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Sample records for preparing metal oxide

  1. Preparation of oxide materials from metal alkoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turevskaya, E.P.; Turova, N.Ya.; Yanovskaya, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The results of studies on the sol-gel technologies on the basis of alkoxides are presented. The synthesis and properties of titanates zirconates, niobates, tantalates, vanadates and solid solutions on the basis of Mo, W and Bi oxides, iron oxides and high-temperature superconductors are presented. The most important aspects, determining the choice of optimal conditions for preparation of oxides of concrete compositions with required properties are pointed out. Accomplishment of the whole chain of studies made it possible to synthesize a broad range of metal alkoxides and study their properties and also carry out large-scale studies on preparation of various oxides and materials on the basis thereof, using the source base of the sol-gel method [ru

  2. Mesoporous metal oxides and processes for preparation thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suib, Steven L.; Poyraz, Altug Suleyman

    2018-03-06

    A process for preparing a mesoporous metal oxide, i.e., transition metal oxide. Lanthanide metal oxide, a post-transition metal oxide and metalloid oxide. The process comprises providing an acidic mixture comprising a metal precursor, an interface modifier, a hydrotropic ion precursor, and a surfactant; and heating the acidic mixture at a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to form the mesoporous metal oxide. A mesoporous metal oxide prepared by the above process. A method of controlling nano-sized wall crystallinity and mesoporosity in mesoporous metal oxides. The method comprises providing an acidic mixture comprising a metal precursor, an interface modifier, a hydrotropic ion precursor, and a surfactant; and heating the acidic mixture at a temperature and for a period of time sufficient to control nano-sized wall crystallinity and mesoporosity in the mesoporous metal oxides. Mesoporous metal oxides and a method of tuning structural properties of mesoporous metal oxides.

  3. An improved method of preparation of nanoparticular metal oxide catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention concerns an improved method of preparation of nanoparticular vanadium oxide/anatase titania catalysts having a narrow particle size distribution. In particular, the invention concerns preparation of nanoparticular vanadium oxide/anatase titania catalyst precursors comprising...... combustible crystallization seeds upon which the catalyst metal oxide is coprecipitated with the carrier metal oxide, which crystallization seeds are removed by combustion in a final calcining step....

  4. Preparation and characterization of several transition metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wold, A.; Dwight, K.

    1989-01-01

    The structure-property relationships of several conducting transition metal oxides, as well as their preparative methods, are presented in this paper. The importance of preparing homogeneous phases with precisely known stoichiometry is emphasized. A comparison is also made of the various techniques used to prepare both polycrystalline and single crystal samples. For transition metal oxides, the metallic properties are discussed either in terms of metal-metal distances which are short enough to result in metallic behavior, or in terms of the formation of a π* conduction band resulting from covalent metal-oxygen interactions. Metallic behavior is observed when the conduction bands are populated with either electrons or holes. The concentration of these carriers can be affected by either cation or anion substitutions. The discussion in this presentation will be limited to the elements Re, Ti, V, Cr, Mo, and Cu

  5. PREPARATION OF METAL OXIDE POWDERS FROM METAL LOADED VERSATIC ACID

    OpenAIRE

    KAKIHATA, Takayuki; USAMI, Kensuke; YAMAMOTO, Hideki; SHIBATA, Junji

    1998-01-01

    A production process for metal oxide powders was developed using a solvent extraction method. Versatic Acid 10 and D2EHPA solutions containing copper, zinc and nickel were used for a precipitation-stripping process, where oxalic acid was added to the solution as a precipitation reagent.Copper, zinc and nickel oxalates were easily formed in an aqueous phase, and 99.9% of precipitation was obtained for each metal during this process. These metal oxalates were easily converted to metal oxides by...

  6. Preparation and utilization of metal oxide fine powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Joon Soo; Jang, Hee Dong; Lim, Young Woong; Kim, Sung Don; Lee, Hi Sun; Lee, Hoo In; Kim, Chul Joo; Shim, Gun Joo; Jang, Dae Kyu [Korea Inst. of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    Metal oxide fine powders finds many applications in industry as new materials. It is very much necessary for the development of such powders to improve the domestic industry. The purpose of present research is to develop a process for the preparation and utilization of metal oxide fine powder. This project is consisted of two main subjects. (1) Production of ultrafine metal oxide powder: Ultrafine metal oxide powder is defined as a metal oxide powder of less than 100 nanometer in particle size. Experiments for the control of particle size and distributions in the various reaction system and compared with results of (2 nd year research). Various reaction systems were adopted for the development of feasible process. Ultrafine particles could be prepared even higher concentration of TiCl{sub 4} and lower gas flowrate compared to TiCl{sub 4}-O{sub 2} system in the TiCl{sub 4}-Air-H{sub 2}O system. Ultrafine Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders also prepared with the change of concentration and gas flowrate. Experiments on the treatment of surface characteristics of ultrafine TiO{sub 2} powders were investigated using esterification and surface treating agents. A mathematical model that can predict the particle size and distribution was also developed. (2) Preparation of cerium oxide for high-grade polishing powder: Used cerium polishing powder was recycled for preparation of high grade cerium oxide polishing powder. Also, cerium hydroxide which was generated as by-product in processing of monazite ore was used as another material. These two materials were leached respectively by using acid, and the precipitate was gained in each leached solution by adjusting pH of the solution, and by selective crystallization. These precipitates were calcined to make high grade cerium oxide polishing powder. The effect of several experimental variables were investigated, and the optimum conditions were obtained through the experiments. (author). 81 refs., 49 figs., 27 tabs.

  7. Facile preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces based on metal oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xue-Mei; Cui, Jin-Feng; Sun, Han-Xue; Liang, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Zhao-Qi; An, Jin; Yang, Bao-Ping; La, Pei-Qing; Li, An

    2014-06-01

    A novel method for fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces was developed by facile coating various metal oxide nanoparticles, including ZnO, Al2O3 and Fe3O4, on various substrates followed by treatment with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using ZnO nanoparticles as a model, the changes in the surface chemical composition and crystalline structures of the metal oxide nanoparticles by PDMS treatment were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The results show that the combination of the improved surface roughness generated from of the nanoparticles aggregation with the low surface-energy of silicon-coating originated from the thermal pyrolysis of PDMS would be responsible for the surface superhydrophobicity. By a simple dip-coating method, we show that the metal oxide nanoparticles can be easily coated onto the surfaces of various textural and dimensional substrates, including glass slide, paper, fabric or sponge, for preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces for different purpose. The present strategy may provide an inexpensive and new route to surperhydrophobic surfaces, which would be of technological significance for various practical applications especially for separation of oils or organic contaminates from water.

  8. Facile preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces based on metal oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Xue-Mei; Cui, Jin-Feng; Sun, Han-Xue; Liang, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Zhao-Qi; An, Jin; Yang, Bao-Ping; La, Pei-Qing; Li, An

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces was developed by facile coating various metal oxide nanoparticles, including ZnO, Al 2 O 3 and Fe 3 O 4 , on various substrates followed by treatment with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using ZnO nanoparticles as a model, the changes in the surface chemical composition and crystalline structures of the metal oxide nanoparticles by PDMS treatment were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The results show that the combination of the improved surface roughness generated from of the nanoparticles aggregation with the low surface-energy of silicon-coating originated from the thermal pyrolysis of PDMS would be responsible for the surface superhydrophobicity. By a simple dip-coating method, we show that the metal oxide nanoparticles can be easily coated onto the surfaces of various textural and dimensional substrates, including glass slide, paper, fabric or sponge, for preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces for different purpose. The present strategy may provide an inexpensive and new route to surperhydrophobic surfaces, which would be of technological significance for various practical applications especially for separation of oils or organic contaminates from water.

  9. Facile preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces based on metal oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Xue-Mei; Cui, Jin-Feng; Sun, Han-Xue; Liang, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Zhao-Qi; An, Jin; Yang, Bao-Ping; La, Pei-Qing; Li, An, E-mail: lian2010@lut.cn

    2014-06-01

    A novel method for fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces was developed by facile coating various metal oxide nanoparticles, including ZnO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, on various substrates followed by treatment with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using ZnO nanoparticles as a model, the changes in the surface chemical composition and crystalline structures of the metal oxide nanoparticles by PDMS treatment were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The results show that the combination of the improved surface roughness generated from of the nanoparticles aggregation with the low surface-energy of silicon-coating originated from the thermal pyrolysis of PDMS would be responsible for the surface superhydrophobicity. By a simple dip-coating method, we show that the metal oxide nanoparticles can be easily coated onto the surfaces of various textural and dimensional substrates, including glass slide, paper, fabric or sponge, for preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces for different purpose. The present strategy may provide an inexpensive and new route to surperhydrophobic surfaces, which would be of technological significance for various practical applications especially for separation of oils or organic contaminates from water.

  10. Novel strategy for the preparation of graphene-encapsulated mesoporous metal oxides with enhanced lithium storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Rong; Yue, Wenbo; Niu, Fangzhou; Ma, Jie

    2016-01-01

    As potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, mesoporous metal oxides show high reversible capacities but relatively poor cycle stability due to the structural collapse during cycles. Graphene-encapsulated mesoporous metal oxides may increase the electronic conductivity of the composite as well as stabilize the mesostructure of metal oxides, thereby enhancing the electrochemical performance of mesoporous metal oxides. Herein we describe a novel strategy for the preparation of graphene-encapsulated mesoporous metal oxides (SnO_2, Mn_3O_4), which exhibit superior electrochemical performance compared to pure mesoporous metal oxides. Moreover, some mesoporous metal oxides may be further reduced to low-valence metal oxides when calcined in presence of graphene. Mesoporous metal oxides with high isoelectric points are not essential for this synthesis method since metal oxides are connected with graphene through mesoporous silica template, thus expanding the types of graphene-encapsulated mesoporous metal oxides.

  11. Novel metal oxides prepared by ingenious synthetic routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, C.N.R.; Gopalakrishnan, J.; Vidyasagar, K.; Ganguli, A.K.; Ramanan, A.; Ganapathi, L.

    1986-01-01

    Several novel oxides have been prepared by the decomposition of carbonate precursors of calcite structure of the general formulas Mn/sub 1-x/M/sub x/CO 3 (M = Mg,Co,Cd), Ca/sub 1-x/M/sup prime//sub x/CO 3 , and Ca/sub 1-x/-yM/sup //sub x/M/sup double-prime//sub y/CO 3 (M',M'' = Mn,Fe,Co). Typical of the oxides synthesized are a variety of monoxides, Mn/sub 1-x/M/sub x/O, of rocksalt structure and perovskite-related oxides such as Ca 2 FeCoO 5 , Ca 2 Co 2 O 5 , and Ca 3 Fe 2 MnO 8 , many of them exhibiting novel anion-vacancy-ordered superstructures. An interesting series of oxides prepared by the topotactic reduction of Ca 2 Fe/sub 2-x/Mn/sub x/O/sub 6-y/ (synthesized by the decomposition of the corresponding carbonate precursors) is Ca 2 Fe/sub 2-x/Mn/sub x/O 5 where three different coordination polyhedra (octahedra, tetrahedra, and square pyramids) of the transition metals coexist. Topotactic reduction of LaCoO 3 and LaNiO 3 yields new oxides, La 2 Co 2 O 5 and La 2 Ni 2 O 5 , possessing anion-vacancy-ordered superstructures. While La 2 Co 2 O 5 adopts the brownmillerite structure, La 2 Ni 2 O 5 exhibits a new type of vacancy ordering with octahedral and square-planar coordination of Ni 2+ . Slightly reduced LaNiO 3 seem to exhibit crystallographic shear (CS) planes similar to WO/sub 3-x/. Topotactic dehydration of isostructural Mo/sub 1-x/W/sub x/O 3 x H 2 O provides a convenient route for the synthesis of Mo/sub 1-x/W/sub x/O 3 (0 3 -related structure

  12. Preparation of oxide glasses from metal alkoxides by sol-gel method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, K.; Yoko, T.; Sakka, S.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation is carried out on the types of siloxane polymers produced in the course of the hydrolysis of silicon tetraethoxide, as well as the preparation of oxide glasses from metal alkoxides by the sol-gel method.

  13. Metal oxide nanostructures: preparation, characterization and functional applications as chemical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, Dario; Bertuna, Angela; Comini, Elisabetta; Kaur, Navpreet; Poli, Nicola; Sberveglieri, Veronica; Sberveglieri, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Preparation and characterization of different metal oxide (NiO, WO 3 , ZnO, SnO 2 and Nb 2 O 5 ) nanostructures for chemical sensing are presented. p-Type (NiO) and n-type (WO 3 , SnO 2 , ZnO and Nb 2 O 5 ) metal oxide nanostructures were grown on alumina substrates using evaporation-condensation, thermal oxidation and hydrothermal techniques. Surface morphologies and crystal structures were investigated through scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Furthermore, different batches of sensors have been prepared, and their sensing performances towards carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide have been explored. Moreover, metal oxide nanowires have been integrated into an electronic nose and successfully applied to discriminate between drinking and contaminated water.

  14. Preparation of the Nanostructured Radioisotope Metallic Oxide by Neutron Irradiation for Use as Radiotracers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Ei Seo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Metallic oxides manganese dioxide (MnO2, samarium oxide (Sm2O3, and dysprosium oxide (Dy2O3 with nanorod-like structures were synthesized by the hydrothermal synthesis method, respectively. Subsequently, the nanostructured radioisotopes MnO2 with Mn-56, Sm2O3 with Sm-153, and Dy2O3 with Dy-165 were prepared by neutron irradiation from the HANARO research reactor, respectively. The three different elements, Mn, Sm, and Dy, were selected as radiotracers because these elements can be easily gamma-activated from neutrons (activation limits: 1 picogram (Dy, 1–10 picogram (Mn, 10–100 picogram (Sm. Furthermore, the synthesized radioisotopes can be used as radiotracers in Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis as the rare earth metals Dy and Sm were not present in the Korean environment. The successful synthesis of the radioisotope metallic oxides was confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS, X-ray Diffraction (XRD analysis, and gamma spectroscopy analysis. The synthesized nanostructured radioisotope metallic oxides may be used as radiotracers in scientific, environmental, engineering, and industrial fields.

  15. The chemical and catalytic properties of nanocrystalline metal oxides prepared through modified sol-gel synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnes, Corrie Leigh

    The goal of this research was to synthesize, characterize and study the chemical properties of nanocrystalline metal oxides. Nanocrystalline (NC) ZnO, CuO, NiO, Al2O3, and the binary Al2O 3/MgO and ZnO/CuO were prepared through modified sol gel methods. These NC metal oxides were studied in comparison to the commercial (CM) metal oxides. The samples were characterized by XRD, TGA, FTIR, BET, and TEM. The NC samples were all accompanied by a significant increase in surface area and decrease in crystallite size. Several chemical reactions were studied to compare the NC samples to the CM samples. One of the reactions involved a high temperature reaction between carbon tetrachloride and the oxide to form carbon dioxide and the corresponding metal chloride. A similar high temperature reaction was conducted between the metal oxide and hydrogen sulfide to form water and the corresponding metal sulfide. A room temperature gas phase adsorption was studied where SO2 was adsorbed onto the oxide. A liquid phase adsorption conducted at room temperature was the destructive adsorption of paraoxon (a toxic insecticide). In all reactions the NC samples exhibited greater activity, destroying or adsorbing a larger amount of the toxins compared to the CM samples. To better study surface area effects catalytic reactions were also studied. The catalysis of methanol was studied over the nanocrystalline ZnO, CuO, NiO, and ZnO/CuO samples in comparison to their commercial counterparts. In most cases the NC samples proved to be more active catalysts, having higher percent conversions and turnover numbers. A second catalytic reaction was also studied, this reaction was investigated to look at the support effects. The catalysis of cyclopropane to propane was studied over Pt and Co catalysts. These catalysts were supported onto NC and CM alumina by impregnation. By observing differences in the catalytic behavior, support effects have become apparent.

  16. Preparation and characterization of uranium alkoxides through oxidation of uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, P.L.; Sauer, N.N.; Burns, C.J.; Watkin, J.G.; Van Der Sluys, W.G.

    1993-01-01

    Currently the authors are investigating the preparation of halide-containing uranium alkoxides by simultaneous halogen and alcohol oxidation of uranium metal. They recently reported the formation of U 2 I 4 (O-i-Pr) 4 (HO-i-Pr) 2 which upon addition of excess isopropanol forms UI 2 (O-i-Pr) 2 (HO-i-Pr) 2 . They report further characterization and reactivity for this monomeric species. Attempts to prepare similar complexes are being made using chlorine gas in the presence of other alcohols. They describe this ongoing research

  17. Surface Preparation and Deposited Gate Oxides for Gallium Nitride Based Metal Oxide Semiconductor Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C. McIntyre

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The literature on polar Gallium Nitride (GaN surfaces, surface treatments and gate dielectrics relevant to metal oxide semiconductor devices is reviewed. The significance of the GaN growth technique and growth parameters on the properties of GaN epilayers, the ability to modify GaN surface properties using in situ and ex situ processes and progress on the understanding and performance of GaN metal oxide semiconductor (MOS devices are presented and discussed. Although a reasonably consistent picture is emerging from focused studies on issues covered in each of these topics, future research can achieve a better understanding of the critical oxide-semiconductor interface by probing the connections between these topics. The challenges in analyzing defect concentrations and energies in GaN MOS gate stacks are discussed. Promising gate dielectric deposition techniques such as atomic layer deposition, which is already accepted by the semiconductor industry for silicon CMOS device fabrication, coupled with more advanced physical and electrical characterization methods will likely accelerate the pace of learning required to develop future GaN-based MOS technology.

  18. Preparation of Zeolite/Zinc Oxide Nanocomposites for toxic metals removal from water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah A. Alswata

    Full Text Available This research work has proposed preparation of Zeolite/Zinc Oxide Nanocomposite (Zeolite/ZnO NCs by using a co-precipitation method. Then, the prepared Nanocomposite has been tested for adsorption of Lead Pb (II and Arsenic As (V from aqueous solution under the room pressure and temperature. After that, the prepared adsorbent has been studied by several techniques. For adsorption process; the effect of the adsorbent masses, contact time, PH and initial metals concentration as well as, the kinetics and isotherm for adsorption process have been investigated. The results revealed that; ZnO nanoparticles (NPs with average diameter 4.5 nm have successfully been loaded into Zeolite. The optimum parameters for the removal of the toxic metals 93% and 89% of Pb (II and As (V, respectively, in 100 mg/L aqua solutions were pH4, 0.15 g and 30 min. According to the obtained results; pseudo second-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm model have higher correlation coefficients and provided a better agreement with the experimental data. The prepared sorbent showed an economical and effective way to remove the heavy toxic metals due to its ambient operation conditions, low- consumption energy and facile regeneration method. Keywords: Zeolite, ZnO, Nanocomposites, Adsorbent, Kinetic, Isotherm

  19. Preparation and characterization of expanded graphite/metal oxides for antimicrobial application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Wei-Che; Wu, Kuo-Hui; Lyu, Dong-Yi; Cheng, Ken-Fa; Huang, Wen-Chien

    2017-06-01

    Composite materials based on expanded graphite (EG) and metal oxide (MO) particles was prepared by an explosive combustion and blending method. The objective of the study was to develop EG impregnated with metal oxide particulates (Ag 2 O, CuO and ZnO) and evaluate the level of protection the materials conferred against biological agents. The physical properties of the EG/MO composites were examined using SEM, EDX and XRD spectroscopy, and the results indicated that the MO particles were incorporated into the EG matrix after impregnation. The antimicrobial activities of the EG/MO composites against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and Bacillus anthracis were investigated using zone of inhibition, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and plate-counting methods. EG/Ag 2 O exhibited a stronger antibacterial activity than EG/CuO and EG/ZnO, with a MIC of 0.3mg/mL and a MBC of 0.5mg/mL. To the best of our knowledge, few studies have demonstrated that EG/MO composites can inhibit the growth of Bacillus anthracis-adhered cells, thus preventing the process of biofilm formation. Nanoscale metal oxides display enhanced reactive properties toward bacteria due to their high surface area, large number of highly reactive edges, corner defect sites and high surface to volume ratio. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sample preparation and study by electronic diffraction of oxidations and fluorinations of some metals and alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auguin, B.

    1963-06-01

    After having recalled that electron diffraction is particularly adapted to the study of thin films and surface layers, notably those forming during corrosions, and recalled some characteristics of this technique (wavelength, interactions with substances, parasite reactions, observation by transmission or reflection, obtained diagrams for polycrystalline and mono-crystalline substances), the author describes how samples are prepared in the case of examinations performed by transmission and by reflection. As fluorination agents are used for the separation of uranium 235 and 238, the second part discusses some works related to the fluorination of metals and alloys, some of them being used in these separation installations. Chlorine trifluoride is generally used and materials are generally oxidised. Thus, the author reports the study of the action of ClF 3 on different oxides. Oxidations of iron, nickel and Monel are addressed, as well as the behaviour of stainless steel. The study of fluorinations of metals (nickel, chromium, copper), alloys (stainless steel, Monel) and oxides is reported. The author finally addresses treatments performed after fluorinations: vacuum heating, action of humid air

  1. Flame spray synthesis under a non-oxidizing atmosphere: Preparation of metallic bismuth nanoparticles and nanocrystalline bulk bismuth metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grass, Robert N.; Stark, Wendelin J. [Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering, ETH Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: wendelin.stark@chem.ethz.ch

    2006-10-15

    Metallic bismuth nanoparticles of over 98% purity were prepared by a modified flame spray synthesis method in an inert atmosphere by oxygen-deficient combustion of a bismuth-carboxylate based precursor. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy confirming the formation of pure, crystalline metallic bismuth nanoparticles. Compression of the as-prepared powder resulted in highly dense, nanocrystalline pills with strong electrical conductivity and bright metallic gloss.

  2. Adsorption of heavy metal ion from aqueous solution by nickel oxide nano catalyst prepared by different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amira M. Mahmoud

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental pollution by heavy metal is arising as the most endangering tasks to both water sources and atmosphere quality today. The treatment of heavy metals is of special concern due to their recalcitrance and persistence in the environment. To limit the spread of the heavy metals within water sources, nickel oxide nanoparticles adsorbents were synthesized and characterized with the aim of removal of one of the aggressive heavy elements, namely; lead ions. Nano nickel oxide adsorbents were prepared using NaOH and oxalic acid dissolved in ethanol as precursors. The results indicated that adsorption capacity of Pb(II ion by NiO-org catalyst is favored than that prepared using NaOH as a precipitant. Nickel oxide nanoparticles prepared by the two methods were characterized structurally and chemically through XRD, DTA, TGA, BET and FT-IR. Affinity and efficiency sorption parameters of the solid nano NiO particles, such as; contact time, initial concentration of lead ions and the dosage of NiO nano catalyst and competitive adsorption behaviors were studied. The results showed that the first-order reaction law fit the reduction of lead ion, also showed good linear relationship with a correlation coefficient (R2 larger than 0.9.

  3. Method of producing homogeneous mixed metal oxides and metal-metal oxide mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinby, T.C.

    1980-01-01

    A method for preparing particulate metal or metal oxide of controlled partile size comprises contacting an an aqueous solution containing dissolved metal values with excess urea at a temperature sufficient to cause urea to react with water to provide a molten urea solution containing the metal values; heating the molten urea solution to cause the metal values to precipitate, forming a mixture containing precipitated metal values; heating the mixture containing precipitated metal values to evaporate volatile material leaving a dry powder containing said metal values. The dry powder can be calcined to provide particulate metal oxide or reduced to provide particulate metal. Oxide mixtures are provided when the aqueous solution contains values of more than one metal. Homogeneousmetal-metal oxide mistures for preparing cermets can be prepared by selectively reducing at least one of the metal oxides. (auth)

  4. Comparative evaluation of different nanostructured metal oxides for preparation of clinically useful 99Mo/99mTc generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ram, Ramu; Chakravarty, Rubel; Dash, Ashutosh

    2015-01-01

    The potential of nanostructured metal oxides such as nanotitania, nanozirconia, nanoalumina and mesoporous alumina, as new generation sorbent materials for preparation of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator has recently been demonstrated. A comparative assessment of such materials is essential for determination of their suitability for preparation of clinically useful generators using (n,γ) 99 Mo. Characteristics which were compared included the sorption capacity, shelf-life of the generator, radioactive concentration and purity of 99m Tc for radiopharmaceutical applications. Mesoporous alumina was identified as the most suitable sorbent for ensuring sustainable production of clinical grade 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generators using low specific activity 99 Mo. (author)

  5. A study of the kinetics and mechanisms of electrocrystallization of indium oxide on an in situ prepared metallic indium electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omanovic, S.; Metikos-Hukovic, M.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanisms and kinetics of nucleation and growth of indium oxide film on an in situ prepared metallic indium electrode was studied in a borate buffer solution of pH 10.0 using cyclic voltammetry and chroanoamperometry techniques. It was shown that the initial stage of nucleation of the oxide film includes a three-dimensional progressive nucleation process, combined with a diffusion-controlled growth of the stable indium oxide crystals. The thermodynamic data obtained indicated a strong tendency of indium to form an indium oxide film on its surface in an aqueous solution. It was found that the rate-determining step in the nucleation and growth process is the surface diffusion of electroactive species. The nucleation rate constant, and the number of nucleation active sites were calculated independently. It was shown that between 2 and 15% of sites on the indium surface act as active nucleation centers, and that each active site represents a critical nucleus

  6. A new rapid chemical route to prepare reduced graphene oxide using copper metal nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Tao; Gao Jianping; Xu Xiaoyang; Qiu Haixia; Wang Wei; Gao Chunjuan

    2013-01-01

    Copper metal nanoparticles were used as a reducing agent to reduce graphene oxide (GO). The reaction was complete in about 10 min and did not involve the use of any toxic reagents or acids that are typically used in the reduction of GO by Zn and Fe powders. The high reduction activity of the Cu nanoparticles, compared to Cu powder, may be the result of the formation of Cu 2 O nanoparticles. The effect of the mass ratio of the metal to GO for this reduction was also investigated. The reduction of the GO was verified by ultraviolet–visible absorption spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. After reduction, Cu 2 O supported on reduced GO was formed and showed superior catalytic ability for the degradation of a model dye pollutant, methylene blue. (paper)

  7. A novel method for the preparation of uranium metal, oxide and carbide via electrolytic amalgamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, L.C.; Lee, H.C.; Lee, T.S.; Lai, W.C.; Chang, C.T.

    1978-01-01

    A solid uranium amalgam was prepared electrolytically using a two-compartment cell separated with an ion exchange membrane for the purpose of regulating pH value within a narrowly restricted region of 2 to 3. The mercury cathode was kept at -1.8V vs SCE during electrolysis. The thereby obtained amalgam containing as high as 1.9gm U/ml Hg is easily converted into uranium metal by heating in vacuo above 1300 0 C. Uranium dioxide and uranium monocarbide could be easily obtained at relatively low temperature by reacting the amalgam with water vapor and methane. (author)

  8. Preparation of titanium oxide and metal titanates as powders, thin films, and microspheres by complex sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deptula, A.; Olczak, T.; Lada, W.; Chmielewski, A.G.; Jakubaszek, U.; Sartowska, B.; Goretta, K.C.; Alvani, C.; Casadio, S.; Contini, V.

    2006-01-01

    Titanium oxide, for many years an important pigment, has recently been applied widely as a photocatalyst or as supports for metallic catalysts, gas sensors, photovoltaic solar cells, and water and air purification devices. Titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) and titanates based on Ba, Sr and Ca were prepared from commercial solutions of TiCl 4 and HNO 3 . The main preparation steps for the sols consisted of elimination of Cl - by distillation with HNO 3 and addition of metal hydroxides for the titanates. Resulting sols were gelled and used to: (a) prepare irregularly shaped powders by evaporation; (b) produce by a dipping technique thin films on glass, Ag or Ti supports; (c) produce spherical powders (diameters <100 μm) by solvent extraction. Results of thermal and X-ray-diffraction analyses indicated that the temperatures required to form the various compounds were lower than those necessary to form the compounds by conventional solid-state reactions and comparable to those required with use of organometallic based sol-gel methods. Temperatures of formation could be further reduced by addition of ascorbic acid (ASC) to the sols

  9. Using glucosamine as a reductant to prepare reduced graphene oxide and its nanocomposites with metal nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chuanbao; Wang Xingrui; Liu Yu; Wang Wei; Wynn, Jeanne; Gao Jianping

    2012-01-01

    A green and facile approach of producing reduced graphene oxide (RGO) by the reduction of graphene oxide (GO) with a monosaccharide medicine glucosamine (GL) was developed. The effect of several factors on the GO reduction, including pH, the weight ratio of GL/GO, and the reaction temperature was studied. The deoxygenation process was monitored with UV–Vis absorption spectroscopy, and the reducing degree of GO was determined with X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Au nanoparticles (about 3.3–4.2 nm) (AuNPs)/RGO and Ag nanoparticles (about 6 nm) (AgNPs)/RGO materials were prepared in two different ways using the above reduction method. They were then used to catalyze the Suzuki–Miyaura coupling reaction of phenyl halide and phenylboronic acid to produce biphenyl, and the highest yield of biphenyl for AuNPs/RGO was 99 %. In addition, the AgNPs/RGO materials exhibited a surface-enhanced Raman scattering effect, and some RGO peaks were enhanced. This approach opens up a new, practical, and green reducing method to prepare RGO for large-scale practical application.

  10. Crystallization and deuterium permeation behaviors of yttrium oxide coating prepared by metal organic decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumi Chikada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yttrium oxide coatings were fabricated on reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels by metal organic decomposition with a dip-coating technique, and their deuterium permeation behaviors were investigated. The microstructure of the coatings varied with heat-treatment temperature: amorphous at 670ºC (amorphous coating and crystallized at 700ºC (crystallized coating. Deuterium permeation flux of the amorphous coating was lower than the uncoated steel by a factor of 5 at 500ºC, while that of the crystallized coating was lower by a factor of around 100 at 400‒550ºC. The permeation fluxes of both coatings were drastically decreased during the measurements at higher temperatures by a factor of up to 790 for the amorphous coating and 1000 for the crystallized one, indicating a microstructure modification occurred by an effect of test temperature with hydrogen flux. Temperature dependence of deuterium diffusivity in the coatings suggests that the decrease of the permeation flux has been derived from a decrease of the diffusivity. Characteristic permeation behaviors were observed with different annealing conditions; however, they can be interpreted using the permeation mechanism clarified in the previous erbium oxide coating studies.

  11. Indium tin oxide films prepared by atmospheric plasma annealing and their semiconductor-metal conductivity transition around room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yali; Li Chunyang; He Deyan; Li Junshuai

    2009-01-01

    We report the synthesis of indium tin oxide (ITO) films using the atmospheric plasma annealing (APA) technique combined with the spin-coating method. The ITO film with a low resistivity of ∼4.6 x 10 -4 Ω cm and a high visible light transmittance, above 85%, was achieved. Hall measurement indicates that compared with the optimized ITO films deposited by magnetron sputtering, the above-mentioned ITO film has a higher carrier concentration of ∼1.21 x 10 21 cm -3 and a lower mobility of ∼11.4 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . More interestingly, these electrical characteristics result in the semiconductor-metal conductivity transition around room temperature for the ITO films prepared by APA.

  12. Nanoparticular metal oxide/anatase catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of preparation of nanoparticular metal oxide catalysts having a narrow particle size distribution. In particular, the invention concerns preparation of nanoparticular metal oxide catalyst precursors comprising combustible crystallization seeds upon which...... the catalyst metai oxide is co-precipitated with the carrier metal oxide, which crystallization seeds are removed by combustion in a final calcining step. The present invention also concerns processes wherein the nanoparticular metal oxide catalysts of the invention are used, such as SCR (deNOx) reactions...

  13. Preparation and characterization of nanostructured metal oxides for application to biomass upgrading Polar (111) metal oxide surfaces for pyrolysis oil upgrading and lignin depolymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Pyrolysis oil, or bio-oil, is one of the most promising methods to upgrade a variety of biomass to transportation fuels. Moving toward a more "green" catalytic process requires heterogeneous catalysis over homogeneous catalysis to avoid extraction solvent waste. Nanoscale catalysts are showing great promise due to their high surface area and unusual surfaces. Base catalyzed condensation reactions occur much quicker than acid catalyzed condensation reactions. However, MgO is slightly soluble in water and is susceptible to degradation by acidic environments, similar to those found in fast-pyrolysis oil. Magnesium oxide (111) has a highly active Lewis base surface, which can catalyze Claisen-Schmidt condensation reactions in the organic phase. It has been shown previously that carbon coating a catalyst, such as a metal oxide, provides integrity while leaving the catalytic activity intact. Here, carbon-coated MgO(111) will be discussed with regards to synthesis, characterization and application to bio-oil upgrading through model compounds. Raman spectroscopy and HR-TEM are used to characterize the thickness and carbon-bonding environment of the carbon coating. Propanal self-condensation reactions have been conducted in the aqueous phase with varying amounts of acetic acid present. Quantitative analysis by gas chromatography was completed to determine the catalytic activity of CC-MgO(111). ICP-OES analysis has been conducted to measure the magnesium concentration in the product solution and give insight into the leaching of the catalyst into the reaction solution.

  14. Metal atom oxidation laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides

  15. The preparation of Ag-BiVO4 metal composite oxides and its application in efficient photocatalytic oxidative thiophene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiao-Ming; Fu, Feng; Zhang, Li-Ping; Li, Wen-Hong

    2013-06-01

    A series of Ag-BiVO4 photocatalysts was synthesized by the hydrothemal synthesis method for different pH values. A strong correlation was found among the prepared processing, structure and property of the samples. With increasing pH value from 5 to 9, the crystallinity increases and the as-prepared Ag-BiVO4 sample gradually disappeared from the nanostructures. The light absorption became higher in the UV and visible range, accompanied by a bathochromic shift of the absorption edge. The competitive relations between crystallinity and surface area affecting photocatalytic activity were also discussed. Photocatalytic desulfurization on the as-prepared Ag-BiVO4 samples using thiophene dissolved in n-octane as a model organosulfur compound was performed. It showed that the photocatalytic desulfurization on the as-prepared Ag-BiVO4 sample at pH=7 can be up to 95%, which existed as various size particles and had significant high surface area of 13.768 m2 g-1.

  16. The preparation of Ag–BiVO{sub 4} metal composite oxides and its application in efficient photocatalytic oxidative thiophene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Xiao-Ming, E-mail: dawn1026@163.com [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Chemical Reaction Engineering, Yan' an University, Yan' an, Shaanxi 716000 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710069 (China); Fu, Feng; Zhang, Li-Ping [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Chemical Reaction Engineering, Yan' an University, Yan' an, Shaanxi 716000 (China); Li, Wen-Hong [Department of Chemical Engineering, Northwest University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710069 (China)

    2013-06-15

    A series of Ag–BiVO{sub 4} photocatalysts was synthesized by the hydrothemal synthesis method for different pH values. A strong correlation was found among the prepared processing, structure and property of the samples. With increasing pH value from 5 to 9, the crystallinity increases and the as-prepared Ag–BiVO{sub 4} sample gradually disappeared from the nanostructures. The light absorption became higher in the UV and visible range, accompanied by a bathochromic shift of the absorption edge. The competitive relations between crystallinity and surface area affecting photocatalytic activity were also discussed. Photocatalytic desulfurization on the as-prepared Ag–BiVO{sub 4} samples using thiophene dissolved in n-octane as a model organosulfur compound was performed. It showed that the photocatalytic desulfurization on the as-prepared Ag–BiVO{sub 4} sample at pH=7 can be up to 95%, which existed as various size particles and had significant high surface area of 13.768 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}.

  17. Magnesium oxide prepared via metal-chitosan complexation method: Application as catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil and catalyst deactivation studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almerindo, Gizelle I.; Probst, Luiz F. D.; Campos, Carlos E. M.; de Almeida, Rusiene M.; Meneghetti, Simoni M. P.; Meneghetti, Mario R.; Clacens, Jean-Marc; Fajardo, Humberto V.

    2011-10-01

    A simple method to prepare magnesium oxide catalysts for biodiesel production by transesterification reaction of soybean oil with ethanol is proposed. The method was developed using a metal-chitosan complex. Compared to the commercial oxide, the proposed catalysts displayed higher surface area and basicity values, leading to higher yield in terms of fatty acid ethyl esters (biodiesel). The deactivation of the catalyst due to contact with CO2 and H2O present in the ambient air was verified. It was confirmed that the active catalytic site is a hydrogenocarbonate adsorption site.

  18. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of β-diketones, halogenated β-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs

  19. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack L.

    2014-06-17

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide gels contain a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous aluminum oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  20. Structural and Optical Properties of ZnO Thin Film Prepared by Oxidation of Zn Metal Powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, N.K.; Hashim, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    High quality ZnO nano structures have been fabricated at room temperature by a simple vacuum thermal evaporator from metallic Zn powders (99.999 % purity) on a silicon (100) substrate. The Zn thin films were then transferred into a thermal tube furnace for oxidation at 700 degree Celsius for different time durations. Time was found to be a critical factor in the synthesis. This was followed by characterization of their morphological, structural and optical properties. The morphology of the grown ZnO nano structures exhibited several large grains, which increased gradually with increasing oxidation time. The crystallinity of the grown nano structures was investigated using X-ray diffraction, revealing that the synthesized ZnO was in hexagonal wurtzite phase. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of the fabricated ZnO nano structures showed high intensity peak in the UV region due to near-band-edge (NBE) emission in which the structures oxidized for 30 min showing highest intensity. (author)

  1. Reduced graphene oxide-wrapped MoO3 composites prepared by using metal-organic frameworks as precursor for all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiehong; Zheng, Bing; Shi, Wenhui; Yang, Jian; Fan, Zhanxi; Luo, Zhimin; Rui, Xianhong; Chen, Bo; Yan, Qingyu; Zhang, Hua

    2015-08-26

    Reduced graphene oxide-wrapped MoO3M (rGO/MoO3 ) is prepared by a novel and simple method that is developed by using a metal-organic framework as the precursor. After a two-step annealing process, the obtained rGO/MoO3 composite is used for a high-performance supercapacitor electrode. Moreover, an all-solid-state flexible supercapacitor is fabricated based on the rGO/MoO3 composite, which shows stable performance under different bending states. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Direct preparation of Al-base alloys from their oxides/metal precursors in the eutectic LiCl–KCl melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Bingliang; Zhu, Hao; Xia, Yuxiang; Shi, Zhongning; Hu, Xianwei; Wang, Zhaowen

    2016-01-01

    A study was carried out on the preparation of Al–Cu–Li alloy from their oxides/metal precursors using the method of electro-deoxidation in the eutectic LiCl–KCl melt at 648 K. Cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize the system. The samples were prepared by potentiostatic electrolysis at −1.0 V to −2.0 V (vs. Ag + /Ag) for 5 h. XRD analysis shows that Li 2 O is not electrochemically reduced to Li at −1.0 V (vs. Ag + /Ag) or more negative potential. During the preparation process of Al–Cu–Li alloy, lithium peroxide is formed as an intermediate compound. Al–Cu–Li alloy is chemically prepared through the reaction between aluminum and lithium peroxide by heating of Al–Cu–Li 2 O precursors in KCl–LiCl–LiF melt at 1023 K. Eelectro-deoxidation in LiCl–KCl melt can increase the lithium content in the final alloy product. Al–Mg and Al–Nd alloy were also prepared by using the same method from their mixture of aluminum and corresponding oxide, respectively. Al–Nd alloy can only be obtained at the temperature above 773 K. Al–Li alloy could not be obtained in eutectic CaCl 2 –LiCl melt because of formation of calcium aluminates. - Highlights: • Al–Cu–Li alloy was prepared using electrochemical deoxidation of Al–Cu–Li 2 O precursor in eutectic KCl–LiCl melt at 648 K. • Al–Nd alloy was successfully produced by the same method at 773 K. • CaCl 2 –LiCl melt is not a good choice for preparing Al–Li alloy because of formation of calcium aluminate.

  3. Direct preparation of Al-base alloys from their oxides/metal precursors in the eutectic LiCl–KCl melt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Bingliang, E-mail: blgao@mail.neu.edu.cn; Zhu, Hao; Xia, Yuxiang; Shi, Zhongning; Hu, Xianwei; Wang, Zhaowen

    2016-04-25

    A study was carried out on the preparation of Al–Cu–Li alloy from their oxides/metal precursors using the method of electro-deoxidation in the eutectic LiCl–KCl melt at 648 K. Cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize the system. The samples were prepared by potentiostatic electrolysis at −1.0 V to −2.0 V (vs. Ag{sup +}/Ag) for 5 h. XRD analysis shows that Li{sub 2}O is not electrochemically reduced to Li at −1.0 V (vs. Ag{sup +}/Ag) or more negative potential. During the preparation process of Al–Cu–Li alloy, lithium peroxide is formed as an intermediate compound. Al–Cu–Li alloy is chemically prepared through the reaction between aluminum and lithium peroxide by heating of Al–Cu–Li{sub 2}O precursors in KCl–LiCl–LiF melt at 1023 K. Eelectro-deoxidation in LiCl–KCl melt can increase the lithium content in the final alloy product. Al–Mg and Al–Nd alloy were also prepared by using the same method from their mixture of aluminum and corresponding oxide, respectively. Al–Nd alloy can only be obtained at the temperature above 773 K. Al–Li alloy could not be obtained in eutectic CaCl{sub 2}–LiCl melt because of formation of calcium aluminates. - Highlights: • Al–Cu–Li alloy was prepared using electrochemical deoxidation of Al–Cu–Li{sub 2}O precursor in eutectic KCl–LiCl melt at 648 K. • Al–Nd alloy was successfully produced by the same method at 773 K. • CaCl{sub 2}–LiCl melt is not a good choice for preparing Al–Li alloy because of formation of calcium aluminate.

  4. Process for the preparation of fine grain metal carbide powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gortsema, F.P.

    1976-01-01

    Fine grain metal carbide powders are conveniently prepared from the corresponding metal oxide by heating in an atmosphere of methane in hydrogen. Sintered articles having a density approaching the theoretical density of the metal carbide itself can be fabricated from the powders by cold pressing, hot pressing or other techniques. 8 claims, no drawings

  5. Facile and large-scale preparation of sandwich-structured graphene-metal oxide composites as anode materials for Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Hongmei; Zhao, Li; Yue, Wenbo; Wang, Yuan; Jiang, Yang; Zhang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Graphene-based metal oxides are desirable as potential anode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) owing to their superior electrochemical properties. In this work, sandwich-structured graphene-metal oxide (ZnO, NiO) composites are facilely synthesized on a large scale through self-assembly of graphene oxide nanosheets and metal ammine complexes, and then thermal decomposition of the self-assembled products. ZnO or NiO nanoparticles with diameters of 5∼10 nm are immobilized between the layers of graphene nanosheets, which may provide the space for accommodating the volume change of metal oxides during cycles, and highly improve the electronic conductivity of the composites. Accordingly, these sandwich-structured composites exhibit enhanced electrochemical performances compared to metal oxide particles or stacked graphene nanosheets. This facile synthesis method is very suitable for the large-scale production of three-dimensional graphene-based composites as high-performance anodes for LIBs.

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of Nano-Structure Metal Oxides and Peroxides Prepared by Laser Ablation in Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drmosh, Qasem Ahmed Qasem

    Pulsed laser ablation technique was applied for synthesize of ZnO, ZnO 2 and SnO2 nanostructure using metallic target in different liquids. For this purpose, a laser emitting pulsed UV radiations generated by the third harmonic of Nd:YAG (λ= 355 nm) was applied. For the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs), a high-purity metallic plate of Zn was fixed at the bottom of a glass cell in the presence of deionized water and was irradiated at different laser energies (80- 100- 120) mJ per pulse. The average sizes and lattice parameters of ZnO produced by this method were estimated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). ZnO nanoparticles were also produced by ablation of zinc target in the presence of deionized water mixed with two types of surfactants: cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) and octaethylene glycol monododecyl (OGM). The results showed that the average grain sizes decreased from 38 nm in the case of deionized water to 27 nm and 19 nm in CTAB and OGM respectively. The PL emission in CTAB and OGM showed two peaks: the sharp UV emission at 380 nm and a broad visible peak ranging from 450 nm to 600 nm. Zinc peroxide (ZnO2) nanoparticles having grain size less than 5 nm were also synthesized using pulsed laser ablation in aqueous solution in the presence of different surfactants and solid zinc target in 3 % hydrogen peroxide H2O2 for the first time. The effect of surfactants on the optical and structure of ZnO2 was studied by applying different spectroscopic techniques. The presence of the cubic phase of zinc peroxide in all samples was confirmed with XRD, and the grain sizes were 4.7 nm, 3.7 nm, 3.3 nm and 2.8 nm in pure H2O2; and H2O 2 mixed with SDS, CTAB and OGM respectively. For optical characterization, FTIR transmittance spectra of ZnO2 nanoparticles prepared with and without surfactants showed characteristic peaks of ZnO2 absorption at 435-445 cm-1. FTIR spectrum also revealed that the adsorbed surfactants on zinc peroxide disappeared in case of CTAB and OGM

  7. Preparation of the pur uranium-metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldschmidt, B.; Vertes, P.

    1955-01-01

    A detailed description of the chemical processes used to prepare in the factory of Bouchet of the CEA (Seine-Et-Oise) pur metal uranium with either relatively rich ores, or extracts coming of physical or chemical treatment of poor ores. The nitric treatment of ores succeeds to the production of uranate of impure sodium carbonate. This last last product is dissolved in nitric acid and the uranyl nitrate is extracted by tributyl-phosphate diluted in an inert solvent. The uranyl nitrate pure is re-extracted and successively transformed in uranium peroxide, in orange oxide then in brown oxide which is transformed in fluoride by the anhydrous hydrofluoric acid. Uranate fluoride is then reduced in metal by the pure calcium with an yield superior to 99%. (authors) [fr

  8. Conducting metal oxide and metal nitride nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSalvo, Jr., Francis J.; Subban, Chinmayee V.

    2017-12-26

    Conducting metal oxide and nitride nanoparticles that can be used in fuel cell applications. The metal oxide nanoparticles are comprised of for example, titanium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten and combinations thereof. The metal nitride nanoparticles are comprised of, for example, titanium, niobium, tantalum, tungsten, zirconium, and combinations thereof. The nanoparticles can be sintered to provide conducting porous agglomerates of the nanoparticles which can be used as a catalyst support in fuel cell applications. Further, platinum nanoparticles, for example, can be deposited on the agglomerates to provide a material that can be used as both an anode and a cathode catalyst support in a fuel cell.

  9. Method of producing homogeneous mixed metal oxides and metal--metal oxide mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinby, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    Metal powders, metal oxide powders, and mixtures thereof of controlled particle size are provided by reacting an aqueous solution containing dissolved metal values with excess urea. Upon heating, urea reacts with water from the solution to leave a molten urea solution containing the metal values. The molten urea solution is heated to above about 180 0 C, whereupon metal values precipitate homogeneously as a powder. The powder is reduced to metal or calcined to form oxide particles. One or more metal oxides in a mixture can be selectively reduced to produce metal particles or a mixture of metal and metal oxide particles

  10. Multi-metal oxide ceramic nanomaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Stephen; Liu, Shuangyi; Huang, Limin

    2016-06-07

    A convenient and versatile method for preparing complex metal oxides is disclosed. The method uses a low temperature, environmentally friendly gel-collection method to form a single phase nanomaterial. In one embodiment, the nanomaterial consists of Ba.sub.AMn.sub.BTi.sub.CO.sub.D in a controlled stoichiometry.

  11. Nanotoxicology of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedea B. Seabra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses recent advances in the synthesis, characterization and toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles obtained mainly through biogenic (green processes. The in vitro and in vivo toxicities of these oxides are discussed including a consideration of the factors important for safe use of these nanomaterials. The toxicities of different metal oxide nanoparticles are compared. The importance of biogenic synthesized metal oxide nanoparticles has been increasing in recent years; however, more studies aimed at better characterizing the potent toxicity of these nanoparticles are still necessary for nanosafely considerations and environmental perspectives. In this context, this review aims to inspire new research in the design of green approaches to obtain metal oxide nanoparticles for biomedical and technological applications and to highlight the critical need to fully investigate the nanotoxicity of these particles.

  12. Low-cost metal oxide activated carbon prepared and modified by microwave heating method for hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moradi, S. E. [Islamic Azad University, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-09-15

    Novel microporous activated carbon (MAC) with high surface area and pore volume has been synthesized by microwave heating. Iron oxide nanoparticles were loaded into MAC by using Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}·9H{sub 2}O followed by microwave irradiation for up to five minutes. The surface modified microporous activated carbon was characterized by BET, XRD, SEM and thermogravimetric examinations. Adsorption data of H{sub 2} on the unmodified and modified MACs were collected with PCT method for a pressure range up to 120 bar at 303 K. Greater hydrogen adsorption was observed on the carbon adsorbents doped with 1.45 wt% of iron oxide nanoparticle loaded due to the joint properties of hydrogen adsorption on the carbon surface and the spill-over of hydrogen molecules into carbon structures.

  13. Heavy metal removal from water/wastewater by nanosized metal oxides: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, Ming; Zhang, Shujuan; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Weiming; Lv, Lu; Zhang, Quanxing

    2012-01-01

    Nanosized metal oxides (NMOs), including nanosized ferric oxides, manganese oxides, aluminum oxides, titanium oxides, magnesium oxides and cerium oxides, provide high surface area and specific affinity for heavy metal adsorption from aqueous systems. To date, it has become a hot topic to develop new technologies to synthesize NMOs, to evaluate their removal of heavy metals under varying experimental conditions, to reveal the underlying mechanism responsible for metal removal based on modern analytical techniques (XAS, ATR-FT-IR, NMR, etc.) or mathematical models, and to develop metal oxide-based materials of better applicability for practical use (such as granular oxides or composite materials). The present review mainly focuses on NMOs’ preparation, their physicochemical properties, adsorption characteristics and mechanism, as well as their application in heavy metal removal. In addition, porous host supported NMOs are particularly concerned because of their great advantages for practical application as compared to the original NMOs. Also, some magnetic NMOs were included due to their unique separation performance.

  14. RuO2-TiO2 mixed oxides prepared from the hydrolysis of the metal alkoxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, Julian R.; Crayston, Joe A.; Pratt, Allin; Richens, David T.

    2008-01-01

    The hydrolysis of ruthenium alkoxide/titanium tetraethoxide mixtures to gels and powders containing 30-40 mol% Ru was investigated. Basic or neutral conditions led to powders consisting of 2-10 nm diameter crystalline RuO 2 nanoparticles embedded in a matrix of crystalline (anatase) and amorphous TiO 2 . Acid hydrolysis conditions gave gels containing smaller, amorphous RuO 2 nanoparticles (1-3 nm). In all samples the RuO 2 nanoparticles tended to clump into aggregates up to 0.5 μm across. Acid or neutral hydrolysis of ruthenium ethoxide gave samples which displayed lower surface Ru:Ti ratios as measured by XPS compared to the bulk (XRF), and also contained more low-valent Ru (as measured by XRF), probably due to incomplete hydrolysis of the precursors. These samples also contained more Ru metal after calcination (XRD). Calcination (450 deg. C) was accompanied by Ru-promoted combustion of organic material and led to crystalline (anatase) TiO 2 and Ti x Ru 1-x O 2 solid solution (rutile phase)

  15. Synthesis of modified gum tragacanth/graphene oxide composite hydrogel for heavy metal ions removal and preparation of silver nanocomposite for antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraei, Razieh; Ghaemy, Mousa

    2017-02-10

    New composite hydrogels were synthesized based on gum tragacanth (GT) carbohydrate and graphene oxide (GO). GT was sulfonic acid-functionalized and cross-linked by using 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanesulfonic acid (AMPS) and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) monomers and ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) as an initiator. The prepared hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Adsorption process for removal of heavy metal ions has followed the pseudo-first-order kinetic model and fitted well with the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity (Q m ) was 142.50, 112.50 and 132.12mgg -1 for Pb(II), Cd(II), and Ag(I), respectively. The removal percentage decreased slightly after several adsorption/desorption cycles. The adsorbed Ag(I) ions in hydrogel were transformed to Ag 0 nanoparticles (with a narrow distribution and mean size of 13.0nm) by using Achillea millefolium flower extract. The antibacterial performance of the Ag 0 nanocomposite hydrogel was also investigated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Environmentally friendly preparation of metal nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The book chapter summarizes the “state of the art” in the exploitation of various environmentally-friendly synthesis approaches, reaction precursors and conditions to manufacture metal and metal oxide nanoparticles for a vast variety of purposes.

  17. Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michael T.; Scott, Timothy C.; Byers, Charles H.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed.

  18. Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M.T.; Scott, T.C.; Byers, C.H.

    1992-06-16

    The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed. 2 figs.

  19. METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2007-10-01

    This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

  20. Preparation of glasses and glass ceramics of heavy metal oxides containing silver: optical, structural and electrochemical properties; Preparacao de vidros e vitroceramicas de oxidos de metais pesados contendo prata: propriedades opticas, estruturais e eletroquimicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bregadiolli, Bruna A. [Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Bauru - SP (Brazil); Souza, Ernesto R.; Sigoli, Fernando A. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas - SP (Brazil); Caiut, Jose M.A. [Departamento de Quimica, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciencias e Letras de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto - SP (Brazil); Alencar, Monica A.S.; Benedetti, Assis V. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara - SP (Brazil); Nalin, Marcelo, E-mail: mnalin@ufscar.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, SP, (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    Silver containing heavy metal oxide glasses and glass ceramics of the system WO{sub 3}-SbPO{sub 4} -PbO-AgCl with different AgCl contents have been prepared and their thermal, structural and optical properties characterized. Glass ceramics containing metallic silver nanoparticles have been prepared by annealing glass samples at temperatures above the glass transition and analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The presence of the metallic clusters has been also confirmed by the observation of a surface plasmon resonance band in the visible range. Cyclic voltammetric measurements indicated the presence of metallic silver into the glasses, even before to perform the thermal treatment. (author)

  1. Synthesis of vertically aligned metal oxide nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Roqan, Iman S.

    2016-03-03

    Metal oxide nanostructure and methods of making metal oxide nanostructures are provided. The metal oxide nanostructures can be 1 -dimensional nanostructures such as nanowires, nanofibers, or nanotubes. The metal oxide nanostructures can be doped or undoped metal oxides. The metal oxide nanostructures can be deposited onto a variety of substrates. The deposition can be performed without high pressures and without the need for seed catalysts on the substrate. The deposition can be performed by laser ablation of a target including a metal oxide and, optionally, a dopant. In some embodiments zinc oxide nanostructures are deposited onto a substrate by pulsed laser deposition of a zinc oxide target using an excimer laser emitting UV radiation. The zinc oxide nanostructure can be doped with a rare earth metal such as gadolinium. The metal oxide nanostructures can be used in many devices including light-emitting diodes and solar cells.

  2. Physical and Chemical Properties of TiOxNy Prepared by Low-Temperature Oxidation of Ultrathin Metal Nitride Directly Deposited on SiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yue-Ping; HAN Yan

    2009-01-01

    Physical and chemical properties of titanium oxynitride (TiOxNy) formed by low-temperature oxidation of titanium nitride (TIN) layer are investigated for advanced metal-oxide--semiconductor (MOS) gate dielectric application.TiOx Ny exhibits polycrystalline properties after the standard thermal process for MOS device fabrication,showing the preferred orientation at [200].Superior electrical properties of TiOxNy can be maintained before and after the annealing,probably due to the nitrogen incorporation in the oxide bulk and at the interface.Naturally formed transition layer between TiOxNy and SiO2 is also confirmed.

  3. Methods for synthesizing metal oxide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Kumar, Vivekanand; Kim, Jeong H.; Clark, Ezra Lee

    2016-08-09

    A method of synthesizing a metal oxide nanowire includes the steps of: combining an amount of a transition metal or a transition metal oxide with an amount of an alkali metal compound to produce a mixture; activating a plasma discharge reactor to create a plasma discharge; exposing the mixture to the plasma discharge for a first predetermined time period such that transition metal oxide nanowires are formed; contacting the transition metal oxide nanowires with an acid solution such that an alkali metal ion is exchanged for a hydrogen ion on each of the transition metal oxide nanowires; and exposing the transition metal oxide nanowires to the plasma discharge for a second predetermined time period to thermally anneal the transition metal oxide nanowires. Transition metal oxide nanowires produced using the synthesis methods described herein are also provided.

  4. Process for electrolytically preparing uranium metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Paul A.

    1989-01-01

    A process for making uranium metal from uranium oxide by first fluorinating uranium oxide to form uranium tetrafluoride and next electrolytically reducing the uranium tetrafluoride with a carbon anode to form uranium metal and CF.sub.4. The CF.sub.4 is reused in the fluorination reaction rather than being disposed of as a hazardous waste.

  5. Preparation of reactive and refractory metal powders (Paper No. 25)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaram, C.V.; Sharma, B.P.; Krishnan, T.S.

    1979-01-01

    In devising processes for the preparation of refractory and reactive metal powders, one has to reckon with many relevant factors. The choice of specific flowsheets is governed by the characteristics of the metal compounds and the reducing agents, the purity required and achievable in the as-reduced powder, the need for further refining of the metal, the possibilities of chemical/physical/mechanical comminution of the purified metal without contamination, and the end application of the powder metal. Micron size zirconium powder used as trigger material in photo-flash bulbs and detonator compositions, tantalum powder of controlled particle size and high purity for the production of electrolytic capacitors, and beryllium metal powder for the preparation of hot pressed powder metallurgy components are illustrative of the variety of reactive metal powders for industrial applications. The work carried out at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, on the preparation of special metal powders, with particular emphasis on Group IV and V metals and also beryllium is presented. Reduction of metal oxides with alkaline earth metals/hydrides, reduction of metal halides with sodium/magnesium, vacuum arc and electron beam melt purification followed by comminution by hydrogen embrittlement/mechanical comminution are among the processes discussed. (auth.)

