buko, V U; Larin, F S

    1976-01-01

    The possibility of thiamine partaking in the synthesis of fatty acids through the functions unrelated to the catalytic properties of thiamine-diphosphate was studied. Rats kept on a fat-free ration devoid of thiamine were given thiamine of thiochrome with no vitaminic properties. The total fatty acids content in different tissues and incorporation therein of tagged acetate and pyruvate was determined, while the fatty acids composition of the liver was investigated by using gas chromatography. Thiamine and thiochrome produced a similar effect on a number of the study factors, i.e. they forced down the total acids level in the spleen, intensified incorporation of tagged acetate and pyruvate in fatty acids of the heart and uniformly changed the fatty acids composition in the liver. It is suggested that the unindirectional effects of thiamine and thiochrome is due to the oxidative transformation of thiamine into thiochrome.

  6. Trans-fatty acids and cardiovascular risk: does origin matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawczynski, Christine; Lorkowski, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Several studies have aimed to unravel the contribution of different types of dietary fatty acids to human health and disease. Investigations have consistently shown that high consumption of industrially produced trans-fatty acids from partially hydrogenated vegetable oils is harmful to human health, in particular cardiovascular health. Therefore, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced that partially hydrogenated oils are no longer 'generally recognized as safe', and trans-fatty acids are not permitted in the U.S. food supply. On the other hand, recent studies analyzing the association between circulating trans-fatty acids and disease have revealed that some ruminant-specific trans-fatty acids are associated with a reduction in incidence of disease. In this special report, we highlight recent findings and point out perspectives for future studies on this topic.

  7. Essential fatty acids as functional components of foods- a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Narinder; Chugh, Vishal; Gupta, Anil K

    2014-10-01

    During the recent decades, awareness towards the role of essential fatty acids in human health and disease prevention has been unremittingly increasing among people. Fish, fish oils and some vegetable oils are rich sources of essential fatty acids. Many studies have positively correlated essential fatty acids with reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, infant development, cancer prevention, optimal brain and vision functioning, arthritis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and neurological/neuropsychiatric disorders. Beneficial effects may be mediated through several different mechanisms, including alteration in cell membrane composition, gene expression or eicosanoid production. However, the mechanisms whereby essential fatty acids affect gene expression are complex and involve multiple processes. Further understanding of the molecular aspects of essential fatty acids will be the key to devising novel approaches to the treatment and prevention of many diseases.

  8. Fatty acids as modulators of neutrophil recruitment, function and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Hosana G; Takeo Sato, Fabio; Curi, Rui; Vinolo, Marco A R

    2016-08-15

    Neutrophils are well-known to act in the destruction of invading microorganisms. They have also been implicated in the activation of other immune cells including B- and T-lymphocytes and in the resolution of inflammation and tissue regeneration. Neutrophils are produced in the bone marrow and released into the circulation from where they migrate to tissues to perform their effector functions. Neutrophils are in constant contact with fatty acids that can modulate their function, activation and fate (survival or cell death) through different mechanisms. In this review, the effects of fatty acids pertaining to five classes, namely, long-chain saturated fatty acids (LCSFAs), short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and omega-3 (n-3), omega-6 (n-6) and omega-9 (n-9) unsaturated fatty acids, on neutrophils and the relevance of these effects for disease development are discussed.

  9. Potential Production of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from Microalgae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noer Abyor Handayani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, public awareness of healthcare importance increase. Polyunsaturated fatty acid is an essential nutrition for us, such arachidonic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. The need of Polyunsaturated fatty acid generally derived from fish oil, but fish oil has a high risk chemical contamination. Microalgae are single cell microorganism, one of Phaeodactylum tricornutum which have relatively high content of eicosapentaenoic acid (29,8%. Biotechnology market of Polyunsaturated fatty acid is very promising for both foods and feeds, because the availability of abundant raw materials and suitable to develop in the tropics. This literature review discusses about the content of Polyunsaturated fatty acid in microalgae, omega-3, omega-6, Polyunsaturated fatty acid production processes, and applications in public health

  10. Marine lipids and the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Müllertz, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Marine lipids are enriched with omega-3 fatty acids, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acids are important membrane lipids and have many recognized health benefits, the bioavailability of these fatty acids can therefore be important for achieving...... the beneficial healthy effects. As important membrane lipids, the incorporation and depletion kinetics of EPA and DHA in biological membranes have been found to be different, DHA was depleted slowly from both erythrocyte and plasma membranes due to the slow re-synthesis of DHA in the body. The bioavailability...... of omega-3 fatty acids has been reported to be affected by several factors; among the important factors were the digestion and absorption processes of omega-3 containing lipids in the gastrointestinal tract. Both lipid structures and food structures can affect the bioavailability of omega-3 fatty acids...

  11. Sex Steroid Modulation of Fatty Acid Utilization and Fatty Acid Binding Protein Concentration in Rat Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockner, Robert K.; Lysenko, Nina; Manning, Joan A.; Monroe, Scott E.; Burnett, David A.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanism by which sex steroids influence very low density hepatic lipoprotein triglyceride production has not been fully elucidated. In previous studies we showed that [14C]oleate utilization and incorporation into triglycerides were greater in hepatocyte suspensions from adult female rats than from males. The sex differences were not related to activities of the enzymes of triglyceride biosynthesis, whereas fatty acid binding protein (FABP) concentration in liver cytosol was greater in females. These findings suggested that sex differences in lipoprotein could reflect a sex steroid influence on the availability of fatty acids for hepatocellular triglyceride biosynthesis. In the present studies, sex steroid effects on hepatocyte [14C]oleate utilization and FABP concentration were investigated directly. Hepatocytes from immature (30-d-old) rats exhibited no sex differences in [14C]oleate utilization. With maturation, total [14C]oleate utilization and triglyceride biosynthesis increased moderately in female cells and decreased markedly in male cells; the profound sex differences in adults were maximal by age 60 d. Fatty acid oxidation was little affected. Rats were castrated at age 30 d, and received estradiol, testosterone, or no hormone until age 60 d, when hepatocyte [14C]oleate utilization was studied. Castration virtually eliminated maturational changes and blunted the sex differences in adults. Estradiol or testosterone largely reproduced the appropriate adult pattern of [14C]oleate utilization regardless of the genotypic sex of the treated animal. In immature females and males, total cytosolic FABP concentrations were similar. In 60-d-old animals, there was a striking correlation among all groups (females, males, castrates, and hormone-treated) between mean cytosolic FABP concentration on the one hand, and mean total [14C]oleate utilization (r = 0.91) and incorporation into triglycerides (r = 0.94) on the other. In 30-d-old animals rates of [14C

  12. Materials Preparation Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — MPC is recognized throughout the worldwide research community for its unique capabilities in purification, preparation, and characterization of: rare earth metals,...

  13. Materials Preparation Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — MPC is recognized throughout the worldwide research community for its unique capabilities in purification, preparation, and characterization of: rare earth metals,...

  14. Possible Involvement of Pancreatic Fatty Infiltration in Pancreatic Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Hori

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose in its early stage and is one of the most lethal human cancers. Thus, it is important to clarify its major risk factors, predictive factors and etiology. Here, we focus on fatty infiltration of the pancreas and suggest that it could be a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Fatty infiltration of the pancreas is observed as ectopic adipocytes infiltrating the pancreatic tissue and is positively correlated with obesity and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus, which are risk factors for pancreatic cancer. However, whether fatty infiltration is a major risk factor for pancreatic cancer has not been established. Recent clinical studies show there is a positive correlation between fatty infiltration of the pancreas and pancreatic precancerous lesions or ductal adenocarcinomas. Animal experimental studies also show an association between fatty infiltration of the pancreas and pancreatic precancerous lesions or ductal adenocarcinomas development. Syrian golden hamsters, which are sensitive to chemical carcinogens in the pancreas, develop fatty infiltration of the pancreas with age. The combination of a high-fat diet and a chemical carcinogen that induces a K-ras mutation increases the severity of fatty infiltration of the pancreas. Thus, fatty infiltration of the pancreas is suggested to promote pancreatic carcinogenesis via a K-ras activating mutation. It is assumed that increased expression of adipokines and of inflammatory and proliferation-associated factors elicited by fatty infiltration of the pancreas may contribute to pancreatic precancerous lesions or ductal adenocarcinomas development. Accumulating evidence suggests that in addition to suppression of Ras activation, methods to modulate fatty infiltration in the pancreas can be considered as a strategy for preventing pancreatic cancer.

  15. Fatty acids, lipid mediators, and T-cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Anja J; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Toes, René E M; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea

    2014-01-01

    Research toward the mechanisms underlying obesity-linked complications has intensified during the last years. As a consequence, it has become clear that metabolism and immunity are intimately linked. Free fatty acids and other lipids acquired in excess by current feeding patterns have been proposed to mediate this link due to their immune modulatory capacity. The functional differences between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, in combination with their dietary intake are believed to modulate the outcome of immune responses. Moreover, unsaturated fatty acids can be oxidized in a tightly regulated and specific manner to generate either potent pro-inflammatory or pro-resolving lipid mediators. These oxidative derivatives of fatty acids have received detailed attention during the last years, as they have proven to have strong immune modulatory capacity, even in pM ranges. Both fatty acids and oxidized fatty acids have been studied especially in relation to macrophage and T-cells functions. In this review, we propose to focus on the effect of fatty acids and their oxidative derivatives on T-cells, as it is an active area of research during the past 5 years. The effect of fatty acids and their derivatives on activation and proliferation of T-cells, as well as the delicate balance between stimulation and lipotoxicity will be discussed. Moreover, the receptors involved in the interaction between free fatty acids and their derivatives with T-cells will be summarized. Finally, the mechanisms involved in modulation of T-cells by fatty acids will be addressed, including cellular signaling and metabolism of T-cells. The in vitro results will be placed in context of in vivo studies both in humans and mice. In this review, we summarize the latest findings on the immune modulatory function of lipids on T-cells and will point out novel directions for future research.