  6. Shocked plate metal atom oxidation laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Koker, J.G.; Rice, W.W. Jr.; Jensen, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    A method and apparatus for producing metal atom oxidation lasing wherein an explosively shocked grooved metal plate produces metal vapor jets directed through an appropriate gaseous oxidizer are described. Reaction of the metal vapor with the oxidizer produces molecular species having a population inversion therein. (U.S.)

  7. Electrochromism in transition metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, W.

    1993-01-01

    Electrochromism is discussed for transition metal oxides. Particularly tungsten oxide and nickel oxide are reviewed, in order to put forth the different aspects of the field. Since this phenomena has been reviewed by several authors, it is not tried to be comprehensive but rather pedagogical. The basic requirements for a material -in both non-emissive displays and energy efficiency applications- to be electrochromic, a general view of electrochromic mechanism, anodic and cathodic electrochromic materials, and current problems for a electrochromic theory are presented. (author) 45 refs., 8 figs

  8. Mesoporous Transition Metal Oxides for Supercapacitors

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yan; Guo, Jin; Wang, Tingfeng; Shao, Junfeng; Wang, Dong; Yang, Ying-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Recently, transition metal oxides, such as ruthenium oxide (RuO2), manganese dioxide (MnO2), nickel oxides (NiO) and cobalt oxide (Co3O4), have been widely investigated as electrode materials for pseudo-capacitors. In particular, these metal oxides with mesoporous structures have become very hot nanomaterials in the field of supercapacitors owing to their large specific surface areas and suitable pore size distributions. The high specific capacities of these mesoporous metal oxides are result...

  9. Preparation and photovoltaic properties of CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cell based on zinc tin mixed metal oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiupeng; Zhao, Yifan; Zhu, Yatong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Shi, Peng; Xiao, Hongdi; Du, Na; Hou, Wanguo; Qi, Genggeng; Liu, Jianqiang

    2017-07-15

    The present study reports a new type of quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) using the zinc tin mixed metal oxides (MMO) as the anode materials, which were obtained from the layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursor. The successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method is applied to deposit CdS quantum dots. The effects of sensitizing cycles on the performance of CdS QDSSC are studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are used to identify the surface profile and crystal structure of the mixed metal oxides anode. The photovoltaic performance of the QDSSC is studied by the electrochemical method. The new CdS QDSSC exhibits power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 0.48% when the anode was sensitized for eight cycles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Preparation of magnesium metal matrix composites by powder metallurgy process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish, J.; Satish, K. G., Dr.

    2018-02-01

    Magnesium is the lightest metal used as the source for constructional alloys. Today Magnesium based metal matrix composites are widely used in aerospace, structural, oceanic and automobile applications for its light weight, low density(two thirds that of aluminium), good high temperature mechanical properties and good to excellent corrosion resistance. The reason of designing metal matrix composite is to put in the attractive attributes of metals and ceramics to the base metal. In this study magnesium metal matrix hybrid composite are developed by reinforcing pure magnesium with silicon carbide (SiC) and aluminium oxide by method of powder metallurgy. This method is less expensive and very efficient. The Hardness test was performed on the specimens prepared by powder metallurgy method. The results revealed that the micro hardness of composites was increased with the addition of silicon carbide and alumina particles in magnesium metal matrix composites.

  11. A general approach to mesoporous metal oxide microspheres loaded with noble metal nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Zhao; Xiao, Manda; Bao, Zhihong; Wang, Peng; Wang, Jianfang

    2012-01-01

    Catalytic microspheres: A general approach is demonstrated for the facile preparation of mesoporous metal oxide microspheres loaded with noble metal nanoparticles (see TEM image in the picture). Among 18 oxide/noble metal catalysts, TiO 2/0.1 mol Pd microspheres showed the highest turnover frequency in NaBH 4 reduction of 4-nitrophenol (see picture). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A general approach to mesoporous metal oxide microspheres loaded with noble metal nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Zhao

    2012-04-26

    Catalytic microspheres: A general approach is demonstrated for the facile preparation of mesoporous metal oxide microspheres loaded with noble metal nanoparticles (see TEM image in the picture). Among 18 oxide/noble metal catalysts, TiO 2/0.1 mol Pd microspheres showed the highest turnover frequency in NaBH 4 reduction of 4-nitrophenol (see picture). Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Preparation of the pur uranium-metal; La preparation de l'uranium-metal pur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, B; Vertes, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    A detailed description of the chemical processes used to prepare in the factory of Bouchet of the CEA (Seine-Et-Oise) pur metal uranium with either relatively rich ores, or extracts coming of physical or chemical treatment of poor ores. The nitric treatment of ores succeeds to the production of uranate of impure sodium carbonate. This last last product is dissolved in nitric acid and the uranyl nitrate is extracted by tributyl-phosphate diluted in an inert solvent. The uranyl nitrate pure is re-extracted and successively transformed in uranium peroxide, in orange oxide then in brown oxide which is transformed in fluoride by the anhydrous hydrofluoric acid. Uranate fluoride is then reduced in metal by the pure calcium with an yield superior to 99%. (authors) [French] Description detaillee des procedes chimiques mis en jeu pour preparer a l'Usine du Bouchet du Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (Seine-et-Oise) l'uranium metal pur a partir soit de minerais relativement riches, soit de concentres provenant de traitement physique ou chimique de minerais pauvres. Le traitement nitrique des minerais aboutit a la production d'uranate de soude impur. Ce dernier est a son tour dissous dans l'acide nitrique et le nitrate d'uranyle est extrait par du tributyl-phosphate dilue par un solvant inerte. Le nitrate d'uranyle pur reextrait est transforme successivement en peroxyde d'uranium, en oxyde orange puis en oxyde brun qui est transforme en fluorure par l'acide fluorhydrique anhydre. Le fluorure uraneux est reduit en metal par le calcium pur avec un rendement superieur a 99 %. (auteurs)

  14. Preparation of the pur uranium-metal; La preparation de l'uranium-metal pur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, B.; Vertes, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    A detailed description of the chemical processes used to prepare in the factory of Bouchet of the CEA (Seine-Et-Oise) pur metal uranium with either relatively rich ores, or extracts coming of physical or chemical treatment of poor ores. The nitric treatment of ores succeeds to the production of uranate of impure sodium carbonate. This last last product is dissolved in nitric acid and the uranyl nitrate is extracted by tributyl-phosphate diluted in an inert solvent. The uranyl nitrate pure is re-extracted and successively transformed in uranium peroxide, in orange oxide then in brown oxide which is transformed in fluoride by the anhydrous hydrofluoric acid. Uranate fluoride is then reduced in metal by the pure calcium with an yield superior to 99%. (authors) [French] Description detaillee des procedes chimiques mis en jeu pour preparer a l'Usine du Bouchet du Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (Seine-et-Oise) l'uranium metal pur a partir soit de minerais relativement riches, soit de concentres provenant de traitement physique ou chimique de minerais pauvres. Le traitement nitrique des minerais aboutit a la production d'uranate de soude impur. Ce dernier est a son tour dissous dans l'acide nitrique et le nitrate d'uranyle est extrait par du tributyl-phosphate dilue par un solvant inerte. Le nitrate d'uranyle pur reextrait est transforme successivement en peroxyde d'uranium, en oxyde orange puis en oxyde brun qui est transforme en fluorure par l'acide fluorhydrique anhydre. Le fluorure uraneux est reduit en metal par le calcium pur avec un rendement superieur a 99 %. (auteurs)

  15. Mesoporous activated carbons with metal-oxide particles prepared from Morwell coal; Morwell tan wo genryo to shita kinzoku sankabutsu tanji kasseitan no saiko kozo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshizawa, N.; Yamada, Y.; Shiraishi, M. [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Kojima, S.; Tamai, H.; Yasuda, H. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    The metal dependence of mesoporous activated carbons with various metal acetylacetonate (acac) particles prepared from Morwell coal was studied. In experiment, the mixture of Morwell coal and acac metal complexes were dissipated into tetrahydrofuran, and after agitation in Ar atmosphere, the solvent was removed by vacuum distillation. Coal specimens with Fe(acac)3, Ni(acac)2 and Co(acac)2 as acac complexes were activated by exchanging flow gas with water vapor after heat treatment in N2 gas flow at 900{degree}C. The pore sizes of the specimens were obtained from N2 adsorption isotherms by BET method and BJH method. Conditions of pores and metals in the specimens were examined by XRD measurement and TEM observation. The relation between the above conditions and pore characteristics obtained from adsorption experiment was also examined. As a result, the difference in mesopore ratio between the specimens and blank specimens was larger in the order of Fe, Co and Ni, and the effect of added metal complexes was also larger in this order. 3 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Preparation and characterization of flexible asymmetric supercapacitors based on transition-metal-oxide nanowire/single-walled carbon nanotube hybrid thin-film electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Po-Chiang; Shen, Guozhen; Shi, Yi; Chen, Haitian; Zhou, Chongwu

    2010-08-24

    In the work described in this paper, we have successfully fabricated flexible asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs) based on transition-metal-oxide nanowire/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) hybrid thin-film electrodes. These hybrid nanostructured films, with advantages of mechanical flexibility, uniform layered structures, and mesoporous surface morphology, were produced by using a filtration method. Here, manganese dioxide nanowire/SWNT hybrid films worked as the positive electrode, and indium oxide nanowire/SWNT hybrid films served as the negative electrode in a designed ASC. In our design, charges can be stored not only via electrochemical double-layer capacitance from SWNT films but also through a reversible faradic process from transition-metal-oxide nanowires. In addition, to obtain stable electrochemical behavior during charging/discharging cycles in a 2 V potential window, the mass balance between two electrodes has been optimized. Our optimized hybrid nanostructured ASCs exhibited a superior device performance with specific capacitance of 184 F/g, energy density of 25.5 Wh/kg, and columbic efficiency of approximately 90%. In addition, our ASCs exhibited a power density of 50.3 kW/kg, which is 10-fold higher than obtained in early reported ASC work. The high-performance hybrid nanostructured ASCs can find applications in conformal electrics, portable electronics, and electrical vehicles.

  17. Preparation and electrochemical properties of core-shell carbon coated Mn-Sn complex metal oxide as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruixue; Fang, Guoqing; Liu, Weiwei; Xia, Bingbo; Sun, Hongdan; Zheng, Junwei; Li, Decheng

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we synthesized a carbon coated Mn-Sn metal oxide composite with core-shell structure (MTO@C) via a simple glucose hydrothermal reaction and subsequent carbonization approach. When the MTO@C composite was applied as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, it maintained a reversible capacity of 409 mA h g-1 after 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g-1. The uniformed and continuous carbon layer formed on the MTO nanoparticles, effectively buffered the volumetric change of the active material and increased electronic conductivity, which thus prolonged the cycling performance of the MTO@C electrode.

  18. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojadinović Stevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this lecture results of the investigation of plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO process on some metals (aluminum, titanium, tantalum, magnesium, and zirconium were presented. Whole process involves anodizing metals above the dielectric breakdown voltage where numerous micro-discharges are generated continuously over the coating surface. For the characterization of PEO process optical emission spectroscopy and real-time imaging were used. These investigations enabled the determination of electron temperature, electron number density, spatial density of micro-discharges, the active surface covered by micro-discharges, and dimensional distribution of micro-discharges at various stages of PEO process. Special attention was focused on the results of the study of the morphology, chemical, and phase composition of oxide layers obtained by PEO process on aluminum, tantalum, and titanium in electrolytes containing tungsten. Physicochemical methodes: atomic force microscopy (AFM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDS, x-ray diffraction (XRD, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and Raman spectroscopy served as tools for examining obtained oxide coatings. Also, the application of the obtained oxide coatings, especially the application of TiO2/WO3 coatings in photocatalysis, were discussed.

  19. Methods of preparing deposits containing iron oxides for recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Lis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The metallurgical industry is one of the largest sources of wastes. Some of them, however, owing to their content of metals such as zinc or iron, may become valuable secondary raw materials. In order to achieve that purpose, they require appropriate preparation. This article provides a discussion on the methods of preparation of scrap from steelworks, namely deposits containing iron oxides, enabling their recycling.

  20. Synthesis-microstructure-performance relationship of layered transition metal oxides as cathode for rechargeable sodium batteries prepared by high-temperature calcination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Man; Luo, Rui; Lu, Jun; Chen, Renjie; Wu, Feng; Wang, Xiaoming; Zhan, Chun; Wu, Huiming; Albishri, Hassan M; Al-Bogami, Abdullah S; El-Hady, Deia Abd; Amine, Khalil

    2014-10-08

    Research on sodium batteries has made a comeback because of concern regarding the limited resources and cost of lithium for Li-ion batteries. From the standpoint of electrochemistry and economics, Mn- or Fe-based layered transition metal oxides should be the most suitable cathode candidates for affordable sodium batteries. Herein, this paper reports a novel cathode material, layered Na1+x(Fey/2Niy/2Mn1-y)1-xO2 (x = 0.1-0.5), synthesized through a facile coprecipitation process combined with subsequent calcination. For such cathode material calcined at 800 °C for 20 h, the Na/Na1+x(Fey/2Niy/2Mn1-y)1-xO2 (x = 0.4) electrode exhibited a good capacity of 99.1 mAh g(-1) (cycled at 1.5-4.0 V) and capacity retention over 87% after 50 cycles. Optimization of this material would make layered transition metal oxides a strong candidate for the Na-ion battery cathode.

  1. Metal oxide nanorod arrays on monolithic substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Pu-Xian; Guo, Yanbing; Ren, Zheng

    2018-01-02

    A metal oxide nanorod array structure according to embodiments disclosed herein includes a monolithic substrate having a surface and multiple channels, an interface layer bonded to the surface of the substrate, and a metal oxide nanorod array coupled to the substrate surface via the interface layer. The metal oxide can include ceria, zinc oxide, tin oxide, alumina, zirconia, cobalt oxide, and gallium oxide. The substrate can include a glass substrate, a plastic substrate, a silicon substrate, a ceramic monolith, and a stainless steel monolith. The ceramic can include cordierite, alumina, tin oxide, and titania. The nanorod array structure can include a perovskite shell, such as a lanthanum-based transition metal oxide, or a metal oxide shell, such as ceria, zinc oxide, tin oxide, alumina, zirconia, cobalt oxide, and gallium oxide, or a coating of metal particles, such as platinum, gold, palladium, rhodium, and ruthenium, over each metal oxide nanorod. Structures can be bonded to the surface of a substrate and resist erosion if exposed to high velocity flow rates.

  2. PROCESS FOR PREPARING URANIUM METAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, C.H. Jr.; Reynolds, F.L.

    1959-01-13

    A process is presented for producing oxygen-free uranium metal comprising contacting iodine vapor with crude uranium in a reaction zone maintained at 400 to 800 C to produce a vaporous mixture of UI/sub 4/ and iodine. Also disposed within the maction zone is a tungsten filament which is heated to about 1600 C. The UI/sub 4/, upon contacting the hot filament, is decomposed to molten uranium substantially free of oxygen.

  3. High index of refraction films for dielectric mirrors prepared by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusasco, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    A wide variety of metal oxides with high index of refraction can be prepared by Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition. We present some recent optical and laser damage results on oxide films prepared by MOCVD which could be used in a multilayer structure for highly reflecting (HR) dielectric mirror applications. The method of preparation affects both optical properties and laser damage threshold. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Application of a mixed metal oxide catalyst to a metallic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevener, Kathleen M. (Inventor); Lohner, Kevin A. (Inventor); Mays, Jeffrey A. (Inventor); Wisner, Daniel L. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A method for applying a mixed metal oxide catalyst to a metallic substrate for the creation of a robust, high temperature catalyst system for use in decomposing propellants, particularly hydrogen peroxide propellants, for use in propulsion systems. The method begins by forming a prepared substrate material consisting of a metallic inner substrate and a bound layer of a noble metal intermediate. Alternatively, a bound ceramic coating, or frit, may be introduced between the metallic inner substrate and noble metal intermediate when the metallic substrate is oxidation resistant. A high-activity catalyst slurry is applied to the surface of the prepared substrate and dried to remove the organic solvent. The catalyst layer is then heat treated to bind the catalyst layer to the surface. The bound catalyst layer is then activated using an activation treatment and calcinations to form the high-activity catalyst system.

  5. Ammonia release method for depositing metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, G.L.; Martin, F.S.

    1993-12-31

    A method of depositing metal oxides on substrates which is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrates and which comprises forming ammine complexes containing metal ions and thereafter effecting removal of ammonia from the ammine complexes so as to permit slow precipitation and deposition of metal oxide on the substrates.

  6. Preparation and electrochemical properties of core-shell carbon coated Mn–Sn complex metal oxide as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ruixue [Key Laboratory of Lithium Battery Materials of Jiangsu Province, Institute of chemical power sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Fang, Guoqing; Liu, Weiwei [Key Laboratory of Lithium Battery Materials of Jiangsu Province, Institute of chemical power sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Changzhou Institute of Energy Storage Materials and Devices, Changzhou 213000 (China); Xia, Bingbo; Sun, Hongdan; Zheng, Junwei [Key Laboratory of Lithium Battery Materials of Jiangsu Province, Institute of chemical power sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Li, Decheng, E-mail: lidecheng@suda.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Lithium Battery Materials of Jiangsu Province, Institute of chemical power sources, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China)

    2014-02-15

    In this study, we synthesized a carbon coated Mn–Sn metal oxide composite with core-shell structure (MTO@C) via a simple glucose hydrothermal reaction and subsequent carbonization approach. When the MTO@C composite was applied as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, it maintained a reversible capacity of 409 mA h g{sup −1} after 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1}. The uniformed and continuous carbon layer formed on the MTO nanoparticles, effectively buffered the volumetric change of the active material and increased electronic conductivity, which thus prolonged the cycling performance of the MTO@C electrode.

  7. Preparation and electrochemical properties of core-shell carbon coated Mn–Sn complex metal oxide as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ruixue; Fang, Guoqing; Liu, Weiwei; Xia, Bingbo; Sun, Hongdan; Zheng, Junwei; Li, Decheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we synthesized a carbon coated Mn–Sn metal oxide composite with core-shell structure (MTO@C) via a simple glucose hydrothermal reaction and subsequent carbonization approach. When the MTO@C composite was applied as an anode material for lithium-ion batteries, it maintained a reversible capacity of 409 mA h g −1 after 200 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g −1 . The uniformed and continuous carbon layer formed on the MTO nanoparticles, effectively buffered the volumetric change of the active material and increased electronic conductivity, which thus prolonged the cycling performance of the MTO@C electrode.

  8. Method of producing homogeneous mixed metal oxides and metal-metal oxide mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Finely divided powders are prepared by first reacting an aqueous solution containing dissolved metal values with excess urea. After the reaction of water in the solution with urea is complete, the resulting molten urea solution is heated to cause metal values in solution to precipitate. The resulting mixture containing precipitated metal values is heated to evaporate volatile material, leaving a dry powder containing the metal values. Detailed examples are given. (U.K.)

  9. Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Stoichiometric Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Janoš, Pavel; Skoumal, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Metal oxides have very important applications in many areas of chemistry, physics and materials science; their properties are dependent on the method of preparation, the morphology and texture. Nanostructured metal oxides can exhibit unique characteristics unlike those of the bulk form depending on their morphology, with a high density of edges, corners and defect surfaces. In recent years, methods have been developed for the preparation of metal oxide powders with tunable control of the primary particle size as well as of a secondary particle size: the size of agglomerates of crystallites. One of the many ways to take advantage of unique properties of nanostructured oxide materials is stoichiometric degradation of chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and volatile organic compounds (VOC) pollutants on their surfaces.

  10. Sample preparation and characterization of technetium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, Kazuo; Serizawa, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Kousaku; Itoh, Mitsuo

    1997-10-01

    Technetium-99 is a long-lived fission product with a half-life of about 2.1 x 10 5 years, which decays by β-emission. For the transmutation of 99 Tc, research on solid technetium was started. Technetium metal powder purchased was analyzed by X-ray diffraction, γ-ray spectrometry, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and -mass spectrometry. The lattice parameters obtained were agreed with the reported values. The metallic impurity was about 15 ppm, where aluminum and iron contributed mainly. No impurity nuclide with γ-emission was found. Using the technetium metal powder, button-, rod-, and disk-shaped samples of technetium metal were prepared by arc-melting technique. Thermal diffusivity of technetium metal was measured on a disk sample from room temperature to 1173 K by laser flash method. The thermal diffusivity decreased with increasing temperature though it was almost constant above 600 K. (author)

  11. Electrochemical preparation of new uranium oxide phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolenskij, V.V.; Lyalyushkin, N.V.; Bove, A.L.; Komarov, V.K.; Kapshukov, I.I.

    1992-01-01

    Behaviour of uranium ions in oxidation states 3+ and 4+ in molten chlorides of alkali metals in the temperature range of 700-900 degC in the atmosphere of an inert gas was studied by the method of cyclic voltametry. It is shown that as a result of introduction of crystal uranium dioxide into the salt melt formation of uranium oxide ions of the composition UO + and UO 2+ occurs, the ions participating in electrode reactions and bringing about formation of the following uranium oxides on the cathode: UO and, presumably, U 3 O 4 . Oxides UO and U 3 O 4 are thermodynamically unstable at low temperatures and decompose into uranium oxide of the composition UO 2-x , where x varies from 0 to 0.05, and metal uranium

  12. Field-induced resistance switching at metal/perovskite manganese oxide interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, I.; Tsubouchi, K.; Harada, T.; Kumigashira, H.; Itaka, K.; Matsumoto, Y.; Ohnishi, T.; Lippmaa, M.; Koinuma, H.; Oshima, M.

    2008-01-01

    Planar type metal/insulator/metal structures composed of an epitaxial perovskite manganese oxide layer and various metal electrodes were prepared for electric-field-induced resistance switching. Only the electrode pairs including Al show good resistance switching and the switching ratio reaches its maximum of 1000. This resistance switching occurs around the interface between Al electrodes and epitaxial perovskite manganese oxide thin films

  13. Preparation and characterization of magnetic allylamine modified graphene oxide-poly(vinyl acetate-co-divinylbenzene) nanocomposite for vortex assisted magnetic solid phase extraction of some metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mansoor; Yilmaz, Erkan; Sevinc, Basak; Sahmetlioglu, Ertugrul; Shah, Jasmin; Jan, Muhammad Rasul; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic allylamine modified graphene oxide-poly(vinyl acetate-co-divinylbenzene) (MGO-DVB-VA) was synthesized and used for magnetic solid phase extraction of Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) prior to their determination by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The adsorbent surface functional group was characterized by using FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. XRD pattern was used to determine the layers of GO. Surface morphology and elemental composition of the adsorbent were evaluated by using SEM and EDX analysis. Various parameters, effecting adsorption efficiency like initial solution pH, adsorbent dose, type and volume of eluent, volume of sample and diverse ions effects were optimized. The preconcentration factor (PF) is 40 for all the metals and the limits of detection for Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni and Co are in the range of 0.37-2.39 µg L(-1) and relative standard deviation below 3.1%. The method was validated by using the method for certified reference materials (Tobacco Leaves (INCT-OBTL-5), Tomato Leaves (1573a), Certified Water (SPS-ww2) and Certified Water (TMDA 64-2)). The method was successfully applied for natural water and food samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-09-04

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10C.

  15. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-10-15

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C.

  16. Plutonium metal preparation and purification at Los Alamos, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, D.C.; Williams, J.D.; McNeese, J.A.; Fife, K.W.

    1984-01-01

    Plutonium metal preparation and purification are well established at Los Alamos. Metal is prepared by calcothermic reduction of both PuF 4 and PuO 2 . Metal is purified by halide slagging, casting, and electrorefining. The product from the production sequence is ultrapure plutonium metal. All of the processes involve high temperature operation and all but casting involve molten salt media. Development efforts are fourfold: (1) recover plutonium values from residues; (2) reduce residue generation through process improvements and changes; (3) recycle of reagents, and (4) optimize and integrate all processes into a close-loop system. Plutonium residues are comprised of oxides, chlorides, colloidal metal suspensions, and impure metal heels. Pyrochemical recovery techniques are under development to address each residue. In addition, we are looking back at each residue generation step and are making process changes to reduce plutonium content in each residue. Reagent salt is the principle media used in pyrochemical processing. The regeneration and recycle of these reagents will both reduce our waste handling and operating expense. The fourth area, process optimization, involves both existing processes and new process developments. A status of efforts in all four of these areas will be summarized

  17. The development of latent fingerprints by zinc oxide and tin oxide nanoparticles prepared by precipitation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luthra, Deepali; Kumar, Sacheen

    2018-05-01

    Fingerprints are the very important evidence at the crime scene which must be developed clearly with shortest duration of time to solve the case. Metal oxide nanoparticles could be the mean to develop the latent fingerprints. Zinc oxide and Tin Oxide Nanoparticles were prepared by using chemical precipitation technique which were dried and characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV-Visible spectroscopy and FTIR. The size of zinc oxide crystallite was found to be 14.75 nm with minimum reflectance at 360 nm whereas tin oxide have the size of 90 nm and reflectance at minimum level 321 nm. By using these powdered samples on glass, plastic and glossy cardboard, latent fingerprints were developed. Zinc oxide was found to be better candidate than tin oxide for the fingerprint development on all the three types of substrates.

  18. A procedure for preparing alkali metal hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemieux, R.U.; Sanford, C.E.; Prescott, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    A plain low cost, procedure for the continuous, low temperature preparation of sodium or potassium hydrides using cheap reagents is presented. Said invention is especially concerned with a process of purifying of a catalytic exchange liquid used for deuterium enrichment, in which an alkali metal hydride is produced as intermediate product. The procedure for producing the sodium and potassium hydrides consists in causing high pressure hydrogen to be absorbed by a mixture of at least a lower monoalkylamine and an alkylamide of an alkali metal from at least one of said amines [fr

  19. Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

    2014-03-04

    Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

  20. Metal Oxide Nanostructures in Food Applications: Quality Control and Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vardan Galstyan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Metal oxide materials have been applied in different fields due to their excellent functional properties. Metal oxides nanostructuration, preparation with the various morphologies, and their coupling with other structures enhance the unique properties of the materials and open new perspectives for their application in the food industry. Chemical gas sensors that are based on semiconducting metal oxide materials can detect the presence of toxins and volatile organic compounds that are produced in food products due to their spoilage and hazardous processes that may take place during the food aging and transportation. Metal oxide nanomaterials can be used in food processing, packaging, and the preservation industry as well. Moreover, the metal oxide-based nanocomposite structures can provide many advantageous features to the final food packaging material, such as antimicrobial activity, enzyme immobilization, oxygen scavenging, mechanical strength, increasing the stability and the shelf life of food, and securing the food against humidity, temperature, and other physiological factors. In this paper, we review the most recent achievements on the synthesis of metal oxide-based nanostructures and their applications in food quality monitoring and active and intelligent packaging.

  1. Synthesizing new types of ultrathin 2D metal oxide nanosheets via half-successive ion layer adsorption and reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Linjie; Li, Yaguang; Xiao, Mu; Wang, Shufang; Fu, Guangsheng; Wang, Lianzhou

    2017-06-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) metal oxide nanosheets have demonstrated their great potential in a broad range of applications. The existing synthesis strategies are mainly preparing 2D nanosheets from layered and specific transition metal oxides. How to prepare the other types of metal oxides as ultrathin 2D nanosheets remains unsolved, especially for metal oxides containing alkali, alkaline earth metal, and multiple metal elements. Herein, we developed a half-successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method, which could synthesize those types of metal oxides as ultrathin 2D nanosheets. The synthesized 2D metal oxides nanosheets are within 1 nm level thickness and 500 m2 · g-1 level surface area. This method allows us to develop many new types of ultrathin 2D metal oxides nanosheets that have never been prepared before.

  2. Oxide-supported metal clusters: models for heterogeneous catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santra, A K; Goodman, D W

    2003-01-01

    Understanding the size-dependent electronic, structural and chemical properties of metal clusters on oxide supports is an important aspect of heterogeneous catalysis. Recently model oxide-supported metal catalysts have been prepared by vapour deposition of catalytically relevant metals onto ultra-thin oxide films grown on a refractory metal substrate. Reactivity and spectroscopic/microscopic studies have shown that these ultra-thin oxide films are excellent models for the corresponding bulk oxides, yet are sufficiently electrically conductive for use with various modern surface probes including scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). Measurements on metal clusters have revealed a metal to nonmetal transition as well as changes in the crystal and electronic structures (including lattice parameters, band width, band splitting and core-level binding energy shifts) as a function of cluster size. Size-dependent catalytic reactivity studies have been carried out for several important reactions, and time-dependent catalytic deactivation has been shown to arise from sintering of metal particles under elevated gas pressures and/or reactor temperatures. In situ STM methodologies have been developed to follow the growth and sintering kinetics on a cluster-by-cluster basis. Although several critical issues have been addressed by several groups worldwide, much more remains to be done. This article highlights some of these accomplishments and summarizes the challenges that lie ahead. (topical review)

  3. On chemical activity of heavy metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mechev, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Interaction of solid oxides of heavy nonferrous metals with sulfur and carbon is investigated. The results are discussed. Direct dependence of chemical activity of oxides on disordering of their crystal lattice at heating is established. Beginning of interaction in the systems studied is accompanied by change of oxide conductivity type

  4. Synthesis of vertically aligned metal oxide nanostructures

    KAUST Repository

    Roqan, Iman S.; Flemban, Tahani H.

    2016-01-01

    ablation of a target including a metal oxide and, optionally, a dopant. In some embodiments zinc oxide nanostructures are deposited onto a substrate by pulsed laser deposition of a zinc oxide target using an excimer laser emitting UV radiation. The zinc

  5. Process for Making a Noble Metal on Tin Oxide Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Patricia; Miller, Irvin; Upchurch, Billy

    2010-01-01

    To produce a noble metal-on-metal oxide catalyst on an inert, high-surface-area support material (that functions as a catalyst at approximately room temperature using chloride-free reagents), for use in a carbon dioxide laser, requires two steps: First, a commercially available, inert, high-surface-area support material (silica spheres) is coated with a thin layer of metal oxide, a monolayer equivalent. Very beneficial results have been obtained using nitric acid as an oxidizing agent because it leaves no residue. It is also helpful if the spheres are first deaerated by boiling in water to allow the entire surface to be coated. A metal, such as tin, is then dissolved in the oxidizing agent/support material mixture to yield, in the case of tin, metastannic acid. Although tin has proven especially beneficial for use in a closed-cycle CO2 laser, in general any metal with two valence states, such as most transition metals and antimony, may be used. The metastannic acid will be adsorbed onto the high-surface-area spheres, coating them. Any excess oxidizing agent is then evaporated, and the resulting metastannic acid-coated spheres are dried and calcined, whereby the metastannic acid becomes tin(IV) oxide. The second step is accomplished by preparing an aqueous mixture of the tin(IV) oxide-coated spheres, and a soluble, chloride-free salt of at least one catalyst metal. The catalyst metal may be selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, ruthenium, gold, and rhodium, or other platinum group metals. Extremely beneficial results have been obtained using chloride-free salts of platinum, palladium, or a combination thereof, such as tetraammineplatinum (II) hydroxide ([Pt(NH3)4] (OH)2), or tetraammine palladium nitrate ([Pd(NH3)4](NO3)2).

  6. Radiation chemical route for preparation of metal nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, S.; Mukherjee, T.

    2006-01-01

    Nanoparticles show properties that are neither seen in the bulk or at atomic level. The unusual properties are governed by quantum size effect. Due to this various methodologies have been endeavored to control the size of the particles. In the present work we show the use of two complimentary techniques (radiation and photo) to synthesize and control the size of the metal particles. In-situ synthesis of fine silver, thallium and cadmium particles has been carried out by gamma-irradiation and electron pulse irradiation at room temperature in the pre-organized gel of polyacrylamide or cyclodextrin cavity. The role of generation of nuclei in high concentrations in stabilization of metal nanoparticles in hydrophobic cavity is shown. Similarly the importance of entrapment of metal ions in the polymer matrix during its formation is highlighted. The work is further extended to exploit the microemulsion droplets for stabilization of Cd nanoparticles. Utility of pulse radiolysis in probing the mechanism of the formation of metal nanoparticles is also shown. Ultrafast laser pulses were employed to control the morphology of the pre-prepared Pt nanoparticles. The changes in reduction of shape and size are considered to occur through melting and vaporization of the nanoparticles. Pt nanoparticles were coated on the inner walls of the tubular pyrex reactor and tested for their catalytic activity for oxidation of CO. It was observed that Pt nanoparticles prepared in the presence of a stabilizer (gelatin) showed a higher tendency to adhere to the inner walls of the pyrex reactor as compared to that prepared in the presence of silica nanoparticles. The catalyst was found to be active at ≥150 degree C giving CO 2 . Chemically reduced Pt nanoparticles stabilized on silica nanoparticles gave ∼7% CO conversion per hr. However, radiolytically prepared Pt nanoaprticles stabilized by gelatin gave ∼10% conversion per hr. The data indicates that catalytic oxidation of CO takes place

  7. Enzyme-Free Electrochemical Glucose Sensors Prepared by Dealloying Pd-Ni-P Metallic Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiao Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the formation of enzyme-free electrochemical glucose sensors by electrochemical dealloying palladium-containing Pd-Ni-P metallic glasses. When metallic glasses with different Pd contents are used as the dealloying precursor alloys, palladium-based nanoporous metals with different ligament and pore sizes can be obtained. The chemical compositions of the nanoporous metals also vary according to the different precursor compositions. All the as-obtained nanoporous metals exhibit electrochemical catalytic activity towards the oxidation of d-glucose, indicating that the nanoporous metals prepared by dealloying the Pd-Ni-P metallic glasses are promising materials for enzyme-free electrochemical glucose sensor.

  8. Catalytic production of metal carbonyls from metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; Foran, Michael T.

    1984-01-01

    This invention relates to the formation of metal carbonyls from metal oxides and specially the formation of molybdenum carbonyl and iron carbonyl from their respective oxides. Copper is used here in admixed form or used in chemically combined form as copper molybdate. The copper/metal oxide combination or combined copper is utilized with a solvent, such as toluene and subjected to carbon monoxide pressure of 25 atmospheres or greater at about 150.degree.-260.degree. C. The reducing metal copper is employed in catalytic concentrations or combined concentrations as CuMoO.sub.4 and both hydrogen and water present serve as promoters. It has been found that the yields by this process have been salutary and that additionally the catalytic metal may be reused in the process to good effect.

  9. Mesoporous Transition Metal Oxides for Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Guo, Jin; Wang, Tingfeng; Shao, Junfeng; Wang, Dong; Yang, Ying-Wei

    2015-10-14

    Recently, transition metal oxides, such as ruthenium oxide (RuO₂), manganese dioxide (MnO₂), nickel oxides (NiO) and cobalt oxide (Co₃O₄), have been widely investigated as electrode materials for pseudo-capacitors. In particular, these metal oxides with mesoporous structures have become very hot nanomaterials in the field of supercapacitors owing to their large specific surface areas and suitable pore size distributions. The high specific capacities of these mesoporous metal oxides are resulted from the effective contacts between electrode materials and electrolytes as well as fast transportation of ions and electrons in the bulk of electrode and at the interface of electrode and electrolyte. During the past decade, many achievements on mesoporous transition metal oxides have been made. In this mini-review, we select several typical nanomaterials, such as RuO₂, MnO₂, NiO, Co₃O₄ and nickel cobaltite (NiCo₂O₄), and briefly summarize the recent research progress of these mesoporous transition metal oxides-based electrodes in the field of supercapacitors.

  10. Mesoporous Transition Metal Oxides for Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Guo, Jin; Wang, Tingfeng; Shao, Junfeng; Wang, Dong; Yang, Ying-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Recently, transition metal oxides, such as ruthenium oxide (RuO2), manganese dioxide (MnO2), nickel oxides (NiO) and cobalt oxide (Co3O4), have been widely investigated as electrode materials for pseudo-capacitors. In particular, these metal oxides with mesoporous structures have become very hot nanomaterials in the field of supercapacitors owing to their large specific surface areas and suitable pore size distributions. The high specific capacities of these mesoporous metal oxides are resulted from the effective contacts between electrode materials and electrolytes as well as fast transportation of ions and electrons in the bulk of electrode and at the interface of electrode and electrolyte. During the past decade, many achievements on mesoporous transition metal oxides have been made. In this mini-review, we select several typical nanomaterials, such as RuO2, MnO2, NiO, Co3O4 and nickel cobaltite (NiCo2O4), and briefly summarize the recent research progress of these mesoporous transition metal oxides-based electrodes in the field of supercapacitors. PMID:28347088

  11. Mesoporous Transition Metal Oxides for Supercapacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, transition metal oxides, such as ruthenium oxide (RuO2, manganese dioxide (MnO2, nickel oxides (NiO and cobalt oxide (Co3O4, have been widely investigated as electrode materials for pseudo-capacitors. In particular, these metal oxides with mesoporous structures have become very hot nanomaterials in the field of supercapacitors owing to their large specific surface areas and suitable pore size distributions. The high specific capacities of these mesoporous metal oxides are resulted from the effective contacts between electrode materials and electrolytes as well as fast transportation of ions and electrons in the bulk of electrode and at the interface of electrode and electrolyte. During the past decade, many achievements on mesoporous transition metal oxides have been made. In this mini-review, we select several typical nanomaterials, such as RuO2, MnO2, NiO, Co3O4 and nickel cobaltite (NiCo2O4, and briefly summarize the recent research progress of these mesoporous transition metal oxides-based electrodes in the field of supercapacitors.

  12. Characteristics and possibilities of software tool for metal-oxide surge arresters selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Dragan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a procedure for the selection of metal-oxide surge arresters based on the instructions given in the Siemens and ABB catalogues, respecting their differences and the characteristics and possibilities of the software tool. The software tool was developed during the preparation of a Master's thesis titled, 'Automation of Metal-Oxide Surge Arresters Selection'. An example is presented of the selection of metal-oxide surge arresters using the developed software tool.

  13. Metal oxide nanostructures as gas sensing devices

    CERN Document Server

    Eranna, G

    2016-01-01

    Metal Oxide Nanostructures as Gas Sensing Devices explores the development of an integrated micro gas sensor that is based on advanced metal oxide nanostructures and is compatible with modern semiconductor fabrication technology. This sensor can then be used to create a compact, low-power, handheld device for analyzing air ambience. The book first covers current gas sensing tools and discusses the necessity for miniaturized sensors. It then focuses on the materials, devices, and techniques used for gas sensing applications, such as resistance and capacitance variations. The author addresses the issues of sensitivity, concentration, and temperature dependency as well as the response and recovery times crucial for sensors. He also presents techniques for synthesizing different metal oxides, particularly those with nanodimensional structures. The text goes on to highlight the gas sensing properties of many nanostructured metal oxides, from aluminum and cerium to iron and titanium to zinc and zirconium. The final...

  14. Electrochemical analysis of metal oxides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Grygar, Tomáš; Bezdička, Petr; Hradil, David; Pikna, L.

    90-91, - (2003), s. 45-50 ISSN 1012-0394 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : powder electroanalysis * Fe oxides * Mn oxides Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.687, year: 2003

  15. Thin film metal-oxides

    CERN Document Server

    Ramanathan, Shriram

    2009-01-01

    Presents an account of the fundamental structure-property relations in oxide thin films. This title discusses the functional properties of thin film oxides in the context of applications in the electronics and renewable energy technologies.

  16. Polymer derived non-oxide ceramics modified with late transition metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaheer, Muhammad; Schmalz, Thomas; Motz, Günter; Kempe, Rhett

    2012-08-07

    This tutorial review highlights the methods for the preparation of metal modified precursor derived ceramics (PDCs) and concentrates on the rare non-oxide systems enhanced with late transition metals. In addition to the main synthetic strategies for modified SiC and SiCN ceramics, an overview of the morphologies, structures and compositions of both, ceramic materials and metal (nano) particles, is presented. Potential magnetic and catalytic applications have been discussed for the so manufactured metal containing non-oxide ceramics.

  17. Charge transport in metal oxide nanocrystal-based materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnerstrom, Evan Lars

    structure. Charge transport can obviously be taken to mean the conduction of electrons, but it also refers to the motion of ions, such as lithium ions and protons. In many cases, the transport of ions is married to the motion of electrons as well, either through an external electrical circuit, or within the same material in the case of mixed ionic electronic conductors. The collective motion of electrons over short length scales, that is, within single nanocrystals, is also a subject of study as it pertains to plasmonic nanocrystals. Finally, charge transport can also be coupled to or result from the formation of defects in metal oxides. All of these modes of charge transport in metal oxides gain further complexity when considered in nanocrystalline systems, where the introduction of numerous surfaces can change the character of charge transport relative to bulk systems, providing opportunities to exploit new physical phenomena. Part I of this dissertation explores the combination of electronic and ionic transport in electrochromic devices based on nanocrystals. Colloidal chemistry and solution processing are used to fabricate nanocomposites based on electrochromic tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) nanocrystals. The nanocomposites, which are completely synthesized using solution processing, consist of ITO nanocrystals and lithium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (LiTFSI) salt dispersed in a lithium ion-conducting polymer matrix of either poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) or poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). ITO nanocrystals are prepared by colloidal synthetic methods and the nanocrystal surface chemistry is modified to achieve favorable nanocrystal-polymer interactions. Homogeneous solutions containing polymer, ITO nanocrystals, and lithium salt are thus prepared and deposited by spin casting. Characterization by DC electronic measurements, microscopy, and x-ray scattering techniques show that the ITO nanocrystals form a complete, connected electrode within a polymer electrolyte

  18. Preparation and nucleation of spherical metallic droplet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-ge Zhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The preparation and solidification of metallic droplets attract more and more attention for their significance in both engineering and scientific fields. In this paper, the preparation and characterization of Sn-based alloy droplets using different methods such as atomization and consumable electrode direct current arc (CDCA technique are reviewed. The morphology and structure of these droplets were determined by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The solidification behavior of single droplet was systematically studied by means of scanning calorimetry (DSC, and the nucleation kinetics was also calculated. In particular, the development of fast scanning calorimetry (FSC made it possible to investigate the evolution of undercooling under ultrafast but controllable heating and cooling conditions. The combination of CDCA technique and FSC measurements opens up a new door for quantitative studies on droplet solidification, which is accessible to demonstrate some theories by experiments.

  19. Plasma metallization of aluminium oxide powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, A.I.; Petrunichev, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    The sintering ability of cermets of metallized granulas of aluminium and matrix materials, such as chromium, nickel and nichrome is studied. Deformation tests of samples of cermets with molybdenum coated granules show satisfactory results at normal and high temperatures without fracture of metall-oxide interfaces [ru

  20. Oxidation behaviour of metallic glass foams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, B.R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 434 Dougherty Hall, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2200 (United States)], E-mail: bbarnard@utk.edu; Liaw, P.K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 434 Dougherty Hall, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2200 (United States); Demetriou, M.D.; Johnson, W.L. [Department of Materials Science, Keck Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    In this study, the effects of porosity on the oxidation behaviour of bulk-metallic glasses were investigated. Porous Pd- and Fe-based bulk-metallic glass (BMG) foams and Metglas ribbons were studied. Oxidizing experiments were conducted at 70 deg. C, and around 80 deg. C below glass-transition temperatures, (T{sub g}s). Scanning-electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) studies revealed little evidence of oxidation at 70 deg. C. Specimens exhibited greater oxidation at T{sub g} - 80 deg. C. Oxides were copper-based for Pd-based foams, Fe-, Cr-, and Mo-based for Fe-based foams, and Co-based with borosilicates likely for the Metglas. Pd-based foams demonstrated the best oxidation resistance, followed by Metglas ribbons, followed by Fe-based foams.

  1. Alkali metal hafnium oxide scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Taylor, Scott Edward

    2018-05-08

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising an alkali metal hafnate, optionally cerium-doped, having the formula A2HfO3:Ce; wherein A is an alkali metal having a valence of 1, such as Li or Na; and the molar percent of cerium is 0% to 100%. The alkali metal hafnate are scintillators and produce a bright luminescence upon irradiation by a suitable radiation.

  2. Researches on the electrolysis of metal oxides dissolved in boric anhydride or in melt borates. New methods of preparation of amorphous boron, borides and some metals; Recherches sur l'electrolyse des oxydes metalliques dissous dans l'anhydride borique ou dans les borates fondus. Nouvelles methodes de preparation du bore amorphe, des borures et de quelques metaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrieux, Lucien

    1929-06-15

    This research thesis reports the investigation of the electrolysis of alkaline borates, alkaline earth borates and magnesium borate, and the investigation of mixtures containing a metal oxide dissolved in a bath formed by a tetraborate and a fluoride. The author more particularly studies the chemical products separated at the cathode level, i.e. boron (more or less pure), borates and other metals (zinc, tungsten, molybdenum)

  3. Preparation of lead titanate zirconate from metal citrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, C.M.R.

    1994-01-01

    Lead titanate zirconate (PZT) preparation from its metal constituent citrates have been investigated. Metal citrates were obtained by forced precipitation using a dehydration alcohol mixture. Salt solutions of lead nitrate and octahydrated zirconyl chloride, and titanium tetrachloride were treated separately with citric acid and ammonium hydroxide. Zirconium, titanium and lead oxides resulted from thermal decomposition of corresponding citrates at 500 0 C, 450 0 C and 250 0 C, respectively. Lead titanate (PT) and lead zirconate (P Z) were obtained by calcining at 450 0 C and 500 0 C, respectively, after adequate heating of citrates mechanically mixed in ethyl ether. PZT samples were obtained with different starting stoichiometry. Rhombohedral PZT-1 53/47 sample was prepared from co precipitating zirconyl ammonium and ammonium lead citrates in presence of ethanolic titanium oxide dispersion, and calcinating at 800 0 C. Rhombohedral PZT-q 52/48 sample was obtained from heating at 500 0 C for 2 hours a mixture of metal citrates coprecipitated by dehydration mixture of acetone-ethanol-formic acid (2:1:0,06). Tetragonal PZT-m stoichiometry 53/47 sample were obtained by calcining at after 600 0 C for 2 hours after heating a mechanically mixed metal citrates. PT phase arose at 400 0 C. PZT-m powders obtained in a range of 400 0 C-800 0 C were isostatically pressed, and sintered at 1100 0 C and 1200 0 C in saturated Pb O atmosphere. Rhombohedral sintered PZT was obtained with 7,78 g.cm -3 at 1200 0 C. (author). 123 refs, 53 figs, 32 tabs

  4. Enhanced oxidation of TiO.sub.2./sub. films prepared by high power impulse magnetron sputtering running in metallic mode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straňák, V.; Kratochvíl, J.; Olejníček, Jiří; Kšírová, Petra; Sezemsky, P.; Čada, Martin; Hubička, Zdeněk

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 17 (2017), s. 1-9, č. článku 171914. ISSN 0021-8979 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-00863S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : sputter deposition * plasma deposition * gas discharges * metallic thin films * probe plasma diagnostics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.068, year: 2016

  5. Metal Phosphate-Supported Pt Catalysts for CO Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshuang Qian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxides (such as SiO2, TiO2, ZrO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CeO2 have often been used to prepare supported Pt catalysts for CO oxidation and other reactions, whereas metal phosphate-supported Pt catalysts for CO oxidation were rarely reported. Metal phosphates are a family of metal salts with high thermal stability and acid-base properties. Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO46(OH2, denoted as Ca-P-O here also has rich hydroxyls. Here we report a series of metal phosphate-supported Pt (Pt/M-P-O, M = Mg, Al, Ca, Fe, Co, Zn, La catalysts for CO oxidation. Pt/Ca-P-O shows the highest activity. Relevant characterization was conducted using N2 adsorption-desorption, inductively coupled plasma (ICP atomic emission spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, CO2 temperature-programmed desorption (CO2-TPD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and H2 temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR. This work furnishes a new catalyst system for CO oxidation and other possible reactions.

  6. Oxidation-Mediated Fingering in Liquid Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaker, Collin B.; Hight, David C.; O'Regan, John D.; Dickey, Michael D.; Daniels, Karen E.

    2017-10-01

    We identify and characterize a new class of fingering instabilities in liquid metals; these instabilities are unexpected due to the large interfacial tension of metals. Electrochemical oxidation lowers the effective interfacial tension of a gallium-based liquid metal alloy to values approaching zero, thereby inducing drastic shape changes, including the formation of fractals. The measured fractal dimension (D =1.3 ±0.05 ) places the instability in a different universality class than other fingering instabilities. By characterizing changes in morphology and dynamics as a function of droplet volume and applied electric potential, we identify the three main forces involved in this process: interfacial tension, gravity, and oxidative stress. Importantly, we find that electrochemical oxidation can generate compressive interfacial forces that oppose the tensile forces at a liquid interface. The surface oxide layer ultimately provides a physical and electrochemical barrier that halts the instabilities at larger positive potentials. Controlling the competition between interfacial tension and oxidative (compressive) stresses at the interface is important for the development of reconfigurable electronic, electromagnetic, and optical devices that take advantage of the metallic properties of liquid metals.

  7. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-02-16

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N{sup 4}-methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the

  8. Use of a piezo-electric quartz as substrate for the preparation of self-supporting rare earth targets, in metallic form, not oxidized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonetti, C.

    1975-01-01

    A technique for preparing rare earth self-supporting targets is described. These high purity foils are used for nuclear spectroscopy, with a tandem Van de Graaff accelerator. Target thicknesses range from 1000μg/cm 2 to 2500μg/cm 2 . The originality of this procedure consists in using the piezo-electric quartz for target thickness measurements and for temporary substrate. With this method, it is possible to measure the target thickness without geometrical errors and to suppress the effects of the molecular flux anisotropy. (Auth.)

  9. Photocatalysis of Modified Transition Metal Oxide Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzill, Matthias [Univ. of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics

    2018-02-28

    The goal of this project has been to establish a cause-effect relationship for photocatalytic activity variations of different structures of the same material; and furthermore gain fundamental understanding on modification of photocatalysts by compositional or surface modifications. The reasoning is that gaining atomic scale understanding of how surface and bulk modifications alter the photo reactivity will lead to design principles for next generation photocatalysts. As a prototypical photocatalyst the research focused on TiO2 synthesized in well-defined single crystalline form to enable fundamental characterizations.We have obtained results in the following areas: (a) Preparation of epitaxial anatase TiO2 samples by pulsed laser deposition. (b) Comparison of hydrogen diffusion on different crystallographic surface. (c) Determining the stability of the TiO2(011)-2x1 reconstruction upon interactions with adsorbates. (d) Characterization of adsorption and (thermal and photo) reaction of molecules with nitro-endgroups, (e) Exploring the possibility of modifying planar model photocatalyst surfaces with graphene to enable fundamental studies on reported enhanced photocatalytic activities of graphene modified transition metal oxides, (f) gained fundamental understanding on the role of crystallographic polymorphs of the same material for their photocatalytic activities.

  10. Experimental Methodology for Determining Optimum Process Parameters for Production of Hydrous Metal Oxides by Internal Gelation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.L.

    2005-10-28

    The objective of this report is to describe a simple but very useful experimental methodology that was used to determine optimum process parameters for preparing several hydrous metal-oxide gel spheres by the internal gelation process. The method is inexpensive and very effective in collection of key gel-forming data that are needed to prepare the hydrous metal-oxide microspheres of the best quality for a number of elements.

  11. Preparation, properties, and some recent studies of the actinide metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haire, R.G.

    1985-01-01

    The actinide elements form a unique series of metals. The variation in their physial properties combined with the varying availability of the different elements offers a challenge to the preparative scientist. This article provides a brief review of selected methods used for preparing μg to kg amounts of the actinide metals and the properties of these metals. In addition, some recent studies on selected actinide metals are discussed. 62 refs

  12. Heterogeneous Partial (ammOxidation and Oxidative Dehydrogenation Catalysis on Mixed Metal Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques C. Védrine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of heterogeneous partial (ammoxidation and oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH of hydrocarbons. The review has been voluntarily restricted to metal oxide-type catalysts, as the partial oxidation field is very broad and the number of catalysts is quite high. The main factors of solid catalysts for such reactions, designated by Grasselli as the “seven pillars”, and playing a determining role in catalytic properties, are considered to be, namely: isolation of active sites (known to be composed of ensembles of atoms, Me–O bond strength, crystalline structure, redox features, phase cooperation, multi-functionality and the nature of the surface oxygen species. Other important features and physical and chemical properties of solid catalysts, more or less related to the seven pillars, are also emphasized, including reaction sensitivity to metal oxide structure, epitaxial contact between an active phase and a second phase or its support, synergy effect between several phases, acid-base aspects, electron transfer ability, catalyst preparation and activation and reaction atmospheres, etc. Some examples are presented to illustrate the importance of these key factors. They include light alkanes (C1–C4 oxidation, ethane oxidation to ethylene and acetic acid on MoVTe(SbNb-O and Nb doped NiO, propene oxidation to acrolein on BiMoCoFe-O systems, propane (ammoxidation to (acrylonitrile acrylic acid on MoVTe(SbNb-O mixed oxides, butane oxidation to maleic anhydride on VPO: (VO2P2O7-based catalyst, and isobutyric acid ODH to methacrylic acid on Fe hydroxyl phosphates. It is shown that active sites are composed of ensembles of atoms whose size and chemical composition depend on the reactants to be transformed (their chemical and size features and the reaction mechanism, often of Mars and van Krevelen type. An important aspect is the fact that surface composition and surface crystalline structure vary with reaction on stream until

  13. Graphene composites containing chemically bonded metal oxides

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the oxide layers are chemically bonded to graphene (Zhang ... sists of three glass chambers, one to contain the metal halide. (TiCl4, SiCl4 ... In this step, the metal halide reacts with the oxygen function- ... 1·0 g of FeCl3 were vigorously stirred in 30 ml of ethylene ... Reaction with water vapour results in hydrolysis of the un-.

  14. Regeneration of sulfated metal oxides and carbonates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubble, Bill R.; Siegel, Stanley; Cunningham, Paul T.

    1978-03-28

    Alkali metal or alkaline earth metal carbonates such as calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate found in dolomite or limestone are employed for removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion exhaust gases. The sulfated carbonates are regenerated to oxides through use of a solid-solid reaction, particularly calcium sulfide with calcium sulfate to form calcium oxide and sulfur dioxide gas. The regeneration is performed by contacting the sulfated material with a reductant gas such as hydrogen within an inert diluent to produce calcium sulfide in mixture with the sulfate under process conditions selected to permit the sulfide-sulfate, solid-state reaction to occur.

  15. Recent Advances in Antimicrobial Hydrogels Containing Metal Ions and Metals/Metal Oxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazli Wahid

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the rapid emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens has caused a serious health problem. Scientists respond to the threat by developing new antimicrobial materials to prevent or control infections caused by these pathogens. Polymer-based nanocomposite hydrogels are versatile materials as an alternative to conventional antimicrobial agents. Cross-linking of polymeric materials by metal ions or the combination of polymeric hydrogels with nanoparticles (metals and metal oxide is a simple and effective approach for obtaining a multicomponent system with diverse functionalities. Several metals and metal oxides such as silver (Ag, gold (Au, zinc oxide (ZnO, copper oxide (CuO, titanium dioxide (TiO2 and magnesium oxide (MgO have been loaded into hydrogels for antimicrobial applications. The incorporation of metals and metal oxide nanoparticles into hydrogels not only enhances the antimicrobial activity of hydrogels, but also improve their mechanical characteristics. Herein, we summarize recent advances in hydrogels containing metal ions, metals and metal oxide nanoparticles with potential antimicrobial properties.

  16. Metal ion binding to iron oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponthieu, M.; Juillot, F.; Hiemstra, T.; van Riemsdijk, W. H.; Benedetti, M. F.

    2006-06-01

    The biogeochemistry of trace elements (TE) is largely dependent upon their interaction with heterogeneous ligands including metal oxides and hydrous oxides of iron. The modeling of TE interactions with iron oxides has been pursued using a variety of chemical models. The objective of this work is to show that it is possible to model the adsorption of protons and TE on a crystallized oxide (i.e., goethite) and on an amorphous oxide (HFO) in an identical way. Here, we use the CD-MUSIC approach in combination with valuable and reliable surface spectroscopy information about the nature of surface complexes of the TE. The other objective of this work is to obtain generic parameters to describe the binding of the following elements (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) onto both iron oxides for the CD-MUSIC approach. The results show that a consistent description of proton and metal ion binding is possible for goethite and HFO with the same set of model parameters. In general a good prediction of almost all the collected experimental data sets corresponding to metal ion binding to HFO is obtained. Moreover, dominant surface species are in agreement with the recently published surface complexes derived from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) data. Until more detailed information on the structure of the two iron oxides is available, the present option seems a reasonable approximation and can be used to describe complex geochemical systems. To improve our understanding and modeling of multi-component systems we need more data obtained at much lower metal ion to iron oxide ratios in order to be able to account eventually for sites that are not always characterized in spectroscopic studies.

  17. Metal oxide/polyaniline nanocomposites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nanocomposites of iron oxide with conducting polymer in the form of powders of varying compositions have been studied to understand the effects of particle size, cluster size and magnetic inter-particle interactions. The sizes of the nanoparticles were estimated to be ∼ 10–20 nm from the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the ...