  16. Hepatic triglyceride synthesis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Steve S; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2008-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a spectrum of diseases ranging from simple steatosis to cirrhosis. The hallmark of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is hepatocyte accumulation of triglycerides. We will review the role of triglyceride synthesis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease progression and summarize recent findings about triglyceride synthesis inhibition and prevention of progressive disease. Attempts to inhibit triglyceride synthesis in animal models have resulted in improvement in hepatic steatosis. Studies in animal models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease demonstrate that inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase, the enzyme that catalyzes the final step in triglyceride synthesis, results in improvement in hepatic steatosis and insulin sensitivity. We recently confirmed that hepatic specific inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase with antisense oligonucleotides improves hepatic steatosis in obese, diabetic mice but, unexpectedly, exacerbated injury and fibrosis in that model of progressive nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. When hepatocyte triglyceride synthesis was inhibited, free fatty acids accumulated in the liver, leading to induction of fatty acid oxidizing systems that increased hepatic oxidative stress and liver damage. These findings suggest that the ability to synthesize triglycerides may, in fact, be protective in obesity. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is strongly associated with obesity and peripheral insulin resistance. Peripheral insulin resistance increases lipolysis in adipose depots, promoting increased free fatty acid delivery to the liver. In states of energy excess, such as obesity, the latter normally triggers hepatic triglyceride synthesis. When hepatic triglyceride synthesis is unable to accommodate increased hepatocyte free fatty acid accumulation, however, lipotoxicity results. Thus, rather than being hepatotoxic, liver triglyceride accumulation is actually hepato-protective in obese

  17. Fatty Acids, Lipid Mediators, and T-Cell Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Anja J.; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Toes, René E. M.; Ioan-Facsinay, Andreea

    2014-01-01

    Research toward the mechanisms underlying obesity-linked complications has intensified during the last years. As a consequence, it has become clear that metabolism and immunity are intimately linked. Free fatty acids and other lipids acquired in excess by current feeding patterns have been proposed to mediate this link due to their immune modulatory capacity. The functional differences between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, in combination with their dietary intake are believed to modulate the outcome of immune responses. Moreover, unsaturated fatty acids can be oxidized in a tightly regulated and specific manner to generate either potent pro-inflammatory or pro-resolving lipid mediators. These oxidative derivatives of fatty acids have received detailed attention during the last years, as they have proven to have strong immune modulatory capacity, even in pM ranges. Both fatty acids and oxidized fatty acids have been studied especially in relation to macrophage and T-cells functions. In this review, we propose to focus on the effect of fatty acids and their oxidative derivatives on T-cells, as it is an active area of research during the past 5 years. The effect of fatty acids and their derivatives on activation and proliferation of T-cells, as well as the delicate balance between stimulation and lipotoxicity will be discussed. Moreover, the receptors involved in the interaction between free fatty acids and their derivatives with T-cells will be summarized. Finally, the mechanisms involved in modulation of T-cells by fatty acids will be addressed, including cellular signaling and metabolism of T-cells. The in vitro results will be placed in context of in vivo studies both in humans and mice. In this review, we summarize the latest findings on the immune modulatory function of lipids on T-cells and will point out novel directions for future research. PMID:25352844

  18. Fatty acids profiling reveals potential candidate markers of semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbinati, C; Caponecchia, L; Rago, R; Leoncini, E; Bottaccioli, A G; Ciacciarelli, M; Pacelli, A; Salacone, P; Sebastianelli, A; Pastore, A; Palleschi, G; Boccia, S; Carbone, A; Iuliano, L

    2016-11-01

    Previous reports showed altered fatty acid content in subjects with altered sperm parameters compared to normozoospermic individuals. However, these studies focused on a limited number of fatty acids, included a short number of subjects and results varied widely. We conducted a case-control study involving 155 patients allocated into four groups, including normozoospermia (n = 33), oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (n = 32), asthenozoospermia (n = 25), and varicocoele (n = 44). Fatty acid profiling, including 30 species, was analyzed by a validated gas chromatography (GC) method on the whole seminal fluid sample. Multinomial logistic regression modeling was used to identify the associations between fatty acids and the four groups. Specimens from 15 normozoospermic subjects were also analyzed for fatty acids content in the seminal plasma and spermatozoa to study the distribution in the two compartments. Fatty acids lipidome varied markedly between the four groups. Multinomial logistic regression modeling revealed that high levels of palmitic acid, behenic acid, oleic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) confer a low risk to stay out of the normozoospermic group. In the whole population, seminal fluid stearic acid was negatively correlated (r = -0.53), and DHA was positively correlated (r = 0.65) with sperm motility. Some fatty acids were preferentially accumulated in spermatozoa and the highest difference was observed for DHA, which was 6.2 times higher in spermatozoa than in seminal plasma. The results of this study highlight complete fatty acids profile in patients with different semen parameters. Given the easy-to-follow and rapid method of analysis, fatty acid profiling by GC method can be used for therapeutic purposes and to measure compliance in infertility trials using fatty acids supplements. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  19. Increased Production of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in Aspergillus oryzae by Enhancing Expressions of Fatty Acid Synthesis-Related Genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamano, Koichi; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Karagiosis, Sue A.; Culley, David E.; Deng, Shuang; Collett, James R.; Umemura, Myco; Koike, Hideaki; Baker, Scott E.; Machida, Masa

    2013-01-01

    Microbial production of fats and oils is being developedas a means of converting biomass to biofuels. Here we investigate enhancing expression of enzymes involved in the production of fatty acids and triglycerides as a means to increase production of these compounds in Aspergillusoryzae. Examination of the A.oryzaegenome demonstrates that it contains twofatty acid synthases and several other genes that are predicted to be part of this biosynthetic pathway. We enhancedthe expressionof fatty acid synthesis-related genes by replacing their promoters with thepromoter fromthe constitutively highly expressedgene tef1. We demonstrate that by simply increasing the expression of the fatty acid synthasegenes we successfullyincreasedtheproduction of fatty acids and triglyceridesby more than two fold. Enhancement of expression of the fatty acid pathway genes ATP-citrate lyase and palmitoyl-ACP thioesteraseincreasedproductivity to a lesser extent.Increasing expression ofacetyl-CoA carboxylase caused no detectable change in fatty acid levels. Increases in message level for each gene were monitored usingquantitative real-time RT-PCR. Our data demonstrates that a simple increase in the abundance of fatty acid synthase genes can increase the detectable amount of fatty acids.

  20. Magnetoliposomes Loaded with Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acids as Novel Theranostic Anti-Inflammatory Formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Daniel; Negri, Viviana; Ballesteros, Paloma; Cerdán, Sebastián

    2015-01-01

    We describe the preparation, physico-chemical characterization and anti-inflammatory properties of liposomes containing the superparamagnetic nanoparticle Nanotex, the fluorescent dye Rhodamine-100 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ethyl ester (ω-3 PUFA-EE), as theranostic anti-inflammatory agents. Liposomes were prepared after drying chloroform suspensions of egg phosphatidylcholine, hydration of the lipid film with aqueous phases containing or not Nanotex, Rhodamine-100 dye or ω-3 PUFA-EE, and eleven extrusion steps through nanometric membrane filters. This resulted in uniform preparations of liposomes of approximately 200 nm diameter. Extraliposomal contents were removed from the preparation by gel filtration chromatography. High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning 1H NMR Spectroscopy of the liposomal preparations containing ω-3 PUFA-EE revealed well resolved 1H resonances from highly mobile ω-3 PUFA-EE, suggesting the formation of very small (ca. 10 nm) ω-3 PUFA-EE nanogoticules, tumbling fast in the NMR timescale. Chloroform extraction of the liposomal preparations revealed additionally the incorporation of ω-3 PUFA-EE within the membrane domain. Water diffusion weighted spectra, indicated that the goticules of ω-3 PUFA-EE or its insertion in the membrane did not affect the average translational diffusion coefficient of water, suggesting an intraliposomal localization, that was confirmed by ultrafiltration. The therapeutic efficacy of these preparations was tested in two different models of inflammatory disease as inflammatory colitis or the inflammatory component associated to glioma development. Results indicate that the magnetoliposomes loaded with ω-3 PUFA-EE allowed MRI visualization in vivo and improved the outcome of inflammatory disease in both animal models, decreasing significantly colonic inflammation and delaying, or even reversing, glioma development. Together, our results indicate that magnetoliposomes loaded with ω-3 PUFA-EE may become

  1. Pseudo catalytic transformation of volatile fatty acids into fatty acid methyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jong-Min; Cho, Jinwoo; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kwon, Eilhann E

    2016-03-01

    Instead of anaerobic digestion of biodegradable wastes for producing methane, this work introduced the transformation of acidogenesis products (VFAs) into fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) to validate the feasible production of short-chained fatty alcohols via hydrogenation of FAMEs. In particular, among VFAs, this work mainly described the mechanistic explanations for transforming butyric acid into butyric acid methyl ester as a case study. Unlike the conventional esterification process (conversion efficiency of ∼94%), the newly introduced esterification under the presence of porous materials via the thermo-chemical process reached up to ∼99.5%. Furthermore, the newly introduced esterification via the thermo-chemical pathway in this work showed extremely high tolerance of impurities: the conversion efficiency under the presence of impurities reached up to ∼99±0.3%; thus, the inhibition behaviors attributed from the impurities used for the experimental work were negligible.

  2. Resolution and quantification of isomeric fatty acids by silver ion HPLC: fatty acid composition of aniseed oil (Pimpinella anisum, Apiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denev, Roumen V; Kuzmanova, Ivalina S; Momchilova, Svetlana M; Nikolova-Damyanova, Boryana M

    2011-01-01

    A silver ion HPLC procedure is described that is suitable to determine the fatty acid composition of plant seed oils. After conversion of fatty acids to p-methoxyphenacyl derivatives, it was possible to achieve baseline resolution of all fatty acid components with 0 to 3 double bonds, including the positionally isomeric 18:1 fatty acids oleic acid (cis 9-18:1), petroselinic acid (cis 6-18:1), and cis-vaccenic acid (cis 11-18:1), in aniseed oil (Pimpinella anisum, Apiaceae) by a single gradient run on a single cation exchange column laboratory converted to the silver ion form. The UV detector response (280 nm) was linearly related to the fatty acid concentration in the range 0.01 to 3.5 mg/mL.