  18. Electrochemical reduction of cerium oxide into metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claux, Benoit [CEA, Valduc, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Universite de Grenoble, LEPMI-ENSEEG, 1130 rue de la Piscine, BP75, F-38402 St Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Serp, Jerome, E-mail: jerome.serp@cea.f [CEA, Valduc, F-21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Fouletier, Jacques [Universite de Grenoble, LEPMI-ENSEEG, 1130 rue de la Piscine, BP75, F-38402 St Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

    2011-02-28

    The Fray Farthing and Chen (FFC) and Ono and Suzuki (OS) processes were developed for the reduction of titanium oxide to titanium metal by electrolysis in high temperature molten alkali chloride salts. The possible transposition to CeO{sub 2} reduction is considered in this study. Present work clarifies, by electro-analytical techniques, the reduction pathway leading to the metal. The reduction of CeO{sub 2} into metal was feasible via an indirect mechanism. Electrolyses on 10 g of CeO{sub 2} were carried out to evaluate the electrochemical process efficiency. Ca metal is electrodeposited at the cathode from CaCl{sub 2}-KCl solvent and reacts chemically with ceria to form not only metallic cerium, but also cerium oxychloride.

  19. Metal Oxide Vertical Graphene Hybrid Supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyyappan, Meyya (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A metal oxide vertical graphene hybrid supercapacitor is provided. The supercapacitor includes a pair of collectors facing each other, and vertical graphene electrode material grown directly on each of the pair of collectors without catalyst or binders. A separator may separate the vertical graphene electrode materials.

  20. Improved description of metal oxide stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jauho, Thomas Stenbæk; Olsen, Thomas; Bligaard, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The renormalized adiabatic PBE (rAPBE) method has recently been shown to comprise a significant improvement over the random phase approximation (RPA) for total energy calculations of simple solids and molecules. Here we consider the formation energies of 19 group I and II metal oxides and a few...... transition-metal oxides. The mean absolute error relative to experiments is 0.21 eV and 0.38 eV per oxygen atom for rAPBE and RPA, respectively, and thus the rAPBE method greatly improves the description of metal-oxygen bonds across a wide range of oxides. The failure of the RPA can be partly attributed...... to the lack of error cancellation between the correlation energy of the oxide on the one hand and the bulk metal and oxygen molecule on the other hand, which are all separately predicted much too negative by the RPA. We ascribe the improved performance of the rAPBE to its significantly better description...

  1. Preparation and characteristics of CNT-metal composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pityana, SL

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The success in keeping carbon nanotubes (CNT) bonded to stainless steel provides a possible method for the preparation of CNT-metal composites. Alternative methods for the preparation of CNT-metal composites include hot pressing, sintering, etc...

  2. Cordierite-supported metal oxide for non-methane hydrocarbon oxidation in cooking oil fumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yonghai; Yi, Honghong; Tang, Xiaolong; Zhao, Shunzheng; Gao, Fengyu; Wang, Jiangen; Yang, Zhongyu

    2018-05-21

    Cooking emission is an important reason for the air quality deterioration in the metropolitan area in China. Transition metal oxide and different loading of manganese oxide supported on cordierite were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method and were used for non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) oxidation in cooking oil fumes (COFs). The effects of different calcination temperature and different Mn content were also studied. The SEM photographs and CO 2 temperature-programmed desorption revealed 5 wt% Mn/cordierite had the best pore structure and the largest number of the weak and moderate basic sites so it showed the best performance for NMHC oxidation. XRD analysis exhibited 5 wt% Mn/cordierite had the best dispersion of active phase and the active phase was MnO 2 when the calcination temperature was 400℃ which were good for the catalytic oxidation of NMHC.

  3. Electroplating lithium transition metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huigang; Ning, Hailong; Busbee, John; Shen, Zihan; Kiggins, Chadd; Hua, Yuyan; Eaves, Janna; Davis, Jerome; Shi, Tan; Shao, Yu-Tsun; Zuo, Jian-Min; Hong, Xuhao; Chan, Yanbin; Wang, Shuangbao; Wang, Peng; Sun, Pengcheng; Xu, Sheng; Liu, Jinyun; Braun, Paul V.

    2017-01-01

    Materials synthesis often provides opportunities for innovation. We demonstrate a general low-temperature (260°C) molten salt electrodeposition approach to directly electroplate the important lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery cathode materials LiCoO2, LiMn2O4, and Al-doped LiCoO2. The crystallinities and electrochemical capacities of the electroplated oxides are comparable to those of the powders synthesized at much higher temperatures (700° to 1000°C). This new growth method significantly broadens the scope of battery form factors and functionalities, enabling a variety of highly desirable battery properties, including high energy, high power, and unprecedented electrode flexibility. PMID:28508061

  4. Metal Oxides as Efficient Charge Transporters in Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Haque, Mohammed; Sheikh, Arif D.; Guan, Xinwei; Wu, Tao

    2017-01-01

    . In this comprehensive review, we focus on the synthesis and applications of metal oxides as electron and hole transporters in efficient PSCs with both mesoporous and planar architectures. Metal oxides and their doped variants with proper energy band alignment

  5. Development of the Method for Preparation of Actinide Metals

    OpenAIRE

    Shiokawa, Y.; Hasegawa, K.; Takahashi, M.; Suzuki, K.

    1997-01-01

    The uranium amalgam was quantitatively prepared by electrolysis from the aqueous solution containing acetic acid and sodium acetate using mercury cathode. A bright button or brown porous one of uranium metal was obtained by thermal decomposition of the amalgam. The purity was found to be much higher than commercial grade metal of ca.99.95%. As a result of this work, the simple and easy procedure for preparation of uranium metal with high purity level on the laboratory scale has been developed.

  6. Multi-metallic anodes for solid oxide fuel cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restivo, T.A. Guisard; Mello-Castanho, S.R.H.; Leite, D. Will

    2009-01-01

    A new method for direct preparation of materials for solid oxide fuel cell anode - Ni- YSZ cermets - based on mechanical alloying (MA) of the original powders is developed, allowing to admix homogeneously any component. Additive metals are selected from thermodynamic criteria, leading to compacts consolidation through sintering by activated surface (SAS). The combined process MA-SSA can reduce the sintering temperature by 300 deg C, yielding porous anodes. Densification mechanisms are discussed from quasi-isothermal sintering kinetics results. Doping with Ag, W, Cu, Mo, Nb, Ta, in descending order, promotes the densification of pellets through liquid phase sintering and evaporation of metals and oxides, which allow reducing the sintering temperature. Powders and pellets characterization by electronic microscopy and X-ray diffraction completes the result analyses. (author)

  7. Improved adhesion of metal oxide layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to: a method of preparing a coating ink for forming a zinc oxide layer, which method comprises the steps of: a) mixing zinc acetate and AlOH (OAc)2 in water or methanol and b) filtering out solids; a coating ink comprising zinc acetate and AlOH (OAc)2 in aqueous or m...

  8. PREPARATIONS AND APPLICATION OF METAL NANOPARTICLES

    OpenAIRE

    Adlim, Adlim

    2010-01-01

    Terminology of metal nanoparticles, the uniqueness properties in terms of the surface atom, the quantum dot, and the magnetism are described. The further elaboration was on the synthesis of nanoparticles. Applications of metal nanoparticles in electronic, ceramic medical and catalysis were overviewed. The bibliography includes 81 references with 99% are journal articles.   Keywords: metal nanoparticles

  9. PREPARATIONS AND APPLICATION OF METAL NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adlim Adlim

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Terminology of metal nanoparticles, the uniqueness properties in terms of the surface atom, the quantum dot, and the magnetism are described. The further elaboration was on the synthesis of nanoparticles. Applications of metal nanoparticles in electronic, ceramic medical and catalysis were overviewed. The bibliography includes 81 references with 99% are journal articles.   Keywords: metal nanoparticles

  10. Review on preparation techniques of particle reinforced metal matrix composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAO Bin

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the investigation status of the techniques for preparation of metal matrix composites and the research outcomes achieved recently. The mechanisms, characteristics, application ranges and levels of development of these preparation techniques are analyzed. The advantages and the disadvantages of each technique are synthetically evaluated. Lastly, the future directions of research and the prospects for the preparation techniques of metal matrix composites are forecasted.

  11. Impacts of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles on marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Tony J.; Tyler, Charles R.; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing use of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles [Me(O)NPs] in products means many will inevitably find their way into marine systems. Their likely fate here is sedimentation following hetero-aggregation with natural organic matter and/or free anions, putting benthic, sediment-dwelling and filter feeding organisms most at risk. In marine systems, Me(O)NPs can absorb to micro-organisms with potential for trophic transfer following consumption. Filter feeders, especially bivalves, accumulate Me(O)NPs through trapping them in mucus prior to ingestion. Benthic in-fauna may directly ingest sedimented Me(O)NPs. In fish, uptake is principally via the gut following drinking, whilst Me(O)NPs caught in gill mucus may affect respiratory processes and ion transport. Currently, environmentally-realistic Me(O)NP concentrations are unlikely to cause significant adverse acute health problems, however sub-lethal effects e.g. oxidative stresses have been noted in many organisms, often deriving from dissolution of Ag, Cu or Zn ions, and this could result in chronic health impacts. -- Highlights: • Nanoparticle (NP) use increasing, and NPs ultimately discharged to marine systems. • Metal ion dissolution from NPs causes oxidative stress at relevant concentrations. • Bioaccumulation and trophic transfer of NPs likely at all levels of marine food webs. • Biofilms and filter feeders are major NP accumulators, but many Classes lack study. • Current release levels unlikely to cause chronic damage, but may be a future issue. -- Exposure to metal (oxide) nanoparticles causes sub-lethal effects in marine organisms, the extent of which is related principally to the organisms' feeding regime, habitat and lifestyle

  12. Preparation of 147Pm metal and the determination of the melting point and phase transformation temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, P.; Adair, H.L.

    1976-07-01

    The promethium metal used in the determination of the melting point and phase transformation temperatures was prepared by reduction of promethium oxide with thorium metal at 1600 0 C and distilling the promethium metal into a quartz dome. The melting point and phase transformation temperatures of promethium metal were found to be 1042 +- 5 0 C and 890 +- 5 0 C, respectively. The ratio for the heat of the high-temperature transformation to the heat of fusion was determined to be 0.415

  13. Preparation of Reduced Graphene Oxides as Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Yaocai

    2012-01-01

    Reduced graphene oxide as outstanding candidate electrode material for supercapacitor has been investigated. This thesis includes two topics. One is that three kinds of reduced graphene oxides were prepared by hydrothermal reduction under different

  14. Reactor vessel using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Marc A.; Zeltner, Walter A.

    1992-08-11

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane.

  15. Preparation and Characterization of Uranium Oxides in Support of the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2008-07-08

    Uraninite (UO2) and metaschoepite (UO3·2H2O) are the uranium phases most frequently observed in K Basin sludge. Uraninite arises from the oxidation of uranium metal by anoxic water and metaschoepite arises from oxidation of uraninite by atmospheric or radiolytic oxygen. Studies of the oxidation of uraninite by oxygen to form metaschoepite were performed at 21°C and 50°C. A uranium oxide oxidation state characterization method based on spectrophotometry of the solution formed by dissolving aqueous slurries in phosphoric acid was developed to follow the extent of reaction. This method may be applied to determine uranium oxide oxidation state distribution in K Basin sludge. The uraninite produced by anoxic corrosion of uranium metal has exceedingly fine particle size (6 nm diameter), forms agglomerates, and has the formula UO2.004±0.007; i.e., is practically stoichiometric UO2. The metaschoepite particles are flatter and wider when prepared at 21°C than the particles prepared at 50°C. These particles are much smaller than the metaschoepite observed in prolonged exposure of actual K Basin sludge to warm moist oxidizing conditions. The uraninite produced by anoxic uranium metal corrosion and the metaschoepite produced by reaction of uraninite aqueous slurries with oxygen may be used in engineering and process development testing. A rapid alternative method to determine uranium metal concentrations in sludge also was identified.

  16. Preparation and Characterization of Uranium Oxides in Support of the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinkov, Sergey I.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    Uraninite (UO2) and metaschoepite (UO3-2H2O) are the uranium phases most frequently observed in K Basin sludge. Uraninite arises from the oxidation of uranium metal by anoxic water and metaschoepite arises from oxidation of uraninite by atmospheric or radiolytic oxygen. Studies of the oxidation of uraninite by oxygen to form metaschoepite were performed at 21 C and 50 C. A uranium oxide oxidation state characterization method based on spectrophotometry of the solution formed by dissolving aqueous slurries in phosphoric acid was developed to follow the extent of reaction. This method may be applied to determine uranium oxide oxidation state distribution in K Basin sludge. The uraninite produced by anoxic corrosion of uranium metal has exceedingly fine particle size (6 nm diameter), forms agglomerates, and has the formula UO2.004 ± 0.007; i.e., is practically stoichiometric UO2. The metaschoepite particles are flatter and wider when prepared at 21 C than the particles prepared at 50 C. These particles are much smaller than the metaschoepite observed in prolonged exposure of actual K Basin sludge to warm moist oxidizing conditions. The uraninite produced by anoxic uranium metal corrosion and the metaschoepite produced by reaction of uraninite aqueous slurries with oxygen may be used in engineering and process development testing. A rapid alternative method to determine uranium metal concentrations in sludge also was identified.

  17. Salts of alkali metal anions and process of preparing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, James L.; Ceraso, Joseph M.; Tehan, Frederick J.; Lok, Mei Tak

    1978-01-01

    Compounds of alkali metal anion salts of alkali metal cations in bicyclic polyoxadiamines are disclosed. The salts are prepared by contacting an excess of alkali metal with an alkali metal dissolving solution consisting of a bicyclic polyoxadiamine in a suitable solvent, and recovered by precipitation. The salts have a gold-color crystalline appearance and are stable in a vacuum at -10.degree. C. and below.

  18. Surface Embedded Metal Oxide Sensors (SEMOS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jesper Lebæk; Talat Ali, Syed; Pleth Nielsen, Lars

    SEMOS is a joint project between Aalborg University, Danish Technological Institute and Danish Technical University in which micro temperature sensors and metal oxide-based gas sensors are developed and tested in a simulated fuel cell environment as well as in actual working fuel cells. Initially......, sensors for measuring the temperatures in an operating HT-PEM (High Temperature-Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cell are developed for detecting in-plane temperature variations. 5 different tracks for embedded thermal sensors are investigated. The fuel cell MEA (Membrane Electrode Assembly) is quite...... complex and sensors are not easily implemented in the construction. Hence sensor interface and sensor position must therefore be chosen carefully in order to make the sensors as non-intrusive as possible. Metal Oxide Sensors (MOX) for measuring H2, O2 and CO concentration in a fuel cell environment...

  19. Tetrathiafulvalene S-oxide: a Potential Donor Impurity in the Organic Metal TTF-TCNQ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars; Bechgaard, Klaus; Jacobsen, Claus Schelde

    1979-01-01

    Tetrathiafulvalene S-oxide, which because of its size similarity with tetrathiafulvalene is a potential ‘donor impurity’ in the organic metal TTF–TCNQ, was prepared and characterized spectroscopically. Experiments in which tetrathiafulvalene S-oxide was purposely doped into TTF–TCNQ indicate, how...

  20. Catalysed electrolytic metal oxide dissolution processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machuron-Mandard, X.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrometallurgical processes designed for recovering valuable metals from mineral ores as well as industrial wastes usually require preliminary dissolution of inorganic compounds in aqueous media before extraction and purification steps. Unfortunately, most of the minerals concerned hardly or slowly dissolve in acidic or basic solutions. Metallic oxides, sulfides and silicates are among the materials most difficult to dissolve in aqueous solutions. They are also among the main minerals containing valuable metals. The redox properties of such materials sometimes permit to improve their dissolution by adding oxidizing or reducing species to the leaching solution, which leads to an increase in the dissolution rate. Moreover, limited amounts of redox promoters are required if the redox agent is regenerated continuously thanks to an electrochemical device. Nuclear applications of such concepts have been suggested since the dissolution of many actinide compounds (e.g., UO 2 , AmO 2 , PuC, PuN,...) is mainly based on redox reactions. In the 1980s, improvements of the plutonium dioxide dissolution process have been proposed on the basis of oxidation-reduction principles, which led a few years later to the design of industrial facilities (e.g., at Marcoule or at the french reprocessing plant of La Hague). General concepts and well-established results obtained in France at the Atomic Energy Commission (''Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique'') will be presented and will illustrate applications to industrial as well as analytical problems. (author)

  1. VUV photo-oxidation of gaseous benzene combined with ozone-assisted catalytic oxidation: Effect on transition metal catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haibao; Lu, Haoxian; Zhan, Yujie; Liu, Gaoyuan; Feng, Qiuyu; Huang, Huiling; Wu, Muyan; Ye, Xinguo

    2017-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) cause the major air pollution concern. In this study, a series of ZSM-5 supported transition metals were prepared by impregnation method. They were combined with vacuum UV (VUV) photo-oxidation in a continuous-flow packed-bed reactor and used for the degradation of benzene, a typical toxic VOCs. Compared with VUV photo-oxidation alone, the introduction of catalysts can greatly enhance benzene oxidation under the help of O3, the by-products from VUV irradiation, via ozone-assisted catalytic oxidation (OZCO). The catalytic activity of transition metals towards benzene oxidation followed the order: Mn > Co > Cu > Ni > Fe. Mn achieved the best catalytic activity due to the strongest capability for O3 catalytic decomposition and utilization. Benzene and O3 removal efficiency reached as high as 97% and 100% after 360 min, respectively. O3 was catalytically decomposed, generating highly reactive oxidants such as rad OH and rad O for benzene oxidation.

  2. Electrolysis of water on (oxidized) metal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Logadottir, Ashildur; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2005-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations are used as the basis for an analysis of the electrochemical process, where by water is split to form molecular oxygen and hydrogen. We develop a method for obtaining the thermochemistry of the electrochemical water splitting process as a function of the bias...... directly from the electronic structure calculations. We consider electrodes of Pt(111) and Au(111) in detail and then discuss trends for a series of different metals. We show that the difficult step in the water splitting process is the formation of superoxy-type (OOH) species on the surface...... by the splitting of a water molecule on top an adsorbed oxygen atom. One conclusion is that this is only possible on metal surfaces that are (partly) oxidized. We show that the binding energies of the different intermediates are linearly correlated for a number of metals. In a simple analysis, where the linear...

  3. Metal oxide multilayer hard mask system for 3D nanofabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhongmei; Salmi, Emma; Vehkamäki, Marko; Leskelä, Markku; Ritala, Mikko

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrate the preparation and exploitation of multilayer metal oxide hard masks for lithography and 3D nanofabrication. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) and focused ion beam (FIB) technologies are applied for mask deposition and mask patterning, respectively. A combination of ALD and FIB was used and a patterning procedure was developed to avoid the ion beam defects commonly met when using FIB alone for microfabrication. ALD grown Al2O3/Ta2O5/Al2O3 thin film stacks were FIB milled with 30 keV gallium ions and chemically etched in 5% tetramethylammonium hydroxide at 50 °C. With metal evaporation, multilayers consisting of amorphous oxides Al2O3 and Ta2O5 can be tailored for use in 2D lift-off processing, in preparation of embedded sub-100 nm metal lines and for multilevel electrical contacts. Good pattern transfer was achieved by lift-off process from the 2D hard mask for micro- and nano-scaled fabrication. As a demonstration of the applicability of this method to 3D structures, self-supporting 3D Ta2O5 masks were made from a film stack on gold particles. Finally, thin film resistors were fabricated by utilizing controlled stiction of suspended Ta2O5 structures.

  4. Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite for decontamination of sulfur mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praveen Kumar, J.; Prasad, G.K.; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Garg, P.; Ganesan, K.

    2013-01-01

    Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. They were prepared by precipitation pyrolysis method and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. Obtained data indicated the presence of mesopores with diameter ranging from 2 to 80 nm and the materials exhibited relatively high surface area 86 m 2 g −1 when compared to the individual metal oxide nanoparticles. Reactive sites of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied by infrared spectroscopy technique using pyridine as a probe molecule. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard when compared to single component metal oxides and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Highlights: • Preparation of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • CuO–ZnO with better surface area was synthesized by precipitation pyrolysis. • Decontamination of HD using mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • HD decontaminated by elimination and hydrolysis reactions

  5. Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite for decontamination of sulfur mustard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praveen Kumar, J.; Prasad, G.K., E-mail: gkprasad2001@yahoo.com; Ramacharyulu, P.V.R.K.; Garg, P.; Ganesan, K.

    2013-11-01

    Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. They were prepared by precipitation pyrolysis method and characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy techniques. Obtained data indicated the presence of mesopores with diameter ranging from 2 to 80 nm and the materials exhibited relatively high surface area 86 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} when compared to the individual metal oxide nanoparticles. Reactive sites of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied by infrared spectroscopy technique using pyridine as a probe molecule. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard when compared to single component metal oxides and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposites were studied as sorbent decontaminants against sulfur mustard, a well known chemical warfare agent. These materials demonstrated superior decontamination properties against sulfur mustard and decontaminated it to divinyl sulfide, chloroethyl vinyl sulfide, hemisulfur mustard, etc. - Highlights: • Preparation of mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • CuO–ZnO with better surface area was synthesized by precipitation pyrolysis. • Decontamination of HD using mesoporous CuO–ZnO binary metal oxide nanocomposite. • HD decontaminated by elimination and hydrolysis reactions.

  6. Selective propene oxidation on mixed metal oxide catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, David William

    2002-01-01

    Selective catalytic oxidation processes represent a large segment of the modern chemical industry and a major application of these is the selective partial oxidation of propene to produce acrolein. Mixed metal oxide catalysts are particularly effective in promoting this reaction, and the two primary candidates for the industrial process are based on iron antimonate and bismuth molybdate. Some debate exists in the literature regarding the operation of these materials and the roles of their catalytic components. In particular, iron antimonate catalysts containing excess antimony are known to be highly selective towards acrolein, and a variety of proposals for the enhanced selectivity of such materials have been given. The aim of this work was to provide a direct comparison between the behaviour of bismuth molybdate and iron antimonate catalysts, with additional emphasis being placed on the component single oxide phases of the latter. Studies were also extended to other antimonate-based catalysts, including cobalt antimonate and vanadium antimonate. Reactivity measurements were made using a continuous flow microreactor, which was used in conjunction with a variety of characterisation techniques to determine relationships between the catalytic behaviour and the properties of the materials. The ratio of Fe/Sb in the iron antimonate catalyst affects the reactivity of the system under steady state conditions, with additional iron beyond the stoichiometric value being detrimental to the acrolein selectivity, while extra antimony provides a means of enhancing the selectivity by decreasing acrolein combustion. Studies on the single antimony oxides of iron antimonate have shown a similarity between the reactivity of 'Sb 2 O 5 ' and FeSbO 4 , and a significant difference between these and the Sb 2 O 3 and Sb 2 O 4 phases, implying that the mixed oxide catalyst has a surface mainly comprised of Sb 5+ . The lack of reactivity of Sb 2 O 4 implies a similarity of the surface with

  7. Tritium in metals: Techniques of preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laesser, R.; Klatt, K.H.; Mecking, P.; Wenzl, H.

    1982-08-01

    In order to study the behavior of tritium in metals, an all metal apparatus has been built for the safe handling of 100 mg of tritium. Samples of palladium, vanadium, niobium, and tantalum were loaded with tritium, deuterium or hydrogen. Some details of the phase diagrams could be established by DTA and by measurement of the lattice parameters. The diffusion of tritium in V, Nb, and Ta was studied with the Gorsky-effect. (TWO)

  8. Preparation and Purification of natural uranium metal by Iodine method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taies, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    In this work ,glass-metal apparatus was designed and manufactured which used for preparing a high purity uranium.The reaction is simply take place between iodine vapour and uranium metal at 500C in closed system to form uranium tetra iodide which is decomposed on hot wire at high temperature around 1100C.Also another apparatus was made from Glass and used for preparing a high purity of UI 4 more than 99.9%purity

  9. Oxidation catalysts and process for preparing same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Compounds particularly suitable as oxidation catalysis are described, comprising specified amounts of uranium, antimony and tin as oxides. Processes for making and using the catalysts are described. (U.K.)

  10. Sorption mechanisms of metals to graphene oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Showalter, Allison R; Bunker, Bruce A; Duster, Thomas A; Szymanowski, Jennifer E S; Na, Chongzheng; Fein, Jeremy B

    2016-01-01

    Environmental toxic metal contamination remediation and prevention is an ongoing issue. Graphene oxide is highly sorptive for many heavy metals over a wide pH range under different ionic strength conditions. We present x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy results investigating the binding environment of Pb(II), Cd(II) and U(VI) ions onto multi-layered graphene oxide (MLGO). Analysis indicates that the dominant sorption mechanism of Pb to MLGO changes as a function of pH, with increasing inner sphere contribution as pH increases. In contrast, the sorption mechanism of Cd to MLGO remains constant under the studied pH range. This adsorption mechanism is an electrostatic attraction between the hydrated Cd +2 ion and the MLGO surface. The U(VI), present as the uranyl ion, changes only subtly as a function of pH and is bound to the surface via an inner sphere bond. Knowledge of the binding mechanism for each metal is necessary to help in optimizing environmental remediation or prevention in filtration systems. (paper)

  11. Non-traditional Oxidants in Preparative Coordination Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukushkin, Vadim Yu; Kukushkin, Yurii N.

    1986-10-01

    The application of nitrosonium and arenediazonium salts, carbenium, silver(I), and mercury(II) ions, protic acids, and amine oxides as oxidants in preparative coordination chemistry is examined. Specific examples illustrate which problems in the field of the synthesis and reactions of coordination compounds can be solved with the aid of these oxidants. The bibliography includes 158 references.

  12. The competing oxide and sub-oxide formation in metal-oxide molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogt, Patrick; Bierwagen, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    The hetero-epitaxial growth of the n-type semiconducting oxides β-Ga 2 O 3 , In 2 O 3 , and SnO 2 on c- and r-plane sapphire was performed by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The growth-rate and desorbing flux from the substrate were measured in-situ under various oxygen to metal ratios by laser reflectometry and quadrupole mass spectrometry, respectively. These measurements clarified the role of volatile sub-oxide formation (Ga 2 O, In 2 O, and SnO) during growth, the sub-oxide stoichiometry, and the efficiency of oxide formation for the three oxides. As a result, the formation of the sub-oxides decreased the growth-rate under metal-rich growth conditions and resulted in etching of the oxide film by supplying only metal flux. The flux ratio for the exclusive formation of the sub-oxide (e.g., the p-type semiconductor SnO) was determined, and the efficiency of oxide formation was found to be the highest for SnO 2 , somewhat lower for In 2 O 3 , and the lowest for Ga 2 O 3 . Our findings can be generalized to further oxides that possess related sub-oxides

  13. Electrochromic device containing metal oxide nanoparticles and ultraviolet blocking material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Guillermo; Koo, Bonil; Gregoratto, Ivano; Basu, Sourav; Rosen, Evelyn; Holt, Jason; Thomsen, Scott

    2017-10-17

    An electrochromic device includes a nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze layer that includes one or more transition metal oxide and one or more dopant. The electrochromic device also includes nanoparticles containing one or more transparent conducting oxide (TCO), a solid state electrolyte, a counter electrode, and at least one protective layer to prevent degradation of the one or more nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze. The nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze selectively modulates transmittance of near-infrared (NIR) and visible radiation as a function of an applied voltage to the device.

  14. The use of metal alkoxides in the preparation of ceramic powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chetcuti, A.M.; Woolfrey, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    The production of fine, chemically homogeneous and highly reactive powder is particularly desirable where the synthesis and fabrication of multicomponent ceramic systems, such as SYNROC, are concerned. To produce good sinterable material, a preparation technique that allows intimate mixing of all reacting species is desirable. Traditional routes for preparing fine powders have involved ball-milling metal oxides and spray-drying or flash-drying the resulting oxide slurries. The hydrolysis of metal alkoxides has been investigated as a technique to produce fine powders. The preparation of SYNROC B powder from alkoxides involves hydrolysing a mixture of titanium and zirconium alkoxides. The precipitated product is then blended with Al 3 + , Ba 2 + and Ca 2 + nitrate solution

  15. Self-assembled monolayers on metal oxides : applications in nanotechnology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yildirim, O.

    2010-01-01

    The thesis describes the use of phosph(on)ate-based self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) to modify and pattern metal oxides. Metal oxides have interesting electronic and magnetic properties such as insulating, semiconducting, metallic, ferromagnetic etc. and SAMs can tailor the surface properties. FePt

  16. Benzyl Alcohol-Mediated Versatile Method to Fabricate Nonstoichiometric Metal Oxide Nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Mohammad; Adam, Alaaldin; Azad, Abdul-Majeed; Kim, Yong-Wah

    2017-11-22

    Nanostructured metal oxides with cationic or anionic deficiency find applications in a wide range of technological areas including the energy sector and environment. However, a facile route to prepare such materials in bulk with acceptable reproducibility is still lacking; many synthesis techniques are still only bench-top and cannot be easily scaled-up. Here, we report that the benzyl alcohol (BA)-mediated method is capable of producing a host of nanostructured metal oxides (MO x , where M = Ti, Zn, Ce, Sn, In, Ga, or Fe) with inherent nonstoichiometry. It employs multifunctional BA as a solvent, a reducing agent, and a structure-directing agent. Depending on the oxidation states of metal, elemental or nonstoichiometric oxide forms are obtained. Augmented photoelectrochemical oxidation of water under visible light by some of these nonstoichiometric oxides highlights the versatility of the BA-mediated synthesis protocol.

  17. Preparation of self-supporting thin metal target films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiuying; Ge Suxian; Yin Jianhua; Yin Xu; Jin Genming

    1989-01-01

    The preparation method and equipment for thin metal self-supporting target without oil contamination are described. The influence of target films contaminated by oil vapor on accuracy of nuclear-physics experimental data are also discussed. The analytical results on carbon content in the prepared films of three elements show that the equipment is very effective for eliminating contamination

  18. Development of the method for preparation of actinide metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiokawa, Y.; Hasegawa, K.; Takahashi, M.; Suzuki, K.

    1997-01-01

    The uranium amalgam was quantitatively prepared by electrolysis from the aqueous solution containing acetic acid and sodium acetate using mercury cathode. A bright button or brown porous one of uranium metal was obtained by thermal decomposition of the amalgam. The purity was found to be much higher than commercial grade metal of ca.99.95%. As a result of this work, the simple and easy procedure for preparation of uranium metal with high purity level on the laboratory scale has been developed. (author)

  19. Chemical Sensors Based on Metal Oxide Nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Xu, Jennifer C.; Evans, Laura J.; VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.; Kulis, Mike J.; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2006-01-01

    This paper is an overview of sensor development based on metal oxide nanostructures. While nanostructures such as nanorods show significan t potential as enabling materials for chemical sensors, a number of s ignificant technical challenges remain. The major issues addressed in this work revolve around the ability to make workable sensors. This paper discusses efforts to address three technical barriers related t o the application of nanostructures into sensor systems: 1) Improving contact of the nanostructured materials with electrodes in a microse nsor structure; 2) Controling nanostructure crystallinity to allow co ntrol of the detection mechanism; and 3) Widening the range of gases that can be detected by using different nanostructured materials. It is concluded that while this work demonstrates useful tools for furt her development, these are just the beginning steps towards realizati on of repeatable, controlled sensor systems using oxide based nanostr uctures.

  20. Metallic oxide switches using thick film technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, D. N.; Williams, L., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Metallic oxide thick film switches were processed on alumina substrates using thick film technology. Vanadium pentoxide in powder form was mixed with other oxides e.g., barium, strontium copper and glass frit, ground to a fine powder. Pastes and screen printable inks were made using commercial conductive vehicles and appropriate thinners. Some switching devices were processed by conventional screen printing and firing of the inks and commercial cermet conductor terminals on 96% alumina substrates while others were made by applying small beads or dots of the pastes between platinum wires. Static, and dynamic volt-ampere, and pulse tests indicate that the switching and self-oscillatory characteristics of these devices could make them useful in memory element, oscillator, and automatic control applications.

  1. Covalent bonding in heavy metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagus, Paul S.; Nelin, Connie J.; Hrovat, Dave A.; Ilton, Eugene S.

    2017-04-07

    Novel theoretical methods were used to quantify the magnitude and the energetic contributions of 4f/5f-O2p and 5d/6d-O2p interactions to covalent bonding in lanthanide and actinide oxides. Although many analyses have neglected the involvement of the frontier d orbitals, the present study shows that f and d covalency are of comparable importance. Two trends are identified. As is expected, the covalent mixing is larger when the nominal oxidation state is higher. More subtly, the importance of the nf covalent mixing decreases sharply relative to (n+1)d as the nf occupation increases. Atomic properties of the metal cations that drive these trends are identified.

  2. Metal oxide membranes for gas separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Marc A.; Webster, Elizabeth T.; Xu, Qunyin

    1994-01-01

    A method for permformation of a microporous ceramic membrane onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane having mean pore sizes less than 30 Angstroms and useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or gas separation.

  3. GRAPHENE BASED METAL AND METAL OXIDE NANOCOMPOSITES: SYNTHESIS, PROPERTIES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mujeeb

    2015-06-11

    Graphene, an atomically thin two-dimensional carbonaceous material, has attracted tremendous attention in the scientific community, due to its exceptional electronic, electrical, and mechanical properties. Indeed, with the recent explosion of methods for a large-scale synthesis of graphene, the number of publications related to graphene and other graphene based materials have increased exponentially. Particularly the easy preparation of graphene like materials, such as, highly reduced graphene oxide (HRG) via reduction of graphite oxide (GO), offers a wide range of possibilities for the preparation of graphene based inorganic nanocomposites by the incorporation of various functional nanomaterials for a variety of applications. In this review, we discuss the current development of graphene based metal and metal oxide nanocomposites, with a detailed account of their synthesis and properties. Specifically, much attention has been given to their wide range of applications in various fields, including, electronics, electrochemical and electrical fields. Overall, by the inclusion of various references, this review covers in detail aspects of the graphene-based inorganic nanocomposites.

  4. GRAPHENE BASED METAL AND METAL OXIDE NANOCOMPOSITES: SYNTHESIS, PROPERTIES AND THEIR APPLICATIONS

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Mujeeb; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Adil, Syed F; Khan, Hadayat Ullah; Siddiqui, Rafiq H; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman Abdullah; Tremel, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Graphene, an atomically thin two-dimensional carbonaceous material, has attracted tremendous attention in the scientific community, due to its exceptional electronic, electrical, and mechanical properties. Indeed, with the recent explosion of methods for a large-scale synthesis of graphene, the number of publications related to graphene and other graphene based materials have increased exponentially. Particularly the easy preparation of graphene like materials, such as, highly reduced graphene oxide (HRG) via reduction of graphite oxide (GO), offers a wide range of possibilities for the preparation of graphene based inorganic nanocomposites by the incorporation of various functional nanomaterials for a variety of applications. In this review, we discuss the current development of graphene based metal and metal oxide nanocomposites, with a detailed account of their synthesis and properties. Specifically, much attention has been given to their wide range of applications in various fields, including, electronics, electrochemical and electrical fields. Overall, by the inclusion of various references, this review covers in detail aspects of the graphene-based inorganic nanocomposites.

  5. Interaction of terbium group metal oxides with carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vodop'yanov, A.G.; Baranov, S.V.; Kozhevnikov, G.N.

    1990-01-01

    Mechanism of carbothermal reduction of terbium group metals from oxides is investigated using thermodynamic and kinetic analyses. Interaction of metal oxides with carbon covers dissociation of metal oxides and reduction by carbon monoxide, which contribution into general reduction depends on CO pressure. Temperatures of reaction beginning for batch initial components at P=1.3x10 -4 and P CO =0.1 MPa and of formation of oxycarbide melts are determined

  6. Thin films of metal oxides on metal single crystals: Structure and growth by scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, H.C.

    1995-12-01

    Detailed studies of the growth and structure of thin films of metal oxides grown on metal single crystal surfaces using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) are presented. The oxide overlayer systems studied are iron oxide and titanium oxide on the Pt(III) surface. The complexity of the metal oxides and large lattice mismatches often lead to surface structures with large unit cells. These are particularly suited to a local real space technique such as scanning tunneling microscopy. In particular, the symmetry that is directly observed with the STM elucidates the relationship of the oxide overlayers to the substrate as well as distinguishing, the structures of different oxides

  7. A general melt-injection-decomposition route to oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dongqiang; Zhang, Xinwei; Hua, Zhenghe; Yang, Shaoguang, E-mail: sgyang@nju.edu.cn

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • A general melt-injection-decomposition (MID) route is proposed for the fabrication of oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays. • Four kinds of metal oxide (CuO, Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanowire arrays have been realized as examples through the developed MID route. • The mechanism of the developed MID route is discussed using Thermogravimetry and Differential Thermal Analysis technique. • The MID route is a versatile, simple, facile and effective way to prepare different kinds of oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays in the future. - Abstract: In this manuscript, a general melt-injection-decomposition (MID) route has been proposed and realized for the fabrication of oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays. Nitrate was used as the starting materials, which was injected into the nanopores of the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane through the capillarity action in its liquid state. At higher temperature, the nitrate decomposed into corresponding metal oxide within the nanopores of the AAO membrane. Oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays were formed within the AAO membrane as a result of the confinement of the nanopores. Four kinds of metal oxide (CuO, Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanowire arrays are presented here as examples fabricated by this newly developed process. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies showed clear evidence of the formations of the oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays. Formation mechanism of the metal oxide nanowire arrays is discussed based on the Thermogravimetry and Differential Thermal Analysis measurement results.

  8. A general melt-injection-decomposition route to oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dongqiang; Zhang, Xinwei; Hua, Zhenghe; Yang, Shaoguang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A general melt-injection-decomposition (MID) route is proposed for the fabrication of oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays. • Four kinds of metal oxide (CuO, Mn_2O_3, Co_3O_4 and Cr_2O_3) nanowire arrays have been realized as examples through the developed MID route. • The mechanism of the developed MID route is discussed using Thermogravimetry and Differential Thermal Analysis technique. • The MID route is a versatile, simple, facile and effective way to prepare different kinds of oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays in the future. - Abstract: In this manuscript, a general melt-injection-decomposition (MID) route has been proposed and realized for the fabrication of oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays. Nitrate was used as the starting materials, which was injected into the nanopores of the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane through the capillarity action in its liquid state. At higher temperature, the nitrate decomposed into corresponding metal oxide within the nanopores of the AAO membrane. Oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays were formed within the AAO membrane as a result of the confinement of the nanopores. Four kinds of metal oxide (CuO, Mn_2O_3, Co_3O_4 and Cr_2O_3) nanowire arrays are presented here as examples fabricated by this newly developed process. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies showed clear evidence of the formations of the oriented metal oxide nanowire arrays. Formation mechanism of the metal oxide nanowire arrays is discussed based on the Thermogravimetry and Differential Thermal Analysis measurement results.

  9. Nanotoxicity: oxidative stress mediated toxicity of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Abhijit; Ghosh, Manoranjan; Sil, Parames Chandra

    2014-01-01

    Metal and metal oxide nanoparticles are often used as industrial catalysts or to improve product's functional properties. Recent advanced nanotechnology have been expected to be used in various fields, ranging from sensors, environmental remediation to biomedicine, medical biology and imaging, etc. However, the growing use of nanoparticles has led to their release into environment and increased levels of these particles at nearby sites or the surroundings of their manufacturing factories become obvious. The toxicity of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles on humans, animals, and certainly to the environment has become a major concern to our community. However, controversies still remain with respect to the toxic effects and the mechanisms of these nanoparticles. The scientific community now feels that an understanding of the toxic effects is necessary to handle these nanoparticles and their use. A new discipline, named nanotoxicology, has therefore been developed that basically refers to the study of the interactions of nanoparticles with biological systems and also measures the toxicity level related to human health. Nanoparticles usually generate reactive oxygen species to a greater extent than micro-sized particles resulting in increased pro-inflammatory reactions and oxidative stress via intracellular signaling pathways. In this review, we mainly focus on the routes of exposure of some metal and metal oxide nanoparticles and how these nanoparticles affect us or broadly the cells of our organs. We would also like to discuss the responsible mechanism(s) of the nanoparticle-induced reactive oxygen species mediated organ pathophysiology. A brief introduction of the characterization and application of these nanoparticles has also been included in the article.

  10. Preparation of Metal Nanoparticles via Sonochemical Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Saura Puig, Oriol

    2011-01-01

    Pure nickel, copper and zinc nanoparticles were prepared from chlorides of these elements using ultrasound with three different reducing agents (zinc, aluminum and magnesium). In the second part, syntheses of nickel-copper alloy and nickel-zinc using ultrasound were investigated. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction. The reaction parameters, such as sonification time, the amount of reagents and reaction conditions were modified to observe variations in...

  11. Oxidation of vanadium metal in oxygen plasma and their characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rabindar Kumar; Singh, Megha; Kumar, Prabhat; Reddy, G. B.

    2015-09-01

    In this report, the role of oxygen plasma on oxidation of vanadium (V) metal and the volatilization of its oxides has been studied as a function of source (V metal strip) temperature (Tss) and oxygen partial pressure (PO2). The presence of O2-plasma not only enhances the oxidation rate but also ficilitates in transport of oxide molecules from metal to substrate, as confirmed by the simultanous deposition of oxide film onto substrate. Both the oxidized metal strips and oxide films deposited on substrates are characterized separately. The structural and vibrational results evidence the presence of two different oxide phases (i.e. orthorhombic V2O5 and monocilinic V O2) in oxide layers formed on V metal strips, whereas the oxide films deposited on substrates exhibit only orthorhombic phase (i.e. V2O5). The decrease in peak intensities recorded from heated V metal strips on increasing Tss points out the increment in the rate of oxide volatilization, which also confirms by the oxide layer thickness measurements. The SEM results show the noticeable surface changes on V-strips as the function of Tss and PO2 and their optimum values are recorded to be 500 ˚ C and 7.5 × 10-2 Torr, respectively to deposit maximum thick oxide film on substrate. The formation of microcracks on oxidized V-strips, those responsible to countinue oxidation is also confirmed by SEM results. The compositional study of oxide layers formed on V-strips, corroborates their pureness and further assures about the existence of mixed oxide phases. The effect of oxygen partial pressure on oxidation of V-metal has also been discussed in the present report. All the results are well in agreement to each other.

  12. Metallized xerographic plates and their preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Xerographic plates, particularly xeroradiographic plates, suitable for soft or hard x-ray exposure require margins or edges suitable for handling and mounting. In order to fabricate such plates, it is convenient to apply a peripheral mask over the substrate during application of at least the photoconductive layer. Use of masks, however, tend to promote peripheral plate irregularities usually because of scratches or other uneveness at or under the margin of the applied mask. Such imperfections spawn corresponding electrical field irregularities which can now be minimized or avoided altogether by grounding the margins with metal overcoats

  13. Novel synthesis strategy for the preparation of individual phytosterol oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junlan; Yue, Qiulin; Ji, Yishun; Cheng, Beijiu; Zhang, Xin

    2013-01-30

    Sterols (cholesterol and phytosterols) are important structural components of cell membranes and major constituents of lipid metabolism. Research on their oxides, such as the factors affecting oxidation, oxides' structures, and qualitative and quantitative analysis, aroused more attention in this decade. However, the biological roles of individual phytosterol oxides are still unclear because no commercial individual phytosterol oxide standards are available. Different from the traditional chemical synthesis, in the present study, chemical synthesis from a starting phytosterol mixture followed with a semipreparative HPLC separation produced individual oxides. TLC and analytical HPLC were used here to not only monitor the reaction process but also specifically analyze the synthetic intermediates and oxides. The chromatographic results exhibited strict rules and similar characteristics. Finally, for the first time, four individual phytosterol oxides were successfully separated and collected by a semipreparative HPLC system, thus providing a novel strategy for the preparation of individual phytosterol oxides.

  14. A new way for preparing superconducting materials: the electrochemical oxidation of La2CuO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wattiaux, A.; Park, J.C.; Grenier, J.C.; Pouchard, M.

    1990-01-01

    The electrochemical oxidation in alkaline medium is described as a new way for preparing superconducting oxides at room temperature. The application of this method to La 2 CuO 4 gave rise to a metallic material with a superconducting behaviour below 39 K and whose physical and chemical features appear as quite promising [fr

  15. Reagent-Free Electrophoretic Synthesis of Few-Atom-Thick Metal Oxide Nanosheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Chengyi; Zhang, Minwei; Zhang, Lili

    2017-01-01

    Engineering traditional materials into the new form of atomic and free-standing two-dimensional structures is of both fundamental interest and practical significance, but it is in general facing challenges especially for metal oxide semiconductors. We herein report an ultragreen method for the cost......-effective and fast preparation of atomic metal oxide nanosheets that can be further transformed into nanofilms. The method combines top-down building block synthesis and bottom-up electrophoretic assembly in water under ambient conditions, using only bulk metal and Milli-Q water without involving any additional...

  16. Insights into the superhydrophobicity of metallic surfaces prepared by electrodeposition involving spontaneous adsorption of airborne hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Peng; Cao, Ling; Zhao, Wei; Xia, Yue; Huang, Wei; Li, Zelin

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Several superhydrophobic metallic surfaces were fabricated by fast electrodeposition. • Both micro/nanostructures and adsorption of airborne hydrocarbons make contributions. • XPS analyses confirm presence of airborne hydrocarbons on these metallic surfaces. • The adsorption of airborne hydrocarbons on the clean metal Au surface was very quick. • UV-O 3 treatment oxidized the hydrocarbons to hydrophilic oxygen-containing organics. - Abstract: Electrochemical fabrication of micro/nanostructured metallic surfaces with superhydrophobicity has recently aroused great attention. However, the origin still remains unclear why smooth hydrophilic metal surfaces become superhydrophobic by making micro/nanostructures without additional surface modifications. In this work, several superhydrophobic micro/nanostructured metal surfaces were prepared by a facile one-step electrodeposition process, including non-noble and noble metals such as copper, nickel, cadmium, zinc, gold, and palladium with (e.g. Cu) or without (e.g. Au) surface oxide films. We demonstrated by SEM and XPS that both hierarchical micro/nanostructures and spontaneous adsorption of airborne hydrocarbons endowed these surfaces with excellent superhydrophobicity. We revealed by XPS that the adsorption of airborne hydrocarbons at the Ar + -etched clean Au surface was rather quick, such that organic contamination can hardly be prevented in practical operation of surface wetting investigation. We also confirmed by XPS that ultraviolet-O 3 treatment of the superhydrophobic metal surfaces did not remove the adsorbed hydrocarbons completely, but mainly oxidized them into hydrophilic oxygen-containing organic substances. We hope our findings here shed new light on deeper understanding of superhydrophobicity for micro/nanostructured metal surfaces with and without surface oxide films

  17. Preparation of Aluminum Nanomesh Thin Films from an Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template as Transparent Conductive Electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiwen; Chen, Yulong; Qiu, Mingxia; Yu, Hongyu; Zhang, Xinhai; Sun, Xiao Wei; Chen, Rui

    2016-02-01

    We have employed anodic aluminum oxide as a template to prepare ultrathin, transparent, and conducting Al films with a unique nanomesh structure for transparent conductive electrodes. The anodic aluminum oxide template is obtained through direct anodization of a sputtered Al layer on a glass substrate, and subsequent wet etching creates the nanomesh metallic film. The optical and conductive properties are greatly influenced by experimental conditions. By tuning the anodizing time, transparent electrodes with appropriate optical transmittance and sheet resistance have been obtained. The results demonstrate that our proposed strategy can serve as a potential method to fabricate low-cost TCEs to replace conventional indium tin oxide materials.

  18. Metal oxide targets produced by the polymer-assisted deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Mitch A., E-mail: mitch@berkeley.ed [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ali, Mazhar N.; Chang, Noel N.; Parsons-Moss, T. [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ashby, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gates, Jacklyn M. [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Stavsetra, Liv [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Nitsche, Heino [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-02-11

    The polymer-assisted deposition (PAD) method was used to create crack-free homogenous metal oxide films for use as targets in nuclear science applications. Metal oxide films of europium, thulium, and hafnium were prepared as models for actinide oxides. Films produced by a single application of PAD were homogenous and uniform and ranged in thickness from 30 to 320 nm. Reapplication of the PAD method (six times) with a 10% by weight hafnium(IV) solution resulted in an equally homogeneous and uniform film with a total thickness of 600 nm.

  19. Metal oxide targets produced by the polymer-assisted deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Mitch A.; Ali, Mazhar N.; Chang, Noel N.; Parsons-Moss, T.; Ashby, Paul D.; Gates, Jacklyn M.; Stavsetra, Liv; Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Nitsche, Heino

    2010-01-01

    The polymer-assisted deposition (PAD) method was used to create crack-free homogenous metal oxide films for use as targets in nuclear science applications. Metal oxide films of europium, thulium, and hafnium were prepared as models for actinide oxides. Films produced by a single application of PAD were homogenous and uniform and ranged in thickness from 30 to 320 nm. Reapplication of the PAD method (six times) with a 10% by weight hafnium(IV) solution resulted in an equally homogeneous and uniform film with a total thickness of 600 nm.

  20. PREPARATION OF A POLYMER ARTICLE FOR SELECTIVE METALLIZATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The present invention relates to the field of selective metallization, and in particular to preparing a polymer article for selective metallization by submerging the article in a first liquid, and while submergedirradiate the article by a laser beam the area of the article on which the metal...... is to be deposited. An activation step, prior to the selective metallization, comprises submerging the article in an activation liquid for depositing seedparticles in the selected area. The irradiation of the selected area is proportionate so as to cause a temporary meltingof the polymer in the surface...... of the selected area of the polymer article. The invention is advantageous in that the preparation may be performed with a relatively high scan rate across the polymer article, and in that a quite limited use of toxic chemicals....

  1. Co3O4 protective coatings prepared by Pulsed Injection Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burriel, M.; Garcia, G.; Santiso, J.

    2005-01-01

    of deposition temperature. Pure Co3O4 spinel structure was found for deposition temperatures ranging from 360 to 540 degreesC. The optimum experimental parameters to prepare dense layers with a high growth rate were determined and used to prepare corrosion protective coatings for Fe-22Cr metallic interconnects......Cobalt oxide films were grown by Pulsed Injection Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition (PI-MOCVD) using Co(acac)(3) (acac=acetylacetonate) precursor dissolved in toluene. The structure, morphology and growth rate of the layers deposited on silicon substrates were studied as a function......, to be used in Intermediate Temperature Solid Oxide Fuel Cells. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  2. Study of transition metal oxides by photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, C.N.R.; Sarma, D.D.; Vasudevan, S.; Hegde, M.S.

    1979-01-01

    Systematics in the X-ray photoelectron spectra (X.p.e.s.) of Ti, V, Cr, Mn and Nb oxides with the metal ion in different oxidation states as well as of related series of mono-, sesqui- and di-oxides of the first row of transition metals have been investigated in detail. Core level binding energies, spin-orbit splittings and exchange splittings are found to exhibit interesting variations with the oxidation state of the metal or the nuclear charge. The 3d binding energies of the monoxides show a proportionality to Goodenough's (R - RC). Other aspects of interest in the study are the satellite structure and final state effects in the X.p.e.s. of the oxides, and identification of different valence states in oxides of the general formulae Mn02n-1 and M304. The nature of changes in the 3d bands of oxides undergoing metal-insulator transitions is also indicated. (author)

  3. A strategic approach for preparation of oxide nanomaterials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A microwave assisted solvothermal method is described for rapid preparation of nano-oxides. This method is based on exploiting differential dielectric constants to induce preferred heating and decomposition of the oxide precursors in the presence of suitable capping agents. This strategic approach has been used to ...

  4. Synthesis and characterization of zinc oxide thin films prepared by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zinc oxide thin films were prepared with ammonia/ammonium chloride buffer as the reaction moderating agent in the chemical bath deposition technique. An observable color change during the reaction due to variations in the reactants concentration indicated the existence of the cupric (CuO) and cuprous (Cu2O) oxides ...

  5. Biofouling of various metal oxides in marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougo, T.; Kuroda, D.; Wada, N.; Ikegai, H.; Kanematsu, H.

    2012-03-01

    Biofouling has induced serious problems in various industrial fields such as marine structures, bio materials, microbially induced corrosion (MIC) etc. The effects of various metals on biofouling have been investigated so far and the mechanism has been clarified to some extent(1,2), and we proposed that Fe ion attracted lots of bacteria and formed biofilm very easily(3). In this study, we investigated the possibility for biofouling of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on various metal oxides such as Fe2O3, TiO2, WO3, AgO, Cr2O3 etc. And in addition of such a model experiment on laboratory scale, they were immersed into actual sea water as well as artificial sea water. As for the preparation of metal oxides, commercial oxide powders were used as starting material and those whose particle sizes were under 100 micrometers were formed into pellets by a press. Some of them were heated to 700 °C and sintered for 10 hours at the temperatures. After the calcinations, they were immersed into the culture of P. aeruginosa at 35 °C in about one week. After the immersion, they were taken out of the culture and the biofouling behaviors were observed by optical microscopy, low pressure scanning electron microscopy (low pressure SEM) etc. Biofouling is generally classified into several steps. Firstly, conditioning films composed of organic matters were formed on specimens. Then bacterial were attached to the specimen's surfaces, seeking for conditioning films as nutrition. Then bacteria formed biofilm on the specimens. In marine environment, more larger living matters such as shells etc would be attached to biofilms. However, in the culture media, only biofilms were formed.

  6. Preparation and Characterization of Some Nanometal Oxides Using Microwave Technique and Their Application to Cotton Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gouda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is the synthesis of some nanometal oxides via microwave irradiation technique and their application to augment multifunctional properties of cotton fabric. Cotton fabrics containing nanometal oxides were prepared via a thiol-modification of cotton fabric samples and then dipped into the metal salt solutions precursors and transferred to the microwave oven. The surface morphology and quantitative analysis of the obtained modified cotton fabrics containing nanometal oxides were studied by scanning electron microscopy coupled with high energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX. The shape and distribution of nanometal oxide inside the fabric samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy of cross-section fabric samples. The iron oxide nanoparticles had a nanosphere with particle size diameter 15–20 nm, copper oxide nanoparticles had a nanosphere with particle size diameter 25–30 nm, and cobalt oxide nanoparticles had a nanotube-like shape with a length of 100–150 nanometer and a diameter of ~58 nanometer, whereas the manganese oxide nanoparticles had a linear structure forming nanorods with a diameter of 50–55 nanometer and a length of 70–80 nanometers. Antibacterial activity was evaluated quantitatively against gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative bacteria such as Escherichia coli, UV-protection activity was analyzed using UV-DRS spectroscopy, and flame retardation of prepared fabric samples was evaluated according to the limiting oxygen index (LOI. Results revealed that the prepared fabric sample containing nanometal oxide possesses improved antibacterial, LOI, and UV-absorbing efficiency. Moreover, the metal oxide nanoparticles did not leach out the fabrics by washing even after 30 laundering washing cycles.

  7. Viscoelasticity of metallic, polymeric and oxide glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelletier, J.M. [GEMPPM, INSA Lyon, Bat. B. Pascal, 69621 Villeurbanne (France)]. E-mail: Jean-marc.Pelletier@insa-lyon.fr; Gauthier, C. [GEMPPM, INSA Lyon, Bat. B. Pascal, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Munch, E. [GEMPPM, INSA Lyon, Bat. B. Pascal, 69621 Villeurbanne (France)

    2006-12-20

    Present work addresses on mechanical spectroscopy experiments performed on bulk metallic glasses (Zr-Ti-Cu-Ni-Be alloys, Mg-Y-Cu alloys), on oxide glasses (SiO{sub 2}-Na{sub 2}O-CaO) and on amorphous polymers (polyethylene terephtalate (PET), nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR), etc.). It appears that whatever the nature of the chemical bonding involved in the material, we observe strong relaxation effects in an intermediate temperature range, near the glass transition temperature. In addition, when crystallization occurs in the initially amorphous material, similar evolution is observed in all the materials. A method is proposed to properly separate elastic, viscoelastic and viscoplastic contributions to the deformation. Finally a physical model is given to describe these viscoelastic phenomena.

  8. Metal Oxide Nanoparticle Photoresists for EUV Patterning

    KAUST Repository

    Jiang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    © 2014SPST. Previous studies of methacrylate based nanoparticle have demonstrated the excellent pattern forming capability of these hybrid materials when used as photoresists under 13.5 nm EUV exposure. HfO2 and ZrO2 methacrylate resists have achieved high resolution (∼22 nm) at a very high EUV sensitivity (4.2 mJ/cm2). Further investigations into the patterning process suggests a ligand displacement mechanism, wherein, any combination of a metal oxide with the correct ligand could generate patterns in the presence of the suitable photoactive compound. The current investigation extends this study by developing new nanoparticle compositions with transdimethylacrylic acid and o-toluic acid ligands. This study describes their synthesis and patterning performance under 248 nm KrF laser (DUV) and also under 13.5 nm EUV exposures (dimethylacrylate nanoparticles) for the new resist compositions.

  9. Bipolar resistive switching in graphene oxide based metal insulator metal structure for non-volatile memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rakesh; Kumar, Ravi; Kumar, Anil; Kashyap, Rajesh; Kumar, Mukesh; Kumar, Dinesh

    2018-05-01

    Graphene oxide based devices have attracted much attention recently because of their possible application in next generation electronic devices. In this study, bipolar resistive switching characteristics of graphene oxide based metal insulator metal structure were investigated for nonvolatile memories. The graphene oxide was prepared by the conventional Hummer's method and deposited on ITO coated glass by spin-coating technique. The dominant mechanism of resistive switching is the formation and rupture of the conductive filament inside the graphene oxide. The conduction mechanism for low and high resistance states are dominated by two mechanism the ohmic conduction and space charge limited current (SCLC) mechanism, respectively. Atomic Force Microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Cyclic-Voltammetry were conducted to observe the morphology, structure and behavior of the material. The fabricated device with Al/GO/ITO structure exhibited reliable bipolar resistive switching with set & reset voltage of -2.3 V and 3V respectively.

  10. Laboratory studies of refractory metal oxide smokes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuth, J.A.; Nelson, R.N.; Donn, B.

    1989-01-01

    Studies of the properties of refractory metal oxide smokes condensed from a gas containing various combinations of SiH4, Fe(CO)5, Al(CH3)3, TiCl4, O2 and N2O in a hydrogen carrier stream at 500 K greater than T greater than 1500 K were performed. Ultraviolet, visible and infrared spectra of pure, amorphous SiO(x), FeO(x), AlO(x) and TiO(x) smokes are discussed, as well as the spectra of various co-condensed amorphous oxides, such as FE(x)SiO(y) or Fe(x)AlO(y). Preliminary studies of the changes induced in the infrared spectra of iron-containing oxide smokes by vacuum thermal annealing suggest that such materials become increasingly opaque in the near infrared with increased processing: hydration may have the opposite effect. More work on the processing of these materials is required to confirm such a trend: this work is currently in progress. Preliminary studies of the ultraviolet spectra of amorphous Si2O3 and MgSiO(x) smokes revealed no interesting features in the region from 200 to 300 nm. Studies of the ultraviolet spectra of both amorphous, hydrated and annealed SiO(x), TiO(x), AlO(x) and FeO(x) smokes are currently in progress. Finally, data on the oxygen isotopic composition of the smokes produced in the experiments are presented, which indicate that the oxygen becomes isotopically fractionated during grain condensation. Oxygen in the grains is as much as 3 percent per amu lighter than the oxygen in the original gas stream. The authors are currently conducting experiments to understand the mechanism by which fractionation occurs

  11. Ultrafine yttria-stabilized zirconia powders prepared by pyrolysis of a metal-oxalate-cellulose complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solov`eva, L.V.; Bashmakov, I.A.; Kaputskii, F.N. [Research Institute of Physicochemical Problems, Minsk (Belarus)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Preparation of high-purity submicron powders with uniform particles is a key stage in the fabrication of high-quality ceramics. For this purpose, chemical methods are commonly used. Recently, pyrolysis of salt-cellulose compositions has gained acceptance for the preparation of mixed oxide powders. This method ensures control of the morphology and particle size of the resultant powders. In this work, the authors present an environmentally safe method for preparing ZrO{sub 2}-based powders from metal-oxalate-cellulose complexes (MOCC) used as precursors instead of soluble metal salts physisorbed on the cellulose surface. The powders obtained by this method feature higher dispersity than their commercially available analogs.

  12. Systematic study of metal-insulator-metal diodes with a native oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Donchev, E.; Gammon, P. M.; Pang, J. S.; Petrov, P. K.; Alford, N. McN.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 SPIE. In this paper, a systematic analysis of native oxides within a Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) diode is carried out, with the goal of determining their practicality for incorporation into a nanoscale Rectenna (Rectifying Antenna

  13. High-Pressure Thermodynamic Properties of f-electron Metals, Transition Metal Oxides, and Half-Metallic Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard T. Scalettar; Warren E. Pickett

    2005-01-01

    This project involves research into the thermodynamic properties of f-electron metals, transition metal oxides, and half-metallic magnets at high pressure. These materials are ones in which the changing importance of electron-electron interactions as the distance between atoms is varied can tune the system through phase transitions from localized to delocalized electrons, from screened to unscreened magnetic moments, and from normal metal to one in which only a single spin specie can conduct. Three main thrusts are being pursued: (1) Mott transitions in transition metal oxides, (2) magnetism in half-metallic compounds, and (3) large volume-collapse transitions in f-band metals

  14. High-Pressure Thermodynamic Properties of f-electron Metals, Transition Metal Oxides, and Half-Metallic Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scalettar, Richard T.; Pickett, Warren E.

    2004-07-01

    This project involves research into the thermodynamic properties of f-electron metals, transition metal oxides, and half-metallic magnets at high pressure. These materials are ones in which the changing importance of electron-electron interactions as the distance between atoms is varied can tune the system through phase transitions from localized to delocalized electrons, from screened to unscreened magnetic moments, and from normal metal to one in which only a single spin specie can conduct. Three main thrusts are being pursued: (1) Mott transitions in transition metal oxides, (2) magnetism in half-metallic compounds, and (3) large volume-collapse transitions in f-band metals.

  15. High-Pressure Thermodynamic Properties of f-electron Metals, Transition Metal Oxides, and Half-Metallic Magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard T. Scalettar; Warren E. Pickett

    2005-08-02

    This project involves research into the thermodynamic properties of f-electron metals, transition metal oxides, and half-metallic magnets at high pressure. These materials are ones in which the changing importance of electron-electron interactions as the distance between atoms is varied can tune the system through phase transitions from localized to delocalized electrons, from screened to unscreened magnetic moments, and from normal metal to one in which only a single spin specie can conduct. Three main thrusts are being pursued: (i) Mott transitions in transition metal oxides, (ii) magnetism in half-metallic compounds, and (iii) large volume-collapse transitions in f-band metals.

  16. Synthesis, Characterization, and Ultrafast Dynamics of Metal, Metal Oxide, and Semiconductor Nanomaterials

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, Damon Andreas

    2013-01-01

    SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, AND ULTRAFAST DYNAMICS OF METAL, METAL OXIDE, AND SEMICONDUCTOR NANOMATERIALSABSTRACTThe optical properties of each of the three main classes of inorganic nanomaterials, metals, metal oxides, and semiconductors differ greatly due to the intrinsically different nature of the materials. These optical properties are among the most fascinating and useful aspects of nanomaterials with applications spanning cancer treatment, sensors, lasers, and solar cells. One techn...

  17. A made in Brazil metallic sample preparation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, B.J.; Diaz, J.V.; Huber, J.G.; Luengo, C.A.

    A facility, built locally, for the preparation of metallic compounds and alloys of common use in solid state physics in described. This facility includes a multipurpose furnace (FORARCO I) and accessories which are capable of melting, quenching, casting and annealing. (author) [pt

  18. Metal-isonitrile adducts for preparing radionuclide complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, A.P.; Linder, K.E.; Maheu, L.J.; Patz, M.A.; Thompson, J.S.; Tulip, T.H.; Subramanyam, V.

    1988-01-01

    An method for preparing a coordination complex of isonitrile ligand and a radioisotope of Te, Ru, Co, Pt, Re, Os, Ir, W, Re, Cr, Mo, Mn, Ni, Rh, Nb and Ta from a non-radioactive metal adduct of the isonitrile

  19. Plasmon-enhanced Solar Fuel Production with Gold-metal Oxide Hybrid Nanomaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrekt, Christian; Law, Matt; Zhang, Jingdong

    , provide new catalytic routes and expands the scope of solar photocatalysis. We prepare metal oxide SNPs, gold PNPs and their hybrids through mild aqueous syntheses to develop efficient photocatalyst for solar fuel production. Focus is placed on the synergetic interplay between SNPs and PNPs, understanding...

  20. Sol-gel/hydrothermal synthesis of mixed metal oxide of Titanium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mixed metal oxides of titanium and zinc nanocomposites were prepared through sol-gel method under hydrothermal condition using titanium oxy-(1, 2 - pentadione) and zinc acetate without hazardous additives. The resulting composites were characterized by X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope ...

  1. NANOSTRUCTURED METAL OXIDE CATALYSTS VIA BUILDING BLOCK SYNTHESES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig E. Barnes

    2013-03-05

    A broadly applicable methodology has been developed to prepare new single site catalysts on silica supports. This methodology requires of three critical components: a rigid building block that will be the main structural and compositional component of the support matrix; a family of linking reagents that will be used to insert active metals into the matrix as well as cross link building blocks into a three dimensional matrix; and a clean coupling reaction that will connect building blocks and linking agents together in a controlled fashion. The final piece of conceptual strategy at the center of this methodology involves dosing the building block with known amounts of linking agents so that the targeted connectivity of a linking center to surrounding building blocks is obtained. Achieving targeted connectivities around catalytically active metals in these building block matrices is a critical element of the strategy by which single site catalysts are obtained. This methodology has been demonstrated with a model system involving only silicon and then with two metal-containing systems (titanium and vanadium). The effect that connectivity has on the reactivity of atomically dispersed titanium sites in silica building block matrices has been investigated in the selective oxidation of phenols to benezoquinones. 2-connected titanium sites are found to be five times as active (i.e. initial turnover frequencies) than 4-connected titanium sites (i.e. framework titanium sites).

  2. Redox switching and oxygen evolution at oxidized metal and metal oxide electrodes: iron in base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Michael E G; Doyle, Richard L; Brandon, Michael P

    2011-12-28

    Outstanding issues regarding the film formation, redox switching characteristics and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalytic behaviour of multicycled iron oxyhydroxide films in aqueous alkaline solution have been revisited. The oxide is grown using a repetitive potential multicycling technique, and the mechanism of the latter hydrous oxide formation process has been discussed. A duplex layer model of the oxide/solution interphase region is proposed. The acid/base behaviour of the hydrous oxide and the microdispersed nature of the latter material has been emphasised. The hydrous oxide is considered as a porous assembly of interlinked octahedrally coordinated anionic metal oxyhydroxide surfaquo complexes which form an open network structure. The latter contains considerable quantities of water molecules which facilitate hydroxide ion discharge at the metal site during active oxygen evolution, and also charge compensating cations. The dynamics of redox switching has been quantified via analysis of the cyclic voltammetry response as a function of potential sweep rate using the Laviron-Aoki electron hopping diffusion model by analogy with redox polymer modified electrodes. Steady state Tafel plot analysis has been used to elucidate the kinetics and mechanism of oxygen evolution. Tafel slope values of ca. 60 mV dec(-1) and ca. 120 mV dec(-1) are found at low and high overpotentials respectively, whereas the reaction order with respect to hydroxide ion activity changes from ca. 3/2 to ca. 1 as the potential is increased. These observations are rationalised in terms of a kinetic scheme involving Temkin adsorption and the rate determining formation of a physisorbed hydrogen peroxide intermediate on the oxide surface. The dual Tafel slope behaviour is ascribed to the potential dependence of the surface coverage of adsorbed intermediates.

  3. Preparation of carbon-free TEM microgrids by metal sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janbroers, S.; Kruijff, T.R. de; Xu, Q.; Kooyman, P.J.; Zandbergen, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    A new method for preparing carbon-free, temperature-stable Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) grids is presented. An 80% Au/20% Pd metal film is deposited onto a 'holey' microgrid carbon supported on standard mixed-mesh Au TEM grids. Subsequently, the carbon film is selectively removed using plasma cleaning. In this way, an all-metal TEM film is made containing the 'same' microgrid as the original carbon film. Although electron transparency of the foil is reduced significantly, the open areas for TEM inspection of material over these areas are maintained. The metal foil can be prepared with various thicknesses and ensures good electrical conductivity. The new Au/Pd grids are stable to at least 775 K under vacuum conditions.

  4. Preparation of carbon-free TEM microgrids by metal sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janbroers, S., E-mail: stephan.janbroers@albemarle.com [Albemarle Catalysts B.V., Nieuwendammerkade 1-3, 1030 BE, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); Kruijff, T.R. de; Xu, Q. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); Kooyman, P.J. [DelftChemTech, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL, Delft (Netherlands); Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands); Zandbergen, H.W. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-08-15

    A new method for preparing carbon-free, temperature-stable Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) grids is presented. An 80% Au/20% Pd metal film is deposited onto a 'holey' microgrid carbon supported on standard mixed-mesh Au TEM grids. Subsequently, the carbon film is selectively removed using plasma cleaning. In this way, an all-metal TEM film is made containing the 'same' microgrid as the original carbon film. Although electron transparency of the foil is reduced significantly, the open areas for TEM inspection of material over these areas are maintained. The metal foil can be prepared with various thicknesses and ensures good electrical conductivity. The new Au/Pd grids are stable to at least 775 K under vacuum conditions.

  5. Preparation of carbon-free TEM microgrids by metal sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janbroers, S; de Kruijff, T R; Xu, Q; Kooyman, P J; Zandbergen, H W

    2009-08-01

    A new method for preparing carbon-free, temperature-stable Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) grids is presented. An 80% Au/20% Pd metal film is deposited onto a 'holey' microgrid carbon supported on standard mixed-mesh Au TEM grids. Subsequently, the carbon film is selectively removed using plasma cleaning. In this way, an all-metal TEM film is made containing the 'same' microgrid as the original carbon film. Although electron transparency of the foil is reduced significantly, the open areas for TEM inspection of material over these areas are maintained. The metal foil can be prepared with various thicknesses and ensures good electrical conductivity. The new Au/Pd grids are stable to at least 775K under vacuum conditions.

  6. Enhanced photoelectrochemical activity in all-oxide heterojunction devices based on correlated "metallic" oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apgar, Brent A; Lee, Sungki; Schroeder, Lauren E; Martin, Lane W

    2013-11-20

    n-n Schottky, n-n ohmic, and p-n Schottky heterojunctions based on TiO2 /correlated "metallic" oxide couples exhibit strong solar-light absorption driven by the unique electronic structure of the "metallic" oxides. Photovoltaic and photocatalytic responses are driven by hot electron injection from the "metallic" oxide into the TiO2 , enabling new modalities of operation for energy systems. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Metal oxide/polyaniline nanocomposites: Cluster size and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Metal oxide/polyaniline nanocomposites; structural properties; magnetic properties. 1. Introduction ... The powder obtained was ground in a motor and pestle, sonicated in ... Figure 1. XRD of (a) iron oxide nanoparticles and (b) iron oxide/PANI (1 : 0⋅4) composite. .... shape of the particles and the anisotropy energy, as also.

  8. Sol-gel preparation of uranium oxide spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolezal, J.; Urbanek, V.

    1978-01-01

    Information is presented on problems of preparing nuclear fuel by the sol-gel method. Basic data on different process types are given. A more detailed description of the method of preparation of spherical particles of uranium oxide gel developed and used at the Nuclear Research Institute at Rez is given. Advantages and disadvantages of sol-gel materials are discussed in comparison with fuel materials prepared by classical precipitation methods. The feasibility of the sol-gel methods for preparing other materials is shortly mentioned and their application outlined. (author)

  9. Preparation of Dithizone Functionalized Polystyrene for Detecting Heavy Metal Ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hyeon Ho; Kim, Younghun [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Colorimetric sensors were usually used to detect specific metal ions using selective color change of solutions. While almost organic dye in colorimetric sensors detected single molecule, dithizone (DTZ) solution could be separately detected above 5 kinds of heavy metal ions by the change of clear color. Namely, DTZ could be used as multicolorimetric sensors. However, DTZ was generally used as aqueous type and paper/pellet-type DTZ was not reported yet. Therefore, in this work, polystyrene (PS) was prepared to composite with DTZ and then DTZ/PS pellet was obtained, which was used to selectively detect 10 kinds of heavy metal ions. When 10 ppm of Hg and Co ions was exposed in DTZ/PS pellets, clear color change was revealed. It is noted that DTZ/PS pellet could be used in detecting of heavy metal ion as dry type.

  10. VUV photo-oxidation of gaseous benzene combined with ozone-assisted catalytic oxidation: Effect on transition metal catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Haibao; Lu, Haoxian; Zhan, Yujie; Liu, Gaoyuan; Feng, Qiuyu; Huang, Huiling; Wu, Muyan; Ye, Xinguo

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Mn nanoparticles are highly dispersed on ZSM-5 and most efficient in benzene degradation in the VUV-OZCO process. - Highlights: • Vacuum UV irradiation is well combined with O_3 catalytic oxidation. • O_3 byproducts was used to enhance catalytic oxidation of VOCs. • Mn/ZSM-5 achieved the best catalytic activity for benzene degradation. - Abstract: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) cause the major air pollution concern. In this study, a series of ZSM-5 supported transition metals were prepared by impregnation method. They were combined with vacuum UV (VUV) photo-oxidation in a continuous-flow packed-bed reactor and used for the degradation of benzene, a typical toxic VOCs. Compared with VUV photo-oxidation alone, the introduction of catalysts can greatly enhance benzene oxidation under the help of O_3, the by-products from VUV irradiation, via ozone-assisted catalytic oxidation (OZCO). The catalytic activity of transition metals towards benzene oxidation followed the order: Mn > Co > Cu > Ni > Fe. Mn achieved the best catalytic activity due to the strongest capability for O_3 catalytic decomposition and utilization. Benzene and O_3 removal efficiency reached as high as 97% and 100% after 360 min, respectively. O_3 was catalytically decomposed, generating highly reactive oxidants such as ·OH and ·O for benzene oxidation.

  11. VUV photo-oxidation of gaseous benzene combined with ozone-assisted catalytic oxidation: Effect on transition metal catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Haibao, E-mail: seabao8@gmail.com [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University (China); Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Environmental Pollution Control and Remediation Technology (Sun Yat-sen University) (China); Lu, Haoxian; Zhan, Yujie; Liu, Gaoyuan; Feng, Qiuyu; Huang, Huiling; Wu, Muyan; Ye, Xinguo [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University (China)

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Mn nanoparticles are highly dispersed on ZSM-5 and most efficient in benzene degradation in the VUV-OZCO process. - Highlights: • Vacuum UV irradiation is well combined with O{sub 3} catalytic oxidation. • O{sub 3} byproducts was used to enhance catalytic oxidation of VOCs. • Mn/ZSM-5 achieved the best catalytic activity for benzene degradation. - Abstract: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) cause the major air pollution concern. In this study, a series of ZSM-5 supported transition metals were prepared by impregnation method. They were combined with vacuum UV (VUV) photo-oxidation in a continuous-flow packed-bed reactor and used for the degradation of benzene, a typical toxic VOCs. Compared with VUV photo-oxidation alone, the introduction of catalysts can greatly enhance benzene oxidation under the help of O{sub 3}, the by-products from VUV irradiation, via ozone-assisted catalytic oxidation (OZCO). The catalytic activity of transition metals towards benzene oxidation followed the order: Mn > Co > Cu > Ni > Fe. Mn achieved the best catalytic activity due to the strongest capability for O{sub 3} catalytic decomposition and utilization. Benzene and O{sub 3} removal efficiency reached as high as 97% and 100% after 360 min, respectively. O{sub 3} was catalytically decomposed, generating highly reactive oxidants such as ·OH and ·O for benzene oxidation.

  12. Preparation and characterization of polyindole - iron oxide nanocomposite electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasudha, G.; Stephen, A.; Narayanan, V.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: A novel polyindole-iron oxide containing LiClO 4 solid polymer electrolyte has been prepared. The diverse property of magnetic nanoparticle has elicited wide interest from the point of view of technological applications. Their properties are known to be strongly dependent on size, anisotropy and inter particle interactions. The proton conducting materials has received considerable attention as electrolyte materials in technological applications such as fuel cells, sensors and electrochromic display. In this work, polyindole-iron oxide nanocomposite containing LiClO 4 was prepared by in situ polymerization. The indole was polymerized in the presence of iron oxide, using ammonium peroxy disulphate as an oxidizing agent. The polyindole-iron oxide nanocomposite was characterized by XRD, IR, SEM, TGA and TEM. The iron oxide nano particles was incorporated into polyindole and was confirmed by XRD and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The surface Morphology and thermal stability were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and SEM respectively. The ionic conductivity of polyindole electrolyte was analyzed from impedance spectrum. The prepared polyindole-iron oxide nanocomposite could be used as solid electrolyte in lithium ion batteries

  13. Nanoscale Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Gas Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Evans, Laura; Xu, Jennifer C.; VanderWal, Randy L.; Berger, Gordon M.; Kulis, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    A report describes the fabrication and testing of nanoscale metal oxide semiconductors (MOSs) for gas and chemical sensing. This document examines the relationship between processing approaches and resulting sensor behavior. This is a core question related to a range of applications of nanotechnology and a number of different synthesis methods are discussed: thermal evaporation- condensation (TEC), controlled oxidation, and electrospinning. Advantages and limitations of each technique are listed, providing a processing overview to developers of nanotechnology- based systems. The results of a significant amount of testing and comparison are also described. A comparison is made between SnO2, ZnO, and TiO2 single-crystal nanowires and SnO2 polycrystalline nanofibers for gas sensing. The TECsynthesized single-crystal nanowires offer uniform crystal surfaces, resistance to sintering, and their synthesis may be done apart from the substrate. The TECproduced nanowire response is very low, even at the operating temperature of 200 C. In contrast, the electrospun polycrystalline nanofiber response is high, suggesting that junction potentials are superior to a continuous surface depletion layer as a transduction mechanism for chemisorption. Using a catalyst deposited upon the surface in the form of nanoparticles yields dramatic gains in sensitivity for both nanostructured, one-dimensional forms. For the nanowire materials, the response magnitude and response rate uniformly increase with increasing operating temperature. Such changes are interpreted in terms of accelerated surface diffusional processes, yielding greater access to chemisorbed oxygen species and faster dissociative chemisorption, respectively. Regardless of operating temperature, sensitivity of the nanofibers is a factor of 10 to 100 greater than that of nanowires with the same catalyst for the same test condition. In summary, nanostructure appears critical to governing the reactivity, as measured by electrical

  14. Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerksen, Walter K.

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixture is then cooled to a temperature less than -100.degree. C. in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

  15. Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duerksen, W.K.

    1988-01-01

    A method for converting uranium oxide to uranium metal is described comprising the steps of heating uranium oxide in the presence of a reducing agent to a temperature sufficient to reduce the uranium oxide to uranium metal and form a heterogeneous mixture of a uranium metal product and oxide by-products, heating the mixture in a hydrogen atmosphere at a temperature sufficient to convert uranium metal in the mixture to uranium hydride, cooling the resulting uranium hydride-containing mixture to a temperature sufficient to produce a ferromagnetic transition in the uranium hydride, magnetically separating the cooled uranium hydride from the mixture, and thereafter heating the separated uranium hydride in an inert atmosphere to a temperature sufficient to convert the uranium hydride to uranium metal

  16. Superconductivity of ternary metal compounds prepared at high pressures

    CERN Document Server

    Shirotani, I

    2003-01-01

    Various ternary metal phosphides, arsenides, antimonides, silicides and germanides have been prepared at high temperatures and high pressures. These ternary metal compounds can be classified into four groups: [1] metal-rich compounds MM' sub 4 X sub 2 and [2] MM'X, [3] non-metal-rich compounds MXX' and [4] MM' sub 4 X sub 1 sub 2 (M and M' = metal element; X and X' = non-metal element). We have studied the electrical and magnetic properties of these materials at low temperatures, and found many new superconductors with the superconducting transition temperature (T sub c) of above 10 K. The metal-rich compound ZrRu sub 4 P sub 2 with a tetragonal structure showed the superconducting transition at around 11 K, and had an upper critical field (H sub c sub 2) of 12.2 tesla (T) at 0 K. Ternary equiatomic compounds ZrRuP and ZrRuSi crystallize in two modifications, a hexagonal Fe sub 2 P-type structure [h-ZrRuP(Si)] and an orthorhombic Co sub 2 P-type structure [o-ZrRuP(Si)]. Both h-ZrRuP and h-ZrRuSi have rather h...

  17. Solution processed metal oxide thin film hole transport layers for high performance organic solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steirer, K. Xerxes; Berry, Joseph J.; Chesin, Jordan P.; Lloyd, Matthew T.; Widjonarko, Nicodemus Edwin; Miedaner, Alexander; Curtis, Calvin J.; Ginley, David S.; Olson, Dana C.

    2017-01-10

    A method for the application of solution processed metal oxide hole transport layers in organic photovoltaic devices and related organic electronics devices is disclosed. The metal oxide may be derived from a metal-organic precursor enabling solution processing of an amorphous, p-type metal oxide. An organic photovoltaic device having solution processed, metal oxide, thin-film hole transport layer.

  18. Preparation and Characterization of Tin Oxide Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kabiri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is preparation of SnO2 nanowires by means of Thermal chemical reaction vapor transport deposition (TCRVTD method from SnO powders. The morphology, chemical composition and microstructure properties of the nanowires are characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM, EDS, and XRD. The XRD diffraction patterns reveal that the SnO2 nanowires have been grown in the form of tetragonal crystal structures with the lattice parameter of a=b=0.440 nm, and c=0.370 nm. The SEM images reveal that SnO2 nanowires have successfully been grown on the Si substrate. The EDS patterns show that only elements of Sn, O and Au are detected. Prior to the VLS process the substrate is coated by a thin layer of Au. The diameter of nanowires is measured to be something between 20-100 nm.

  19. Effect of CO on surface oxidation of uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Fu, Y.; Xie, R.

    1997-01-01

    The surface reactions of uranium metal with carbon monoxide at 25 and 200 deg C have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS);respectively. Adsorption of carbon monoxide on the surface layer of uranium metal leads to partial reduction of surface oxide and results in U4f photoelectron peak shifting to the lower binding energy. The content of oxygen in the surface oxide is decreased and O1s/O4f ratio decreases with increasing the exposure of carbon monoxide. The investigation indicates the surface layer of uranium metal has resistance to further oxidation in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide. (author)

  20. Preparation and study of properties of dispersed graphene oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya Seliverstova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ability of graphene oxide to form stable dispersion in organic solvents was studied in this work. As it was shown, sonication of graphene leads to the decreas of the particle size. Stability of prepared graphene dispersions was studied upon measurements of distribution of number of the particles via size and change of optical density of the solutions with time. It was found that graphene oxide forms a more stable dispersion in tetrahydrofuran and dimethylformamide than in chloroform and acetone.

  1. Preparation and characterization of antimony barium composite oxide photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, X. P.; Yao, B. H.; Pan, Q. H.; Pen, C.; Zhang, C. L.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, two kinds of antimony barium composite oxide photocatalysts have been prepared by two methods and characterized by XRD and SEM. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by a photocatalytic reactor and an ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The results showed that-BaSb2O5•4H2O, BaSb2O6 two kinds of antimony barium composite oxide photocatalysts were successfully prepared in this experiment and they showed good photocatalytic properties. In addition, BaSb2O6 morphology showed more regular, microstructure and better catalytic performance.

  2. Fabrication of Arrays of Metal and Metal Oxide Nanotubes by Shadow Evaporation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickey, Michael D.; Weiss, Emily A.; Smythe, Elizabeth J.; Chiechi, Ryan C.; Capasso, Federico; Whitesides, George M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a simple technique for fabricating uniform arrays of metal and metal oxide nanotubes with controlled heights and diameters. The technique involves depositing material onto an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane template using a collimated electron beam evaporation source. The

  3. Systematic study of metal-insulator-metal diodes with a native oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchev, E.; Gammon, P. M.; Pang, J. S.; Petrov, P. K.; Alford, N. McN.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a systematic analysis of native oxides within a Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) diode is carried out, with the goal of determining their practicality for incorporation into a nanoscale Rectenna (Rectifying Antenna). The requirement of having a sub-10nm oxide scale is met by using the native oxide, which forms on most metals exposed to an oxygen containing environment. This, therefore, provides a simplified MIM fabrication process as the complex, controlled oxide deposition step is omitted. We shall present the results of an investigation into the current-voltage characteristics of various MIM combinations that incorporate a native oxide, in order to establish whether the native oxide is of sufficient quality for good diode operation. The thin native oxide layers are formed by room temperature oxidation of the first metal layer, deposited by magnetron sputtering. This is done in-situ, within the deposition chamber before depositing the second metal electrode. Using these structures, we study the established trend where the bigger the difference in metal workfunctions, the better the rectification properties of MIM structures, and hence the selection of the second metal is key to controlling the device's rectifying properties. We show how leakage current paths through the non-optimised native oxide control the net current-voltage response of the MIM devices. Furthermore, we will present the so-called diode figures of merit (asymmetry, non-linearity and responsivity) for each of the best performing structures.

  4. Systematic study of metal-insulator-metal diodes with a native oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Donchev, E.

    2014-10-07

    © 2014 SPIE. In this paper, a systematic analysis of native oxides within a Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) diode is carried out, with the goal of determining their practicality for incorporation into a nanoscale Rectenna (Rectifying Antenna). The requirement of having a sub-10nm oxide scale is met by using the native oxide, which forms on most metals exposed to an oxygen containing environment. This, therefore, provides a simplified MIM fabrication process as the complex, controlled oxide deposition step is omitted. We shall present the results of an investigation into the current-voltage characteristics of various MIM combinations that incorporate a native oxide, in order to establish whether the native oxide is of sufficient quality for good diode operation. The thin native oxide layers are formed by room temperature oxidation of the first metal layer, deposited by magnetron sputtering. This is done in-situ, within the deposition chamber before depositing the second metal electrode. Using these structures, we study the established trend where the bigger the difference in metal workfunctions, the better the rectification properties of MIM structures, and hence the selection of the second metal is key to controlling the device\\'s rectifying properties. We show how leakage current paths through the non-optimised native oxide control the net current-voltage response of the MIM devices. Furthermore, we will present the so-called diode figures of merit (asymmetry, non-linearity and responsivity) for each of the best performing structures.

  5. Preparation of Reduced Graphene Oxides as Electrode Materials for Supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Bai, Yaocai

    2012-06-01

    Reduced graphene oxide as outstanding candidate electrode material for supercapacitor has been investigated. This thesis includes two topics. One is that three kinds of reduced graphene oxides were prepared by hydrothermal reduction under different pH conditions. The pH values were found to have great influence on the reduction of graphene oxides. Acidic and neutral media yielded reduced graphene oxides with more oxygen-functional groups, lower specific surface areas but broader pore size distributions than those in basic medium. Variations induced by the pH changes resulted in great differences in the supercapacitor performance. The graphene produced in the basic solution presented mainly electric double layer behavior with specific capacitance of 185 F/g, while the other two showed additional pseudocapacitance behavior with specific capacitance of 225 F/g (acidic) and 230 F/g (neutral), all at a constant current density of 1A/g. The other one is that different reduced graphene oxides were prepared via solution based hydrazine reduction, low temperature thermal reduction, and hydrothermal reduction. The as- prepared samples were then investigated by UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and Scanning electron microscope. The supercapacitor performances were also studied and the hydrothermally reduced graphene oxide exhibited the highest specific capacitance.

  6. Metal-core@metal oxide-shell nanomaterials for gas-sensing applications: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzaei, A.; Janghorban, K.; Hashemi, B. [Shiraz University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Neri, G., E-mail: gneri@unime.it [University of Messina, Department of Electronic Engineering, Chemistry and Industrial Engineering (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    With an ever-increasing number of applications in many advanced fields, gas sensors are becoming indispensable devices in our daily life. Among different types of gas sensors, conductometric metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) gas sensors are found to be the most appealing for advanced applications in the automotive, biomedical, environmental, and safety sectors because of the their high sensitivity, reduced size, and low cost. To improve their sensing characteristics, new metal oxide-based nanostructures have thus been proposed in recent years as sensing materials. In this review, we extensively review gas-sensing properties of core@ shell nanocomposites in which metals as the core and metal oxides as the shell structure, both of nanometer sizes, are assembled into a single metal@metal oxide core–shell. These nanostructures not only combine the properties of both noble metals and metal oxides, but also bring unique synergetic functions in comparison with single-component materials. Up-dated achievements in the synthesis and characterization of metal@metal oxide core–shell nanostructures as well as their use in MOS sensors are here reported with the main objective of providing an overview about their gas-sensing properties.

  7. Improving the scratch resistance of sol-gel metal oxide coatings cured at 250 C through use of thermogenerated amines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langanke, J.; Arfsten, N.; Buskens, P.; Habets, R.; Klankermayer, J.; Leitner, W.

    2013-01-01

    Scratch resistant sol-gel metal oxide coatings typically require a thermal post-treatment step (curing process) at temperatures between 400 and 700 C. In this report, we demonstrate that the in situ generation of amines within sol-gel films facilitates the preparation of scratch resistant metal

  8. Multiscale model of metal alloy oxidation at grain boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushko, Maria L.; Alexandrov, Vitaly; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Rosso, Kevin M.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.

    2015-01-01

    High temperature intergranular oxidation and corrosion of metal alloys is one of the primary causes of materials degradation in nuclear systems. In order to gain insights into grain boundary oxidation processes, a mesoscale metal alloy oxidation model is established by combining quantum Density Functional Theory (DFT) and mesoscopic Poisson-Nernst-Planck/classical DFT with predictions focused on Ni alloyed with either Cr or Al. Analysis of species and fluxes at steady-state conditions indicates that the oxidation process involves vacancy-mediated transport of Ni and the minor alloying element to the oxidation front and the formation of stable metal oxides. The simulations further demonstrate that the mechanism of oxidation for Ni-5Cr and Ni-4Al is qualitatively different. Intergranular oxidation of Ni-5Cr involves the selective oxidation of the minor element and not matrix Ni, due to slower diffusion of Ni relative to Cr in the alloy and due to the significantly smaller energy gain upon the formation of nickel oxide compared to that of Cr 2 O 3 . This essentially one-component oxidation process results in continuous oxide formation and a monotonic Cr vacancy distribution ahead of the oxidation front, peaking at alloy/oxide interface. In contrast, Ni and Al are both oxidized in Ni-4Al forming a mixed spinel NiAl 2 O 4 . Different diffusivities of Ni and Al give rise to a complex elemental distribution in the vicinity of the oxidation front. Slower diffusing Ni accumulates in the oxide and metal within 3 nm of the interface, while Al penetrates deeper into the oxide phase. Ni and Al are both depleted from the region 3–10 nm ahead of the oxidation front creating voids. The oxide microstructure is also different. Cr 2 O 3 has a plate-like structure with 1.2–1.7 nm wide pores running along the grain boundary, while NiAl 2 O 4 has 1.5 nm wide pores in the direction parallel to the grain boundary and 0.6 nm pores in the perpendicular direction providing an additional

  9. Continuous Polyol Synthesis of Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Using a Segmented Flow Tubular Reactor (SFTR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Testino

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the last years a new type of tubular plug flow reactor, the segmented flow tubular reactor (SFTR, has proven its versatility and robustness through the water-based synthesis of precipitates as varied as CaCO3, BaTiO3, Mn(1−xNixC2O4·2H2O, YBa oxalates, copper oxalate, ZnS, ZnO, iron oxides, and TiO2 produced with a high powder quality (phase composition, particle size, and shape and high reproducibility. The SFTR has been developed to overcome the classical problems of powder production scale-up from batch processes, which are mainly linked with mass and heat transfer. Recently, the SFTR concept has been further developed and applied for the synthesis of metals, metal oxides, and salts in form of nano- or micro-particles in organic solvents. This has been done by increasing the working temperature and modifying the particle carrying solvent. In this paper we summarize the experimental results for four materials prepared according to the polyol synthesis route combined with the SFTR. CeO2, Ni, Ag, and Ca3(PO42 nanoparticles (NPs can be obtained with a production rate of about 1–10 g per h. The production was carried out for several hours with constant product quality. These findings further corroborate the reliability and versatility of the SFTR for high throughput powder production.

  10. Reduction of titanium dioxide and other metal oxides by electro-deoxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fray, Derek J.

    2003-01-01

    Titanium dioxide and other reactive metal compounds are reduced by more reactive metals to form pure metals. These, are expensive and time consuming processes which makes these metals very expensive. Many of these metals and alloys have excellent properties, high strength, low density and very good corrosion resistance, but their use is restricted by its high cost. Electro-deoxidation is a very simple technique where an oxide is made cathodic in a fused salt of an alkaline earth chloride. By applying a voltage, below the decomposition potential of the salt, it has been found that the cathodic reaction is the ionization of oxygen from the oxide to leave a pure metal, rather than the reduction of the ion alkaline earth ion element. Laboratory experiments have shown that this approach can be applied to the reduction of a large number of metal oxides. Another important observation is that when a mixture of oxides is used as the cathode, the product is an alloy of uniform composition. This is a considerable advantage for many alloys that are difficult to prepare using conventional technology. (Original)

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Double Metal Cyanide Complex Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilin Guo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of double metal cyanide (DMC complex catalysts were prepared in two different methods by using ß-cyclodextrin, PEG-1000 and Tween-60 as an additional complex ligands respectively. It was showed that a mixture of crystalline and amorphous DMC was synthesized by using traditional method in which the additional complex ligand was added after the precipitation of DMC. Amorphous and dispersed DMC with higher activity could be obtained when the additional complex ligand was added in the reactant solution before reaction. The effect of additional complex ligand and preparation method on the crystalline state and catalytic property of DMC were also investigated.

  12. β-Ga2O3 versus ε-Ga2O3: Control of the crystal phase composition of gallium oxide thin film prepared by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Yi; Chen, Zimin; Tu, Wenbin; Ma, Xuejin; Pei, Yanli; Wang, Gang

    2017-10-01

    Gallium oxide thin films of β and ε phase were grown on c-plane sapphire using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition and the phase compositions were analyzed using X-ray diffraction. The epitaxial phase diagram was constructed as a function of the growth temperature and VI/III ratio. A low growth temperature and low VI/III ratio were beneficial for the formation of hexagonal-type ε-Ga2O3. Further structure analysis revealed that the epitaxial relationship between ε-Ga2O3 and c-plane sapphire is ε-Ga2O3 (0001) || Al2O3 (0001) and ε-Ga2O3 || Al2O3 . The structural evolution of the mixed-phase sample during film thickening was investigated. By reducing the growth rate, the film evolved from a mixed phase to the energetically favored ε phase. Based on these results, a Ga2O3 thin film with a phase-pure ε-Ga2O3 upper layer was successfully obtained.

  13. Transition Metal Dopants Essential for Producing Ferromagnetism in Metal Oxide Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Lydia; Thurber, Aaron P.; Anghel, Josh; Sabetian, Maryam; Engelhard, Mark H.; Tenne, D.; Hanna, Charles; Punnoose, Alex

    2010-08-13

    Recent claims that ferromagnetism can be produced in nanoparticles of metal oxides without the presence of transition metal dopants has been refuted in this work by investigating 62 high quality well-characterized nanoparticle samples of both undoped and Fe doped (0-10% Fe) ZnO. The undoped ZnO nanoparticles showed zero or negligible magnetization, without any dependence on the nanoparticle size. However, chemically synthesized Zn₁₋xFexO nanoparticles showed clear ferromagnetism, varying systematically with Fe concentration. Furthermore, the magnetic properties of Zn₁₋xFexO nanoparticles showed strong dependence on the reaction media used to prepare the samples. The zeta potentials of the Zn₁₋xFexO nanoparticles prepared using different reaction media were significantly different, indicating strong differences in the surface structure. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies clearly showed that the difference in the ferromagnetic properties of Zn₁₋xFexO nanoparticles with different surface structures originate from differences in the fraction of the doped Fe³⁺ ions that are coupled ferromagnetically.

  14. Biocompatible nanocarriers that respond to oxidative environments via interactions between chitosan and multiple metal ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang S

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Shichang Zhang, Liye Xia, Chenchen Ding, Lu Wen, Weihua Wan, Gang Chen Department of Pharmaceutics, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 functions as an early damage signal contributing to the oxidative stress response and can act as a trigger in smart oxidation-responsive drug delivery systems that are currently in development. Current H2O2-triggered oxidation-responsive polymeric systems are usually derived from chemical synthesis and rarely include natural polymers. Herein, we report two series of nanoparticle (NP complexes prepared with the biopolymer chitosan (CS and four different metal ions (Cu2+, Ca2+, Zn2+, and Fe3+, defined as CSNPs-metal complexes (Series 1 and CS-metal complexes NPs (Series 2, which responded to oxidation by dissolving upon H2O2 exposure. Experiments examining Nile red release and H2O2-triggered degradation confirmed that both series of complexes showed better sensitivity to oxidation than the CSNPs alone. Furthermore, preliminary cytotoxicity and histological observations indicated that the two series exhibited little or no cytotoxicity and generated a mild inflammatory response. Our work provides a novel and promising strategy for developing NPs for use as intelligent oxidation-responsive systems. Keywords: oxidation-responsive system, chitosan, nanoparticles, hydrogen peroxide, metal complexes

  15. X-ray Absorption Study of Graphene Oxide and Transition Metal Oxide Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhiraman, Ram P; Nordlund, Dennis; Javier, Cristina; Koehne, Jessica E; Chen, Bin; Meyyappan, M

    2014-08-14

    The surface properties of the electrode materials play a crucial role in determining the performance and efficiency of energy storage devices. Graphene oxide and nanostructures of 3d transition metal oxides were synthesized for construction of electrodes in supercapacitors, and the electronic structure and oxidation states were probed using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure. Understanding the chemistry of graphene oxide would provide valuable insight into its reactivity and properties as the graphene oxide transformation to reduced-graphene oxide is a key step in the synthesis of the electrode materials. Polarized behavior of the synchrotron X-rays and the angular dependency of the near-edge X-ray absorption fine structures (NEXAFS) have been utilized to study the orientation of the σ and π bonds of the graphene oxide and graphene oxide-metal oxide nanocomposites. The core-level transitions of individual metal oxides and that of the graphene oxide nanocomposite showed that the interaction of graphene oxide with the metal oxide nanostructures has not altered the electronic structure of either of them. As the restoration of the π network is important for good electrical conductivity, the C K edge NEXAFS spectra of reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites confirms the same through increased intensity of the sp 2 -derived unoccupied states π* band. A pronounced angular dependency of the reduced sample and the formation of excitonic peaks confirmed the formation of extended conjugated network.

  16. Catalytic activity of metall-like carbides in carbon oxide oxidation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharlamov, A.I.; Kosolapova, T.Ya.; Rafal, A.N.; Kirillova, N.V.

    1980-01-01

    Kinetics of carbon oxide oxidation upon carbides of hafnium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, zirconium and chromium is studied. Probable mechanism of the catalysts action is suggested. The established character of the change of the carbide catalytic activity is explained by the change of d-electron contribution to the metal-metal interaction

  17. Preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity of oxidized κ-carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingjin; Ge, Liming; Lyu, Yongbo; Zi, Yaxin; Li, Xinying; Li, Defu; Mu, Changdao

    2017-10-15

    The oxidized κ-carrageenans with different oxidation levels were prepared through the hydrogen peroxide and copper sulfate redox system. The oxidation level of oxidized κ-carrageenan was successfully controlled by adjusting the dosage of hydrogen peroxide. The results showed that the microtopography of oxidized κ-carrageenan changed from rough granules to smooth flakes, mainly resulting from the easily melting property of oxidized κ-carrageenan induced by introduced carboxyl and aldehyde groups. Especially, the antibacterial activity of oxidized κ-carrageenans against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was systematically investigated. The results showed that the oxidized κ-carrageenan could damage the bacterial cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane and suppress the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The oxidized κ-carrageenan possessed broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, which may be used as a new antibacterial agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Solvent-Free Selective Oxidation of Toluene with O2 Catalyzed by Metal Cation Modified LDHs and Mixed Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of metal cation modified layered-double hydroxides (LDHs and mixed oxides were prepared and used to be the selective oxidation of toluene with O2. The results revealed that the modified LDHs exhibited much higher catalytic performance than their parent LDH and the modified mixed oxides. Moreover, the metal cations were also found to play important roles in the catalytic performance and stabilities of modified catalysts. Under the optimal reaction conditions, the highest toluene conversion reached 8.7% with 97.5% of the selectivity to benzyldehyde; moreover, the catalytic performance remained after nine catalytic runs. In addition, the reaction probably involved a free-radical mechanism.

  19. Synthesis and functionalisation of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles for theranostics

    OpenAIRE

    Mundell, VJ

    2013-01-01

    Metal and metal oxide nanoparticles including calcium oxide, gold, and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) were synthesised using a range of techniques including reduction, co-precipitation and spinning disc technology. SPIOs were primarily synthesised via a co-precipitation method using iron (II) chloride, iron (III) chloride and ammonia; a spinning disc reactor and gaseous ammonia were trialled successfully for scale up, producing spherical particles of 10-40 nm in diameter a...

  20. Mesoporous carbon incorporated metal oxide nanomaterials as supercapacitor electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Hao [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Ma, Jan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Li, Chunzhong [Key Laboratory for Ultrafine Materials of Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2012-08-08

    Supercapacitors have attracted huge attention in recent years as they have the potential to satisfy the demand of both huge energy and power density in many advanced technologies. However, poor conductivity and cycling stability remains to be the major challenge for its widespread application. Various strategies have been developed for meeting the ever-increasing energy and power demands in supercapacitors. This Research News article aims to review recent progress in the development of mesoporous carbon incorporated metal oxide nanomaterials, especially metal oxide nanoparticles confined in ordered mesoporous carbon and 1D metal oxides coated with a layer of mesoporous carbon for high-performance supercapacitor applications. In addition, a recent trend in supercapacitor development - hierarchical porous graphitic carbons (HPGC) combining macroporous cores, mesoporous walls, and micropores as an excellent support for metal oxides - is also discussed. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Electrochemical activity of heavy metal oxides in the process of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2002-02-02

    Feb 2, 2002 ... Electrochemical activity of heavy metal oxides in the process of chloride induced .... represents the protective barrier moderating the chloride attack which ... inhibitors and their influence on the physical properties of. Portland ...

  2. Heavy metal oxide glasses as gamma rays shielding material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Preet; Singh, Devinder; Singh, Tejbir

    2016-01-01

    The gamma rays shielding parameters for heavy metal oxide glasses and concrete samples are comparable. However, the transparent nature of glasses provides additional feature to visualize inside the shielding material. Hence, different researchers had contributed in computing/measuring different shielding parameters for different configurations of heavy metal oxide glass systems. In the present work, a detailed study on different heavy metal (_5_6Ba, _6_4Gd, _8_2Pb, _8_3Bi) oxide glasses has been presented on the basis of different gamma rays shielding parameters as reported by different researchers in the recent years. It has been observed that among the selected heavy metal oxide glass systems, Bismuth based glasses provide better gamma rays shielding. Hence, Bismuth based glasses can be better substitute to concrete walls at nuclear reactor sites and nuclear labs.

  3. Heavy metal oxide glasses as gamma rays shielding material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Preet; Singh, Devinder; Singh, Tejbir, E-mail: dr.tejbir@gmail.com

    2016-10-15

    The gamma rays shielding parameters for heavy metal oxide glasses and concrete samples are comparable. However, the transparent nature of glasses provides additional feature to visualize inside the shielding material. Hence, different researchers had contributed in computing/measuring different shielding parameters for different configurations of heavy metal oxide glass systems. In the present work, a detailed study on different heavy metal ({sub 56}Ba, {sub 64}Gd, {sub 82}Pb, {sub 83}Bi) oxide glasses has been presented on the basis of different gamma rays shielding parameters as reported by different researchers in the recent years. It has been observed that among the selected heavy metal oxide glass systems, Bismuth based glasses provide better gamma rays shielding. Hence, Bismuth based glasses can be better substitute to concrete walls at nuclear reactor sites and nuclear labs.

  4. Hydrogen chemisorption and oxidation of transition metal carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bethin, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    A study was made of the catalytic activity of WC, focusing on the possible influence of point defects. The chemisorption of H on WC and titanium oxycarbides was studied with differential scanning calorimetry. The catalytic activity of these materials for oxidation of H was determined by potentiostatic steady-state and potentiodynamic measurements in acid electrolyte. Compositions of WC surfaces were determined by x-ray photoemission and related to the catalytic behavior. Titanium oxycarbide surfaces were analyzed by Auger electron spectroscopy. Of the carbides tested only one WC preparation was able to chemisorb H. Both WC powders investigated catalyzed H oxidation with similar specific activities. Spectroscopic studies showed that the active surface of WC was a mixture of WO 3 and a carbon-deficient WC phase. This result indicates that carbon vacancies are the active sites in tungsten carbide. Theoretical models of a carbon vacancy surrounded by metal atoms suggested by calculations by other workers support this assignment and identify the important role of the W6s level. The measured value of the heat of chemisorption is consistent with the proposed model

  5. Preparation of Dispersion-Hardened Copper by Internal Oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, Povl; Sørensen, Ole Toft

    1978-01-01

    Internal oxidation experiments in CO2/CO atmospheres on Cu-Al alloys for preparation of dispersion-hardened Cu are described. The oxygen pressures of the atmospheres used in the experiments were controlled with a solid electrolyte oxygen cell based on ZrO2 (CaO). The particle size distributions o...

  6. Preparation of polymers suitable for radiation shielding and studying its properties (polyester composites with heavy metals salts)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharita, M. H.; Al-Ajji, Z.; Yousef, S.

    2010-12-01

    Four composites were prepared in this work, based on polyester and heavy metals oxides and salts. The attenuation properties, as well as mechanical properties were studied, and the chemical stability was evaluated. It has been shown, that these composites can be used in radiation shielding for X-rays successfully, and the exact composition of these composites can be optimized according to the radiation energy to prepare the lightest possible shield. (author)

  7. Metallization of uranium oxide powders by lithium reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I. S.; Seo, J. S.; Oh, S. C.; Hong, S. S.; Lee, W. K.

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory scale experiments on the reduction of uranium oxide powders into metal by lithium were performed in order to determine the equipment setup and optimum operation conditions. The method of filtration using the porous magnesia filter was introduced to recover uranium metal powders produced. Based on the laboratory scale experimental results, mock-up scale (20 kg U/batch) metallizer was designed and made. The applicability to the metallization process was estimated with respect to the thermal stability of the porous magnesia filter in the high temperature molten salt, the filtration of the fine uranium metal powders, and the operability of the equipment

  8. Preparation of microcellular foam in cylindrical metal targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apen, P.G.; Armstrong, S.V.; Moore, J.E.; Espinoza, B.F.; Gurule, V.; Gobby, P.L.; Williams, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The preparation of microcellular foam in cylindrical gold targets is described. The goal cylinders were fabricated by electroplating gold onto a silicon bronze mandrel and leaching the mandrel with concentrated nitric acid. After several rinsing and cleaning steps, the cylinders were filled with a solution containing trimethylolpropanetriacrylate (TMPTA). Low density, microcellular polymeric foam was prepared by in situ photopolymerization of the TMPTA solution. Foam preparation was extremely sensitive to metal ion contaminants. In particular, copper ions left behind from the leaching process inhibit polymerization and must be removed in order to obtain uniform, non-shrinking foams. A study on the effects of potential contaminants and polymerization inhibitors on TMPTA photopolymerization is presented. In addition, a procedure for the effective leaching and cleaning of gold cylinders is described

  9. Meso-/Nanoporous Semiconducting Metal Oxides for Gas Sensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Duc Hoa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and/or design of new materials and/or structures for effective gas sensor applications with fast response and high sensitivity, selectivity, and stability are very important issues in the gas sensor technology. This critical review introduces our recent progress in the development of meso-/nanoporous semiconducting metal oxides and their applications to gas sensors. First, the basic concepts of resistive gas sensors and the recent synthesis of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides for gas sensor applications are introduced. The advantages of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides are also presented, taking into account the crystallinity and ordered/disordered porous structures. Second, the synthesis methods of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides including the soft-template, hard-template, and temple-free methods are introduced, in which the advantages and disadvantages of each synthetic method are figured out. Third, the applications of meso-/nanoporous metal oxides as gas sensors are presented. The gas nanosensors are designed based on meso-/nanoporous metal oxides for effective detection of toxic gases. The sensitivity, selectivity, and stability of the meso-/nanoporous gas nanosensors are also discussed. Finally, some conclusions and an outlook are presented.

  10. Reductive mineralization of cellulose with vanadium, iron and tungsten chlorides and access to MxOy metal oxides and MxOy/C metal oxide/carbon composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Aurélien; Hesemann, Peter; Alauzun, Johan G; Boury, Bruno

    2017-10-15

    M x O y and M x O y /C composites (M=V, Fe and W) were obtained by mineralization of cellulose with several metal chlorides. Cellulose was used both as a templating agent and as an oxygen and a carbon source. Soluble chloride molecules (VOCl 3 and WCl 6 ) and a poorly soluble ionic chloride compound (FeCl 3 ) were chosen as metal oxide precursors. In a first time, primary metal oxide/cellulose composites were obtained via a thermal treatment by reacting urea impregnated filter paper with the corresponding metal chlorides in an autoclave at 150°C after 3days. After either pyrolysis or calcination steps of these intermediate materials, interesting metal oxides with various morphologies were obtained (V 2 O 5, V 2 O 3 , Fe 3 O 4 , WO 3, H 0.23 WO 3 ), composites (V 2 O 3 /C) as well as carbides (hexagonal W 2 C and WC, Fe 3 C) This result highlight the reductive role that can play cellulose during the pyrolysis step that allows to tune the composition of M x O y /C composites. The materials were characterized by FTIR, Raman, TGA, XRD and SEM. This study highlights that cellulose can be used for a convenient preparation of a variety of highly demanded M x O y and M x O y /C composites with original shapes and morphologies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Controlled metal nitrate decomposition for the preparation of supported metal Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, M.

    2010-01-01

    High surface area supported metal (oxide) catalysts are essential for the production of fuels, chemicals, pharmaceuticals and the abatement of environmental pollution. Impregnation of high surface area supports, often silica or alumina, followed by drying, calcination and reduction is one of the

  12. Comparative metal oxide nanoparticle toxicity using embryonic zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah C. Wehmas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Engineered metal oxide nanoparticles (MO NPs are finding increasing utility in the medical field as anticancer agents. Before validation of in vivo anticancer efficacy can occur, a better understanding of whole-animal toxicity is required. We compared the toxicity of seven widely used semiconductor MO NPs made from zinc oxide (ZnO, titanium dioxide, cerium dioxide and tin dioxide prepared in pure water and in synthetic seawater using a five-day embryonic zebrafish assay. We hypothesized that the toxicity of these engineered MO NPs would depend on physicochemical properties. Significant agglomeration of MO NPs in aqueous solutions is common making it challenging to associate NP characteristics such as size and charge with toxicity. However, data from our agglomerated MO NPs suggests that the elemental composition and dissolution potential are major drivers of toxicity. Only ZnO caused significant adverse effects of all MO particles tested, and only when prepared in pure water (point estimate median lethal concentration = 3.5–9.1 mg/L. This toxicity was life stage dependent. The 24 h toxicity increased greatly (∼22.7 fold when zebrafish exposures started at the larval life stage compared to the 24 h toxicity following embryonic exposure. Investigation into whether dissolution could account for ZnO toxicity revealed high levels of zinc ion (40–89% of total sample were generated. Exposure to zinc ion equivalents revealed dissolved Zn2+ may be a major contributor to ZnO toxicity.

  13. Conductometric gas sensors based on metal oxides modified with gold nanoparticles: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotcenkov, Ghenadii; Cho, Beong K.; Brinzari, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    This review (with 170 refs.) discusses approaches towards surface functionalizaton of metal oxides by gold nanoparticles, and the application of the resulting nanomaterials in resistive gas sensors. The articles is subdivided into sections on (a) methods for modification of metal oxides with gold nanoparticles; (b) the response of gold nanoparticle-modified metal oxide sensors to gaseous species, (c) a discussion of the limitations of such sensors, and (d) a discussion on future tasks and trends along with an outlook. It is shown that, in order to achieve significant improvements in sensor parameters, it is necessary to warrant a good control the size and density of gold nanoparticles on the surface of metal oxide crystallites, the state of gold in the cluster, and the properties of the metal oxide support. Current challenges include an improved reproducibility of sensor preparation, better long-term stabilities, and a better resistance to sintering and poisoning of gold clusters during operation. Additional research focused on better understanding the role of gold clusters and nanoparticles in gas-sensing effects is also required. (author)

  14. Unified computational model of transport in metal-insulating oxide-metal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, B. D.; Hjalmarson, H. P.; Jacobs-Gedrim, R. B.; Agarwal, Sapan; James, C. D.; Marinella, M. J.

    2018-04-01

    A unified physics-based model of electron transport in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) systems is presented. In this model, transport through metal-oxide interfaces occurs by electron tunneling between the metal electrodes and oxide defect states. Transport in the oxide bulk is dominated by hopping, modeled as a series of tunneling events that alter the electron occupancy of defect states. Electron transport in the oxide conduction band is treated by the drift-diffusion formalism and defect chemistry reactions link all the various transport mechanisms. It is shown that the current-limiting effect of the interface band offsets is a function of the defect vacancy concentration. These results provide insight into the underlying physical mechanisms of leakage currents in oxide-based capacitors and steady-state electron transport in resistive random access memory (ReRAM) MIM devices. Finally, an explanation of ReRAM bipolar switching behavior based on these results is proposed.

  15. Interaction of calcium oxide with molten alkali metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkovich, A.V.; Zhuravlev, V.I.; Ermakov, D.S.; Magurina, M.V.

    1999-01-01

    Calcium oxide solubility in molten lithium, sodium, potassium, cesium chlorides and their binary mixtures is determined in a temperature range of 973-1173 K by the method of isothermal saturation. Mechanisms of calcium oxide interaction with molten alkali metal chlorides are proposed

  16. An economic route to mass production of graphene oxide solution for preparing graphene oxide papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Yan-Jia; Tsai, Bo-Da; Huang, Wu-Jang, E-mail: wjhuang@mail.npust.edu.tw

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide paper can be prepared from synthesized graphene sheet containing carbon materials. • Graphene oxide paper can be used as a phase change materials for thermal storage. • To prepare graphene oxide paper from synthesized graphene sheet containing carbon materials could highly reduce the cost. - Abstract: Graphene oxide paper (GOP) is a composite material fabricated from graphene oxide (GO) solution. In addition, it can be a novel and potential material for application on the separation of water vapor from gaseous steam or larger alkali ions from aqueous solution. GOP could be used as electricity and thermal storage materials. The preparation of GO commonly uses high purity natural or artificial graphite. It is difficult to prepare GOP from artificial graphite powder due to the cost of $1,450 US/ton. In this study, we tried to prepare GOPs from homemade graphene sheets containing carbon materials (GSCCMs) and evaluate the thermal properties of GSCCM derived GOPs. Results show that GSCCM derived GOPs have a higher phase transition temperature, and the average mesophase phase change enthalpy is 9.41 J/g, which is 2.87 times higher than graphite derived GOP. Therefore, to prepare GOP from GSCCMs could highly reduce the cost.