  3. Fatty acid/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blends as form-stable phase change materials for latent heat thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alkan, Cemil; Sari, Ahmet [Gaziosmanpasa University, Department of Chemistry, Tasliciftlik, 60240 Tokat (Turkey)

    2008-02-15

    Fatty acids such as stearic acid (SA), palmitic acid (PA), myristic acid (MA), and lauric acid (LA) are promising phase change materials (PCMs) for latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) applications, but high cost is the most drawback which limits the utility area of them in thermal energy storage. The use of fatty acids as form-stable PCM will increase their feasibilities in practical LHTES applications due to reduced cost of the energy storage system. In this regard, a series of fatty acid/poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) blends, SA/PMMA, PA/PMMA, MA/PMMA, and LA/PMMA were prepared as new kinds of form-stable PCMs by encapsulation of fatty acids into PMMA which acts as supporting material. The blends were prepared at different mass fractions of fatty acids (50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% w/w) to reach maximum encapsulation ratio. All blends were subjected to leakage test by heating the blends over the melting temperature of the PCM. The blends that do not allow leakage of melted PCM were identified as form-stable PCMs. The form-stable fatty acid/PMMA (80/20 wt.%) blends were characterized using optic microscopy (OM), viscosimetry, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy methods, and the results showed that the PMMA was compatible with the fatty acids. In addition, thermal characteristics such as melting and freezing temperatures and latent heats of the form-stable PCMs were measured by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique and indicated that they had good thermal properties. On the basis of all results, it was concluded that form-stable fatty acid/PMMA blends had important potential for some practical LHTES applications such as under floor space heating of buildings and passive solar space heating of buildings by using wallboard, plasterboard or floor impregnated with a form-stable PCM due to their satisfying thermal properties, easily preparing in desired dimensions, direct usability without needing an add encapsulation and

  4. Modification of diet fatty acid composition change the fatty acid composition of rabbit meat:

    OpenAIRE

    Tatjana PIRMAN; Trebušak, Tina; Levart, Alenka

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of linseed oil supplementation on the performance and fatty acid composition of rabbit leg muscle and adipose tissue. Two experiments were done. First experiment: twelvemale SIKA rabbits, divided in two groups, control (n = 4; commercial diet) and the linseed (n = 8; commercial diet with 9% of linseed oil sprayed onto the pellets). Second experiment: twenty-four (12 male and 12 female) SIKArabbits, divided in two groups, palm fat (n = 12;...

  5. The Riddle of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Progression From Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver to Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mithun; Mitnala, Shasikala; Vishnubhotla, Ravi K; Mukherjee, Rathin; Reddy, Duvvur N; Rao, Padaki N

    2015-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) is an emerging global epidemic which progresses to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis in a subset of subjects. Various reviews have focused on the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and treatment of NAFLD. This review highlights specifically the triggers implicated in disease progression from NAFL to NASH. The integrating role of genes, dietary factors, innate immunity, cytokines and gut microbiome have been discussed.

  6. Omega-3 fatty acids as treatments for mental illness: which disorder and which fatty acid?

    OpenAIRE

    Sieswerda Lee E; Seguin Jennifer; Ross Brian M

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background A growing number of observational and epidemiological studies have suggested that mental illness, in particular mood disorders, is associated with reduced dietary intake and/or cellular abundance of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). This has prompted researchers to test the efficacy of omega-3 PUFA in a range of different psychiatric disorders. We have critically reviewed the double blind placebo controlled clinical trials published prior to April 2007 to determi...

  7. Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hester M Den Ruijter

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (3-PUFAs reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long term 3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated 3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating 3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated 3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (3 or sunflower oil (9, as control for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered 3-PUFAs. Plasma of 3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and isolated myocytes of 3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, 3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than 9 myocytes. In the 9 myocytes, but not in the 3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA+DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated 3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered 3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac 3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term 3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

  8. Complex Pharmacology of Free Fatty Acid Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milligan, Graeme; Shimpukade, Bharat; Ulven, Trond

    2017-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are historically the most successful family of drug targets. In recent times it has become clear that the pharmacology of these receptors is far more complex than previously imagined. Understanding of the pharmacological regulation of GPCRs now extends beyond...... pharmacology have shaped understanding of the complex pharmacology of receptors that recognize and are activated by nonesterified or "free" fatty acids (FFAs). The FFA family of receptors is a recently deorphanized set of GPCRs, the members of which are now receiving substantial interest as novel targets...... for the treatment of metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Further understanding of the complex pharmacology of these receptors will be critical to unlocking their ultimate therapeutic potential....

  9. Molar extinction coefficients of some fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, G. K.; Singh, Kulwant; Lark, B. S.; Gerward, L.

    2002-10-01

    The attenuation of gamma rays in some fatty acids, viz. formic acid (CH 2O 2), acetic acid (C 2H 4O 2), propionic acid (C 3H 6O 2), butyric acid (C 4H 8O 2), n-hexanoic acid (C 6H 12O 2), n-caprylic acid (C 8H 16O 2), lauric acid (C 12H 24O 2), myristic acid (C 14H 28O 2), palmitic acid (C 16H 32O 2), oleic acid (C 18H 34O 2) and stearic acid (C 18H 36O 2), has been measured at the photon energies 81, 356, 511, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV. Experimental values for the molar extinction coefficient, the effective atomic number and the electron density have been derived and compared with theoretical calculations. There is good agreement between experiment and theory.

  10. Grafting of chitosan with fatty acyl derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiandotti, Roberto S.; Rodrigues, Paula C.; Akcelrud, Leni, E-mail: leni@leniak.ne [Universidade Federal do Parana (UFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    The internal plasticization of chitosan with covalently linked long aliphatic branches, typically 12C, was accomplished through the condensation of the amino groups of chitosan with acidic derivatives of lauric acid, as lauroyl anhydride or lauroyl chloride, that are more reactive than the fatty acid itself. The chemical pathway led to selective N-acylation. The degree of substitution was quantitatively determined by FTIR and {sup 1}H NMR and varied between 3 and 35%. The FTIR quantitative analysis was based in a calibration method with good accuracy. The modified chitosan products were soluble in neutral water and/or DMF according to the degree of substitution. The modified chitosan films were more flexible than the pristine, non-modified ones. (author)

  11. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and prostate cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khankari, Nikhil K; Murff, Harvey J; Zeng, Chenjie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer is a common cancer worldwide with no established modifiable lifestyle factors to guide prevention. The associations between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and prostate cancer risk have been inconsistent. Using Mendelian randomisation, we evaluated associations...... between PUFAs and prostate cancer risk. METHODS: We used individual-level data from a consortium of 22 721 cases and 23 034 controls of European ancestry. Externally-weighted PUFA-specific polygenic risk scores (wPRSs), with explanatory variation ranging from 0.65 to 33.07%, were constructed and used...... to evaluate associations with prostate cancer risk per one standard deviation (s.d.) increase in genetically-predicted plasma PUFA levels using multivariable-adjusted unconditional logistic regression. RESULTS: No overall association was observed between the genetically-predicted PUFAs evaluated in this study...

  12. Micronutrient Antioxidants and Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guanliang; Ni, Yinhua; Nagata, Naoto; Xu, Liang; Ota, Tsuguhito

    2016-08-23

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most important chronic liver diseases worldwide and has garnered increasing attention in recent decades. NAFLD is characterized by a wide range of liver changes, from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The blurred pathogenesis of NAFLD is very complicated and involves lipid accumulation, insulin resistance, inflammation, and fibrogenesis. NAFLD is closely associated with complications such as obesity, diabetes, steatohepatitis, and liver fibrosis. During the progression of NAFLD, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are activated and induce oxidative stress. Recent attempts at establishing effective NAFLD therapy have identified potential micronutrient antioxidants that may reduce the accumulation of ROS and finally ameliorate the disease. In this review, we present the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and introduce some dietary antioxidants that may be used to prevent or cure NAFLD, such as vitamin D, E, and astaxanthin.

  13. Treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juergen Siebler; Peter R Galle

    2006-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause for elevated liver enzymes in the developed nations. Beyond prevention programs which are of particular interest because of the increasing number of overweight children, treatment should be focussed on the most important risk factors, obesity and insulin resistance. As a consequence of elucidating the pathomechanisms of NAFLD, the number of potential therapeutic options increased. However, many studies investigating the therapeutic effect show shortcomings in at least one of the following points: lack of a serial liver biopsy, short term of treatment and limited number of included patients. The second generation insulin sensitizer pioglitazone and rosiglitazone show the most promising improvements in NAFLD, but weight gain and potential hepatotoxicity calls for attention. In conclusion,a general recommendation for the application of specific drugs cannot be given. Besides controlled clinical trials,weight reduction and physical activity to improve insulin sensitivity in obese patients should be the priority objective.

  14. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and mitochondrial dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongzhong Wei; R Scott Rector; John P Thyfault; Jamal A Ibdah

    2008-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) includes hepatic steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), fibrosis,and cirrhosis. NAFLD is the most common liver disorder in the United States and worldwide. Due to the rapid rise of the metabolic syndrome, the prevalence of NAFLD has recently dramatically increased and will continue to increase. NAFLD has also the potential to progress to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or liver failure. NAFLD is strongly linked to caloric overconsumption, physical inactivity, insulin resistance and genetic factors. Although significant progress in understanding the pathogenesis of NAFLD has been achieved in years, the primary metabolic abnormalities leading to lipid accumulation within hepatocytes has remained poorly understood.Mitochondria are critical metabolic organelles serving as "cellular power plants". Accumulating evidence indicate that hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction is crucial to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. This review is focused on the significant role of mitochondria in the development of NAFLD.