  17. Gas-generated thermal oxidation of a coordination cluster for an anion-doped mesoporous metal oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Kenji; Isobe, Shigehito; Sada, Kazuki

    2015-12-18

    Central in material design of metal oxides is the increase of surface area and control of intrinsic electronic and optical properties, because of potential applications for energy storage, photocatalysis and photovoltaics. Here, we disclose a facile method, inspired by geochemical process, which gives rise to mesoporous anion-doped metal oxides. As a model system, we demonstrate that simple calcination of a multinuclear coordination cluster results in synchronic chemical reactions: thermal oxidation of Ti8O10(4-aminobenzoate)12 and generation of gases including amino-group fragments. The gas generation during the thermal oxidation of Ti8O10(4-aminobenzoate)12 creates mesoporosity in TiO2. Concurrently, nitrogen atoms contained in the gases are doped into TiO2, thus leading to the formation of mesoporous N-doped TiO2. The mesoporous N-doped TiO2 can be easily synthesized by calcination of the multinuclear coordination cluster, but shows better photocatalytic activity than the one prepared by a conventional sol-gel method. Owing to an intrinsic designability of coordination compounds, this facile synthetic will be applicable to a wide range of metal oxides and anion dopants.

  18. Interactions of hydrogen isotopes and oxides with metal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G. R.; Cleaver, J.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding and accounting for interaction of hydrogen isotopes and their oxides with metal surfaces is important for persons working with tritium systems. Reported data from several investigators have shown that the processes of oxidation, adsorption, absorption, and permeation are all coupled and interactive. A computer model has been developed for predicting the interaction of hydrogen isotopes and their corresponding oxides in a flowing carrier gas stream with the walls of a metallic tube, particularly at low hydrogen concentrations. An experiment has been constructed to validate the predictive model. Predictions from modeling lead to unexpected experiment results. (authors)

  19. Interactions of hydrogen isotopes and oxides with metal tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, G. R. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3860 (United States); Cleaver, J. [Idaho State Univ., 921 South 8th Avenue, Pocatello, ID 83201 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    Understanding and accounting for interaction of hydrogen isotopes and their oxides with metal surfaces is important for persons working with tritium systems. Reported data from several investigators have shown that the processes of oxidation, adsorption, absorption, and permeation are all coupled and interactive. A computer model has been developed for predicting the interaction of hydrogen isotopes and their corresponding oxides in a flowing carrier gas stream with the walls of a metallic tube, particularly at low hydrogen concentrations. An experiment has been constructed to validate the predictive model. Predictions from modeling lead to unexpected experiment results. (authors)

  20. Interactions of Hydrogen Isotopes and Oxides with Metal Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, Glen R.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding and accounting for interaction of hydrogen isotopes and their oxides with metal surfaces is important for persons working with tritium systems. Reported data from several investigators have shown that the processes of oxidation, adsorption, absorption, and permeation are all coupled and interactive. A computer model has been developed for predicting the interaction of hydrogen isotopes and their corresponding oxides in a flowing carrier gas stream with the walls of a metallic tube, particularly at low hydrogen concentrations. An experiment has been constructed to validate the predictive model. Predictions from modeling lead to unexpected experiment results

  1. Sol-Gel/Hydrothermal Synthesis of Mixed Metal Oxide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Nanocomposites, Titanium dioxide, Zinc oxide, Particle sizes, Optical property, X-Ray Diffraction. ABSTRACT. 321 .... holey carbon support film were used to prepare the samples for SEM .... absorb photons in the visible range of the.

  2. Room temperature plasma oxidation: A new process for preparation of ultrathin layers of silicon oxide, and high dielectric constant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinoco, J.C.; Estrada, M.; Baez, H.; Cerdeira, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present basic features and oxidation law of the room temperature plasma oxidation (RTPO), as a new process for preparation of less than 2 nm thick layers of SiO 2 , and high-k layers of TiO 2 . We show that oxidation rate follows a potential law dependence on oxidation time. The proportionality constant is function of pressure, plasma power, reagent gas and plasma density, while the exponent depends only on the reactive gas. These parameters are related to the physical phenomena occurring inside the plasma, during oxidation. Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) capacitors fabricated with these layers are characterized by capacitance-voltage, current-voltage and current-voltage-temperature measurements. Less than 2.5 nm SiO 2 layers with surface roughness similar to thermal oxide films, surface state density below 3 x 10 11 cm -2 and current density in the expected range for each corresponding thickness, were obtained by RTPO in a parallel-plate reactor, at 180 mW/cm 2 and pressure range between 9.33 and 66.5 Pa (0.07 and 0.5 Torr) using O 2 and N 2 O as reactive gases. MOS capacitors with TiO 2 layers formed by RTPO of sputtered Ti layers are also characterized. Finally, MOS capacitors with stacked layers of TiO 2 over SiO 2 , both layers obtained by RTPO, were prepared and evaluated to determine the feasibility of the use of TiO 2 as a candidate for next technology nodes

  3. The base metal of the oxide-coated cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poret, F.; Roquais, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    The oxide-coated cathode has been the most widely used electron emitter in vacuum electronic devices. From one manufacturing company to another the emissive oxide is either a double-Ba, Sr-or a triple-Ba, Sr, Ca-oxide, having always the same respective compositions. Conversely, the base metal composition is very often proprietary because of its importance in the cathode emission performances. The present paper aims at explaining the operation of the base metal through a review. After a brief introduction, the notion of activator is detailed along with their diffusivities and their associated interfacial compounds. Then, the different cathode life models are described prior to few comments on the composition choice of a base metal. Finally, the specificities of the RCA/Thomson 'bimetal' base metal are presented with a discussion on the optimized composition choice illustrated by a long-term life-test of five different melts

  4. Metal Oxide/Graphene Composites for Supercapacitive Electrode Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Gyoung Hwa; Baek, Seungmin; Lee, Seungyeol; Kim, Sang-Wook

    2016-04-05

    Graphene composites with metal or metal oxide nanoparticles have been extensively investigated owing to their potential applications in the fields of fuel cells, batteries, sensing, solar cells, and catalysis. Among them, much research has focused on supercapacitor applications and have come close to realization. Composites include monometal oxides of cobalt, nickel, manganese, and iron, as well as their binary and ternary oxides. In addition, their morphological control and hybrid systems of carbon nanotubes have also been investigated. This review presents the current trends in research on metal oxide/graphene composites for supercapacitors. Furthermore, methods are suggested to improve the properties of electrochemical capacitor electrodes. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Enhanced metal recovery through oxidation in liquid and/or supercritical carbon dioxide

    KAUST Repository

    Blanco, Mario; Buttner, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Process for enhanced metal recovery from, for example, metal-containing feedstock using liquid and/or supercritical fluid carbon dioxide and a source of oxidation. The oxidation agent can be free of complexing agent. The metal-containing feedstock

  6. Ionic liquid-modified metal sulfides/graphene oxide nanocomposites for photoelectric conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yù; Pei, Qi; Feng, Ting; Mao, Hui; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Shuyao; Liu, Daliang; Wang, Hongyu; Song, Xi-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Metal sulfide (CdS, ZnS, Ag 2 S)/GO nanocomposites were prepared by electrostatic adherence. • Ionic liquid was used to link the metal sulfide and GO in the electrostatic adherence process. • The as-prepared samples showed enhanced photocurrent and highly efficient photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation. - Abstract: Ionic liquid-modified metal sulfides/graphene oxide nanocomposites are prepared via a facile electrostatic adsorption. Ionic liquid (IL) is firstly used as surface modifier and structure-directing agent of metal sulfide (MS) crystallization process, obtaining ionic liquid modified-MS (IL-MS) nanoparticles with positive charges on surface. IL-MS/GO is obtained by electrostatic adherence between positively charged IL-MS and negatively charged graphene oxide (GO). The as-prepared sample shows enhanced photocurrent and highly efficient photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation, indicating IL-MS/GO nanocomposites greatly promoted the separation of photogenerated electron–hole pairs

  7. Synthesis and characterization of metal - metal oxide nano structured electrode materials for electrolysis of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoevska-Gogovska, Dafinka

    2012-01-01

    The goal in this Ph.D. study was to prepare hypo-hyper r f-electrocatalysts (aimed for water splitting) without or with reduced precious metals load and then to characterize them, i.e. to prove whether the goal was fulfilled. The synthesized electrocatalysts contain metallic (10% wt.) and metal-oxide phase (18% wt.), applied on a carrier (72% wt). The metallic phase was mainly cobalt one, varied from 0%, 50% wt., 80% wt. and 100%, (the rest up to 100% wt. being Ru). Only in one case the metallic phase contained 3 different metals, i.e. Co, Ru and Pt in a proportion of 80% : 10% : 10%, respectively. Metal oxide phase was TiO 2 (as a crystalline anatase) deposited on a carrier of multi walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs). MWCNTs were pre-activated in 28% nitric acid and effect of the activation process was studied, as well. As a reference electro catalyst for hydrogen evolution reaction, corresponding catalyst with metallic phase of pure Pt was prepared. The prepared electrocatalysts were structurally characterized by means of a number of contemporary experimental techniques. So, by means of X-ray Diffraction Analysis (XRD) the crystal state of each catalyst’s phase was determined, and the size of crystal grains was estimated. So, for Pt particles it was found that the size changes from 12 nm, in a systems with Pt as the only metal phase, to 3÷4 nm in systems that contain Co (Co:Pt = 1:1 or 4:1). It was determined as well that the anatase particles size in all synthesized catalysts is cca 4 nm. By means of Photoelectron Microscopy (XPS), the bond energy of catalyst’s components was determined, and the extent of interaction was estimated. The components oxidation state was estimated according to their peak amplitude in the XPS spectrum. So, for the carbon the peaks were identified that indicate the existence of double bond (C=C), as well as C-O, C=0 (and/or C-OH), -0-0*0 and (COO) bonds. The shift of the metallic Ru bond energy was attributed to the existence of

  8. Metal oxide nanostructures and their gas sensing properties: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bo; Meng, Fan-Li; Liu, Jin-Yun; Jin, Zhen; Kong, Ling-Tao; Liu, Jin-Huai

    2012-01-01

    Metal oxide gas sensors are predominant solid-state gas detecting devices for domestic, commercial and industrial applications, which have many advantages such as low cost, easy production, and compact size. However, the performance of such sensors is significantly influenced by the morphology and structure of sensing materials, resulting in a great obstacle for gas sensors based on bulk materials or dense films to achieve highly-sensitive properties. Lots of metal oxide nanostructures have been developed to improve the gas sensing properties such as sensitivity, selectivity, response speed, and so on. Here, we provide a brief overview of metal oxide nanostructures and their gas sensing properties from the aspects of particle size, morphology and doping. When the particle size of metal oxide is close to or less than double thickness of the space-charge layer, the sensitivity of the sensor will increase remarkably, which would be called "small size effect", yet small size of metal oxide nanoparticles will be compactly sintered together during the film coating process which is disadvantage for gas diffusion in them. In view of those reasons, nanostructures with many kinds of shapes such as porous nanotubes, porous nanospheres and so on have been investigated, that not only possessed large surface area and relatively mass reactive sites, but also formed relatively loose film structures which is an advantage for gas diffusion. Besides, doping is also an effective method to decrease particle size and improve gas sensing properties. Therefore, the gas sensing properties of metal oxide nanostructures assembled by nanoparticles are reviewed in this article. The effect of doping is also summarized and finally the perspectives of metal oxide gas sensor are given.

  9. Oxidation of Ethylene Carbonate on Li Metal Oxide Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Thomas M.; Giordano, Livia; Castelli, Ivano Eligio

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the reactivity of the cathode surface is of key importance to the development of batteries. Here, density functional theory is applied to investigate the oxidative decomposition of the electrolyte component, ethylene carbonate (EC), on layered LixMO(2) oxide surfaces. We compare...

  10. Oxidative desulfurization of benzene fraction on transition metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boikov, E. B.; Vishnetskaya, M. V.

    2013-02-01

    It is established that molecular oxygen is able to oxidize thiophene selectively in a mixture with benzene on V2O5 · MoO3. The introduction of thiophene inhibits the oxidation of benzene. It is shown that the conversion of thiophene during operation of the catalyst is reduced at first and then increases until it reaches its initial value.

  11. Is Neurotoxicity of Metallic Nanoparticles the Cascades of Oxidative Stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bin; Zhang, YanLi; Liu, Jia; Feng, XiaoLi; Zhou, Ting; Shao, LongQuan

    2016-06-01

    With the rapid development of nanotechnology, metallic (metal or metal oxide) nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in many fields such as cosmetics, the food and building industries, and bio-medical instruments. Widespread applications of metallic NP-based products increase the health risk associated with human exposures. Studies revealed that the brain, a critical organ that consumes substantial amounts of oxygen, is a primary target of metallic NPs once they are absorbed into the body. Oxidative stress (OS), apoptosis, and the inflammatory response are believed to be the main mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs. Other studies have disclosed that antioxidant pretreatment or co-treatment can reverse the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs by decreasing the level of reactive oxygen species, up-regulating the activities of antioxidant enzymes, decreasing the proportion of apoptotic cells, and suppressing the inflammatory response. These findings suggest that the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs might involve a cascade of events following NP-induced OS. However, additional research is needed to determine whether NP-induced OS plays a central role in the neurotoxicity of metallic NPs, to develop a comprehensive understanding of the correlations among neurotoxic mechanisms and to improve the bio-safety of metallic NP-based products.

  12. Characterization of tin oxide nanoparticles synthesized via oxidation from metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abruzzi, R.C.; Dedavid, B.A.; Pires, M.J.R.; Streicher, M.

    2014-01-01

    The tin oxide (SnO_2) is a promising material with great potential for applications such as gas sensors and catalysts. This oxide nanostructures show higher activation efficiency due to its larger effective surface. This paper presents the synthesis and characterization of the tin oxide in different conditions, via oxidation of pure tin with nitric acid. Results obtained from the characterization of SnO_2 powder by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX), Particle size by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that the conditions were suitable for the synthesis to obtain manometric tin oxide granules with crystalline structure of rutile. (author)

  13. Oxidation behaviour of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Bin

    2011-01-01

    The Zr-based bulk metallic glasses, developed since the late 1980's, have very interesting mechanical properties, which can be considered for many applications including working under oxidizing atmosphere conditions at high temperatures. It is therefore interesting to study their oxidation resistance and to characterize the oxide scale formed on alloys surface. The fundamental objective of this thesis is to enhance the understanding of the role of various thermodynamic and chemistry parameters on the oxidation behaviour of the Zr-based bulk metallic glasses at high temperature under dry air, to determine the residual stresses in the oxide layer, in comparison with their crystalline alloys with the same chemical composition after an annealing treatment. The oxidation kinetics of these glasses and the crystalline structure of oxide scale ZrO 2 depend on the temperature and the oxidation duration: for short periods of oxidation or at a temperature below Tg, the kinetics follows a parabolic law, whereas, if the sample is oxidized at T ≥ Tg, the kinetics can be divided into two parts. The crystalline counterparts are oxidized by a parabolic rule whatever the temperature; for long oxidation duration at a temperature close to Tg, the kinetics becomes more complex because of the crystallisation of the glasses during the oxidation tests. Also the crystalline structure of the oxide layers depends on the oxidation temperature: the oxide layer consists only in tetragonal Zirconia at T ≤ Tg, while monoclinic Zirconia was formed at higher temperature. The mechanism of the formation of the oxide scale is due to both the interior diffusion of Oxygen ions and the external diffusion of Zirconium ions. However the diffusion of Zirconium ions slows gradually during the crystallisation process of the glass matrix. When the crystallisation is completed, the formation of Zirconia is controlled by only the internal diffusion of oxygen ions. The corresponding residual stresses

  14. Heterogeneous Metal Catalysts for Oxidation Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Eaqub Ali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidation reactions may be considered as the heart of chemical synthesis. However, the indiscriminate uses of harsh and corrosive chemicals in this endeavor are threating to the ecosystems, public health, and terrestrial, aquatic, and aerial flora and fauna. Heterogeneous catalysts with various supports are brought to the spotlight because of their excellent capabilities to accelerate the rate of chemical reactions with low cost. They also minimize the use of chemicals in industries and thus are friendly and green to the environment. However, heterogeneous oxidation catalysis are not comprehensively presented in literature. In this short review, we clearly depicted the current state of catalytic oxidation reactions in chemical industries with specific emphasis on heterogeneous catalysts. We outlined here both the synthesis and applications of important oxidation catalysts. We believe it would serve as a reference guide for the selection of oxidation catalysts for both industries and academics.

  15. X-ray Absorption Study of Graphene Oxide and Transition Metal Oxide Nanocomposites

    OpenAIRE

    Gandhiraman, Ram P.; Nordlund, Dennis; Javier, Cristina; Koehne, Jessica E.; Chen, Bin; Meyyappan, M.

    2014-01-01

    The surface properties of the electrode materials play a crucial role in determining the performance and efficiency of energy storage devices. Graphene oxide and nanostructures of 3d transition metal oxides were synthesized for construction of electrodes in supercapacitors, and the electronic structure and oxidation states were probed using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure. Understanding the chemistry of graphene oxide would provide valuable insight into its reactivity and properties...

  16. Gas phase deposition of oxide and metal-oxide coatings on fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patokin, A.P.; Khrebtov, V.L.; Shirokov, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Production processes and properties of oxide (Al 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 ) and metal-oxide (Mo-Al 2 O 3 , Mo-ZrO 2 , W-Al 2 O 3 , W-ZrO 2 ) coatings on molybdenum substrates and uranium dioxide fuel particles were investigated. It is shown that the main factors that have an effect on the deposition rate, density, microstructure and other properties of coatings are the deposition temperature, the ratio of H 2 and CO 2 flow rates, the total reactor pressure and the ratio of partial pressures of corresponding metal chlorides during formation of metal-oxide coatings

  17. Preparation of self-supporting metallic foils of nickel isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugai, Isao.

    1975-01-01

    This is the fourth report on the practical methods of target preparation for use in low energy nuclear experiments following the previous one (INS-J-150). An electroplating method has been developed as a dependable and reproducible technique for making self-supporting metallic foils of nickel in the thickness range of 0.5 to 10 mg/cm 2 . The procedures minimized the necessary amount of material so that nickel isotopes could be processed economically. Impurity contamination of the nickel foils during the electroplating process was less than 500 ppm, and the thickness variation in each foil was less than 3% of the central thickness. (auth.)

  18. Methods of making metal oxide nanostructures and methods of controlling morphology of same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Stanislaus S; Hongjun, Zhou

    2012-11-27

    The present invention includes a method of producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure. The method comprises providing a metal salt solution and providing a basic solution; placing a porous membrane between the metal salt solution and the basic solution, wherein metal cations of the metal salt solution and hydroxide ions of the basic solution react, thereby producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure.

  19. Enzymatic biosensors based on the use of metal oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xinhao; Gu, Wei; Li, Bingyu; Chen, Ningning; Zhao, Kai; Xian, Yuezhong

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, various techniques have been developed to obtain materials at a nanoscale level to design biosensors with high sensitivity, selectivity and efficiency. Metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) are of particular interests and have received much attention because of their unique physical, chemical and catalytic properties. This review summarizes the progress made in enzymatic biosensors based on the use of MONPs. Synthetic methods, strategies for immobilization, and the functions of MONPs in enzymatic biosensing systems are reviewed and discussed. The article is subdivided into sections on enzymatic biosensors based on (a) zinc oxide nanoparticles, (b) titanium oxide nanoparticles, (c) iron oxide nanoparticles, and (d) other metal oxide nanoparticles. While substantial advances have been made in MONPs-based enzymatic biosensors, their applications to real samples still lie ahead because issues such as reproducibility and sensor stability have to be solved. (author)

  20. Oxidation stability of biodiesel fuel as prepared by supercritical methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiayu Xin; Hiroaki Imahara; Shiro Saka [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Department of Socio-Environmental Energy Science, Graduate School of Energy Science

    2008-08-15

    A non-catalytic supercritical methanol method is an attractive process to convert various oils/fats efficiently into biodiesel. To evaluate oxidation stability of biodiesel, biodiesel produced by alkali-catalyzed method was exposed to supercritical methanol at several temperatures for 30 min. As a result, it was found that the tocopherol in biodiesel is not stable at a temperature higher than 300{sup o}C. After the supercritical methanol treatment, hydroperoxides were greatly reduced for biodiesel with initially high in peroxide value, while the tocopherol slightly decreased in its content. As a result, the biodiesel prepared by the supercritical methanol method was enhanced for oxidation stability when compared with that prepared by alkali-catalyzed method from waste oil. Therefore, supercritical methanol method is useful especially for oils/fats having higher peroxide values. 32 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Preparation and characterization of sugar cane bagasse fiber modified with nanoparticles of zirconium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, K.C.C. de; Mulinari, D.R.; Voorwald, H.C.J.; Cioffi, M.O.H.

    2010-01-01

    The sugar cane bagasse fiber are renewable materials and have great application potential when used as reinforcement in a polymer matrix to give rise to composite materials and as supports for adsorption of heavy metals. This paper therefore describes the preparation and characterization of bleached and hydrated zirconium oxide modified sugar cane bagasse fiber by conventional precipitation method. Through the technique of electron microscopy we observed the presence of oxide nanoparticles on the fiber surface, proving the efficiency of the conventional precipitation method. With the X-ray diffraction analysis it was determined a decrease of 6.2% in the crystallinity index of modified fibers when compared to the bleached fibers showing the deposition of amorphous zirconium oxide on the fiber surface. (author)

  2. Oxidation Characteristics and Electrical Properties of Doped Mn-Co Spinel Reaction Layer for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Metal Interconnects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pingyi Guo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To prevent Cr poisoning of the cathode and to retain high conductivity during solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC operation, Cu or La doped Co-Mn coatings on a metallic interconnect is deposited and followed by oxidation at 750 °C. Microstructure and composition of coatings after preparation and oxidation is analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. High energy micro arc alloying process, a low cost technique, is used to prepare Cu or La doped Co-Mn coatings with the metallurgical bond. When coatings oxidized at 750 °C in air for 20 h and 100 h, Co3O4 is the main oxide on the surface of Co-38Mn-2La and Co-40Mn coatings, and (Co,Mn3O4 spinel continues to grow with extended oxidation time. The outmost scales of Co-33Mn-17Cu are mainly composed of cubic MnCo2O4 spinel with Mn2O3 after oxidation for 20 h and 100 h. The average thickness of oxide coatings is about 60–70 μm after oxidation for 100 h, except that Co-40Mn oxide coatings are a little thicker. Area-specific resistance of Cu/La doped Co-Mn coatings are lower than that of Co-40Mn coating. (Mn,Co3O4/MnCo2O4 spinel layer is efficient at blocking the outward diffusion of chromium and iron.

  3. Initial stages of high temperature metal oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.Y.; O'Grady, W.E.

    1981-01-01

    The application of XPS and UPS to the study of the initial stages of high temperature (> 350 0 C) electrochemical oxidation of iron and nickel is discussed. In the high temperature experiments, iron and nickel electrodes were electrochemically oxidized in contact with a solid oxide electrolyte in the uhv system. The great advantages of this technique are that the oxygen activity at the interface may be precisely controlled and the ability to run the reactions in uhv allows the simultaneous observation of the reactions by XPS

  4. Are metallothioneins equally good biomarkers of metal and oxidative stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Etelvina; Branco, Diana; Antunes, Sara C; Gonçalves, Fernando; Freitas, Rosa

    2012-10-01

    Several researchers investigated the induction of metallothioneins (MTs) in the presence of metals, namely Cadmium (Cd). Fewer studies observed the induction of MTs due to oxidizing agents, and literature comparing the sensitivity of MTs to different stressors is even more scarce or even nonexistent. The role of MTs in metal and oxidative stress and thus their use as a stress biomarker, remains to be clearly elucidated. To better understand the role of MTs as a biomarker in Cerastoderma edule, a bivalve widely used as bioindicator, a laboratory assay was conducted aiming to assess the sensitivity of MTs to metal and oxidative stressors. For this purpose, Cd was used to induce metal stress, whereas hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), being an oxidizing compound, was used to impose oxidative stress. Results showed that induction of MTs occurred at very different levels in metal and oxidative stress. In the presence of the oxidizing agent (H2O2), MTs only increased significantly when the degree of oxidative stress was very high, and mortality rates were higher than 50 percent. On the contrary, C. edule survived to all Cd concentrations used and significant MTs increases, compared to the control, were observed in all Cd exposures. The present work also revealed that the number of ions and the metal bound to MTs varied with the exposure conditions. In the absence of disturbance, MTs bound most (60-70 percent) of the essential metals (Zn and Cu) in solution. In stressful situations, such as the exposure to Cd and H2O2, MTs did not bind to Cu and bound less to Zn. When organisms were exposed to Cd, the total number of ions bound per MT molecule did not change, compared to control. However the sort of ions bound per MT molecule differed; part of the Zn and all Cu ions where displaced by Cd ions. For organisms exposed to H2O2, each MT molecule bound less than half of the ions compared to control and Cd conditions, which indicates a partial oxidation of thiol groups in the cysteine

  5. Increasing the solar cell power output by coating with transition metal-oxide nanorods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, I.A.; Greenfield, M.J.; Mehta, Y.U.; Merchan-Merchan, W.; Salkar, G.; Saveliev, A.V.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Nanoparticles enhance solar cell efficiency. → Solar cell power increase by nanorod coating. → Metal-oxide nanorods are prepared in flames. → Molybdenum oxide nanorods effectively scatter light on solar cell surface. → Scattering efficiency depends on coating density. -- Abstract: Photovoltaic cells produce electric current through interactions among photons from an ambient light source and electrons in the semiconductor layer of the cell. However, much of the light incident on the panel is reflected or absorbed without inducing the photovoltaic effect. Transition metal-oxide nanoparticles, an inexpensive product of a process called flame synthesis, can cause scattering of light. Scattering can redirect photon flux, increasing the fraction of light absorbed in the thin active layer of silicon solar cells. This research aims to demonstrate that the application of transition metal-oxide nanorods to the surface of silicon solar panels can enhance the power output of the panels. Several solar panels were coated with a nanoparticle-methanol suspension, and the power outputs of the panels before and after the treatment were compared. The results demonstrate an increase in power output of up to 5% after the treatment. The presence of metal-oxide nanorods on the surface of the coated solar cells is confirmed by electron microscopy.

  6. Electrochemical oxidation of phenol in a parallel plate reactor using ruthenium mixed metal oxide electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavuz, Yusuf [Anadolu Universitesi, Cevre Sor. Uyg. ve Aras. Merkezi, Eskisehir (Turkey); Koparal, A. Savas [Anadolu Universitesi, Cevre Sor. Uyg. ve Aras. Merkezi, Eskisehir (Turkey)]. E-mail: askopara@anadolu.edu.tr

    2006-08-21

    In this study, electrochemical oxidation of phenol was carried out in a parallel plate reactor using ruthenium mixed metal oxide electrode. The effects of initial pH, temperature, supporting electrolyte concentration, current density, flow rate and initial phenol concentration on the removal efficiency were investigated. Model wastewater prepared with distilled water and phenol, was recirculated to the electrochemical reactor by a peristaltic pump. Sodium sulfate was used as supporting electrolyte. The Microtox'' (registered) bioassay was also used to measure the toxicity of the model wastewater during the study. As a result of the study, removal efficiency of 99.7% and 88.9% were achieved for the initial phenol concentration of 200 mg/L and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 480 mg/L, respectively. In the same study, specific energy consumption of 1.88 kWh/g phenol removed and, mass transfer coefficient of 8.62 x 10{sup -6} m/s were reached at the current density of 15 mA/cm{sup 2}. Electrochemical oxygen demand (EOD), which can be defined as the amount of electrochemically formed oxygen used for the oxidation of organic pollutants, was 2.13 g O{sub 2}/g phenol. Electrochemical oxidation of petroleum refinery wastewater was also studied at the optimum experimental conditions obtained. Phenol removal of 94.5% and COD removal of 70.1% were reached at the current density of 20 mA/cm{sup 2} for the petroleum refinery wastewater.

  7. Study of Pd-Sn/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts prepared by an oxide colloidal route; Etude de catalyseurs Pd-Sn/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} prepares par voie colloidale oxyde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdier, St.

    2001-09-01

    The oxide colloidal route, developed in the laboratory for mono-metallic catalysts, consists in preparing a metallic oxide hydro-sol which leads to the supported catalyst after deposition onto a support and an activation stage. In this work, this method has been adapted to the preparation of alumina supported bimetallic Pd-Sn catalysts to determine its interest for the control of the properties of the bimetallic phase (size, composition and structure). In the preliminary study concerning tin oxide sols, SnO{sub 2} (size=2,3 nm) and Sn{sub 6}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 4} (size = 25 nm) nano-particles were synthesized by neutralization respectively for tin(IV) and tin(H). The control through the pH of the aggregation of the PdO and SnO{sub 2} particles revealed that increasing oxide solubility promotes integral re-dispersion of the oxide particles. To synthesize oxide bimetallic sols, three strategies were defined. Copolymerization (formation of a mixed oxide nano-sol by cross condensation of both metals) does not lead to a mixed oxide Pd-Sn phase. Surface precipitation (neutralization of the second metal in the presence of the first oxide sol) yields nano-particles of both oxides in close interaction. Adsorption (adsorption of the second metal onto the first oxide sol) significantly occurs when contacting tin with a basic PdO sol (hydrolytic adsorption). The characterization and the assessment of the catalytic properties (selective hydrogenation of buta-1,3-diene) of the catalysts prepared by deposition of oxide bimetallic sols showed that the oxide colloidal route allows the control of the properties of the supported bimetallic phase. Moreover, our results display that both Pd-Sn alloy formation and,aggregation of the metallic particles contribute to increase the selectivity for this reaction. (author)

  8. Syntheses of rare-earth metal oxide nanotubes by the sol-gel method assisted with porous anodic aluminum oxide templates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang Qin; Lin Zhiwei; Lian Wei; Jiang Zhiyuan; Xie Zhaoxiong; Huang Rongbin; Zheng Lansun

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we report a versatile synthetic method of ordered rare-earth metal (RE) oxide nanotubes. RE (RE=Y, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb) oxide nanotubes were successfully prepared from corresponding RE nitrate solution via the sol-gel method assisted with porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution TEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been employed to characterize the morphology and composition of the as-prepared nanotubes. It is found that as-prepared RE oxides evolve into bamboo-like nanotubes and entirely hollow nanotubes. A new possible formation mechanism of RE oxide nanotubes in the AAO channels is proposed. These high-quantity RE oxide nanotubes are expected to have promising applications in many areas such as luminescent materials, catalysts, magnets, etc. - Graphical abstract: A versatile synthetic method for the preparation of ordered rare-earth (RE) oxide nanotubes is reported, by which RE (RE=Y, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb) oxide nanotubes were successfully prepared from corresponding RE nitrate solution via the sol-gel method assisted with porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates

  9. Purification and preparation of graphite oxide from natural graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panatarani, C., E-mail: c.panatarani@phys.unpad.ac.id; Muthahhari, N.; Joni, I. Made [Instrumentation Systems and Functional Material Processing Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, Padjadjaran University, Jl. Raya Bandung-Sumedang KM 21, Jatinangor, 45363, Jawa Barat (Indonesia); Rianto, Anton [Grafindo Nusantara Ltd., Belagio Mall Lantai 2, Unit 0 L3-19, Kawasan Mega Kuningan, Kav. B4 No.3, Jakarta Selatan (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    Graphite oxide has attracted much interest as a possible route for preparation of natural graphite in the large-scale production and manipulation of graphene as a material with extraordinary electronic properties. Graphite oxide was prepared by modified Hummers method from purified natural graphite sample from West Kalimantan. We demonstrated that natural graphite is well-purified by acid leaching method. The purified graphite was proceed for intercalating process by modifying Hummers method. The modification is on the reaction time and temperature of the intercalation process. The materials used in the intercalating process are H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and KMNO{sub 4}. The purified natural graphite is analyzed by carbon content based on Loss on Ignition test. The thermo gravimetricanalysis and the Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopy are performed to investigate the oxidation results of the obtained GO which is indicated by the existence of functional groups. In addition, the X-ray diffraction and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy are also applied to characterize respectively for the crystal structure and elemental analysis. The results confirmed that natural graphite samples with 68% carbon content was purified into 97.68 % carbon content. While the intercalation process formed a formation of functional groups in the obtained GO. The results show that the temperature and reaction times have improved the efficiency of the oxidation process. It is concluded that these method could be considered as an important route for large-scale production of graphene.

  10. Cobalt sulfide aerogel prepared by anion exchange method with enhanced pseudocapacitive and water oxidation performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qiuyue; Shi, Zhenyu; Xue, Kaiming; Ye, Ziran; Hong, Zhanglian; Yu, Xinyao; Zhi, Mingjia

    2018-05-01

    This work introduces the anion exchange method into the sol-gel process for the first time to prepare a metal sulfide aerogel. A porous Co9S8 aerogel with a high surface area (274.2 m2 g‑1) and large pore volume (0.87 cm3 g‑1) has been successfully prepared by exchanging cobalt citrate wet gel in thioacetamide and subsequently drying in supercritical ethanol. Such a Co9S8 aerogel shows enhanced supercapacitive performance and catalytic activity toward oxygen evolution reaction (OER) compared to its oxide aerogel counterpart. High specific capacitance (950 F g‑1 at 1 A g‑1), good rate capability (74.3% capacitance retention from 1 to 20 A g‑1) and low onset overpotential for OER (220 mV) were observed. The results demonstrated here have implications in preparing various sulfide chalcogels.

  11. Advances in metal-induced oxidative stress and human disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jomova, Klaudia; Valko, Marian

    2011-01-01

    Detailed studies in the past two decades have shown that redox active metals like iron (Fe), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co) and other metals undergo redox cycling reactions and possess the ability to produce reactive radicals such as superoxide anion radical and nitric oxide in biological systems. Disruption of metal ion homeostasis may lead to oxidative stress, a state where increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) overwhelms body antioxidant protection and subsequently induces DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, protein modification and other effects, all symptomatic for numerous diseases, involving cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, atherosclerosis, neurological disorders (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease), chronic inflammation and others. The underlying mechanism of action for all these metals involves formation of the superoxide radical, hydroxyl radical (mainly via Fenton reaction) and other ROS, finally producing mutagenic and carcinogenic malondialdehyde (MDA), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) and other exocyclic DNA adducts. On the other hand, the redox inactive metals, such as cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) show their toxic effects via bonding to sulphydryl groups of proteins and depletion of glutathione. Interestingly, for arsenic an alternative mechanism of action based on the formation of hydrogen peroxide under physiological conditions has been proposed. A special position among metals is occupied by the redox inert metal zinc (Zn). Zn is an essential component of numerous proteins involved in the defense against oxidative stress. It has been shown, that depletion of Zn may enhance DNA damage via impairments of DNA repair mechanisms. In addition, Zn has an impact on the immune system and possesses neuroprotective properties. The mechanism of metal-induced formation of free radicals is tightly influenced by the action of cellular antioxidants. Many low-molecular weight antioxidants (ascorbic acid (vitamin C), alpha

  12. Metal/metal-oxide interfaces: A surface science approach to the study of adhesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peden, C.H.F.; Kidd, K.B.; Shinn, N.D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-5800 (USA))

    1991-05-01

    Metal-oxide/metal interfaces play an important role, for example, in the joining of an oxide ceramic to a metal for sealing applications. In order to probe the chemical and physical properties of such an interface, we have performed Auger electron spectroscopic (AES) and temperature programed desorption (TPD) experiments on a model system composed of very thin films of Cr, Fe, Ni, or Cu evaporated onto a very thin thermally grown oxide on a W single crystal. Monolayer films of Fe and Cr were found (by AES) to completely wet the oxide surface upon deposition, and were stable up to temperatures at which the films desorbed ({approx}1300 K). In contrast, monolayer Ni and Cu films formed three-dimensional islands exposing the oxidized W surface either upon annealing (Ni) or even upon room-temperature deposition (Cu). The relative interfacial interaction between the overlayer metal and the oxide, as assessed by TPD, increases in the series Cu{lt}Ni{lt}Fe{lt}Cr. This trend follows the heats of formation of the various oxides of these metals.

  13. A metallic metal oxide (Ti5O9)-metal oxide (TiO2) nanocomposite as the heterojunction to enhance visible-light photocatalytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L H; Deng, Z X; Xiao, J X; Yang, G W

    2015-01-26

    Coupling titanium dioxide (TiO2) with other semiconductors is a popular method to extend the optical response range of TiO2 and improve its photon quantum efficiency, as coupled semiconductors can increase the separation rate of photoinduced charge carriers in photocatalysts. Differing from normal semiconductors, metallic oxides have no energy gap separating occupied and unoccupied levels, but they can excite electrons between bands to create a high carrier mobility to facilitate kinetic charge separation. Here, we propose the first metallic metal oxide-metal oxide (Ti5O9-TiO2) nanocomposite as a heterojunction for enhancing the visible-light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles and we demonstrate that this hybridized TiO2-Ti5O9 nanostructure possesses an excellent visible-light photocatalytic performance in the process of photodegrading dyes. The TiO2-Ti5O9 nanocomposites are synthesized in one step using laser ablation in liquid under ambient conditions. The as-synthesized nanocomposites show strong visible-light absorption in the range of 300-800 nm and high visible-light photocatalytic activity in the oxidation of rhodamine B. They also exhibit excellent cycling stability in the photodegrading process. A working mechanism for the metallic metal oxide-metal oxide nanocomposite in the visible-light photocatalytic process is proposed based on first-principle calculations of Ti5O9. This study suggests that metallic metal oxides can be regarded as partners for metal oxide photocatalysts in the construction of heterojunctions to improve photocatalytic activity.

  14. Nanocrystalline transition metal oxides as catalysts in the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapoor, Inder Pal Singh; Srivastava, Pratibha; Singh, Gurdip [Department of Chemistry, DDU Gorakhpur University, Gorakhpur (India)

    2009-08-15

    Nanocrystalline transition metal oxides (NTMOs) have been successfully prepared by three different methods: novel quick precipitation method (Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}); surfactant mediated method (CuO), and reduction of metal complexes with hydrazine as reducing agent (Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The nano particles have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) which shows an average particle diameter of 35-54 nm. Their catalytic activity was measured in the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP). AP decomposition undergoes a two step process where the addition of metal oxide nanocrystals led to a shifting of the high temperature decomposition peak toward lower temperature. The kinetics of the thermal decomposition of AP and catalyzed AP has also been evaluated using model fitting and isoconversional method. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Preparation and Biocompatible Surface Modification of Redox Altered Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Promising for Nanobiology and Medicine

    KAUST Repository

    Nanda, Himansu Sekhar

    2016-11-03

    The biocompatible surface modification of metal oxide nanoparticles via surface functionalization technique has been used as an important tool in nanotechnology and medicine. In this report, we have prepared aqueous dispersible, trivalent metal ion (samarium)-doped cerium oxide nanoparticles (SmCNPs) as model redox altered CNPs of biological relevance. SmCNP surface modified with hydrophilic biocompatible (6-{2-[2-(2-methoxy-ethoxy)-ethoxy]-ethoxy}-hexyl) triethoxysilane (MEEETES) were prepared using ammonia-induced ethylene glycol-assisted precipitation method and were characterized using a variety of complementary characterization techniques. The chemical interaction of functional moieties with the surface of doped nanoparticle was studied using powerful 13C cross polarization magic angle sample spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results demonstrated the production of the extremely small size MEEETES surface modified doped nanoparticles with significant reduction in aggregation compared to their unmodified state. Moreover, the functional moieties had strong chemical interaction with the surface of the doped nanoparticles. The biocompatible surface modification using MEEETES should also be extended to several other transition metal ion doped and co-doped CNPs for the production of aqueous dispersible redox altered CNPs that are promising for nanobiology and medicine.

  16. Preparation and Biocompatible Surface Modification of Redox Altered Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Promising for Nanobiology and Medicine

    KAUST Repository

    Nanda, Himansu Sekhar

    2016-01-01

    The biocompatible surface modification of metal oxide nanoparticles via surface functionalization technique has been used as an important tool in nanotechnology and medicine. In this report, we have prepared aqueous dispersible, trivalent metal ion (samarium)-doped cerium oxide nanoparticles (SmCNPs) as model redox altered CNPs of biological relevance. SmCNP surface modified with hydrophilic biocompatible (6-{2-[2-(2-methoxy-ethoxy)-ethoxy]-ethoxy}-hexyl) triethoxysilane (MEEETES) were prepared using ammonia-induced ethylene glycol-assisted precipitation method and were characterized using a variety of complementary characterization techniques. The chemical interaction of functional moieties with the surface of doped nanoparticle was studied using powerful 13C cross polarization magic angle sample spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results demonstrated the production of the extremely small size MEEETES surface modified doped nanoparticles with significant reduction in aggregation compared to their unmodified state. Moreover, the functional moieties had strong chemical interaction with the surface of the doped nanoparticles. The biocompatible surface modification using MEEETES should also be extended to several other transition metal ion doped and co-doped CNPs for the production of aqueous dispersible redox altered CNPs that are promising for nanobiology and medicine.

  17. Preparation and Biocompatible Surface Modification of Redox Altered Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Promising for Nanobiology and Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himansu Sekhar Nanda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The biocompatible surface modification of metal oxide nanoparticles via surface functionalization technique has been used as an important tool in nanotechnology and medicine. In this report, we have prepared aqueous dispersible, trivalent metal ion (samarium-doped cerium oxide nanoparticles (SmCNPs as model redox altered CNPs of biological relevance. SmCNP surface modified with hydrophilic biocompatible (6-{2-[2-(2-methoxy-ethoxy-ethoxy]-ethoxy}-hexyl triethoxysilane (MEEETES were prepared using ammonia-induced ethylene glycol-assisted precipitation method and were characterized using a variety of complementary characterization techniques. The chemical interaction of functional moieties with the surface of doped nanoparticle was studied using powerful 13C cross polarization magic angle sample spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results demonstrated the production of the extremely small size MEEETES surface modified doped nanoparticles with significant reduction in aggregation compared to their unmodified state. Moreover, the functional moieties had strong chemical interaction with the surface of the doped nanoparticles. The biocompatible surface modification using MEEETES should also be extended to several other transition metal ion doped and co-doped CNPs for the production of aqueous dispersible redox altered CNPs that are promising for nanobiology and medicine.

  18. Oxide surfaces and metal/oxide interfaces studied by grazing incidence X-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Gilles

    Experimental determinations of the atomic structure of insulating oxide surfaces and metal/oxide interfaces are scarce, because surface science techniques are often limited by the insulating character of the substrate. Grazing incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS), which is not subject to charge effects, can provide very precise information on the atomic structure of oxide surfaces: roughness, relaxation and reconstruction. It is also well adapted to analyze the atomic structure, the registry, the misfit relaxation, elastic or plastic, the growth mode and the morphology of metal/oxide interfaces during their growth, performed in situ. GIXS also allows the analysis of thin films and buried interfaces, in a non-destructive way, yielding the epitaxial relationships, and, by variation of the grazing incidence angle, the lattice parameter relaxation along the growth direction. On semi-coherent interfaces, the existence of an ordered network of interfacial misfit dislocations can be demonstrated, its Burger's vector determined, its ordering during in situ annealing cycles followed, and sometimes even its atomic structure can be addressed. Careful analysis during growth allows the modeling of the dislocation nucleation process. This review emphasizes the new information that GIXS can bring to oxide surfaces and metal/oxide interfaces by comparison with other surface science techniques. The principles of X-ray diffraction by surfaces and interfaces are recalled, together with the advantages and properties of grazing angles. The specific experimental requirements are discussed. Recent results are presented on the determination of the atomic structure of relaxed or reconstructed oxide surfaces. A description of results obtained during the in situ growth of metal on oxide surfaces is also given, as well as investigations of thick metal films on oxide surfaces, with lattice parameter misfit relaxed by an array of dislocations. Recent work performed on oxide thin films having

  19. Surface modification and functionalization of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles by organic ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neouze, M.A.; Schubert, U.S.

    2008-01-01

    Metal or metal oxide nanoparticles possess unique features compared to equivalent larger-scale materials. For applications, it is often necessary to stabilize or functionalize such nanoparticles. Thus, modification of the surface of nanoparticles is an important chemical challenge. In this survey,

  20. Polymer-supported metals and metal oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Sudipta; Guibal, E.; Quignard, F.; SenGupta, A. K.

    2012-01-01

    Metal and metal oxide nanoparticles exhibit unique properties in regard to sorption behaviors, magnetic activity, chemical reduction, ligand sequestration among others. To this end, attempts are being continuously made to take advantage of them in multitude of applications including separation, catalysis, environmental remediation, sensing, biomedical applications and others. However, metal and metal oxide nanoparticles lack chemical stability and mechanical strength. They exhibit extremely high pressure drop or head loss in fixed-bed column operation and are not suitable for any flow-through systems. Also, nanoparticles tend to aggregate; this phenomenon reduces their high surface area to volume ratio and subsequently reduces effectiveness. By appropriately dispersing metal and metal oxide nanoparticles into synthetic and naturally occurring polymers, many of the shortcomings can be overcome without compromising the parent properties of the nanoparticles. Furthermore, the appropriate choice of the polymer host with specific functional groups may even lead to the enhancement of the properties of nanoparticles. The synthesis of hybrid materials involves two broad pathways: dispersing the nanoparticles (i) within pre-formed or commercially available polymers; and (ii) during the polymerization process. This review presents a broad coverage of nanoparticles and polymeric/biopolymeric host materials and the resulting properties of the hybrid composites. In addition, the review discusses the role of the Donnan membrane effect exerted by the host functionalized polymer in harnessing the desirable properties of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles for intended applications.

  1. Sol-gel prepared active ternary oxide coating on titanium in cathodic protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLADIMIR V. PANIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of a ternary oxide coating, on titanium, which consisted of TiO2, RuO2 and IrO2 in the molar ratio 0.6:0.3:0.1, calculated on the metal atom, were investigated for potential application for cathodic protection in a seawater environment. The oxide coatings on titanium were prepared by the sol gel procedure from a mixture of inorganic oxide sols, which were obtained by forced hydrolysis of metal chlorides. The morphology of the coating was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties of activated titanium anodes were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and polarization measurements in a H2SO4- and NaCl-containing electrolyte, as well as in seawater sampled on the Adriatic coast in Tivat, Montenegro. The anode stability during operation in seawater was investigated by the galvanostatic accelerated corrosion stability test. The morphology and electrochemical characteristics of the ternary coating are compared to that of a sol-gel-prepared binary Ti0.6Ru0.4O2 coating. The activity of the ternary coating was similar to that of the binary Ti0.6Ru0.4O2 coating in the investigated solutions. However, the corrosion stability in seawater is found to be considerably greater for the ternary coating.

  2. Alternative Processes for Manufacturing of Metal Oxide-based Potentiometric Chemosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winfried VONAU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available New possibilities for the preparation of partially selective redox electrodes based on passivated metals of the subgroups IV to VI of the periodic system are presented by the example of vanadium. The gas phase oxidation at controlled oxygen partial pressures (CPO and the pulsed laser deposition (PLD as an high-vacuum method are utilised as alternative methods beside the well- established chemical and electrochemical passivation which usually lead to the highest possible oxidation state of the passivated metal. These newly available methods enable in principle the tailoring of oxidation states in the sensitive layer and therefore the optimisation of the electrochemical sensitivity and selectivity of sensors equipped with it. The use of vanadium as basic electrode material is crucial because it shows in several matrices a remarkable corrosion susceptibility. This problem can be solved by the introduction of stable alloys with high vanadium contents. These materials can be efficiently produced by pulsed laser deposition (PLD.

  3. The Resonance Absorption of Uranium Metal and Oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellstrand, E; Lundgren, G

    1962-06-15

    The resonance integrals for uranium metal and uranium oxide have been determined for a 1/E flux. The following results were obtained Metal RI 2.95 + 25.8{radical}(S/M); Oxide RI = 4.15 + 26.6{radical}(S/M). The oxide value agrees with the expression found earlier at this laboratory. But the result for the metal is 4. 5 % larger than the earlier one. In addition, the resonance absorption in a R1 fuel rod has been compared with that for a cadmium-covered rod placed in an approximate cell boundary flux. The former came out 3 % larger than the latter. A comparison of the fuel rod absorption with that for a 1/E flux yields a corresponding figure of 7 %. The neutron flux was monitored below the lowest resonance in uranium.

  4. Preventing Bacterial Infections using Metal Oxides Nanocoatings on Bone Implant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duceac, L. D.; Straticiuc, S.; Hanganu, E.; Stafie, L.; Calin, G.; Gavrilescu, S. L.

    2017-06-01

    Nowadays bone implant removal is caused by infection that occurs around it possibly acquired after surgery or during hospitalization. The purpose of this study was to reveal some metal oxides applied as coatings on bone implant thus limiting the usual antibiotics-resistant bacteria colonization. Therefore ZnO, TiO2 and CuO were synthesized and structurally and morphologically analized in order to use them as an alternative antimicrobial agents deposited on bone implant. XRD, SEM, and FTIR characterization techniques were used to identify structure and texture of these nanoscaled metal oxides. These metal oxides nanocoatings on implant surface play a big role in preventing bacterial infection and reducing surgical complications.

  5. Effect of oxygen on decomposition of nitrous oxide over various metal oxide catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satsuma, Atsushi; Maeshima, Hajime; Watanabe, Kiyoshi; Hattori, Tadashi

    2001-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of oxygen on decomposition of nitrous oxide over various metal oxide catalysts was investigated. The activity of nitrous oxide decomposition significantly decreased over CuO, Co 3 O 4 , NiO, Fe 2 O 3 , SnO 2 , In 2 O 3 and Cr 2 O 3 by reversible adsorption of oxygen onto the active sites. On the contrary to this, there was no or small change in the activity of TiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , MgO, La 2 O 3 and CaO. A good correlation was observed between the degree of inhibition and the heat of formation of metal oxides. On the basis of kinetic model, the reduction of catalytic activity in the presence of oxygen was rationalized with the strength of oxygen adsorption on the metal oxide surface. (author)

  6. Universal medium-range order of amorphous metal oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Kengo; Miyazaki, Takehide; Nakamura, Hisao

    2013-10-11

    We propose that the structure of amorphous metal oxides can be regarded as a dual-dense-random-packing structure, which is a superposition of the dense random packing of metal atoms and that of oxygen atoms. Our ab initio molecular dynamics simulations show that the medium-range order of amorphous HfO2, ZrO2, TiO2, In2O3, Ga2O3, Al2O3, and Cu2O is characterized by the pentagonal-bipyramid arrangement of metal atoms and that of oxygen atoms, and prove the validity of our dual-random-sphere-packing model. In other words, we find that the pentagonal medium-range order is universal independent of type of metal oxide.

  7. Designing porous metallic glass compact enclosed with surface iron oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jae Young; Park, Hae Jin; Hong, Sung Hwan; Kim, Jeong Tae; Kim, Young Seok; Park, Jun-Young; Lee, Naesung [Hybrid Materials Center (HMC), Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Yongho [Graphene Research Institute (GRI) & HMC, Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Man, E-mail: jinman_park@hotmail.com [Global Technology Center, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd, 129 Samsung-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 443-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Buem, E-mail: kbkim@sejong.ac.kr [Hybrid Materials Center (HMC), Faculty of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, 209 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-25

    Highlights: • Porous metallic glass compact was developed using electro-discharge sintering process. • Uniform PMGC can only be achieved when low electrical input energy was applied. • Functional iron-oxides were formed on the surface of PMGCs by hydrothermal technique. - Abstract: Porous metallic glass compact (PMGC) using electro-discharge sintering (EDS) process of gas atomized Zr{sub 41.2}Ti{sub 13.8}Cu{sub 12.5}Ni{sub 10}Be{sub 22.5} metallic glass powder was developed. The formation of uniform PMGC can only be achieved when low electrical input energy was applied. Functional iron-oxides were formed on the surface of PMGCs by hydrothermal technique. This finding suggests that PMGC can be applied in the new area such as catalyst via hydrothermal technique and offer a promising guideline for using the metallic glasses as a potential functional application.

  8. Microwave-assisted one-pot synthesis of metal/metal oxide nanoparticles on graphene and their electrochemical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuangyin; Jiang San Ping; Wang Xin

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Research highlights: → Microwave polyol method is efficient to deposit nanoparticles on graphene. → SnO 2 /graphene is more efficient than graphene for supercapacitor. → PtRu/graphene is more active than commercial PtRu/C for methanol oxidation. - Abstract: An effective synthesis strategy of hybrid metal (PtRu)/metal oxide (SnO 2 ) nanoparticles on graphene nanocomposites is developed using a microwave-assisted one-pot reaction process. The mixture of ethylene glycol (EG) and water is used as both solvent and reactant. In the reaction system for the synthesis of SnO 2 /graphene nanocomposite, EG not only reduces graphene oxide (GO) to graphene, but also results in the formation of SnO 2 facilitated by the presence of a small amount of water. On the other hand, in the reaction system for preparation of PtRu/graphene nanocomposites, EG acts as solvent and reducing agent for reduction of PtRu nanoparticles from their precursors and reduction of graphene from graphene oxide. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterizations confirm the feasibility of the microwave-assisted reaction system to simultaneously reduce graphene oxide and to form SnO 2 or PtRu nanoparticles. The as-synthesized SnO 2 /graphene hybrid composites show a much higher supercapacitance than the pure graphene, and the as-prepared PtRu/graphene show much better electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation compared to the commercial E-TEK PtRu/C electrocatalysts.

  9. Control of lipid oxidation by nonmigratory active packaging films prepared by photoinitiated graft polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fang; Decker, Eric A; Goddard, Julie M

    2012-08-08

    Transition metal-promoted oxidation impacts the quality, shelf life, and nutrition of many packaged foods. Metal-chelating active packaging therefore offers a means to protect foods against oxidation. Herein, we report the development and characterization of nonmigratory metal-chelating active packaging. To prepare the films, carboxylic acids were grafted onto the surfaces of polypropylene films by photoinitiated graft polymerization of acrylic acid. Attenuated total reflectance/Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle, scanning electron microscopy, and iron-chelating assay were used to characterize film properties. Graft polymerization yielded a carboxylic acid density of 68.67 ± 9.99 nmol per cm(2) film, with ferrous iron-chelating activity of 71.07 ± 12.95 nmol per cm(2). The functionalized films extended the lag phase of lipid oxidation in a soybean oil-in-water emulsion system from 2 to 9 days. The application of such nonmigratory active packaging films represents a promising approach to reduce additive use while maintaining food quality.

  10. Metal Oxide Nano structures: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, L. H.; Patil, D. S.; Yang, J.; Xiao, J.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, nano structured materials have attracted wide attention due to their fascinating optical and electrical properties, which make these materials potentially suitable for applications in electronics, optics, photonics, and sensors. Some metal oxides show a wide variety of morphologies such as nano wires, nano rods, nano tubes, nano rings, and nano belts. Synthesis and investigation of these metal-oxide nano structures are beneficial not only for understanding the fundamental phenomena in low dimensional systems, but also for developing new-generation nano devices with high performance.

  11. New Digital Metal-Oxide (MOx Sensor Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rüffer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The application of metal oxide gas sensors in Internet of Things (IoT devices and mobile platforms like wearables and mobile phones offers new opportunities for sensing applications. Metal-oxide (MOx sensors are promising candidates for such applications, thanks to the scientific progresses achieved in recent years. For the widespread application of MOx sensors, viable commercial offerings are required. In this publication, the authors show that with the new Sensirion Gas Platform (SGP a milestone in the commercial application of MOx technology has been reached. The architecture of the new platform and its performance in selected applications are presented.

  12. Method for continuous synthesis of metal oxide powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, David A.; Haynes, Daniel J.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Smith, Mark W.

    2015-09-08

    A method for the rapid and continuous production of crystalline mixed-metal oxides from a precursor solution comprised of a polymerizing agent, chelated metal ions, and a solvent. The method discharges solution droplets of less than 500 .mu.m diameter using an atomizing or spray-type process into a reactor having multiple temperature zones. Rapid evaporation occurs in a first zone, followed by mixed-metal organic foam formation in a second zone, followed by amorphous and partially crystalline oxide precursor formation in a third zone, followed by formation of the substantially crystalline mixed-metal oxide in a fourth zone. The method operates in a continuous rather than batch manner and the use of small droplets as the starting material for the temperature-based process allows relatively high temperature processing. In a particular embodiment, the first zone operates at 100-300.degree. C., the second zone operates at 300-700.degree. C., and the third operates at 700-1000.degree. C., and fourth zone operates at at least 700.degree. C. The resulting crystalline mixed-metal oxides display a high degree of crystallinity and sphericity with typical diameters on the order of 50 .mu.m or less.

  13. Oxygen partial pressure: a key to alloying and discovery in metal oxide--metal eutectic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holder, J.D.; Clark, G.W.; Oliver, B.F.