  15. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Martin; Zong, Wenjing; Biank, Vincent F; Hageman, Joseph R

    2016-02-01

    A 16-year-old Hispanic girl with an elevated body mass index in an otherwise normal state of health presented for her well-child examination. She had signs of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance including increased waist circumference and acanthosis nigricans. Laboratory results revealed elevated transaminases with otherwise normal hepatic function. Based on the physical examination and laboratory results, she was diagnosed with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). After further evaluation, she eventually underwent a liver biopsy. The biopsy revealed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) with stage 2 fibrosis. This article reviews the definition of NAFLD and NASH, an increasingly prevalent cause of pediatric chronic liver disease associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. The article also outlines the epidemiology, risk factors, and natural history of NAFLD, which may help identify and prevent high-risk pediatric patients from progressing to irreversible liver disease. Understanding the diagnostic and treatment options offers the best chance at preventing and reversing the early stages of this disease.

  16. Herbal medicines and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hong; Qiao, Yu-Jie; Zhao, Ya-Li; Tao, Xu-Feng; Xu, Li-Na; Yin, Lian-Hong; Qi, Yan; Peng, Jin-Yong

    2016-08-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is characterized by excessive fat accumulation in the liver of patients who consume little or no alcohol, becomes increasingly common with rapid economic development. Long-term excess fat accumulation leads to NAFLD and represents a global health problem with no effective therapeutic approach. NAFLD is considered to be a series of complex, multifaceted pathological processes involving oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and metabolism. Over the past decades, herbal medicines have garnered growing attention as potential therapeutic agents to prevent and treat NAFLD, due to their high efficacy and low risk of side effects. In this review, we evaluate the use of herbal medicines (including traditional Chinese herbal formulas, crude extracts from medicinal plants, and pure natural products) to treat NAFLD. These herbal medicines are natural resources that can inform innovative drug research and the development of treatments for NAFLD in the future.

  17. Determination of free fatty acids in beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravi, Elisabetta; Marconi, Ombretta; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2017-01-15

    Free fatty acids (FFA) content of beer affects the ability to form a stable head of foam and plays an important role in beer staling. Moreover, the presence of saturated FAs is related sometimes to gushing problems in beer. The aim of this research was to validate an analytical method for the determination of FFAs in beer. The extraction of FFAs in beer was achieved via Liquid-Liquid Cartridge Extraction (LLCE), the FFAs extract was purified by Solid Phase Extraction (SPE), methylated by boron trifluoride in methanol, and injected into GC-FID system. The performance criteria demonstrate that this method is suitable for the analysis of medium and long chain FFAs in beer. The proposed method was tested on four experimental beers.

  18. Omega 3 fatty acids in psychiatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović D.M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 LC-PUFAs are thought to be important for normal dopaminergic, glutamatergic and serotonergic neurotransmission. Depression is less prevalent in societies with high fish consumption, and depressed patients have significantly lower red blood cell ω-3 levels. Studies with ω-3 supplementation have led to controversial results. A significantly longer remission of bipolar symptomatology has been confirmed from a high-dose DHA and EPA mixture. Greater seafood consumption per capita has been connected with a lower prevalence of bipolar spectrum disorders. Reduced levels of ω-6 and ω-3 PUFAs were found in patients with schizophrenia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 175033 i br. 175022

  19. (68)Ga labeled fatty acids for cardiac metabolic imaging: Influence of different bifunctional chelators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Akanksha; Mathur, Anupam; Pandey, Usha; Sarma, Haladhar Dev; Dash, Ashutosh

    2016-12-01

    Development of (68)Ga labeled fatty acids is of immense interest due to the availability of (68)Ga through a generator and its superiority over SPECT based tracers in carrying out dynamic imaging on a PET scanner. Our present work explores the influence of different chelators on the cardiac uptake and pharmacokinetics of the (68)Ga-labeled fatty acids. Two new (68)Ga labeled fatty acids were synthesized by conjugation of 11-aminoundecanoic acid with the bifunctional chelators (BFCs) viz. p-SCN-Bn-DTPA (S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) and p-SCN-Bn-NODAGA (S-2-(4-isothiocyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclononane-1-glutaric acid-4,7-acetic acid) and their comparison was carried out with the previously reported (68)Ga-NOTA-undecanoic acid. Both the conjugates were radiolabeled with (68)Ga in high yields and purities (>95%). Their formation was established by preparation and characterization of their inactive analogs with (nat)Ga at macroscopic levels. Biodistribution studies of the complexes in Swiss mice showed lower initial myocardial uptake for (68)Ga-NODAGA-undecanoic acid (3.8±0.6%ID/g) and (68)Ga-DTPA-undecanoic acid (1.3±0.5%ID/g) complexes in comparison to previously reported (68)Ga-NOTA-undecanoic acid complex (7.4±2.8%ID/g) at 2min p.i. However, significant retention of the tracer in the myocardium was observed in the case of (68)Ga-NODAGA-undecanoic complex, which led to improved heart/non-target ratios of the complex over time in comparison to the other (68)Ga complexes. Similarly, the DTPA complex exhibited increased washout from the liver in comparison to other (68)Ga derivatives. The β oxidation mechanism in myocytes was investigated by isolating the myocardial extract post intravenous injection of the respective (68)Ga complexes and analyzing them by radio-HPLC, which showed metabolic transformation of the parent fatty acid complex peak in all the three complexes. This study has provided an insight into the design

  20. ANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID CONTENT OF RAW MIANALYSIS OF FATTY ACID CONTENT OF RAW MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Čuboň

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work was analysedquality of raw cow’s milkof dairy cows which was fed with winter food ration of feed. Milk was observed in terms of the composition of milk fat and fatty acids during the months of August, October, December and February. The proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk fat was 63.22 % and it was found the highest proportion of palmitic acid 34.85%myristic acid accounted for 11.44 % and 10.86 % stearic acid. Linoleic acid, which is given special attention in view of the favourable effect on cholesterol, consisted of 3.48 % milk fat. The average proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in milk fat was 36.76 % of which 32.77 % were monounsaturated and polyunsaturated 4.0 %. A high proportion of milk fat formed monounsaturated oleic acid 30.92 %. The proportion of linoleic acid in milk fat was 3.48 % and 0.31 % linoleic acid.

  1. Effects of Omega-3 Fatty Acid in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxia Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation (n-3 PUFAs in lowering liver fat, liver enzyme (alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT levels, and blood lipids (triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein (HDL, and low density lipoprotein (LDL in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH. Methods. MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, Science Citation Index (ISI Web of Science, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials on the effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs in patients with NAFLD from inception to May 2015. Ten studies were included in this meta-analysis. Results. 577 cases of NAFLD/NASH in ten randomized controlled trials (RCTs were included. The results of the meta-analysis showed that benefit changes in liver fat favored PUFA treatment, and it was also beneficial for GGT, but it was not significant on ALT, AST, TC, and LDL. Conclusions. In this meta-analysis, omega-3 PUFAs improved liver fat, GGT, TG, and HDL in patients with NAFLD/NASH. Therefore, n-3 PUFAs may be a new treatment option for NAFLD.

  2. Study on Tribological Behaviors of Boron-Nitrogen Modified Fatty Acid as Water-Based Lube Additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Jian-hua; CHEN Bo-shui; DONG Ling; WANG Jiu

    2008-01-01

    A new type of boron-nitrogen modified fatty acid as water base lube additive was prepared and the chemical structure characterized by infrared spectrum. The tribological properties of the additive in water were evaluated by friction testers. The morphographies and tribochemical species of the worn surfaces were analyzed by means of X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscope (XPS). The results showed that the additive is excellent in increasing loadcarrying capacity, anti-wear and friction-reducing abilities of water. The lubrication mechanism is inferred that a high strength adsorption film and a tribochemical reaction film are formed on the rubbing surfaces due to the carrier effect of the long chain fatty acid molecules, high reaction activities of nitrogen, electron-deficient orbit of boron and their synergisms.

  3. Production of biodiesel from palm fatty acid distillate using sulfonated-glucose solid acid catalyst:Characterization and optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ibrahim M Lokman; Umer Rashid; Yun Hin Taufiq-Yap

    2015-01-01

    A palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) has been used for biodiesel production. An efficient sulfonated-glucose acid catalyst (SGAC) was prepared by sulfonation to catalyze the esterification reaction. The effect of three variables i.e. methanol-to-PFAD molar ratio, catalyst amount and reaction time, on the yield of PFAD esters was studied by the response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum reaction conditions were:12.2:1 methanol-to-PFAD molar ratio, 2.9%catalyst concentration and 134 min of time as predicted by the RSM. The reaction under the optimum conditions resulted in 94.5%of the free fatty acid (FFA) conversion with 92.4%of the FAME yield. The properties of the PFAD esters were determined according to biodiesel standards.

  4. Determination of Fatty Acids Profile and Physicochemical Study of Sea Lettuce (Ulva lactuca Oil from Bushehr City Coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soror Shaghuli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sea lettuce is a kind green alga with scientific name "Ulva lactuca", has many uses in many countries. With Notice to the presence of this alga in the coasts of Bushehr and its ease of propagation and cultivation, we can take advantage of beneficial interest. The objectives of this current study was to determine the amount of total fat, survey the quality and quantity of some physicochemical parameters and the profile of fatty acids in its oil. Materials and Methods: After samples collecting of sea lettuce (Sea lettuce from Bushehr coasts, sample preparation and extraction of fat, quantity of some physicochemical parameters according to AOAC method; and fatty acid profile were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID. Results: The acidity index in extracted oil in Shoraye-shahr, Bandargah and Naftkesh regions were, 0.73, 0.73 and 0.72 respectively, and the peroxide value was 0.75, 0.74 and 0.75 respectively. The refractive index and average oil contents for all areas were reported 3 % and 1412, respectively. In the three mentioned regions, sixteen fatty acids including (C6, (C10, (C12, (C13, (C14, (C15, (C16, (C17, (C18, (C19, (C20, (C21, (C18: 1, (C18: 2, (C18: 3 were identified with different amounts. Palmitic acid had the highest levels in all three regions. Conclusion: Sea lettuce contains different fatty acids that each of them has different applications in food industry, medicine and cosmetics. The favorable amounts of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the sea lettuce oil increase their nutritional importance. Caltivating of this beneficial alga is suggested due to the appropriate geographic climate of Bushehr.