    1978-01-01

    Control of oxygen partial pressure is essential in the directional solidification of oxide--metal eutectic composites by techniques involving gas-solid and gas-liquid interactions. The existence of end components in the eutectic composite is Po 2 sensitive as are melt stoichiometry, solid phase compositions, and vapor losses due to oxidation-volatilization. Simple criteria are postulated which can aid the experimentalist in selecting the proper gas mixture for oxide--metal eutectic composite growth. The Cr 2 O 3 --Mo--Cr systems was used to verify certain aspects of the proposed criteria

  14. Global DNA methylation and oxidative stress biomarkers in workers exposed to metal oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Wu, Wei-Te; Liao, Hui-Yi [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chao-Yu; Tsai, Cheng-Yen; Jung, Wei-Ting [Department of Chemistry, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Lee, Hui-Ling, E-mail: huilinglee3573@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China)

    2017-06-05

    Highlights: • Global methylation and oxidative DNA damage levels in nanomaterial handling workers were assessed. • 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate of workers exposed to nanoparticles was higher. • 8-OHdG was negatively correlated with global methylation. • Exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles may lead to global methylation and DNA oxidative damage. - Abstract: This is the first study to assess global methylation, oxidative DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation in workers with occupational exposure to metal oxide nanomaterials (NMs). Urinary and white blood cell (WBC) 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) 8-isoprostane were measured as oxidative stress biomarkers. WBC global methylation was measured as an epigenetic alteration. Exposure to TiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2,} and indium tin oxide (ITO) resulted in significantly higher oxidative biomarkers such as urinary 8-OHdG and EBC 8-isoprostane. However, significantly higher WBC 8-OHdG and lower global methylation were only observed in ITO handling workers. Significant positive correlations were noted between WBC and urinary 8-OHdG (Spearman correlation r = 0.256, p = 0.003). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation was found between WBC 8-OHdG and global methylation (r = −0.272, p = 0.002). These results suggest that exposure to metal oxide NMs may lead to global methylation, DNA oxidative damage, and lipid peroxidation.

  15. Titanium-Niobium Oxides as Non-Noble Metal Cathodes for Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akimitsu Ishihara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to develop noble-metal- and carbon-free cathodes, titanium-niobium oxides were prepared as active materials for oxide-based cathodes and the factors affecting the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR activity were evaluated. The high concentration sol-gel method was employed to prepare the precursor. Heat treatment in Ar containing 4% H2 at 700–900 °C was effective for conferring ORR activity to the oxide. Notably, the onset potential for the ORR of the catalyst prepared at 700 °C was approximately 1.0 V vs. RHE, resulting in high quality active sites for the ORR. X-ray (diffraction and photoelectron spectroscopic analyses and ionization potential measurements suggested that localized electronic energy levels were produced via heat treatment under reductive atmosphere. Adsorption of oxygen molecules on the oxide may be governed by the localized electronic energy levels produced by the valence changes induced by substitutional metal ions and/or oxygen vacancies.

  16. Technology of Processing of Fluorol with Metallic Oxides and It's Resistance toward Active Fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, G.M.; Hadhoud, M.K.; Mohamed, A.Z.; Sherif, S.A

    2004-01-01

    Fluorocarbon polymers are the best elastomers for a variety of applications. In this work we investigate the characteristics of fluorocarbon rubber for use in different applications, via preparation different formulations. We investigate the effect of added metallic oxides ( CaO, MgO, ZnO and PbO ) on the chemical and physical properties of prepared formulations. Chemical resistance tests were made for conc. H 2 SO 4 , conc. HCl, conc. HNO 3 , ASTM Oil No.2, ASTM Ref. Fuel C and conc. NaOH solution. Results showed that the prepared fluorocarbon rubber have high chemical resistance to various acids, alkalis, oils and fuels, also chemical resistance towards conc. HNO 3 is enhanced in the presence of lead oxide

  17. Platinum redispersion on metal oxides in low temperature fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tripkovic, Vladimir; Cerri, Isotta; Nagami, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    We have analyzed the aptitude of several metal oxide supports (TiO2, SnO2, NbO2, ZrO2, SiO2, Ta2O5 and Nb2O5) to redisperse platinum under electrochemical conditions pertinent to the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) cathode. The redispersion on oxide supports in air has been studied in ...

  18. Application of metal oxide refractories for melting and casting reactive metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessen, N.C. Jr.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.; Townsend, A.B.

    1979-01-01

    Extensive investigations have been conducted to develop metal oxide refractories for containment of molten uranium and uranium alloys. Since uranium and uranium alloys are readily susceptable to the formation of complex oxides, carbides, nitrides, intermetallic compounds, and suboxide reactions, severe problems exist for the production of quality castings. These contamination reactions are dependent on temperature, pressure, and molten metal interfacial reactions. The need for high purity metals to meet specification repeatedly has resulted in the development of improved metal oxide refractories and sophisticated furnace controls. Applications of Y 2 O 3 for use as a crucible and mold coating, precision molds and cores, and high temperature castable ceramics are discussed. Experimental results on melt impurity levels, thermal controls during melting, surface interactions and casting quality are presented

  19. Flexible Metal Oxide/Graphene Oxide Hybrid Neuromorphic Devices on Flexible Conducting Graphene Substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Wan, Chang Jin; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Li Qiang; Liu, Yang Hui; Feng, Ping; Liu, Zhao Ping; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Flexible metal oxide/graphene oxide hybrid multi-gate neuron transistors were fabricated on flexible graphene substrates. Dendritic integrations in both spatial and temporal modes were successfully emulated, and spatiotemporal correlated logics were obtained. A proof-of-principle visual system model for emulating lobula giant motion detector neuron was investigated. Our results are of great interest for flexible neuromorphic cognitive systems.

  20. Rational design of binder-free noble metal/metal oxide arrays with nanocauliflower structure for wide linear range nonenzymatic glucose detection

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Zhenzhen; Xin, Yanmei; Zhang, Zhonghai; Wu, Hongjun; Wang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    One-dimensional nanocomposites of metal-oxide and noble metal were expected to present superior performance for nonenzymatic glucose detection due to its good conductivity and high catalytic activity inherited from noble metal and metal oxide

  1. Direct comparison of the electrical properties in metal/oxide/nitride/oxide/silicon and metal/aluminum oxide/nitride/oxide/silicon capacitors with equivalent oxide thicknesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Ho-Myoung; Seo, Yu Jeong; Kim, Hee Dong; Kim, Kyoung Chan; Kim, Jong-Guk [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Won-Ju; Koh, Jung-Hyuk [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Yun Mo [Department of Materials and Science Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Geun, E-mail: tgkim1@korea.ac.k [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-31

    We examine the electrical properties of metal/oxide/nitride/oxide/silicon (MONOS) capacitors with two different blocking oxides, SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, under the influence of the same electric field. The thickness of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer is set to 150 A, which is electrically equivalent to a thickness of the SiO{sub 2} layer of 65 A, in the MONOS structure for this purpose. The capacitor with the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} blocking layer shows a larger capacitance-voltage memory window of 8.6 V, lower program voltage of 7 V, faster program/erase speeds of 10 ms/1 {mu}s, lower leakage current of 100 pA and longer data retention than the one with the SiO{sub 2} blocking layer does. These improvements are attributed to the suppression of the carrier transport to the gate electrode afforded by the use of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} blocking layer physically thicker than the SiO{sub 2} one, as well as the effective charge-trapping by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at the deep energy levels in the nitride layer.

  2. Alkoxide-based precursors for direct drawing of metal oxide micro- and nanofibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taette, Tanel; Hussainov, Medhat; Paalo, Madis; Part, Marko; Talviste, Rasmus; Kiisk, Valter; Maendar, Hugo; Pohako, Kaija; Reivelt, Kaido; Lohmus, Ants [Institute of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, Tartu 51014 (Estonia); Pehk, Tonis [National Institute of Chemical and Biological Physics, Akadeemia tee 23, Tallinn 12618 (Estonia); Natali, Marco [ICIS-CNR, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy); Gurauskis, Jonas [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon C.S.I.C., University of Zaragoza Fac. De Ciencias, c/Pedro Cerbuna 12, Zaragoza 50009 (Spain); Maeeorg, Uno, E-mail: tanelt@fi.tartu.ee [Institute of Chemistry, University of Tartu, Ravila 14a, Tartu 50411 (Estonia)

    2011-06-15

    The invention of electrospinning has solved the problem of producing micro- and nanoscaled metal oxide fibres in bulk quantities. However, until now no methods have been available for preparing a single nanofibre of a metal oxide. In this work, the direct drawing method was successfully applied to produce metal oxide (SnO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, HfO{sub 2} and CeO{sub 2}) fibres with a high aspect ratio (up to 10 000) and a diameter as small as 200 nm. The sol-gel processing includes consumption of precursors obtained from alkoxides by aqueous or non-aqueous polymerization. Shear thinning of the precursors enables pulling a material into a fibre. This rheological behaviour can be explained by sliding of particles owing to external forces. Transmission (propagation) of light along microscaled fibres and their excellent surface morphology suggest that metal oxide nanofibres can be directly drawn from sol precursors for use in integrated photonic systems.

  3. Kinetic and catalytic analysis of mesoporous metal oxides on the oxidation of Rhodamine B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xaba, Morena S.; Noh, Ji-Hyang; Mokgadi, Keabetswe; Meijboom, Reinout

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the synthesis and catalytic activity of different mesoporous transition metal oxides, silica (SiO2), copper oxide (CuO), chromium oxide (Cr2O3), iron oxide (Fe2O3) cobalt oxide (Co3O4), cerium oxide (CeO2) and nickel oxide (NiO), on the oxidation of a pollutant dye, Rhodamine B (RhB). These metal oxides were synthesized by inverse micelle formation method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), adsorption-desorption isotherms (BET) and H2-temperature programmed reduction (TPR). UV-vis spectrophotometry was used to monitor the time-resolved absorbance of RhB at λmax = 554 nm. Mesoporous copper oxide was calcined at different final heating temperatures of 250, 350, 450 and 550 °C, and each mesoporous copper oxide catalyst showed unique physical properties and catalytic behavior. Mesoporous CuO-550 with the smallest characteristic path length δ, proved to be the catalyst of choice for the oxidation of RhB in aqueous media. We observed that the oxidation of RhB in aqueous media is dependent on the crystallite size and characteristic path length of the mesoporous metal oxide. The Langmuir-Hinshelwood model was used to fit the experimental data and to prove that the reaction occurs on the surface of the mesoporous CuO. The thermodynamic parameters, EA, ΔH#, ΔS# and ΔG# were calculated and catalyst recycling and reusability were demonstrated.

  4. Direct chemical reduction of neptunium oxide to neptunium metal using calcium and calcium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squires, Leah N.; Lessing, Paul

    2016-01-01

    A process of direct reduction of neptunium oxide to neptunium metal using calcium metal as the reducing agent is discussed. After reduction of the oxide to metal, the metal is separated by density from the other components of the reaction mixture and can be easily removed upon cooling. The direct reduction technique consistently produces high purity (98%–99% pure) neptunium metal.

  5. Amorphous semiconducting and conducting transparent metal oxide thin films and production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, John; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Ginley, David; Taylor, Matthew; Neuman, George A.; Luten, Henry A.; Forgette, Jeffrey A.; Anderson, John S.

    2010-07-13

    Metal oxide thin films and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a metal oxide thin film may comprise introducing at least two metallic elements and oxygen into a process chamber to form a metal oxide. The method may also comprise depositing the metal oxide on a substrate in the process chamber. The method may also comprise simultaneously controlling a ratio of the at least two metallic elements and a stoichiometry of the oxygen during deposition. Exemplary amorphous metal oxide thin films produced according to the methods herein may exhibit highly transparent properties, highly conductive properties, and/or other opto-electronic properties.

  6. Analysis of the stability of native oxide films at liquid lead/metal interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesueur, C.; Chatain, D.; Gas, P.; Bergman, C.; Baque, F.

    2002-01-01

    The interface between liquid lead and different metallic solids (pure metals: Al, Fe and Ni, and T91 steel) was investigated below 400 deg C under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) by wetting experiments. The aim was to check the physical stability of native oxide films grown at the surface of the substrates, along a contact with liquid lead. Two types of metallic substrates were used: i) conventional bulk polycrystals, and ii) nanocrystalline films obtained by e-beam evaporation under UHV. The actual contact between liquid lead and the solid substrates was achieved by preparing lead drops in-situ. Wetting experiments were performed using sessile drop and/or liquid bridge methods. Fresh solid surfaces and former liquid/solid interfaces can be explored by squeezing and stretching a liquid lead bridge formed between two parallel and horizontal substrates. It is shown that the contact with liquid lead produces the detachment of the native oxide films grown on the metallic solids. It is concluded that if oxide coatings are needed to protect a metallic solid from attack by liquid lead, they should be self-renewable. (authors)

  7. Single sheet metal oxides and hydroxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Lizhi

    The synthesis of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) provides a relatively easy and traditional way to build versatile chemical compounds with a rough control of the bulk structure. The delamination of LDHs to form their single host layers (2D nanosheets) and the capability to reassemble them offer......) Delamination of the LDHs structure (oxGRC12) with the formation of single sheet iron (hydr)oxide (SSI). (3) Assembly of the new 2D nanosheets layer by layer to achieve desired functionalities....

  8. Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals Labeled with Metal Radionuclides. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    The overall goal of this project was to develop methods for the production of metal-based radionuclides, to develop metal-based radiopharmaceuticals and in a limited number of cases, to translate these agents to the clinical situation. Initial work concentrated on the application of the radionuclides of Cu, Cu-60, Cu-61 and Cu-64, as well as application of Ga-68 radiopharmaceuticals. Initially Cu-64 was produced at the Missouri University Research Reactor and experiments carried out at Washington University. A limited number of studies were carried out utilizing Cu-62, a generator produced radionuclide produced by Mallinckrodt Inc. (now Covidien). In these studies, copper-62-labeled pyruvaldehyde Bis(N 4 -methylthiosemicarbazonato)-copper(II) was studied as an agent for cerebral myocardial perfusion. A remote system for the production of this radiopharmaceutical was developed and a limited number of patient studies carried out with this agent. Various other copper radiopharmaceuticals were investigated, these included copper labeled blood imaging agents as well as Cu-64 labeled antibodies. Cu-64 labeled antibodies targeting colon cancer were translated to the human situation. Cu-64 was also used to label peptides (Cu-64 octriatide) and this is one of the first applications of a peptide radiolabeled with a positron emitting metal radionuclide. Investigations were then pursued on the preparation of the copper radionuclides on a small biomedical cyclotron. A system for the production of high specific activity Cu-64 was developed and initially the Cu-64 was utilized to study the hypoxic imaging agent Cu-64 ATSM. Utilizing the same target system, other positron emitting metal radionuclides were produced, these were Y-86 and Ga-66. Radiopharmaceuticals were labeled utilizing both of these radionuclides. Many studies were carried out in animal models on the uptake of Cu-ATSM in hypoxic tissue. The hypothesis is that Cu-ATSM retention in vivo is dependent upon the oxygen

  9. Preparation of trialkylindium by alkylation of metallic indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremeev, I.V.; Danov, S.M.; Sakhipov, V.R.

    1995-01-01

    The investigation results on production of trialkyl indium by alkylation of metallic indium are presented. In contradistinction to the known techniques for the production of trialkyls on indium by alkylation it is suggested to separate the synthesis into two steps. At the first step indium is alkylated by alkylhalide to alkyl indium halide, and at the second alkylation is carried out using. Grignard reagent. The techniques for preparation of trimethyl- and triethylindium, developed on the bases of this scheme, are noted for good reproducibility, allow to preclude, agglomeration of indium during the synthesis, as well as to reduce the consumption coefficients, and amounts, of the introduced starting reagents, i.e. magnesium and alkylhalide. Refs. 16

  10. Oxidation kinetics of reaction products formed in uranium metal corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totemeier, T. C.

    1998-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of uranium metal ZPPR fuel corrosion products in environments of Ar-4%O 2 and Ar-20%O 2 were studied using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). These tests were performed to extend earlier work in this area specifically, to assess plate-to-plate variations in corrosion product properties and the effect of oxygen concentration on oxidation behavior. The corrosion products from two relatively severely corroded plates were similar, while the products from a relatively intact plate were not reactive. Oxygen concentration strongly affected the burning rate of reactive products, but had little effect on low-temperature oxidation rates

  11. Oxidation kinetics of reaction products formed in uranium metal corrosion.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totemeier, T. C.

    1998-04-22

    The oxidation behavior of uranium metal ZPPR fuel corrosion products in environments of Ar-4%O{sub 2} and Ar-20%O{sub 2} were studied using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). These tests were performed to extend earlier work in this area specifically, to assess plate-to-plate variations in corrosion product properties and the effect of oxygen concentration on oxidation behavior. The corrosion products from two relatively severely corroded plates were similar, while the products from a relatively intact plate were not reactive. Oxygen concentration strongly affected the burning rate of reactive products, but had little effect on low-temperature oxidation rates.

  12. Solution combustion synthesis of metal oxide nanomaterials for energy storage and conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fa-Tang; Ran, Jingrun; Jaroniec, Mietek; Qiao, Shi Zhang

    2015-10-01

    The design and synthesis of metal oxide nanomaterials is one of the key steps for achieving highly efficient energy conversion and storage on an industrial scale. Solution combustion synthesis (SCS) is a time- and energy-saving method as compared with other routes, especially for the preparation of complex oxides which can be easily adapted for scale-up applications. This review summarizes the synthesis of various metal oxide nanomaterials and their applications for energy conversion and storage, including lithium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, hydrogen and methane production, fuel cells and solar cells. In particular, some novel concepts such as reverse support combustion, self-combustion of ionic liquids, and creation of oxygen vacancies are presented. SCS has some unique advantages such as its capability for in situ doping of oxides and construction of heterojunctions. The well-developed porosity and large specific surface area caused by gas evolution during the combustion process endow the resulting materials with exceptional properties. The relationship between the structural properties of the metal oxides studied and their performance is discussed. Finally, the conclusions and perspectives are briefly presented.

  13. Carbon monoxide oxidation over three different states of copper: Development of a model metal oxide catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jernigan, Glenn Geoffrey [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-10-01

    Carbon monoxide oxidation was performed over the three different oxidation states of copper -- metallic (Cu), copper (I) oxide (Cu2O), and copper (II) oxide (CuO) as a test case for developing a model metal oxide catalyst amenable to study by the methods of modern surface science and catalysis. Copper was deposited and oxidized on oxidized supports of aluminum, silicon, molybdenum, tantalum, stainless steel, and iron as well as on graphite. The catalytic activity was found to decrease with increasing oxidation state (Cu > Cu2O > CuO) and the activation energy increased with increasing oxidation state (Cu, 9 kcal/mol < Cu2O, 14 kcal/mol < CuO, 17 kcal/mol). Reaction mechanisms were determined for the different oxidation states. Lastly, NO reduction by CO was studied. A Cu and CuO catalyst were exposed to an equal mixture of CO and NO at 300--350 C to observe the production of N2 and CO2. At the end of each reaction, the catalyst was found to be Cu2O. There is a need to study the kinetics of this reaction over the different oxidation states of copper.

  14. Literature information applicable to the reaction of uranium oxides with chlorine to prepare uranium tetrachloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, P.A.

    1992-02-01

    The reaction of uranium oxides and chlorine to prepare anhydrous uranium tetrachloride (UCl{sub 4}) are important to more economical preparation of uranium metal. The most practical reactions require carbon or carbon monoxide (CO) to give CO or carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as waste gases. The chemistry of U-O-Cl compounds is very complex with valances of 3, 4, 5, and 6 and with stable oxychlorides. Literature was reviewed to collect thermochemical data, phase equilibrium information, and results of experimental studies. Calculations using thermodynamic data can identify the probable reactions, but the results are uncertain. All the U-O-Cl compounds have large free energies of formation and the calculations give uncertain small differences of large numbers. The phase diagram for UCl{sub 4}-UO{sub 2} shows a reaction to form uranium oxychloride (UOCl{sub 2}) that has a good solubility in molten UCl{sub 4}. This appears more favorable to good rates of reaction than reaction of solids and gases. There is limited information on U-O-Cl salt properties. Information on the preparation of titanium, zirconium, silicon, and thorium tetrachlorides (TiCl{sub 4}, ZrCl{sub 4}, SiCl{sub 4}, ThCl{sub 4}) by reaction of oxides with chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) and carbon has application to the preparation of UCl{sub 4}.

  15. Literature information applicable to the reaction of uranium oxides with chlorine to prepare uranium tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.

    1992-02-01

    The reaction of uranium oxides and chlorine to prepare anhydrous uranium tetrachloride (UCl 4 ) are important to more economical preparation of uranium metal. The most practical reactions require carbon or carbon monoxide (CO) to give CO or carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) as waste gases. The chemistry of U-O-Cl compounds is very complex with valances of 3, 4, 5, and 6 and with stable oxychlorides. Literature was reviewed to collect thermochemical data, phase equilibrium information, and results of experimental studies. Calculations using thermodynamic data can identify the probable reactions, but the results are uncertain. All the U-O-Cl compounds have large free energies of formation and the calculations give uncertain small differences of large numbers. The phase diagram for UCl 4 -UO 2 shows a reaction to form uranium oxychloride (UOCl 2 ) that has a good solubility in molten UCl 4 . This appears more favorable to good rates of reaction than reaction of solids and gases. There is limited information on U-O-Cl salt properties. Information on the preparation of titanium, zirconium, silicon, and thorium tetrachlorides (TiCl 4 , ZrCl 4 , SiCl 4 , ThCl 4 ) by reaction of oxides with chlorine (Cl 2 ) and carbon has application to the preparation of UCl 4

  16. Preparation of molybdenum oxide thin films by MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, R. Martinez; Garcia, J.R. Vargas; Santes, V.; Gomez, E.

    2007-01-01

    In this study, molybdenum oxide films were prepared in a horizontal hot-wall MOCVD apparatus using molybdenum dioxide acetylacetonate as precursor. The molybdenum precursor was synthesized from acetylacetone and molybdenum oxide powder. Thermal gravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analyses (DTA) of the precursor suggested the formation of molybdenum oxides around 430 o C (703 K). Thus, a range of deposition temperatures varying from 350 to 630 o C (623-903 K) was explored to investigate the effects on the nature of the molybdenum oxide films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the films consisted of α-MoO 3 phase at deposition temperatures ranging from 400 to 560 o C (673-833 K). Crystalline α-MoO 3 films can be obtained from molybdenum dioxide acetylacetonate precursor, without need of a post-annealing treatment. The best crystalline quality was found in films having needle-like crystallites grown at deposition temperature of about 560 o C (833 K), which exhibit a strong (0 1 0) preferred orientation and a transparent visual appearance

  17. Preparation of molybdenum oxide thin films by MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero, R. Martinez [Depto. de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE-IPN, Mexico 07300, D.F. (Mexico); Garcia, J.R. Vargas [Depto. de Ingenieria Metalurgica, ESIQIE-IPN, Mexico 07300, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: rvargasga@ipn.mx; Santes, V. [CIIEMAD-IPN, Miguel Othon de Mendizabal 485, Mexico 07700, D.F. (Mexico); Gomez, E. [Instituto de Quimica-UNAM, Circuito Exterior-Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico 04510, D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-05-31

    In this study, molybdenum oxide films were prepared in a horizontal hot-wall MOCVD apparatus using molybdenum dioxide acetylacetonate as precursor. The molybdenum precursor was synthesized from acetylacetone and molybdenum oxide powder. Thermal gravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analyses (DTA) of the precursor suggested the formation of molybdenum oxides around 430 {sup o}C (703 K). Thus, a range of deposition temperatures varying from 350 to 630 {sup o}C (623-903 K) was explored to investigate the effects on the nature of the molybdenum oxide films. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed that the films consisted of {alpha}-MoO{sub 3} phase at deposition temperatures ranging from 400 to 560 {sup o}C (673-833 K). Crystalline {alpha}-MoO{sub 3} films can be obtained from molybdenum dioxide acetylacetonate precursor, without need of a post-annealing treatment. The best crystalline quality was found in films having needle-like crystallites grown at deposition temperature of about 560 {sup o}C (833 K), which exhibit a strong (0 1 0) preferred orientation and a transparent visual appearance.

  18. Preparation and characterization of vanadium oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monfort, O.; Plesch, G. [Comenius University of Bratislava, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Inorganic Chemistry, 84215 Bratislava (Slovakia); Roch, T. [Comenius University of Bratislava, Faculty of Mathematics Physics and Informatics, Department of Experimental Physics, 84248 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-04-16

    The thermotropic VO{sub 2} films have many applications, since they exhibit semiconductor-conductor switching properties at temperature around 70 grad C. Vanadium oxide thin films were prepared via sol-gel method. Spin coater was used to depose these films on Si/SiO{sub 2} and lime glass substrates. Thin films of V{sub 2}O{sub 5} can be reduced to metastable VO{sub 2} thin films at the temperature of 450 grad C under the pressure of 10{sup -2} Pa. These films are then converted to thermotropic VO{sub 2} at 700 grad C in argon under normal pressure. (authors)

  19. Formation of iron oxides from acid mine drainage and magnetic separation of the heavy metals adsorbed iron oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hee Won; Kim, Jeong Jin; Kim, Young Hun [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Dong Woo [Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    There are a few thousand abandoned metal mines in South Korea. The abandoned mines cause several environmental problems including releasing acid mine drainage (AMD), which contain a very high acidity and heavy metal ions such as Fe, Cu, Cd, Pb, and As. Iron oxides can be formed from the AMD by increasing the solution pH and inducing precipitation. Current study focused on the formation of iron oxide in an AMD and used the oxide for adsorption of heavy metals. The heavy metal adsorbed iron oxide was separated with a superconducting magnet. The duration of iron oxide formation affected on the type of mineral and the degree of magnetization. The removal rate of heavy metal by the adsorption process with the formed iron oxide was highly dependent on the type of iron oxide and the solution pH. A high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) system successfully separated the iron oxide and harmful heavy metals.

  20. Green methods for preparing highly co2 selective and h2s tolerant metal organic frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2015-12-23

    A green route for preparing a metal organic framework include mixing metal precursor with a ligand precursor to form a solvent-free mixture; adding droplets of water to the mixture; heating the mixture at a first temperature after adding the water; and isolating the metal organic framework material including the metal and the ligand.

  1. Two-dimensional metal dichalcogenides and oxides for hydrogen evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Mohnish; Vojvodic, Aleksandra; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2015-01-01

    We explore the possibilities of hydrogen evolution by basal planes of 2D metal dichalcogenides and oxides in the 2H and 1T class of structures using the hydrogen binding energy as a computational activity descriptor. For some groups of systems like the Ti, Zr, and Hf dichalcogenides the hydrogen...

  2. Nanostructured Metal Oxides for Stoichiometric Degradation of Chemical Warfare Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štengl, Václav; Henych, Jiří; Janos, P.; Skoumal, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 236, č. 2016 (2016), s. 239-258 ISSN 0179-5953 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/1116 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : chemical warfare agent * metal nanoparticle * unique surface- chemistry * mesoporous manganese oxide Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.930, year: 2016

  3. Oxidation resistant filler metals for direct brazing of structural ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Arthur J.

    1986-01-01

    A method of joining ceramics and metals to themselves and to one another is described using essentially pure trinickel aluminide and trinickel aluminide containing small amounts of carbon. This method produces strong joints that can withstand high service temperatures and oxidizing environments.

  4. Metal/oxide/semiconductor interface investigated by monoenergetic positrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uedono, A.; Tanigawa, S.; Ohji, Y.

    1988-10-01

    Variable-energy positron-beam studies have been carried out for the first time on a metal/oxide/semiconductor (MOS) structure of polycrystalline Si/SiO 2/Si-substrate. We were successful in collecting injected positrons at the SiO 2/Si interface by the application of an electric field between the MOS electrodes.

  5. Positron studies of metal-oxide-semiconductor structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, H. L.; Asoka-Kumar, P.; Nielsen, B.; Lynn, K. G.

    1993-03-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy provides a new probe to study the properties of interface traps in metal-oxide semiconductors (MOS). Using positrons, we have examined the behavior of the interface traps as a function of gate bias. We propose a simple model to explain the positron annihilation spectra from the interface region of a MOS capacitor.

  6. Transition metal oxide loaded MCM catalysts for photocatalytic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transition metal oxide (TiO2, Fe2O3, CoO) loaded MCM-41 and MCM-48 were synthesized by a two-step .... washed consecutively with water and ethanol, and cal- cined at 823 K for 5 .... conversion was observed in 1 h when the reaction was.

  7. Trends in Metal Oxide Stability for Nanorods, Nanotubes, and Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mowbray, Duncan; Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Vallejo, Federico Calle

    2011-01-01

    The formation energies of nanostructures play an important role in determining their properties, including their catalytic activity. For the case of 15 different rutile and 8 different perovskite metal oxides, we used density functional theory (DFT) to calculate the formation energies of (2,2) na...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10006 - Mixed metal oxide (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mixed metal oxide (generic). 721.10006 Section 721.10006 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES...) of this section. (2) The significant new uses are: (i) Industrial, commercial, and consumer...

  9. Metal Oxides as Efficient Charge Transporters in Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Haque, Mohammed

    2017-07-10

    Over the past few years, hybrid halide perovskites have emerged as a highly promising class of materials for photovoltaic technology, and the power conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) has accelerated at an unprecedented pace, reaching a record value of over 22%. In the context of PSC research, wide-bandgap semiconducting metal oxides have been extensively studied because of their exceptional performance for injection and extraction of photo-generated carriers. In this comprehensive review, we focus on the synthesis and applications of metal oxides as electron and hole transporters in efficient PSCs with both mesoporous and planar architectures. Metal oxides and their doped variants with proper energy band alignment with halide perovskites, in the form of nanostructured layers and compact thin films, can not only assist with charge transport but also improve the stability of PSCs under ambient conditions. Strategies for the implementation of metal oxides with tailored compositions and structures, and for the engineering of their interfaces with perovskites will be critical for the future development and commercialization of PSCs.

  10. Electrochemical activity of heavy metal oxides in the process of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2002-02-02

    Feb 2, 2002 ... Electrochemical activity of heavy metal oxides in the process of chloride induced .... decrease of pH value by MeOx, a synergism of acidic and chloride ... inhibitors and their influence on the physical properties of. Portland ...

  11. In Situ Study of Noncatalytic Metal Oxide Nanowire Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rackauskas, Simas; Jiang, Hua; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2014-01-01

    a catalyst is still widely disputed and unclear. Here, we show that the nanowire growth during metal oxidation is limited by a nucleation of a new layer. On the basis of in situ transmission electron microscope investigations we found that the growth occurs layer by layer at the lowest specific surface...

  12. Ethanol oxidation on a nichrome-supported spherical platinum microparticle electrocatalyst prepared by electrodeposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhen-Hui; Li, Jing; Dong, Xiaoya; Wang, Dong; Chen, Tiwei; Qiao, Haiyan; Huang, Aiping [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Henan Key Laboratory for Environmental Pollution Control, Henan Normal University, Jianshe Road, Xinxiang 453007 (China)

    2008-11-15

    A novel electrode was rapidly prepared by depositing microparticle platinum onto a nichrome substrate in dilute chloroplatinic acid solution by cyclic voltammetry. The SEM results revealed that the deposits were composed of spherical Pt microparticles. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry were used for the characterization of the electrodes. Results of the electrochemical measurements showed that the spherical Pt microparticle electrodes retained the properties of metal platinum, increased the catalytic activity and promoted the electrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol. Moreover, the deposited Pt microparticles improved the electrochemical properties of the support material and reduced the dosage of noble metal platinum remarkably. The cost could be reduced dramatically by decreasing the contents of platinum. The spherical Pt microparticles deposited on the nichrome supports are likely a potential electrocatalyst for ethanol electrooxidation. (author)

  13. Metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors for flexible electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petti, Luisa; Vogt, Christian; Büthe, Lars; Cantarella, Giuseppe; Tröster, Gerhard [Electronics Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich (Switzerland); Münzenrieder, Niko [Electronics Laboratory, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zürich (Switzerland); Sensor Technology Research Centre, University of Sussex, Falmer (United Kingdom); Faber, Hendrik; Bottacchi, Francesca; Anthopoulos, Thomas D. [Department of Physics and Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    The field of flexible electronics has rapidly expanded over the last decades, pioneering novel applications, such as wearable and textile integrated devices, seamless and embedded patch-like systems, soft electronic skins, as well as imperceptible and transient implants. The possibility to revolutionize our daily life with such disruptive appliances has fueled the quest for electronic devices which yield good electrical and mechanical performance and are at the same time light-weight, transparent, conformable, stretchable, and even biodegradable. Flexible metal oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors (TFTs) can fulfill all these requirements and are therefore considered the most promising technology for tomorrow's electronics. This review reflects the establishment of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs, from the development of single devices, large-area circuits, up to entirely integrated systems. First, an introduction on metal oxide semiconductor TFTs is given, where the history of the field is revisited, the TFT configurations and operating principles are presented, and the main issues and technological challenges faced in the area are analyzed. Then, the recent advances achieved for flexible n-type metal oxide semiconductor TFTs manufactured by physical vapor deposition methods and solution-processing techniques are summarized. In particular, the ability of flexible metal oxide semiconductor TFTs to combine low temperature fabrication, high carrier mobility, large frequency operation, extreme mechanical bendability, together with transparency, conformability, stretchability, and water dissolubility is shown. Afterward, a detailed analysis of the most promising metal oxide semiconducting materials developed to realize the state-of-the-art flexible p-type TFTs is given. Next, the recent progresses obtained for flexible metal oxide semiconductor-based electronic circuits, realized with both unipolar and complementary technology, are reported. In

  14. Preparation and characterization of aluminium-silica metal matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallikarjuna, G. B.; Basavaraj, E.

    2018-04-01

    Aluminum alloys are widely used in aerospace and automobile industries due to their low density and good mechanical properties, better corrosion resistance and wear, low thermal coefficient of expansion as compared to conventional metals and alloys. The excellent properties of these materials and relatively low production cost make them a very attractive for a variety of applications. In this present work, Al alloy LM13-SiO2 composites were produced by stir casting method. The reinforcement SiO2 particle size used for preparation of composites are 106 µm, 150 µm, 250 µm and 355 µm with varying amount of 3 to 12 wt% in steps of 3. The prepared composite specimens were machined as per test standards. Effects of weight percentage of SiO2 particles on wear, tensile strength of Al alloy LM13-SiO2 composites have been investigated. The microstructures of the composites were studied to know the dispersion of the SiO2 particles in matrix. Experimental results shows that there is enhanced mechanical properties, when silica weighing 9% was added to the base aluminium alloy and also similar trend exists in all four different micron size of silica and also it has been observed that addition of SiO2 particles significantly improves wear resistance properties as compared with that of unreinforced matrix.

  15. Platinum redispersion on metal oxides in low temperature fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripković, Vladimir; Cerri, Isotta; Nagami, Tetsuo; Bligaard, Thomas; Rossmeisl, Jan

    2013-03-07

    We have analyzed the aptitude of several metal oxide supports (TiO(2), SnO(2), NbO(2), ZrO(2), SiO(2), Ta(2)O(5) and Nb(2)O(5)) to redisperse platinum under electrochemical conditions pertinent to the Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) cathode. The redispersion on oxide supports in air has been studied in detail; however, due to different operating conditions it is not straightforward to link the chemical and the electrochemical environment. The largest differences reflect in (1) the oxidation state of the surface (the oxygen species coverage), (2) temperature and (3) the possibility of platinum dissolution at high potentials and the interference of redispersion with normal working potential of the PEMFC cathode. We have calculated the PtO(x) (x = 0, 1, 2) adsorption energies on different metal oxides' surface terminations as well as inside the metal oxides' bulk, and we have concluded that NbO(2) might be a good support for platinum redispersion at PEMFC cathodes.

  16. Dissolution of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles in aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odzak, Niksa; Kistler, David; Behra, Renata; Sigg, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The dissolution of Ag (citrate, gelatin, polyvinylpyrrolidone and chitosan coated), ZnO, CuO and carbon coated Cu nanoparticles (with two nominal sizes each) has been studied in artificial aqueous media, similar in chemistry to environmental waters, for up to 19 days. The dissolved fraction was determined using DGT (Diffusion Gradients in Thin films), dialysis membrane (DM) and ultrafiltration (UF). Relatively small fractions of Ag nanoparticles dissolved, whereas ZnO dissolved nearly completely within few hours. Cu and CuO dissolved as a function of pH. Using DGT, less dissolved Ag was measured compared to UF and DM, likely due to differences in diffusion of organic complexes. Similar dissolved metal concentrations of ZnO, Cu and CuO nanoparticles were determined using DGT and UF, but lower using DM. The results indicate that there is a need to apply complementary techniques to precisely determine dissolution of nanoparticles in aqueous media. - Highlights: • Three different techniques used simultaneously to measure NPs dissolution. • ZnO-NPs are the most soluble, followed by CuO-NPs, carbon coated Cu-NPs and Ag-NPs. • Dissolution is an important process affecting the fate of nanoparticles. • Complementary techniques are needed to precisely determine dissolution of NPs. - Dissolution of several types of nanoparticles was examined in aqueous media using three complementary techniques

  17. Preparation of PtRu/C anode electrocatalysts using gamma radiation for methanol electro-oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Dionisio Fortunato da

    2006-01-01

    Pt Ru/C (carbon-supported Pt Ru nanoparticles) anode electrocatalysts were prepared using radiolytic process (gamma radiation) and tested for methanol electro-oxidation. In this process, water/2-propanol and water/ethylene glycol solutions containing the metallic ions and the carbon support were submitted to gamma radiation under stirring. The water/alcohol ratio (v/v) and the total dose (kGy) were studied. A nominal Pt Ru atomic ratio of 50:50 were used in all experiments. The electrocatalysts were characterized by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The electro-oxidation of methanol was studied by cyclic voltammetry using the thin porous coating technique. The electrocatalysts prepared in water/2-propanol showed crystallite size in the range of 3-5 nm and Pt Ru atomic ratio of 50:50. The electrocatalysts prepared in water/ethylene glycol showed crystallite size (2-3 nm) smaller than the ones obtained in water/2-propanol, however, the Pt Ru atomic ratios obtained were approximately 80:20, showing that only part of ruthenium ions were reduced. For methanol oxidation the electrocatalytic activity depends on the water/2-propanol and water/ethylene glycol ratio used in the reaction medium. The electrocatalysts prepared in water/2-propanol showed inferior performance to the ones prepared in water/ethylene glycol, which showed similar or superior performances (amperes per gram of platinum) to the commercial electrocatalyst from E-TEK. (author)

  18. A preparation method of thorium nitrides and their oxidation behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyake, M.; Katsura, M.; Uno, M.

    1991-01-01

    In the preparation of ThN, thermal decomposition of Th 3 N 4 has been performed under various conditions and the kind of products has been examined as a function of temperature and time. In the Th-N-O system there exist ThN, Th 3 N 4 , ThO 2 , and Th 2 N 2 O as solid phases. The thermodynamic stability of these solid compounds has been evaluated as a function of P(O 2 ) and P(N 2 ) and compared with the experimental results. One of the main aims in this work is to explore the oxidation behaviour of thorium nitrides. Preliminary oxidation experiments of ThN and Th 3 N 4 gave the same result. From the study of the air oxidation of Th 3 N 4 , it was found that the oxidation product obtained close to room temperature exhibited only one or more diffuse reflections in its diffraction pattern, suggesting that the product may be of a poor crystalline nature. In order to reveal the dependence of the crystallinity of the product on the oxidation temperature, powdered Th 3 N 4 was exposed to air for one week at 0, 50, and 100degC and the product was examined by X-ray diffraction. In order to prepare ThO 2 with a wide variety of degrees of crystallinity, poorly-crystallized ThO 2 , which is produced by the air oxidation of Th 3 N 4 at 50degC, was heat-treated at temperatures ranging from 200 to 1,400degC in air and vacuum. The degree of crystallinity of ThO 2 heat-treated at and below 1000degC is discussed in terms of the number of detected peaks in the X-ray diffraction patterns, and above 1100degC in terms of the Kα doublet resolution of detected peaks. (author). 11 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs

  19. Adhesive, abrasive and oxidative wear in ion-implanted metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1985-01-01

    Ion implantation is increasingly being used to provide wear resistance in metals and cemented tungsten carbides. Field trials and laboratory tests indicate that the best performance is achieved in mild abrasive wear. This can be understood in terms of the classification of wear modes (adhesive, abrasive, oxidative etc.) introduced by Burwell. Surface hardening and work hardenability are the major properties to be enhanced by ion implantation. The implantation of nitrogen or dual implants of metallic and interstitial species are effective. Recently developed techniques of ion-beam-enhanced deposition of coatings can further improve wear resistance by lessening adhesion and oxidation. In order to support such hard coatings, ion implantation of nitrogen can be used as a preliminary treatment. There is thus emerging a versatile group of related hard vacuum treatments involving intense beams of nitrogen ions for the purpose of tailoring metal surfaces to resist wear. (Auth.)

  20. Highly sensitive methanol chemical sensor based on undoped silver oxide nanoparticles prepared by a solution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.M.; Khan, S.B.; Asiri, A.M.; Jamal, A.; Faisal, M.

    2012-01-01

    We have prepared silver oxide nanoparticles (NPs) by a simple solution method using reducing agents in alkaline medium. The resulting NPs were characterized by UV-vis and FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. They were deposited on a glassy carbon electrode to give a sensor with a fast response towards methanol in liquid phase. The sensor also displays good sensitivity and long-term stability, and enhanced electrochemical response. The calibration plot is linear (r 2 = 0.8294) over the 0.12 mM to 0.12 M methanol concentration range. The sensitivity is ∼ 2.65 μAcm -2 mM -1 , and the detection limit is 36.0 μM (at a SNR of 3). We also discuss possible future prospective uses of this metal oxide semiconductor nanomaterial in terms of chemical sensing. (author)

  1. Molten salt oxidation of ion-exchange resins doped with toxic metals and radioactive metal surrogates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hee-Chul; Cho, Yong-Jun; Yoo, Jae-Hyung; Kim, Joon-Hyung; Eun, Hee-Chul

    2005-01-01

    Ion-exchange resins doped with toxic metals and radioactive metal surrogates were test-burned in a bench-scale molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor system. The purposes of this study are to confirm the destruction performance of the two-stage MSO reactor system for the organic ion-exchange resin and to obtain an understanding of the behavior of the fixed toxic metals and the sulfur in the cationic exchange resins. The destruction of the organics is very efficient in the primary reactor. The primarily destroyed products such as carbon monoxide are completely oxidized in the secondary MSO reactor. The overall collection of the sulfur and metals in the two-stage MSO reactor system appeared to be very efficient. Over 99.5% of all the fixed toxic metals (lead and cadmium) and radioactive metal surrogates (cesium, cobalt, strontium) remained in the MSO reactor bottom. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and the XRD patterns of the spent salt samples revealed that the collected metals existed in the form of each of their carbonates or oxides, which are non-volatile species at the MSO system operating conditions. (author)

  2. Electron microscopy and EXAFS studies on oxide-supported gold-silver nanoparticles prepared by flame spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannemann, Stefan [Institute of Chemical and Bioengineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Hoenggerberg, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk [Institute of Chemical and Bioengineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Hoenggerberg, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail: grunwaldt@chem.ethz.ch; Krumeich, Frank [Laboratory of Inorganic Chemistry, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Hoenggerberg, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Kappen, Peter [Department of Physics, La Trobe University, Victoria 3086 (Australia); Baiker, Alfons [Institute of Chemical and Bioengineering, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH Hoenggerberg, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2006-09-15

    Gold and gold-silver nanoparticles prepared by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) were characterized by electron microscopy, in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and their catalytic activity in CO oxidation. Within this one-step flame-synthesis procedure, precursor solutions of dimethyl gold(III) acetylacetonate and silver(I) benzoate together with the corresponding precursor of the silica, iron oxide or titania support, were sprayed and combusted. In order to prepare small metal particles, a low noble metal loading was required. A loading of 0.1-1 wt.% of Au and Ag resulted in 1-6 nm particles. The size of the noble metal particles increased with higher loadings of gold and particularly silver. Both scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies proved the formation of mixed Au-Ag particles. In case of 1% Au-1% Ag/SiO{sub 2}, TEM combined with electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI) using an imaging filter could be used in addition to prove the presence of silver and gold in the same noble metal particle. CO oxidation in the presence of hydrogen was chosen as a test reaction sensitive to small gold particles. Both the influence of the particle size and the alloying of gold and silver were reflected in the CO oxidation activity.

  3. Electron microscopy and EXAFS studies on oxide-supported gold-silver nanoparticles prepared by flame spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannemann, Stefan; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Krumeich, Frank; Kappen, Peter; Baiker, Alfons

    2006-01-01

    Gold and gold-silver nanoparticles prepared by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) were characterized by electron microscopy, in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and their catalytic activity in CO oxidation. Within this one-step flame-synthesis procedure, precursor solutions of dimethyl gold(III) acetylacetonate and silver(I) benzoate together with the corresponding precursor of the silica, iron oxide or titania support, were sprayed and combusted. In order to prepare small metal particles, a low noble metal loading was required. A loading of 0.1-1 wt.% of Au and Ag resulted in 1-6 nm particles. The size of the noble metal particles increased with higher loadings of gold and particularly silver. Both scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) studies proved the formation of mixed Au-Ag particles. In case of 1% Au-1% Ag/SiO 2 , TEM combined with electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI) using an imaging filter could be used in addition to prove the presence of silver and gold in the same noble metal particle. CO oxidation in the presence of hydrogen was chosen as a test reaction sensitive to small gold particles. Both the influence of the particle size and the alloying of gold and silver were reflected in the CO oxidation activity

  4. Oxidation effect on templating of metal oxide nanoparticles within block copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akcora, Pinar; Briber, Robert M.; Kofinas, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Amphiphilic norbornene-b-(norbornene dicarboxylic acid) diblock copolymers with different block ratios were prepared as templates for the incorporation of iron ions using an ion exchange protocol. The disordered arrangement of iron oxide particles within these copolymers was attributed to the oxidation of the iron ions and the strong interactions between iron oxide nanoparticles, particularly at high iron ion concentrations, which was found to affect the self-assembly of the block copolymer morphologies.

  5. Preparation of americium metal of high purity and determination of the heat of formation of the hydrated trivalent americium ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spirlet, J.C.

    1975-10-01

    In order to redetermine some physical and chemical properties of americium metal, several grams of Am-241 have been prepared by two independent methods: lanthanum reduction of the oxide and thermal dissociation of the intermetallic compound Pt 5 Am. After its separation from excess lanthanum or alloy constituent by evaporation, americium metal was further purified by sublimation at 1100 deg C and 10 -6 Torr. Irrespective of the method of preparation, the americium samples displayed the same d.h.c.p. crystal structure. As determined by vacuum hot extraction, the oxygen, nitrogen and hydrogen contents are equal to or smaller than 250, 50 and 20 ppm, respectively. The heats of solution of americium metal (d.c.h.p. structure) in aqueous hydrochloric acid solutions have been measured at 298.15+-0.05K. The standard enthalpy of formation of Am 3+ (aq) is obtained as -616.7+-1.2 kJ mol -1 [fr

  6. Catalytic Oxidation of Toluene on Hydrothermally Prepared Ceria Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Duplančić

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceria nanocrystals were prepared hydrothermally and tested as potential catalysts for oxidation of volatile organic compounds using toluene as a model compound. Pure ceria with a crystallite size of 4 nm, determined by the Scherrer method from XRD pattern has been obtained. The specific surface area of the prepared nanoparticles determined by BET analysis yielded 201 m2 g–1, while the band gap of 3.2 eV was estimated from DRS spectrum via Tauc’s plot. Catalytic tests were performed on calcined ceria (500 °C with increased crystallite size (9 nm caused by thermal treatment. The tests showed good activities for the toluene oxidation with T50 temperatures, corresponding to 50 % toluene conversion, observed at 250 °C and even lower temperatures depending on the total flow rate of the gas mixture. The one-dimensional pseudo-homogeneous model of the fixed bed reactor was proposed to describe the reactor performance and the appropriate kinetic parameters were estimated. Good agreement between experimental data and the proposed model was observed.

  7. Reduction of metal oxides in metal carbide fusion superheated with plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedai, L

    1981-01-01

    A significant part of metals is capable of binding a high quantity of carbon in the form of carbide. The carbide fusion produced as a result of smelting and superheating, metal carbides with the use of plasma might be a medium to be utilized for the reduction of different metal oxides, whilst also the original carbide structure of the metal carbides will be reduced to metallic structure. The experiments conducted by making use of plasma equipment, of 20, 55 and 100 kW performances are described. On the basis of the results of the experiments performed, the following statements are to be made. The oxide reductions taking place in the metal carbide fusion might also be carried out in open-hearth furnaces, because reducing atmosphere is not necessitated during this procedure. The quantity of energy required is basically defined by the energy needed for smelting and superheating the metal carbide. The method for producing the metal described may be mainly applied for the allied production of high-purity steels as well as for that of ferro-alloys.

  8. Electronic and atomic structure at metal-oxide heterointerfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, Christoph Friedrich

    2013-07-01

    The results of a series of investigations on modern oxide materials using hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) combined with the X-ray standing wave (XSW) method are described in this thesis. The combination of hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray standing waves enables the electronic structure to be measured with a spatial resolution in the picometer range. Under suitable preparation conditions, a quasi two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is formed at the heterointerfaces of strontium titanate (SrTiO{sub 3}) with polar oxides, such as lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO{sub 3}) or lanthanum gallate (LaGaO{sub 3}). Samples were grown at the ESRF and in Naples and surface X-ray diffraction confirmed the excellent epitaxial quality of the films. The XSW-method was used to reconstruct images of the structure of LaAlO{sub 3} layers in real space. These images give evidence of distortions in the LaAlO{sub 3} structure which facilitate the compensation of the potential differences. Furthermore, XSW/HAXPES measurements permit the Ti and Sr,O contributions to the 2DEG close to the Fermi level to be identified unambiguously. The analysis shows that the 3d band crosses the Fermi level and that some density of states is associated with oxygen vacancies. Superlattices of SrTiO{sub 3} with polar calcium cuprate (CaCuO{sub 2}) were investigated by HAXPES. Similar to the case of SrTiO{sub 3}/LaAlO{sub 3}, the polarity of CaCuO{sub 2} should lead to a diverging surface potential. The core level spectra from Ca, Sr, and Ti show that there is a redistribution mechanism for oxygen which compensates the potential differences. When the oxygen concentration is enhanced these superstructures become superconducting (T{sub C} = 40 K). The increased oxidation of the superconducting material is revealed by the additional components in the core level spectra of the metal atoms and in the appearance of a new screening channel in Cu 2p core level spectra, which signals the hole

  9. Electronic and atomic structure at metal-oxide heterointerfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, Christoph Friedrich

    2013-01-01

    The results of a series of investigations on modern oxide materials using hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) combined with the X-ray standing wave (XSW) method are described in this thesis. The combination of hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray standing waves enables the electronic structure to be measured with a spatial resolution in the picometer range. Under suitable preparation conditions, a quasi two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is formed at the heterointerfaces of strontium titanate (SrTiO 3 ) with polar oxides, such as lanthanum aluminate (LaAlO 3 ) or lanthanum gallate (LaGaO 3 ). Samples were grown at the ESRF and in Naples and surface X-ray diffraction confirmed the excellent epitaxial quality of the films. The XSW-method was used to reconstruct images of the structure of LaAlO 3 layers in real space. These images give evidence of distortions in the LaAlO 3 structure which facilitate the compensation of the potential differences. Furthermore, XSW/HAXPES measurements permit the Ti and Sr,O contributions to the 2DEG close to the Fermi level to be identified unambiguously. The analysis shows that the 3d band crosses the Fermi level and that some density of states is associated with oxygen vacancies. Superlattices of SrTiO 3 with polar calcium cuprate (CaCuO 2 ) were investigated by HAXPES. Similar to the case of SrTiO 3 /LaAlO 3 , the polarity of CaCuO 2 should lead to a diverging surface potential. The core level spectra from Ca, Sr, and Ti show that there is a redistribution mechanism for oxygen which compensates the potential differences. When the oxygen concentration is enhanced these superstructures become superconducting (T C = 40 K). The increased oxidation of the superconducting material is revealed by the additional components in the core level spectra of the metal atoms and in the appearance of a new screening channel in Cu 2p core level spectra, which signals the hole doping of the CaCuO 2 blocks. Magnetoresistive

  10. Preparation of cerium oxide for lens polishing powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Injarean, Uthaiwan; Rodthongkom, Chouvana; Pichestapong, Pipat; Changkrurng, Kalaya

    2003-10-01

    Cerium is an element of rare earth group which is called lanthanide series. It is found in the ores like monazite and xenotime which are the tailings of tin mines in the south of Thailand. Cerium is used mostly as lens polishing powder besides the applications in other industries. In this study, cerium extracted from monazite ore breakdown by alkaline process was used for the preparation of lens polishing powder. Cerium hydroxide cake from the process was dissolved by hydrochloric acid and precipitated with oxalic acid. The oxalate precipitate then was calcined to oxide powder and its particle size was measured. Precipitation conditions being studied are concentration of feed cerium chloride solution, concentration of oxalic acid used for the precipitation, concentration of sulfuric acid used as precipitation control reagent and the precipitation temperature. It was found that the appropriate precipitation conditions yielded the fine oxide powder with particle size about 12μm. The oxide powder can be ground to the size of 1-3 μm which is suitable for making lens polishing powder

  11. Chemically synthesized metal-oxide-metal segmented nanowires with high ferroelectric response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herderick, Edward D; Padture, Nitin P [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Center for Emergent Materials, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Polomoff, Nicholas A; Huey, Bryan D, E-mail: padture.1@osu.edu [Department of Chemical, Materials, and Biomolecular Engineering, Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States)

    2010-08-20

    A chemical synthesis method is presented for the fabrication of high-definition segmented metal-oxide-metal (MOM) nanowires in two different ferroelectric oxide systems: Au-BaTiO{sub 3}-Au and Au-PbTiO{sub 3}-Au. This method entails electrodeposition of segmented nanowires of Au-TiO{sub 2}-Au inside anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, followed by topotactic hydrothermal conversion of the TiO{sub 2} segments into BaTiO{sub 3} or PbTiO{sub 3} segments. Two-terminal devices from individual MOM nanowires are fabricated, and their ferroelectric properties are measured directly, without the aid of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) methods. The MOM nanowire architecture provides high-quality end-on electrical contacts to the oxide segments, and allows direct measurement of properties of nanoscale volume, strain-free oxide segments. Unusually high ferroelectric responses, for chemically synthesized oxides, in these MOM nanowires are reported, and are attributed to the lack of residual strain in the oxides. The ability to measure directly the active properties of nanoscale volume, strain-free oxides afforded by the MOM nanowire architecture has important implications for fundamental studies of not only ferroelectric nanostructures but also nanostructures in the emerging field of multiferroics.

  12. Chemically synthesized metal-oxide-metal segmented nanowires with high ferroelectric response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herderick, Edward D; Padture, Nitin P; Polomoff, Nicholas A; Huey, Bryan D

    2010-01-01

    A chemical synthesis method is presented for the fabrication of high-definition segmented metal-oxide-metal (MOM) nanowires in two different ferroelectric oxide systems: Au-BaTiO 3 -Au and Au-PbTiO 3 -Au. This method entails electrodeposition of segmented nanowires of Au-TiO 2 -Au inside anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, followed by topotactic hydrothermal conversion of the TiO 2 segments into BaTiO 3 or PbTiO 3 segments. Two-terminal devices from individual MOM nanowires are fabricated, and their ferroelectric properties are measured directly, without the aid of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) methods. The MOM nanowire architecture provides high-quality end-on electrical contacts to the oxide segments, and allows direct measurement of properties of nanoscale volume, strain-free oxide segments. Unusually high ferroelectric responses, for chemically synthesized oxides, in these MOM nanowires are reported, and are attributed to the lack of residual strain in the oxides. The ability to measure directly the active properties of nanoscale volume, strain-free oxides afforded by the MOM nanowire architecture has important implications for fundamental studies of not only ferroelectric nanostructures but also nanostructures in the emerging field of multiferroics.

  13. Containerless solidification of undercooled oxide and metallic eutectic melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Mingjun; Nagashio, Kosuke; Kuribayashi, Kazuhiko

    2004-01-01

    A high-speed video was employed to monitor the in situ recalescence of undercooled oxide Al 2 O 3 -36.8 at.% ZrO 2 and metallic Ni-18.7 at.% Sn eutectics that were processed on an aero-acoustic levitator and an electromagnetic levitator, respectively. For the oxide eutectic, the entire sample becomes brighter and brighter without any clear recalescence front during spontaneous crystallization. When the sample was seeded at desired undercoolings, crystallization started from the seeding point and then spread through the entire sample. Microstructures of the oxide solidified via both the spontaneous crystallization and external seeding consist of many independent eutectic colonies at the sample surface, indicating that copious nucleation takes place regardless of melt undercooling and solidification mode. For the metallic eutectics, two kinds of recalescence are visualized. The surface and cross sectional microstructures reveal that copious nucleation is also responsible for the formation of independent eutectic colonies distributing within the entire sample. It is not possible to measure the growth velocity of a single eutectic colony using optical techniques under the usual magnification. The conventional nucleation concept derived from single-phase alloys may not be applicable to the free solidification of the undercooled double-phase oxide and metallic eutectic systems

  14. Insertion compounds of transition-metal and uranium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chippindale, A.M.; Dickens, P.G.; Powell, A.V.