  5. Modulation of phorbol ester-elicited events in mouse epidermis by dietary n-3 and n-6 fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belury, M A; Leyton, J; Patrick, K E; Cumberland, A G; Locniskar, M; Fischer, S M

    1991-09-01

    Because arachidonic acid-derived eicosanoids are potent modulators of hyperproliferation and inflammation during skin tumor promotion with the phorbol ester, 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (17, 18), it was hypothesized that dietary modification of epidermal fatty acids might modulate TPA-induced biochemical events in mouse skin. Semipurified diets containing 10% total fat composed of corn oil (CO) or a combination of CO and menhaden oil (MO) or coconut oil (CT) were fed to SENCAR mice for 4 weeks. Fatty acid composition of epidermal phospholipids generally reflected fatty acid composition of dietary oils fed to the mice. Since fatty acid-derived eicosanoids are thought to be essential in tumorigenesis, we compared the effects of dietary fats on prostaglandin E (PGE) production in epidermis treated with a single dose of TPA. TPA-induced PGE production in mouse epidermis from mice fed the MO diet was significantly reduced compared to PGE production in epidermal homogenates from mice fed the CO or CT diets. Type of dietary fats did not appear to modulate TPA-induced vascular permeability, however hyperplasia was slightly elevated in skins of mice fed MO. The subcellular distribution of protein kinase C, the plasma membrane receptor for TPA predominantly located in the cytosol (80%), was altered in epidermis from mice fed the MO diet compared to preparations from mice fed CO or CT diets which exhibited normal protein kinase C distribution. Our results suggest that n-3 rich dietary lipids modulate TPA-elicited events in mouse skin to a greater extent than diets containing higher proportions of saturated or n-6 fatty acids.

  6. Selected fatty acids as biomarkers of exposure to microdoses of molluscicides in snails Helix pomatia (Gastropoda Pulmonata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczyk-Pecka, Danuta; Pecka, Stanisław; Kowalczuk-Vasilev, Edyta

    2017-03-01

    Two stages of selection from a pool of 56 fatty acids analyzed in Helix pomatia yielded a set of 12 biomarker acids undergoing significant changes in contact with three microdoses of toxic substances, i.e. three molluscicides containing metaldehyde, methiocarb, and potassium chloride (PC). The proposed palette of acids, including saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), determined separately in the foot tissues and hepatopancreas of Gastropoda, can be used in ecotoxicological research as a reliable test of the effect of trace doses of stressors. The final set of the biomarker FA comprised C16:0; C18:0; C23:0; C18:1 n-9; C20:1 n-9; C18:2 n-6; C18:3 n-3; C20:2; C20:4 n-6; C20:5 n-3; C22:4 n-6; and C22:5 n-3. A clear physiological response manifested as changes in the content of fatty acids (FA) was observed in the snails even in the case of the lowest doses of the pollutants. All experimental factors analyzed, i.e., the dose (5, 10, or 15 μl 0.01% w/v concentration) and the type of preparation (metaldehyde, methiocarb or PC), had a significant (p ≤ 0.01) impact on the FA composition of the foot and hepatopancreas. Limitation of the analysis to a narrow pool of reactive FA meets the requirements of parameters of biomarkers of exposure and facilitates and accelerates visualization of the bioindicator organism's response to the presence of the stressor in the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Short communication: Association of milk fatty acids with early lactation hyperketonemia and elevated concentration of nonesterified fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Lock, A L; Overton, T R; McArt, J A A

    2016-07-01

    The objective of our study was to extend the limited research available on the association between concentrations of milk fatty acids and elevated nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations in early lactation dairy cattle. Measurement of milk fatty acids for detection of cows in excessive negative energy balance has the potential to be incorporated in routine in-line monitoring systems. Blood samples were taken from 84 cows in second or greater lactation 3 times per week between 3 to 14 d in milk. Cows were characterized as hyperketonemic (HYK) if blood BHB concentration was ≥1.2mmol/L at least once and characterized as having elevated concentrations of NEFA (NEFAH) if serum NEFA concentration was ≥1mmol/L at least once. Composition of colostrum and milk fatty acids at wk 2 postpartum was used to investigate the potential diagnostic value of individual fatty acids and fatty acid ratios for the correct classification of cows with NEFA and BHB concentrations above these thresholds, respectively. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to identify thresholds of fatty acid concentration and fatty acid ratios when ROC area under the curve was ≥0.70. Correct classification rate (CCR, %) was calculated as {[(number of true positives + number of true negatives)/total number tested] × 100}. None of the colostrum fatty acids yielded a sufficiently high area under the curve in ROC analysis for the association with HYK and NEFAH. The following fatty acids and fatty acid ratios were identified for an association with NEFAH (threshold, CCR): C15:0 (≤0.65g/100g, 68.3%); cis-9 C16:1 (≥1.85g/100g, 70.7%); cis-9 C18:1 (≥26g/100g, 69.5%), cis-9 C18:1 to C15:0 ratio (≥45, 69.5%); cis-9 C16:1 to C15:0 (≥2.50, 73.2%). Several fatty acids were associated with HYK (threshold, CCR): C6:0 (≤1.68g/100g, 80.5%), C8:0 (≤0.80g/100g, 80.5%), C10:0 (≤1.6g/100g, 79.3%); C12:0 (≤1.42g/100g, 82.9%); C14:0 (≤6.10g/100g, 84

  8. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA versus saturated fats/cholesterol: their proportion in fatty and lean meats may affect the risk of developing colon cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez Cristina B

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In spite of the considerable amount of experimental, clinical and epidemiological research about the consumption of red meat, total fats, saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol with regard to the risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC, the issue remains controversial. The general belief is a reduction of red meat intake, and subsequent nutritional advice usually strongly recommends this. Paradoxically, beef together with whole milk and dairy derivatives, are almost the only sources for conjugated linoleic acid (CLAs family. Furthermore CLAs are the only natural fatty acids accepted by the National Academy of Sciences of USA as exhibiting consistent antitumor properties at levels as low as 0.25 – 1.0 per cent of total fats. Beside CLA, other polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA belonging to the essential fatty acid (EFA n-3 family, whose main source are fish and seafood, are generally believed to be antipromoters for several cancers. The purpose of this work is to critically analyze the epidemiological and experimental evidence by tentatively assuming that the reciprocal proportions of saturated fats (SA plus cholesterol (CH versus CLAs levels in fatty or lean beef may play an antagonistic role underlying the contradictory effects reported for red meats consumption and CRC risk. Recent results about meat intake and risk for CRC in Argentina have shown an unexpected dual behaviour related to the type of meats. Fatty meat derivatives, such as cold cuts and sausages, mainly prepared from fatty beef (up to 37% fat were associated with higher risk, whereas high consumption of lean beef (

  9. Analysis of certain fatty acids and toxic metal bioaccumulation in various tissues of three fish species that are consumed by Turkish people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Gökçe; Türkoğlu, Semra

    2017-04-01

    Concentrations of toxic metals (Mn, Ni, Hg, Cd, Pb, Cr) in the muscle, skin, and liver of Mugil cephalus, Mullus barbatus, and Pagellus erythrinus which were purchased in large supermarkets of Elazig, and Mullus barbatus, which were caught on the sea of İskenderun Bay, Turkey, were analyzed. Fundamental analyses were carried out by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after samples were prepared by microwave digestion. Mean metal concentrations in different tissues were varied in the ranges of Cd 4-426, Cr 116-4458, Mn 141-24774, Hg 9-471, Pb 96-695, and Ni 68-6581 μg kg(-1), for wet weight. The investigated metal bioaccumulation in the muscles of fish species, in general, was lower than those in the liver and skin. This method was verified by NCS ZC73016 chicken trace element-certified reference material analysis. In addition, fatty acids in the muscles of three fish species were analyzed. According to the gas chromatography (GC) results of fatty acids, the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were found to be between 23.76 and 31.97%. The fatty acids' polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio was found to be between 13.67 and 30.71% and saturated fatty acids ratios were determined in the range of 24.06-32.30%. In all fish species, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ratio, which increase the value of these fish species, were high. These results show that these three fish species are good sources of fatty acids.

  10. The role and mechanism of fatty acids in gallstones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuo-Dong Wu; Kazuhisa Uchiyama; Ying Fan

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cholelithiasis is a common entity in China, but its etiology and pathogenesis have not been fully elucidated. Pigment stones of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile duct still form a high proportion in China, while they are rare in Europeans. To date, reports on fatty acids in stones remain few. We analyzed the quantity of fatty acids in different stones from Chinese and Japanese cases and discussed the role and mechanism of fatty acids in the formation of pigment stones. METHODS: Clinical data from 18 Chinese and 37 Japanese patients with different types of stones were analyzed using the procedure for extracting fatty acids from gallstones and high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The total fatty acid and free fatty acid contents of pigment stones were markedly higher than those in black or cholesterol stones. The ratio of free saturated to free unsaturated fatty acids was highest in intrahepatic and less in extrahepatic pigment stones, which were signiifcantly different from the other two kinds of stones. CONCLUSIONS: This indicates that phospholipase participates in the course of pigment stone formation. The action of phospholipase A1 is more important than phospholipase A2.

  11. Kinetics of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Robert H; Mundi, Manpreet S; Vlazny, Danielle T; Smailovic, Almira; Muthusamy, Kalpana; Almandoz, Jaime P; Singh, Ekta; Jensen, Michael D; Miles, John M

    2013-03-01

    Plasma free fatty acid (FFA) kinetics in humans are often measured with only one tracer. In study 1, healthy volunteers received infusions of [U-¹³C]linoleate, [U-¹³C]oleate, and [U-¹³C]palmitate during continuous feeding with liquid meals low (n = 12) and high (n = 5) in palmitate and containing three labeled fatty acids to measure FFA appearance and fractional spillover of lipoprotein lipase-generated fatty acids. Study 2 used an intravenous lipid emulsion to increase FFA concentrations during infusion of linoleate and palmitate tracers. In study 1, there were no differences in spillover of the three fatty acids for the low-palmitate meal, but linoleate spillover was greater than oleate or palmitate for the high-palmitate meal. In studies 1 and 2, clearance was significantly greater for linoleate than for the other FFAs. There was a negative correlation between clearance and concentration for each fatty acid in the two studies. In study 1, concentration and spillover correlated positively for oleate and palmitate but negatively for linoleate. In conclusion, linoleate spillover is greater than that of other fatty acids under some circumstances. Linoleate clearance is greater than that of palmitate or oleate, indicating a need for caution when using a single FFA to infer the behavior of all fatty acids.

  12. Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Management of Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Silvia; Martorell, Miquel; Capó, Xavier; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni; Sureda, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with multiple double bonds. Linolenic and alpha-linolenic acids are omega-6 and omega-3 PUFAs, precursors for the synthesis of long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs), such as arachidonic acid (omega-6 PUFA), and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (omega-3 PUFAs). The three most important omega-3 fatty acids are alpha-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids, which cannot be synthesized in enough amounts by the body, and therefore they must be supplied by the diet. Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for the correct functioning of the organism and participate in many physiological processes in the brain. Epilepsy is a common and heterogeneous chronic brain disorder characterized by recurrent epileptic seizures leading to neuropsychiatric disabilities. The prevalence of epilepsy is high achieving about 1% of the general population. There is evidence suggesting that omega-3 fatty acids may have neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects and, accordingly, may have a potential use in the treatment of epilepsy. In the present review, the potential use of omega-3 fatty acids in the treatment of epilepsy, and the possible proposed mechanisms of action are discussed. The present article summarizes the recent knowledge of the potential protective role of dietary omega-3 fatty acids in epilepsy.

  13. Inhibition of in vitro cholesterol synthesis by fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, M; Endo, A

    1976-01-18

    Inhibitory effect of 44 species of fatty acids on cholesterol synthesis has been examined with a rat liver enzyme system. In the case of saturated fatty acids, the inhibitory activity increased with chain length to a maximum at 11 to 14 carbons, after which activity decreased rapidly. The inhibition increased with the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids. Introduction of a hydroxy group at the alpha-position of fatty acids abolished the inhibition, while the inhibition was enhanced by the presence of a hydroxy group located in an intermediate position of the chain. Branched chain fatty acids having a methyl group at the terminal showed much higher activity than the corresponding saturated straight chain fatty acids with the same number of carbons. With respect to the mechanism for inhibition, tridecanoate was found to inhibit acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase specifically without affecting the other reaction steps in the cholesterol synthetic pathway. The highly unsaturated fatty acids, arachidonate and linoleate, were specific inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA synthase. On the other hand, ricinoleate (hydroxy acid) and phytanate (branched-chain acid) diminished the conversion of mevalonate to sterols by inhibiting a step or steps between squalene and lanosterol.

  14. Exploring the metabolic syndrome: Nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzaro, Roberto; Cuffari, Biagio; Italia, Angelo; Marotta, Francesco

    2016-09-14

    After the first description of fatty pancreas in 1933, the effects of pancreatic steatosis have been poorly investigated, compared with that of the liver. However, the interest of research is increasing. Fat accumulation, associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS), has been defined as "fatty infiltration" or "nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease" (NAFPD). The term "fatty replacement" describes a distinct phenomenon characterized by death of acinar cells and replacement by adipose tissue. Risk factors for developing NAFPD include obesity, increasing age, male sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, alcohol and hyperferritinemia. Increasing evidence support the role of pancreatic fat in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, MetS, atherosclerosis, severe acute pancreatitis and even pancreatic cancer. Evidence exists that fatty pancreas could be used as the initial indicator of "ectopic fat deposition", which is a key element of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and/or MetS. Moreover, in patients with fatty pancreas, pancreaticoduodenectomy is associated with an increased risk of intraoperative blood loss and post-operative pancreatic fistula.

  15. Structural Equation Modeling for Analyzing Erythrocyte Fatty Acids in Framingham

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    James V. Pottala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that several types of erythrocyte fatty acids (i.e., omega-3, omega-6, and trans are associated with risk for cardiovascular diseases. However, there are complex metabolic and dietary relations among fatty acids, which induce correlations that are typically ignored when using them as risk predictors. A latent variable approach could summarize these complex relations into a few latent variable scores for use in statistical models. Twenty-two red blood cell (RBC fatty acids were measured in Framingham (N = 3196. The correlation matrix of the fatty acids was modeled using structural equation modeling; the model was tested for goodness-of-fit and gender invariance. Thirteen fatty acids were summarized by three latent variables, and gender invariance was rejected so separate models were developed for men and women. A score was developed for the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA latent variable, which explained about 30% of the variance in the data. The PUFA score included loadings in opposing directions among three omega-3 and three omega-6 fatty acids, and incorporated the biosynthetic and dietary relations among them. Whether the PUFA factor score can improve the performance of risk prediction in cardiovascular diseases remains to be tested.

  16. Regional uptake of meal fatty acids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Michael D; Sarr, Michael G; Dumesic, Daniel A; Southorn, Peter A; Levine, James A

    2003-12-01

    Two protocols were performed to study meal fatty acid metabolism. In protocol 1, 14 patients scheduled for elective intra-abdominal surgery (11 undergoing bariatric surgery for severe obesity) consumed a meal containing [3H]triolein in the evening before surgery. This allowed us to measure adipose tissue lipid specific activity (SA) in mesenteric and omental, deep and superficial abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. Intra-abdominal adipose tissue lipid SA was greater than subcutaneous lipid SA. There were no significant differences between mesenteric and omental or between deep and superficial abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. In protocol 2, meal fatty acid oxidation and uptake into subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue ([3H]triolein) were measured in six normal, healthy volunteers. Meal fatty acid oxidation (3H2O generation) plus that remaining in plasma ( approximately 1%) plus uptake into upper body subcutaneous, lower body subcutaneous, and visceral fat allowed us to account for 98 +/- 6% of meal fatty acids 24 h after meal ingestion. We conclude that omental fat is a good surrogate for visceral fat and that abdominal subcutaneous fat depots are comparable with regard to meal fatty acid metabolic studies. Using [3H]triolein, we were able to account for virtually 100% of meal fatty acids 24 h after meal ingestion. These results support the meal fatty acid tracer model as a way to study the metabolic fate of dietary fat.

  17. Fatty acids in cardiovascular health and disease: a comprehensive update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Seth J; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Willett, Walter C; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Rudel, Lawrence L; Maki, Kevin C; Whelan, Jay; Ramsden, Christopher E; Block, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    Research dating back to the 1950s reported an association between the consumption of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and risk of coronary heart disease. Recent epidemiological evidence, however, challenges these findings. It is well accepted that the consumption of SFAs increases low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), whereas carbohydrates, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) do not. High-density lipoprotein (HDL)-C increases with SFA intake. Among individuals who are insulin resistant, a low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet typically has an adverse effect on lipid profiles (in addition to decreasing HDL-C, it also increases triglyceride and LDL particle concentrations). Consequently, a moderate fat diet in which unsaturated fatty acids replace SFAs and carbohydrates are not augmented is advised to lower LDL-C; compared with a low-fat diet, a moderate-fat diet will lower triglycerides and increase HDL-C. Now, there is some new evidence that is questioning the health benefits of even MUFAs and PUFAs. In addition, in a few recent studies investigators have also failed to demonstrate expected cardiovascular benefits of marine-derived omega-3 fatty acids. To clarify the clinical pros and cons of dietary fats, the National Lipid Association held a fatty acid symposium at the 2011 National Lipid Association Scientific Sessions. During these sessions, the science regarding the effects of different fatty acid classes on coronary heart disease risk was reviewed.

  18. Sources and Bioactive Properties of Conjugated Dietary Fatty Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Alan A; Ross, Paul R; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Stanton, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The group of conjugated fatty acids known as conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers have been extensively studied with regard to their bioactive potential in treating some of the most prominent human health malignancies. However, CLA isomers are not the only group of potentially bioactive conjugated fatty acids currently undergoing study. In this regard, isomers of conjugated α-linolenic acid, conjugated nonadecadienoic acid and conjugated eicosapentaenoic acid, to name but a few, have undergone experimental assessment. These studies have indicated many of these conjugated fatty acid isomers commonly possess anti-carcinogenic, anti-adipogenic, anti-inflammatory and immune modulating properties, a number of which will be discussed in this review. The mechanisms through which these bioactivities are mediated have not yet been fully elucidated. However, existing evidence indicates that these fatty acids may play a role in modulating the expression of several oncogenes, cell cycle regulators, and genes associated with energy metabolism. Despite such bioactive potential, interest in these conjugated fatty acids has remained low relative to the CLA isomers. This may be partly attributed to the relatively recent emergence of these fatty acids as bioactives, but also due to a lack of awareness regarding sources from which they can be produced. In this review, we will also highlight the common sources of these conjugated fatty acids, including plants, algae, microbes and chemosynthesis.