    1991-01-01

    Several transition-metal and actinide oxides, in which the metal occurs in a high oxidation state, have open covalent structures and are capable of incorporating alkali and other electropositive metals under mild conditions to form insertion compounds A x MO n . These are solids which have several features in common: Over a range of compositions, A x MO n exists as one or more stable or metastable phases in which the structure of the parent oxide MO n is largely retained and the insertion element A is accommodated interstitially. Insertion is accompanied by a redox process A=A i . + e - M in which M is reduced and the electronic properties of the parent oxide change to those typical of a mixed-valence compound. The insertion process xA + MO n = A x MO n can be reversed, at least to some extent, by chemical or electrochemical reaction, with retention of structure (topotactic reaction). This review concentrates on methods of synthesis, characterisation, crystal structure and thermochemistry of these insertion compounds. It updates and extends previous work. (author)

  15. Plutonium-241 processing: from impure oxide to high purity metal target disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, W.V.; Baaso, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    The preparation of three plutonium-241 metal target disks, using a precision casting technique, is described. The disks were 0.625 inch in diameter and 0.125, 0.025, and 0.010 inch thick. All three disks were prepared simultaneously in a single casting. The variation in thickness of each disk was within +-1 percent of the disk's average thickness. The plutonium-241 was highly pure, and the finished disks contained a total of only 297 parts per million of detectable impurities. Purification of the plutonium oxide ( 241 PuO 2 ) and the conversion of the purified 241 PuO 2 to metal are also described. (U.S.)

  16. Impurity diffusion in transition-metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, N.L.

    1982-06-01

    Intrinsic tracer impurity diffusion measurements in ceramic oxides have been primarily confined to CoO, NiO, and Fe 3 O 4 . Tracer impurity diffusion in these materials and TiO 2 , together with measurements of the effect of impurities on tracer diffusion (Co in NiO and Cr in CoO), are reviewed and discussed in terms of impurity-defect interactions and mechanisms of diffusion. Divalent impurities in divalent solvents seem to have a weak interaction with vacancies whereas trivalent impurities in divalent solvents strongly influence the vacancy concentrations and significantly reduce solvent jump frequencies near a trivalent impurity. Impurities with small ionic radii diffuse more slowly with a larger activation energy than impurities with larger ionic radii for all systems considered in this review. Cobalt ions (a moderate size impurity) diffuse rapidly along the open channels parallel to the c-axis in TiO 2 whereas chromium ions (a smaller-sized impurity) do not. 60 references, 11 figures

  17. Adsorption of heavy metals from aqueous solutions by Mg-Al-Zn mingled oxides adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Mona; Eshaq, Gh; ElMetwally, A E

    2016-10-01

    In our study, Mg-Al-Zn mingled oxides were prepared by the co-precipitation method. The structure, composition, morphology and thermal stability of the synthesized Mg-Al-Zn mingled oxides were analyzed by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, N 2 physisorption, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry. Batch experiments were performed to study the adsorption behavior of cobalt(II) and nickel(II) as a function of pH, contact time, initial metal ion concentration, and adsorbent dose. The maximum adsorption capacity of Mg-Al-Zn mingled oxides for cobalt and nickel metal ions was 116.7 mg g -1 , and 70.4 mg g -1 , respectively. The experimental data were analyzed using pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order kinetic models in linear and nonlinear regression analysis. The kinetic studies showed that the adsorption process could be described by the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Experimental equilibrium data were well represented by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Also, the maximum monolayer capacity, q max , obtained was 113.8 mg g -1 , and 79.4 mg g -1 for Co(II), and Ni(II), respectively. Our results showed that Mg-Al-Zn mingled oxides can be used as an efficient adsorbent material for removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater samples.

  18. Conductive transition metal oxide nanostructured electrochromic material and optical switching devices constructed thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, Tracy M.; Koo, Bonil; Garcia, Guillermo; Milliron, Delia J.; Trizio, Luca De; Dahlman, Clayton

    2017-10-10

    An electrochromic device includes a nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze layer that includes one or more transition metal oxide and one or more dopant, a solid state electrolyte, and a counter electrode. The nanostructured transition metal oxide bronze selectively modulates transmittance of near-infrared (NIR) spectrum and visible spectrum radiation as a function of an applied voltage to the device.

  19. Polydopamine-mediated surface-functionalization of graphene oxide for heavy metal ions removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Zhihui; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Dong; Liu, Xia; Jin, Jian

    2015-01-01

    By utilizing polydopamine (PD) nano-thick interlayer as mediator, polyethylenimine (PEI) brushes with abundant amine groups were grafted onto the surface of PD coated graphene oxide (GO) uniformly via a Michael-Addition reaction and produced a PEI–PD/GO composite nanosheets. The PEI–PD/GO composite exhibited an improved performance for adsorption of heavy metal ions as compared to PEI-coated GO and pure GO. The adsorption capacities for Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ , Hg 2+ are up to 87, 106, 197, and 110 mg/g, respectively. To further make the GO based composite operable, PEI–PD/RGO aerogel was prepared through hydrothermal and achieved a high surface area up to 373 m 2 /g. Although the adsorption capacity of PEI–PD/RGO aerogel for heavy metal ions decreases a little as compared to PEI–PD/GO composite dispersion (38, 32, 95, 113 mg/g corresponding to Cu 2+ , Cd 2+ , Pb 2+ , and Hg 2+ , respectively), it could be recycled several times in a simple way by releasing adsorbed metal ions, indicating its potential application for cleaning wastewater. - Graphical abstract: Polyethylenimine (PEI) brushes were grafted onto the surface of graphene oxide (GO) uniformly via a Michael-Addition reaction between the PEI and polydopamine interlayer coated on GO surface. The PEI–PD/GO composite exhibited an improved performance for adsorption of heavy metal ions compared to PEI-coated GO and pure GO. - Highlights: • We prepared polyethylenimine grafted polydopamine-mediated graphene oxide composites. • Introduction of PD layer increases metal ions adsorption capacity. • PEI–PD/RGO aerogel exhibited a superior adsorption performance. • PEI–PD/RGO aerogel can be recycled several times in a simple way

  20. Influence of uranium hydride oxidation on uranium metal behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, N.; Hambley, D.; Clarke, S.A.; Simpson, K.

    2013-01-01

    This work addresses concerns that the rapid, exothermic oxidation of active uranium hydride in air could stimulate an exothermic reaction (burning) involving any adjacent uranium metal, so as to increase the potential hazard arising from a hydride reaction. The effect of the thermal reaction of active uranium hydride, especially in contact with uranium metal, does not increase in proportion with hydride mass, particularly when considering large quantities of hydride. Whether uranium metal continues to burn in the long term is a function of the uranium metal and its surroundings. The source of the initial heat input to the uranium, if sufficient to cause ignition, is not important. Sustained burning of uranium requires the rate of heat generation to be sufficient to offset the total rate of heat loss so as to maintain an elevated temperature. For dense uranium, this is very difficult to achieve in naturally occurring circumstances. Areas of the uranium surface can lose heat but not generate heat. Heat can be lost by conduction, through contact with other materials, and by convection and radiation, e.g. from areas where the uranium surface is covered with a layer of oxidised material, such as burned-out hydride or from fuel cladding. These rates of heat loss are highly significant in relation to the rate of heat generation by sustained oxidation of uranium in air. Finite volume modelling has been used to examine the behaviour of a magnesium-clad uranium metal fuel element within a bottle surrounded by other un-bottled fuel elements. In the event that the bottle is breached, suddenly, in air, it can be concluded that the bulk uranium metal oxidation reaction will not reach a self-sustaining level and the mass of uranium oxidised will likely to be small in relation to mass of uranium hydride oxidised. (authors)

  1. Influence of uranium hydride oxidation on uranium metal behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, N.; Hambley, D. [National Nuclear Laboratory (United Kingdom); Clarke, S.A. [Sellafield Ltd (United Kingdom); Simpson, K.

    2013-07-01

    This work addresses concerns that the rapid, exothermic oxidation of active uranium hydride in air could stimulate an exothermic reaction (burning) involving any adjacent uranium metal, so as to increase the potential hazard arising from a hydride reaction. The effect of the thermal reaction of active uranium hydride, especially in contact with uranium metal, does not increase in proportion with hydride mass, particularly when considering large quantities of hydride. Whether uranium metal continues to burn in the long term is a function of the uranium metal and its surroundings. The source of the initial heat input to the uranium, if sufficient to cause ignition, is not important. Sustained burning of uranium requires the rate of heat generation to be sufficient to offset the total rate of heat loss so as to maintain an elevated temperature. For dense uranium, this is very difficult to achieve in naturally occurring circumstances. Areas of the uranium surface can lose heat but not generate heat. Heat can be lost by conduction, through contact with other materials, and by convection and radiation, e.g. from areas where the uranium surface is covered with a layer of oxidised material, such as burned-out hydride or from fuel cladding. These rates of heat loss are highly significant in relation to the rate of heat generation by sustained oxidation of uranium in air. Finite volume modelling has been used to examine the behaviour of a magnesium-clad uranium metal fuel element within a bottle surrounded by other un-bottled fuel elements. In the event that the bottle is breached, suddenly, in air, it can be concluded that the bulk uranium metal oxidation reaction will not reach a self-sustaining level and the mass of uranium oxidised will likely to be small in relation to mass of uranium hydride oxidised. (authors)

  2. Multi-metallic oxides as catalysts for light alcohols and hydrocarbons from synthesis gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Miguel [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Diaz, L; Galindo, H de J; Dominguez, J. M; Salmon, Manuel [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-08-01

    A series of Cu-Co-Cr oxides doped with alkaline metals (M), were prepared by the coprecipitation method with metal nitrates (Cu{sup I}I, CO{sup I}I, CR{sup I}II) and (M{sub 2})CO{sub 3} in aqueous solution. The calcined products were used as catalysts for the Fisher-Tropsch synthesis in a stainless-steel fixed bed microreactor. The material was characterized by x-ray diffraction, and the specific surface area, pore size and nitrogen adsorption-desorption properties were also determined. The alkaline metals favored the methanol synthesis and prevent the dehydration reactions whereas the hydrocarbon formation is independent to these metals. [Spanish] Una serie de oxidos Cu-Co-Cr soportados con metales alcalinos (M), fueron preparados por el metodo con nitratos metalicos (Cu{sup I}I, CO{sup I}I, CR{sup I}II) y (M{sub 2})CO{sub 3} en soluciones acuosas. Los productos calcinados fueron usados como catalizadores para la sintesis de Fisher-tropsch en la superficie fija de un microreactor de acero inoxidable. El material fue caracterizado por difraccion de rayos X y el area de superficie especifica, el tamano de poro y propiedades de absorcion-desorcion de nitrogeno fueron determinadas. Los metales alcalinos favorecieron la sintesis de metanol y previnieron las reacciones de deshidratacion, mientras que la formacion de hidrocarburos es independiente de estos metales.

  3. Cyclic catalytic upgrading of chemical species using metal oxide materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James H; Schutte, Erick J; Rolfe, Sara L

    2013-05-07

    Processes are disclosure which comprise alternately contacting an oxygen-carrying catalyst with a reducing substance, or a lower partial pressure of an oxidizing gas, and then with the oxidizing gas or a higher partial pressure of the oxidizing gas, whereby the catalyst is alternately reduced and then regenerated to an oxygenated state. In certain embodiments, the oxygen-carrying catalyst comprises at least one metal oxide-containing material containing a composition having the following formulas: (a) Ce.sub.xB.sub.yB'.sub.zB''O.sub..delta., wherein B=Ba, Sr, Ca, or Zr; B'=Mn, Co, and/or Fe; B''=Cu; 0.01Ba, Ca, La, or K; 0.02metal oxides.

  4. Dielectrophoretic alignment of metal and metal oxide nanowires and nanotubes: A universal set of parameters for bridging prepatterned microelectrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maijenburg, A.W.; Maas, M.G.; Rodijk, E.J.B.; Ahmed, W.; Kooij, Ernst S.; Carlen, Edwin; Blank, David H.A.; ten Elshof, Johan E.

    2011-01-01

    Nanowires and nanotubes were synthesized from metals and metal oxides using templated cathodic electrodeposition. With templated electrodeposition, small structures are electrodeposited using a template that is the inverse of the final desired shape. Dielectrophoresis was used for the alignment of

  5. Ball lightning from atmospheric discharges via metal nanosphere oxidation: from soils, wood or metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, John

    2002-01-15

    The slow (diffusion-limited) oxidation of metal nanoparticles has previously been proposed as the mechanism for ball lightning energy release, and argued to be the result of a normal lightning strike on soil. Here this basic model of networked nanoparticles is detailed further, and extended to lightning strikes on metal structures, and also to the action of other storm-related discharges or man-made discharges. The basic model predicted the important properties of "average" observed ball lightning, and the extension in this paper also covers high-energy examples of ball lightning. Laboratory checks of the theory are described, and predictions given of what conditions are necessary for observing ball lightning in the laboratory. Key requirements of the model are a sheltered region near the strike foot and starting materials which can generate a metal vapour under intensive heating, including soil, wood or a metal structure. The evolution of hydrocarbons (often plastics) along with metal vapour can ensure the local survival of the metal vapour even in an oxidizing atmosphere. Subsequent condensation of this vapour to metallic nanoparticles in networks provides the coherence of a ball structure, which also releases light over an extended time. Also discussed is the passage of ball lightning through a sheet of building material, including glass, and its occasional charring of flesh on close contact.

  6. For cermet inert anode containing oxide and metal phases useful for the electrolytic production of metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Siba P.; Liu, Xinghua; Weirauch, Douglas A.

    2002-01-01

    A cermet inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode comprises a ceramic phase including an oxide of Ni, Fe and M, where M is at least one metal selected from Zn, Co, Al, Li, Cu, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Ta, W, Mo, Hf and rare earths, preferably Zn and/or Co. Preferred ceramic compositions comprise Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3, NiO and ZnO or CoO. The cermet inert anode also comprises a metal phase such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. A preferred metal phase comprises Cu and Ag. The cermet inert anodes may be used in electrolytic reduction cells for the production of commercial purity aluminum as well as other metals.

  7. Small cell experiments for electrolytic reduction of uranium oxides to uranium metal using fluoride salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.; Adcock, P.W.; Coroneos, A.C.; Hendrix, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Electrolytic reduction of uranium oxide was proposed for the preparation of uranium metal feed for the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. A laboratory cell of 25-cm ID was operated to obtain additional information in areas important to design and operation of a pilot plant cell. Reproducible test results and useful operating and control procedures were demonstrated. About 20 kg of uranium metal of acceptable purity were prepared. A good supply of dissolved UO 2 feed at the anode is the most important controlling requirement for efficient cell operation. A large fraction of the cell current is nonproductive in that it does not produce a metal product nor consume carbon anodes. All useful test conditions gave some reduction of UF 4 to produce CF 4 in addition to the reduction of UO 2 , but the fraction of metal from the reduction of UF 4 can be decreased by increasing the concentration of dissolved UO 2 . Operation of large continuous cells would probably be limited to current efficiencies of less than 60 pct, and more than 20 pct of the metal would result from the reduction of UF 4

  8. Bismuth silicate glass containing heavy metal oxide as a promising radiation shielding material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elalaily, Nagia A.; Abou-Hussien, Eman M.; Saad, Ebtisam A.

    2016-12-01

    Optical and FTIR spectroscopic measurements and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) properties have been utilized to investigate and characterize the given compositions of binary bismuth silicate glasses. In this work, it is aimed to study the possibility of using the prepared bismuth silicate glasses as a good shielding material for γ-rays in which adding bismuth oxide to silicate glasses causes distinguish increase in its density by an order of magnitude ranging from one to two more than mono divalent oxides. The good thermal stability and high density of the bismuth-based silicate glass encourage many studies to be undertaken to understand its radiation shielding efficiency. For this purpose a glass containing 20% bismuth oxide and 80% SiO2 was prepared using the melting-annealing technique. In addition the effects of adding some alkali heavy metal oxides to this glass, such as PbO, BaO or SrO, were also studied. EPR measurements show that the prepared glasses have good stability when exposed to γ-irradiation. The changes in the FTIR spectra due to the presence of metal oxides were referred to the different housing positions and physical properties of the respective divalent Sr2+, Ba2+ and Pb2+ ions. Calculations of optical band gap energies were presented for some selected glasses from the UV data to support the probability of using these glasses as a gamma radiation shielding material. The results showed stability of both optical and magnetic spectra of the studied glasses toward gamma irradiation, which validates their irradiation shielding behavior and suitability as the radiation shielding candidate materials.

  9. Halide based MBE of crystalline metals and oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenlee, Jordan D.; Calley, W. Laws; Henderson, Walter; Doolittle, W. Alan [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

    2012-02-15

    A halide based growth chemistry has been demonstrated which can deliver a range of transition metals using low to moderate effusion cell temperatures (30-700 C) even for high melting point metals. Previously, growth with transition metal species required difficult to control electron beam or impurity inducing metal organic sources. Both crystalline oxide and metal films exhibiting excellent crystal quality are grown using this halide-based growth chemistry. Films are grown using a plasma assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) system with metal-chloride precursors. Crystalline niobium, cobalt, iron, and nickel were grown using this chemistry but the technology can be generalized to almost any metal for which a chloride precursor is available. Additionally, the oxides LiNbO{sub 3} and LiNbO{sub 2} were grown with films exhibiting X-ray diffraction (XRD) rocking curve full-widths at half maximum of 150 and 190 arcseconds respectively. LiNbO{sub 2} films demonstrate a memristive response due to the rapid movement of lithium in the layered crystal structure. The rapid movement of lithium ions in LiNbO{sub 2} memristors is characterized using impedance spectroscopy measurements. The impedance spectroscopy measurements suggest an ionic current of.1 mA for a small drive voltage of 5 mV AC or equivalently an ionic current density of {proportional_to}87 A/cm{sup 2}. This high ionic current density coupled with low charge transfer resistance of {proportional_to}16.5 {omega} and a high relaxation frequency (6.6 MHz) makes this single crystal material appealing for battery applications in addition to memristors. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. A Plasma-Assisted Route to the Rapid Preparation of Transition-Metal Phosphides for Energy Conversion and Storage

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Hanfeng

    2017-06-06

    Transition-metal phosphides (TMPs) are important materials that have been widely used in catalysis, supercapacitors, batteries, sensors, light-emitting diodes, and magnets. The physical and chemical structure of a metal phosphide varies with the method of preparation as the electronic, catalytic, and magnetic properties of the metal phosphides strongly depend on their synthesis routes. Commonly practiced processes such as solid-state synthesis and ball milling have proven to be reliable routes to prepare TMPs but they generally require high temperature and long reaction time. Here, a recently developed plasma-assisted conversion route for the preparation of TMPs is reviewed, along with their applications in energy conversion and storage, including water oxidation electrocatalysis, sodium-ion batteries, and supercapacitors. The plasma-assisted synthetic route should open up a new avenue to prepare TMPs with tailored structure and morphology for various applications. In fact, the process may be further extended to the synthesis of a wide range of transition-metal compounds such as borides and fluorides at low temperature and in a rapid manner.

  11. Oxidation of ethanol on NaX zeolite modified with transition metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzai, J. I.; Nadirov, P. A.; Velieva, A. D.; Muradkhanli, V. G.

    2017-06-01

    NaLaX, NaX + Co, and NaPdX catalysts are synthesized by modification of NaX zeolite with transition metals (La, Co, Pd). The activity of the prepared materials in catalytic ethanol oxidation is studied in the temperature range of 423-723 K. It is shown that NaPdX and NaX + Co accelerate the reactions of partial and complete oxidation of ethanol as the temperature rises. NaLaX accelerates both intramolecular and intermolecular dehydration of alcohol. It is shown that the NaPdX (1.0% Pd) sample has the highest activity in the complete oxidation of alcohol with the formation of CO2.

  12. Chronic exposure to iron oxide, chromium oxide, and nickel oxide fumes of metal dressers in a steelworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. Graham; Warner, C. G.

    1972-01-01

    Graham Jones, J., and Warner, C. G. (1972).Brit. J. industr. Med.,29, 169-177. Chronic exposure to iron oxide, chromium oxide, and nickel oxide fumes of metal dressers in a steelworks. Occupational and medical histories, smoking habits, respiratory symptoms, chest radiographs, and ventilatory capacities were studied in 14 steelworkers employed as deseamers of steel ingots for periods of up to 16 years. The men were exposed for approximately five hours of each working shift to fume concentrations ranging from 1·3 to 294·1 mg/m3 made up mainly of iron oxide with varying proportions of chromium oxide and nickel oxide. Four of the men, with 14 to 16 years' exposure, showed radiological evidence of pneumoconiosis classified as ILO categories 2 or 3. Of these, two had pulmonary function within the normal range and two had measurable loss of function, moderate in one case and mild in the other. Many observers would diagnose these cases as siderosis but the authors consider that this term should be reserved for cases exposed to pure iron compounds. The correct diagnosis is mixed-dust pneumoconiosis and the loss of pulmonary function is caused by the effects of the mixture of metallic oxides. It is probable that inhalation of pure iron oxide does not cause fibrotic pulmonary changes, whereas the inhalation of iron oxide plus certain other substances obviously does. Images PMID:5021996

  13. Metal Oxide Decomposition In Hydrothermal Alkaline Sodium Phosphate Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.E. Ziemniak

    2003-09-24

    Alkaline hydrothermal solutions of sodium orthophosphate (2.15 < Na/P < 2.75) are shown to decompose transition metal oxides into two families of sodium-metal ion-(hydroxy)phosphate compounds. Equilibria for these reactions are quantified by determining phosphate concentration-temperature thresholds for decomposition of five oxides in the series: Ti(IV), Cr(III), Fe(III, II), Ni(II) and Zn(II). By application of a computational chemistry method General Utility Lattice Program (GULP), it is demonstrated that the unique non-whole-number Na/P molar ratio of sodium ferric hydroxyphosphate is a consequence of its open-cage structure in which the H{sup +} and excess Na{sup +} ions are located.

  14. Theoretical calculations of positron lifetimes for metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Masataka; Araki, Hideki; Shirai, Yasuharu

    2004-01-01

    Our recent positron lifetime measurements for metal oxides suggest that positron lifetimes of bulk state in metal oxides are shorter than previously reported values. We have performed theoretical calculations of positron lifetimes for bulk and vacancy states in MgO and ZnO using first-principles electronic structure calculations and discuss the validity of positron lifetime calculations for insulators. By comparing the calculated positron lifetimes to the experimental values, it wa found that the semiconductor model well reproduces the experimental positron lifetime. The longer positron lifetime previously reported can be considered to arise from not only the bulk but also from the vacancy induced by impurities. In the case of cation vacancy, the calculated positron lifetime based on semiconductor model is shorter than the experimental value, which suggests that the inward relaxation occurs around the cation vacancy trapping the positron. (author)

  15. Efficient photocarrier injection in a transition metal oxide heterostructure

    CERN Document Server

    Muraoka, Y; Ueda, Y; Hiroi, Z

    2002-01-01

    An efficient method for doping a transition metal oxide (TMO) with hole carriers is presented: photocarrier injection (PCI) in an oxide heterostructure. It is shown that an insulating vanadium dioxide (VO sub 2) film is rendered metallic under light irradiation by PCI from an n-type titanium dioxide (TiO sub 2) substrate doped with Nb. Consequently, a large photoconductivity, which is exceptional for TMOs, is found in the VO sub 2 /TiO sub 2 :Nb heterostructure. We propose an electronic band structure where photoinduced holes created in TiO sub 2 :Nb can be transferred into the filled V 3d band via the low-lying O 2p band of VO sub 2. (letter to the editor)

  16. Antimicrobial Activity of Nitric Oxide-Releasing Ti-6Al-4V Metal Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reger, Nina A.; Meng, Wilson S.; Gawalt, Ellen S.

    2017-01-01

    Titanium and titanium alloy materials are commonly used in joint replacements, due to the high strength of the materials. Pathogenic microorganisms can easily adhere to the surface of the metal implant, leading to an increased potential for implant failure. The surface of a titanium-aluminum-vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V) metal oxide implant material was functionalized to deliver an small antibacterial molecule, nitric oxide. S-nitroso-penicillamine, a S-nitrosothiol nitric oxide donor, was covalently immobilized on the metal oxide surface using self-assembled monolayers. Infrared spectroscopy was used to confirm the attachment of the S-nitrosothiol donor to the Ti-Al-4V surface. Attachment of S-nitroso-penicillamine resulted in a nitric oxide (NO) release of 89.6 ± 4.8 nmol/cm2 under physiological conditions. This low concentration of nitric oxide reduced Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis growth by 41.5 ± 1.2% and 25.3 ± 0.6%, respectively. Combining the S-nitrosothiol releasing Ti-6Al-4V with tetracycline, a commonly-prescribed antibiotic, increased the effectiveness of the antibiotic by 35.4 ± 1.3%, which allows for lower doses of antibiotics to be used. A synergistic effect of ampicillin with S-nitroso-penicillamine-modified Ti-6Al-4V against S. epidermidis was not observed. The functionalized Ti-6Al-4V surface was not cytotoxic to mouse fibroblasts. PMID:28635681

  17. Synthesis of metal-metal oxide catalysts and electrocatalysts using a metal cation adsorption/reduction and adatom replacement by more noble ones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adzic, Radoslav; Vukmirovic, Miomir; Sasaki, Kotaro

    2010-04-27

    The invention relates to platinum-metal oxide composite particles and their use as electrocatalysts in oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells. The invention particularly relates to methods for preventing the oxidation of the platinum electrocatalyst in the cathodes of fuel cells by use of these platinum-metal oxide composite particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for producing electrical energy by supplying such a fuel cell with an oxidant, such as oxygen, and a fuel source, such as hydrogen. The invention also relates to methods of making the metal-metal oxide composites.

  18. Reaction of uranium oxides with chlorine and carbon or carbon monoxide to prepare uranium chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, P.A.; Lee, D.D.; Mailen, J.C.

    1991-11-01

    The preferred preparation concept of uranium metal for feed to an AVLIS uranium enrichment process requires preparation of uranium tetrachloride (UCI{sub 4}) by reacting uranium oxides (UO{sub 2}/UO{sub 3}) and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) in a molten chloride salt medium. UO{sub 2} is a very stable metal oxide; thus, the chemical conversion requires both a chlorinating agent and a reducing agent that gives an oxide product which is much more stable than the corresponding chloride. Experimental studies in a quartz reactor of 4-cm ID have demonstrated the practically of some chemical flow sheets. Experimentation has illustrated a sequence of results concerning the chemical flow sheets. Tests with a graphite block at 850{degrees}C demonstrated rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and evolution of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as a product. Use of carbon monoxide (CO) as the reducing agent also gave rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and formation of CO{sub 2} at lower temperatures, but the reduction reactions were slower than the chlorinations. Carbon powder in the molten salt melt gave higher rates of reduction and better steady state utilization of Cl{sub 2}. Addition of UO{sub 2} feed while chlorination was in progress greatly improved the operation by avoiding the plugging effects from high UO{sub 2} concentrations and the poor Cl{sub 2} utilizations from low UO{sub 2} concentrations. An UO{sub 3} feed gave undesirable effects while a feed of UO{sub 2}-C spheres was excellent. The UO{sub 2}-C spheres also gave good rates of reaction as a fixed bed without any molten chloride salt. Results with a larger reactor and a bottom condenser for volatilized uranium show collection of condensed uranium chlorides as a loose powder and chlorine utilizations of 95--98% at high feed rates. 14 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

  19. Synergistic effect of metal deactivator and antioxidant on oxidation stability of metal contaminated Jatropha biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarin, Amit [Department of Applied Sciences, Amritsar College of Engineering and Technology, Amritsar 143001 (India); Arora, Rajneesh; Singh, N.P. [Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar (India); Sarin, Rakesh; Malhotra, R.K. [Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., R and D Centre, Sector-13, Faridabad 121007 (India); Sharma, Meeta [Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., R and D Centre, Sector-13, Faridabad 121007 (India); University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Kashmere Gate, Delhi 110403 (India); Khan, Arif Ali [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Kashmere Gate, Delhi 110403 (India)

    2010-05-15

    Biodiesel is relatively unstable on storage and European biodiesel standard EN-14214 calls for determining oxidation stability at 110 C with a minimum induction time of 6 h by the Rancimat method (EN-14112). According to proposed National Mission on biodiesel in India, we have undertaken studies on stability of biodiesel from tree borne non-edible oil seeds Jatropha. Neat Jatropha biodiesel exhibited oxidation stability of 3.95 h. It is found possible to meet the desired EN specification for neat Jatropha biodiesel and metal contaminated Jatropha biodiesel by using antioxidants; it will have a cost implication, as antioxidants are costly chemicals. Research was conducted to increase the oxidation stability of metal contaminated Jatropha biodiesel by doping metal deactivator with antioxidant, with varying concentrations in order to meet the aforementioned standard required for oxidation stability. It was found that usage of antioxidant can be reduced by 30-50%, therefore the cost, even if very small amount of metal deactivator is doped in Jatropha biodiesel to meet EN-14112 specification. (author)

  20. Metal Oxide Nanostructured Materials for Optical and Energy Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Michael Christopher

    2013-01-01

    With a rapidly growing population, dwindling resources, and increasing environmental pressures, the need for sustainable technological solutions becomes more urgent. Metal oxides make up much of the earth's crust and are typically inexpensive materials, but poor electrical and optical properties prevent them from being useful for most semiconductor applications. Recent breakthroughs in chemistry and materials science allow for the growth of high-quality materials with nanometer-scale features...

  1. Methanol Oxidation on Model Elemental and Bimetallic Transition Metal Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tritsaris, G. A.; Rossmeisl, J.

    2012-01-01

    Direct methanol fuel cells are a key enabling technology for clean energy conversion. Using density functional theory calculations, we study the methanol oxidation reaction on model electrodes. We discuss trends in reactivity for a set of monometallic and bimetallic transition metal surfaces, flat...... sites on the surface and to screen for novel bimetallic surfaces of enhanced activity. We suggest platinum copper surfaces as promising anode catalysts for direct methanol fuel cells....

  2. Oxidation of cyclohexane catalyzed by metal-ion-exchanged zeolites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sökmen, Ilkay; Sevin, Fatma

    2003-08-01

    The ion-exchange rates and capacities of the zeolite NaY for the Cu(II), Co(II), and Pb(II) metal ions were investigated. Ion-exchange equilibria were achieved in approximately 72 h for all the metal ions. The maximum ion exchange of metal ions into the zeolite was found to be 120 mg Pb(II), 110 mg Cu(II), and 100 mg Co(II) per gram of zeolite NaY. It is observed that the exchange capacity of a zeolite varies with the exchanged metal ion and the amount of metal ions exchanged into zeolite decreases in the sequence Pb(II) > Cu(II) > Co(II). Application of the metal-ion-exchanged zeolites in oxidation of cyclohexane in liquid phase with visible light was examined and it is observed that the order of reactivity of the zeolites for the conversion of cyclohexane to cyclohexanone and cyclohexanol is CuY > CoY > PbY. It is found that conversion increases by increase of the empty active sites of a zeolite and the formation of cyclohexanol is favored initially, but the cyclohexanol is subsequently converted to cyclohexanone.

  3. Directional dependence of the threshold displacement energies in metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Benjamin J.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2017-12-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate the directional dependence and the values of the threshold energies (TDEs) for the displacements of the oxygen and metal atoms and for producing stable Frenkel pairs in five metal oxides of Cr2O3, Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, and MgO. The TDEs for the Frenkel pairs and atoms displacement are calculated in 66 crystallographic directions, on both the anion and cation sublattices. The performed simulations are for metal and oxygen PKA energies up to 350 and 400 eV, respectively. The calculated probability distributions for the atoms displacement and average number of Frenkel pairs produced in the different oxides are compared. The results revealed unique symmetrical patterns of the TDEs for the displacement of the atoms and the formation of stable Frenkel pairs, confirming the strong dependence on the direction and the crystalline structure of the oxides. Results also showed that the formation of stable Frenkel pairs is associated with the displacements of the PKAs and/or of the SKAs. The probabilities of the TDEs for the displacement of the oxygen and metal PKAs are consistently lower than those of the atoms in the crystal. In SiO2, TDEs for the displacement of oxygen and metal atoms and those for the formation of stable Frenkel pairs are the lowest, while those in TiO2 are among the highest. The results for Cr2O3 and Al2O3, which have the same crystal structure, are similar. The calculated TDEs for MgO, Al2O3 and TiO2 are generally in good agreement with the experimental values and the probability distributions of the TDEs for the PKAs in TiO2 are in good agreement with reported MD simulation results.

  4. Performance of metal and oxide fuels during accidents in a large liquid metal cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahalan, J.; Wigeland, R.; Friedel, G.; Kussmaul, G.; Royl, P.; Moreau, J.; Perks, M.

    1990-01-01

    In a cooperative effort among European and US analysts, an assessment of the comparative safety performance of metal and oxide fuels during accidents in a large (3500 MWt), pool-type, liquid-metal-cooled reactor (LMR) was performed. The study focused on three accident initiators with failure to scram: the unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF), the unprotected transient overpower (UTOP), and the unprotected loss-of-heat-sink (ULOHS). Emphasis was placed on identification of design features that provide passive, self-limiting responses to upset conditions, and quantification of relative safety margins. The analyses show that in ULOF and ULOHS sequences, metal-fueled LMRs with pool-type primary systems provide larger temperature margins to coolant boiling than oxide-fueled reactors of the same design. 3 refs., 4 figs

  5. A General Synthesis Strategy for Hierarchical Porous Metal Oxide Hollow Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huadong Fu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The hierarchical porous TiO2 hollow spheres were successfully prepared by using the hydrothermally synthesized colloidal carbon spheres as templates and tetrabutyl titanate as inorganic precursors. The diameter and wall thickness of hollow TiO2 spheres were determined by the hard templates and concentration of tetrabutyl titanate. The particle size, dispersity, homogeneity, and surface state of the carbon spheres can be easily controlled by adjusting the hydrothermal conditions and adding certain amount of the surfactants. The prepared hollow spheres possessed the perfect spherical shape, monodispersity, and hierarchically pore structures, and the further experiment verified that the present approach can be used to prepare other metal oxide hollow spheres, which could be used as catalysis, fuel cells, lithium-air battery, gas sensor, and so on.

  6. High performance supercapacitors using metal oxide anchored graphene nanosheet electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Baby, Rakhi Raghavan

    2011-01-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles were chemically anchored onto graphene nanosheets (GNs) and the resultant composites - SnO2/GNs, MnO2/GNs and RuO2/GNs (58% of GNs loading) - coated over conductive carbon fabric substrates were successfully used as supercapacitor electrodes. The results showed that the incorporation of metal oxide nanoparticles improved the capacitive performance of GNs due to a combination of the effect of spacers and redox reactions. The specific capacitance values (with respect to the composite mass) obtained for SnO2/GNs (195 F g-1) and RuO 2/GNs (365 F g-1) composites at a scan rate of 20 mV s-1 in the present study are the best ones reported to date for a two electrode configuration. The resultant supercapacitors also exhibited high values for maximum energy (27.6, 33.1 and 50.6 W h kg-1) and power densities (15.9, 20.4 and 31.2 kW kg-1) for SnO2/GNs, MnO2/GNs and RuO2/GNs respectively. These findings demonstrate the importance and great potential of metal oxide/GNs based composite coated carbon fabric in the development of high-performance energy-storage systems. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Size characterization of metal oxide nanoparticles in commercial sunscreen products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairi, Venu Gopal; Lim, Jin-Hee; Fong, Andrew; Linder, Sean W.

    2017-07-01

    There is an increase in the usage of engineered metal oxide (TiO2 and ZnO) nanoparticles in commercial sunscreens due to their pleasing esthetics and greater sun protection efficiency. A number of studies have been done concerning the safety of nanoparticles in sunscreen products. In order to do the safety assessment, it is pertinent to develop novel analytical techniques to analyze these nanoparticles in commercial sunscreens. This study is focused on developing analytical techniques that can efficiently determine particle size of metal oxides present in the commercial sunscreens. To isolate the mineral UV filters from the organic matrices, specific procedures such as solvent extraction were identified. In addition, several solvents (hexane, chloroform, dichloromethane, and tetrahydrofuran) have been investigated. The solvent extraction using tetrahydrofuran worked well for all the samples investigated. The isolated nanoparticles were characterized by using several different techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, differential centrifugal sedimentation, and x-ray diffraction. Elemental analysis mapping studies were performed to obtain individual chemical and morphological identities of the nanoparticles. Results from the electron microscopy techniques were compared against the bulk particle sizing techniques. All of the sunscreen products tested in this study were found to contain nanosized (≤100 nm) metal oxide particles with varied shapes and aspect ratios, and four among the 11 products were showed to have anatase TiO2.

  8. Developments in hot-filament metal oxide deposition (HFMOD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durrant, Steven F.; Trasferetti, Benedito C.; Scarminio, Jair; Davanzo, Celso U.; Rouxinol, Francisco P.M.; Gelamo, Rogerio V.; Bica de Moraes, Mario A.

    2008-01-01

    Hot-filament metal oxide deposition (HFMOD) is a variant of conventional hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) recently developed in our laboratory and successfully used to obtain high-quality, uniform films of MO x , WO x and VO x . The method employs the controlled oxidation of a filament of a transition metal heated to 1000 deg. C or more in a rarefied oxygen atmosphere (typically, of about 1 Pa). Metal oxide vapor formed on the surface of the filament is transported a few centimetres to deposit on a suitable substrate. Key system parameters include the choice of filament material and diameter, the applied current and the partial pressures of oxygen in the chamber. Relatively high film deposition rates, such as 31 nm min -1 for MoO x , are obtained. The film stoichiometry depends on the exact deposition conditions. MoO x films, for example, present a mixture of MoO 2 and MoO 3 phases, as revealed by XPS. As determined by Li + intercalation using an electrochemical cell, these films also show a colouration efficiency of 19.5 cm 2 C -1 at a wavelength of 700 nm. MO x and WO x films are promising in applications involving electrochromism and characteristics of their colouring/bleaching cycles are presented. The chemical composition and structure of VO x films examined using IRRAS (infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy), RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectrometry) are also presented

  9. Powder of a copper oxide superconductor precursor, fabrication process and use for the preparation of superconducting oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehaudt, P.

    1990-01-01

    The precursor powder comprises at least a copper compound (hydroxide, oxide and hydroxynitrates), at least a rare earth and/or yttrium compound (nitrates, hydroxides and hydroxynitrates) or bismuth oxide and at least an alkaline earth nitrate. It can be prepared by atomization drying of a suspension a copper precipitate or coprecipitate and other elements of the superconducting oxide in solution [fr

  10. Raman spectroscopy of sputtered metal-graphene and metal-oxide-graphene interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching-Tzu; Gajek, Marcin; Freitag, Marcus; Kuroda, Marcelo; Perebeinos, Vasili; Raoux, Simone

    2012-02-01

    In this talk, we report our recent development in sputtering deposition of magnetic and non-magnetic metal and metal-oxide thin films on graphene for applications in spintronics and nanoeleoctronics. TEM and SEM images demonstrate homogeneous coverage, uniform thickness, and good crystallinity of the sputtered films. Raman spectroscopy shows that the structure of the underlying graphene is well preserved, and the spectral weight of the defect D mode is comparable to that of the e-beam evaporated samples. Most significantly, we report the first observation of graphene-enhanced surface excitations of crystalline materials. Specifically, we discover two pronounced dispersive Raman modes at the interface of graphene and the nickel-oxide and cobalt-oxide films which we attribute to the strong light absorption and high-order resonant scattering process in the graphene layer. We will present the frequency-dependent, polarization-dependent Raman data of these two modes and discuss their microscopic origin.

  11. Uranium Metal to Oxide Conversion by Air Oxidation –Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, A

    2001-12-31

    Published technical information for the process of metal-to-oxide conversion of uranium components has been reviewed and summarized for the purpose of supporting critical decisions for new processes and facilities for the Y-12 National Security Complex. The science of uranium oxidation under low, intermediate, and high temperature conditions is reviewed. A process and system concept is outlined and process parameters identified for uranium oxide production rates. Recommendations for additional investigations to support a conceptual design of a new facility are outlined.

  12. Flexible Electronics Powered by Mixed Metal Oxide Thin Film Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrs, Michael

    A low temperature amorphous oxide thin film transistor (TFT) and amorphous silicon PIN diode backplane technology for large area flexible digital x-ray detectors has been developed to create 7.9-in. diagonal backplanes. The critical steps in the evolution of the backplane process include the qualification and optimization of the low temperature (200 °C) metal oxide TFT and a-Si PIN photodiode process, the stability of the devices under forward and reverse bias stress, the transfer of the process to flexible plastic substrates, and the fabrication and assembly of the flexible detectors. Mixed oxide semiconductor TFTs on flexible plastic substrates suffer from performance and stability issues related to the maximum processing temperature limitation of the polymer. A novel device architecture based upon a dual active layer improves both the performance and stability. Devices are directly fabricated below 200 ºC on a polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate using mixed metal oxides of either zinc indium oxide (ZIO) or indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) as the active semiconductor. The dual active layer architecture allows for adjustment to the saturation mobility and threshold voltage stability without the requirement of high temperature annealing, which is not compatible with flexible plastic substrates like PEN. The device performance and stability is strongly dependent upon the composition of the mixed metal oxide; this dependency provides a simple route to improving the threshold voltage stability and drive performance. By switching from a single to a dual active layer, the saturation mobility increases from 1.2 cm2/V-s to 18.0 cm2/V-s, while the rate of the threshold voltage shift decreases by an order of magnitude. This approach could assist in enabling the production of devices on flexible substrates using amorphous oxide semiconductors. Low temperature (200°C) processed amorphous silicon photodiodes were developed successfully by balancing the tradeoffs

  13. Silver nanowires-templated metal oxide for broadband Schottky photodetector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, Malkeshkumar; Kim, Hong-Sik; Kim, Joondong, E-mail: joonkim@inu.ac.kr [Photoelectric and Energy Device Application Lab (PEDAL) and Department of Electrical Engineering, Incheon National University, 119 Academy Rd. Yeonsu, Incheon 406772 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyeong-Ho [Applied Device and Material Lab., Device Technology Division, Korea Advanced Nano Fab Center (KANC), Suwon 443270 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-04

    Silver nanowires (AgNWs)-templated transparent metal oxide layer was applied for Si Schottky junction device, which remarked the record fastest photoresponse of 3.4 μs. Self-operating AgNWs-templated Schottky photodetector showed broad wavelength photodetection with high responsivity (42.4 A W{sup −1}) and detectivity (2.75 × 10{sup 15} Jones). AgNWs-templated indium-tin-oxide (ITO) showed band-to-band excitation due to the internal photoemission, resulting in significant carrier collection performances. Functional metal oxide layer was formed by AgNWs-templated from ITO structure. The grown ITO above AgNWs has a cylindrical shape and acts as a thermal protector of AgNWs for high temperature environment without any deformation. We developed thermal stable AgNWs-templated transparent oxide devices and demonstrated the working mechanism of AgNWs-templated Schottky devices. We may propose the high potential of hybrid transparent layer design for various photoelectric applications, including solar cells.

  14. Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, John E.; Kelly, Thomas F.

    1999-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains.

  15. Thermodynamic properties of some metal oxide-zirconia systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.

    1989-01-01

    Metal oxide-zirconia systems are a potential class of materials for use as structural materials at temperatures above 1900 K. These materials must have no destructive phase changes and low vapor pressures. Both alkaline earth oxide (MgO, CaO, SrO, and BaO)-zirconia and some rare earth oxide (Y2O3, Sc2O3, La2O3, CeO2, Sm2O3, Gd2O3, Yb2O3, Dy2O3, Ho2O3, and Er2O3)-zirconia system are examined. For each system, the phase diagram is discussed and the vapor pressure for each vapor species is calculated via a free energy minimization procedure. The available thermodynamic literature on each system is also surveyed. Some of the systems look promising for high temperature structural materials.

  16. Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, J.E.; Kelly, T.F.

    1999-06-01

    Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains. 20 figs.

  17. Preparation of uranium-based oxide catalysts; Preparation de catalyseurs oxydes a base d'uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressat, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    We have studied the thermal decomposition of uranyl and uranium IV oxalates as a mean of producing uranium dioxide. We have isolated the main intermediate phases of the decompositions and have indexed the lines of their X-ray diffraction patterns. The oxides produced by the decomposition are ill-defined and unstable: they strongly absorb atmospheric oxygen with modification of the composition and, in certain cases, of the structure (pyrophoric oxide). With a view to obtaining stable oxides, we have prepared mixed uranium-thorium oxalates. In order to prepare an oxalate having a homogeneous composition, it is necessary to adopt a well-defined preparation method: the addition of solutions of thorium and uranium IV nitrates to a continually saturated oxalic acid solution. The mixed oxide obtained from the thermal decomposition of an oxalate U{sub x}Th{sub 1-x}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}, 2 H{sub 2}O at 500 C for 24 hours in a current of oxygen leads to a cubic structure which is well-defined both in the bulk and superficially when x is less than 0.35. Above this atomic concentration of uranium, some uranium moves out of the lattice in the form of UO{sub 3} or U{sub 3}O{sub 8} according to the temperature. The mixed oxide is not stoichiometric,(U{sub x}Th{sub 1-x}O{sub 2+y}) and the average degree of oxidation of the uranium varies with the temperature and partial oxygen pressure. The oxides thus formed have a high surface area. By dissolving the mixed oxalates in a concentrated solution of ammonium oxalate, it is possible to deposit the catalyst on a support, but the differences in the solubilities of the thorium and uranium IV oxalates in the ammonium oxalate make it impossible to prepare double salts formed either of thorium and uranium and of ammonium. (author) [French] Nous avons etudie la decomposition thermique des oxalates d'uranyle et d'uranium IV en vue d'aboutir au dioxide d'uranium. Nous avons pu isoler les principales phases intermediaires des decompositions

  18. Graphene oxide powders with different oxidation degree, prepared by synthesis variations of the Hummers method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero-Contreras, Jesus; Caballero-Briones, F.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) powders with different oxidation degree estimated through the relative intensity of the infrared absorption bands related to oxygen containing groups were prepared through variations of the Hummers method. The GO powders were analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscopy, Energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, UV–VIS spectroscopy and Electrical Resistance measurements. Several square micron GO sheets with low wrinkling were obtained. Oxygen to carbon ratio is around 0.2 in all the samples although a strong variance in the relative intensity of the oxygen related infrared bands is evident. Thus, the oxidation degree was estimated from the FTIR measurements using the quotient between the C–O related bands area to the total area under the spectra. FTIR shows presence of hydroxyl (–OH), epoxy (C–O–C), carboxyl (–COOH) and carbonyl (C=O) moieties and evidence of intermolecular interactions between adjacent groups. These interactions influence the exfoliation degree, the absorbance of the GO suspensions, as well as the electrical resistance, while the crystalline domain sizes, estimated from XRD and Raman do not show a noticeable behavior related with the composition and molecular structure. The results indicate that the electrical resistance is influenced mainly by the surface chemistry of the GO powders and not only by the O/C ratio. The control of the surface chemistry of GO powders would allow their use as additives in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells with enhanced photoconversion efficiency. - Highlights: • Powders of graphene oxide with different oxidation degree were prepared through variations of the Hummers method. • Raman spectroscopy and XRD demonstrated similar crystallite domain size in the samples. • Electrical resistance, exfoliation degree and optical absorption depend on the molecular structure.

  19. Graphene oxide powders with different oxidation degree, prepared by synthesis variations of the Hummers method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero-Contreras, Jesus; Caballero-Briones, F., E-mail: fcaballero@ipn.mx

    2015-03-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) powders with different oxidation degree estimated through the relative intensity of the infrared absorption bands related to oxygen containing groups were prepared through variations of the Hummers method. The GO powders were analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscopy, Energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction, UV–VIS spectroscopy and Electrical Resistance measurements. Several square micron GO sheets with low wrinkling were obtained. Oxygen to carbon ratio is around 0.2 in all the samples although a strong variance in the relative intensity of the oxygen related infrared bands is evident. Thus, the oxidation degree was estimated from the FTIR measurements using the quotient between the C–O related bands area to the total area under the spectra. FTIR shows presence of hydroxyl (–OH), epoxy (C–O–C), carboxyl (–COOH) and carbonyl (C=O) moieties and evidence of intermolecular interactions between adjacent groups. These interactions influence the exfoliation degree, the absorbance of the GO suspensions, as well as the electrical resistance, while the crystalline domain sizes, estimated from XRD and Raman do not show a noticeable behavior related with the composition and molecular structure. The results indicate that the electrical resistance is influenced mainly by the surface chemistry of the GO powders and not only by the O/C ratio. The control of the surface chemistry of GO powders would allow their use as additives in organic bulk heterojunction solar cells with enhanced photoconversion efficiency. - Highlights: • Powders of graphene oxide with different oxidation degree were prepared through variations of the Hummers method. • Raman spectroscopy and XRD demonstrated similar crystallite domain size in the samples. • Electrical resistance, exfoliation degree and optical absorption depend on the molecular structure.

  20. Hydrogen storage evaluation based on investigations of the catalytic properties of metal/metal oxides in electrospun carbon fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Ji Sun; Lee, Young-Seak [Department of Fine Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea); Park, Soo-Jin [Department of Chemistry, Inha University, Incheon 402-751 (Korea); Kim, Taejin [Core Technology Research Center for Fuel Cell, Jeollabuk-do 561-844 (Korea)

    2009-05-15

    In order to investigate the catalytic capacity of metals and metal oxides based on electrospun carbon fibers for improving hydrogen storage, electrospinning and heat treatments were carried out to obtain metal/metal oxide-embedded carbon fibers. Although the fibers were treated with the same activation procedure, they had different pore structures, due to the nature of the metal oxide. When comparing the catalytic capacity of metal and metal oxide, metal exhibits better performance as a catalyst for the improvement of hydrogen storage, when considering the hydrogen storage system. When a metal oxide with an m.p. lower than the temperature of heat treatment was used, the metal oxide was changed to metal during the heat treatment, developing a micropore structure. The activation process produced a high specific surface area of up to 2900 m{sup 2}/g and a pore volume of up to 2.5 cc/g. The amount of hydrogen adsorption reached approximately 3 wt% at 100 bar and room temperature. (author)

  1. Effect of Different Binders on the Electrochemical Performance of Metal Oxide Anode for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Feng, Lili; Yang, Wenrong; Zhang, Yinyin; Zhang, Yanli; Bai, Wei; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Wei; Chuan, Yongming; Zheng, Ziguang; Guan, Hongjin

    2017-10-01

    When testing the electrochemical performance of metal oxide anode for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), binder played important role on the electrochemical performance. Which binder was more suitable for preparing transition metal oxides anodes of LIBs has not been systematically researched. Herein, five different binders such as polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) HSV900, PVDF 301F, PVDF Solvay5130, the mixture of styrene butadiene rubber and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SBR+CMC), and polyacrylonitrile (LA133) were studied to make anode electrodes (compared to the full battery). The electrochemical tests show that using SBR+CMC and LA133 binder which use water as solution were significantly better than PVDF. The SBR+CMC binder remarkably improve the bonding capacity, cycle stability, and rate performance of battery anode, and the capacity retention was about 87% after 50th cycle relative to the second cycle. SBR+CMC binder was more suitable for making transition metal oxides anodes of LIBs.

  2. Electrochemically Formed Ultrafine Metal Oxide Nanocatalysts for High-Performance Lithium–Oxygen Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Bin; Yan, Pengfei; Xu, Wu; Zheng, Jianming; He, Yang; Luo, Langli; Bowden, Mark E.; Wang, Chong-Min; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2016-08-10

    Lithium-oxygen (Li-O2) battery has an extremely high theoretical specific energy density as compared with conventional energy storage systems. However, practical application of Li-O2 battery system still faces significant challenges, especially its poor cyclability. In this work, we report a new approach to synthesis ultrafine metal oxide nanocatalysts through an electrochemical pre-lithiation process. This process reduces the size of NiCo2O4 (NCO) particles from 20~30 nm to a uniformly distributed domain of ~ 2 nm and largely improved their catalytic activity. Structurally, the pre-lithiated NCO NWs are featured by ultrafine NiO/CoO nanoparticles, which show high stability during prolonged cycles in terms of morphology and the particle size, therefore maintaining an excellent catalytic effect to oxygen reduction and evolution reactions. Li-O2 battery using this catalyst has demonstrated an initial capacity of 29,280 mAh g-1 and has retained a stable capacity of over 1,000 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles based on the weight of NCO active material. Direct in-situ TEM observation conclusively reveals the lithiation/delithiation process of as-prepared NCO NWs, clarifying the NCO/Li electrochemical reaction mechanism that can be extended to other transition-metal oxides and providing the in depth understandings on the catalysts and battery chemistries of other ternary transition-metal oxides.

  3. Texture and microstructure analysis of epitaxial oxide layers prepared on textured Ni-12wt%Cr tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huehne, R; Kursumovic, A; Tomov, R I; Glowacki, B A [Department of Materials Science and IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom); Holzapfel, B [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstoffforschung, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Evetts, J E [Department of Materials Science and IRC in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge, CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

    2003-05-07

    Oxide layers for the preparation of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} coated conductors were grown on highly textured Ni-12wt%Cr tapes in pure oxygen using surface oxidation epitaxy at temperatures between 1000 deg. C and 1300 deg. C. Microstructural investigations revealed a layered oxide structure. The upper layer consists mainly of dense cube textured NiO. This is followed by a porous layer containing NiO and NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles. A detailed texture analysis showed a cube-on-cube relationship of the NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel to the metal substrate. Untextured Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles in a nickel matrix were found in a third layer arising from internal oxidation of the alloy. A high surface roughness and mechanical instability of the oxide were observed, depending on oxidation temperature and film thickness. However, mechanically stable oxide layers have been prepared using an additional annealing step in a protective atmosphere. Additionally, mechanical polishing or a second buffer layer, which grows with a higher smoothness, may be applied to reduce the surface roughness for coated conductor applications.

  4. Metal oxides modified NiO catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane to ethylene

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Haibo

    2014-06-01

    The sol-gel method was applied to the synthesis of Zr, Ti, Mo, W, and V modified NiO based catalysts for the ethane oxidative dehydrogenation reaction. The synthesized catalysts were characterized by XRD, N2 adsorption, SEM and TPR techniques. The results showed that the doping metals could be highly dispersed into NiO domains without the formation of large amount of other bulk metal oxide. The modified NiO materials have small particle size, larger surface area, and higher reduction temperature in contrast to pure NiO. The introduction of group IV, V and VI transition metals into NiO decreases the catalytic activity in ethane ODH. However, the ethylene selectivity is enhanced with the highest level for the Ni-W-O and Ni-Ti-O catalysts. As a result, these two catalysts show improved efficiency of ethylene production in the ethane ODH reaction. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Inverse spinel transition metal oxides for lithium-ion storage with different discharge/charge conversion mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jiawei; Ren, Yurong; Huang, Xiaobing; Ding, Jianning

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Inverse spinel structure relieves the irreversible phase transition of electrodes. • Anodes with the same structure show different discharge/charge conversion mechanisms. • High reversible capacity confirms the potential feasibility of composites. - Abstract: Inverse spinel transition metal oxides (Fe 3 O 4 , MnFe 2 O 4 , Fe 3 O 4 /reduced graphene oxide and MnFe 2 O 4 /reduced graphene oxide) are prepared by a facile ethylene-glycol-assisted hydrothermal method. The stability of inverse spinel structure and the high specific surface area of nanoscale provide transition metal oxides with high specific capacity. And the surface modification with reduced graphene oxide improves the poor conductivity of pristine transition metal oxides. Pristine Fe 3 O 4 and MnFe 2 O 4 deliver the high initial discharge capacity of 1137.1 and 1088.9 mAh g −1 , respectively. Fe 3 O 4 /reduced graphene oxide and MnFe 2 O 4 /reduced graphene oxide get the reversible capacity of 645.8 and 720 mAh g −1 , respectively, even after 55 cycles. The different discharge/charge conversion mechanisms make them different capacity stability. The great electrochemical performances of composites offer electrodes with suitable characteristics for high-performance energy storage application.

  6. Polymer-directed synthesis of metal oxide-containing nanomaterials for electrochemical energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Yiyong; Zhang, Fan; Feng, Xinliang

    2013-12-01

    Metal oxide-containing nanomaterials (MOCNMs) of controllable structures at the nano-scale have attracted considerable interest because of their great potential applications in electrochemical energy storage devices, such as lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and supercapacitors. Among many structure-directing agents, polymers and macromolecules, including block copolymers (BCPs) and graphene, exhibit distinct advantages in the template-assisted synthesis of MOCNMs. In this feature article, we introduce the controlled preparation of MOCNMs employing BCPs and graphene as structure-directing agents. Typical synthetic strategies are presented for the control of structures and sizes as well as the improvement of physical properties and electrochemical performance of MOCNMs in LIBs and supercapacitors.