  19. Fatty Acid and Phytosterol Content of Commercial Saw Palmetto Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian L. Lindshield

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p < 0.05 concentrations of total fatty acids (908.5 mg/g, individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g, and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p < 0.05 concentrations of total fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g. Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  20. Toxicity of fatty acid salts to German and American cockroaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, R W; Koehler, P G; Pereira, R M

    2008-08-01

    The toxicity of fatty acid salts to German, Blattella germanica (L.), and American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.), was evaluated. Potassium and sodium laurate caused up to 95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Even-numbered potassium fatty acid salts, C8-C18 were assessed for toxicity at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2% concentrations by a 30-s immersion of cockroaches. The more soluble of the fatty acid salts at 2% concentration caused 65-95% mortality of German cockroaches and 100% mortality of American cockroaches. Potassium oleate, C18, was most toxic to both German (LC50 = 0.36%) and American (LC50 = 0.17%) cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions on a substrate were tested by placing cockroaches in contact with treated floor tiles immediately after application (wet) or after the solutions had dried. Sodium laurate and potassium caprate caused mortality of German (62 +/- 17.4 and 58 +/- 12.6%, respectively) and American cockroaches (52 +/- 18.5 and 28 +/- 4.9%, respectively) on wet tiles, whereas potassium oleate caused mortality of German cockroaches (67 +/- 14.1%) only. Dry fatty acids caused no mortality among exposed cockroaches. Fatty acid salt solutions can be effective in killing German and American cockroaches but only when insects are thoroughly wetted with 1-2% fatty acid salt solutions.

  1. Fatty acid and phytosterol content of commercial saw palmetto supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penugonda, Kavitha; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-09-13

    Saw palmetto supplements are one of the most commonly consumed supplements by men with prostate cancer and/or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Some studies have found significant improvements in BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) with saw palmetto supplementation, whereas others found no benefits. The variation in the efficacy in these trials may be a result of differences in the putative active components, fatty acids and phytosterols, of the saw palmetto supplements. To this end, we quantified the major fatty acids (laurate, myristate, palmitate, stearate, oleate, linoleate) and phytosterols (campesterol, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol) in 20 commercially available saw palmetto supplements using GC-FID and GC-MS, respectively. Samples were classified into liquids, powders, dried berries, and tinctures. Liquid saw palmetto supplements contained significantly higher (p fatty acids (908.5 mg/g), individual fatty acids, total phytosterols (2.04 mg/g), and individual phytosterols, than the other supplement categories. Powders contained significantly higher (p fatty acids than tinctures, which contain negligible amounts of fatty acids (46.3 mg/g) and phytosterols (0.10 mg/g). Our findings suggest that liquid saw palmetto supplements may be the best choice for individuals who want to take a saw palmetto supplement with the highest concentrations of both fatty acids and phytosterols.

  2. Survey on the fatty acids profile of fluid goat milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pittau

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluid goat milk submitted to thermal treatment has interesting nutritional properties and a potential expanding market. The present study was aimed to conduct fatty acids profile characterisation of goat milk placed on market. Forty-nine fluid milk samples were collected: 12 pasteurised, 12 pasteurised at high temperature, 11 ultrahigh temperature (UHT whole milk and 14 UHT semi-skimmed milk. Milk samples were collected at retail level from 7 different companies and from different production batches. After extraction and methilation, fatty acids (FAs profile was determined on each sample using a gas chromatograph with flame ionisation detector (GC-FID with high-polarity capillary column. The concentration (g/100mL of saturated fatty acids (SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs, trans fatty acids (t-FAs, and isomers of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA was determined. N-6/n-3 ratio, atherogenic index (AI and thrombogenic index (TI were also assessed. Fluid goat milk lipid profile was characterised by SFAs (68.4% of total FAs, PUFAs (5.3%, MUFAs (21.3%, t-FAs (3.6% and CLA (0.8%. The most represented fatty acids were: 16:0 (24.5%, 9cis-18:1 (18.2%, 18:0 (9.6%, 14:0 (9.5%, 10:0 (9.3% and 12:0 (4.5%. Nutritional indices were 2.8-6.8 for n-6/n-3 ratio; 2.3-2.9 for AI; and 2.7-3.2 for TI. Milk produced by small scale plants, with no milk fat standardisation, showed greater differences in fatty acid profile as compared to industrial plants milk. Large scale production is characterised by commingled bulk tank milk of different origins and then is more homogeneous. The whole goat milk supply chain should be controlled to obtain milk with fatty acids of high nutritional value.

  3. Fatty acid metabolism studies of human epidermal cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelo, C L; Dunham, W R

    1993-12-01

    Adult human epidermal keratinocytes grow rapidly in medium that is essential fatty acid (EFA)-deficient. In this medium they exhibit decreased amounts of the fatty acids, 18:2, 20:3, 20:4, and contain increased amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids. [14C]- and [3H]acetate and radiolabeled fatty acids, 16:0, 18:2, and 20:4 were used to study the fatty acid metabolism of these cells. Label from acetate appeared in 14- to 20-carbon fatty acids, both saturated and monounsaturated. No label was seen in the essential fatty acid 18:2, 18:3, and 20:4. Radiolabel from [9, 10-3H]palmitic acid (16:0) was detected in 16:0, 16:1, 18:0, and 18:1. [14C]linoleic acid (18:2) was converted to 18:3, 20:2, 20:3, and 20:4, demonstrating delta 6 and delta 5 desaturase activity in keratinocytes. Label from acetate, 16:0, or 18:2 was found mostly in the cellular phospholipids while only one third of the label from [14C]arachidonic was found in the phospholipids. [14C]acetate and [14C]18:2 time course data were used to construct a model of the metabolism of these reactants, using coupled, first-order differential equations. The data show that EFA-deficient keratinocytes metabolize fatty acids using pathways previously found in liver; they suggest the positioning of 18:2 desaturase and 18:3 elongase near the plasma membrane; they indicate that for the synthesis of nonessential fatty acids the formation of 18:0 from 16:0 is the rate-determining step; and they show that the conversion of 18:2 to 20:3 is rapid. These experiments demonstrate a method to study lipid enzyme kinetics in living cells.

  4. A proposed role for the cuticular fatty amides of Liposcelis bostrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelidae) in preventing adhesion of entomopathogenic fungi with dry-conidia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Jeffrey C; Howard, Ralph W

    2004-08-01

    Maximum challenge exposure of Liposcelis bostrychophila to Beauveria bassiana, Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Aspergillus parasiticus or Metarhizium anisopliae resulted in no more than 16% mortality. We investigated several of L. bostrychophila's cuticular lipids for possible contributions to its tolerance for entomopathogenic fungi. Saturated C14 and C16 fatty acids did not reduce the germination rates of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae conidia. Saturated C6 to C12 fatty acids that have not been identified in L. bostrychophila cuticular extracts significantly reduced germination, but the reduction was mitigated by the presence of stearamide. Cis-6-hexadecenal did not affect germination rates. Mycelial growth of either fungal species did not occur in the presence of caprylic acid, was reduced by the presence of lauric acid, and was not significantly affected by palmitic acid. Liposcelis bostrychophila is the only insect for which fatty acid amides have been identified as cuticular components. Stearamide, its major fatty amide, did not reduce germination of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae conidia or growth of their mycelia. Adhesion of conidia to stearamide preparations did not differ significantly from adhesion to the cuticle of L. bostrychophila. Pretreatment of a beetle known to be fungus-susceptible, larval Oryzaephilus surinamensis, with stearamide significantly decreased adhesion of B. bassiana or M. anisopliae conidia to their cuticles. This evidence indicates that cuticular fatty amides may contribute to L. bostrychophila's tolerance for entomopathogenic fungi by decreasing hydrophobicity and static charge, thereby reducing conidial adhesion.

  5. Correlation of geographical location with stable isotope values of hydrogen and carbon of fatty acids from New Zealand milk and bulk milk powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehtesham, Emad; Hayman, Alan R; McComb, Kiri A; Van Hale, Robert; Frew, Russell D

    2013-09-18

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation of δ²H and δ¹³C of bulk milk powder and milk powder fatty acids to their production region. A total of 46 milk powder samples from across New Zealand were collected and analyzed. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the δ²H and δ¹³C of four fatty acids (C4:0, C14:0, C16:0, C18:1) and bulk milk powder were found to be correlated with regional production area. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) models were prepared using different combinations of bulk and fatty acid δ²H and δ¹³C. All models were effective in discriminating samples from the North and South Islands. The LDA model using just fatty acid δ²H and δ¹³C provided the best separation. Therefore, the isotopic composition of the aforementioned fatty acids can be utilized as a good biomarker in milk powder that conveys reliable isotopic information to track milk powders to their regional origin.

  6. Capillary Electrophoresis in the Analysis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Hancu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study to inventory the main electrophoretic methods for identification and quantitative determination of fatty acids from different biological matrices. Critical analysis of electrophoretic methods reported in the literature show that the determination of polyunsaturated fatty acids can be made by: capillary zone electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic chromatography and microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography using different detection systems such as ultraviolet diode array detection, laser induced fluorescence or mass – spectrometry. Capillary electrophoresis is a fast, low-cost technique used for polyunsaturated fatty acids analysis although their determination is mostly based on gas chromatography.

  7. Antiproliferative activity of synthetic fatty acid amides from renewable resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Daiane S; Piovesan, Luciana A; D'Oca, Caroline R Montes; Hack, Carolina R Lopes; Treptow, Tamara G M; Rodrigues, Marieli O; Vendramini-Costa, Débora B; Ruiz, Ana Lucia T G; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; D'Oca, Marcelo G Montes

    2015-01-15

    In the work, the in vitro antiproliferative activity of a series of synthetic fatty acid amides were investigated in seven cancer cell lines. The study revealed that most of the compounds showed antiproliferative activity against tested tumor cell lines, mainly on human glioma cells (U251) and human ovarian cancer cells with a multiple drug-resistant phenotype (NCI-ADR/RES). In addition, the fatty methyl benzylamide derived from ricinoleic acid (with the fatty acid obtained from castor oil, a renewable resource) showed a high selectivity with potent growth inhibition and cell death for the glioma cell line-the most aggressive CNS cancer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Transgenic Mice Convert Carbohydrates to Essential Fatty Acids

    OpenAIRE

    Pai, Victor J.; Bin Wang; Xiangyong Li; Lin Wu; Kang, Jing X.

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic mice (named “Omega mice”) were engineered to carry both optimized fat-1 and fat-2 genes from the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans and are capable of producing essential omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids from saturated fats or carbohydrates. When maintained on a high-saturated fat diet lacking essential fatty acids or a high-carbohydrate, no-fat diet, the Omega mice exhibit high tissue levels of both omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids, with a ratio of ∼1∶1. This study thus presents an in...

  9. Quantification of primary fatty acid amides in commercial tallow and tallow fatty acid methyl esters by HPLC-APCI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madl, Tobias; Mittelbach, Martin

    2005-04-01

    Primary fatty acid amides are a group of biologically highly active compounds which were already identified in nature. Here, these substances were determined in tallow and tallow fatty acid methyl esters for the first time. As tallow is growing in importance as an oleochemical feedstock for the soap manufacturing, the surfactant as well as the biodiesel industry, the amounts of primary fatty acid amides have to be considered. As these compounds are insoluble in tallow as well as in the corresponding product e.g. tallow fatty acid methyl esters, filter plugging can occur. For the quantification in these matrices a purification step and a LC-APCI-MS method were developed. Although quantification of these compounds can be performed by GC-MS, the presented approach omitted any derivatization and increased the sensitivity by two orders of magnitude. Internal standard calibration using heptadecanoic acid amide and validation of the method yielded a limit of detection of 18.5 fmol and recoveries for the tallow and fatty acid methyl ester matrices of 93% and 95%, respectively. A group of commercially available samples were investigated for their content of fatty acid amides resulting in an amount of up to 0.54%m/m (g per 100 g) in tallow and up to 0.16%m/m (g per 100 g) in fatty acid methyl esters.

  10. Regioselective oxygenation of fatty acids, fatty alcohols and other aliphatic compounds by a basidiomycete heme-thiolate peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Ana; Babot, Esteban D; Ullrich, René; Hofrichter, Martin; Martínez, Angel T; del Río, José C

    2011-10-01

    Reaction of fatty acids, fatty alcohols, alkanes, sterols, sterol esters and triglycerides with the so-called aromatic peroxygenase from Agrocybe aegerita was investigated using GC-MS. Regioselective hydroxylation of C(12)-C(20) saturated/unsaturated fatty acids was observed at the ω-1 and ω-2 positions (except myristoleic acid only forming the ω-2 derivative). Minor hydroxylation at ω and ω-3 to ω-5 positions was also observed. Further oxidized products were detected, including keto, dihydroxylated, keto-hydroxy and dicarboxylic fatty acids. Fatty alcohols also yielded hydroxy or keto derivatives of the corresponding fatty acid. Finally, alkanes gave, in addition to alcohols at positions 2 or 3, dihydroxylated derivatives at both sides of the molecule; and sterols showed side-chain hydroxylation. No derivatives were found for fatty acids esterified with sterols or forming triglycerides, but methyl esters were ω-1 or ω-2 hydroxylated. Reactions using H(2)(18)O(2) established that peroxide is the source of the oxygen introduced in aliphatic hydroxylations. These studies also indicated that oxidation of alcohols to carbonyl and carboxyl groups is produced by successive hydroxylations combined with one dehydration step. We conclude that the A. aegerita peroxygenase not only oxidizes aromatic compounds but also catalyzes the stepwise oxidation of aliphatic compounds by hydrogen peroxide, with different hydroxylated intermediates.

  11. Influence of extended storage on fuel properties of methyl esters prepared from canola, palm, soybean, and sunflower oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatty acid methyl esters prepared from canola, palm, soybean, and sunflower oils by homogenous base-catalyzed methanolysis were stored for 12 months at three constant temperatures (-15, 22, and 40 deg C) and properties such as oxidative stability, acid value, kinematic viscosity, low temperature ope...

  12. Retention of health-related beneficial components during household preparation of selenium-enriched African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fillets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierke-Klemeyer, S.; Larsen, R.; Oehlenschlaeger, J.; Nunes, M.L.; Schram, E.; Luten, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Industrial processing and heat treatment of fish muscle generally lead to losses of water-soluble components, some of which may have beneficial health effects. The aim of this work was to determine the retention of taurine, selenium and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids when preparing African catfish

  13. Retention of health-related beneficial components during household preparation of selenium-enriched African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) fillets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierke-Klemeyer, S.; Larsen, R.; Oehlenschlaeger, J.; Nunes, M.L.; Schram, E.; Luten, J.B.

    2008-01-01

    Industrial processing and heat treatment of fish muscle generally lead to losses of water-soluble components, some of which may have beneficial health effects. The aim of this work was to determine the retention of taurine, selenium and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids when preparing African catfish

  14. Preparation and evaluation of multifunctional branched diesters as fuel property enhancers for biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of eight highly branched diesters were prepared by Fischer esterification of alcohols to acids in high yield that were similar in molecular weight to typical fatty acid methyl esters encountered in biodiesel. Examination of the properties of the synthetic diesters revealed that several poss...

  15. Adipose tissue Fatty Acid patterns and changes in anthropometry: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahm, Christina Catherine; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Jakobsen, Marianne Uhre;

    2011-01-01

    Diets rich in n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), but low in n-6 LC-PUFA and 18:1 trans-fatty acids (TFA), may lower the risk of overweight and obesity. These fatty acids have often been investigated individually. We explored associations between global patterns in adipose tissue...... fatty acids and changes in anthropometry....

  16. Omega-3 free fatty acids for the treatment of severe hypertriglyceridemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastelein, John J P; Maki, Kevin C; Susekov, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms.......Omega-3 fatty acids in free fatty acid form have enhanced bioavailability, and plasma levels are less influenced by food than for ethyl ester forms....

  17. Fish Oil Supplementation and Fatty Acid Synthase Expression in the Prostate: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    expression and fatty acid synthesis. Research in normal cells has demonstrated that dietary supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids ( PUFA ...particularly omega -3 fatty acids , inhibits SREBP-1 activation, resulting in a decreased transcription of FAS. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Prostate Cancer...Lipid Medtabolism, Clinical Trial; Omega -3 Fatty Acids 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME

  18. Thyroid preparation overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid preparations are medicines used to treat thyroid gland disorders. Overdose occurs when someone takes more than the normal or recommended amount of this medicine. This can be by accident or ...

  19. Enrichment of lecithin with n-3 fatty acids by acidolysis using immobilized phospholipase A1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hill, Jr, Charles G.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A commercial phospholipase A1 (Lecitase® Ultra was immobilized by physical adsorption on Duolite® and then used to mediate the incorporation of omega-3 fatty acids into lecithin. Adsorption isotherms showed that 12 h of contact were sufficient to deposit most of the enzyme onto the carrier. A pH of 7 and 50°C were the best conditions for adsorption. Reaction mixtures consisting of lecithin and a saponified fish oil concentrate (78.4 mol % EPA+DPA+DHA were prepared at molar ratios ranging from 1:2 to 1:10. Typically 2 g of total substrates and 200 mg of enzyme preparation were employed in batch reactor trials. The fastest reaction rates were observed when a substrate mole ratio of 1:8 (lecithin:total fatty acids was employed. Use of the enzyme preparation dried at pH 8 and reaction temperatures of 50 and 60°C produced the greatest extent of incorporation of the indicated n-3 fatty acids into the phospholipid after 24h of reaction.Una preparación comercial de fosfolipasa A1 (Lecitase® Ultra fue inmovilizada por adsorción sobre Duolite® y empleada para catalizar la incorporación de ácidos grasos n-3 en lecitina. Las isotermas de adsorción mostraron que en 12 horas de contacto se depositó la mayor cantidad de enzima sobre el soporte. Las mejores condiciones para la adsorción se encontraron a un valor de pH de 7 y 50°C. Las mezclas de reacción consistieron en lecitina y un saponificado de concentrado de aceite de pescado (78.4 mol % EPA+DPA+DHA a relaciones molares de 1:2 a 1:10. Una mezcla de reacción típica consistió de 2 g de sustratos y 200 mg del preparado enzimático en un reactor en lotes. Las velocidades de reacción mas altas se encontraron cuando se empleó una relación molar de sustratos de 1:8 (lecitina:ácidos grasos totales. El preparado enzimático secado a pH de 8.0 a 50 o 60°C produjo las más altas incorporaciones de ácidos grasos n-3 en el fosfolípido después de 24 h de reacción.

  20. Fatty acid transport protein expression in human brain and potential role in fatty acid transport across human brain microvessel endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Ryan W; On, Ngoc H; Del Bigio, Marc R; Miller, Donald W; Hatch, Grant M

    2011-05-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB), formed by the brain capillary endothelial cells, provides a protective barrier between the systemic blood and the extracellular environment of the CNS. Passage of fatty acids from the blood to the brain may occur either by diffusion or by proteins that facilitate their transport. Currently several protein families have been implicated in fatty acid transport. The focus of the present study was to identify the fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) expressed in the brain microvessel endothelial cells and characterize their involvement in fatty acid transport across an in vitro BBB model. The major fatty acid transport proteins expressed in human brain microvessel endothelial cells (HBMEC), mouse capillaries and human grey matter were FATP-1, -4 and fatty acid binding protein 5 and fatty acid translocase/CD36. The passage of various radiolabeled fatty acids across confluent HBMEC monolayers was examined over a 30-min period in the presence of fatty acid free albumin in a 1 : 1 molar ratio. The apical to basolateral permeability of radiolabeled fatty acids was dependent upon both saturation and chain length of the fatty acid. Knockdown of various fatty acid transport proteins using siRNA significantly decreased radiolabeled fatty acid transport across the HBMEC monolayer. Our findings indicate that FATP-1 and FATP-4 are the predominant fatty acid transport proteins expressed in the BBB based on human and mouse expression studies. While transport studies in HBMEC monolayers support their involvement in fatty acid permeability, fatty acid translocase/CD36 also appears to play a prominent role in transport of fatty acids across HBMEC.