  7. Metal porphyrin intercalated reduced graphene oxide nanocomposite utilized for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyan Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report a simple and facile self-assembly method to successfully fabricate cationic metal porphyrin –MtTMPyP (Mt= Cobalt (II, Manganese (III, or Iron (III; TMPyP = 5, 10, 15, 20-tetrakis (N-methylpyridinium-4-yl porphyrin intercalated into the layer of graphene oxide (GO by the cooperative effects of electrostatic and π–π stacking interaction between positively charged metal porphyrin and negatively charged GO sheets. Followed by reduction with hydrazine vapor, a series of novel 2D MtTMPyP/rGOn were fabricated. The as-prepared 2D hybrids were fully characterized and tested as non-noble metal catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR in an alkaline medium. The MtTMPyP/rGOn hybrids, especially CoTMPyP/rGO5, demonstrated an improved electrocatalytic activity for ORR and a number of exchanged electrons close to 4-electron reaction, increased stability and excellent tolerance to methanol, showing a potential alternative catalyst for ORR in fuel cells and air batteries. Keywords: Metal porphyrin, Reduced graphene oxide, Intercalation, Oxygen reduction reaction, Catalyst

  8. Current-induced metal-insulator transition in VO x thin film prepared by rapid-thermal-annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Choong-Rae; Cho, SungIl; Vadim, Sidorkin; Jung, Ranju; Yoo, Inkyeong

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon of metal-insulator transition (MIT) in polycrystalline VO x thin films and their preparations have been studied. The films were prepared by sputtering of vanadium thin films succeeded by Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) in oxygen ambient at 500 deg. C. Crystalline, compositional, and morphological characterizations reveal a continuous change of phase from vanadium metal to the highest oxide phase, V 2 O 5 , with the time of annealing. Electrical MIT switching has been observed in these films. Sweeping mode, electrode area, and temperature dependent MIT has been studied in Pt/VO x /Pt vertical structure. The important parameters for MIT in VO x have been found to be the current density and the electric field, which depend on carrier density in the films

  9. Cermet materials prepared by combustion synthesis and metal infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Joseph B.; Dunmead, Stephen D.; Halverson, Danny C.; Landingham, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    Ceramic-metal composites (cermets) are made by a combination of self-propagating high temperature combustion synthesis and molten metal infiltration. Solid-gas, solid-solid and solid-liquid reactions of a powder compact produce a porous ceramic body which is infiltrated by molten metal to produce a composite body of higher density. AlN-Al and many other materials can be produced.

  10. THE ROLE OF METAL ION ON PHYSIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF METAL ALUMINATES PREPARED BY IMPREGNATION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Komeili

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of MAl2O4 (M=Ni, Zn, and Cu aluminates were prepared by using impregnation method; the metal content of the products was ranged between 5wt% to 25wt%. The samples were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD, Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET surface area, NH3 temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD, and inductively coupled argon plasma (ICP. The specific surface areas of zinc, nickel and copper aluminates were in the ranges of 47-77m2/g, 63-87m2/g and 1.6-3m2/g, respectively. The surface acidity decreased in the order of CuAl2O4<< NiAl2O4< ZnAl2O4<< Al2O3. By increasing the amount of metals in the samples, the number of acidic sites decreased, but their strength did not significantly change. Ni-aluminates have fewer acidic sites than Zn-aluminates, particularly in strong acid sites

  11. Thin copper oxide films prepared by ion beam sputtering with subsequent thermal oxidation: Application in chemiresistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, P., E-mail: phorak@ujf.cas.cz [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Bejsovec, V.; Vacik, J.; Lavrentiev, V. [Nuclear Physics Institute, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 250 68 Řež (Czech Republic); Vrnata, M. [Department of Physics and Measurements, The University of Chemistry and Technology, Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Kormunda, M. [Department of Physics, Jan Evangelista Purkyně University in Ústí nad Labem, České mládeže 8, 400 96 Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic); Danis, S. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague, Ke Karlovu 5, 121 16 Prague 2 (Czech Republic)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A rapid oxidation process of thin copper films. • Sheet resistance up to 10{sup 9} Ω/◊. • Mixed oxide phase at 200 °C with significant hydroxide presence. • Gas sensing response to 1000 ppm of hydrogen and methanol vapours. • Increased sensitivity with Pd and Au catalyst to hydrogen and methanol, respectively. - Abstract: Copper oxide films were prepared by thermal oxidation of thin Cu films deposited on substrates by ion beam sputtering. The subsequent oxidation was achieved in the temperature range of 200 °C–600 °C with time of treatment from 1 to 7 h (with a 1-h step) in a furnace open to air. At temperatures 250 °C–600 °C, the dominant phase formed was CuO, while at 200 °C mainly the Cu{sub 2}O phase was identified. However, the oxidation at 200 °C led to a more complicated composition − in the depth Cu{sub 2}O phase was observed, though in the near-surface layer the CuO dominant phase was found with a significant presence of Cu(OH){sub 2}. A limited amount of Cu{sub 2}O was also found in samples annealed at 600 °C. The sheet resistance R{sub S} of the as-deposited Cu sample was 2.22 Ω/□, after gradual annealing R{sub S} was measured in the range 2.64 MΩ/□–2.45 GΩ/□. The highest R{sub S} values were obtained after annealing at 300 °C and 350 °C, respectively. Oxygen depth distribution was studied using the {sup 16}O(α,α) nuclear reaction with the resonance at energy 3032 keV. It was confirmed that the higher oxidation degree of copper is located in the near-surface region. Preliminary tests of the copper oxide films as an active layer of a chemiresistor were also performed. Hydrogen and methanol vapours, with a concentration of 1000 ppm, were detected by the sensor at an operating temperature of 300 °C and 350 °C, respectively. The response of the sensors, pointed at the p-type conductivity, was improved by the addition of thin Pd or Au catalytic films to the oxidic film surface. Pd-covered films showed

  12. Electrical conductivity of activated carbon-metal oxide nanocomposites under compression: a comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barroso-Bogeat, A; Alexandre-Franco, M; Fernández-González, C; Macías-García, A; Gómez-Serrano, V

    2014-12-07

    From a granular commercial activated carbon (AC) and six metal oxide (Al2O3, Fe2O3, SnO2, TiO2, WO3 and ZnO) precursors, two series of AC-metal oxide nanocomposites were prepared by wet impregnation, oven-drying at 120 °C, and subsequent heat treatment at 200 or 850 °C in an inert atmosphere. Here, the electrical conductivity of the resulting products was studied under moderate compression. The influence of the applied pressure, sample volume, mechanical work, and density of the hybrid materials was thoroughly investigated. The DC electrical conductivity of the compressed samples was measured at room temperature by the four-probe method. Compaction assays suggest that the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites are largely determined by the carbon matrix. Both the decrease in volume and the increase in density were relatively small and only significant at pressures lower than 100 kPa for AC and most nanocomposites. In contrast, the bulk electrical conductivity of the hybrid materials was strongly influenced by the intrinsic conductivity, mean crystallite size, content and chemical nature of the supported phases, which ultimately depend on the metal oxide precursor and heat treatment temperature. The supported nanoparticles may be considered to act as electrical switches either hindering or favouring the effective electron transport between the AC cores of neighbouring composite particles in contact under compression. Conductivity values as a rule were lower for the nanocomposites than for the raw AC, all of them falling in the range of semiconductor materials. With the increase in heat treatment temperature, the trend is toward the improvement of conductivity due to the increase in the crystallite size and, in some cases, to the formation of metals in the elemental state and even metal carbides. The patterns of variation of the electrical conductivity with pressure and mechanical work were slightly similar, thus suggesting the predominance of the pressure

  13. High-T/sub c/ oxide superconductors prepared by spray-drying method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, N.; Nakano, T.; Goth, S.; Shimotomai, M.

    1988-01-01

    A spray-drying method has been worked out to prepare the superconducting oxide YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub x/ by using aqueous solution of acetates of the component metals. Spray-dried powders have shown to be very reactive and full calcination has been easily attained at 900 0 C for 12 hrs. The density of the ceramics sintered at 950 0 C for 12 hrs has reached a value of 98% of the theoretical density. The resistivity of the spray-dry processed sample is 150μΩ-cm at the onset temperature and the residual resistivity extrapolated to O K is almost zero. It is also found that degradation of the superconducting state by application of magnetic field is much improved for the spray-dry processed samples

  14. Liquid metal/metal oxide frameworks with incorporated Ga2O3 for photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Naidu, Boddu S; Ou, Jian Zhen; O'Mullane, Anthony P; Chrimes, Adam F; Carey, Benjamin J; Wang, Yichao; Tang, Shi-Yang; Sivan, Vijay; Mitchell, Arnan; Bhargava, Suresh K; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh

    2015-01-28

    Solvothermally synthesized Ga2O3 nanoparticles are incorporated into liquid metal/metal oxide (LM/MO) frameworks in order to form enhanced photocatalytic systems. The LM/MO frameworks, both with and without incorporated Ga2O3 nanoparticles, show photocatalytic activity due to a plasmonic effect where performance is related to the loading of Ga2O3 nanoparticles. Optimum photocatalytic efficiency is obtained with 1 wt % incorporation of Ga2O3 nanoparticles. This can be attributed to the sub-bandgap states of LM/MO frameworks, contributing to pseudo-ohmic contacts which reduce the free carrier injection barrier to Ga2O3.

  15. Zinc oxide nanocolloids prepared by picosecond pulsed laser ablation in water at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Urso, Luisa; Spadaro, Salvatore; Bonsignore, Martina; Santangelo, Saveria; Compagnini, Giuseppe; Neri, Fortunato; Fazio, Enza

    2018-01-01

    Zinc oxide with wide direct band gap and high exciton binding energy is one of the most promising materials for ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting devices. It further exhibits good performance in the degradation of non-biodegradable pollutants under UV irradiation. In this work, zinc oxide (ZnO) and zinc oxide/gold (ZnO/Au) nanocolloids are prepared by picosecond pulsed laser ablation (ps-PLA), using a Zn and Au metallic targets in water media at room temperature (RT) and 80°C. ZnO and Au nanoparticles (NPs) with size in the 10-50 nm range are obtained at RT, while ZnO nanorods (NRs) are formed when water is maintained at 80°C during the ps-PLA process. Au NPs, added to ZnO colloids after the ablation process, decorate ZnO NRs. The crystalline phase of all ZnO nanocolloids is wurtzite. Methylene blue dye is used to investigate the photo-catalytic activity of all the synthesised nanocolloids, under UV light irradiation.

  16. Exfoliation approach for preparing high conductive reduced graphite oxide and its application in natural rubber composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipatkrut, Pattharaporn [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Poompradub, Sirilux, E-mail: sirilux.p@chula.ac.th [Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Center for Petroleum, Petrochemical and Advanced Material, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Graphite waste was exfoliated by oxidation and chemical and thermal reduction. • The obtained graphene-T was a single layer sheet with a high electrical conductivity. • Graphene-T incorporation at 5 phr improved the electrical conductivity of NR. • Graphene-T incorporation at 5–25 phr improved the mechanical properties of NR. - Abstract: High conductivity reduced graphite oxide (RGO) was prepared by exfoliation of graphite waste from the metal smelting industry. To improve the surface properties of the RGO, the graphite oxide obtained based on Hummers’ method was reduced by L-ascorbic acid to give RGOV, which was then subjected to thermal reduction to obtain RGOT. The residual oxygen-containing groups in RGOV were almost completely removed by the thermal reduction and the conjugated graphene networks were restored in RGOT. The effect of the RGOT content in natural rubber (NR) on the cure, electrical and mechanical properties of the NR-RGOT (NG) composites was evaluated. The electrical conductivity of NR was increased by the inclusion of RGOT at a percolation threshold of 5 phr, with an electrical conductivity of 8.71 × 10{sup −6} S/m. The mechanical properties, i.e., the modulus, tensile strength and hardness, of NG were comparable with those of conductive carbon black filled NR ones.

  17. Process for producing metal oxide kernels and kernels so obtained

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelievre, Bernard; Feugier, Andre.

    1974-01-01

    The process desbribed is for producing fissile or fertile metal oxide kernels used in the fabrication of fuels for high temperature nuclear reactors. This process consists in adding to an aqueous solution of at least one metallic salt, particularly actinide nitrates, at least one chemical compound capable of releasing ammonia, in dispersing drop by drop the solution thus obtained into a hot organic phase to gel the drops and transform them into solid particles. These particles are then washed, dried and treated to turn them into oxide kernels. The organic phase used for the gel reaction is formed of a mixture composed of two organic liquids, one acting as solvent and the other being a product capable of extracting the anions from the metallic salt of the drop at the time of gelling. Preferably an amine is used as product capable of extracting the anions. Additionally, an alcohol that causes a part dehydration of the drops can be employed as solvent, thus helping to increase the resistance of the particles [fr

  18. Photocatalysis of zinc oxide nanotip array/titanium oxide film heterojunction prepared by aqueous solution deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ming-Kwei; Lee, Bo-Wei; Kao, Chen-Yu

    2017-05-01

    A TiO2 film was prepared on indium tin oxide (ITO)/glass by aqueous solution deposition (ASD) with precursors of ammonium hexafluoro-titanate and boric acid at 40 °C. The photocatalysis of annealed TiO2 film increases with increasing growth time and decreases with increasing growth times longer than 60 min. A ZnO nanotip array was prepared on ZnO seed layer/TiO2 film/glass by aqueous solution deposition with precursors of zinc nitrate and ammonium hydroxide at 70 °C. The photocatalysis of ASD-ZnO/ASD-TiO2 film/ITO glass can be better than that of P25.

  19. Preparation of porous titanium oxide films onto indium tin oxide for application in organic photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, Andreia G. [Laboratorio de Dispositivos Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Mattos, Luana L.; Spada, Edna R.; Serpa, Rafael B.; Campos, Cristiani S. [Laboratorio de Sistemas Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Grova, Isabel R.; Ackcelrud, Leni [Laboratorio de Polimeros Paulo Scarpa, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Reis, Francoise T.; Sartorelli, Maria L. [Laboratorio de Sistemas Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Roman, Lucimara S., E-mail: lsroman@fisica.ufpr.br [Laboratorio de Dispositivos Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil)

    2012-05-01

    In this work, porous ordered TiO{sub 2} films were prepared through sol gel route by using a monolayer of polystyrene spheres as template on indium-tin oxide/glass substrate. These films were characterized by SEM, AFM, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis absorbance and XRD. The UV-vis absorbance spectrum show a pseudo band gap (PBG) with maxima at 460 nm arising from the light scattering and partial or total suppression of the photon density of states, this PBG can be controlled by the size of the pore. We also propose the use of this porous film as electron acceptor electrode in organic photovoltaic cells; we show that devices prepared with porous titania displayed higher efficiencies than devices using compact titania films as electrode. Such behaviour was observed in both bilayer and bulk heterojunction devices.

  20. Preparation of porous titanium oxide films onto indium tin oxide for application in organic photovoltaic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, Andreia G.; Mattos, Luana L.; Spada, Edna R.; Serpa, Rafael B.; Campos, Cristiani S.; Grova, Isabel R.; Ackcelrud, Leni; Reis, Françoise T.; Sartorelli, Maria L.; Roman, Lucimara S.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, porous ordered TiO 2 films were prepared through sol gel route by using a monolayer of polystyrene spheres as template on indium-tin oxide/glass substrate. These films were characterized by SEM, AFM, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis absorbance and XRD. The UV-vis absorbance spectrum show a pseudo band gap (PBG) with maxima at 460 nm arising from the light scattering and partial or total suppression of the photon density of states, this PBG can be controlled by the size of the pore. We also propose the use of this porous film as electron acceptor electrode in organic photovoltaic cells; we show that devices prepared with porous titania displayed higher efficiencies than devices using compact titania films as electrode. Such behaviour was observed in both bilayer and bulk heterojunction devices.

  1. Catalytic decomposition of nitrogen dioxide over various metal oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimokawabe, M; Ohi, A; Takezawa, N [Dept. of Chemical Process Engineering, Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

    1992-06-30

    The catalytic decomposition of nitrogen oxide (NO2) was investigated over 18 metal oxides (Al2O3, SiO2, ZrO2, SnO2, TiO2, V2O5, Cr2O3, MnO2, Fe2O3, Co3O4, NiO, CuO, ZnO, MgO, CaO, La2O3, CeO2, and Nd2O3). The relationship between the specific rates of metal oxides (Me{sub x}O{sub y}) (Me{sub x}O{sub y-1} + 1/2O{sub 2} {yields} Me{sub x}O{sub y}) shows a V-shaped curve with a minimum at -{Delta}H around 700 kJ/mol. This suggests that the mechanism dealt with in this article switches at -{Delta}H = 700 kJ/mol. 1 fig., 1 tab., 20 refs.

  2. Study on uranium metallization yield of spent Pressurized Water Reactor fuels and oxidation behavior of fission products in uranium metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ke Chon; Lee, Chang Heon; Kim, Won Ho

    2003-01-01

    Metallization yield of uranium oxide to uranium metal from lithium reduction process of spent Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuels was measured using thermogravimetric analyzer. A reduced metal produced in the process was divided into a solid and a powder part, and each metallization yield was measured. Metallization yield of the solid part was 90.7∼95.9 wt%, and the powder being 77.8∼71.5 wt% individually. Oxidation behaviour of the quarternary alloy was investigated to take data on the thermal oxidation stability necessary for the study on dry storage of the reduced metal. At 600∼700 .deg. C, weight increments of allow of No, Ru, Rh and Pd was 0.40∼0.55 wt%. Phase change on the surface of the allow was started at 750 .deg. C. In particular, Mo was rapidly oxidized and then the alloy lost 0.76∼25.22 wt% in weight

  3. Metal adsorption of gamma-irradiated carboxymethyl cellulose/polyethylene oxide blend films

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Naggar, Amal A.; Magida, M. M.; Ibrahim, Sayeda M.

    2016-03-01

    Blend films of different ratios of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)/polyethylene oxide (PEO) were prepared by the solution casting method. To investigate the effect of irradiation on all properties of prepared blend, it was exposed to different gamma irradiation doses (10, 20, and 30 kGy). Physical properties such as gel fraction (GF) (%) and swelling (SW) (%) were investigated. It was found that the GF (%) increases with increasing irradiation dose up to 20 kGy, while SW (%) decreases with an increase in the irradiation doses for all blend compositions. Moreover, the structural and mechanical properties of the prepared films were studied. The results of the mechanical properties obtained showed that there is an improvement in these properties with an increase in both CMC and irradiation dose up to 20 kGy. The efficiency of metal ions uptake was measured using a UV spectrophotometer. The prepared films showed good tendency to absorb and release metal ions from aqueous media. Thus, the CMC/PEO film can be used in agricultural domain.

  4. Preparation and Characterization of Metal Soaps of Cocos nucifera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the extraction of Cocos nucifera seed oil (CSO) from Cocos nucifera seed using aqueous processing and the production of metal soaps from the oil and their characterization in terms of colour, pH, free caustic alkalinity, foaming power, foam stability, and corrosion inhibition test. The metal soaps of the ...

  5. Planar Indium Tin Oxide Heater for Improved Thermal Distribution for Metal Oxide Micromachined Gas Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cihan Çakır

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Metal oxide gas sensors with integrated micro-hotplate structures are widely used in the industry and they are still being investigated and developed. Metal oxide gas sensors have the advantage of being sensitive to a wide range of organic and inorganic volatile compounds, although they lack selectivity. To introduce selectivity, the operating temperature of a single sensor is swept, and the measurements are fed to a discriminating algorithm. The efficiency of those data processing methods strongly depends on temperature uniformity across the active area of the sensor. To achieve this, hot plate structures with complex resistor geometries have been designed and additional heat-spreading structures have been introduced. In this work we designed and fabricated a metal oxide gas sensor integrated with a simple square planar indium tin oxide (ITO heating element, by using conventional micromachining and thin-film deposition techniques. Power consumption–dependent surface temperature measurements were performed. A 420 °C working temperature was achieved at 120 mW power consumption. Temperature distribution uniformity was measured and a 17 °C difference between the hottest and the coldest points of the sensor at an operating temperature of 290 °C was achieved. Transient heat-up and cool-down cycle durations are measured as 40 ms and 20 ms, respectively.

  6. Planar Indium Tin Oxide Heater for Improved Thermal Distribution for Metal Oxide Micromachined Gas Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, M Cihan; Çalışkan, Deniz; Bütün, Bayram; Özbay, Ekmel

    2016-09-29

    Metal oxide gas sensors with integrated micro-hotplate structures are widely used in the industry and they are still being investigated and developed. Metal oxide gas sensors have the advantage of being sensitive to a wide range of organic and inorganic volatile compounds, although they lack selectivity. To introduce selectivity, the operating temperature of a single sensor is swept, and the measurements are fed to a discriminating algorithm. The efficiency of those data processing methods strongly depends on temperature uniformity across the active area of the sensor. To achieve this, hot plate structures with complex resistor geometries have been designed and additional heat-spreading structures have been introduced. In this work we designed and fabricated a metal oxide gas sensor integrated with a simple square planar indium tin oxide (ITO) heating element, by using conventional micromachining and thin-film deposition techniques. Power consumption-dependent surface temperature measurements were performed. A 420 °C working temperature was achieved at 120 mW power consumption. Temperature distribution uniformity was measured and a 17 °C difference between the hottest and the coldest points of the sensor at an operating temperature of 290 °C was achieved. Transient heat-up and cool-down cycle durations are measured as 40 ms and 20 ms, respectively.

  7. Pure and multi metal oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, antibacterial and cytotoxic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankic, Slavica; Suman, Sneha; Haque, Francia; Vidic, Jasmina

    2016-10-24

    Th antibacterial activity of metal oxide nanoparticles has received marked global attention as they can be specifically synthesized to exhibit significant toxicity to bacteria. The importance of their application as antibacterial agents is evident keeping in mind the limited range and effectiveness of antibiotics, on one hand, and the plethora of metal oxides, on the other, along with the propensity of nanoparticles to induce resistance being much lower than that of antibiotics. Effective inhibition against a wide range of bacteria is well known for several nano oxides consisting of one metal (Fe 3 O 4 , TiO 2 , CuO, ZnO), whereas, research in the field of multi-metal oxides still demands extensive exploration. This is understandable given that the relationship between physicochemical properties and biological activity seems to be complex and difficult to generalize even for metal oxide nanoparticles consisting of only one metal component. Also, despite the broad scope that metal oxide nanoparticles have as antibacterial agents, there arise problems in practical applications taking into account the cytotoxic effects. In this respect, the consideration of polymetallic oxides for biological applications becomes even greater since these can provide synergetic effects and unify the best physicochemical properties of their components. For instance, strong antibacterial efficiency specific of one metal oxide can be complemented by non-cytotoxicity of another. This review presents the main methods and technological advances in fabrication of nanostructured metal oxides with a particular emphasis to multi-metal oxide nanoparticles, their antibacterial effects and cytotoxicity.

  8. Preparation of novel polymer–metal oxide nanocomposites with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    inorganic compound. Nanocomposites ... ganic compound (nanophase separated structure). This ..... AFM images of (a) titanium substrate, (b) titanium substrate with polymer brush and ... titanium was observed with atomic force microscope.

  9. Non-equilibrium oxidation states of zirconium during early stages of metal oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Wen; Yildiz, Bilge; Herbert, F. William; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.

    2015-01-01

    The chemical state of Zr during the initial, self-limiting stage of oxidation on single crystal zirconium (0001), with oxide thickness on the order of 1 nm, was probed by synchrotron x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of the Zr 3d spectrum by the spectrum reconstruction method demonstrated the formation of Zr 1+ , Zr 2+ , and Zr 3+ as non-equilibrium oxidation states, in addition to Zr 4+ in the stoichiometric ZrO 2 . This finding resolves the long-debated question of whether it is possible to form any valence states between Zr 0 and Zr 4+ at the metal-oxide interface. The presence of local strong electric fields and the minimization of interfacial energy are assessed and demonstrated as mechanisms that can drive the formation of these non-equilibrium valence states of Zr

  10. A facile self-assembly approach to prepare palladium/carbon nanotubes catalyst for the electro-oxidation of ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Cuilian; Zhang, Xinyuan; Wei, Ying; Zhang, Teng; Chen, Changxin

    2018-02-01

    A facile self-assembly approach is reported to prepare palladium/carbon nanotubes (Pd/CNTs) catalyst for the electro-oxidation of ethanol. In this method, the Pd-oleate/CNTs was decomposed into the Pd/CNTs at an optimal temperature of 195 °C in air, in which no inert gas is needed for the thermal decomposition process due to the low temperature used and the decomposed products are also environmental friendly. The prepared Pd/CNTs catalyst has a high metallic Pd0 content and the Pd particles in the catalyst are disperse, uniform-sized with an average size of ˜2.1 nm, and evenly distributed on the CNTs. By employing our strategy, the problems including the exfoliation of the metal particles from the CNTs and the aggregation of the metal particles can be solved. Comparing with the commercial Pd/C one, the prepared Pd/CNTs catalyst exhibits a much higher electrochemical activity and stability for the electro-oxidation of ethanol in the direct ethanol fuel cells.

  11. Indium tin oxide films prepared via wet chemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legnani, C.; Lima, S.A.M.; Oliveira, H.H.S.; Quirino, W.G.; Machado, R.; Santos, R.M.B.; Davolos, M.R.; Achete, C.A.; Cremona, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, indium tin oxide (ITO) films were prepared using a wet chemical route, the Pechini method. This consists of a polyesterification reaction between an α-hydroxicarboxylate complex (indium citrate and tin citrate) with a polyalcohol (ethylene glycol) followed by a post annealing at 500 deg. C. A 10 at.% of doping of Sn 4+ ions into an In 2 O 3 matrix was successfully achieved through this method. In order to characterize the structure, the morphology as well as the optical and electrical properties of the produced ITO films, they were analyzed using different experimental techniques. The obtained films are highly transparent, exhibiting transmittance of about 85% at 550 nm. They are crystalline with a preferred orientation of [222]. Microscopy discloses that the films are composed of grains of 30 nm average size and 0.63 nm RMS roughness. The films' measured resistivity, mobility and charge carrier concentration were 5.8 x 10 -3 Ω cm, 2.9 cm 2 /V s and - 3.5 x 10 20 /cm 3 , respectively. While the low mobility value can be related to the small grain size, the charge carrier concentration value can be explained in terms of the high oxygen concentration level resulting from the thermal treatment process performed in air. The experimental conditions are being refined to improve the electrical characteristics of the films while good optical, chemical, structural and morphological qualities already achieved are maintained

  12. Methanol oxidation at platinized copper particles prepared by galvanic replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Mintsouli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Bimetallic Pt-Cu particles have been prepared by galvanic replacement of Cu precursor nanoparticles, upon the treatment of the latter with a chloro-platinate acidic solution. The resulting particles, typically a few tens of nm large, were supported on high surface area carbon (Vulcan® XC–72R, Cabot and tested as electrodes. Surface electrochemistry in deaerated acid solutions was similar to that of pure Pt, indicating the existence of a Pt shell (hence the particles are denoted as Pt(Cu. Pt(Cu/C supported catalysts exhibit superior carbon monoxide and methanol oxidation activity with respect to their Pt/C analogues when compared on a per electroactive surface area basis, due to the modification of Pt activity by Cu residing in the particle core. However, as a result of large particle size and agglomeration phenomena, Pt(Cu/C are still inferior to Pt/C when compared on a mass specific activity basis.

  13. Direct reduction of uranium dioxide and few other metal oxides to corresponding metals by high temperature molten salt electrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohandas, K.S.

    2017-01-01

    Molten salt based electro-reduction processes, capable of directly converting solid metal oxides to metals with minimum intermediate steps, are being studied worldwide. Production of metals apart, the process assumes importance in nuclear technology in the context of pyrochemical reprocessing of spent oxide fuels, for it serves as an intermediate step to convert spent oxide fuel to a metal alloy, which in turn can be processed by molten salt electro-refining method to gain the actinides present in it. In the context of future metal fuel fast reactor programme, the electrochemical process was studied for conversion of solid UO_2 to U metal in LiCl-1wt.% Li_2O melt at 650 °C with platinum anode at the Metal Processing Studies Section, PMPD, IGCAR. A brief overview of the work is presented in the paper

  14. Impact of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles on plant: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, Anshu; Zivcak, Marek; Sytar, Oksana; Kalaji, Hazem M.; He, Xiaolan; Mbarki, Sonia; Brestic, Marian

    2017-10-01

    An increasing need of nanotechnology in various industries may cause a huge environment dispersion of nanoparticles in coming years. A concern about nanoparticles interaction with flora and fauna is raised due to a growing load of it in the environment. In recent years, several investigators have shown impact of nanoparticles on plant growth and its accumulation in food source. This review examines the research performed in the last decade to show how metal and metal oxide nanoparticles are influencing the plant metabolisms. We addressed here, the impact of nanoparticle on plant in relation to its size, concentration, and exposure methodology. Based on the available reports, we proposed oxidative burst as a general mechanism through which the toxic effects of nanoparticles are spread in plants. This review summarises the current understanding and the future possibilities of plant-nanoparticle research.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of porous metal oxides and desulfurization studies of sulfur containing compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces Trujillo, Hector Fabian

    This thesis contains two parts: 1) synthesis and characterization of porous metal oxides that include zinc oxide and a porous mixed-valent manganese oxide with an amorphous structure (AMO) 2) the desulfurization studies for the removal of sulfur compounds. Zinc oxide with different nano-scale morphologies may result in various porosities with different adsorption capabilities. A tunable shape microwave synthesis of ZnO nano-spheres in a co-solvent mixture is presented. The ZnO nano-sphere material is investigated as a desulfurizing sorbent in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range 200 to 400 °C and compared with ZnO nanorods and platelet-like morphologies. Fresh and sulfided materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET specific surface area, pore volume, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDX), Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The tunable shape microwave synthesis of ZnO presents a high sulfur sorption capacity at temperatures as low as 200 °C which accounts for a three and four fold enhancement over the other preparations presented in this work, and reached 76 % of the theoretical sulfur capacity (TSC) at 300 °C. Another ZnO material with a bimodal micro- and mesopore size distribution investigated as a desulfurizing sorbent presents a sorption capacity that reaches 87% of the theoretical value for desulfurization at 400 °C at breakthrough time. A deactivation model that considers the activity of the solid reactant was used to fit the experimental data. Good agreement between the experimental breakthrough curves and the model predictions are obtained. Manganese oxides are a type of metal oxide materials commonly used in catalytic applications. Little is known about the adsorption capabilities for the removal of sulfur compounds. One of these manganese oxides; amorphous manganese oxide (AMO) is highly promising material for low temperature sorption processes. Amorphous

  16. TEMPO-oxidized Konjac glucomannan as appliance for the preparation of hard capsules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Yuying; Zhao, Huiying; Liu, Xianwu; Li, Zusen; Liu, Bin; Wu, Jiande; Shi, Mengxuan; Norde, Willem; Li, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    TEMPO-oxidized Konjac glucomannan (OKGM) was developed as new material for preparing vegetarian hard capsules. OKGM of different degrees of oxidation: DO30%, DO50%, and DO80% were prepared to select optimum DO for capsule formation. FT-IR results proved that the primary alcohol groups on KGM were

  17. Lithium alloys and metal oxides as high-capacity anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Chu; Gao, Mingxia; Pan, Hongge; Liu, Yongfeng; Yan, Mi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Progress in lithium alloys and metal oxides as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries is reviewed. •Electrochemical characteristics and lithium storage mechanisms of lithium alloys and metal oxides are summarized. •Strategies for improving electrochemical lithium storage properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides are discussed. •Challenges in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for lithium-ion batteries are pointed out. -- Abstract: Lithium alloys and metal oxides have been widely recognized as the next-generation anode materials for lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and high power density. A variety of lithium alloys and metal oxides have been explored as alternatives to the commercial carbonaceous anodes. The electrochemical characteristics of silicon, tin, tin oxide, iron oxides, cobalt oxides, copper oxides, and so on are systematically summarized. In this review, it is not the scope to retrace the overall studies, but rather to highlight the electrochemical performances, the lithium storage mechanism and the strategies in improving the electrochemical properties of lithium alloys and metal oxides. The challenges and new directions in developing lithium alloys and metal oxides as commercial anodes for the next-generation lithium-ion batteries are also discussed

  18. A Comparative Study of Mn/Co Binary Metal Catalysts Supported on Two Commercial Diatomaceous Earths for Oxidation of Benzene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tomatis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Two commercial diatomaceous earths were used as supports for the preparation of Mn/Co binary metal catalysts at different metal loads (5 to 10 wt % Mn and 5 to 15 wt % Co by incipient wetness deposition. The activity of the prepared catalysts towards the complete oxidation of benzene to CO2 and water was investigated between 100 and 400 °C. Raw supports and synthesized catalysts were characterized by XRD, N2 physisorption, SEM-EDS, H2-TPR, and TPD. The purification treatment of food-grade diatomite significantly affected the crystallinity of this support while reducing its specific surface area (SSA. A loss of SSA, associated with the increase in the metal load, was observed on samples prepared on natural diatomite, while the opposite trend occurred with food-grade diatomite-supported catalysts. Metal nanoparticles of around 50 nm diameter were observed on the catalysts’ surface by SEM analysis. EDS analysis confirmed the uniform deposition of the active phases on the support’s surface. A larger H2 consumption was found by TPR analysis of natural diatomite-based samples in comparison to those prepared at the same metal load on food-grade diatomite. During the catalytic oxidation experiment, over 90% conversion of benzene were achieved at a reaction temperature of 225 °C by all of the prepared samples. In addition, the formation of coke during the oxidation tests was demonstrated by TGA analysis and the soluble fraction of the produced coke was characterized by GC-MS.

  19. Photochemical preparation of aluminium oxide layers via vacuum ultraviolet irradiation of a polymeric hexanoato aluminium complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wennrich, L.; Khalil, H.; Bundesmann, C.; Decker, U.; Gerlach, J.W.; Helmstedt, U.; Manova, D.; Naumov, S.; Prager, L.

    2013-01-01

    By means of photochemical conversion of thin layers of a polymeric hexanoato aluminium complex as the precursor, thin aluminium oxide layers were prepared onto silicon wafers. The precursor compound was synthesized and characterized by several analytical techniques like NMR, FTIR, XPS, ICP, and found to be a polymeric aluminium-containing coordination compound which has been proposed to be a hydroxo-bridged aluminium chain with pendant hexanoyl side-chains ascertained as catena-poly[{di(κ-O,O-hexanoato)aluminium}(μ-hydroxo)] (PHAH). Thin layers deposited from a solution of PHAH in toluene onto silicon wafers were irradiated using VUV radiation from a xenon excimer lamp. The layers were characterized by XPS, XRD, XRR, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. VUV radiation with a radiant exposure of E = 36 J cm −2 led to almost carbon-free amorphous layers with a composition close to that of alumina having a density of about 2.1 g cm −3 . Thus, using the example of a polymeric aluminium complex, the potential of the photochemical conversion of metal complexes into oxides could be shown as an alternative method, in addition to sol–gel techniques, for the generation of thin plane metal-oxide layers at normal temperature and pressure. Highlights: ► A polymeric aluminium complex was synthesized and characterized by NMR, FTIR, XPS and ICP. ► Thin layers of the compound were irradiated using vacuum-UV radiation and converted to AlO x . ► Quantum-chemical calculations explain the conversion mechanism.

  20. Mechanochemical synthesis of graphene oxide-supported transition metal catalysts for the oxidation of isoeugenol to vanillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Ana; De, Sudipta; Balu, Alina M; Garcia, Araceli; Luque, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    Vanillin is one of the most commonly used natural products, which can also be produced from lignin-derived feedstocks. The chemical synthesis of vanillin is well-established in large-scale production from petrochemical-based starting materials. To overcome this problem, lignin-derived monomers (such as eugenol, isoeugenol, ferulic acid etc.) have been effectively used in the past few years. However, selective and efficient production of vanillin from these feedstocks still remains an issue to replace the existing process. In this work, new transition metal-based catalysts were proposed to investigate their efficiency in vanillin production. Reduced graphene oxide supported Fe and Co catalysts showed high conversion of isoeugenol under mild reaction conditions using H 2 O 2 as oxidizing agent. Fe catalysts were more selective as compared to Co catalysts, providing a 63% vanillin selectivity at 61% conversion in 2 h. The mechanochemical process was demonstrated as an effective approach to prepare supported metal catalysts that exhibited high activity for the production of vanillin from isoeugenol.

  1. Mechanochemical synthesis of graphene oxide-supported transition metal catalysts for the oxidation of isoeugenol to vanillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Franco

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vanillin is one of the most commonly used natural products, which can also be produced from lignin-derived feedstocks. The chemical synthesis of vanillin is well-established in large-scale production from petrochemical-based starting materials. To overcome this problem, lignin-derived monomers (such as eugenol, isoeugenol, ferulic acid etc. have been effectively used in the past few years. However, selective and efficient production of vanillin from these feedstocks still remains an issue to replace the existing process. In this work, new transition metal-based catalysts were proposed to investigate their efficiency in vanillin production. Reduced graphene oxide supported Fe and Co catalysts showed high conversion of isoeugenol under mild reaction conditions using H2O2 as oxidizing agent. Fe catalysts were more selective as compared to Co catalysts, providing a 63% vanillin selectivity at 61% conversion in 2 h. The mechanochemical process was demonstrated as an effective approach to prepare supported metal catalysts that exhibited high activity for the production of vanillin from isoeugenol.

  2. Developments in hot-filament metal oxide deposition (HFMOD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durrant, Steven F. [Laboratorio de Plasmas Tecnologicos, Campus Experimental de Sorocaba, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Avenida Tres de Marco, 511, Alto de Boa Vista, 18087-180 Sorocaba, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: steve@sorocaba.unesp.br; Trasferetti, Benedito C. [Departamento de Policia Federal, Superintendencia Regional no Piaui, Setor Tecnico-Cientifico, Avenida Maranhao, 1022/N, 64.000-010, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Scarminio, Jair [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL), 86051-990, Londrina, PR (Brazil); Davanzo, Celso U. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rouxinol, Francisco P.M.; Gelamo, Rogerio V.; Bica de Moraes, Mario A. [Laboratorio de Processos de Plasma, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), 13083-970, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2008-01-15

    Hot-filament metal oxide deposition (HFMOD) is a variant of conventional hot-filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD) recently developed in our laboratory and successfully used to obtain high-quality, uniform films of MO{sub x}, WO{sub x} and VO{sub x}. The method employs the controlled oxidation of a filament of a transition metal heated to 1000 deg. C or more in a rarefied oxygen atmosphere (typically, of about 1 Pa). Metal oxide vapor formed on the surface of the filament is transported a few centimetres to deposit on a suitable substrate. Key system parameters include the choice of filament material and diameter, the applied current and the partial pressures of oxygen in the chamber. Relatively high film deposition rates, such as 31 nm min{sup -1} for MoO{sub x}, are obtained. The film stoichiometry depends on the exact deposition conditions. MoO{sub x} films, for example, present a mixture of MoO{sub 2} and MoO{sub 3} phases, as revealed by XPS. As determined by Li{sup +} intercalation using an electrochemical cell, these films also show a colouration efficiency of 19.5 cm{sup 2} C{sup -1} at a wavelength of 700 nm. MO{sub x} and WO{sub x} films are promising in applications involving electrochromism and characteristics of their colouring/bleaching cycles are presented. The chemical composition and structure of VO{sub x} films examined using IRRAS (infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy), RBS (Rutherford backscattering spectrometry) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectrometry) are also presented.

  3. Fabrication of arrays of metal and metal oxide nanotubes by shadow evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Michael D; Weiss, Emily A; Smythe, Elizabeth J; Chiechi, Ryan C; Capasso, Federico; Whitesides, George M

    2008-04-01

    This paper describes a simple technique for fabricating uniform arrays of metal and metal oxide nanotubes with controlled heights and diameters. The technique involves depositing material onto an anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane template using a collimated electron beam evaporation source. The evaporating material enters the porous openings of the AAO membrane and deposits onto the walls of the pores. The membrane is tilted with respect to the column of evaporating material, so the shadows cast by the openings of the pores onto the inside walls of the pores define the geometry of the tubes. Rotation of the membrane during evaporation ensures uniform deposition inside the pores. After evaporation, dissolution of the AAO in base easily removes the template to yield an array of nanotubes connected by a thin backing of the same metal or metal oxide. The diameter of the pores dictates the diameter of the tubes, and the incident angle of evaporation determines the height of the tubes. Tubes up to approximately 1.5 mum in height and 20-200 nm in diameter were fabricated. This method is adaptable to any material that can be vapor-deposited, including indium-tin oxide (ITO), a conductive, transparent material that is useful for many opto-electronic applications. An array of gold nanotubes produced by this technique served as a substrate for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: the Raman signal (per molecule) from a monolayer of benzenethiolate was a factor of approximately 5 x 10(5) greater than that obtained using bulk liquid benzenethiol.

  4. Composite nanofibers prepared from metallic iron nanoparticles and polyaniline: high performance for water treatment applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaumik, Madhumita; Choi, Hyoung J; McCrindle, Rob I; Maity, Arjun

    2014-07-01

    Presented here is a simple preparation of metallic iron nanoparticles, supported on polyaniline nanofibers at room temperature. The preparation is based on polymerization of interconnected nanofibers by rapid mixing of the aniline monomer with Fe(III) chloride as the oxidant, followed by reductive deposition of Fe(0) nanoparticles, using the polymerization by-products as the Fe precursor. The morphology and other physico-chemical properties of the resulting composite were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and vibrating-sample magnetometry. The composite fibers were 80-150 nm in diameter and exhibited the expected ferromagnetic behavior. The composite rapidly and efficiently removed As(V), Cr(VI), and also Congo red dye, from aqueous solutions suggesting their usefulness for removal of toxic materials from wastewater. The composite fibers have high capacity for toxin removal: 42.37 mg/g of As(V), 434.78 mg/g of Cr(VI), and 243.9 mg/g of Congo red. The fibers are easily recovered from fluids by exploiting their ferromagnetic properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Biomedical application of hierarchically built structures based on metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korovin, M. S.; Fomenko, A. N.

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays, the use of hierarchically built structures in biology and medicine arouses much interest. The aim of this work is to review and summarize the available literature data about hierarchically organized structures in biomedical application. Nanoparticles can serve as an example of such structures. Medicine holds a special place among various application methods of similar systems. Special attention is paid to inorganic nanoparticles based on different metal oxides and hydroxides, such as iron, zinc, copper, and aluminum. Our investigations show that low-dimensional nanostructures based on aluminum oxides and hydroxides have an inhibitory effect on tumor cells and possess an antimicrobial activity. At the same time, it is obvious that the large-scale use of nanoparticles by humans needs to thoroughly study their properties. Special attention should be paid to the study of nanoparticle interaction with living biological objects. The numerous data show that there is no clear understanding of interaction mechanisms between nanoparticles and various cell types.

  6. Maximizing omnidirectional light harvesting in metal oxide hyperbranched array architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wu-Qiang; Feng, Hao-Lin; Rao, Hua-Shang; Xu, Yang-Fan; Kuang, Dai-Bin; Su, Cheng-Yong

    2014-05-01

    The scrupulous design of nanoarchitectures and smart hybridization of specific active materials are closely related to the overall photovoltaic performance of an anode electrode. Here we present a solution-based strategy for the fabrication of well-aligned metal oxide-based nanowire-nanosheet-nanorod hyperbranched arrays on transparent conducting oxide substrates. For these hyperbranched arrays, we observe a twofold increment in dye adsorption and enhanced light trapping and scattering capability compared with the pristine titanium dioxide nanowires, and thus a power conversion efficiency of 9.09% is achieved. Our growth approach presents a strategy to broaden the photoresponse and maximize the light-harvesting efficiency of arrays architectures, and may lead to applications for energy conversion and storage, catalysis, water splitting and gas sensing.

  7. Zirconium metal-water oxidation kinetics. I. Thermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathcart, J.V.; McElroy, D.L.; Pawel, R.E.; Perkins, R.A.; Williams, R.K.; Yurek, G.J.

    1976-02-01

    A description is given of the thermometry techniques used in the Zirconium Metal--Water Oxidation Kinetics Program. Temperature measurements in the range 900 to 1500 0 C are made in three experimental systems: two oxidation apparatuses and the annealing furnace used in a corollary study of the diffusion of oxygen in β-Zircaloy. Carefully calibrated Pt vs Pt--10 percent Rh thermocouples are employed in all three apparatuses, while a Pt--6 percent Rh vs Pt-- 30 percent Rh thermocouple and an optical pyrometer are used in addition in the annealing furnace. Features of the experimental systems pertaining to thermocouple installation, temperature control, emf measurements, etc. are described, and potential temperature-measurement error sources are discussed in detail. The accuracy of the temperature measurements is analyzed

  8. A review of cobalt adsorption on transition metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, S.M.

    1987-04-01

    This report reviews studies of cobalt adsorption on transition metal oxides, in the context of corrosion product and radioactivity transport in PWR primary circuits. In general, uptake of cobalt increases with pH, with temperature and with decreasing ionic strength. Very little data are available under PWR primary circuit conditions, but the limited data available suggest that cobalt uptake by the zirconium oxide corrosion product layer on fuel pins may be significant compared to that deposited on fuel crud. If fuel crud levels can be reduced in future by coolant chemistry control then uptake by the zirconia will assume a greater relative role. It is planned to use an autoclave to study uptake of cobalt on oxidised Zircaloy surfaces at temperatures up to 593K under PWR primary circuit chemistry conditions. (author)

  9. Ozone Decomposition on the Surface of Metal Oxide Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batakliev Todor Todorov

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic decomposition of ozone to molecular oxygen over catalytic mixture containing manganese, copper and nickel oxides was investigated in the present work. The catalytic activity was evaluated on the basis of the decomposition coefficient which is proportional to ozone decomposition rate, and it has been already used in other studies for catalytic activity estimation. The reaction was studied in the presence of thermally modified catalytic samples operating at different temperatures and ozone flow rates. The catalyst changes were followed by kinetic methods, surface measurements, temperature programmed reduction and IR-spectroscopy. The phase composition of the metal oxide catalyst was determined by X-ray diffraction. The catalyst mixture has shown high activity in ozone decomposition at wet and dry O3/O2 gas mixtures. The mechanism of catalytic ozone degradation was suggested.

  10. Influence of alkali metal oxides and alkaline earth metal oxides on the mitigation of stress corrosion cracking in CANDU fuel sheathing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzler, J.; Ferrier, G.A.; Farahani, M.; Chan, P.K.; Corcoran, E.C., E-mail: Joseph.Metzler@rmc.ca [Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC)can cause failures of CANDU Zircaloy-4 fuel sheathing. The process occurs when a corrosive element (i.e.,iodine) interacts with a susceptible material that is under sufficient strain at a high temperature. Currently, there is an ongoing effort to improve SCC mitigation strategies for future iterations of CANDU reactors. A potential mechanism for SCC mitigation involves utilizing alkali metal oxides and alkaline earth metal oxides that will sequester corrosive iodine while actively repairing a protective oxide layer on the sheath. SCC tests performed with sodium oxide (Na{sub 2}O) and calcium oxide (CaO) have shown to decrease significantly the sheath degradation. (author)

  11. Application of Two Cobalt-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks as Oxidative Desulfurization Catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoomi, Mohammad Yaser; Bagheri, Minoo; Morsali, Ali

    2015-12-07

    Two new porous cobalt-based metal-organic frameworks, [Co6(oba)5(OH)2(H2O)2(DMF)4]n · 5DMF (TMU-10) and [Co3(oba)3(O) (Py)0.5] n · 4DMF · Py (TMU-12) have been synthesized by solvothermal method using a nonlinear dicarboxylate ligand. Under mild reaction conditions, these compounds exhibited good catalytic activity and reusability in oxidative desulfurization (ODS) reaction of model oil which was prepared by dissolving dibenzothiophene (DBT) in n-hexane. FT-IR and Mass analysis showed that the main product of DBT oxidation is its corresponding sulfone, which was adsorbed on the surfaces of catalysts. The activation energy was obtained as 13.4 kJ/mol.

  12. Surface Characterization and Electrochemical Oxidation of Metal Doped Uranium Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeongmook; Kim, Jandee; Youn, Young-Sang; Kim, Jong-Goo; Ha, Yeong-Keong; Kim, Jong-Yun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Trivalent element in UO{sub 2} matrix makes the oxygen vacancy from loss of oxygen for charge compensation. Tetravalent element alters lattice parameter of UO{sub 2} due to diameter difference between the tetravalent element and replaced U. These structural changes have significant effect on not only relevant fuel performance but also the kinetics of fuel oxidation. Park and Olander explained the stabilization of Ln (III)-doped UO{sub 2} against oxidation based on oxygen potential calculations. In this work, we have been investigated the effect of Gd{sup 3+} and Th{sup 4+} doping on the UO{sub 2} structure with Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction to characterize the surface structure of nuclear fuel material. For Gd doped UO{sub 2}, its electrochemical oxidation behaviors are also investigated. The Gd and Th doped uranium dioxide solid solution pellets with various doping level were investigated by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, electrochemical experiments to investigate surface structure and electro chemical oxidation behaviors. The lattice parameter evaluated from XRD spectra indicated the formation of solid solutions. Raman spectra showed the existence of the oxygen vacancy. SEM images showed the grain structure on the surface of Gd doped uranium dioxide depending on doping level and oxygen-to-metal ratio.

  13. Preparation of low valent technetium metal-metal bonded species via solvothermal reduction of pertechnetate salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerlin, W.M.; Poineau, F.; Forster, P.M.; Czerwinski, K.R.; Sattelberger, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    A new one-step solvothermal synthesis route for reduction of pertechnetate salts to low valent technetium metal-metal bonded dimers will be presented. The reaction of potassium pertechnetate with glacial acetic acid plus either halo acids or halo salts under in-situ hydrogen production by sodium borohydride at various temperatures yields multiple products consisting of tetraacetate Tc-Tc (II,III) and Tc-Tc (III,III) paddle wheel dimers. Solid products isolated and analyzed via Single Crystal X-ray Diffraction (SC-XRD) in these reactions consist of polymeric chains Tc 2 +5 core: Tc 2 (μ-O 2 CCH 3 ) 4 (O 2 CCH 3 ), Tc 2 (μ-O 2 CCH 3 ) 4 Cl, Tc 2 (μ-O 2 CCH 3 ) 4 Br, Tc 2 (μ-O 2 CCH 3 ) 4 I, molecular Tc 2 +5 core: Tc 2 (μ-O 2 CCH 3 ) 3 Cl 2 (H 2 O) 2 ·H 2 O, K[Tc 2 (μ-O 2 CCH 3 ) 4 Br 2 ], and molecular Tc 2 +6 core: Tc 2 (μ-O 2 CCH 3 ) 4 Cl 2 , Tc 2 (μ-O 2 CCH 3 ) 4 Br 2 . Of the compounds listed, four are newly discovered using the one-step technique and two more additions to crystal database. Additional spectroscopic (X-ray Absorbance Fine Structure, UV-Vis, and FT-IR) characterization of the new compounds will be shown and used to propose a mechanism. Analysis of the mother liquor of each reaction by UV-Vis and formation of crystals over time due to oxidation of solutions affords a possible insight into mechanism of the Tc 2 +5 to Tc 2 +6 core formation. The oxidation states of Tc-Tc dimers formed is also dependent on temperature and pH of the starting solutions and will be explained in extensive detail. These one step reactions of reducing Tc(VII) to low valent technetium provides high yield intermediates for potential waste forms, use in nuclear fuel cycle separations, and radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  14. X-Ray Absorption Studies of Vanadium-Containing Metal Oxide Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohn, Keith, L.

    2006-01-09

    Metal oxide nanocrystals offer significant potential for use as catalysts or catalyst supports due to their high surface areas and unique chemical properties that result from the high number of exposed corners and edges. However, little is known about the catalytic activity of these materials, especially as oxidation catalysts. This research focused on the preparation, characterization and use of vanadium-containing nanocrystals as selective oxidation catalysts. Three vanadium-containing nanocrystals were prepared using a modified sol-gel procedure: V/MgO, V/SiO2, and vanadium phosphate (VPO). These represent active oxidation catalysts for a number of industrially relevant reactions. The catalysts were characterized by x-ray diffraction and Raman, UV-VIS, infrared and x-ray absorption spectroscopies with the goal of determining the primary structural and chemical differences between nanocrystals and microcrystals. The catalytic activity of these catalysts was also studied in oxidative dehydrogenation of butane and methanol oxidation to formaldehyde. V/MgO nanocrystals were investigated for activity in oxidative dehydrogenation of butane and compared to conventional V/MgO catalysts. Characterization of V/MgO catalysts using Raman spectroscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that both types of catalysts contained magnesium orthovanadate at vanadium loadings below 15 weight%, but above that loading, magnesium pyrovanadate may have been present. In general, MgO nanocrystals had roughly half the crystal size and double the surface area of the conventional MgO. In oxidative dehydrogenation of butane, nanocrystalline V/MgO gave higher selectivity to butene than conventional V/MgO at the same conversion. This difference was attributed to differences in vanadium domain size resulting from the higher surface areas of the nanocrystalline support, since characterization suggested that similar vanadium phases were present on both types of catalysts. Experiments in

  15. Inorganic Metal Oxide/Organic Polymer Nanocomposites And Method Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gash, Alexander E.; Satcher, Joe H.; Simpson, Randy

    2004-11-16

    A synthetic method for preparation of hybrid inorganic/organic energetic nanocomposites is disclosed herein. The method employs the use of stable metal in organic salts and organic solvents as well as an organic polymer with good solubility in the solvent system to produce novel nanocomposite energetic materials. In addition, fuel metal powders (particularly those that are oxophilic) can be incorporated into composition. This material has been characterized by thermal methods, energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), N.sub.2 adsoprtion/desorption methods, and Fourier-Transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy. According to these characterization methods the organic polymer phase fills the nanopores of the material, providing superb mixing of the component phases in the energetic nanocomposite.

  16. Thin copper oxide films prepared by ion beam sputtering with subsequent thermal oxidation: Application in chemiresistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, P.; Bejsovec, V.; Vacik, J.; Lavrentiev, V.; Vrnata, M.; Kormunda, M.; Danis, S.

    2016-12-01

    Copper oxide films were prepared by thermal oxidation of thin Cu films deposited on substrates by ion beam sputtering. The subsequent oxidation was achieved in the temperature range of 200 °C-600 °C with time of treatment from 1 to 7 h (with a 1-h step) in a furnace open to air. At temperatures 250 °C-600 °C, the dominant phase formed was CuO, while at 200 °C mainly the Cu2O phase was identified. However, the oxidation at 200 °C led to a more complicated composition - in the depth Cu2O phase was observed, though in the near-surface layer the CuO dominant phase was found with a significant presence of Cu(OH)2. A limited amount of Cu2O was also found in samples annealed at 600 °C. The sheet resistance RS of the as-deposited Cu sample was 2.22 Ω/□, after gradual annealing RS was measured in the range 2.64 MΩ/□-2.45 GΩ/□. The highest RS values were obtained after annealing at 300 °C and 350 °C, respectively. Oxygen depth distribution was studied using the 16O(α,α) nuclear reaction with the resonance at energy 3032 keV. It was confirmed that the higher oxidation degree of copper is located in the near-surface region. Preliminary tests of the copper oxide films as an active layer of a chemiresistor were also performed. Hydrogen and methanol vapours, with a concentration of 1000 ppm, were detected by the sensor at an operating temperature of 300 °C and 350 °C, respectively. The response of the sensors, pointed at the p-type conductivity, was improved by the addition of thin Pd or Au catalytic films to the oxidic film surface. Pd-covered films showed an increased response to hydrogen at 300 °C, while Au-covered films were more sensitive to methanol vapours at 350 °C.

  17. Influence of alcohol additives in the preparation of electrodeposited Pt-Ru catalysts on oxidized graphite cloths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieben, Juan Manuel; Duarte, Marta M.E.; Mayer, Carlos E.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Pt-Ru catalysts were prepared by potential pulse electrodeposition from solutions containing EtOH or EG at pH 2 and 5. → The catalyst particle size, loading and dispersion were influenced by solution pH and alcohol addition. → The deposits prepared at pH 2 exhibited large irregular agglomerates while those prepared at pH 5 presented smaller globular particles. → Pt-Ru system prepared using EG at pH 5 exhibited the best performance for CH 3 OH oxidation. - Abstract: Carbon supported Pt-Ru catalysts were prepared by multiple cycles of potentiostatic pulses from aqueous diluted chloroplatinic acid and ruthenium chloride solutions in the presence of ethanol or ethylene glycol at pH 2 and 5. SEM images showed that the metallic deposit prepared at pH 2 consisted of large irregular agglomerates, whereas smaller globular particles were obtained at pH 5. In addition, the average particle size was considerably decreased in the presence of the stabilizers. The supported Pt-Ru alloys were tested as catalysts for methanol electro-oxidation in acid media. Electrocatalytic activity measurements indicated that the most active electrode was obtained with ethylene glycol as additive at pH 5.

  18. Partial Oxidation of n-Butane over a Sol-Gel Prepared Vanadium Phosphorous Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Salazar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium phosphorous oxide (VPO is traditionally manufactured from solid vanadium oxides by synthesizing VOHPO4∙0.5H2O (the precursor followed by in situ activation to produce (VO2P2O7 (the active phase. This paper discusses an alternative synthesis method based on sol-gel techniques. Vanadium (V triisopropoxide oxide was reacted with ortho-phosphoric acid in an aprotic solvent. The products were dried at high pressure in an autoclave with a controlled excess of solvent. This procedure produced a gel of VOPO4 with interlayer entrapped molecules. The surface area of the obtained materials was between 50 and 120 m2/g. Alcohol produced by the alkoxide hydrolysis reduced the vanadium during the drying step, thus VOPO4 was converted to the precursor. This procedure yielded non-agglomerated platelets, which were dehydrated and evaluated in a butane-air mixture. Catalysts were significantly more selective than the traditionally prepared materials with similar intrinsic activity. It is suggested that the small crystallite size obtained increased their selectivity towards maleic anhydride.

  19. PREPARATION OF NICKEL - COBALT SPINEL OXIDES NixCO3 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    degree of crystallinity give rise to reversible nickel incorporation. Pellets ... are of interest in solid oxide fuel cell and this is one of the features which make them attractive ... oxide system can only be obtained in a limited composition extent.

  20. Preparation and investigations of thermal properties of copper oxide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The effects of copper oxide, aluminium oxide and graphite on the thermal and structural properties of the organic ... solar energy, and heat regulation of electronics, biomedical ..... We gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by.